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Title: The World of Waters A Peaceful Progress o'er the Unpathed Sea
Publisher: Project Gutenberg
Tag(s): wilton; barraud; emma; dora; george; gulf; islands; bay; island
Contributor(s): Kleiser, Grenville, 1868-1953 [Editor]
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Rights: GNU General Public License
Size: 95,155 words (short) Grade range: 10-13 (high school) Readability score: 58 (average)
Identifier: etext10997
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The World of Waters, by Mrs. David Osborne

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Title: The World of Waters
       A Peaceful Progress o'er the Unpathed Sea

Author: Mrs. David Osborne

Release Date: February 9, 2004 [EBook #10997]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ASCII


Produced by Wilelmina Malliere and PG Distributed Proofreaders

[Illustration: A TROPICAL SCENE]

[Illustration: THE WORLD OF WATERS




A Peaceful Progress o'er the Unpathed Sea.


With Illustrations.




The Wilton Family.--Story of Frederic Hamilton


The Wiltons.--Dora Leslie.--Charles Dorning.--The Mediterranean.
--Corsica.--Candia.--Rhodes.--Malta.--Valetta.--The Caledonia.
--A Story by Krummacher.--Adriatic Sea.--Venice.--Turkish
Rowers.--Elgin Marbles.--Isle of Wight.--Thunder Storm.--Jersey.
--Romaine's Journal.--Slave Ship.--Horrible Cruelty.--Slave Trade.
--Wreck of the Royal George.--Eddystone Lighthouse


The Wiltons.--A great Naval Victory.--Monster Fish.--The Downs.--St.
Augustine.--Yarmouth.--Brock the Swimmer and Yarmouth Boatman.--The
North Sea.--The Bell Rock.--Mr. Barraud.--Jock of Jedburgh.--Wreck
of the Forfarshire.--Remarkable Providence.--Denmark.--The
Baltic.--Journey to the Gulf of Finland.--Reindeer and Sledge.
--Reval.--Superstitions.--Strange Fashions.--Ungern Sternberg.
--Gulf of Bothnia.--Islands of the Baltic.--Lapland.--Aurora


Stanzas by Mrs. Howitt.--Caspian Sea.--Astracan.--Droll
Legend.--Yellow Sea.--The Japanese.--Monsoons.--Trade
Winds.--Description of a Monsoon.--Asia.--The Red Sea.--Isthmus of
Suez.--An Interesting Locality.--The Arabs.--Sea of Aral.--Chinese
Islands.--Fishing for Mice.--The Typhon.--Fishing Birds.--Cinnamon
Forests.--Eating Birds' Nests.--Bible Lands.--The Sea of
Galilee.--The Dead Sea.--The Slave Merchant.--A Japan Puzzle


Story of Era.--Assistance of Goodwill.--Madeira.--Man-of-War.--Dinner
on Ship-board.--Computing Latitude.--Pipe to Dinner.--The Azores.--
Newfoundland.--Newfoundland Dogs.--Greenland.--Whale Fishing.--Flying
Fish.--A Ship In the Polar Regions.--An Awful Sight.--The Geysers.
--Icelanders.--Spitzbergen.--The Ferroe Islands.--Maelstrom.--The
Norwegian Mouse.--Hudson's Bay.--Hudson's Straits.--Nova Scotia.--Henry
May.--The Ancient Mariner.--Cuba.--Jamaica.--Beauty of Jamaica.--A
Hurricane.--Devastation.--Ruins of Yucatan.--Indians of Mexico.--The
American Lakes.--Niagara.--The Caribbean Sea.--Panama.--Gala
Days.--Diving for Pearls.--The Sea-Boy's Grave.--The Funeral.--Gulf
of Trieste.--Guiana.--Brazil.--Rio de Janeiro.--Montevideo.--Patagonia.
--Cape Horn.--Depth of the Atlantic


The Separation.--Deception Isle.--The Gulf of Penas.--Island of
Chiloe.--Juan Fernandez.--Alexander Selkirk.--The Ladies of
Lima.--The Peruvians.--Columbia.--Catching Wild Fowl.--The Two
Oceans.--A Singular Funeral.--Magellan.--Guatemala.--Ladies
Smoking.--Christian Indians.--California.--San Francisco.--Nootka
Sound.--Story of Boone and the Bear.--Cleaveland and the Infant.
--United States' Navy.--Cannibals.--Kamschatka.--Polynesia.--The
Sandwich Islands.--Captain Cook.--Contest.--Adventure of
Kapiolani.--A Delightful Anecdote.--Spanish Missionaries.--Philippine
Islands.--The Pelew Islands.--Birds of Paradise.--The Friendly
Islands.--Otaheite.--The Society Islanders.--Pitcairn's Islands.
--Shocking Barbarity.--Nobb's Letter.--Marquesas.--The Low
Islands.--New Caledonia.--New Zealand.--The Bay of Islands.--Captain
Cook's Story.--A Curious Idea.--Aranghie.--Cannibalism.--New
Holland.--Story of Mr. Meredith.--Australian Barbarism.--Australian
Lakes.--Van Diemen's Land.--Coral Reefs.--Story of Kemba


Packing up.--Letter from Mr. Stanley.--Mr. Stanley.--Celebes.--Dress
of the Alfoors.--Curious Hospitality.--Java.--Whimsical Superstition.
--Productions of Java.--Sumatra.--Water Spouts.--Burman Despotism.
--The White Elephant.--Sir James Brooke.--Borneo.--Isle of
Bourbon.--Isle of France.--Madagascar.--The Four Spirits.--The
Missionaries.--Horrible Custom.--The Pirates' Retreat.--Malagassy
Fable.--Kerguelen's Land.--Isle of Desolation.--Story of a
Sailor.--Morocco.--A Moorish Beauty.--Algiers.--Egypt.--Abyssinia.
--Abyssinian Customs.--Religion.--African Coast.--Seychelle
Isles.--Mozambique.--Smoking the Hubble-Bubble.--Caffraria.--Story
of the Little Caffre.--Algoa Bay.--Graham's Town.--Cape of Good
Hope.--Cape Town.--Constantia.--The Boschmen.--A Transformation.
--Dressing in Skins.--The Slave Trade.--Fish Bay.--St. Helena.
--Kabenda.--Black Jews.--Ferdinand Po.--The Ape and the Oven.
--The Slave-Coast.--Dahomey.--Ashantee.--King Opocco.--A
Singular Belief.--The Ashantee Wife.--Liberia.--A Bowchee
Mother.--Sierra Leone.--The Lakes of Africa.--Bornou.--The Sultan of
Bornou.--African Wedding.--The Deluge.--The Telescope.--The End


It is not my purpose to detain you with a long preface, because I am
aware that long prefaces are seldom read; but I wish to inform you
that I have written this book, in the humble hope of being useful to
those in whom I am so anxiously interested. I am myself happy in
acknowledging the endearing appellation of "Mother," and I love
_all_ children, and regard them as priceless treasures, entrusted to
the care and guidance of parents and teachers; with whom it rests in
a great measure to render them blessings to their fellow-creatures,
and happy themselves, or contrariwise.

Should the perusal of this little volume imbue you with a taste for
the beautiful and ennobling science of Geography, my object will be
gained; and that such may be the result of these humble endeavors is
the sincere wish of

Your affectionate Friend,




  Oh ye seas and floods,
  Bless ye the Lord:
  Praise him, and magnify him forever.

"Oh! what beautiful weather," exclaimed George Wilton, as he drew
his chair nearer the fire. "This sort of evenings is so suitable for
story-telling, that I regret more than ever the disagreeable
necessity which has taken Mr. Stanley to foreign countries, and
broken up our delightful parties. But yet, there are enough of us
remaining at home to form a society; we _might_ manage without him.
Do not you remember, papa, you said, when Julia Manvers was with us
last summer, we were to examine into the particulars respecting the
seas and oceans of the world; and not once was the subject mentioned
while we were at Herne Bay, although the sea was continually before
us to remind us of it. Are we _ever_ to have any more of those
conversations? I liked them amazingly, and I am sure I learned a
great deal more geography by them than I ever did out of Goldsmith,
or any other dry lesson-book, which compels one to learn by rule. I
wish, dear papa, you would settle to have these meetings again; we
would write down all the particulars, and enclose them in a letter
to Mr. Stanley: I am sure he would be quite pleased."

"I think he would, George," replied Mr. Wilton, "and I also think
that we have been rather careless in this matter; but, at the same
time, you must remember that the fault does not rest solely with us,
for when we appointed certain times during our sojourn at Herne Bay
for these same geographical discussions, on every occasion something
occurred to prevent the meeting, and all our arrangements fell to
the ground. Since then, the illness of your sister,--which, thank
God, has terminated so happily,--the departure of Mr. Stanley, and
the removal to our present abode; all these circumstances conspired
to render ineffectual any attempt at regularity, and precluded the
possibility of an occasional quiet chat on this really important
subject. The past, present, and future, in the history of man, are
so connected with the positions of the great seas of the globe, and
the navigation of them, that I _do_ regard the study of geography as
one of the _most important_ branches of a Christian education; and,
now that all impediments are removed, I think we may venture to
propose the re-establishment of our little society; and as we are
deprived of the valuable services of Mr. Stanley, we must endeavor
to supply his place by procuring the aid of another _learned_
friend, who will not consider it derogatory to assist in our
edifying amusement. And, in order to render these meetings more
extensively beneficial and interesting, I further propose that we
increase our number by admitting two new members, to be selected by
you, my dear children, from amongst your juvenile acquaintances; but
we must not admit any except on the original terms, which were,
'that each member add his or her mite of information to the general
fund.' What says mamma about it? Suppose we put it to the vote?"

"Oh! dear papa," exclaimed Emma, "I am quite sure _that_ will be
unnecessary. Grandy has often talked of the meetings held last year,
and regretted that there seemed no disposition to renew them;
therefore, we are sure of _her_ vote. Mamma was so useful with _her_
descriptions, that _she_ is not likely to object. Then you know,
dear papa, how very much _I_ enjoyed these conversations; and, as
far as any one else is concerned, I am convinced that _my_ candidate
will be glad to prepare a portion of the subject as her admission
fee, and will be as much interested in the welfare of the society as
we old members are, who have already felt the advantages arising
from it. May we decide now, papa?"

All hands were raised in reply, and the resolution carried

"I have a question to ask," said George. "May we have the meetings
twice during the month, instead of once, as before? It will induce
us to be more industrious, as we shall be obliged to work to get up
the information. I can share the labor with Emma now, because I can
write easily, and quickly; besides, it will be such pleasant
employment for the half-holidays."

"Very well, my dear," said Mr. Wilton; "then once a fortnight it
shall be; and take care, as the time will be short, that you are
thoroughly prepared: do not reckon on me, for I cannot assist you as
Mr. Stanley did, so you must be, in a great measure, dependent upon
your own resources. My library is at your disposal, and I hope you
will have sufficient perseverance to investigate each point
carefully, before you come to a decision. Should you require
assistance in the preparation of any particular part of the subject,
of course, I shall have no objections to render it; but remember, I
do not promise to be an active member, as I wish you to exert
yourselves, and be in some degree independent. It will thus be more
advantageous to you: it will not only impress all you learn
effectually on your mind, but improve your reasoning faculties, and
enable you to understand much that the most careful explanation
might fail to render intelligible."

"And when shall we begin, papa?" asked Emma.

MR. WILTON. "My engagements until the 7th of February are so
numerous as to preclude the possibility of my presence at a meeting
before that time; but after the 7th inst. I shall be more at
liberty, and we will, if you please, commence our voyage, and (wind
and weather permitting) travel on regularly and perseveringly until
we have circumnavigated the globe."

"Agreed! agreed!" merrily shouted the children.

"I know which of my friends I shall ask," said George; "and I fancy
I can guess who will be Emma's new member."

"I fancy you cannot," returned Emma: "I do not intend to tell any
one, either, until I hear whether or not she can come; therefore
check your inquisitiveness, Master George, and wait patiently, for
you will not know before the 7th, when I will introduce my friend."

"Now," said Grandy, "having settled the most important part of the
business, I have a few words to say. You must all be aware, that in
the accounts of seas and oceans, there cannot possibly be so much
time disposed of in descriptive facts as there was in our former
conversations concerning the rivers of the world, which are so
numerous, and require so many minute particulars in tracing their
courses, that they positively (although occupying a smaller portion
of the globe,) take more time to sail over in our ship 'The
Research,' than the boundless ocean, which occupies two thirds of
our world; it will, under these circumstances, be advisable to
illustrate our subject largely, and to lose no opportunity of
extending it for our benefit. We need not fear to exhaust the topic;
for do not the vast waters encompass the globe; and can we
contemplate these great works of our Creator, without having our
hearts filled with wonder and admiration? This, my children, will
lead us to the right source; to the Author of all the wonders
contained in 'heaven and earth, and in the waters under the earth;'
and, if we possess any gratitude, our hearts will be raised in
thankfulness to Him who 'hath done all things well;' and we shall
bless him for giving us powers of discernment and reasoning
faculties, which not only enable us to see and appreciate the
goodness of God, but also, by his grace assisting us, to turn our
knowledge to advantage for our temporal and eternal good."

"We may now," said Mr. Wilton, "leave these resolutions to be acted
upon at a proper time; and, as we have two hours' leisure before
supper, if you, dear mother, will tell us one of your sweet stories
of real life, it will be both a pleasant and profitable way of
passing the evening. We have all employment for our fingers, and can
work while we listen; George and I with our pencils, and you ladies
with your sewing and knitting."

GRANDY. "Well, what must it be? Something nautical, I suppose; for
as we are about to set sail in a few days, it will be appropriate,
will it not?"

GEORGE. "Oh yes! dear Grandy, a nautical story, if you please."

#Story of Frederic Hamilton#

"The first time I saw Frederic Hamilton was on board the 'Neptune,'
outward bound for Jamaica: he was then a lad of twelve or fourteen
years: I cannot be sure which; but I remember he was tall for his
age, and extremely good looking.

"There were so many circumstances during the voyage, which brought
me in contact with this boy, and so many occasions to arouse my
sympathies in his behalf, (for he was evidently in delicate health,
and unfit for laborious work.) that in a short time I became deeply
interested concerning him, and I determined as soon as I had
recovered from sea-sickness, to watch for an opportunity of
inquiring into the particulars of his earlier history.

"I must first tell you, before proceeding with the story of my hero,
that the captain of the 'Neptune' was a very harsh, cruel man, and
made every one on board his vessel as uncomfortable as he could by
his violent temper, and ungentlemanly conduct. I was the only
lady-passenger; and had it not been for the kindness of my
fellow-travellers, I scarcely think I could have survived all the
terrors of that dreadful voyage. The sailors, without one
dissentient voice, declared they had never sailed with such a
master, and wished they had known a trifle of the rough side of his
character before they engaged with him, and then he would have had
to seek long enough to make up a crew, for not one of them would
have shipped with him.' They even went so far as to say, that if at
any time they could escape from the vessel, they would not hesitate
a moment, but would get away, and leave the captain to work the ship
by himself. I could not take part with the captain, because I saw
too much of his tyranny to entertain a particle of respect for him,
and I confess I was not in the least surprised at the language of
the ill-used sailors. He had no good feature in his character that I
could discover; for he was mean, vulgar, discontented, and brutal.
He never encouraged the men in the performance of their duty, by
kind expressions; on the contrary, he never addressed them on the
most simple matter without oaths and imprecations, and oftentimes
enforced his commands with a rope's end or his fist.

"We had yet other causes of discomfort besides these continual
uproars. Contrary winds, constant gales, and violent storms, made
our hearts fail from fear. We knew the captain could not expect
_His_ blessing, whose laws he openly set at defiance; indeed, by his
life and conversation, he proved that he 'cared for none of these

"I believe he was a clever seaman: he had certainly had much
experience, having been upwards of fifty times across the Atlantic:
so that we felt at ease with regard to the _management_ of the ship.
But we did not put our trust in the skill of the captain alone; for
of what avail would that be if the Lord withheld his hand, and left
us to perish? No! my dears, we saw that the captain never prayed,
and we felt there was a greater necessity for us to be diligent in
the duty; and daily, nay hourly, we entreated the forbearance and
assistance of Almighty God to conduct us in safety to land.

"After a time, the men became very unmanageable; for they hated the
captain: he treated them like slaves, and imposed upon them on every
occasion; so that at length, goaded to desperation by his cruelty,
they positively refused to handle a rope until he agreed to the
terms they intended to propose.

"The captain, fierce as he was, felt it would be useless to contend
with twenty angry men, and he knew the passengers would not befriend
him: he therefore deemed it expedient to endeavor to conciliate them
by promises he never intended to perform, and, after a few hours'
confusion, all was again comparatively quiet.

"I could tell you much more about the quarrels and disturbances of
which we unfortunate passengers had to be the passive witnesses, and
which, accustomed as we were to them in the day-time, filled me with
greater horror than I can describe, breaking upon the stillness of
the night, when all was quiet but the troubled ocean, whose murmurs,
instead of arousing, served to lull us into a deeper repose. Yes,
often, when no other sound but the low splashing of the waves
against the side of the ship was to be heard, and we were all either
sleeping quietly, or thinking deeply of home and friends, loud cries
and shouts would reach us, and, in an instant, we would all be
gathered together to inquire into the cause of the disturbance. It
was always the captain and some of the men fighting; and on one
occasion, the battle was so close to us, actually in the cabin,
between the captain and the steward, that I screamed aloud, and do
not remember ever to have been so much alarmed.

"But as my principal object is to make you acquainted with Frederic
Hamilton, and not with _my_ adventures, I will say no more about
Captain Simmons, and his ship, than is necessary in the course of my

"I was just getting over the unpleasant sensations of sea-sickness,
when, one morning as I was dressing in my berth, a noise of
scuffling on the quarter-deck, over my head, interrupted my
operations. I laid my brush on the table, and listened. At first I
could distinguish nothing, and, thinking it was the captain and a
sailor disputing, I continued my toilet; when, suddenly, a piercing
cry reached me, and I knew the voice to be Frederic's. At the same
time the sound of heavy blows fell on my ear, and again I recognized
his voice: he called out so loudly, that I heard him distinctly say,
'Oh, sir! have mercy. Pray, pray do not kill me! Oh, sir! think of
my mother, and have pity upon me. I _will_ try to please you, sir;
indeed, indeed, I will. Oh, mercy! mercy!' His cries became fainter
and fainter, while the blows continued, accompanied occasionally by
the gruff voice of the captain, until, my soul shrinking with
horror, I could endure it no longer. I rushed out of my cabin, and
there on the poop beheld a sight I can never forget. Poor Frederic
was lashed to the shrouds with his hands above his head, which was
then drooping on his shoulder; his back bare and bleeding. The
brutal captain was standing by with a thick rope in his grasp,
which, by the crimson stains upon it, sufficiently proved the vile
purpose for which its services had just been required.

"I called out hastily and angrily to the captain to cease beating
the boy, and declared I would fetch out the gentlemen to interfere
if he did not stop his unmanly behavior. He glared on me with the
fiercest expression imaginable (for he was in a towering rage,) and
told me I had better not meddle with _him_ in the performance of his
duty, for he would do as he liked; _he_ was master of the ship and
nobody else, and he would like to see anybody else try to be. Then
he made use of such fearful language, that I dreaded to approach
him; but my fear lest he should again attack the boy, overcame my
fear for him in his anger; and I ascended the ladder. He desired,
nay _commanded_, me to retire to my cabin; but I said, 'No, captain,
I will not stir hence until you release Frederic, and if you strike
him again I will be a witness of your cowardly behavior towards a
poor boy whose only fault is want of strength to do the work
assigned him. I am quite sure, whatever you may say on board-ship,
you will not be able to justify your conduct on shore.'

"He did not again address me; but, muttering curses loud and deep,
he untied the fainting boy, and, giving him a savage push, laid him
prostrate on the deck: he then walked forward, and began to shout
aloud his orders to the men on the main-deck.

"The man at the helm, pitying the poor boy, called to the boatswain,
who was standing on the forecastle, and begged him to send some
water to throw over the lad, and some dressing for his wounded back.
I stayed by him for a short time, and when he was somewhat
recovered, I went below.

"I fancied, when I met the captain at the dinner-table, that he
looked rather ashamed; for I had related the whole affair to the
other passengers, and he could perceive, by their indifference
towards him, that they despised him for his cowardice. He tried to
be jocular, but could not succeed in exciting our risibility: we did
not even encourage his jokes by the shadow of a smile, and he seemed
uneasy during the remainder of the time we sat at table.

"I now felt more than ever interested in the fate of Frederic
Hamilton and was not sorry I had said so much in the morning.
Prudence might have dictated milder language certainly; but my
indignation was aroused; and when I found that my remonstrance had
the desired effect, I did not repent of my impetuosity.

"About a week after this unhappy occurrence, as I was leaning over
the rail on the quarter-deck, watching the shoals of porpoises (for
we were then in a warm latitude) playing in the bright blue sea at
the vessel's side, the boatswain, who was a fine specimen of a
sea-faring man, came up and, seating himself on a fowl-coop near me,
commenced sorting rope-yarns for the men to spin. Presently Frederic
walked up the ladder with a bucket of water to pour into the troughs
for the thirsty poultry, who were stretching their necks through the
bars and opening their bills, longing for the refreshing draught:
the heat was overpowering, and the poor things were closely packed
in their miserable coops.

"I remarked to Williams how pale the boy looked, and how thin, and
said, I feared he was not only badly treated, but had not proper

"'Why, ma'am,' said he, 'to say the truth, the lad's not been used
to this kind of living, and it was the worst thing as ever happened
to him to be brought on board the "Neptune," with our skipper for a
master. You see, madam,' he continued, 'his father was a parson; but
_he_ is dead, and the mother tried hard to persuade the lad (for,
poor thing, he is her only boy,) to turn parson too, when his father
died. But no. The boy had set his mind on going to sea; and as he
had no friends who could help him to go to school or college, and
his godfather, Captain Hartly, offered to pay the apprenticeship
fees if his mother would let him learn navigation, she at last,
though much against her will, consented that he should be bound
apprentice to our skipper here. But it pretty nigh broke her heart
to part with the child; and she begged the captain to use him gently
and bear with him a little, for he was not so hardy as many boys of
his age; and, moreover, had been accustomed to kindness and delicate
treatment. The lad is a fine noble-hearted lad, but he is not
strong; and it is my opinion that the master wants to get rid of him
to have the fee for nothing, and he's trying what hard living, hard
work, and hard usage will do towards making him go the faster. But
he had better mind what he is about. There's many a man on board
that can speak a good word for Frederic when he gets ashore; and, if
all comes out, it will go hard with the master. The poor lad cries
himself to sleep every night, and when he is asleep he has no rest,
for in his dreams he talks of his mother and sister, and often sobs
loud enough to wake the men whose hammocks swing near him. I am very
sorry to see all this, for he is a fine boy, as I said before, and
we are all fond of him; but he's not fit for this kind of work,
leastwise not yet. I am glad you have taken notice of him, madam;
for, though you cannot do any good while we're at sea, may be when
you come ashore you won't forget poor Frederic Hamilton.'

"When the boatswain left me, I walked up and down the deck pondering
on these things, and contriving all sorts of schemes for the relief
of my young friend, and wondering how I could manage to have some
conversation with him on the subject; when a circumstance occurred,
which at once enabled me not only to learn all I was anxious to
know, but also in a great measure to improve his condition on board
the 'Neptune.'

"I knew that Frederic must have been trained up in the fear of the
Lord, for his daily conduct testified that he not only knew what was
right, but tried to perform it also; and notwithstanding the severe
trials he had to undergo, while with us on the voyage to Jamaica,
yet I never heard a harsh or disrespectful expression fall from his
lips; but he would attribute all the captain's unkind treatment of
him to something wrong in himself, and he every day tried beyond his
strength to obtain a look of approbation from his stern master. But,
alas! he knew not to whom he looked; although he was cuffed and
kicked about whenever he tried to be brisk in the task allotted to
him, he was always the same patient, melancholy little fellow,
throughout the voyage.

"Sometimes during the night watch, I have caught the musical tones
of his voice, as he walked the quarter-deck; when, the captain being
in his berth fast asleep, the boy was comparatively happy; and as
the ship sailed quietly along in the pale moonlight, his thoughts
would wander back to the home of his beloved mother and sister, and,
the buoyancy of youthful spirits gaining the ascendency over more
melancholy musings, he would for a while forget his present sorrows,
and almost involuntarily break out in singing some of the sweet
hymns in which he had been accustomed to join when the little family
assembled for devotional exercises.

"It was then I used to open my cabin window, and breathlessly listen
to the clear voice of my gentle protege; and not unfrequently could
even distinguish the words he sang; now loud--now soft, as he
approached or retreated. One hymn in particular seemed to be a
special favorite, and was so applicable to his situation, that I
have remembered several of the verses.

  "'Jesus, I my cross have taken,
    All to leave and follow thee:
  Destitute, despised, forsaken,
    Thou from hence my all shall be.
  Perish every fond ambition,
    All I've sought, and hoped, and known;
  Yet how rich is my condition,--
    God and heaven are still my own!

  "'Man may trouble and distress me;
     'Twill but drive me to thy breast.
    Life with trials hard may press me;
      Heaven will bring me sweeter rest.
    Oh! 'tis not in grief to harm me,
      While thy love is left to me!
    Oh! 'twere not in joy to charm me,
      Were that joy unmixed with Thee.

  "'Take, my soul, thy full salvation;
      Rise o'er sin, and fear, and care;
    Joy to find in every station
      Something still to do or bear!
    Think what Spirit dwells within thee;
      What a Father's smile is thine;
    What thy Saviour did to win thee,--
      Child of Heav'n, should'st thou repine?

  "'Haste then on from grace to glory,
      Armed by faith, and winged by prayer;
    Heaven's eternal day's before thee;
     Heaven's own hand shall guide thee there.
    Soon shall close thy earthly mission;
      Swift shall pass thy pilgrim days;
    Hope soon change to glad fruition,
      Faith to sight, and prayer to praise.'"

EMMA. "What a beautiful hymn, grandmamma. I should like to learn
those words. But I want to hear how you got Frederic away from that
horrid man, and what became of him afterwards, because I cannot
understand why you are telling us _this_ story. I know you never
tell us anything for amusement only."

GRANDY. "No, my dear child; this story is not solely for your
amusement. This morning I observed a strangeness in George's
behavior, when he was requested to put up his microscope, and assist
in laying the cloth, because John was out, and he was aware that
Hannah had sprained her foot, and could not walk up and down stairs.
He said such extraordinary things about being ill-used, and worked
hard, and never having an hour to amuse himself, that I am desirous
of convincing him that it is quite possible (with God's assistance)
not only to bear all this, without thinking it a shame, as George
termed it, but even to praise God for the troubles and trials which
may fall to your lot; and I also wish to inform him, that there
_are_ some boys more patient and grateful than himself. But I see,
by the color mounting to his cheeks, that my boy is sorry for his
past behavior; nevertheless, I will continue my story. And now for
the _incident_, as I presume you will call it, Emma.

"We were about a week's voyage from Jamaica. The wind was favorable,
but light, the sky clear, the sun directly overhead;--we were all
beginning to feel the effects of a warm climate; the sailors were
loosely clad in canvass trousers, striped shirts, and straw hats,
and went lazily about their work;--the ship moved as lazily through
the rippling waves;--the man at the helm drew his hat over his eyes,
to shade them from the glare of the sun, and lounged listlessly upon
the wheel;--the captain was below taking a nap, to the great relief
of men and boys;--some of the passengers were sitting on the poop,
under an awning, drowsily perusing a book or old newspaper; some
leaning on the taffrail, watching the many-colored dolphin, and
those beautiful, but spiteful, little creatures, the Portuguese
men-of-war, which look so splendid as they sail gently on the smooth
surface of the blue ocean, every little ripple causing a change of
color in their transparent sails. I was admiring these curious
navigators, as I stood with two or three friends, who, like myself,
felt idle, and cared only to dispose of the time in the most
agreeable manner attainable in such a ship, with such a commander;
and I said, rather thoughtlessly, considering Frederic was at my
side, 'How I should like to possess one of those little creatures; I
suppose they _can_ be caught?'

"Frederic moved from me, and an instant after he was on the
forecastle; presently, I heard a splash in the water, and, leaning
over the rail, I saw him swimming after a fine specimen, which shone
in all the bright and varied colors of the rainbow, as it floated
proudly by. He had no sooner reached the treasure, and made a grasp
at it, than he gave a loud scream, for the creature had encircled
the poor boy's body with its long fibrous legs, or, as they are
properly called, 'tentacula'. He struggled violently, for he was in
great agony; at length he escaped, and was helped on deck by one of
the men, who said, he wished, 'he had known what the youngster had
in his head, and he would have prevented him attempting to catch
such a thing,' for _he_ was aware of the extraordinary peculiarities
of these singular little creatures. When he came on deck, he looked
exactly as if he had been rolled in a bed of nettles, and the
steward had to rub him with oil, and give him medicine to reduce
the fever caused by the pain of the sting.

"You may be sure, that directly the captain heard of this affair, he
was more disposed to chastise, than to pity, our friend Frederic;
but I interfered, and begged he would leave him to me, as I had been
the cause of the disaster, and must now make amends by attending
him, until he was well enough to return to his duty. The captain was
very much displeased, and I regretted extremely that a foolish wish
of mine should have caused so much annoyance, and felt it my duty to
endeavor to alleviate the boy's sufferings as much as possible. Poor
Frederic! he was laid up three or four days, and had experienced
enough to caution him against ever again attempting to _capture_ a
'Portuguese man-of-war.'[1]

[Footnote 1: The ancients are said to have derived the art of
navigation from these animals, which, in calm weather, are seen
floating on the surface of the water, with some of their tentacula
extended at their sides, while two arms that are furnished with
membranaceous appendages serve the office of sails. These animals
raise themselves to the surface of the sea, by ejecting the
sea-water from their shells; and on the approach of danger, they
draw their arms, and with them a quantity of water, which occasions
them to sink immediately. By possessing this power, they are but
rarely taken perfect, as the instant they are disturbed they
disappear. They are more frequently caught in the nets of fishermen
than any other way, or found left dry on rocks.]

"I used to sit by his hammock for hours talking and reading to him;
when one day, as I closed my book to leave him, he said with a sigh,
while tears filled his eyes, 'I am very grateful to you, madam, for
your kindness to me: you have been a friend when I most needed one;
how my dear mother would love you if she knew what you had done for
her boy. But I do not deserve that any one should love _me_; I have
been wilful and disobedient, and my sorrows are not half so great
as, in justice for my wickedness, they ought to be; but every day
proves to me that God is long-suffering and merciful, and doeth us
good continually. I have thanked him often and often for making you
love me, and I feel so happy that in the midst of my trials, God has
raised me up a friend to cheer me in the path of duty; to teach me
how to correct my faults; and to sympathize with me in my daily
sorrows. God will bless you for it, madam,' he continued: 'he will
bless you for befriending the orphan in his loneliness; and my
mother will bless you, and pray God to shower his mercies thick and
plenteous on you all the days of your life.' He paused, and, burying
his face in the scanty covering of his bed, he wept unrestrainedly.
I was hastening away, for my heart was full, and the effort to check
my tears almost choked me; when he raised his head, and, stretching
his hand towards me, said, 'I want to tell you something more,
madam, if you will not think me bold; but my heart reproaches me
every time I see your kind face; I feel as if I were imposing upon
you, and fancy that, did you know more about me, you would deem me
unworthy of your interest and attention. May I relate to you all I
can remember of myself before I came here? It will be such a comfort
to have some person near me, who will allow me to talk of those I
love, without ridiculing me, and calling me "home-sick."'

"This was the very point at which I had been for some time aiming,
as I did not wish to ask him for the particulars, not knowing
whether the question might wound his feelings; but now that he
offered to tell me, I was delighted, and readily answered his
appeal, assuring him nothing would give me greater pleasure than to
hear an account of himself from his own lips: 'But,' I added, 'I
cannot wait now, for they are striking "eight bells:" I must go in
to dinner: after dinner I will come to you again, and listen to all
you have to say; so farewell for the present, my dear boy, in an
hour's time I will be with you.'

"As soon as dinner was over, I returned to Frederic: he looked so
pleased, I shall never forget the glow that overspread his fair
face, as I entered the berth, for he was really handsome; his eyes
were bright hazel, his hair auburn, and waving over his head in the
most graceful curls, while his complexion was the clearest and most
beautiful I had ever seen. I found a seat on a chest near his
hammock, and, telling him I was ready to attend to his narrative, he

"'The first impression I have of home was when I was about five
years old, and was surrounded by a little troop of brothers and
sisters, for I can remember when there was seven healthy, happy
children in my "boyhood's home." We lived at Feltham, Middlesex, in
the pretty parsonage-house. It was situated at the end of a long
avenue of elm-trees whose arching boughs, meeting over our heads,
sheltered us from the mid-day glare. Here in the winter we used to
trundle our hoops; and in the summer stroll about to gather bright
berries from the hedges to make chains for the adornment of our
bowers. But death came to our happy home, and made sad the hearts of
our good parents: the whooping-cough was very prevalent in the
village, and a child of one of the villagers, who occasionally came
to my father for relief, brought the contagion amongst us, and in a
short time we were all seized with it. Two sisters died in one day,
and the morning they were laid in the grave, sweet baby breathed his
last. Then my mother fell sick, and she was very ill indeed; my
brother and I were placed in a cot by her bedside, and when pain has
prevented me sleeping, I have been comforted by hearing this dear,
kind mother beseeching God to spare her boys. She seemed regardless
of her own sufferings, and only repined when she thought how useful
she might have been to us, had _she_ too not been laid on a bed of
sickness. But fever and delirium came on, and we were removed from
her chamber. The next day poor Frank died, and was buried by the
side of Clara and Lucy. The funeral service was read by my dear
father, who was enabled to stand under all these trials of his
faith, for God sustained him; and, having trained us up in the fear
and admonition of the Lord, he did not grieve as one without hope,
when his darlings were taken from him, for he knew they were gone to
a better world, and were happy in the bosom of their heavenly
Father. His greatest trial was the illness of my mother; but before
we were all quite well, she was able to leave her chamber, and once
again kneel with us at our family altar, to return thanks to God for
his many mercies. There were only three of her seven children left
to her, and when my father blessed God that they were not rendered
childless, my mother's feelings overpowered her, and she was borne
fainting from the room.

"'But I fear I am tiring you with these melancholy accounts, madam.
You know not how deeply I enjoy the recollection of those days, for
through this wilderness of sorrow there was a narrow stream of
happiness placidly gliding, to which we could turn amidst the
troubles of the world, and refresh our fainting souls; and, though
we grieved at the remembrance of the loved ones now gone from us,
yet we would not have recalled them to these scenes of woe, to share
future troubles with us. Oh no! my dear father was a faithful
follower of Christ; he used to show us so many causes for
thankfulness in our late afflictions, which he said were "blessings
in disguise," that happiness and tranquillity were soon restored to
our home.

"'Two or three years glided by, and when I was eleven years old, my
father, one day, called me into his study, and, looking seriously at
me, said, "Frederic, my child, God has been very good to you; he has
spared your life through many dangers; you, of all my sons, only
remain to me, and may your days be many and prosperous! Now, what
can you render unto the Lord for all his mercies towards you; ought
not the life God has so graciously spared be in gratitude
consecrated to his service? Tell me what you think in this matter. I
speak thus early, my dear Frederic, because I wish you to consider
well, before you are sent from home, what are to be your future
plans; for as life is uncertain, and none of us know the day nor the
hour in which the summons may arrive, I should feel more happy, were
I assured that you would tread in my footsteps when I am gone; that
you, my only boy," and he clasped me in his arms as he spoke, "that
you would be a comfort to your mother and sisters, when my labors
are ended, and would carry on the work which I have begun in this
portion of the Lord's vineyard, and His blessing and the blessing of
a fond father will ever attend your steps."

"'I raised my eyes to my father's face, and, for the first time,
noticed how pale and haggard he looked; all the bright and joyous
expression of his countenance when in health had given place to a
mild and melancholy shade of sadness, which affected me painfully;
for the thought struck me that my father was soon to be called away.

"'I evaded answering his question, and when he found I did not
reply, he said, "My son, let us ask the direction of Almighty God in
this great work." I knelt with him, and was lost in admiration. I
could not remove my eyes from his face during the prayer; his whole
soul seemed absorbed in communion with God, and as I gazed, I
wondered what the glorious angels must be like, when the face of my
beloved father, while here on earth, looked so exquisitely lovely,
glowing in the beauty of holiness.

"'For several days, the conversation in the study was continually in
my mind; I could think of nothing else. I did not like the
profession well enough to have chosen it myself, for I disliked
retirement; but after an inward struggle, betwixt my inclination and
my duty, I resolved, that, to please my father, I would study for
the church. One day, my godfather, Captain Hartly, came to see us,
and he took great notice of me. He asked me if I should like to go
to sea? Then he told me such fine things about life in the navy, and
on board ship, that my wavering mind fired at his descriptions, and
I determined to be a sailor, for such a life would be more congenial
to my feelings than the quiet life of a country clergyman. I did not
mention this to my father, for he was ill, and I feared to grieve
him; nevertheless, had he asked me, I should certainly have opened
my heart to him without dissimulation. I often fretted when I
thought how sorry he would be to hear that I did not care to be
engaged in the service of _his_ Master; when one morning, as I was
lying in bed, a servant came into my room, and desired me to hasten
to my father's chamber, to receive his blessing, for he was dying.

"'I did hasten. I know not how I got there. I rushed into his arms,
I threw myself on his neck, and felt as if I too must die. He was
too much exhausted to speak; but he placed his hand on my head, and,
slightly moving his lips, the expression of his features told, in
plain language, that his heart was engaged in prayer. He _was_
praying, and for me,--me, his unworthy son, and when I considered
that I could not comply with his wishes without being a hypocrite, I
thought my heart would burst. For several minutes, was my dear
father thus occupied; then, turning to my weeping mother, who was
kneeling by the bedside, he softly uttered her name. Alas! it was
with his parting breath, for gently, as an infant falls asleep on
the bosom of its nurse, did my revered parent fall asleep in the
arms of that Saviour who had been his guide and comforter through
life, and who accompanied him through the dark valley, and by his
presence made bright the narrow path which leads to the abode of the

"'The only earthly friend we had to look to, in our bereavement, was
Captain Hartly; and he could only promise to assist me if I would
enter the navy, or go on board a merchant-ship. My poor mother
objected to this, and I remained at home another twelvemonth, and
again mourned the loss of a dear relative. My sister Bertha fell a
victim to consumption, exactly nine months after the death of my
lamented father. It was cruel to leave my mother under such
circumstances, particularly as she remonstrated with me so earnestly
on my project of going to sea, and offered to make any sacrifice, if
I would consent to go to college, and follow out my father's plans.
But my heart was fixed; and every visit from my godfather tended to
inflame me still more with a longing for a sea-faring life; and, at
length, I told him I was willing to be bound apprentice to a captain
of a merchant-ship, rather than lose the chance of going to sea. He
eagerly embraced the offer, and in a few weeks the affair was
settled satisfactorily for all parties but my dear mother and
sister. Marian wept bitterly when the letter came which concluded
the arrangements, and informed me what day to be on board. My mother
went to see the captain, and entreated him to be kind to me. But she
knew not the disposition of the man to whose care I was entrusted,
or I am sure nothing would have induced her to consent to my plans.
I dare say it is all for the best. I shall, perhaps, learn my duty
better with Captain Simmons than I should have done with a kinder
master. It is well my mother knows nothing of this; for, even
believing I should be treated with the utmost kindness, the
separation was almost more than she had fortitude to bear, and she
bade me farewell nearly heart-broken. I have never ceased to regret
that I preferred my own will to the authority of my parents; I
deserve all I suffer, and much more, for my rebellion against them.
This, madam, is all I have to tell you. I hope you will not cast me
off, because I have been so self-willed; for _here_ I have no friend
to aid me, and I still feel the same desire for my present mode of
life. I am quite sure I am not suited for a clergyman; but I do not
think I could live long with _this_ captain. If I could get shipped
in another vessel, with a master not quite so severe, in a little
time I should be able to work for money, and assist my dear mother;
and if she saw me occasionally, and knew I was well and happy, she
would be content and thankful.'

"Such was Frederic's simple account of himself. In five days we came
in sight of Port Royal, and anchored off there during the night: the
next day we went ashore, and my brother Herbert, who was a merchant
in Kingston, was ready to receive me, and welcome me to his house.

"I took the earliest opportunity of speaking to him concerning
Frederic: he promised to make some arrangement for the boy's
advantage, and he fulfilled his promise. He got him transferred to
the 'Albatross,' Captain Hill, a kind, gentlemanly man. There
Frederic remained for several years, and gained such approbation by
his exemplary conduct, that, at length, he became first mate, and
afterwards (on the death of Captain Hill) master.

"A few years back, Captain Hartly died; leaving him considerable
property. He made it his first business to settle his mother
comfortably, and she is now residing with Marian (who married a
surgeon,) in St. John's Wood. He next purchased a ship, and has
already made six voyages in her to the West Indies; so that you see
all things have prospered with Frederic Hamilton, because 'he feared
the Lord always.' I hear from him after every voyage, and have seen
him several times since he became a great man and a ship-owner; but
he is not altered in _one_ respect, for he is still the same
grateful, affectionate creature as when I first met him on board the
'Neptune.' His story proves the truth of the text, 'I have never
seen the righteous forsaken, nor his children begging their bread.'"

Mr. and Mrs. Wilton were as much pleased as the children with this
little story of Grandy's reminiscences. "And now, George," said Mr.
Wilton, "carry my drawings into the study, for I hear John coming
up-stairs with the supper."

George collected his papa's pencils and paper. Emma folded up the
cotton frock she had been making for one of her young pupils in the
Sunday-school, locked her work-box, cleared the table of all signs
of their recent occupation, and took her seat by the side of her

The children were not allowed except on particular occasions to sit
up after ten o'clock; but as it was Mr. Wilton's wish that they
should be present night and morning at family prayers he always had
supper about nine o'clock, to give them time for their devotions
before retiring to rest.

Supper over, the domestics were summoned, and, having humbly
petitioned for pardon and grace, they besought the protection of
Almighty God during the night season; then, with hearts filled with
love to God, and good-will towards all men, they retired to their
several apartments, and silence reigned throughout the house.


  Beautiful, sublime and glorious;
    Mild, majestic, foaming, free;--
  Over time itself victorious,
    Image of eternity.

Every day throughout the following week the young folks were busily
engaged. It is needless to specify the nature of their occupations,
or the reason of their untiring industry: it will be sufficient for
their credit to mention that they did not work with the foolish
desire of ostentatiously displaying a larger portion of information
than the rest of the party, but really because they were fond of
study; and as they advanced in knowledge, they became more sensible
of their own comparative ignorance, and more anxious to learn. They
made no parade of their own abilities; were equally gratified at the
meetings, whether they were required to speak, or be silent; and no
evil passions disturbed their repose, when they heard other members
more praised than themselves. To prove this, the young lady to whom
Emma had decidedly given the preference amongst her companions, was
three years her senior, had nearly completed her education, and was
a clever intelligent girl; consequently, it was very probable that
she would far surpass her in knowledge, and be in fact more
serviceable to the society than Emma ever had been, or could hope to
be, for some time to come. But Emma's heart was a stranger to the
wicked feeling of jealousy; it was overflowing with kindness; and
she was delighted that she knew a person so agreeable, and so
efficient to introduce, and thought how admirably they would travel
"o'er the glad waters of the bright blue sea," if all the new
members were as well qualified as Dora Leslie.

Day after day passed, and every day added to their stores, for they
devoted at least two hours of their recreation to the pleasant and
profitable occupation of making discoveries in the great oceans and
smaller seas; and when they closed their books, it was with a sigh,
that they were obliged to leave this interesting study to attend to
other business of equal importance.

On the evening of the 7th instant the large round table in the front
drawing-room presented a formidably learned appearance, covered with
maps, papers, and books, and surrounded with chairs placed at
convenient distances for the accommodation of the members of the
Geographical Society.

They were to take tea in another apartment that evening, to give
them an opportunity of arranging the requisite documents before the
party assembled, and thereby prevent much trouble and confusion.

George's blue eyes sparkled with joy, as he carefully folded his
large paper of notes, and placed it in an Atlas; and then, for the
first time, he confessed that he felt very curious to see the "new

They had scarcely concluded their arrangements, when there was a
knocking at the hall-door, and, seizing his sister's hand, George
hurried down stairs.

The arrivals were shortly announced; for strange to say, the two
young friends arrived at the same instant. John opened the parlor
door, and ushered in "Miss Dora Leslie,"--"Master Charles Dorning."

These young people never having previously met at Mr. Wilton's
house, as members of his Geographical Society, it seemed necessary
that there should be a formal introduction,--at least, so thought
George; and as he proposed it, they required him to perform the
ceremony, which he did in a most facetious way, affixing the
initials M.G.S. after every name.

They were all seated around the cheerful fire, laughing heartily,
when again John threw open the door, and announced "Mr. Barraud."
Immediately their mirth was checked, for to the younger folks this
gentleman was a total stranger. Mr. Wilton advanced to greet his
friend, and Mrs. Wilton and Grandy both appeared delighted to see
him: they conversed together some time, until tea was ready, when
the conversation became more general, and our little friends were
occasionally required to give an opinion.

Before I proceed any farther, I should like to make you acquainted
with Charles Dorning and Dora Leslie. Perhaps if I give you a slight
sketch of their personal appearance, you could contrive to form a
tolerably correct estimate of their characters from the
conversations in which they both figured to such advantage at the
evening meetings held in the drawing-room of Mr. Wilton's hospitable

Charles Dorning--No! We ought to describe the lady first. Dora
Leslie was fourteen years of age; a gentle, quiet girl, with a meek
yet intelligent countenance, which spoke of sorrow far beyond her
years; and a decided expression of placidity, which none but the
people of God wear, was stamped upon her delicate features and
glowing in her mild blue eye. She had been in early childhood
encompassed by the heavy clouds of worldly sorrow: she had wept over
the tomb of both her parents; but now that she could think calmly of
her afflictions, she could kiss the rod which chastened her, and
praise God for thus testifying his exceeding love towards a sinful
child. Her trials had indeed been sanctified to her; they had
changed, but not saddened, her heart; for she was at the time of her
visit to the Wiltons a cheerful, happy girl, delighting in the
innocent amusements suitable to her age, though ever ready to turn
all events to the advantage of her fellow-creatures, and the glory
of her God. But I am telling you more than I intended. I was only to
describe her person, and here I am giving a full, true, and
particular account of the beauties of her mind also. Well, I trust
you will excuse me; for the mind and the body are so nearly
connected, that it is impossible to give a just idea of the graces
of one without in some degree touching upon the merits of the other.
I will now turn to Charles Dorning, as I think I have said enough
of Dora Leslie to induce you to regard her with friendliness.

Charles Dorning was a fine romping boy of eleven years; he had no
bright flaxen curls like our friend George, but straight dark hair,
which, however, was so glossy and neat that no person thought it
unbecoming. His eyes were the blackest I ever saw, and so sparkling
when animated with merriment, that it was impossible to resist their
influence, and maintain a serious deportment if he were inclined to
excite your risibility. Charles was a merry boy, but so innocent in
his mirth, that Mr. Wilton was always pleased to have him for his
son's companion, knowing by observation that his mirth was devoid of
mischief, and that he possessed a most inquiring mind, which urged
George on to the attainment of much solid knowledge that would be
greatly serviceable to him in after years.

I flatter myself you will, from this slight sketch, be able to form
some idea of the "new members," and regard them as old acquaintances,
as you already do Emma and George.

While they were drinking tea, there was an animated conversation,
which still continued when the meal was over, until the tray had
disappeared, and John had brushed the crumbs from the table; when
Mrs. Wilton said, "Suppose we adjourn into the next room, and
commence business"

There was a general move, and in a few moments the table was
surrounded, and each person preparing to enjoy the evening's
occupation. Miss Leslie seated George next to her, because she could
assist him considerably in finding places on the maps; and Charles
Dorning was gallant enough to offer to point out the localities for
Emma. Thus they were arranged. Grandy only was away from the table:
she was in her customary seat by the fire, with the pussy at her
feet, and her fingers nimbly engaged on a _par a tete_, which she
was knitting with extraordinary facility considering her age and
impaired vision.

"Who is to commence?" inquired Mr. Wilton. "Emma, what have you

EMMA. "Dora is to begin, papa, and my paper will be required

MR. WILTON. "Very well. We are all ready, Dora, and most attentive.
I think, as we have hitherto commenced with our own quarter of the
world, it would be more systematic to do so now. Are you prepared
for the seas of Europe?"

DORA. "I will readily impart all _I_ have prepared, sir, and be
thankful to listen to the rest.

"Europe is bounded on the north by the frozen ocean, south by the
Mediterranean sea, east by Asia, and west by the Atlantic ocean.
Seas being smaller collections of water than oceans, I have selected
them for our first consideration, and, thinking the Mediterranean
the most important of Europe, I have placed it at the head of my
list. This sea separates Europe from Africa, and is the largest
inland sea in the world. It contains some beautiful islands, and
washes the shores of many countries planted with the myrtle, the
palm, and the olive, and famous both in history and geography as
scenes of remarkable adventures, warfares, and discoveries.
Numerous rivers from Italy, Turkey, Spain, and France empty their
waters into this great sea. Africa sends a contribution from the
mighty Nile, that valuable river which is of such inestimable
benefit to the Egyptians.

"The principal islands in the Mediterranean are Sicily, Sardinia,
Corsica, Candia, Cyprus, Rhodes, Majorca, Minorca, and Iviza. There
are scores of smaller isles, such as Malta, Zante, Cephalonia (the
two latter are included in the Ionian isles); but it would be
endless work to particularize each spot of earth fertile or
otherwise, inhabited or uninhabited in every sea, unless there be
something positively interesting connected with them, or something
important to be known concerning them. I believe Mrs. Wilton
undertakes to supply the particulars of which we are in need with
respect to the various islands already specified. Therefore I close
my paper for the present"

MRS. WILTON. "Sicily, formerly called Trinacria, from its triangular
shape, is separated from Italy by the Straits of Messina, which are
seven miles across. In these straits were the ancient Scylla and
Charybdis, long regarded as objects of terror; but now, owing to the
improved state of navigation, they are of little consequence, and
have ceased to excite fears in the hearts of the poor mariners. The
chief towns of Sicily are Messina, Palermo, and Syracuse. In the
middle of this island stands the famous burning mountain Etna.

"Of Sardinia, the chief town is Cagliari.

"Corsica is a beautifully wooded country: its capital is Bastia. The
great Napoleon Bonaparte was borne at Ajaccio, a sea port in this

MR. BARRAUD. "There are two interesting associations with Napoleon
to be seen in the Mediterranean off Toulon. One is an old dismantled
frigate, which is moored just within the watergates of the basin,
and carefully roofed over and painted. She is the 'Muiron,' with an
inscription in large characters on the stern, as follows:--'Cette
fregate prise a Venise est celle qui ramena Napoleon d'Egypte.'
Every boat which passes from the men of war to the town must go
immediately under the stern of the Muiron. The hold of the Muiron is
at present used as a dungeon for the forcats or galley-slaves who

"The next association with the Emperor is a stately frigate in deep
mourning, painted entirely black, which claims the distinction of
having brought the remains of Napoleon to France. 'La belle Poule'
is the pride of French frigates."[2]

[Footnote 2: Vide Sketches of Travel by Francis Schroeder.]

MRS. WILTON. "Candia is the ancient Crete: it is a fine fertile
island, about 160 miles Jong, and 30 broad. The famous mount Ida of
heathen mythology (now only a broken rock) stands here, with many
other remains of antiquity; and through nearly the whole length of
this island runs the chain of White Mountains, so called on account
of their snow coverings. The island abounds with cattle, sheep,
swine, poultry, and game, all excellent; and the wine made there is
balmy and delicious. The people of Candia were formerly celebrated
for their want of veracity; St. Paul alludes to their evil habits in
the first chapter of his epistle to Titus, where he says, 'The
Cretians are always liars.' There are some remarkably ugly dogs in
Candia, which seem to be a race between the wolf and the fox.

"Cyprus contains the renowned Paphos: it is not quite so long an
island as Candia, but it is ten miles broader.

"Rhodes is fifty miles long, and twenty-five broad. At the north of
the harbor stood the celebrated colossus of brass, once reckoned one
of the wonders of the world. It was placed with a foot on either
side of the harbor, so that ships in full sail passed between its
legs. This enormous statue was 130 feet high; it was thrown down by
an earthquake, and afterwards destroyed, and taken to pieces in the
year A.D. 653.

"Of Majorca I have little to say: its chief town is Majorca.

"Port Mahon is the capital of Minorca; and Iviza is the principal
town in the island of that name.


[Illustration: VALETTE.]

GEORGE. "Excuse me for interrupting you, dear mamma; but I wish
Grandy to tell me if Malta is the same island as the Melita
mentioned in the 28th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, where St.
Paul was shipwrecked?"

GRANDY. "Yes, my dear; it is commonly supposed to be the same. It is
a very rocky island, inhabited by a people whom most modern
travellers describe as very selfish, very insincere, and very
superstitious. The population amounts to upwards of 63,000. In the
days of St. Paul, the inhabitants were, without doubt, an
uncivilized race, for he calls them a barbarous people! 'And the
barbarous people showed us no little kindness: for they kindled a
fire, and received us every one, because of the present rain, and
because of the cold.' Here it was that from the circumstance of St.
Paul experiencing no evil effects from the viper clinging to his
hand, that the people concluded him to be a god; here too he was
allowed to perform many mighty works, such as healing the sick, &c.,
which caused him to be 'honored with many honors;' and 'when they
departed, they were laden with the bounty of the people.' Can any
one of you young folks tell me the name of the chief town in this
little island?"

"Yes, madam," replied Charles, "I know it; it is Valetta, so named
from the noble Provencal Valette, who, after vainly endeavoring to
defend the holy sepulchre from the defilements of the infidels, was
by them driven with his faithful Christian army from island to
island, until he ultimately planted the standard of the cross on
this sea-girt rock, and bravely and successfully withstood the
attacks of his enemies. Malta was given to the Knights of St. John
of Jerusalem in 1530 by the Emperor Charles V., when the Turks drove
them out of Rhodes. They have since been called 'Knights of Malta.'
The island is in possession of the English."

DORA. "And so are the Ionian Islands, which include Zante,
Cephalonia, and St. Maura: they are all pretty spots near the coast
of Greece."

MR. WILTON. "In the Mediterranean Sea lays the largest ship in the
world, the 'Mahmoud:' it is floating off Beyrout."

"I can tell you, papa," said George, "the size of the largest ship
in the time of Henry VIII.; it was called the 'Henri Grace a Dieu,'
and was of 1000 tons burthen; it required 349 soldiers, 301 sailors,
and 50 gunners to man her."

MR. WILTON. "That was the first double-decked ship built in England;
it cost L14,000, and was completed in 1509. Before this, twenty-four
gun-ships were the largest in our navy; and these had no port-holes,
the guns being on the upper decks only. Port-holes were invented by
Descharges, a French builder at Brest, in the year 1500."

CHARLES. "That was a useful and simple invention enough: it must
have been very inconvenient to have all the guns on the upper decks;
besides, there could not be space for so many as the vessels of war
carry now. Pray what is the size of a first-rate man-of-war, and how
many guns does she carry?"

MR. BARRAUD. "The 'Caledonia,' built at Plymouth in 1808, is 2616
tons burthen, carries 120 guns, and requires 875 men without
officers. You can imagine the size of a vessel that could contain so
many men. But all are not so large: that is a first-rate: there are
some sixth-rate, which only carry twenty guns, are not more than 400
tons burthen, and their complement of men is only 155. The
intermediate ships, 2d, 3d, 4th, and 5th rate, vary in every respect
according to their size, and are classed according to their force
and burthen. Only first and second-rate men-of-war have three decks.
Ships of the line include all vessels up to the highest rate, and
not lower than the frigate."

GEORGE. "How I should like to have a fleet of ships. Will you buy me
more, dear papa, when I have rigged the 'Stanley?' I am getting on
very fast with her; Emma has stitched all the sails, and only three
little men remain to be dressed; while I have cut the blocks, and
set the ropes in order. It will look very handsome when it is quite
finished; but a miniature fleet would be beautiful to launch on the
lake at Horbury next summer. If I rig this vessel properly, may I
have some others of different sizes, with port-holes to put cannon
in? The 'Stanley,' you know, is a merchantman; but _now_ I want some

MR. WILTON. "My dear, when your friend sent you the 'Stanley,' do
you remember how delighted you were, and the remark you made at the
time? _I_ have not forgotten your exclamation--'Now I am a
ship-owner! I should be quite satisfied if I were a man to possess
one vessel to cross the great ocean, and bring all sorts of
curiosities from foreign lands. I should not care to have half a
dozen, because they would be a great deal of trouble to me, and
would make me anxious and unhappy.' How quickly you have changed
your opinion. I fear that if you had a little fleet, your desires
would not be checked, for you would, after a while, be wishing for
large ships, and real men, and, instead of being a contented
ship-owner, would not be satisfied with any station short of the
Lord High Admiral. I do not think it would be wise in me to gratify
your desires in this matter, for then I should be like the foolish
father of whom Krummacher relates a story."

"Oh! what is it, papa," inquired George: "will you tell us?"

MR. WILTON. "A father returned from the sea-coast to his own home,
and brought with him, for his son, some beautiful shells, which he
had picked up on the shore. The delight of the boy was great. He
took them, and sorted them, and counted them over. He called all his
playfellows, to show them his treasures; and they could talk of
nothing but the beautiful shells. He daily found new beauties, and
gave each of them a name. But in a few months, the boy's father said
to himself, 'I will now give him a still higher pleasure; I will
take him to the coast of the sea itself; there he will see thousands
more of beautiful shells, and may choose for himself.' When they
came to the beach, the boy was amazed at the multitude of shells
that lay around, and he went to and fro and picked them up. But one
seemed still more beautiful than another, and he kept always
changing those he had gathered for fresh shells. In this manner he
went about changing, vexed, and out of humor with himself. At
length, tired of stooping and comparing, and selecting, he threw
away all he had picked up, and, returning home weary of shells, he
gave away all those which had afforded him so much pleasure. Then
his father was sorry, and said, 'I have acted unwisely; the boy was
happy in his small pleasures, and I have robbed him of his
simplicity, and both of us of a gratification.' Now, my boy, does
not this advise you to be content with such things as you have? King
Solomon says, 'Better is a little with the fear of the Lord, than
great treasure and trouble therewith;' and surely your trouble would
be largely increased were you to have a whole fleet of ships to rig
and fit up against next summer; and I rather think Emma would be
bringing forward various objections, as her time would be required
to prepare the sails and dress the sailors."

"Indeed, dear papa," said Emma, "I have had quite enough trouble
with his 'merchantman,' for George is so very particular. I am sure
I could not dress the marines for a man-of-war: they require an
immense deal of care in fitting their clothes: loose trousers and
check shirts are easy to make, but tight jackets and trousers, with
all the other _et ceteras_ required to dress a marine, would be more
than I should like to undertake, as I feel convinced I could not do
it to the _admiral's_ satisfaction."

CHARLES. "George, shall I give you the dictionary definition of an

GEORGE. "I know what an admiral is. He is an officer of the first
rank; but I do not know what the dictionary says."

CHARLES. "Then I will tell you how to distinguish him: according to
Falconer, an admiral may be distinguished by a flag displayed at
his main-top-gallant-mast-head."

This caused a burst of merriment, when Emma exclaimed, "That sounds
very droll, Charles, but I understand it: it refers to the admiral's
ship, does it not, papa?"

MR. WILTON. "Yes, my dear. The Sicilians were the first by whom the
title was adopted in 1244: they took it from the Eastern nations,
who often visited them. Well, George, do not you think you had
better be content with your merchant-ship, because, then, you can
reckon on Emma's services?"

GEORGE. "I will try, papa, to exercise my patience on the 'Stanley,'
and be satisfied to _read_ of the men-of-war. Now, dear papa, I want
to know if the Mediterranean has ever been frozen over like the

MR. WILTON. "Not exactly like the Thames, but it _has_ been frozen.
In the year 1823, the Mediterranean was one sheet of ice; the people
of the south never experienced so severe a winter, or, if they did,
there is no mention made of it in history."

EMMA. "Ought not Venice, being nearly or totally surrounded by
water, to be included in the islands of the Mediterranean?"

MRS. WILTON. "It is not in the Mediterranean, my dear, but situated
to the north of the Adriatic Sea, which sea is undoubtedly connected
with the Mediterranean, as are many other seas and gulfs; for
instance, we may include the Archipelago or Egean Sea, the Sea of
Marmora, the Gulf of Tarento, and the first-mentioned, the Adriatic
Sea, or Gulf of Venice, the mouth of which is also called the
Ionian Sea; and I cannot tell you how many smaller gulfs, or, more
properly speaking, bays, beside; for in the Archipelago alone there
are no fewer than eleven. However, while we are so near, it may be
of some advantage to take a peep at Venice, 'the dream-like city of
a hundred isles:' that expression is a poetical exaggeration, for
Venice is built upon seventy-two small islands. Over the several
canals, are laid nearly five hundred bridges, most of them built of
stone. The Rialto was once considered the largest single-arched
bridge in the world, and is well known to English readers from the
work of our greatest dramatist, Shakspeare,--the 'Merchant of
Venice,' and from 'Venice Preserved,' written by the unhappy poet
Otway, who died of starvation. Although no longer the brilliant and
prosperous city, from whose stories Shakspeare selected such
abundant subjects for his pen, there is yet much to admire and
wonder at. On the great canal, which has a winding course between
the two principal parts of the city, are situated the most
magnificent of the great houses, or palaces as they are termed; some
of them of a beautiful style of architecture, with fronts of Istrian
marble, and containing valuable collections of pictures. The canals
penetrate to every part of the town, so that almost every house has
a communication by a landing-stair, leading directly into the house
by one way, and on to the water by another. The place of coaches is
supplied by gondolas, which are light skiffs with cabins, in which
four or five persons can sit, covered and furnished with a door and
glass windows like a carriage. They are propelled by one man
standing near the stern, with a single oar, which he pushes, moving
the boat in the same direction as he looks. Those persons who are
not rich enough to possess a gondola of their own, hire them, as we
do cabs, when they require to go abroad. The Venetian territories
are as fruitful as any in Italy, abounding with vineyards, and
mulberry plantations. Its chief towns are Venice (which I have
described), Padua, Verona, Milan, Cremona, Lodi, and Mantua. Venice
was once at the head of the European naval powers; 'her merchants
were princes, and her traffickers the honorable of the earth,' but

  "'Her pageants on the sunny waves are gone,
    Her glory lives in memory's page alone.'

"In a beautiful poem written by the lamented Miss Landon, there are
some very appropriate lines:--

  "'But her glory is departed,
      And her pleasure is no more,
    Like a pale queen broken-hearted,
      Left lonely on the shore.
    No more thy waves are cumbered
      With her galleys bold and free;
    For her days of pride are numbered,
      And she rules no more the sea.
    Her sword has left her keeping,
      Her prows forget the tide,
    And the Adriatic, weeping,
      Wails round his mourning bride.'

       *       *       *       *       *

"'In those straits is desolation,
  And darkness and dismay--
Venice, no more a nation,
  Has owned the stranger's sway.'"

CHARLES. "I have some scraps belonging to the 'tideless sea,' which
will come in here very well. The first is the account of the
Bosphorus, now called the Canal of Constantinople, situated between
the Euxine and the Sea of Marmora. The whole length of it is about
seventeen miles, and most delightful excursions are made on it in
pretty vessels called 'Caiques.' They rest so lightly on the water,
that you are never certain of being 'safely stowed.' The rowers are
splendid-looking fellows from two to four in number, each man with
two light sculls, and they sit lightly on thwarts on the same level
with the gunwale of the caique. Their costume is beautiful; the head
covered with the crimson tarbouche, and the long silk tassel
dangling over the shoulders; a loose vest of striped silk and
cotton, fine as gauze, with wide open collar, and loose flowing
sleeves; a brilliant-colored shawl envelops the waist, and huge
folds of Turkish trousers extend to the knee; the leg is bare, and a
yellow slipper finishes the fanciful costume. In the aft part of
this caique is the space allotted for the 'fare,' a
crimson-cushioned little divan[3] in the bottom of the boat, in
which two persons can lounge comfortably. The finish of the caique
is often extraordinary--finest fret-work and moulding, carved and
modelled as for Cleopatra. The caiques of the Sultan are the richest
boats in the world, and probably the most rapid and easy. They are
manned by twenty or thirty oarsmen, and the embellishment, and
conceits of ornament are superb. Nothing can exceed the delightful
sensation of the motion; and the skill of the rowers in swiftly
turning, and avoiding contact with the myriads of caiques is
astonishing. My next scrap is about the Hellespont,[4] situated
between the Sea of Marmora and the Archipelago: it is broader at the
mouth than at any other part; about half-way up, the width is not
more than a mile, and the effect is more like a superb river than a
strait; its length of forty-three miles should also give it a better
claim to the title of a river. In the year 1810, on the 10th of May,
Lord Byron accompanied by a friend, a lieutenant on board the
'Salsette,' swam across the Hellespont, from Abydos to Sestos, a
distance of four miles; but this was more than the breadth of the
stream, and caused principally by the rapidity of the current, which
continually carried them out of the way, the stream at this
particular place being only a mile in width. It was here also that
Leander is reported to have swam every night in the depth of winter,
to meet his beloved Hero; and, alas! for both, swam once too often."

[Footnote 3: More properly written "diwaun."]

[Footnote 4: Thus named from Helle, who, according to poetical
tradition, perished in these waters, and from Pontus, the Greek word
for sea.]

MR. WILTON. "Before we sail out of the Mediterranean, I wish to
mention the singular loss of the 'Mentor,' a vessel belonging to
Lord Elgin, the collector of the Athenian marbles, now called by his
name, and to be seen in the British Museum. The vessel was cast away
off Cerigo, with no other cargo on board but the sculptures: they
were, however, too valuable to be given up for lost, because they
had gone to the bottom of the sea. A plan was adopted for recovering
them, and it occupied a number of divers three years, before the
operations were completed, for the Mentor was sunk in ten fathoms
water, and the cases of marble were so heavy as to require amazing
skill and good management to be ultimately successful. The cases
were all finally recovered, and none of the contents in the least
damaged, when they were forwarded to England. The whole cost of
these marbles, all expenses included, in the collecting, weighing
up, and conveying, is estimated at the enormous sum of 36,000_l_."

CHARLES. "When was this valuable collection made, sir?"

MR. WILTON. "It was many years in hand. I believe about the year
1799 investigations commenced; but the 'Mentor' was lost in 1802,
and the marbles did not all arrive in England until the end of the
year 1812; since then an immense number of valuable medals have been
added to the collection."

DORA. "May we now sail through the straits of Gibraltar into the

MR. WILTON. "We must necessarily pass through the straits of
Gibraltar to get out of the Mediterranean; but as we proposed to
examine into the different situations of the lesser divisions of
water, _first_, we will merely sail through a _portion_ of the
Atlantic, and have a little information concerning the Bay of

DORA. "The Bay of Biscay washes the shores of France and Spain; but
the sea is so very rough there, that I think, were our voyage _real_
instead of _imaginary_, we should all be anxious to leave this Bay
as quickly as possible: and the next name on the list is the British

EMMA. "I have that. The British Channel is the southern boundary of
Great Britain, and extends to the coast of France. The islands in
this channel are the Isle of Wight--capital Newport,--Guernsey,
Jersey, Alderney and Sark."

MRS. WILTON. "The Isle of Wight has, from time immemorial, been
eulogized for its beautiful scenery. It is about twenty-three miles
from east to west, and twelve from north to south. You have all
heard of the Needles, which obtained their name from a lofty pointed
rock on the western coast, bearing a resemblance to that little
implement; and which, with other pieces of rock, had been disjointed
from the mainland by the force of the waves. This rock was 120 feet
high. About seventy years ago, it fell, and totally disappeared in
the sea. The height of the cliffs now standing, is in some places
600 feet, and, when viewed from a distance, they are magnificent in
the extreme. In this island her majesty Queen Victoria has a
delightful residence.

"Guernsey is the most westerly of the Channel Islands: it is eight
miles one way, and six miles the other, very fertile, with a mild
and healthy climate. A striking object presents itself on
approaching Guernsey, called Castle Cornet, situated on a rock
somewhat less than half a mile from the shore, entirely surrounded
by water, supposed to have been built by the Romans, and formerly
the residence of the governors."

MR. BARRAUD. "I have read a curious description of a most remarkable
thunder storm, which visited this place in December, 1672. It is as

"On Sunday night, about 12 o'clock, the magazine of the castle was
blown up with the powder in it by the lightning. The night was very
stormy and tempestuous, and the wind blew hard. In an instant of
time, not only the whole magazine containing the powder was blown up
in the air, but also the houses and lodgings of the castle,
particularly some fair and beautiful buildings, that had just before
been erected at great expense, under the care and direction of Lord
Viscount Hatton (then governor.) who was at the same time within the
buildings of the castle, all which buildings were with many others,
reduced to a confused heap of stones, and several persons buried in
the ruins. In the upper part of the castle, at a place called the
New Buildings, was killed by the accident the dowager Lady Hatton,
by the fall of the ceiling of her chamber, which fell in four
pieces, one of them upon her breast, and killed her on the spot. The
Lady Hatton, wife to the governor, was likewise destroyed in the
following manner:--Her ladyship, being greatly terrified at the
thunder and lightning, insisted (before the magazine blew up,) upon
being removed from the chamber she was in to the nursery; where,
having caused her woman to come also to be with her, in order to
have joined in prayer, in a few minutes after, that noble lady and
her woman fell a sacrifice, by one corner of the nursery-room
falling in upon them, and were the next morning both found dead. In
the same room was also killed a nurse, who was found dead, having my
lord's second daughter fast in her arms, holding a small silver cup
in her hands, which she usually played with, and which was all
rimpled and bruised. Yet the young lady did not receive the least
hurt. The nurse had likewise one of her hands fixed upon the cradle,
in which lay my lord's youngest daughter, and the cradle was almost
filled with rubbish: yet the child received no sort of prejudice. A
considerable number of other persons were all destroyed by the same

[Footnote 5: Vide History of Guernsey, by Dicey.]

MRS. WILTON. "What a very remarkable preservation of those little
children. Who could deny the finger of God, with such wonderful
instances of his Omnipotence before their eyes? Surely such events
must shake the tottering foundations of infidelity, and cause the
most disbelieving to confess 'The Lord He is God.' Jersey is the
next island for consideration; but I know so little of it, that I
must refer you to some person better acquainted with the subject."

CHARLES. "I have been to Jersey, madam, and shall be happy to afford
you the trifling information I have gained respecting its
peculiarities. Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands, is
situated in a deep bay of the French coast, from which it is distant
twenty miles. Its extreme length from east to west is twelve miles,
its breadth six. The island is fertile and beautiful, it enjoys a
mild and salubrious climate; the coast is studded with granite
rocks, and indented by small bays, which add greatly to the beauty
of the scenery. The chief town is St. Helier's,--its principal trade
is with Newfoundland: ship-building is carried on extensively. The
natives are kind, but thrifty and parsimonious."

MRS. WILTON. "Thank you, Charles; your description is short, and
very much to the purpose. The Channel Islands, I believe, were
attached to England, as the private property of William the
Conqueror: the French have made several unsuccessful attempts to
gain possession of them. The natives are Norman, and the language
Norman-French. These islands enjoy a political constitution of their
own; exemption from all duties, and various privileges granted them
by Royal Charter; they are much attached to the English government,
but entirely averse to the French. We will now pass over the other
islands, and, 'putting our ship about,' we will stop to view the
Eddystone lighthouse."

MR. WILTON. "Before we quit the shores of France, I wish to read you
an extract from Leigh Ritchie's Travelling Sketches. You remember in
our conversations on the Rivers last winter, that we mentioned the
stain that would ever remain on Havre from the prominent part taken
by the inhabitants in the dreadful traffic in slaves. The extract I
am about to read is from the journal of a youth named Romaine, on
board the 'Rodeur,' a vessel of 200 tons, which cleared out of Havre
for Guadaloupe, on the 15th January, 1819. The boy writes to his
mother, while the vessel lay at Bony in the river Calabar, on the
coast of Africa:--'Since we have been at this place, I have become
more accustomed to the howling of these negroes. At first it alarmed
me, and I could not sleep. The captain says if they behave well they
will be much better off at Guadaloupe; and I am sure I wish the
ignorant creatures would come quietly, and have it over. To-day, one
of the blacks, whom they were forcing into the hold, suddenly
knocked down a sailor, and attempted to leap overboard. He was
caught, however, by the leg, by another of the crew; and the sailor,
rising in a passion, hamstrung him with his cutlass. The captain,
seeing this, knocked the butcher flat upon the deck with a
handspike. "I will teach you to keep your temper," said he; "he was
the best slave of the lot!"' The boy then runs to the chains, and
sees the slave who was found to be 'useless,' dropped into the sea,
where he continued to swim after he had sunk under the water, making
a red track, which broke, widened, faded, and was seen no more. At
last they got fairly to sea. The captain is described as being in
the best temper in the world; walking the deck, rubbing his hands,
humming a tune, and rejoicing that he had six dozen slaves on board;
men, women, and children; and all in 'prime marketable condition.'
The boy says, their cries were so terrible, that he dare not go and
look into the hold; that at first he could not close his eyes, the
sound so froze his blood; and that one night he jumped up, and in
horror ran to the captain's room; he was sleeping profoundly with
the lamp shining upon his face, calm as marble. The boy did not like
to disturb him. The next day, two of the slaves were found dead in
the hold, suffocated by the foulness of the atmosphere. The captain
is informed of this, and orders them in gangs to the forecastle to
take the fresh air. The boy runs up on deck to see them; he did not
find them so very unwell, but adds, 'that blacks are so much alike
that one can hardly tell.' On reaching the ship's side, first one,
then another, then a third, of the slaves leaped into the sea,
before the eyes of the astonished sailors. Others made the attempt,
but were knocked flat on the deck, and the crew kept watch over them
with handspikes and cutlasses, until they should receive orders from
the captain. The negroes who had escaped, kept gambolling upon the
waves, yelling what appeared like a song of triumph, in the burden
of which some on deck joined. The ship soon left the 'ignorant
creatures' behind, and their voices were heard more and more faint;
the black head of one, and then another, disappearing, until the
sea was without a spot and the air without a sound. The captain,
having finished his breakfast, came on deck, and was informed of the
revolt. He grew pale with rage, and, in dread of losing all his
cargo, determined to make an example. He selects six from those who
had joined in the chorus, has three hanged, and three shot before
their companions. That night the boy could not sleep. The negroes,
in consequence of the revolt, are kept closer than ever. As a
consequence, ophthalmia makes its appearance among them. The captain
is compelled to have them between decks, and the surgeon attends
them 'just as if they were white men.' All the slaves, then the
crew, save one, the captain, surgeon, and mate, the boy, and at last
the solitary one of the crew, are stone blind. 'Mother,' says the
boy, 'your son was blind for ten days.'

"Some of the crew were swearing from morning till night, some
singing abominable songs, some kissing the crucifix and making vows
to the saints. The ship in the meanwhile helmless, but with sails
set, driving on like the phantom vessel, is assailed by a storm, and
the canvass bursts with loud reports, the masts strain and crack,
she carrying on her course down the abyss of billows, and being cast
forth like a log on the heights of the waters. The storm dies away,
when the crew are startled with a sound which proves to be a hail
from another vessel. They ask for hands, and are answered with a
demand for like assistance. The one crew is too few to spare them,
and the other is too blind to go. 'At the commencement of this
horrible coincidence,' continues the boy, 'there was a silence among
us for some moments, like that of death. It was broken by a fit of
_laughter_ in which I joined myself; and before our awful merriment
was over, we could hear, by the sound of the curses which the
Spaniard shouted against us, that the St. Leo had drifted away.'

"The captain, crew, and some of the slaves gradually recover; some
partially, with the loss of an eye, others entirely. The conclusion
of the journal must be told in the boy's own words:--

"'This morning the captain called all hands on deck, negroes and
all. The shores of Guadaloupe were in sight. I thought he was going
to return God thanks publicly for our miraculous escape. "Are you
quite certain," said the mate, "that the cargo is insured?" "I am,"
replied the captain: "every slave that is lost must be made good by
the underwriters. Besides, would you have _me_ turn my ship into a
hospital for the support of blind negroes? They have cost us enough
already; do your duty." The mate picked out the thirty-nine negroes
who were completely blind, and, with the assistance of the rest of
the crew, tied a piece of ballast to the legs of each. The miserable
wretches were then thrown into the sea!'"

Tears glistened in the eyes of the children during the perusal of
this melancholy account, and Emma, covering her face with her hands,
wept aloud.

"Poor, poor people!" exclaimed George; "oh! how glad I am that the
English have no slaves; those wicked captains and sailors deserve
to be hanged for treating them so cruelly."

GRANDY. "'Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord.' These wicked men will
one day be called to an awful account for the cruelties exercised on
their hapless brethren; and not _they_ alone, but also the
purchasers of these wretched slaves, who, when possessed of them,
still caused them to groan in bondage and misery; without once
considering that negroes also are the work of God's hands, and are
made immortal equally with themselves, notwithstanding their
different complexion; for 'God is no respecter of persons,' and He
takes as much interest in the soul of a poor negro as in that of the
greatest white potentate on the earth."

MR. BARRAUD. "The glory of one of our celebrated navigators is
tarnished, by not merely a participation in, but by being actually
the originator of, the slave-trade in the English dominions. Sir
John Hawkins was the first Englishman who engaged in the
slave-trade; and he acquired such reputation for his skill and
success on a voyage to Guinea made in 1564, that, on his return
home, Queen Elizabeth granted him by patent, for his crest, a
_demi-moor_, in his proper color, bound with a cord. It was in those
days considered an honorable employment, and was common in most
other civilized countries of the world: it was the vice of the age:
therefore we must not condemn Sir John Hawkins individually, for it
is probable that he merely regarded it as a lucrative branch of
trade, and, like the rest of the world at that period, did no
consider it as in the slightest degree repugnant to justice or
Christianity. I presume our next halting-place will be Portsmouth?"

DORA. "Yes, sir; we are to anchor in Portsmouth harbor, because
Charles has an excellent account of the wreck of the 'Royal George,'
which, being so immediately connected with this naval town, will be
more appropriate here than elsewhere. Will you read it, Charles?"

CHARLES. "Willingly. The narrative is written by one of the
survivors, a Mr. Ingram, who lived many years after, at Wood ford,
near Bristol.

#The Wreck of the Royal George.#

"'The "Royal George" was a ship of one hundred guns. In August,
1782, she came to Spithead in a very complete state, so that there
was no occasion for the pumps to be touched oftener than once in
every three or four days. By the 29th of August she had got six
months' provisions on board and also many tons of shot. The ship had
her top gallant-yards up, the blue flag of Admiral Kempenfeldt was
flying at the mizen, and the ensign was hoisted on the
ensign-staff,--and she was to have sailed in about two days, to join
the grand fleet in the Mediterranean. It was ascertained that the
water-cock must be taken out, and a new one put in. The water-cock
is something like a tap of a barrel; it is in the hold of a ship on
the starboard side, and at that part of the ship called the well.
By turning a handle which is inside the ship, the sea-water is let
into a cistern in the hold, and it is from that pumped up to wash
the decks. In some ships, the water is drawn up the side in buckets,
and there is no water-cock. To get out the old water-cock, it was
necessary to make the ship heel so much on her larboard side as to
raise the outside of this apparatus above water. This was done at
about eight o'clock, on the morning of the 27th August. To do it,
the whole of the guns on the larboard side were run out as far as
they would go, quite to the breasts of the guns, and the starboard
guns drawn in amidships and secured by tackles, two to every gun,
one on each side. This brought the water-nearly on a level with the
port-holes of the larboard side of the lower gun-deck. The men were
working at the water-cock on the outside of the ship for near an
hour, the ship remaining all on one side, as I have stated.

"'At about nine o'clock, A.M., or rather before, we had just
finished our breakfast, and the last lighter, with rum on board, had
come alongside: this vessel was a sloop of about fifty tons, and
belonged to three brothers, who used to carry things on board the
man-of-war. She was lashed to the larboard side of the "Royal
George," and we were piped to clear the lighter, and get the rum out
of her, and stow it in the hold of the "Royal George." I was in the
waist of our ship, on the larboard side, bearing the rum-casks over,
as some of our men were aboard the sloop to sling them.

"'At first no danger was apprehended from the ship being on one
side, although the water kept dashing in at the port-holes at every
wave; and there being mice in the lower part of the ship, which were
disturbed by the water which dashed in, they were hunted in the
water by the men, and there had been a rare game going on. However,
by nine o'clock the additional quantity of rum aboard the ship, and
also the quantity of sea-water which had dashed in through the
port-holes, brought the larboard port-holes of the lower gun-deck
nearly level with the sea.

"As soon as that was the case, the carpenter went on the
quarter-deck to the lieutenant of the watch, to ask him to give
orders to "right ship," as the ship could not bear it. However, the
lieutenant made him a very short answer, and the carpenter then went
below. This officer was the third lieutenant; he had not joined us
long: his name I do not recollect; he was a good-sized man, between
thirty and forty years of age. The men called him "Jib
and-stay-sail-Jack;" for if _he_ had the watch in the night, he
would be always bothering the men to alter the sails, and it was "up
jib" and "down jib," and "up foresail" and "down foresail," every
minute. However, the men considered him more of a troublesome
officer than a good one; and, from a habit he had of moving his
fingers about when walking the quarter-deck, the men said he was an
organ-player from London: but I have no reason to know this was the
case. The captain's name was Waghorn. He was on board, but where he
was I do not know: however, captains, if anything is to be done
when the ship is in harbor, seldom interfere, but leave it all to
the officer of the watch. The Admiral was, either in his cabin, or
in the steerage (I do not know which); and the barber, who had been
to shave him, had just left. The Admiral was a man upwards of
seventy years of age; he was a thin tall man, and stooped a good

"'As I have already stated, the carpenter left the quarter-deck and
went below. In a very short time he came up again, and asked the
lieutenant of the watch to "right ship," and said again that the
ship could not bear it. Myself and a good many more were at the
waist of the ship and at the gangways, and heard what passed, as we
knew the danger, and began to feel aggrieved; for there were some
capital seamen aboard, who knew what they were about quite as well
or better than the officers.

"'In a very short time, in a minute or two, I should think,
Lieutenant (now Admiral Sir P.H.) Durham ordered the drummer to be
called to beat to "right ship." The drummer was called in a moment,
and the ship was then just beginning to sink. I jumped off the
gangway as soon as the drummer was called. There was no time for him
to beat his drum, and I do not know that he had even had time to get
it. I ran down to my station, and, by the time I had got there, the
men were tumbling down the hatchways one over another, to get to
their stations as quick as possible to "right ship." My station was
at the third gun from the head of the ship, on the starboard side of
the lower gun-deck close by where the cable passes. I said to the
second captain of our gun whose name was Carrell, (for every gun has
a first and second captain, though they are only sailors,) "Let us
try to bouse our gun out, without waiting for the drum, as it will
help to 'right ship.'" We pushed the gun, but it ran back upon us,
and we could not start him. The water then rushed in at nearly all
the port-holes of the larboard side of the lower gun-deck, and I
directly said to Carrell, "Ned, lay hold of the ring-bolt, and jump
out of the port-hole; the ship is sinking, and we shall all be
drowned." He laid hold of the ring-bolt, and jumped out at the
port-hole into the sea: I believe he was drowned, for I never saw
him afterwards. I immediately got out at the same port-hole, which
was the third from the head of the ship on the starboard side of the
lower gun-deck, and when I had done so, I saw the port-hole as full
of heads as it could cram, all trying to get out.

"'I caught hold of the best bower-anchor, which was just above me,
to prevent falling back again into the port-hole, and seized hold of
a woman who was trying to get out of the same place. I dragged her
out. The ship was full of Jews, women, and people, selling all sorts
of things. I threw the woman from me, and saw all the heads drop
back again in at the port-hole, for the ship had got so much on her
larboard side, that the starboard port-holes were as much upright as
if the men had tried to get out of the top of a chimney, with
nothing for their legs and feet to act upon. I threw the woman from
me, and just after that moment, the air that was between decks,
drafted out at the port-holes very swiftly. It was quite a huff of
wind, and it blew my hat off. The ship then sunk in a moment. I
tried to swim, but I could not, although I plunged as hard as I
could, both hands and feet. The sinking of the ship drew me down so:
indeed, I think I must have gone down within a yard as low as the
ship did. When the ship touched the bottom, the water boiled up a
great deal, and then I felt that I could swim, and began to rise.

"'When I was about half-way up to the top of the water, I put my
right hand on the head of a man who was nearly exhausted. He wore
long hair, as did many of the men at that time; he tried to grapple
me, and he put his four fingers into my right shoe, alongside the
outer edge of my foot. I succeeded in kicking my shoe off, and,
putting my hand on his shoulder, I shoved him away: I then rose to
the surface of the water.

"'At the time the ship was sinking, there was a barrel of tar on the
starboard side of her deck, and that had rolled to the larboard, and
staved as the ship went down, and when I rose to the top of the
water, the tar was floating like fat on the top of a boiler. I got
the tar about my hair and face: but I struck it away as well as I
could, and when my head came above water, I heard the cannon ashore
firing for distress. I looked about me, and at the distance of eight
or ten yards from me, I saw the main topsail halyard block above
water: the water was about thirteen fathoms deep, and at that time
the tide was coming in. I swam to the main topsail halyard block,
got on it, and sat upon it, and then I rode. The fore, main, and
mizen tops were all above water, as were a part of the bow-sprit,
and part of the ensign-staff, with the ensign upon it.

"'In going down, the mainyard of the "Royal George" caught the boom
of the rum-lighter, and sunk her; and there is no doubt that this
made the "Royal George" more upright in the water, when sunk, than
she otherwise would have been, as she did not lie much more on her
beam-ends than small vessels often do, when left dry on a bank of

"'When I got on the main topsail halyard block, I saw the admiral's
baker in the shrouds of the mizen-top-mast, and directly after that,
the woman, whom I had pulled out of the port-hole, came rolling by:
I said to the baker, who was an Irishman, named Robert Cleary, "Bob,
reach out your hand, and catch hold of that woman; that is a woman I
pulled out of the port-hole: I dare say she is not dead." He said,
"I dare say she is dead enough; it is of no use to catch hold of
her." I replied, "I dare say she is not dead." He caught hold of the
woman, and hung her head over one of the ratlines of the mizen
shrouds, and there she hung by the chin, which was hitched over the
ratlin; but a surf came and knocked her backwards, and away she went
rolling over and over. A captain of a frigate which was lying at
Spithead came up in a boat as fast as he could. I dashed out my left
hand in a direction towards the woman as a sign to him. He saw it,
and saw the woman. His men left off rowing, and they pulled the
woman aboard their boat, and laid her on one of the thwarts. The
captain of the frigate called out to me, "My man, I must take care
of those who are in more danger than you." I said, "I am safely
moored, now, sir." There was a seaman named Hibbs, hanging by his
two hands from the main-stay, and as he hung, the sea washed over
him every now and then, as much as a yard deep over his head; and
when he saw it coming, he roared out: however, he was but a fool for
that; for if he had kept himself quiet, he would not have wasted his
strength, and he would have been able to take the chance of holding
on so much the longer. The captain of the frigate had his boat rowed
to the main-stay; but they got the stay over part of the head of the
boat, and were in great danger, before they got Hibbs on board. The
captain of the frigate then got all the men that were in the
different parts of the rigging, including myself and the baker, into
his boat, and took us on board the "Victory;" where the doctors
recovered the woman, but she was very ill for three or four days. On
board the "Victory," I saw the body of the carpenter lying on the
hearth before the galley fire: some women were trying to recover
him, but he was quite dead.

"'The captain of the "Royal George," who could not swim, was picked
up and saved by one of the seamen. The lieutenant of the watch, I
believe, was drowned. The number of persons who lost their lives, I
cannot state with any degree of accuracy, because of there being so
many Jews, women, and other persons on board who did not belong to
the ship. The complement of the ship was nominally 1000 men, but she
was not full. Some were ashore; sixty marines had gone ashore that

"'The Government allowed 5_l._ each to the seamen who were on board,
and not drowned, for the loss of their things. I saw the list, and
there were only seventy-five. A vast number of the best men were in
the hold stowing-away the rum-casks: they must all have perished,
and so must many of the men who were slinging the casks in the
sloop. Two of the three brothers belonging to the sloop perished,
and the other was saved. I have no doubt that the men caught hold of
each other, forty or fifty together, and drowned one another; those
who could not swim catching hold of those who could; and there is
also little doubt that as many got into the launch as could cram
into her, hoping to save themselves in that way, and went down in
her altogether.

"'In a few days after the "Royal George" sunk, bodies would come up
thirty or forty nearly at a time. A body would rise, and come up so
suddenly as to frighten any one. The watermen, there is no doubt,
made a good thing of it: they took from the bodies of the men their
buckles, money, and watches, and then made fast a rope to their
heels, and towed them to land.'

CHARLES. "That is all I have copied, as the remaining part of the
narrative is too full of nautical terms for us to understand; and,
as it only relates to the state of the weather, the condition of
the vessel, and the perverseness of the lieutenant, it is of no
particular advantage to us in the explanation of the wreck, for we
already know the why and wherefore of the disastrous event. But Mr.
Ingram does not precisely state the number of persons lost. Was it
not ascertained soon after?"

MR. WILTON. "Yes; I believe the number of persons who perished on
this sadly memorable occasion was upwards of 800, out of whom 200
were women."

GEORGE. "And was the taking out the water-cock the original cause of
the sinking of the 'Royal George'?"

MR. WILTON. "No doubt it was, because, to effect this, the vessel
was hove on one side, and while in that situation, a sudden squall
threw her broadside into the water, and the lower deck ports not
having been lashed down, she filled, and sunk in about three

DORA. "Dear me! how very sudden; what an awful scene it must have
been, so many poor creatures hurried, with scarcely a moment's
warning or time to cry for mercy, into the presence of their
Creator! Were the bodies all washed ashore? Oh! what a mourning and
lamentation there must have been at Spithead, when the fatal truth
was borne to their sorrowing friends."

MR. WILTON. "They were not _all_ washed ashore, Dora, for the good
old Admiral Kempenfeldt was never found. Vast portions of the wreck
have been recovered, and many of her stores; but they are
comparatively worthless when we think of the widows and orphans left
to pine in poverty and wretchedness."

EMMA. "Cowper has written some touching-lines on this awful
calamity, with which we shall wind up the subject:--

  "'Toll for the brave!
    The brave that are no more!
  All sunk beneath the wave,
    Fast by their native shore!

  "'Eight hundred of the brave,
    Whose courage well was tried,
  Had made the vessel heel,
    And laid her on her side.

  "'A land breeze shook the shrouds,
    And she was overset;
  Down went the Royal George,
    With all her crew complete.

  "'Toll for the brave!
    Brave Kempenfeldt is gone;
  His last sea-fight is fought:
    His work of glory done.

  "'It was not in the battle;
    No tempest gave the shock;
  She sprang no fatal leak;
    She ran upon no rock.

  "'His sword was in its sheath
    His fingers held the pen,
  When Kempenfeldt went down,
    With twice four hundred men!

  "'Weigh the vessel up,
      Once dreaded by our foes!
    And mingle with our cup
      The tear that England owes.

  "'Her timbers yet are sound,
      And she may float again,
    Full charged with England's thunder,
      And plough the distant main.

  "'But Kempenfeldt is gone,
      His victories are o'er;
    And he and his eight hundred
      Shall plough the main no more!"

MRS. WILTON. "I fear we are prolonging this evening's discussion
beyond the customary bounds; but I should not be satisfied to quit
the Channel without a peep at rocky Eddystone."

GEORGE. "Mamma is very anxious to see the Lighthouse, and so am I.
It appears to me a most wonderful building, standing as it does,
surrounded by foaming waves, and in constant danger from winds and
storms. Who knows anything about it?"

EMMA. "I do! the Eddystone Lighthouse is built on a rock in the
Channel, about fifteen miles south-south-west from the citadel of
Plymouth. It is, as George remarked, exposed to winds and waves, for
the heavy swells from the Bay of Biscay and the Atlantic Ocean send
the waves breaking over the rock with prodigious fury. The first
Lighthouse erected on these rocks was the work of a gentleman named
Winstanley; it stood four years, when he was so confident of its
stability that he determined to encounter a storm in the building
himself. He paid for his temerity with his life, and found how vain
it was to build houses of brick and stone to resist the mighty
waters, which can only be controlled by the power of the most high
God. Three years afterwards another Lighthouse was built which
sustained the attacks of the sea for the space of forty-six years,
but, strangely enough, was destroyed by fire in August, 1755. The
fire broke out in the lantern, and burning downwards, drove the men,
who in vain attempted to extinguish it, from chamber to chamber;
until at last, to avoid the falling of the timber, and the red hot
bolts, they took refuge in a cave on the east side of the rock,
where they were found at low water in a state little short of
stupefaction, and conveyed to Plymouth. The present Lighthouse was
erected by Mr. Smeaton on an improved plan: no expense was spared to
render it durable and ornamental; the last stone was placed on the
25th of August, 1759, and the first night the light was exhibited a
very great storm happened, which actually shook the building; but it
stood,--and it still stands,--a glorious monument of human
enterprise, perseverance, and skill."

GRANDY. "We have done so much to-night, and have been so much
interested, that I may venture to offer an apology for not having
prepared _my_ portion. It is now time for supper; and I think you
have heard as much to-night as you can well remember. Shall I ring
the bell, my dear?" Mrs. Wilton replied in the affirmative, and John
quickly appeared with the tray. Some nice baked apples soon smoked
on the table, with cakes of Grandy's own making, intended expressly
for the children, and which gave universal satisfaction. The meeting
dispersed about half-past ten, and all felt the wiser for their
evening's amusement.


  There lives and works
  A soul in all things,--and that soul is God!

For a few minutes we will quit the "Research," and take a peep into
Mr. Wilton's drawing-room. There is a bright, blazing fire; the
crimson curtains are closely drawn; pussy is curled up in a circle
on the soft rug; and Grandy, with her perpetual knitting, is still
in the old leather chair.

"But where are all the others?" I fancy I hear my readers'
inquiries. Look again. Who sits at the table writing so busily, and
every instant turning over the leaves of a large book? It is George.
Emma has gone with her papa and mamma to the Colosseum; but George
was obliged to remain a prisoner at home, having been much
inconvenienced by a severe cold. He is now working diligently to
create a surprise for his sister on her return; and anxiety to
please her gives such impetus to his exertions, that he accomplishes
more than he even ventured to anticipate.

Grandy perseveres in her knitting: she silently commends her darling
for his thoughtful affection, and occasionally pauses to cast a
glance of deep earnest love, not unmixed with a degree of pride, on
the beaming countenance of her favorite grandchild.

George completes his task, and causes his working apparatus to
vanish before ten o'clock; then, twining his arms around the beloved
grandmother's neck, he quietly whispers all the secret in her ear,
and awaits her approval.

She suggests that he preserve it until the next evening, and then
astonish the assembly by reading his extensive notes, the result of
the last two hours' labor.

George is delighted, and amuses himself with imagining Emma's
astonishment when he makes his grand display; and, with his mind
vigorously engaged in picturing the pleasures of the surprise, he
retires to rest.

Our young friends, Emma and George, were too sensible of the value
of time to waste it in idleness or trifling pursuits; consequently,
whenever you called at Mr. Wilton's, you might be sure to find them
occupied with some work, profitable either to themselves or their
fellow-creatures; and Mrs. Wilton in her daily instructions had so
combined practice with theory, that her pupils almost unconsciously
imitated her in the paths of industry and perseverance, no longer
feeling (as heretofore) the sad effects of procrastination; but
"whatsoever their hands found to do, they did it with their might."

Continually engaged, with no cares to harass, no troubles to
distress them, their hours and days flew on the wings of
hope,--laden only with fond recollections of the past, glowing with
the bright realities of the present, and wafting the perfume of a
glorious future crowned with the everlasting garlands of love, joy,
and peace.

There was not much time lost in arranging their books and papers on
the evening of this meeting; but they were obliged to commence
without waiting Mr. Barraud's arrival, for the clock had struck
seven, and their business admitted of no delay.

They were soon seated. "Which way are we to get out of the British
Channel?" was the first question.

MR. WILTON. "There are two convenient ways for us to sail out of the
Channel: the one through the Straits of Dover into the German Ocean;
the other past Land's End, Cornwall, into the wide waters of the
North Atlantic. We will take the former direction, and anchor off
Yarmouth while we examine into the wonders connected with this
division of the mighty sea."

CHARLES. "The German Ocean is the eastern boundary of England, and
many of our most beautiful streams fall into its waters. I am not
aware of the existence of any islands in this ocean; and the only
fact I have to state concerning it is, that _here_ the French first
tried their strength with the English by sea. This happened in the
reign of King John, in the year 1213, and the account is as
follows:--'The French had previously obtained possession of
Normandy, and thereby become a maritime power, which qualified them,
as they thought, to contend with the English: they intended,
therefore, to seize the first opportunity of trying their skill;
but the English were too sharp for them, and came upon them when
they were least expected. Five hundred sail were despatched by John
to the relief of the Earl of Flanders; and on approaching the port
of Daunne, in Flanders, they saw it crowded with an immense forest
of masts; upon which they sent out some light shallops to
reconnoitre, and bring tidings of the enemy's condition. The report
was, that the ships had not hands to defend them, both soldiers and
sailors having gone on shore for plunder. Upon this the English
pressed forward and captured the large ships without difficulty,
while the smaller ones they burnt after the crews had escaped.
Having thus mastered the ships outside the harbor, the English
advanced to attack those within it; and here the full rage of battle
commenced. The port was so narrow, that numbers and skill were
unavailing, while the dispersed French, perceiving the tokens of
conflict, came running from every quarter to assist their party. The
English upon this, after grappling with the nearest ships, threw a
number of their forces on land; these arranging themselves on both
sides of the harbor, a furious battle commenced on land and water at
the same instant. In this desperate _melee_ the English were
victorious: three hundred prizes, laden with corn, wine, oil and
other provisions were sent to England: one hundred other ships, that
could not be carried off, were destroyed; and the French king,
Philip II. (surnamed Augustus), during the temporary retreat of the
English, perceiving the impossibility of saving the rest of his
fleet in the event of a fresh attack, set it on fire, that it might
not fall into the enemy's hands. Thus the _first_ great naval
victory of the English destroyed the _first_ fleet that had been
possessed by France."

GRANDY. "My opinions are no doubt at variance with the world; but it
does seem to me, that many of these warfares by sea and land are the
most unjust, wanton sacrifice of life and property, recorded in the
annals of history. I know that there are times and occasions when it
is necessary to do battle with foreign powers in self-defence, or to
relieve the oppressed and defenceless of other nations; such was the
glorious object of the battle of the Nile: but many, many battles
are fought with ambition for their guiding star, and high hopes of
honor and reward in this life to urge on the combatants, while their
zeal in the performance of the work of destruction is dignified with
the title of 'Patriotism.'

"We read continually of _great victories_; that, related by Charles,
is designated a '_great naval victory_,' and throughout, it breathes
nothing but cruelty and unwarranted oppression. It does not appear
that the stratagems used to win a battle are ever taken into
consideration: it is evidently of no consequence _how_ it is won, so
long as it _is_ won; and battles are more frequently decided by
resorting to means which are dishonorable, to say the least of them,
than by fair and open trials of strength. The discomfiture of the
French, in this instance, was most assuredly owing to the _cunning_
exercised by their enemies, and not, as stated, to their
superiority of skill or power: they were not permitted to try
either, but were attacked when unprepared, mercilessly robbed, and
slaughtered. And this was _a victory_. A victory over people who
were not allowed the chance of defending themselves. 'Tis true the
French had been tyrannizing over the people of Normandy; but a bad
example ought to be avoided, not imitated, as in this case.
Retaliation is no part of a Christian's duty, and was not required
at the hands of the English. What right has any nation,
deliberately, and for no other purpose than gain, to invade the
territories of another, to burn their houses, to destroy their
inhabitants, and to plunder them of all their possessions? Is this a
fulfilling of the law? Is this our duty to our neighbor? Surely not;
and yet such are the principal features in a _great victory_, from
which the conquerors return to be honored of all men--for which
bonfires blaze, guns are fired, cities are illuminated, and every
voice is raised to shout victory! victory! Such victories, my dear
children, are abominations in the sight of God. He bid us live in
love and charity with all men. His Son says, 'By this I know that ye
are my disciples, because ye have love one toward another;' and St.
Paul further desires us to 'love one another with pure hearts,
fervently;' adding, 'for love is the fulfilling of the law.' Much
more might be said on this subject; but I will detain the meeting no
longer than merely to repeat a few verses from a poem of Southey's,
written on the battle of Blenheim; which, as they coincide with my
opinions, afford me much satisfaction, because they testify that I
do not differ in sentiment from all mankind:--

  "'With fire and sword the country round
      Was wasted far and wide,
  And many a childling mother then,
      And new-born infant died.
  But things like these, you know, must be
  At every _famous victory!_

  "'They say it was a shocking sight
      After the field was won,
  For many thousand bodies here,
      Lay rotting in the sun.
  But things like that, you know, must be
  At _every famous victory!_'

  "'Great praise the Duke of Marlbro' won,
      And our good Prince Eugene."
  "Why, 'twas a very wicked thing!"
      Said little Wilhelmine.
  "Nay, nay, my little girl," quoth he,
  "It was a _famous victory!_"

  "'And everybody praised the Duke,
      Who such a fight did win."
  "But what good came of it at last?"
      Quoth Little Wilhelmine.
  "Why that I cannot tell," said he,
     "But 'twas a _famous victory!_" '"

GEORGE. "If I were an admiral, I would never fight for gain, and I
would not allow any of the men under my command to be cruel to the
poor people in their power."

"If you had the opportunity, my son," said Mr. Wilton, "I fear
that, like many others, you would be unable to resist the temptation
to show your authority over the vanquished; for great and wise men
have often found themselves unequal to the task of schooling their
hearts, to listen to the dictates of humanity, when surrounded by
the turmoil and excitement of a battle. But now, Charles. I must set
you right with respect to the islands, and inform you that there are
two well known islands in the German Ocean,--the Isle of Thanet and
Sheppey Isle. I refer you to Mrs. Wilton for their description."

MRS. WILTON. "The Isle of Thanet forms the north-east angle of the
county of Kent: from north to south it is five miles, and rather
more than ten from east to west. It contains many beautiful watering
places,--Margate, Ramsgate, and Broadstairs on the sea; St.
Lawrence, Birchington, and St. Peter's, inland. The whole of the
district is in a very high state of cultivation, and remarkable for
its fertility; the first market-garden in England was planted in the
Isle of Thanet There is a little place called Fishness, not far from
Broadstairs, which derived its name from the following
circumstance:--On the 9th of July, 1574, a monstrous fish shot
himself on shore, where, for want of water, he died the next day;
before which time, his roaring was heard above a mile: his length
was twenty-two yards, the nether jaw opening twelve feet; one of his
eyes was more than a cart and six horses could draw; a man stood
upright in the place from whence his eye was taken; his tongue was
fifteen feet long; his liver two cart-loads; and a man might creep
into his nostrils.' All this, and a great deal more, is asserted by
Kilburne, in his 'Survey of Kent;' and Stowe, in his Annals, under
the same date, in addition to the above, informs us, that this
'whale of the sea' came on shore under the cliff, at six o'clock at
night, 'where, for want of water beating himself on the sands, it
died about the same hour next morning.'"

CHARLES. "The size and other particulars seem probable enough, with
the exception of the eye, which certainly must be an exaggeration;
_one_ such an eye would be large enough for any animal, were he as
monstrous as the wonderful Mammoth of antediluvian days. Do not you
think, madam, that the account is a little preposterous?"

MRS. WILTON. "I think it is very likely, my dear, because there were
so few persons to write descriptions of these wonderful creatures,
that those who undertook the task were seldom content with the bare
truth, no matter how extraordinary, but generally increased the
astonishment of their readers by almost incredible accounts, which
they were quite aware would never be contradicted. We live in a more
inquiring age, and do not so readily give credence to all we hear,
without ascertaining the probabilities of such descriptions; and
exaggerated accounts are now merely regarded as 'travellers'
wonders,' and only partially believed.

"About seven miles south of the Isle of Thanet lies Deal, and
immediately opposite Deal is that part of the sea called the
'Downs,' which has long been a place of rendezvous for shipping,
where as many as 400 sail have been anchored at one time. The
southern boundary of the Downs is formed by the Goodwin Sands, so
often fatal to mariners. They were, originally, an island belonging
to Earl Goodwin, when a sudden and mighty inundation of the sea
overwhelmed with light sand, 'where-with,' as an old writer hath it,
'it not only remayneth covered ever since, but is become withall a
most dreadful gulfe and shippe swallower.'

"We will now bestow a little consideration on Sheppey Isle."

GRANDY. "I should like you to be aware, before quitting this
luxuriant Isle of Thanet, that it was here the precious truths of
the Gospel were first set forth in England: it is supposed, on very
just grounds too, that the apostle Paul was the preacher, who, in
the middle of the first century, spread the doctrines of
Christianity far and wide; and, from Rome, travelled to the isles of
the far west, in which is included this lovely little spot, where he
was received by the noble of the land. Instead of being persecuted
as at Rome, he was eagerly followed, and the peaceful precepts he
endeavored to inculcate were willingly obeyed.

"After St. Paul, came Augustine, who, in 597, landed in the Isle of
Thanet, was welcomed by the king of Kent, Ethelbert, then holding
his court at Canterbury. He, the second apostle, came to convert the
people who were again sunk into barbarism and idolatry; he came in
the name of the Most High, and his mission was successful. Ethelbert
at once appointed St. Augustine a suitable residence at Canterbury,
and gave him every facility of effecting his object, by permitting
him to hold free converse with his subjects. Thus you see Canterbury
thence became the 'nursing mother' of religion throughout the land.
The greatest ornament in the Isle of Thanet is its church at
Minster, built on the site of a convent founded by the princess
Domneva, granddaughter of Ethelbald, king of Kent. Now we will
travel on to Sheppey."

MRS. WILTON. "We shall not be detained there long with my
description. It is a little island lying north of Chatham, and
separated from the Isle of Grain by the river Medway. Both these
isles may be considered as situated at the mouth of the Thames. The
principal place in Sheppey is Sheerness."

GEORGE. "Now, dear mamma, I suppose we have done with the German

MRS. WILTON. "So far as I am concerned, my dear; but I have a notion
that you are in possession of some wonderful story which will
astonish us all. Is it so, my boy? Those sparkling eyes and flushed
cheeks betray your secret. I am not deceived. Permit me then to
request, in the name of the assembled members, that you will favor
us with the contents of the paper in your hand."

"Nay, dear mamma," said George; "your expectations are raised too
high. My paper only contains an account of a Yarmouth boatman; but
it interested me: and Yarmouth being a seaport on the shores of the
German Ocean, I thought it would be an agreeable termination to
this part of our voyage, and I took the trouble to put it into a
moderate compass for the occasion." George then unfolded two or
three sheets of closely written paper, while he enjoyed the amazed
looks of his sister; and so pleased was he at her expressions of
astonishment, that he was unable to resist the impulse of throwing
his arms around her neck, and kissing her affectionately. "You are
surprised, dear Emma," said he; "I only cared to please _you_ when I
wrote it, but now I will try to please _all_" He then, in a clear
distinct tone of voice read the following:--

#Narrative of Brock the Swimmer and Yarmouth Boatman.#

"Amongst the sons of labor, there are none more deserving of their
hard earnings than that class of persons, denominated Beachmen, on
the shores of this kingdom. To those unacquainted with maritime
affairs, it may be as well to observe, that these men are bred to
the sea from their earliest infancy, are employed in the summer
months very frequently as regular sailors or fishermen, and during
the autumn, winter, and spring, when gales are most frequent on our
coast, in going off in boats to vessels in distress in all weathers,
to the imminent risk of their lives; fishing up lost anchors and
cables, and looking out for waifs (i.e. anything abandoned or
wrecked), which the winds and waves may have cast in their way. In
our seaports these persons are usually divided into companies,
between whom the greatest rivalry exists in regard to the beauty and
swiftness of their boats, and their dexterity in managing them: this
too often leads to feats of the greatest daring, which the widow and
the orphan have long to deplore. To one of these companies, known by
the name of 'Laytons,' whose rendezvous and 'look-out' were close to
Yarmouth jetty, Brock belonged; and in pursuit of his calling, the
following event is recorded by an acquaintance of Brock's.

"About 1 P.M. on the 6th of October, 1835, a vessel was observed at
sea from this station with a signal flying for a pilot, bearing east
distant about twelve miles: in a space of time incredible to those
who have not witnessed the launching of a large boat on a like
occasion, the yawl, 'Increase,' eighteen tons burden, belonging to
Laytons' gang, with ten men and a London Branch pilot, was under
weigh, steering for the object of their enterprise. About 4 o'clock
she came up with the vessel, which proved to be a Spanish brig,
Paquette de Bilboa, laden with a general cargo, and bound from
Hamburg to Cadiz, leaky, and both pumps at work. After a great deal
of chaffering in regard to the amount of salvage, and some little
altercation with part of the boat's crew as to which of them should
stay with the vessel, J. Layton, J. Woolsey, and George Darling,
boatmen, were finally chosen to assist in pumping and piloting her
into Yarmouth harbor: the remainder of the crew of the yawl were
then sent away. The brig at this time was about five miles to the
eastward of the Newarp Floating Light, off Winterton on the Norfolk
coast, the weather looking squally. On passing the light in their
homeward course, a signal was made for them to go alongside, and
they were requested to take on shore a sick man; and the poor fellow
being comfortably placed upon some jackets and spare coats, they
again shoved off, and set all sail: they had a fresh breeze from the
W.S.W. 'There was little better,' said Brock, 'than a pint of liquor
in the boat, which the Spaniard had given us, and the bottle had
passed once round, each man taking a mouthful, till about half of it
was consumed: we all had a bit of biscuit each, and while we were
making our light meal, we talked of our earnings, and calculated
that by 10 o'clock we should be at Yarmouth.

"'Without the slightest notice of its approach a terrific squall
from the northward took the yawl's sails flat aback, and the ballast
which we had trained to windward, being thus suddenly changed to
leeward, she was upset in an instant.

"'Our crew and passenger were nine men--'twas terrible to listen to
the cries of the poor fellows, some of whom could swim, and others
who could not. Mixed with the hissing of the water and the howlings
of the storm, I heard shrieks for mercy, and some that had no
meaning but what arose from fear. I struck out to get clear of the
crowd, and in a few minutes there was no noise, for most of the men
had sunk; and, on turning round, I saw the boat still kept from
going down by the wind having got under the sails. I then swam back
to her, and assisted an old man to get hold of one of her spars.
The boat's side was about three feet under water, and for a few
minutes I stood upon her, but I found she was gradually settling
down, and when up to my chest I again left her and swam away; and
now, for the first time, began to think of my own awful condition.
My companions were all drowned, at least I supposed so. How long it
was up to this period from the boat's capsizing I cannot exactly
say; in such cases, there is _no time_; but now I reflected that it
was half-past six P.M. just before the accident occurred; that the
nearest land at the time was six miles distant; and that it was dead
low water, and the flood tide _setting off the shore_, making to the
southward; therefore, should I ever reach the land, it would take me
at least fifteen miles setting up with the flood, before the ebb
would assist me.'

"While Brock was making these calculations, a rush horse collar
covered with old netting floated close to him; he laid hold of it,
and getting his knife out, he stripped off the net-work, and putting
his left arm through, was supported until he had cut the waist band
of his _petticoat_ trousers which then fell off: his striped frock,
waistcoat and neckcloth, were also similarly got rid of, but he
dared not try to free himself of his oiled trousers, drawers, or
shirt, fearing that his legs might become entangled in the attempt;
he therefore returned his knife into the pocket of his trousers, and
put the collar over his head, which, although it assisted in keeping
him above water, retarded his swimming; and after a few moments'
thinking what was best to be done, he determined to abandon it. He
now, to his great surprise, perceived one of his messmates swimming
ahead of him; but he did not hail him. The roaring of the hurricane
was past; the cries of drowning men were no longer heard; the
moonbeams were casting their silvery light over the smooth surface
of the deep, calm and silent as the grave over which he floated, and
into which he saw this last of his companions descend without a
struggle or a cry, as he approached within twenty yards of him. Yes,
he beheld the last of his brave crew die beside him; and now he was
alone in the cold silence of night, more awful than the strife of
the elements which had preceded. Perhaps at this time something
might warn him that he too would soon be mingled with the dead; but
if such thoughts did intrude, they were but for a moment; and again
his mental energies, joined with his lion heart and bodily prowess,
cast away all fear, and he reckoned the remotest possible chances of
deliverance, applying the means,

  "'Courage and Hope both teaching him the practice.'

"Up to this time, Winterton Light had served instead of a land-mark
to direct his course; but the tide had now carried him out of sight
of it, and in its stead 'a bright star stood over where' his hopes
of safety rested. With his eyes steadfastly fixed upon it, he
continued swimming on, calculating the time when the tide would
turn. But his trials were not yet past. As if to prove the strength
of human fortitude, the sky became suddenly overclouded, and
'darkness was upon the face of the deep.' He no longer knew his
course, and he confessed, that for a moment he was afraid; yet he
felt, that 'fear is but the betraying of the succors which reason
offereth,' and that which roused _him_ to further exertion, would
have sealed the fate of almost any other human being. A sudden short
cracking peal of thunder burst in stunning loudness just over his
head, and the forked and flashing lightning at brief intervals threw
its vivid fires around him. This, too, in its turn passed away, and
left the sea once more calm and unruffled: the moon (nearly full)
again threw a more brilliant light upon the waters, which the storm
had gone over without waking from their slumbers. His next effort
was to free himself from his heavy laced boots, which greatly
encumbered him, and in which he succeeded by the aid of his knife.
He now saw Lowestoft's high Lighthouse, and could occasionally
discern the tops of the cliffs beyond Garlestone on the Suffolk
coast. The swell of the sea drove him over the Cross Sand Ridge, and
he then got sight of a buoy, which, although it told him his exact
position, 'took him rather aback,' as he had hoped he was nearer the
shore. It proved to be the chequered buoy, St. Nicholas' Gate, off
Yarmouth, and _opposite his own door_, but distant from the land
_four miles_. And now again he held counsel with himself, and the
energies of his mind seem almost superhuman; he had been five hours
in the water, and here was something to hold on by; he could have
even got upon the buoy, and some vessel _might come near_ to pick
him up, and the question was, could he yet hold out four miles?
'But,' said he, 'I knew the night air would soon finish me, and had
I stayed but a few minutes upon it, and then _altered_ my mind, how
did I know that my limbs would again resume their office?' He found
the tide was broke; it did not run so strong; so he abandoned the
buoy, and steered for the land, towards which, with the wind from
the eastward, he found he was now fast approaching. The last trial
of his fortitude was now at hand, for which he was totally
unprepared, and which he considered (having the superstition of a
sailor) the most difficult of any he had to combat. Soon after he
left the buoy, he heard just above his head a sort of whiffing
sound, which his imagination conjured into the prelude to the
'rushing of a mighty wind,' and close to his ear there followed a
smart splash in the water, and a sudden shriek that went through
him,--such as is heard

  "'When the lone sea-bird wakes its wildest cry.'

"The fact was, a large gray gull, mistaking him for a corpse, had
made a dash at him, and its loud discordant scream in a moment
brought a countless number of these formidable birds together, all
prepared to contest for a share of the spoil. These large and
powerful foes he had now to scare from their intended prey, and, by
shouting and splashing with his hands and feet, in a few minutes
they disappeared.

"He now caught sight of a vessel at anchor, but a great way off,
and to get within hail of her he must swim over Carton Sands (the
grave of thousands), the breakers at this time showing their angry
white crests. As he approached, the wind suddenly changed; the
consequence of which was that the swell of the sea met him. Here is
his own description:--'I got a great deal of water down my throat,
which greatly weakened me, and I felt certain, that, should this
continue, it would soon be all over, and I prayed that the wind
might change, or that God would take away my senses before I felt
what it was to drown. In less time than I am telling you, I had
driven over the sands into smooth water; the _wind and swell came
again from the eastward_, and my strength returned to me as fresh as
in the beginning.'

"He now felt certain that he could reach the shore; but he
considered it would be better to get within hail of the brig, some
distance to the southward of him, and the most difficult task of the
two, as the ebb tide was now running, which, although it carried him
towards the land, set to the northward; and to gain the object of
his choice would require much greater exertion. Here, again, are
Brock's reflections:--'If I gained the shore, could I get out of the
surf, which at this time was heavy on the beach? And, supposing I
succeeded in this point, should I be able to walk, climb the cliffs,
and get to a house? if not, there was little chance of life
remaining long in me: but if I could make myself heard on board the
brig, then I should secure immediate assistance. I got within two
hundred yards of her, the nearest possible approach, and, summoning
all my strength, I sung out as bravely as if I had been on shore.'

"'The seaman's cry was heard along the deep.'

"He was answered from the deck; a boat was instantly lowered; and at
half-past 1 A.M., having swam _seven hours_ in an October night, he
was safe on board the brig Betsey of Sunderland, coal laden, at
anchor in Corton Roads, fourteen miles from the spot where the boat
was capsized. The captain's name was CHRISTIAN!

"Once safe on board, 'nature cried enough:' he fainted, and
continued insensible for some time. All that humanity could suggest
was done for him by Christian and his crew: they had no spirits on
board, but they had bottled ale, which they made warm, and by
placing Brock before a good fire, rubbing him dry, and putting him
in hot blankets, he was at length, with great difficulty, enabled to
get a little of the ale down his throat; but it caused excruciating
pain, as his throat was in a state of high inflammation from
breathing (as a swimmer does) so long the saline particles of sea
and air, and it was now swollen very much, and, as he says, he
feared he should be suffocated. He, however, after a little time,
fell into a sleep, which refreshed and strengthened him, but he
awoke to intense bodily suffering. Round his neck and chest he was
perfectly flayed; the soles of his feet, hands, and other parts were
also equally excoriated. In this state, at about 9 A.M., the brig
getting under weigh with the tide, he was put on shore at Lowestoft
in Suffolk, and immediately despatched a messenger to Yarmouth, with
the sad tidings of the fate of the yawl and the rest of her crew.
Being safely housed under the roof of a relative, with good nursing
and medical assistance, in five days from the time of the accident,
with a firm step he walked back to Yarmouth, to confirm the
wonderful rumors circulated respecting him, and to receive the
congratulations of his friends. The knife, which he considers as the
great means of his being saved, is preserved with great care, and in
all probability will be shown a century hence by the descendants of
this man. It is a common horn-handle knife, having one blade about
five inches long. A piece of silver is now riveted on, and covers
one side, on which is the following inscription:--

   BOULT:--BROCK, aided by this knife, was saved after being 7-1/2
   hours in the sea. _October_ 6. 1835.'

"'It was a curious thing,' observed Brock when relating his story,
'that I had been without a knife for some time, and only purchased
this two days before it became so useful to me; and having had to
make some boat's tholes, it was as sharp as a razor. I ought to be a
good-living chap,' continued he, 'for three times I have been saved
by swimming. What I did on this night, I know I could not have done
of myself, but God strengthened me. I never asked for anything but
it was given me.'

"This man had great faith, and he had also other good traits in his
character. A large subscription was made for the widows and children
of Brock's unfortunate companions; and a fund being established for
their relief, the surplus was offered to him. This was his answer:
'I am much obliged to you, gentlemen, but, thank God! I can still
get my own living as well as ever, and I could not spend the money
that was given to the fatherless and widow.' In contemplating the
feat of this extraordinary man, it must appear to every one, that
his bodily prowess, gigantic as it is, appears as dust in the
balance compared with the powers of his mind. To think and to judge
rightly under some of the most appalling circumstances that ever
surrounded mortal man, to reject the delusive for the arduous, to
resolve and to execute, form such a combination of the best and
rarest attributes of our nature, that where are we to look for them
in the same man? Brock at the time of this disastrous affair was
thirty-one years of age, a fine, stout, athletic man, and as upright
in his life and conversation as he was in his very handsome person."

George read all this so clearly and distinctly, that he really
merited the praise bestowed upon him: even Grandy, generally too
partial, did not award him more than he deserved, for it was a great
work for a boy of his age.

"My dear boy." said Mr. Wilton, "I am quite delighted to find you
have been so industrious, as it proves most satisfactorily that you
are resolved to overcome all obstacles of weariness or difficulty in
order to accomplish the great end--the attainment of useful
knowledge. I am much, _very much_, pleased with you, my dear boy."

The color mounted to the cheeks of the happy child, and in those few
moments of heartfelt joy he was amply repaid for the previous
evening's toil.

"Where sail we next?" inquired Mrs. Wilton.

EMMA. "The North Sea is the track, dear mamma. I am sorry Mr.
Barraud has not come, as he, having been to Scotland, might have
helped us considerably. However, Dora is prepared with some
particulars, and we need not be idling because of the absence of one

"No, indeed!" exclaimed Mr. Wilton, "for I have a few words to say
on that subject; so sail on, Dora, and 'I'll give thee a wind.'"

"And I another," added Charles; "for I have actually been along the
coasts that are washed by the blue waves of the North Sea, and can
say a _few words_ after our honored member in the chair."

DORA. "The North Sea washes the shores of Scotland, Denmark, and
Norway. There are a great many islands in this sea, many more than I
can enumerate. Near Scotland there are several little unimportant
places of trifling interest, of which I should be glad to gain some
information, as at present I know nothing more than that they are
there, are inhabited, and tolerably fertile."

CHARLES. "I believe I can enlighten you to a certain extent, Dora,
at least so far that you may acknowledge that there are interesting
places in the North Sea near Scotland. Ten leagues, or thirty
geographical miles, north of the ancient castle of Dunglass (once
the head-quarters of Oliver Cromwell) lies the Bell Rock: you can
see it in the map, just off the mouth of the Tay, and close to the
northern side of the great estuary called the Firth of Forth. Up to
the commencement of the present century, this rock was justly
considered one of the most formidable dangers that the navigators of
the North Sea had to encounter. Its head, merged under the surface
during greater part of the tide, at no time made much show above the
water. There was nothing for it, therefore, but to keep well clear
of the mischief, or, as seamen express themselves, to give the rock
a wide berth. Ships, accordingly, bound for the Forth, in their
constant terror of this ugly reef, not content with giving it ten or
even twenty miles of elbow room, must needs edge off a little more
to the south, so as to hug the shore in such a way, that when the
wind chopped round to the northward, as it often did, these
over-cautious navigators became embayed in a deep bight to the
westward of Fast Castle. If the breeze freshened before they had
time to work out, they paid dearly for their apprehensions of the
Bell Rock, by driving upon ledges fully as sharp and far more
extensive and inevitable. The consequence was that from three to
four vessels, or sometimes half a dozen, used to be wrecked each
winter. Captain Basil Hall in speaking of this place says, 'Perhaps
there are few more exciting spectacles than a vessel stranded on a
lee-shore, and especially such a shore, which is fringed with reefs
extending far out and offering no spot for shelter. The hapless
ship lies dismasted, bilged, and beat about by the waves, with the
despairing crew clinging to the wreck, or to the shrouds, and
uttering cries totally inaudible in the roar of the sea; while at
each successive dash of the breakers the number of the survivors is
thinned, till at length they all disappear. The gallant bark then
goes to pieces, and the coast for a league on either side is strewed
with broken planks, masts, boxes, and ruined portions of the goodly
cargo, with which, a few hours before, she was securely freighted,
and dancing merrily over the waters.' I am happy to add, in
conclusion, that this fatal Bell Rock, the direct and indirect cause
of so many losses, has been converted into one of the greatest
sources of security that navigation is capable of receiving. By
means of scientific skill, aided by well-managed perseverance, with
the example of the Eddystone to copy from, a lighthouse, one hundred
and twenty feet high, has been raised upon this formidable reef, by
Mr. Robert Stevenson, the skilful engineer of the 'Northern Lights;'
so that the mariner, instead of doing all he can to avoid the spot
once so much dreaded, now eagerly runs for it, and counts himself
happy when he gets sight of the revolving star on the top, which,
from its being variously colored he can distinguish from any other
light in that quarter. He is then enabled to steer directly for his
port in perfect security, though the night be never so dark."

Mr. Wilton remarked how much one man, by the right use of the
talents he possessed, might benefit his fellow-creatures, when he
was interrupted by the entrance of Mr. Barraud.

A welcome rose to every lip, and Mr. Barraud apologized for being so
late, adding that he had been detained by a friend who was about to
start for Scotland, and wished to have an hour's conversation with
him before his departure.

"How singular!" exclaimed Mr. Wilton; "we have been regretting your
absence particularly this evening, because we are navigating the
North Sea, where you have been so often tossed to and fro, and we
thought it quite possible you might have met with some amusing or
instructive incidents in your travels along the coast, which would
agreeably relieve the tedium of our voyage. Now I see no reason why
you should not accompany your friend to Scotland, and charm us with
a soul-stirring narrative of real life."

"Oh! I perceive the state of affairs clearly," said Mr. Barraud;
"the young folks are getting weary of the monotony of a sea voyage,
and desire to step ashore again."

"No! no! we are not tired," anxiously exclaimed the little group.

"But," said Charles, "it makes a voyage so much more pleasant when
we drop anchor now and then, to look around on the beauties of other
lands; and more profitable also, if we learn something of the
customs, laws, and peculiarities of the inhabitants of those lands."

MR. BARRAUD. "Very true, Charles; and to gratify you I will relate a
story written by Colonel Maxwell, the well-known author of many
pleasing and instructive works, which will serve the purpose better
than any other I can think of just now--besides, to heighten its
interest, it is all true."


"During a tedious passage to the North, I remarked among the
steerage passengers a man who seemed to keep himself apart from the
rest. He wore the uniform of the foot artillery, and sported a
corporal's stripes. In the course of the afternoon, I stepped before
the funnel, and entered into conversation with him; learned that he
had been invalided and sent home from Canada, had passed the Board
in London, obtained a pension of a shilling a-day, and was returning
to a border village, where he had been born, to ascertain whether
any of his family were living, from whom he had been separated
nineteen years. He casually admitted, that during this long interval
he had held no communication with his relations; and I set him down
accordingly as some wild scapegrace, who had stolen from a home
whose happiness his follies had compromised too often. He showed me
his discharge--the character was excellent,--but it only went to
prove how much men's conduct will depend upon the circumstances
under which they act. He had been nineteen years a soldier--a man
'under authority,'--one obedient to another's will, subservient to
strict discipline, with scarcely a free agency himself, and yet,
during that long probation, he had been a useful member of the body
politic, sustained a fair reputation, and as he admitted himself,
been a contented and happy man. He returned home his own master, and
older by twenty years. Alas! it was a fatal free agency for him, for
time had not brought wisdom. The steward told me that he had ran
riot while his means allowed it, had missed his passage twice, and
had on the preceding evening come on board, when not a shilling
remained to waste in drunken dissipation. I desired that the poor
man should be supplied with some little comforts during the voyage;
and when we landed at Berwick, I gave him a trifling sum to assist
him to reach his native village, where he had obtained vague
intelligence that some aged members of his family might still be

"A few evenings afterwards, I was sitting in the parlor of one of
the many little inns I visited while rambling on the banks of the
Tweed, when the waitress informed me that 'a sodger is speerin'
after the colonel.' He was directed to attend the presence, and my
fellow-voyager, the artilleryman, entered the chamber, and made his
military salaam.

"'I thought you were now at Jedburgh,' I observed.

"'I went there, sir,' he replied, 'but there has not been any of my
family for many a year residing in the place. I met an old packman
on the road, and he tells me there are some persons in this village
of my name. I came here to make inquiries, and hearing that your
honor was in the house I made bold enough to ask for you.'

"'Have you walked over?' I inquired.

"'Yes, sir,' he replied.

"''Tis a long walk,' said I; 'go down and get some supper before you
commence inquiries.'

"The soldier bowed and left the room, and presently the host entered
to give me directions for a route among the Cheviots, which I
contemplated taking the following day. I mentioned the soldier's

"'Sure enough,' returned the host, 'there are an auld decent couple
of the name here. What is the soldier called?'

"'William,' I replied, for by that name his discharge and pension
bill were filled up.

"'I'll slip across the street to the auld folk,' said Boniface, 'and
ask them a few questions.'

"The episode of humble life that followed was afterwards thus
described to me by mine host.

"He found the ancient couple seated at the fire; the old man reading
a chapter in the Bible, as was his custom always before he and his
aged partner retired for the night to rest. The landlord explained
the object of the soldier's visit, and inquired if any of their
children answered the description of the wanderer.

"'It is our Jock!' exclaimed the old woman passionately, 'and the
puir neer-do-weel has cam hame at last to close his mither's eyes.'

"'Na,' said the landlord; 'the man's name is Wolly.'

"'Then he's nae our bairn,' returned the old man with a heavy sigh.

"'Weel, weel--His will be done!' said his help-mate, turning her
blue and faded eyes to heaven; 'I thought the prayer I sae often
made wad yet be granted, and Jock wad come hame and get my blessin'
ere I died.'

"'He has! he has!' exclaimed a broken voice; and the soldier, who
had followed the landlord unperceived, and listened at the cottage
door, rushed into the room, and dropped kneeling at his mother's
feet. For a moment she turned her eyes with a fixed and glassy stare
upon the returned wanderer. Her hand was laid upon his head--her
lips parted as if about to pronounce the promised blessing--but no
sounds issued, and she slowly leaned forward on the bosom of the
long-lost prodigal, who clasped her in his arms.

"'Mither! mither! speak and bless me!' cried he in agony.

"Alas! the power of speech was gone forever. Joy, like grief, is
often fatal to a worn-out frame. The spirit had calmly passed; the
parent had lived to see and bless her lost one; and expire in the
arms of him, who, with all his faults, appeared to have been her
earthly favorite."

DORA. "What an affecting story! How sorry Jock must have felt that
he came so suddenly into his mother's presence; but his father was
yet alive for him to comfort and cheer in his declining age. I hope
he was kind and affectionate to him all his days, to compensate for
the loss of the poor old woman?"

MR. BARRAUD. "I trust he was, but our historian saith no more."

MR. WILTON. "There is a little cluster of islands between Alnwick
and Berwick called the Farne islands, on one of which was situated
the lighthouse where the heroine Grace Darling spent her dreary
days. These rocky islands have for centuries been respected as holy
ground, because St. Cuthbert built an oratory on one of them, and
died there. At one time there were two chapels on these rocks; one
dedicated to St. Cuthbert, the other to the Virgin Mary: they are
now ruins; and a square building, erected for the religieux
stationed on these isles, has been put to better use, and converted
into a lighthouse. Off these islands occurred that dreadful
calamity, the wreck of the Forfarshire steamer, of which I will give
you a brief account:--

#Wreck of the Forfarshire.#

"It appears, that shortly after she left the Humber her boilers
began to leak, but not to such an extent as to excite any
apprehensions; and she continued on her voyage. The weather,
however, became very tempestuous; and on the morning of the fatal
day, she passed the Fames on her way northwards, in a very high
sea, which rendered it necessary for the crew to keep the pumps
constantly at work. At this time they became aware that the boilers
were becoming more and more leaky as they proceeded. At length, when
she had advanced as far as St. Abb's Head, the wind having
increased to a hurricane from N.N.E., the engineer reported the
appalling fact that the machinery would work no longer. Dismay
seized all on board; nothing now remained but to set the sails fore
and aft, and let her drift before the wind. Under these
circumstances, she was carried southwards, till about a quarter to
four o'clock on Friday morning, when the foam became distinctly
visible breaking upon the fearful rock ahead. Captain Humble vainly
attempted to avert the appalling catastrophe, by running her between
the islands and the mainland; she would not answer her helm, and was
impelled to and fro by a furious sea. In a few minutes more, she
struck with her bows foremost on the rock. The scene on board became
heart-rending. A moment after the first shock, another tremendous
wave struck her on the quarter, by which she was buoyed for a moment
high off the rock. Falling as this wave receded, she came down upon
the sharp edge with a force so tremendous as to break her fairly in
two pieces, about 'midships; when, dreadful to relate, the whole of
the after part of the ship, containing the principal cabin, filled
with passengers, sinking backwards, was swept into the deep sea, and
thus was every soul on that part of the vessel instantaneously
engulfed in one vast and terrible grave of waters. Happily the
portion of the wreck which had settled on the rock remained firmly
fixed, and afforded a place of refuge to the unfortunate survivors.
At daylight they were discovered from the Longstone; and Grace
Darling and her father launched a boat, and succeeded, amidst the
dash of waters and fearful cries of the perishing people, in
removing the few remaining sufferers from their perilous position to
the lighthouse. The heroism of this brave girl, who unhesitatingly
risked her own life to save others, was justly appreciated and
rewarded. A large sum of money was collected for her, and many
valuable presents were despatched to the 'lonely isle;' among
others, a gold watch and chain, which she always after wore,
although homely in her general attire. Poor Grace Darling! she did
not long enjoy the praises and rewards which she so richly merited
for her courage and humanity: a rapid consumption brought her to the
grave; and her remains rest in a churchyard upon the mainland, in
sight of that wild rock, on which she earned so great celebrity. A
beautiful and elegant monument is erected to her memory, which will
trumpet forth her praises to many yet unborn."

GRANDY. "A curious circumstance occurred on these shores some years
ago, and was related to my dear husband by an old man at Aberdeen,
on whose veracity he could rely:--

"Three or four boys, one of them the son of a goldsmith in Dundee,
went out in a boat towards the mouth of the Tay, but rowing farther
than was prudent, they were carried out to sea. Their friends
finding they did not return, made every search for them, and were at
length compelled with sorrowful hearts to conclude that they had

"One night a farmer (father of the old man who related the story)
was very much disturbed by a dream; he awoke his wife, and told her
he had dreamed that a boat with some boys had landed in a little
cove a few miles from his house, and the poor boys were in a state
of extreme exhaustion. His wife said it was but a dream, and advised
him to go asleep; he did so, but again awoke, having had the same
dream. He could rest no longer, but resolved to go down to the
shore. His wife now began to think there was a Providence in it. The
farmer dressed himself, went down to the cove, and there, true
enough, to his horror and amazement, he found the boat with four
boys in it; two were dead already, and the others so exhausted that
they could not move. The farmer got some assistance, and had them
conveyed to his own home, when he nourished the survivors until they
were quite recovered. From them he learned that they had been
carried out to sea, and, notwithstanding their utmost exertions, the
contrary winds had prevented them returning, and they were drifted
along the coast, until the boat grounded at the place where they
were found. They had been out four days, without provisions of any
kind, except some sugar-candy which one boy had in his pocket; this
they shared amongst them while it had lasted; but two sank on the
third day, and probably a few hours might have terminated the
existence of the remaining two, had they not been providentially
discovered by the farmer. As soon as they were in a condition to be
removed they were taken to Dundee, about fifty miles from the place
where they were found; and the grateful parents earnestly besought
the generous farmer to accept a reward, but he magnanimously
refused. The goldsmith, however, whose son was saved had a silver
boat made, with the names of the parties and a Latin inscription
engraved thereon recording the event. This was presented to the
farmer, and is still in the possession of his descendants, and no
doubt will be long preserved as an heir-loom in the family of the
kind-hearted Scotchman."

DORA. "I had no idea there were so many interesting stories
concerning the shores of Scotland, and in my ignorance I should have
travelled to the colder regions of Norway for information and

"Ay," said Charles; "but we have said nothing of Denmark yet, and,
to get into the Baltic Sea, we must sail for many miles along the
shores of that curious country. It consists of the peninsula of
Jutland, formerly called Cimbria, and several islands in the Baltic.
The boundaries of Denmark are, the Skagerac Sea on the North; the
kingdom of Hanover on the South; the Baltic, with part of Sweden, to
the East, and the North Sea on the West. I here wish to know if the
North Sea and the German Ocean are names used to designate all that
portion of the ocean which lies to the east of the British Isles,
for I have seen the different names placed in different maps to
signify the same waters, and have been a little puzzled to ascertain
their boundaries?"

"I am glad you have asked that question, Charles," said Mr. Wilton;
"because I now remember that for the convenience of our
illustrations we made a division, but in reality the North Sea and
the German Ocean are the same, and ought perhaps to have been
mentioned thus--German Ocean _or_ North Sea."

CHARLES. "Jutland, including Holstein, is about 280 miles long and
80 miles broad; the islands, of various dimensions, are Zealand,
Funen, Langland, Laland, Falster, Mona, Femeren, Alsen, &c.
Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, is a large, rich, and
well-fortified town, situated on the island of Zealand; the
population about 100,000."

MR. BARRAUD. "Near Copenhagen stands the little isle of Hawen, now
belonging to Sweden, where Tycho Brahe took most of his astronomical
observations. There are many academies and public schools in
Denmark, which reflect great honor on the Danish government. There
are fine woods and forests in Denmark; indeed the whole country may
be regarded as a forest, which supplies England with masts and other
large timber. It is for the most part a flat country."

MR. WILTON. "The islands west of Jutland which you observe, viz.:
Nordstrand, Fera, Sylt, Rom, Fanoe, and others, suffer greatly from
the fury of the ocean. Towards the north of Jutland is an extensive
creek of the sea, Lymfiord, which penetrates from the Cattegat,
within two or three miles of the German Ocean; it is navigable, full
of fish, and contains many islands."

MRS. WILTON. "To get into the Baltic, we must go through the Sleeve
or Skagerac; through the Cattegat, passing on our way the little
isles of Hertzholm, Lassoe, Anholt, and Haselov; then, taking care
to keep Kullen's Lighthouse in view, enter the sound near Elsinore,
sail on past Rugen Isle, and anchor at Carlscrona, in the Baltic."

GEORGE. "The Baltic! the Baltic! I am so anxious to hear all about
that sea. All _I_ know is that there are three very large gulfs
connected with it, the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, and the
Gulf of Riga."

MR. WILTON. "The two latter wash the shores of a part of Russia, not
generally much noticed in geographical works; I mean the two
divisions of the Russian territories, known by the names of Revel
and Livonia. The waters of the Gulf of Finland also extend to the
greatest town in this country of ice and snow, St. Petersburgh,
founded by Peter the Great in 1703, and seated on an island in the
middle of the river Neva, near the bottom of the gulf, and which,
from the singularity in its buildings, streets, people, and customs,
is well worth a visit. The inconveniences caused by travelling in
such an extreme climate doubtless prevent this part of Europe from
being better known to other nations."

GEORGE. "Is it so very, very cold, then, papa?"

MR. WILTON. "When our thermometer stands at 20 deg. we all exclaim, how
bitterly cold! everything around is frozen hard, and unless we take
violent exercise, and are well wrapped up, we feel extremely
uncomfortable. Now in this part of Russia, the thermometer is often
_below_ zero many degrees; and travellers, be they never so well
clothed, are frequently found frozen in their carriages."

GEORGE. "Their dresses are rather clumsy-looking garments, are they
not, and principally made of fur?"

MRS. WILTON. "I have an amusing description of the preparation for a
journey in the immediate neighborhood of the Gulf of Finland, which
will satisfy your inquiring mind, and afford us all pleasing
information. 'On the evening of the 20th of February, all the
juvenile portion of the family were consigned to rest at an earlier
hour than usual; and by six o'clock the next morning, little eyes
were wide awake, and little limbs in full motion, by the flickering
candle's light; in everybody's way as long as they were not wanted,
and nowhere to be found when they were. At length the little flock
were all assembled; and having been well lined inside by a migratory
kind of breakfast, the outer process began. This is conducted
somewhat on the same principle as the building of a house, the
foundation being filled with rather rubbishy materials, over which a
firm structure is reared. First came a large cotton handkerchief,
then a pelisse three years too short, then a faded comfortable of
papa's, and then an old cashmere of mamma's, which latter was with
difficulty forced under the vanishing arms, and tied firmly behind.
Now each tiny hand was carefully sealed with as many pairs of gloves
as could be gathered together for the occasion; one hand (for the
nursemaids are not very particular) being not seldom more richly
endowed in this respect than its fellow. The same process is applied
to the little feet, which swell to misshapen stumps beneath an
accumulation of under-socks and over-socks, under-shoes and
over-shoes, and are finally swallowed up in huge worsted stockings,
which embrace all the drawers, short petticoats, ends of
handkerchiefs, comfortables, and shawls they can reach, and are
generally gartered in some incomprehensible fashion round the waist.
But mark! this is only the _foundation_. Now comes the
thickly-wadded winter pelisse of silk or merino, with bands or
ligatures, which instantly bury themselves in the depths of the
surrounding hillocks, till within the case of clothes before you,
which stands like a roll-pudding tied up ready for the boiler, no
one would suspect the slender skipping sprite that your little
finger can lift. Lastly, all this is enveloped in the little jaunty
silk cloak, which fastens readily enough round the neck on ordinary
occasions, but now refuses to meet by the breadth of a hand, and is
made secure by a worsted boa of every bright color. Is this all?
No,--wait,--I have forgotten the pretty clustering locked head and
rosy dimpled face; and, in truth, they were so lost in the mountains
of wool and wadding around as to be fairly overlooked. Here a
handkerchief is bound round the forehead, and another down each
cheek, just skirting the nose, and allowing a small triangular space
for sight and respiration; talking had better not be attempted;
while the head is roofed in by a wadded hat, a misshapen machine
with soft crown and bangled peak, which cannot be hurt, and never
looks in order, over which is suspended as many veils, green, white,
and black, as mamma's cast-off stores can furnish, through which the
brightest little pair of eyes in the world faintly twinkle like
stars through a mist. And now one touch upsets the whole mass, and a
man servant coolly lifts it up in his arms like a bale of goods, and
carries it off to the sledge.

"'These are the preparations. Now for the journey.--It was a lovely
morning as we started with our little monstrosities; ourselves in a
commodious covered sledge, various satellites of the family in a
second, followed up by rougher vehicles covered with bright worsted
rugs, and driven by the different grades of servants, wherein sat
the muffled and closely-draped lady's maids and housemaids of the
establishment; not to forget the seigneur himself, who, wrapped to
the ears, sat in solitude, driving a high-mettled animal upon a
sledge so small as to be entirely concealed by his person, so that,
to all appearance, he seemed to be gliding away only attached to the
horse by the reins in his well-guarded hands. The way led through
noble woods of Scotch and Spruce fir, sometimes catching sight of a
lofty mansion of stone, or passing a low thatched building of wood
with numberless little sash windows, where some of the nobles still
reside, and which are the remnants of more simple times. And now
"the sun rose clear o'er trackless fields of snow," and our solitary
procession jingled merrily on, while, yielding to the lulling
sounds of the bells, our little breathing bundles sank motionless
and warm into our laps and retrieved in happy slumbers the early
_escapades_ of the day. There is no such a warming-pan on a cold
winter's journey as a lovely soft child. After driving thirty
wersts, we stopped at the half-way house of an acquaintance, for
here the willing hospitality of some brother-noble is often
substituted for the miserable road-side accommodations. This was one
of the wooden houses so common in this part of Russia, and
infinitely more pleasing within than without; divided with
partitions like the tray of a work-box, fitted up with every
accommodation on a small scale; a retreat which some unambitious
pair might prefer to the palace we had quitted. After a few hours'
rest we started again with the same horses, which here perform
journeys of sixty wersts in the day with the utmost ease; and when
evening was far advanced, our little travellers pushed aside their
many-colored veils, and peeped at the lamps with astonished eyes, as
we clattered up the steep hill which led to our residence in the
town of Reval.'"

EMMA. "Well, George, what think you of that? You are so partial to
cold weather, and are so desirous to travel in a sledge, do not you
think you would like to dwell in Russia, and go about always like a

GEORGE. "To travel in a sledge I should certainly like, but I would
prefer my sledge in Lapland, where the beautiful reindeer, fleet as
the wind, scamper over snow and ice, and convey you to your friends
almost as expeditiously as a railroad; but the wrapping up would not
suit me at all, for I like to have the free use of my limbs, more
particularly in cold weather; and for these various reasons I do not
wish to dwell in Russia, but should be delighted to visit it, and
should not even object to remain there a season. How much is a
werst, papa?"

MR. WILTON. "A Russian werst is nearly two thirds of an English

MR. BARRAUD. "There are people of almost every nation living in the
government of Reval, the chief town of which is a port on the Gulf
of Finland, of the same name. Within the last few years, the
inhabitants of this place have been making a growing acquaintance
with the Finlanders on the opposite shores, at a place called
Helsingforst, which is only approachable between a number of rocky
islands. The town of Helsingforst is clean and handsome, with good
shops, containing cheap commodities, which are a source of great
attraction to the Esthonians (or natives of Reval) and others who
reside in Reval; consequently, in the fine weather, parties are made
about once a fortnight for a trip to Helsingforst: these trips are
both pleasurable and profitable. The voyage occupies six hours in a
little steamboat; and, when landed, the voyagers procure every
requisite at a magnificent hotel in the town for moderate charges.
They then go shopping, buying umbrellas, India-rubber galoshes, and
all descriptions of wearing apparel, which they contrive to smuggle
over, notwithstanding the vigilance of the custom-house officers at

GRANDY. "I have read that the fishermen on the shores of the Baltic
are remarkably superstitious, and careful not to desecrate any of
their saints' days. They never use their nets between All Saints'
and St. Martin's, as they would be certain not to take any fish
throughout the year. On Ash Wednesday the women neither sew nor
knit, for fear of bringing misfortune upon the cattle. They contrive
so as not to use fire on St. Lawrence's day: by taking this
precaution, they think themselves secure against fire for the rest
of the year. The Esthonians do not hunt on St. Mark's or St.
Catherine's day, on penalty of being unsuccessful all the rest of
the year. It is reckoned a good sign to sneeze on Christmas day.
Most of them are so prejudiced against Friday, that they never
settle any important business or conclude a bargain on this day; in
some places they do not even dress their children. They object to
visit on Thursdays, for it is a sign they will have troublesome
guests all the week. Thus they are slaves to superstition, and must,
consequently, be a complaining, unhappy people. Now Dora, my dear,

DORA. "In the Baltic, north of the Gulf of Riga, lies the Isle of
Dagen, belonging to Russia, and containing some fine estates of the
Esthonian nobility. The dress of the female peasantry in this island
is so remarkable that they deserve a passing notice. The head-dress
is a circular plait of hair, braided with a red cloth roll, which
fastens behind, and hangs down in long ends tipped with fringe. The
dress is merely a linen shift, high to the throat, half-way down the
leg, crimped from top to bottom, the linen being soaked in water
with as much strong starch as it can hold, crimped with long laths
of wood, and then put into the oven to dry, whence it issues stiff
and hard as a board. The belt is the chief curiosity, being made of
broad black leather, studded with massive brass heads, with a fringe
of brass chains. High-heeled shoes and red stockings complete the
attire, and altogether make a fanciful picture of a pretty maiden

EMMA. "But such garments must surely be very cold?"

DORA. "The dress I have described is worn in the summer, for they
have a warm season for a short period during the year; of course,
when the cold sets in, they hide their faces and figures in furs, in
the same fashion as their neighbors."

GEORGE. "How very uncomfortable to be dressed so stiffly in warm
weather; and then they can surely never sit in such garments, for to
rumple them would spoil them, I suppose?"

MRS. WILTON. "It is _the fashion_ in Dagen, my dear; and there, as
elsewhere, many inconveniences are submitted to, from an anxiety to
vie with other folks in the style of dress, and from a fear of being
considered _old-fashioned_. I am sure _we_ English must not find
fault with the dress of other countries, for some of _our_ fashions
are truly ridiculous."

"Yes, mamma," said Emma; "but they do not strike us as being
ridiculous, because we are accustomed to them; and this must be the
case with other nations: they are used to their peculiar dresses,
and have no idea of the astonishment of strangers when viewing the
novel attire, which to the wearers possesses nothing remarkable to
astonish or attract."

MR. BARRAUD. "Near Dagen the navigation of the Baltic is very
dangerous; and many years ago the island was principally occupied by
men who wickedly subsisted on the misfortunes of others. A slight
sketch of one will sufficiently inform you of the general character
of these men. 'Baron Ungern Sternberg, whose house was situated on a
high part of the island, became notorious for his long course of
iniquity. He lived in undisputed authority, never missing an
opportunity of displaying his false lights to mislead the poor
mariners. No notice was taken of these cruel practices for some
time, for Sternberg was powerful in wealth and influence; until the
disappearance of a ship's captain, who was found dead in his room,
the existence of an immense quantity of goods under his house, and
other concurring circumstances, led to his apprehension. He was
tried, condemned to Siberia, and his name struck off the roll of the
nobility. His family, however, stands as high now as it ever did;
for his descendants were not disgraced; and they still possess all
the daring, courage, enterprise, and sparkling wit of their pirate
ancestor, although it is but just to say they have not inherited his
crimes. The sensation caused by the dread of this man reached even
to the shores of England, and the streets of London were placarded,
"Beware of Ungern Sternberg, the Sea Robber!" as a warning to
sailors. This of course was before his seizure, for when he was
taken his accomplices could not longer continue their vile

CHARLES. "I am anxious to know if it is from the shores of the
Baltic the Turks procure the golden-colored amber of which they make
the mouth-pieces for their pipes?"

MR. WILTON. "Yes, Charles; the amber-gathering is carried on
extensively there, and is the wealth of half the inhabitants. The
amber is sent to Turkey and Greece, and there manufactured into
those splendid mouth-pieces, which it is the pride of these
smoke-loving people to possess. Some of these are excessively
gorgeous and proportionably valuable. I have heard of _one_ being
worth the enormous sum of 100_l_!"

GEORGE. "Parts of Sweden are entirely separated by the Gulf of
Bothnia. What sort of ships have they, papa, to cross the water in
that cold country?"

MR. WILTON. "They do not often cross the water in ships, but
transact nearly all their business with the opposite shores, during
the four months when the waters of this sea, which has no tides, is
firmly frozen, and when they can travel across in sledges,
comfortably defended from the inclemency of the weather. The Baltic
being full of low coasts and shoals, galleys of a flat construction
are found more serviceable than ships of war, and great attention is
paid to their equipment by Sweden as well as Russia. We have
neglected to mention the Islands of the Baltic. There is the isle of
Oesal, remarkable for its quarries of beautiful marble; its
inhabitants like those of Dagen Isle, are chiefly Esthonians:
Gothland and Oeland are both fertile and productive. In the Gulf of
Bothnia are the Aland Isles, which derive their names from the
largest, forty miles in length and fifteen in breadth, containing
about 9000 inhabitants, who speak the Swedish language. These isles
form almost a barrier of real granite rocks stretching to the
opposite shores. In the Gulf of Finland lies the Isle of Cronstadt,
formerly called Retusavi; it has an excellent haven, strongly
fortified, which is the chief station of the Russian fleet."

CHARLES. "Is not the chief fleet of Russia that of the Baltic?"

MR. WILTON. "Yes; it consists of about thirty-six ships of the line;
but the maritime power of Russia is trifling."

MRS. WILTON. "As in leaving the Baltic we quit the shores of Sweden,
we shall have no other opportunity to view Stockholm, the capital.
It occupies a singular situation between a creek or inlet of the
Baltic Sea and the Lake Maeler. It stands on seven small rocky
islands, and the scenery is truly singular and romantic. This city
was founded by Earl Birger, regent of the kingdom, about the middle
of the thirteenth century; and in the seventeenth century the royal
residence was transferred hither from Upsal. Sweden was formerly
under the Danish yoke, but Gustavus Yasa delivered it when he
introduced the reformed religion in 1527. His reign of thirty-seven
years was great and glorious in the annals of Sweden. We will now
proceed on our course: shall we go still further north, into the
White Sea, or are you tired of the cold, and prefer journeying to
the south, and embarking on the Black Sea?"

CHARLES. "Oh! the White Sea first, for the distance is much less,
and we shall sooner get there; but it must be an overland journey."

MR. WILTON. "Yes; for the Bielse More, or White Sea, is reckoned,
with the Mediterranean and the Baltic, as one of Europe's principal
inland seas. The largest gulfs connected with this sea are the Gulf
of Archangel and the Gulf of Candalax; the waters of the latter wash
the shores of Lapland, and are filled with numerous small islands.
Archangel is a port on the White Sea; and here the Russians build
most of their men-of-war: before the reign of Peter the Great, it
was the only port from which Russia communicated with other
countries of Europe."

MRS. WILTON. "With a few remarks on Lapland, we will quit this part
of our quarter of the globe. Lapland can boast of but few towns. The
people lead wandering lives, and reside greater part of the year in
huts buried in the snow; occasionally they have warm weather, that
is, for the space of three or four weeks in the year, when the sun
has immense power; so that a clergyman residing at Enontekis
informed Dr. Clarke that he was able to light his pipe at midnight
with a common burning-glass, and that from his church the sun was
visible above the horizon at midnight during the few weeks of
summer. But the delights of this long day scarcely compensate for
the almost uninterrupted night which overshadows them with its dark
mantle for the remainder of the year; one continual winter, when
scarcely for three hours during the day can the inhabitants dispense
with the use of candles. The climate, although so extremely frigid,
is nevertheless wholesome, and the people are a hardy race. In
Lapland the Aurora Borealis is seen to perfection; the appearance it
exhibits at times is beyond description magnificent: it serves to
illuminate their dark skies in the long night of winter; and,
although they cannot benefit by it so continually as the inhabitants
of Greenland and Iceland, yet they never behold the arch of the
glorious Northern Lights spread abroad in the starry heavens but
they bless God for the phenomenon which they cannot comprehend, but
know full well how to appreciate. Here in this wintry region George
might enjoy himself agreeably to his wishes, for the Laplanders
travel in sledges drawn by the swift reindeer; but I fear he would
find it difficult to keep his seat, as the sledge is but of narrow
dimensions and easily upset, while the animal requires a great deal
of management to guide him properly. What think you, George? Would
you not be like Frank Berkeley or Paul Preston, who fancied it must
be so easy and delightful to ride in a pulk or sledge, and found
instead, that, from inexperience, their journey was one continued
chapter of accidents?"

GEORGE. "I dare say I should fare as badly at first, but I would not
be discouraged by _one_ failure."

MR. WILTON. "That is right, my boy! Perseverance and determination
are an extra pair of legs to a traveller in his journey through

CHARLES. "There appears to be no islands in the White Sea."

MRS. WILTON. "There are islands, but they are mostly barren
uninhabited rocks. Archangel, a port on this sea, is famous for the
manufacture of linen sheeting. Now quit we these dreary regions for
the bright and enlivening southern climes; and, if all parties are
agreeable, we will cast our anchor where we may behold the heights
of Caucasus, and picture to ourselves the situation of still more
interesting elevations; viz. Ararat, Lebanon, and Hermon; mountains
mentioned in the Sacred Writings, and certainly great points of
attraction to Christian travellers in Asiatic Turkey."

CHARLES. "There are several gulfs; but I do not know of any islands,
in the Black Sea. There is a peninsula attached to Russia, which
contains the towns of Kafa, Aknetchet, Sevastopol, and Eupatoria: it
lies between the Sea of Asof and the Gulf of Perecop. The principal
gulfs are the Gulf of Baba, the Gulf of Samson, the Gulf of Varna,
and the Gulf of Foros."

MR. BARRAUD. "The peninsula you mention, Charles, is the Crimea,
which possesses a most delicious climate, although lying contiguous
to the Putrid Sea, which bounds it on the north. There is an island
in the Euxine,--the Island Leuce, or Isle of Achilles, also called
the Isle of Serpents. It is asserted by the ancients to have been
presented to Achilles by his mother Thetis. In the Gulf of Perecop
there is also another island, called Taman, which contains springs
of naphtha."

MR. WILTON. "The principal port on the Black Sea is Odessa. It ranks
next in Russia after the two capitals of the empire, but is not a
desirable residence, being subject to hurricanes and other evils, of
which _dust_ is undoubtedly the greatest. A learned French writer[6]
says: 'Dust here is a real calamity, a fiend-like persecutor that
allows you not a moment's rest. It spreads out in seas and billows
that rise with the least breath of wind, and envelop you with
increasing fury, until you are stifled and blinded, and incapable of
a single movement.' The same writer describes a curious phenomenon
he witnessed in Odessa: 'After a very hot day in 1840, the air
gradually darkened about four in the afternoon, until it was
impossible to see twenty paces before one. The oppressive feel of
the atmosphere, the dead calm, and the portentous color of the sky,
filled every one with deep consternation, and seemed to betoken some
fearful catastrophe. The thermometer attained the height of 104 deg.
Fahrenheit. The obscurity was then complete. Presently the most
furious tempest imagination can conceive burst forth; and when the
darkness cleared off, there was seen over the sea what looked like
a waterspout of prodigious depth and breadth, suspended at a height
of several feet above the water, and moving slowly away until it
dispersed at last at a distance of many miles from the shore. The
eclipse and the waterspout were nothing else than _dust_; and that
day Odessa was swept cleaner than it will probably ever be again.'"

[Footnote 6: Xavier Hommaire de Hell.]

MRS. WILTON. "Such a description is quite sufficient to drive the
weary traveller to seek shelter; and I think we have had enough of
other places for to-night. Let us take our own at the supper-table,
and refresh ourselves after the voyage, for we have reason to
congratulate each other on the success of our plan; hitherto, there
has been no halting for lack of a finger-post, and I hope we shall
be as well prepared at future meetings, and be enabled to accomplish
as much as we have this evening."

GRANDY. "I have been silent for the last hour, principally because I
do not feel very well this evening; but I cannot refrain from
speaking a word or two before we disperse. A good and wise man

                   'Full often, too,
  Our wayward intellect, the more we learn
  Of nature, overlooks her Author more.'

My dear children, let not this be said of you; but look upward to
the Source of light and life, and pray that all knowledge may lead
you on to seek Him who is the author and giver of all good things;
then will wisdom, heavenly wisdom, illumine your minds; then will
peace, the peace of God, which passeth all understanding, fill your
hearts, and

  'Reveal truths undiscerned but by that holy light.'"


  O'er the stormy, wide, and billowy deep,
  Where the whale, the shark, and the sword-fish sleep;
  And amidst the plashing and feathery foam,
  Where the stormy-petrel finds a home.

"George is to open this meeting, by reciting some lines written by
Mrs. Howitt, which are very clever, and will most appropriately
introduce our subject." So saying, Mrs. Wilton proceeded to arrange
the members in their various places; and, seating herself, she
turned to her son, who by virtue of his office was allowed to remain
near Grandy's chair until the great work was accomplished. George
was hesitating, but an encouraging smile from this kind mother
inspired him with confidence, and he commenced without further

[Illustration: ICEBERGS]

  "'The earth is large,' said one of twain;
    'The earth is large and wide;
  But it is filled with misery
    And death on every side!'
  Said the other, 'Deep as it is wide
    Is the sea within all climes,
  And it is fuller of misery
    And of death, a thousand times!
  The land has peaceful flocks and herds,
    And sweet birds singing round;
  But a myriad monstrous, hideous things
    Within the sea are found--
  Things all misshapen, slimy, cold,
    Writhing, and strong, and thin,
  And waterspouts, and whirlpools wild,
    That draw the fair ship in.
  I've heard of the diver to the depths
    Of the ocean forced to go,
  To bring up the pearl and the twisted shell
    From the fathomless caves below;
  I've heard of the things in those dismal gulfs,
    Like fiends that hemm'd him round--
  I would not lead a diver's life
    For every pearl that's found.
  And I've heard how the sea-snake, huge and dark,
    In the arctic flood doth roll;
  He hath coil'd his tail, like a cable strong,
    All round and round the pole:
  And they say, when he stirs in the sea below,
    The ice-rocks split asunder--
  The mountains huge of the ribbed ice--
    With a deafening crack like thunder.
  There's many an isle man wots not of,
    Where the air is heavy with groans;
  And the bottom o' th' sea, the wisest say,
    Is covered with dead men's bones.
  I'll tell thee what: there's many a ship
    In the wild North Ocean frore,
  That has lain in the ice a thousand years,
    And will lie a thousand more;
  And the men--each one is frozen there
    In the place where he did stand;
  The oar he pull'd, the rope he threw,
    Is frozen in his hand.
  The sun shines there, but it warms them not;
    Their bodies are wintry cold:
  They are wrapp'd in ice that grows and grows,
    Solid, and white, and old!
  And there's many a haunted desert rock,
    Where seldom ship doth go--
  Where unburied men, with fleshless limbs,
    Are moving to and fro:
  They people the cliffs, they people the caves,--
    A ghastly company!--
  never sail'd there in a ship myself,
    But I know that such there be.
  And oh! the hot and horrid track
    Of the Ocean of the Line!
  There are millions of the negro men
    Under that burning brine.
  The ocean sea doth moan and moan,
    Like an uneasy sprite;
  And the waves are white with a fiendish fire
    That burneth all the night.
  'Tis a frightful thing to sail along,
    Though a pleasant wind may blow,
  When we think what a host of misery
    Lies down in the sea below!
  Didst ever hear of a little boat,
    And in her there were three;
  They had nothing to eat, and nothing to drink,
    Adrift on the desert sea.
  For seven days they bore their pain;
    Then two men on the other
  Did fix their longing, hungry eyes,--
    And that one was their brother!
  And him they killed, and ate, and drank--
    Oh me! 'twas a horrid thing!
  For the dead should lie in a churchyard green,
    Where the pleasant flowers do spring.
  And think'st thou but for mortal sin
    Such frightful things would be?
  In the land of the New Jerusalem
    There will be no more sea!'"

MR. WILTON. "Well done! George; very nicely repeated indeed: you are
a most promising member of our little society; and we will drink
your health in some of Grandy's elder-wine to-night at supper, and
not forget the honors to be added thereto. Now, is it determined how
we are to proceed; whether we take the seas of Asia, or enter on the
broad waves of the various oceans which wash many of the shores of

CHARLES. "The seas first, sir. I have the list of those for
consideration belonging to this most interesting division of the
globe: the Caspian, between Turkey, Persia, and Tartary; the
Whang-hai, or Yellow Sea, in China; the Sea of Japan; the Sea of
Ochotsh or Lama; the Chinese Sea; the Bay of Bengal; the Persian
Gulf; and the Arabian Gulf or Red Sea: these are the largest; but
there are numbers of small seas, some of them so entirely inland
that they should more properly be called lakes; of these, the
largest is the Sea of Aral. The bays and gulfs around Asia are so
numerous that you would be tired of hearing their names. North, are
the Bays of Carskoe and Obskaia: south, Tonquin, Siam, Cambay, and
Cutch; east, Macao and Petchelee; west, Balkan, Kindelnisk, and
Krasnai Vodi; the latter in the Caspian."

GEORGE. "Are those all, Charles? why, from your preface, I thought
you would be at least ten minutes enumerating the Bays of Asia."

CHARLES. "Were I to name _all_, I could do it in less time than ten
minutes; but I should incur too great a liability for my trouble,
as I should be expected to describe the situations of all, and that
would be beyond my capability."

DORA. "The Caspian falls to my share: it is usually called by the
Persians, 'Derrieh Hustakhan' (Sea of Astrachan). It is likewise
called the 'Derrieh Khizzar.' The absence of all shipping, save now
and then a solitary Russian craft; the scarcity of sea-weed, and the
want of the refreshing salt scent of the ocean, together with the
general appearance of the coast, suggest the idea of an immense
lake. Numbers of that large fish called 'sturgeon' are taken from
the waters of the Caspian; and there is quite a colony of fishermen
engaged in this occupation on the Persian coast; and during the
season they catch thousands of these useful fish. No part of a
sturgeon is wasted: the roe is taken out, salted, and stowed away in
casks; this is known by the name of 'caviare,' and is esteemed a
great luxury. From the sound or air-bladder isinglass is made,
simply by being hung in the sun for a time; and the fish itself is
dried, and exported to various parts of the world. Astracan is the
chief seat of Caspian commerce."

MR. WILTON. "And here the traveller finds collected into a focus all
the picturesque items that have struck him elsewhere. Alongside of a
Tartar dwelling stretches a great building blackened by time, and by
its architecture and carvings carrying you back to the middle ages.
A European shop displays its fashionable haberdashery opposite a
caravanserai; the magnificent cathedral overshadows a pretty mosque
with its fountain; a Moorish balcony contains a group of young
European ladies, who set you thinking of Paris; whilst a graceful
white shadow glides mysteriously under the gallery of an old palace.
All contrasts are here met together; and so it happens, that in
passing from one quarter to another you think you have made but a
short promenade, and you have picked up a stock of observation and
reminiscences belonging to all times and places. The Russians ought
to be proud of this town; for, unlike others in this country, it is
not of yesterday's formation, and is the only place throughout the
empire where the traveller is not plagued with the cold monotonous
regularity which meets him at every other city in Russia. The
Caspian Sea covers an extent of 120,000 square miles, and is the
largest salt lake known."

MR. BARRAUD. "Near a place called Semnoon, not many miles from
Asterabad, there formerly stood a city of Guebres, named Dzedjin,
with which a droll legend is connected:--

"'When Semnoon was built, the water with which it was supplied
flowed from the city of the Guebres, who one day turned the stream,
and cut off the supplies. Sin and Lam (two prophets), seeing the
town about to perish for want of water, repaired to Dzedjin, and
entreated the chiefs of that place to allow the stream to return to
its old channel. This they at first refused, but finally made an
agreement, that on the payment of a sum equal to a thousand tomauns,
or 500_l_., the water should be allowed to flow into the city as
long as life remained in the head of a fly, which was to be cut off
and thrown into a basin of water. This was done; but, to the great
astonishment of the Guebres, the head retained life during thirteen
days, which so exasperated them against Sin and Lam, whom they
perceived to be men of God that they sent an armed party to Semnoon
to make them prisoners.

"'Meanwhile Sin and Lam had received intelligence of their designs,
and fled. The first village they halted at was called Shadderron,
where, having rested awhile, they continued their flight, strictly
enjoining the inhabitants not to tell their pursuers the direction
which they had taken. Shortly afterwards the Guebres arrived, and
inquired where they had gone. The villagers did not mention the
direction in words, but treacherously indicated it by turning their
heads over their right shoulders, in which position they became
immovably fixed; and since then all their descendants have been born
with a twist in the neck towards the right shoulder.'"

Here the boys had some difficulty in repressing their laughter; for
Charles placed his head in the position of the faithless
Shadderrons, and looked so mischievously at George, that he was
obliged to cover his eyes, or he would have stopped the story by a
boisterous shout of merriment.

MR. BARRAUD continued: "'The fugitives next arrived at a place
called Giorvenon, on quitting which they left the same injunctions
as before. On the arrival of the pursuers, however, the people
pointed out the direction of their flight by stretching their chins
straightforward. An awful peal of thunder marked the divine
displeasure; and the inhabitants of Giorvenon now found themselves
unable to bring their heads back to their proper position; and the
curse likewise descended to their posterity, who have since been
remarkable for long projecting chins. After a long chase, the
Guebres overtook the prophets at the foot of a steep hill, up which
they galloped into a small plain, where, to the astonishment and
disappointment of their pursuers, the earth opened and closed over
them. It was now evening; and the Guebres, placing a small heap of
stones over the spot where Sin and Lam had disappeared, retired for
the night. Early the next morning the Guebres repaired thither with
the intention of digging out the prophets; but, to their confusion,
they found the whole plain covered with similar heaps of stones, so
that all their endeavors to find the original pile were completely
baffled, and they returned to Dzedjin disappointed. There is now a
small mosque, said to cover the exact spot where Sin and Lam sank
into the ground, which is called Seracheh, to which people resort to
pray, and make vows; and close by is an almost perpendicular rock,
whence (the inhabitants aver) may be seen the marks of the feet of
the horses ridden by the Guebres!'"

This story amused the children much, and they would gladly have
listened to Mr. Barraud while he related some other extraordinary
tradition, but his reply to their request silenced these wishes.

"Every place," said he, "throughout this wild country has a legend:
were I to tell you _all_, there would be no time for business. I
merely selected this because it is concerning a town situated on the
shores of the Caspian Sea, and gives you a tolerable idea of the
superstition of its inhabitants."

MR. WILTON. "The Caspian extends about 700 miles in length, and 200
in breadth. The northern shores of this sea are low and swampy,
often overgrown with reeds; but in many other parts the coasts are
precipitous, with such deep water that a line of 450 fathoms will
not reach the bottom. The best haven in the Caspian is that of Baku;
that of Derbent is rocky, and that of Sensili not commodious, though
one of the chief ports of trade."

DORA. "The Whang-hai, or Yellow Sea, on the coast of China, contains
several islands,--Tebu-sou, Lowang, Tsougming, Vun-taichan, Fouma,
and Stanton's Island. By the Straits of Corea we can enter the Sea
of Japan, sail along by the great Japan Islands, the principal of
which are Niphon, Kinsin, and Sikokf, and, passing the Jesso Isles,
go through the Channel of Tartary, and enter the Sea of Ochotsk or

MRS. WILTON. "A very good route, Dora, but rather too expeditious to
be advantageous. These islands and seas are connected with many
interesting facts. And why pass the Island of Sagalien without a
glance? I am sure, could you have seen one of the people, your
attention would have been sufficiently arrested to stay your rapid
flight o'er land and sea. The Sagaliens are similar in many
respects to the Tartar tribes. Their dress is a loose robe of
skins, or quilted nankeen, with a girdle. They tattoo their upper
lip blue. Their huts or cabins of timber are thatched with grass,
with a fire-place in the centre. The native name of this large
island is Tehoka.

"Between Japan and Mantchooria is the great peninsula of Corea,
remarkable for the coldness of its climate, although in the latitude
of Italy. We are told that in the northern parts snow falls in so
large quantities as to render it necessary to dig passages under it
in order to go from one house to another. It is supposed that the
surface of this country being so extremely mountainous is the cause
of this curious climate. There are numbers of ponies here not more
than three feet high!"

GEORGE. "Oh what sweet creatures! how very much I would like to have
one; actually not larger than a dog: how very pretty they must be."

EMMA. "Around the three great islands of Japan, I observe countless
numbers of little ones,--are they in any way connected with Japan?"

MR. WILTON. "Yes, my dear; they all belong to the kingdom of Japan."

EMMA. "And what sort of people are the Japanese?"

MR. WILTON. "Very similar in appearance to their neighbors, the
Chinese, with a yellow complexion and small oblique eyes: there is
this difference, however; their hair is thick and bushy, while the
hair of the Chinese is cultivated in a long tail. A Japanese is
certainly rather ludicrous, in both manners and appearance. His
head half-shaved; the hair which is left accumulated on the crown of
his head; his body wrapped (when travelling) in an enormous covering
of oiled paper, and a large fan in his hand, he presents an
extraordinary figure. These people are very particular concerning
points of etiquette, and have many books written on the proper mode
of taking a draught of water, how to give and receive presents, and
all the other minutiae of behavior."

GRANDY. "The Japanese have curious notions with regard to the life
eternal. They believe that the souls of the virtuous have a place
assigned to them immediately under heaven, while those of the wicked
wander in the air until they expiate their offences."

CHARLES. "I am very glad _that_ is not my creed, for I should not at
all enjoy life with the continual idea of wicked spirits hovering in
the air around me. They might as reasonably believe in ghosts."

MRS. WILTON. "In the Indian and China Seas, and in many other parts
of the great tropical belt, the periodical winds called 'monsoons'
are found. The south-west monsoon prevails from April to October,
between the equator and the tropic of Cancer: and it reaches from
the east coast of Africa to the coasts of India, China, and the
Philippine Islands. Its influence extends sometimes into the Pacific
Ocean, as far as the Marcian Isles, or to longitude about 145 east;
and it reaches as far north as the Japan Islands. The north-east
monsoon prevails from October to May, throughout nearly the same
space, that the south-west monsoon prevails in during the former
season. But the monsoons are subject to great obstructions by land;
and in contracted places, such as Malacca Straits, they are changed
into variable winds. Their limits are not everywhere the same; nor
do they always shift exactly at the same period, but they are
generally calculated upon about the times I have mentioned."

EMMA. "Mamma, are not trade-winds something like monsoons?"

MRS. WILTON. "So far similar that they are confined to a certain
region, and are tolerably regular in their operations. The
trade-winds blow, more or less, from the eastern half of the compass
to the western. Their chief region lies between the tropics from
23-1/2 north to 23-1/2 south latitude, although in some parts of
the world they extend farther; but it is only in the open parts of
the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans that the true trade-winds blow.
These winds shift many degrees of latitude in the course of the
year; but skilful navigators usually know where to catch them, and
make them serviceable in helping to blow their richly laden vessels
'o'er the glad waters of the bright blue sea.'"

GEORGE. "Do you know the cause of these regular winds, papa? You say
learned men try to discover _why_ such things are so, and generally
find out _causes_ from their effects."

MR. WILTON. "Exactly so, my boy; and learned _women_ do the same: as
an instance, I will quote the learned Mrs. Somerville on this very
subject, and give you an excellent reply to your question.

"'The heat of the sun occasions the trade-winds, by rarefying the
air at the equator, which causes the cooler and more dense part of
the atmosphere to rush along the surface of the earth to the
equator, while that which is heated is carried along the higher
strata to the poles, forming two currents in the direction of the
meridian. But the rotatory velocity of the air corresponding to its
geographical situation, decreases towards the poles; in approaching
the equator it must therefore revolve more slowly than the
corresponding parts of the earth, and the bodies of the surface of
the earth must strike against it with the excess of their velocity,
and by its reaction they will meet with a resistance contrary to
their motion of rotation; so that the wind will appear, to a person
supposing himself to be at rest, to blow in a contrary direction to
the earth's rotation, or from east to west, which is the direction
of the trade-winds.'"

GEORGE. "May I read that to-morrow, papa? I do not quite understand
it; and if you have the book, I could read it over and over until I
found out the meaning."

MR. WILTON. "You will find it in Mrs. Somerville's 'Mechanism of the
Heavens.' If you come to my study to-morrow morning before I leave
home, I will assist you in the solution of the difficulties."

MR. BARRAUD. "In an account of Cabul I have read a fine description
of the commencement of a monsoon:--'The approach is announced by
vast masses of clouds that rise from the Indian Ocean, advancing
towards the north-east, gathering and thickening as they approach
the land. After some threatening days, the sky assumes a troubled
appearance in the evening, and the monsoon sets in generally during
the night. It is attended by such a violent thunder-storm as can
scarcely be imagined by those who have only witnessed the phenomenon
in a temperate climate. It generally begins with violent blasts of
wind, which are succeeded by floods of rain. For some hours
lightning is seen without intermission: sometimes it only
illuminates the sky, and shows the clouds near the horizon; at
others, it discovers the distant hills, and again leaves all in
darkness; when, in an instant, it reappears in vivid and successive
flashes, and exhibits the nearest objects in all the brightness of
day. During all this time the distant thunder never ceases to roll,
and is only silenced by some nearer peal, which bursts on the ear
with such a sudden and tremendous crash, as can scarcely fail to
strike the most insensible heart with awe. At length the thunder
ceases, and nothing is heard but the continued pouring of the rain
and the rushing of the rising streams.'"

CHARLES. "I would much rather live in our temperate climate than
between the tropics; for everything connected with the elements is
so outrageously violent, that I should be continually in a state of
alarm, and in constant dread of a hurricane, a tornado, an
earthquake, or some such awful visitation.'"

GRANDY. "Why should you fear, my dear boy? Who, or what, can harm
you if you follow that which is good? Is not the arm of the Lord
mighty to save? and is it not stretched forth all the day long to
defend his own children? Has he not promised to be a stronghold
whereunto the faithful may always resort, and to be a house of
defence for his people? Cast thy fear from thee, Charles; rely on
God's gracious promises, and pray for faith to believe in his

DORA. "The Sea of Ochotsk. This sea is nearly land-locked, being in
this respect, as well as in size and general situation, not unlike
Hudson's Bay. The waters are shallow, not exceeding (about fifty
miles from land) fifty fathoms, and rarely giving, even in the
centre, above four times the depth just mentioned. There are three
gulfs belonging to this sea, the Gulf of Penjinsk, the Gulf of
Gijiginsk, and the Gulf of Tanish; but not many islands of

MR. WILTON. "Although Asia cannot vie with Europe in the advantages
of inland seas, yet, in addition to a share of the Mediterranean, it
possesses the Red Sea and Gulf of Persia, the Bays of Bengal and
Nankin, and other gulfs already mentioned, which diversify the
coasts much more than those of either Africa or America, and have
doubtless contributed greatly to the early civilization of this
celebrated division of the globe. I wish each of you young folks to
describe the following seas as I mention their names. Dora, tell me
all you have learnt respecting the Red Sea."

DORA. "The Red Sea, or Arabian Gulf of antiquity, constitutes the
grand natural division between Asia and Africa; but its advantages
have been chiefly felt by the latter, which is entirely destitute of
inland seas. Egypt and Abyssinia, two of the most civilized
countries in that division, have derived great benefits from that
celebrated sea, which, from the Straits of Babelmandel to Suez,
extends about 21 deg., or 1470 British miles, terminating not in two
equal branches, as delineated in old maps, but in an extensive
western branch; while the eastern ascends little beyond the parallel
of Mount Sinai."

GRANDY. "The Gulf of Suez was the scene of the most stupendous
miracle recorded in Exodus--the Passage of the Israelites,--when God
clave in sunder the waters of the sea, and caused them to rise
perpendicularly, so as to form a wall unto the Israelites, on their
right hand, and on their left. This is not to be read
_figuratively_, but _literally_; for in Exodus xv. 8, it is said
they '_stood as an heap_,' and were '_congealed_,' or suspended, as
though turned into ice:--'And with the blast of thy nostrils, the
waters were gathered together: the floods stood _upright as an
heap_; the _depths_ were _congealed_ in the heart of the sea.'"

MR. WILTON. "Emma, I call upon _you_ for the account of the Persian
Gulf; but you seem so intent on the book before you, that I feel a
little curious to know the subject of your meditations."

EMMA. "You shall hear, papa, although perhaps you may laugh at me
afterwards. I was thinking that it seemed rather absurd for people
who are constantly voyaging to the East Indies to go such an immense
way round Africa, when by cutting a passage through the Isthmus of
Suez they could arrive at the desired haven in half the time. What
is the width of the isthmus, papa? Would such a thing be
practicable, or am I very foolish?"

MR. WILTON. "Not at all, my dear, as I will readily prove. The width
is about seventy-five miles; and there _has_ been a communication
between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. Strabo, the historian,
asserts that a canal was built by Sesostris, king of Egypt; and in
February, 1799, Napoleon, then General of the French Republic,
accompanied by some gentlemen skilled in such matters, proceeded
from Cairo to Suez with the view of discovering the vestiges of this
ancient canal. They were successful: they found traces of it for
several leagues, together with portions of the old great wall of
Sesostris, which guarded the eastern frontiers of Egypt, and
protected the canal from the sands of the desert. It was a short
time since in contemplation to renew this communication by the same
means as those used by Sesostris; viz., by forming a canal for the
advantage of commerce, &c.; which advantage is well explained by Mr.
Edward Clarkson, in an article on Steam Navigation, thus: 'The
distance from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea by the Suez navigable
canal would be from eighty to ninety miles. The time consumed by a
steamboat in this transit might be averaged at five hours. What is
the time now consumed in the transit through Egypt by the voyager
from England to Bombay? and what is the nature of the transit?
Passengers, packages, and letters, after being landed at Alexandria,
are now conveyed by the Mahmoudie Canal forty miles to Atfeh, on the
Nile. This consumes twelve hours, and is performed by a track-boat,
attended by numerous inconveniences. The passengers, goods, and
letters are landed at Atfeh; they are there reshipped, and carried
by steamboat from Atfeh up the Nile to Boulac, a distance of 120
miles. This water transit consumes eighteen hours. At Boulac, which
is the port of Cairo, the passengers, goods, and letters are again
unshipped, and have a land transit of two miles before they arrive
at Cairo. At that capital a stoppage of twelve hours, which is
considered indispensable to travellers, occurs. A fourth transit
then takes place to Suez from Cairo, across the Desert. This is
performed by vans with two and four horses, donkey-chairs (two
donkeys carrying a species of litter between them for ladies and
children,) and is often attended, owing to the scarcity of good
horses, with great inconveniences. The distance of this land transit
is eighty-four miles, and consumes thirty-six hours. The whole
distance by the present line is thus 246 miles; by the projected
line it is 80: the transit by the present line consumes _four days_;
the transit by the proposed line would not consume more than _five

"'Instead of a land, and river, and desert transit, with all the
obstructions and inconveniences of track-boats, native steamers,
donkey-chairs, and vans, shipping and unshipping, there will be no
_land transit_, and the whole passage may be made by sea from London
to Bombay without stoppage. Instead of four days being consumed in
the Egyptian transit, five hours will only be requisite. Moreover,
the 2_l_. 12s. expense caused by the present transit in Egypt, and
charged to each person, will in future be saved by every

MR. BARRAUD. "I propose a vote of thanks to Emma for introducing the
subject, as by so doing we have gained a great deal of information."

MR. WILTON. "There you see, Emma, you are not laughed at, but we all
thank you, for revealing your thoughts. Now to the Persian Gulf, if
you have any particulars."

EMMA. "The Persian Gulf is another noted inland sea, about half the
length of the Red Sea, and is the grand receptacle of those
celebrated rivers, the Euphrates and the Tigris. The small bays
within this gulf are Katiff Bay, Assilla Bay, Erzoog Bay. There are
various islands and large pearl banks here; and on the Euphrates,
not many miles from these shores, stands Chaldaea. The inhabitants
are the Beni Khaled Arabs, descendants of the founders of the 'Great

GEORGE. "Oh, papa, I have a discovery: here is an island nobody has
noticed--its name is Dahalac."

MRS. WILTON. "That was certainly an omission, for Dahalac is a large
island, sixty miles in circumference. It contains goats which have
long silky hair, and furnishes gum-lac, the produce of a particular
kind of shrub. To this island vessels repair for fresh water, which,
however, is very bad, being kept in 370 dirty cisterns!"

MR. BARRAUD. "This district is especially interesting to Christians,
for here are situated the mounts celebrated in Scripture. In the
centre of Armenia you may observe Mount Ararat, a detached elevation
with two summits; the highest covered with perpetual snow. On this
mountain rested the Ark, when God sent his vengeance over all the
earth, and destroyed every living thing. Mount Lebanon is in Syria;
and not far distant stands Mount Sinai, an enormous mass of granite
rocks, with a Greek convent at its base, called the convent of St.
Catharine: here was the law delivered to Moses, inscribed on two
tables of stone by the Most High God."

MR. WILTON. "The whole coast of Oman, in South Arabia, which on the
north is washed by the waters of the Persian Gulf, and on the south
by the Sea of Oman, abounds with fish; and, as the natives have but
few canoes, they generally substitute a single inflated skin, or
sometimes two, across which they place a flat board. On this
contrivance the fisherman seats himself, and either casts his small
hand-net, or plays his hook and line. Some capital sport must arise
occasionally, when the sharks, which are here very numerous and
large, gorge the bait; for, whenever this occurs, unless the angler
cuts his line, (and that, as the shark is more valued by them than
any other fish, he is often unwilling to do,) nothing can prevent
his rude machine from following their track; and the fisherman is
sometimes, in consequence, carried out a great distance to sea. It
requires considerable dexterity to secure these monsters; for when
they are hauled up near to the skins, they struggle a good deal, and
if they happen to jerk the fisherman from his seat, the infuriate
monster dashes at once at him. Many accidents arise in this manner;
but if they succeed in getting him quickly alongside, they soon
despatch him by a few blows on the snout."[7]

[Footnote 7: Vide Lieutenant Wellsted's Travels in Arabia.]

MRS. WILTON. "There are many little circumstances of interest
connected with the Persian Gulf. In several parts fresh springs rise
in the middle of the salt water, particularly near the Islands of
Baharein. The whole shore of this gulf is lined with islands; and
_on_ its shores are several independent Arabs, who almost all live
in the same manner. They subsist by maritime trade, and by the peril
and other fisheries. Their food consists of dates, fish, and dhoura
bread. Their arms are muskets, with matchlocks, sabres, and
bucklers. These tribes, among whom the Houles are the most powerful,
all speak the Arabic language, and are enemies to the Persians, with
whom they form no alliances. Their houses are so wretched, that an
enemy would think it lost labor to destroy them. As they generally
have but little to lose on land, if a Persian army approaches, all
the inhabitants of the towns and villages go on board their little
vessels, and take refuge in some island in the Persian Gulf until
the enemy retires."

EMMA. "Where are the Baharein Isles, mamma?"

MRS. WILTON. "Near the Arabian shore. They are remarkable for the
pearl fishery, which is carried on in their neighborhood during the
months of June, July, and August; a fishery which, in the sixteenth
century, was estimated at 500,000 ducats.[8] The name Baharein
signifies two seas."

[Footnote 8: A ducat is of the value of nine shillings and
threepence sterling.]

MR. WILTON. "Well, Charles; what can you tell us about the little
Sea of Aral?"

CHARLES. "Not much I am afraid, sir. The Sea of Aral, or Eagles, is
situated about 100 miles east of the Caspian, and is nearly 200
miles in length and 70 in breadth; it is surrounded with sandy
deserts, and has been little explored; its waters are not so salt as
the Caspian, but there are many small saline lakes in its vicinity.
There is a remarkable detached sea in Siberia, or Asiatic Russia,
which we have not noticed, called Baikal Sea; it extends from the
51 deg. to the 55 deg. of north latitude. This sea is 350 miles in length
and only 50 in breadth. The water is fresh and transparent, yet of a
green or sea tinge, commonly frozen in the latter end of December,
and clear of ice in May. At particular periods it is subject to
violent and unaccountable storms, whence, as terror is the parent of
superstition, probably springs the Russian name of Svetoie More, or
the Holy Sea. There are many seals here, and abundance of fish,
particularly a kind of herring called omuli."

MR. WILTON. "Very good, Charles. Now, my son, try your best memory
on the Eastern Sea."

GEORGE. "I am glad you have given me that sea to describe, for I
have been much amused with the curious names of the islands printed
on the map in these waters. A little group not far from 'Tchusan' is
called 'the Bear and Cubs;' another 'Lowang,' or 'Buffalo's Nose;'
another 'Chutta-than,' or 'Shovel-nosed Shark.' Near the Japan Isles
there is a little cluster called 'Asses' Ears.' This sea is called
by the Chinese Tong-hai; and in it are the large islands Formosa and
Loo-choo; but I know nothing of them."

MRS. WILTON. "I will aid you there, George, because you have done
well to remember all those difficult names. Formosa is a fine
fertile island, belonging to the Chinese, where oxen are used for
equestrian purposes for want of horses or asses. The Loo-choo
Islands constitute a little civilized kingdom, tributary to China.
There are thirty-six of them. The capital is Kinching. These isles
were discovered by the Chinese many hundred years ago. Their
products are sulphur, copper, tin, shells, and mother-of-pearl. The
inhabitants vie with the Japanese in the manufacture of lacquered
ware. Loo-choo itself is one of the most delightful places in the
world, with a temperate climate and great fertility. All animal
creation here is of a diminutive size, but all excellent in their
kind. The people are amiable and virtuous, though, unhappily,
worshippers of Confucius."

MR. WILTON. "The China Sea falls to Dora's share: are you prepared,
my dear?"

DORA. "I think so, sir. It lies south-west of China, and connected
with it are the Gulfs of Siam and Tonquin. In the former are the
Islands Hastings and Tantalem: the latter washes the coast of Cochin
China; a coast that suffers more from the encroachment of the sea
than any other known: in five years the sea gained 190 feet from
east to west. The low country is exposed to an uncomfortable degree
of heat during part of the year, and the rains are so plentiful,
that boats are navigable over the fields and hedges, and the
children go out in small barks to fish for the mice which cling to
the branches of the trees."

EMMA. "Poor little mice! I dare say they would rather be playthings
for children than be drowned."

CHARLES. "They need no fishing-tackle for their sport; I suppose
they catch them in their hands. Do you know, Dora?"

DORA. "I believe they do.--Now what comes next? Oh! Hainan. It lies
in the China Sea; its capital is Kiang-tchou. In the southern part
this island is mountainous, but towards the north it is more level,
and productive of rice; in the centre there are mines of gold; and
on the shores are found small blue fish, which the Chinese value
more than we do those known as gold and silver fish. The blue fish
will not survive long after they are caught, and two days'
confinement to a glass bowl suffices to end their lives."

MR. BARRAUD. "The Gulf of Tonquin and the adjacent seas are
remarkable for dreadful whirlwinds, called 'typhons.' After calm
weather they are announced by a small black cloud in the north-east
part of the horizon, which gradually brightens until it becomes
white and brilliant. This alarming appearance often precedes the
hurricane twelve hours."

CHARLES. "Pray what is the cause of this dreadful 'typhon?'"

MR. BARRAUD. "They seem to arise from the mutual opposition of the
north-wind coming down from the mountains of the continent and the
south-wind proceeding from the ocean. Nothing can exceed their fury.
They are accompanied by dreadful thunder, lightning, and heavy rain.
After five or six hours a calm succeeds; but the hurricane soon
returns in the opposite direction with additional fury, and
continues for an equal interval."

GEORGE. "Papa, there are seas of all colors, for I have actually
found a Blue Sea. Here it is, between Loo-choo and China. What droll
people the Chinese are! they have such odd names for their places."

MR. WILTON. "Yes; they call China Tchou-Koo, or the 'Centre of the
World;' for in their overweening pride, they consider other
countries as mere strips surrounding their territory; and their
names and titles are very grand. At a distance of six hundred paces
from the shore of the 'Yang-tse-Kiang' is the wonderful Island of
Chin-shan, or 'Golden Mountain.' This island is covered with
gardens and pleasure-houses. Art and nature have united their
efforts to give it the most enchanting aspect. It is in the fields
of this isle that the shrub grows producing the cotton of which the
article known by the name of Nankeen is made. The fibre is not white
like other cotton, but of a delicate orange color, which it
preserves after it is spun and woven."

MR. BARRAUD. "There are many noble lakes in China, particularly in
the province of Howquang, which name signifies 'Country of Lakes;'
and I remember reading of a traveller who often observed on one near
the Imperial Canal, thousands of small boats and rafts, constructed
for a singular species of fishery. 'On each boat or raft are ten or
a dozen birds, which, at a signal from the owner, plunge into the
water; and it is astonishing to see the enormous size of the fish
with which they return grasped within their bills.' They appeared to
be so well trained, that it did not require either ring or cord
about their throats to prevent them from swallowing any portion of
their prey, except what the master was pleased to return to them for
encouragement and food. The boat used by these fishermen is of a
remarkably light make, and is often carried to the lake, together
with the fishing-birds, by the fishermen themselves."

CHARLES. "What preposterous things people do in other countries! How
strange to train birds to catch fish!"

"Why, Charles, we have fishing-birds in England," exclaimed George.
"The only difference between them is, that _our_ birds fish for
themselves, while the Chinese birds fish for their masters. I have
often seen the kingfishers pounce upon their prey, and I have heard
of herons and storks living on fish caught by themselves."

MR. WILTON. "Quite true, George; and this proves that many
'traveller's wonders' cease to be wonderful when we examine into the
circumstances and particulars, or compare their relations with the
commonplace occurrences of everyday life. Now for the Bay of Bengal,
which contains the fine islands of Andaman, Nicobar, and Ceylon; for
the particulars of these islands I beg to refer the members to Mrs.

MRS. WILTON. "We will describe them according to their merits; and
by so doing, the last will be first. Ceylon is considered the finest
and richest island in the world: we read that the stones are rubies
and sapphires, that amonium scents the marshes, and cinnamon the
forests, and that the most common plants furnish precious perfumes.
Its length is about 250 miles, its breadth 150. Its principal
productions are gold, silver, and other metals; excellent fruits of
all kinds; delicious spices; ivory, cotton, silk, musk, and many
varieties of precious stones. The chief town is Candy, situated on a
mountain in the middle of the island. Trincomale and Columbo are its
other great towns. I forgot to tell you that elephants of the most
handsome and valuable kind run here in herds, as the wild boars do
in the forests of Europe; while the brilliant peacock and bird of
paradise occupy the places of our rooks and swallows.

"The Andainans--The inhabitants are probably cannibals; their
antipathy to strangers is singularly strong. They possess all the
characteristics of the negro, but scarcely know how to build a boat,
or manage a rope; however, they have acquired a little more
civilization since the foundation of an English establishment on the
Great Andaman, for the reception of criminals sent from Bengal.

"The Nicobar Isles are inhabited by a harmless inoffensive race of
people; and here, as also in Andaman, are found the edible
bird's-nests so much esteemed in China."

MR. BARRAUD. "These nests form an extensive article of commerce:
they are built by a little bird called the Jaimalani, black as jet,
and very much like a martin, but considerably smaller. The nests are
made of a slimy gelatinous substance found on the shore, of the
sea-weed called _agal-agal_, and of a soft, greenish, sizy matter,
often seen on rocks in the shade, when the water oozes from above.
The best are found in damp caves, very difficult of access. They are
sold at a high price, and considered a great luxury, consequently
only consumed by the great people of China, chiefly by the emperor
and his court."

MR. WILTON. "George looks as if he did not relish the idea of
feasting on bird's-nests. I believe the Chinese monopolize these
delicacies entirely, and they are quite welcome so to do, as they
are not esteemed elsewhere: so do not look so scornful George; the
inhabitants of the celestial empire would not offer _you_ a
bird's-nest for your supper if you paid them a visit. They cost, I
have heard, their weight in silver! Emma, can you tell me in what
sea to look for the Maldives?"

EMMA. "Yes, dear papa, Maldives and Laccadives are both in the
Arabian Sea. The first are small islands, or rocks, just above the
water. The Dutch trade with the natives for cowries, little shells
used as money on some parts of the coasts of Africa and India. Ships
from India sometimes resort thither to procure sharks' fins for
those epicures the Chinese, who consider them an excellent seasoning
for soup.

"The Laccadives are about five degrees further north, and are in
themselves larger islands, but not so numerous as the Maldives.
Bombay, which is the central point of communication between India
and Europe, is on the Arabian Sea. Have we not devoted sufficient
time to Asia, mamma?"

MRS. WILTON. "I scarcely think so, my dear; we could find subjects
for conversation which would profitably occupy the hours of many
meetings in this delightful quarter of the world. Remember here were
our first parents placed, when in innocence and happiness they were
created by Almighty God; here in the Garden of Eden they dwelt
enjoying the light of His countenance; here they fell in guilt and
misery, and were banished from the presence of their offended God;
here was the prophecy fulfilled, for here was born our Blessed
Saviour. By Him was the great and wondrous work of redemption
accomplished; He offered Himself a sacrifice for the sins of the
whole world; He gave us the Everlasting Gospel, and He has become
our mediator with God: by Him we gain access to the Father; by His
blood only can we be cleansed; by His merits only can we hope for
salvation; and only through His Grace assisting us can we perform
that which is right and well-pleasing in the eyes of our Heavenly
Father: then believing in Him, trusting in Him, rejoicing in Him,
Christ will be our All in all _here_, and All in all _hereafter_.
There are many lakes and small inland seas in Asia, memorable as
having been the scene of our Blessed Saviour's labors, trials, and
triumphs. Not the most insignificant on the list is the lake of
Genesareth, sometimes called the Sea of Galilee, or Sea of Tiberias;
for near here is situated Nazareth, the great city of Jesus Christ.
About six miles to the south stands the hill of Tabor, which a
venerable tradition assigns as the scene of Christ's
transfiguration; and on the south-west side of the Gulf of St. Jean
d'Acre is Mount Carmel, where, we are told, the prophet Elijah
proved his divine mission by the performance of many miracles.
Thousands of Christians once lived in caves of the rocks around this
mountain, which then was covered with chapels and gardens: at the
present day naught but scattered ruins remain to prove the truth of
these statements."

MR. WILTON. "A most extraordinary fact relating to this sea is, that
its waters are 300 feet below the level of the Mediterranean: and
this reminds me of the Dead Sea, situated in Palestine, which
covers from 450 to 500 square miles; for its waters are no less than
1300 feet below the Mediterranean. We are told by many who have
visited this sea, that neither fish nor shells are to be found in
it, and that its shores, frightfully barren, are never cheered by
the note of any bird. The inhabitants in its vicinity, however, are
not sensible of any noxious quality in its vapor; and the accounts
of birds falling down dead in attempting to fly over it are entirely
fabulous. The water is exceedingly nauseous, and the effluvia
arising from it unwholesome, but so buoyant, that gentlemen, who
have made the attempt from curiosity, have found it impossible to
sink. An Irishman, named Cortigan, some fifteen years ago, conveyed
a boat to the waters of the Dead Sea, and, aided by an old Maltese
sailor, rowed nearly all round. He was a week exploring, and
imagined he had made great discoveries; but no one knew what they
were, for on the eighth day he became seriously ill. He was carried
to the shore by his companion, and expired soon after in the hut of
a Bedouin Arab. We are led to believe that in this place stood the
famous cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, destroyed by the wrath of God,
and utterly buried beneath this bituminous lake."

GRANDY. "We have gone through our toils this evening with no
personal inconvenience; but that is owing to our travels being of
the mind instead of the body: for what man journeying through Arabia
but has felt the annoyances of heat, the pangs of thirst and
unutterable anguish from the horrors of a lingering death? That we
stay-at-home travellers may justly appreciate the blessings of home,
I will give you an instance of the sufferings of those who are
compelled to wander.

#The Slave Merchant.#

"The caravans which carry goods from Bagdat to Aleppo usually pass
by Anah. They pay tribute to the Arabs, who reckon themselves Lords
of the Desert, even to the east of Euphrates. They have to encounter
the dangers of the suffocating winds, the swarms of locusts, and the
failure of water, as soon as they depart from the line of the river.
A French traveller[9] tells us he witnessed one of the most
appalling scenes of this kind between Anah and Taibu. The locusts,
having devoured everything, perished in countless heaps, poisoning
with their dead bodies the ponds which usually afforded water when
no springs were near.

[Footnote 9: Maltebrun.]

"This traveller saw a Turk running down from a hillock, with despair
in his looks. 'I am,' cried he, 'the most ill-fated man in the
world. I have purchased, at an enormous rate, 200 young women, the
finest of Greece and Georgia. I brought them up with great care, and
now, when arrived at the age of marriage, I have come with them on
my way to Bagdat, thinking to dispose of them to advantage. Alas!
they are all now dying of thirst in this desert.' The traveller,
going round the hillock, beheld a sight of horror. In the midst of
twelve eunuchs and about a hundred camels, he saw all these girls,
from twelve to fifteen years old, stretched on the ground in the
agonies of a burning thirst and inevitable death. Some had already
been buried; a larger number had fallen down by the side of their
keepers, who had not sufficient strength left to bury them. On every
hand were heard the sobs of the dying; and the cries of those in
whom enough of life still remained, begging for a drop of water. The
traveller hastened to open his flask, in which a little water was
left, and was now offering it to one of these poor victims. 'You
fool!' exclaims his Arabian conductor, 'would you have _us_ also to
perish for want of water?' and with his arrow he laid the girl dead
at his feet; laid hold of the bottle, and threatened the life of any
one who dared to touch it. He advised the Turkish merchant to go on
to Taibu, where he would find water. 'No,' said the Turk, 'at Taibu
the robbers would carry off all my slaves.' The Arab forced the
traveller to accompany him. At the moment of their departure, these
unfortunates, losing the last ray of hope, uttered a piercing
shriek: the Arab was affected, he took one of the girls, poured some
drops of water on her burning lips, and placed her on his camel,
intending her as a present for his wife. The poor girl fainted
repeatedly on passing the dead bodies of her companions. The small
stock of water of the travellers was soon exhausted, when they
discovered a well of fresh clear water. Here, disconcerted by the
depth of the well, and the shortness of their rope, they tore their
clothes into strips, which they tied together, and, with this frail
cordage, contrived to take up the water in small quantities,
dreading the loss of their bucket, and the disappointment of their
hopes. Through such perils and anxieties, they at last found their
way to Syria."

MRS. WILTON. "With this we will conclude the evening's business; and
as we have been so much in the East, I have prepared a little
present for each of you, in the form of a Chinese Puzzle; and
whenever you exercise your patience on them (and I assure you they
will require it, for they are most ingenious) you will think of our
travels, and of the many little facts you learnt while visiting the
lands of other nations. Also, I wish you to endeavor to gain
knowledge, not merely for ornament and reputation, but because your
mind is a rich storehouse, by means of which you may glorify God,
and do much for the happiness of your fellow-creatures."

Mrs. Wilton then produced a beautiful Japan box, and, opening it,
displayed to the admiring gaze of the young party a number of
curious contrivances to tease and tire impatient folks, exquisitely
cut in ivory, and mother-of-pearl, and light woods. Each puzzle was
ticketed; and, highly delighted, they all sat down to partake of the
good things spread on the table, determined to vie with each other
in trials of skill and perseverance on their curious little toys. We
wish them success, and "Good night."


  There was an old and quiet man,
  And by thy fire sat he:
  "And now," he said, "to you I'll tell
  A dismal thing which once befel
  To a ship upon the sea."

"Oh, mamma, dear mamma," exclaimed Emma, bursting into the parlor
where Mrs. Wilton was sitting at work, "everything goes wrong
to-day. Look here, the postman has brought a note from Dora Leslie:
she has been to a party, caught a cold, and is obliged to remain in
the house for I know not how long. What can we do without her? I am
sure _my_ portion will not be ready; for, in the first place, I know
not how to begin with America: the number of seas, gulfs, and bays
quite puzzles me, and I have felt so miserable all day, because I
have no notes prepared for the meeting."

Mrs. Wilton continued her sewing while Emma thus gave vent to her
feelings; then quietly taking her hand, "My dear little girl," said
she, "sit down by me and listen.

"Many years ago there dwelt in a little cot on a hill's side an aged
matron and her grandchild; they were alone, but not lonely, for they
were happy in each other's society; their wants were few, and their
gratitude unbounded. There were no neighbors near them,--no gossips
to drop in upon them, and fritter away the precious moments. They
subsisted on the produce of their garden, and labored for their
daily bread in gladness of heart.

"Every morn, almost with the sun, Eva arose, fed the chickens that
fluttered around her, and went through her business merrily,--richly
rewarded by the approving smile of her aged parent, when she blessed
her darling before retiring to rest.

"But 'man is born to trouble, as the sparks fly upward,' and this
happy pair were not exempt from the curse. One night, the wind blew,
the rain fell in torrents, thunder and lightning rent the skies,
and, in fear and trembling, the aged woman and her fair grandchild
wept and prayed, until the glorious sun rose above the horizon, and
proclaimed the advent of another day. Then Eva stepped to the
cottage door, and gazed in speechless agony on the devastation
wrought by the fury of the elements in one single night. The
beautiful path, lately so trim and neat, which led to her garden,
was blocked up with stones borne from the mountain's side by the
violence of the torrent. Her vines were crushed and drooping; and
even the poor birds came not to her side, but remained crowded
together in a corner under the shade of the cottage roof.

"'Alas! alas!' cried she, 'where is the pretty path I used to
tread,--where are my flowers, my shrubs,--where all my joys and
happiness? Gone! gone! and left desolation and misery in their
stead. I cannot repair this damage, I shall no longer have pleasure
in my work, for _one_ storm has undone the toil of months; and now
our cottage must stand in a wilderness, our garden must be overgrown
with weeds, and my chickens must die of starvation!' then, wringing
her hands, she sank on the earth and wept.

"How long she wept I know not, but she was aroused by a gentle
pressure on her shoulder; and, raising her eyes, she beheld a
beautiful female, whose cheerful, good-natured countenance put to
shame the tears of despair which bedewed the cheeks of the fair Eva.

"'Why weepest thou?' said she; 'why not be up and doing? What _has_
been done, can in like manner be again effected. Arise, and follow

"'But I am alone,' remonstrated the weeping girl; 'and without
assistance am unable to repair these ravages.'

"'I will assist thee,' replied her beauteous visitor; 'fear not,
together we will accomplish much.' So saying, she led forth the
gentle girl, and in a few hours their voices might be heard in one
united stream of flowing harmony, filling the air with delicious
sounds, and the heart of the aged woman with rapture.

"For many days, Eva worked in company with her angelic friend,
until, at length, Desolation acknowledged her power, and
disappeared. Her garden was restored to its pristine beauty,--the
path was cleared.--her favorites flocked around her; and again
kneeling in thankfulness at her grandmother's feet, she read her
evening lesson, and praised Almighty God, who in love and mercy sent
'Peace on earth, Goodwill toward all men.' Now, my child, who
thinkest thou was Eva's helpmate?"

"I know not, dear mamma, unless it were Perseverance."

"No, my dear," replied Mrs. Wilton; "Perseverance might have
hindered instead of assisting her; she might have persevered in her
resolution to await the total destruction of her little property.
No, her heavenly companion was 'Goodwill.' Entreat her aid, Emma,
set about your task with renewed energy, and certain I am that you
will be successful."

Emma Wilton appreciated her mamma's kindness, and the result of her
labors will be seen in the following pages.

"I see one of our number missing," said Mr. Wilton, as he opened the
large Atlas. "What has become of Dora Leslie?"

"She is slightly indisposed, my dear," replied Mrs. Wilton; "but
Emma will be her substitute."

"What an industrious little girl!" exclaimed her papa; "and you are
really going to supply the meeting with information sufficient to
prevent us from feeling the loss of your friend. You are resolved we
shall not be becalmed, eh?"

"Ah! papa, you know not what has happened. I have been nearly
becalmed, but, in a lucky moment, mamma sent a gentle breeze which
filled my sails, and carried me gaily on my course, or I fear I
should have been ill prepared to supply the deficiencies to-night.
If the members approve the following plan, we will act upon it. I
propose, that we start from England, cross the North Atlantic Ocean,
enter Baffin's Bay by Davis's Straits, and following the coast, work
our way round to the other waters in America."

MR. WILTON. "I see not the slightest objection to the plan; and we
will call at all the islands which lie in our way, beginning with
Madeira. This name is a corruption of Madera[10], so called by its
first discoverers on account of the uncommon luxuriance of its
foliage. It is an exquisitely beautiful island, with every variety
of climate in various parts: the soil is volcanic, though there has
been no eruption within the memory of man. Madeira belongs to the
Portuguese, and lies north of the Canaries. Madeira is about sixty
miles long, and forty broad: its chief town is Funchal.

[Footnote 10: Madera signifies wooded.]

"The Canary Isles, formerly called Fortunate Isles, belong to Spain.
The three largest are Grand Canary, Teneriffe, and Ferro. These
islands are famous for wine, and those pretty little singing birds
called Canaries.

"Teneriffe, the second in size, is remarkable for a volcanic
mountain, called the Peak."

CHARLES. "Are we not going out of our way, sir, to look at these
islands? Baffin's Bay is much more to the north."

MR. WILTON. "You are right, Charles; but on voyages of discovery we
are permitted to wander hither and thither at will, so long as it be
for the advantage of all parties."

GEORGE. "But ships of war, papa, may not go out of the way: they are
obliged to be very orderly, are they not?"

MR. WILTON. "So long as the winds will allow them, they keep on
their course together, but adverse winds will send them far asunder
at times, as in the case of the destruction of the Spanish Armada
'He blew with His winds, and they were scattered,' was the motto
inscribed on the medal Queen Elizabeth caused to be struck in
commemoration of that great victory."

MR. BARRAUD. "England can never forget the destruction of the
Spanish Armada, for it was the immediate cause of the acquisition of
so many colonies to England. The signal success which attended Sir
Francis Drake and others, induced them again to sally forth with
sanguine hopes of extending the kingdom of their sovereign. This was
providential; at least, that is my view of it: all this was wisely
arranged that England might, by obtaining dependencies, strive to
enlighten, moralize, and spiritualize the people who acknowledged
the same temporal sovereign with herself, that in due time they
might also acknowledge the same spiritual sovereign."

GEORGE. "I should like to go on board a man-of-war, and see all the
arrangements; because so many men on board one ship must need close
packing, I should think."

MR. WILTON. "You shall be gratified, my boy. Put on your coat and
hat: we will go on board one of Her Majesty's ships before the
gentlemen have dined."

EMMA. "Papa is only joking, George; you may sit still. I can guess
what you are going to say, papa. 'Is not our voyage imaginary, and
should we not be consistent?' Am I right?"

MR. WILTON. "Very nearly, my dear. You are very sharp to-night: the
extra duty has quickened your discernment."

CHARLES. "I enjoy this imaginary travelling very much; but I must
confess, if everything connected with it is to be consistent, I
shall not be at all satisfied with my supper."

"No! no!" exclaimed the other children; "supper is to be real,
because we get really hungry."

"But, papa," added George, "can you tell me any of the ways of a

MR. WILTON. "Yes, my dear. I will fulfil my promise, and initiate
you in some of the mysteries which are enacted at dinner-time on
board of one of these wonderful vessels. As the hour of noon
approaches, the cooks of the messes may be seen coming up the fore
and main hatchways with their mess-kids in their hands, the hoops of
which are kept as bright as silver, and the woodwork as neat and as
clean as the pail of the most tidy dairymaid. The grog also is now
mixed in a large tub, under the half-deck, by the quarter-masters of
the watch below, assisted by other leading and responsible men
among the ship's company, closely superintended, of course, by the
mate of the hold, to see that no liquor is abstracted, and also by
the purser's steward, who regulates the exact quantity of spirits
and of water to be measured out. The seamen, whose next turn it is
to take the wheel, or heave the lead, or who have to mount the
mast-head to look out, as well as the marines who are to be planted
as sentries at noon, are allowed to take both their dinner and their
grog beforehand. These persons are called 'seven-bell-men,' from the
hour at which they have their allowance served to them.

"Long before twelve o'clock all these and various other minor
preparations have been so completely made, that there is generally a
remarkable stillness over the whole ship just before the important
moment of noon arrives. The boatswain stands near the break of the
forecastle, with his bright silver call or whistle in his hand,
which ever and anon he places just at the tip of his lips to blow
out any crumbs which threaten to interfere with its melody, or to
give a faint' too-weet, too-weet,' as a preparatory note to fix the
attention of the boatswain's mates, who being, like their chief,
provided with calls, station themselves at intervals along the
main-deck, ready to give due accompaniment to their leader's tune.

"The boatswain keeps his eye on the group of observers, and well
knows when the 'sun is up' by the stir which takes place amongst the
astronomers; or by noticing the master working out his latitude
with a pencil on the ebony bar of his quadrant or on the edge of the
hammock railing,--though, if he be one of your modern, neat-handed
navigators, he carries his look-book for this purpose. In one way or
other the latitude is computed as soon as the master is satisfied
the sun has reached his highest altitude in the heavens. He then
walks aft to the officer of the watch, and reports twelve o'clock,
communicating also the degrees and minutes of the latitude observed.
The lieutenant proceeds to the captain wherever he may be, and
reports that it is twelve and that so-and-so is the latitude. The
same formal round of reports is gone through, even if the captain be
on deck and has heard every word spoken by the master, or even if he
have himself assisted in making the observation.

"The captain now says to the officer of the watch, 'Make it twelve!'
The officer calls out to the mate of the watch, 'Make it twelve!'
The mate, ready primed, sings out to the quarter-master, 'Strike
eight bells.'

"And lastly, the hard-a-weather old quarter-master, stepping down
the ladder, grunts out to the sentry at the cabin door, 'Turn the
glass, and strike the bell!'

"By this time the boatswain's call has been in his mouth for several
minutes, his elbow in the air, and his finger on the stop, ready to
send forth the glad tidings of a hearty meal. Not less ready, or
less eager, are the groups of listeners seated at their snow-white
deal tables below, or the crowd surrounding the coppers, with their
mess-kids acting the part of drums to their impatient knuckles. At
the first stroke of the bell, which, at this particular hour, is
always sounded with peculiar vivacity, the officer of the watch
exclaims to the boatswain, 'Pipe to dinner!'

"These words, followed by a glorious burst of shrill sounds, 'long
drawn out,' are hailed with a murmur of delight by many a hungry tar
and many a jolly marine. The merry notes are nearly drowned the next
instant in the rattle of tubs and kettles, the voices of the ship's
cook and his mates bawling out the numbers of the messes, as well as
by the sound of feet tramping along the decks and down the ladders
with the steaming ample store of provisions, such as set up and
brace the seaman's frame, and give it vigor for any amount of
physical action.

"Then comes the 'joyous grog!' that nautical nectar, so dear to the
lips of every true-hearted sailor, with which he washes down Her
Majesty's junk, as he roughly but good-humoredly styles the
government allowance of beef; and while he quaffs off his portion,
or his whack, as he calls it, he envies no man alive, and laughs to
scorn those party philanthropists who describe his life as one of
unhappy servitude. The real truth is, there is no set of men in the
world, in their condition of life, who are better taken care of than
the sailors and marines of the navy, or who, upon the whole, are
more content and happy. There, George, what think you of all that?"

GEORGE. "Why, that they must be a merry set of fellows, and I should
like to be a 'Middy' amongst them."

EMMA. "Oh! George, do not wish to be a sailor: remember Frederic
Hamilton.--The next islands we come in sight of are Cape Yerd
Islands near Africa. They were discovered in 1446 by the Portuguese,
their present proprietors; they are remarkably fertile. St. Jago is
the largest, and is the residence of the Portuguese viceroy."

CHARLES. "May we now steer north, and call at the Azores or Western
Isles? We shall then be half-way between Europe and America."

MR. WILTON. "We shall be very willing to accompany you, if you will
entertain us when there."

CHARLES. "That might be done at a moderate expense, for they are
delightful islands, with a fine climate, a spacious harbor, good
anchorage, and all essentials,--but they are subject to earthquakes;
therefore it is not advisable to prolong our visit One remarkable
circumstance I had almost forgotten is, that no noxious animal can
exist, or is ever to be found on these islands."

MRS. WILTON. "The Azores are also called the Land of Falcons,
because when discovered there were so many of these birds found tame
on the islands. They are 800 miles from the shores of Portugal, and
belong to that kingdom. Nature appears everywhere smiling; the
plains wave with golden harvests, delicious fruits adorn the sides
of the hills, and the towering summits are covered with evergreens.
But, as Charles observes, they are volcanic; and many new islands
have been raised from the bottom of the sea by volcanic action. In
the year 1720 one of these phenomena took place, on approaching
which next day an English captain observes:--'We made an island of
fire and smoke. The ashes fell on our deck like hail and snow, the
fire and smoke roared like thunder.' The inhabitants of the Azores
are an innocent, honest race, who prefer peace to conquest, and
distinction in industry rather than in arms."

EMMA. "My course is now tolerably plain; but while we are so near
Newfoundland, we may as well look in upon the people. This large
island shuts up the northern entrance into the Gulf of St. Lawrence;
is for the most part barren and unfruitful, and covered with
perpetual fogs."

MR. BARRAUD. "These fogs are, no doubt, produced by the currents
that flow from the Antilles, and remain for a time between the great
bank and the coast before they escape into the Atlantic Ocean."

CHARLES. "Sir, I do not understand how the currents can cause a

MR. BARRAUD. "It is because these streams, coming from tropical
regions, are warmer than the water surrounding the banks of
Newfoundland, and necessarily warmer than the atmosphere,
consequently they cause a vapor to arise which obscures the island
with a moist and dense air. Newfoundland was for a long time
considered the inhospitable residence of fishermen; but of late it
has doubled its population and industry, and the activity of the
British nation has added another fine colony to the civilized

MRS. WILTON. "Newfoundland is the nearest to Great Britain of any of
our North American possessions. It is rather larger than England and
Wales. Its chief town is St. John's. It was discovered in 1497 by
John Cabot. The fisheries here are the chief wealth of the island,
and consist principally of codfish, herrings, and salmon. The great
Bank of Newfoundland, which appears to be a solid rock, is 600 miles
long, and in some places 200 broad."

CHARLES. "Newfoundland is famous for dogs; but I find the most
numerous there are not like those we call Newfoundland dogs, which
are large handsome animals, for _they_ are comparatively rare. The
most abundant are creatures with lank bodies, thin legs and tail,
and a thin tapering snout. They are very intelligent though, and
would beat the Chinese birds in catching fish; for Mr. Jukes, a
gentleman who has been to Newfoundland, says of one of these
dogs:--'He sat on a projecting rock beneath a fish-flake, or stage,
where the fish are laid to dry, watching the water, which had a
depth of six or eight feet, and the bottom of which was white with
fish-bones. On throwing a piece of cod-fish into the water, three or
four heavy, clumsy-looking fish, called in Newfoundland "sculpins,"
with great heads and mouths, and many spines about them, generally
about a foot long, would swim in to catch it. These he would watch
attentively, and the moment one turned his broadside to him, he
darted down like a fish-hawk, and seldom came up without the fish in
his mouth. As he caught them, he carried them regularly to a place a
few yards off, where he laid them down; and his owner told us that
in the summer he would sometimes make a pile of fifty or sixty a
day, just at that place. He never attempted to eat them, but seemed
to be fishing purely for his own amusement. I watched him for about
two hours; and when the fish did not come, I observed he once or
twice put his right foot in the water, and paddled it about. This
foot was white, and my friend said he did it to "toll" or entice the
fish.' Cunning dog was he not, George?"

GEORGE. "Yes; he would make his master's fortune if the fish he
caught were worth selling."

EMMA. "To get into Baffin's Bay, we must go through Davis's Straits,
so called from their discoverer, John Davis, who sailed through them
in 1585; and following the coast on the north side, we shall pass
South-east Bay and Coburg Bay. In 1818 Captain Ross completed the
circumnavigation of this oblong bay. The middle of it seems
everywhere occupied with impenetrable ice, between which and the
land is the only passage for ships."

MRS. WILTON. "That portion of the bay you have just described washes
the shores of Greenland and the Arctic Regions. Greenland is
considered as a peninsula attached to America, wretchedly barren,
for no trees grow there. But God, who made man of the dust, also
promised to supply his wants, and most wonderfully is this
exemplified with regard to Greenland. To provide the inhabitants
with the means of warming and nourishing their bodies, God causes
the sea to drive vast quantities of wood from distant shores, and
with thankfulness the poor Greenlanders regularly gather these
providential supplies from their own coasts. Some parts of Greenland
are nothing more than huge masses of rocks, intermingled with
immense blocks of ice, thus forming at once the image of chaos and

GEORGE. "Is it not near Greenland the ships go to catch whales?"

MR. BARRAUD. "Yes; and, as you have mentioned the subject, we may as
well stop and inquire into the particulars of this fishing."

GEORGE. "I remember reading that there are three sorts of
whales--the finback, the right whale, and the sperm whale; but I
should like to hear how they are caught."

MR. BARRAUD. "A man is stationed at the mast-head to look out, and
as soon as he perceives a whale, he shouts, 'There she blows!'
Immediately all hands are on the move to prepare the boats: this
takes but a short time, and the chase commences. I will now give you
an American account of such a chase.

"'The moment of intense excitement now arrived. We pulled as if for
life or death. Not a word was spoken, and scarcely a sound was heard
from our oars. One of the men sprang to his feet, and grasped a
harpoon. A few more strokes of the oar, and we were hard upon the
whale. The harpooner, with unerring aim, let fly his irons, and
buried them to the sockets in his huge carcass. "Stern all!"
thundered the mate. "Stern all!" echoed the crew, but it was too
late. Our bows were high and dry on the whale's head! Infuriated
with the pain produced by the harpoons, and, doubtless, much
astonished to find his head so roughly used, he rolled half over,
lashing the sea with his flukes (tail), and in his struggles dashing
in two of the upper planks. "Boat stove! boat stove!" was the
general cry. "Silence," thundered the mate as he sprang to the bow,
and exchanged places with the harpooner; "all safe, my hearties!
stern hard! stern! stern! before he gets his flukes to bear upon
us." "Stern all!" shouted we, and in a moment more we were out of
danger. The whale now "turned flukes," and dashed off to windward
with the speed of a locomotive, towing us after him at a tremendous
rate. We occasionally slacked line in order to give him plenty of
play. A stiff breeze had sprung up, causing a rough, chopping sea;
and we leaked badly in the bow-planks; but, notwithstanding the
roughness of the sea, we went with incredible swiftness. "Hoorah!"
burst from every lip. We exultingly took off our hats, and gave
three hearty cheers; but while we were skimming along so gallantly,
the whale suddenly turned, and pitched the boat on her beam-ends.
Every one who could grasp a thwart hung on to it, and we were all
fortunate enough to keep our seats. For as much as a ship's length
the boat flew through the water on her gunwale, foaming and whizzing
as she dashed onward. It was a matter of doubt as to which side
would turn uppermost, until we slacked out the line, when she
righted. To have a boat, with all her iron, lances, gear, and oars,
piled on one's head in such a sea, was rather a startling prospect
to the best swimmer. Meantime, the whale rose to the surface to
spout. The change in his course enabled another boat to come up, and
we lay on our oars, in order that Mr. D----, (the other mate) might
lance him.--He struck him in a vital part the first dart, as was
evident from the whale's furious dying struggles; but in order to
make sure, we hauled up and lanced the back of his head. Foaming and
breaching, he plunged from wave to wave, flinging high in the air
torrents of blood and spray. The sea around was literally a sea of
blood. At one moment his head was poised in the air; the next, he
buried himself in the gory sea, carrying down, in his vast wake, a
whirlpool of foam and slime. But this respite was short; he rose
again, rushing furiously upon his enemies; but a slight prick of a
lance drove him back with mingled fury and terror. Whichever way he
turned, the barbed irons goaded him to desperation. Now and again
intensity of agony would cause him to lash the waters with his huge
flukes, till the very ocean appeared to heave and tremble at his
power. Tossing, struggling, dashing over and over in his agony, he
spouted up the last of his heart's blood. Half an hour before, he
was free as the wave, sporting in all the pride of gigantic strength
and unrivalled power. He now lay a lifeless mass; his head towards
the sun, his tremendous body heaving to the swell, and his
destroyers proudly cheering over their victory.'"

EMMA. "It seems very cruel to catch these poor creatures."

MRS. WILTON. "They are tortured as little as possible; but they are
so strong, that it requires immense skill and bravery to contend
with them. Their usefulness justifies the act, for I know not what
we should do without some of the comforts produced from these
monsters of the deep."

EMMA. "What part does the oil come from?"

MR. BARRAUD. "First, from the blubber which is the outer covering,
or, as whalers call it, the 'blanket-piece;' this is stripped off by
means of an ingenious contrivance, cut into pieces, and the oil
boiled out. Secondly, from the head, which is called the 'case,' and
sometimes contains from ten to fifteen barrels of oil and
spermaceti. A sperm whale frequently yields as much as 120 barrels
of oil. Forty-five barrels is considered a medium size."

GEORGE. "I hope, when we go to Jamaica, we shall see some whales."

MR. WILTON. "No doubt we shall. I have often seen them rolling and
spouting in the wide Atlantic: and you will also see the flying fish
skimming in the hollows of the waves: they are very pretty."

GRANDY. "Yes, they are, poor unfortunates! for, though possessing
the qualifications of a bird as well as a fish, they are so
persecuted by enemies in both elements, that, whether taking their
temporary flight through the air, or gliding through the waters,
their double faculty proves insufficient to defend or secure them
from pursuit."

CHARLES. "What creatures war against these innocent fish, madam?"

GRANDY. "While in the air the man-of-war bird pounces upon them; and
they are chased in the water by the bonito and albacore: thus
constantly persecuted, they do not become very numerous."

CHARLES. "Icy Peak, in Greenland, is an enormous mass of ice near
the mouth of a river: it diffuses such a brilliancy through the air,
that it is distinctly perceived at a distance of more than ten
leagues. Icicles, and an immense vault, give this edifice of crystal
a most magic appearance."

EMMA. "Shall we now continue our voyage through Lancaster Sound?"

MRS. WILTON. "I have been considering whether it would not be better
to finish with these northern latitudes before we proceed on our
voyage. In that case we will test the hospitality of the people of
Spitzbergen, Iceland, Nova Zembla, Ferroe Isles, and sundry others
in this part of the Atlantic and Frozen Ocean, and then descend to
warmer climates."

MR. WILTON. "A very good plan, if we do not get blocked up by the
ice in these dreadful seas. By-the-by, there is an account of such a
calamity happening to a vessel some years ago.--In the year 1775,
Captain Warrens, master of the 'Greenland,' a whale-ship, was
cruising about in the Frozen Ocean, when at a little distance he
observed a vessel. Captain Warrens was struck with the strange
manner in which her sails were disposed, and with the dismantled
aspect of her rigging. He leaped into his boat with several seamen,
and rowed towards her. On approaching, he observed that her hull was
miserably weather-beaten, and not a soul appeared on deck, which was
covered with snow to a considerable depth. He then hailed her crew,
but no answer was returned. Previous to stepping on board, an open
port-hole near the main-chains caught his eye; and, on looking into
it, he perceived a man reclining back in a chair, with writing
materials on a table before him; but the feebleness of the light
made everything very indistinct. The party went upon deck, and,
having removed the hatchway, descended to the cabin. They first came
to the apartment which Captain Warrens viewed through the port-hole.
A terror seized him as he entered it: its inmate retained his former
position, and seemed to be insensible to strangers. He was found to
be a corpse! and a green damp mould had covered his cheeks and
forehead, and veiled his open eyeballs. He had a pen in his hand,
and a log-book lay before him. The last sentence in its unfinished
page ran thus:--

"'Nov. 14th, 1762.

"'We have now been enclosed in the ice seventeen days. The fire went
out yesterday, and our master has been trying ever since to kindle
it again without success. His wife died this morning. There is no

"Captain Warrens and his seamen hurried from the spot without
uttering a word. On entering the principal cabin, the first object
that attracted their attention was the dead body of a female,
reclining on a bed in an attitude of deep interest and attention.
Her countenance retained the freshness of life: but a contraction of
the limbs showed that her form was inanimate. Seated on the floor
was the corpse of an apparently young man, holding a steel in one
hand and a flint in the other, as if in the act of striking fire
upon some tinder which lay beside him. In the fore-part of the
vessel several sailors were found lying dead in their berths, and
the body of a boy crouched at the bottom of the gangway stairs.
Neither provisions nor fuel could be discovered anywhere; but
Captain Warrens was prevented by the superstitious prejudices of his
seamen from examining the vessel as minutely as he wished to have
done. He, therefore, carried away the log-book, and immediately
steered to the southward, impressed with the awful example he had
just witnessed of the danger of navigating the Polar Seas in high
northern latitudes. On returning to England, and inquiring and
comparing accounts, he found that this vessel had been blocked up by
the ice for upwards of thirteen years!!! Yes!--

  "'There lay the vessel in a realm of frost,
  Not wrecked, nor stranded, yet forever lost;
  Her keel embedded in the solid mass;
  Her glistening sails appear'd expanded glass.'"

[Illustration: THE GEYSERS.]

GRANDY. "A most awful situation to be placed in, surrounded on
all sides by impenetrable ice, which closeth up the water as with a

MRS. WILTON. "Iceland is first in point of distance. It is situated
south east of Greenland, in the North Atlantic Ocean, and considered
an appendage to America; although it was known seven centuries
before the time of Columbus. It is truly, a land of prodigies: where
the subterranean fires of the abyss burst through a frozen soil;
where boiling springs shoot up their fountains, amidst eternal
snows; and where the powerful genius of liberty and the no less
powerful genius of poetry have given brilliant proofs of the
energies of the human mind at the farthest confines of animated

CHARLES. "There are twelve volcanoes in Iceland; the most celebrated
of which is Mount Hecla, situated in the southern part of the
island: its elevation is about 4800 feet above the level of the

GEORGE. "And there are hot springs, too, in this island; but they
have not all the same degree of heat. Mamma, do you know anything of

MRS. WILTON. "Those springs, whose tepid waters issue as gently as
an ordinary spring, are called Langers, or baths; others that throw
up boiling water with great noise, are denominated Caldrons, in
Icelandic 'Hverer.' The most remarkable is the Geyser, which is
found near Skalholdt, in the middle of a plain, where there are
about forty springs of a smaller size. It rises from an aperture
nineteen feet in diameter, springing at intervals to the height of
fifty or even ninety feet. In these hot springs, which formerly
served to baptize their Pagan ancestors, the Icelanders boil their
vegetables, meat, eggs, and other articles of food; but it is
necessary to cover the pot suspended in these steaming waters, in
order to prevent the volcanic odor from imparting a taste to their
contents. Iceland is not so barren as you might imagine from its
extreme cold, for gardening is cultivated throughout the island: but
there are no large trees."

MR. WILTON. "The present houses of the Icelanders differ little from
those used by their ancestors, who first colonized the island, and
are, no doubt, the best fitted for the climate. They are only one
story high; the stone walls have all the interstices stuffed with
moss, and are about six feet in thickness. In the better sort of
houses, the windows are glazed, in the others, secured by a thin
skin stretched over the frames. They have no chimney or grates; the
smoke escapes through a hole in the roof. The beds are merely open
frames filled with feathers or down, over which they throw their
blankets, and cover themselves with a counterpane of divers colors.
Their seats are, in general, the bones of a whale or a horse's
skull. But much is said and done in these rude huts which would
astonish you."

EMMA. "Are the Icelanders civilized people: I mean, at all refined?"

MRS. WILTON. "Every Icelander knows how to read, write, and
calculate, which is more than we can say of the English. They are a
grave, honest, benevolent people, but not remarkable for their
industry. Their favorite amusements, when assembled together,
consist in reading history or poetry, in singing, or playing at
chess, in which game they take great delight, priding themselves on
their skill. They are refined enough to admire poetry and music: I
think I need say no more. We will now visit Spitzbergen."

EMMA. "Spitzbergen is a group of three large islands, and a number
of lesser ones near the North Pole. The mountains crowned with
perpetual snow, and flanked with glaciers, reflect to a considerable
distance a light equal to that of a full moon. The Icy Sea washes
its shores, and abounds with whales, who love to roll their enormous
bodies among the marine forests of the sea. In the vicinity is found
the polar bear, which pursues everything animated with life, devours
every animal he encounters, and then, roaring with delight, seats
himself enthroned on the victorious trophy of mutilated carcasses
and bones."

CHARLES. "The only tree growing in Spitzbergen is the dwarf willow,
which rises to the vast height of two inches! towering with great
pride above the mosses, lichens, and a few other cumbent plants."

GEORGE. "What a ridiculous little shrub! We might just as well
dignify mustard and cress with the title of trees. To whom does this
_very fertile_ island belong?"

MRS. WILTON. "To the Russians; and it certainly is not an enviable
possession, for the climate is most wretched. From the 30th of
October, until the 10th of February, the sun is invisible; it is as
one long dreary night, and bitterly cold. The inhabitants sit by
dull fires during this season, immersed in furs, and endeavor to
doze through the tedious gloom. They are chiefly of Russian
extraction, and many of them natives of Archangel."

MR. WILTON. "Other animals are found in these regions besides the
bear and whale: for we read of foxes, reindeer, walruses, and seals
being occasionally caught by the people; and many islands about here
(for the Frozen Sea is full of islands, principally composed of turf
hills,) are the dreary abodes of bears and reindeer."

EMMA. "The Ferroe Isles, belonging to Denmark, are seventeen in
number; they produce agate, jasper, and beautiful zeolites, and
export feathers, eider-down, caps, stockings, tallow, and salted

CHARLES. "I do not think that can be very nice: I wonder who buys

EMMA. "It always finds purchasers: therefore some folks are not so
fastidious as Mr. Charles Dorning."

GEORGE. "Mamma, let us go back past Norway, and see what are all
these little islands on the coast."

MRS. WILTON. "As you please, George; but most of the islands are
barren, uninhabited spots. Those worthy of notice are Karen, Bommel,
Sartar, Hittern, at the entrance of the Gulf of Drontheim; the
Victen or Victor Isles, and the Luffoden Isles: the latter are the
most numerous and extensive, and noted for the whirlpool Maelstrom,
which has drawn so many fine ships into its abyss, and from which
even the bellowing struggles of the great whale will not suffice to
redeem him if once he gets within the vortex."

GEORGE. "What causes this whirlpool?"

MR. BARRAUD. "When two currents of a more or less contrary direction
and of equal force meet in a narrow passage, they both turn, as it
were, upon a centre, until they unite, or one of the two escapes.
This is what is termed a whirlpool or eddy. There are three
celebrated whirlpools noticed in geography--the Maelstrom, the
Euripus, near the island of Eubaea, and Charybdis, in the Straits of

CHARLES. "Bergen, one of the principal towns of Norway, stands on
the North Sea: it is seated in the centre of a valley, forming a
semicircle round a small gulf of the sea. On the land side it is
defended by mountains; and on the other, by several fortifications.
This city is chiefly constructed of wood, and has been many times
destroyed by fire. So dreadful was the last conflagration, in 1771,
that it is said the flames were visible in the Isles of Shetland, or
at least the red lurid glare of them in the sky."

MR. WILTON. "There are silver mines in Norway; but the iron mines
are the most profitable. We have to thank Norway for the magnet, of
such inestimable value to the navigator."

GEORGE. "Papa, who found out the use of the magnet?"

MR. WILTON. "Flavio Gioia was the author of the great discovery of
the property of the magnet, about the year 1302. He was a citizen of
Amalfi, a town in Naples."

EMMA. "Is there not a destructive little animal, native of Norway,
called a lemming?"

MR. BARRAUD. "It is called the lemming, or Norwegian mouse; it comes
from the ridge of Kolen; and sometimes spreads desolation, like the
locust. These animals appear in vast numbers, proceeding from the
mountain towards the sea, devouring every product of the soil, and,
after consuming everything eatable in their course, they at last
devour each other. These singular creatures are of a reddish color,
and about five inches in length."

EMMA. "We may now return to our station in Lancaster Sound, pass
Croker's Bay, and enter Barrow's Straits which wash the shores of
North Devon."

GEORGE. "In the New Archipelago, north of Barrow's Straits, are the
Georgian Isles. They are numerous, and the principal are Cornwallis,
Bathurst, and Melville. The latter is the largest, being 240 miles
long, and 100 miles in breadth."

MR. BARRAUD. "Here is another dreary land where no tree or shrub
refreshes the eye. The climate is too cold for any person to live
there; and, from its vicinity to the magnetic meridian, the compass
becomes useless, remaining in whatever position it is placed by the

EMMA. "Prince Regent's Inlet will lead us into Bothnia Gulf, thence
through Fury and Hecla Straits,[11] which are between the peninsula
of Melville and Cockburn Island, we can enter Foxes Channel, pass
through Frozen Straits, and launch on the great waters of Hudson's

[Footnote 11: So named because these two vessels were here frozen up
from October 20th, 1822, to August 8th, 1823.]

MRS. WILTON. "We enter Hudson's Bay on the north, close by
Southampton, a large island inhabited chiefly by Esquimaux. Nothing
can exceed the frightful aspect of the environs of this bay. To
whichsoever side we direct our view, we perceive nothing but land
incapable of receiving any sort of cultivation, and precipitous
rocks that rise to the very clouds, and yawn into deep ravines and
narrow valleys into which the sun never penetrates, and which are
rendered inaccessible by masses of ice and snow that seem never to
melt. The sea in this bay is open only from the commencement of July
to the end of September, and even then the navigator very often
encounters icebergs, which expose him to considerable embarrassment.
At the very time he imagines himself at a distance from these
floating rocks a sudden squall, or a tide, or current, strong enough
to carry away the vessel, and render it unmanageable, all at once
hurries him amongst an infinite number of masses of ice, which
appear to cover the whole bay."

MR. WILTON. "Sixty years after the intrepid navigator Hudson had
first penetrated the gulf that bears his name, the British
Government assigned to a company of traders to those parts (by the
title of the Hudson's Bay Company) the chartered possession of
extensive tracts south, and east of Hudson's Bay, to export the
productions of the surrounding country."

GEORGE. "Are there any whales in Hudson's Bay?"

MRS. WILTON. "No, all attempts at the whale fishery have been
unsuccessful: indeed, there are very few fish of any sort here; but
in the lakes around there are plenty, such as pike, sturgeon, and
trout, and their banks are inhabited by aquatic birds, among which
are observed several species of swans, geese, and ducks."

EMMA. "James's Bay is directly in the south of Hudson's Bay, and
extends a hundred leagues within the country. I believe it is near
here that the Company's most important establishments are situated,
such as Fort Albany, Fort Moose, and the factory of East Main. This
bay contains many islands."

MRS. WILTON. "What bays must we pass to get to Hudson's Straits?"

EMMA. "Mosquito Bay is the only one I can perceive; but there is
Mansfield Isle, and Cape Diggs to make before we reach the straits;
and in the straits there are several bays, the principal of which
are North Bay and Ungava or South Bay."

MRS. WILTON. "Quite correct, Emma. The straits were discovered by
Hudson, in his voyage of 1610. The eastern coast of Hudson's Bay
forms part of the peninsula of Labrador. Will any member vouchsafe
some information concerning this country?"

CHARLES. "All that we know of Labrador is, that it is a mass of
mountains and rocks, intersected with numerous lakes and rivers, and
inhabited by Esquimaux."

MRS. WILTON. "Once more in the Atlantic, the great highway and
thoroughfare of civilized nations. Where sail we next?"

EMMA. "Through the Straits of Belle-isle into the Gulf of St.

MR. BARRAUD. "This gulf abounds with fish in a remarkable degree.
The bears here combine together in numerous herds, to catch the
salmon near the cataracts in the rivers, where great numbers are
stopped in their ascent, and are exceedingly relished by that
animal. Some of them plunge into the water, and pursue their prey,
while others more idle watch them from the banks. There are only two
islands of note in this gulf,--the island of Anticosti, 90 miles
long and 20 broad, covered with rocks, and wanting the convenience
of a harbor; and Prince Edward's Islands, pleasant fertile spots.
The Gulf of St. Lawrence washes the shores of Nova Scotia and Cape
Breton Island."

MR. WILTON. "Nova Scotia is about 350 miles long, and 250 broad: its
chief town is Halifax. This island, with regard to fishing, is
scarcely inferior to Newfoundland, which place is connected with the
government of Nova Scotia."

MRS. WILTON. "Cape Breton, or Sydney Isle, lies north-east of Nova
Scotia, from which it is separated by a strait only a mile broad.
Its length is 100 miles, its breadth 60. A remarkable bed of coal
runs horizontally, at from 6 to 8 feet only, below the surface
through a large portion of the island: a fire was once accidentally
kindled in one of the pits, which _is_ now continually burning. Cape
Breton has been termed the Key to Canada and is the principal
protection, through the fine harbor of Louisburg, of all the
fisheries in the neighborhood."

EMMA. "The next important bays in our southward course are Bay of
Fundy, Delaware Bay, and Chesapeake Bay: then we come in sight of
the Bahamas."

MRS. WILTON. "Which islands must stand aside while we examine the
Bermudas, which are half-way between Nova Scotia and the Antilles.
They were so called by Juan Bermudas, who discovered them in the
year 1557, but did not land upon them: they are of various sizes,
the largest being about twelve miles. The cedar-trees grown there
form the chief riches of the inhabitants, and they estimate a man's
income by the number of trees he possesses. St. George is the
capital, and the islands belong to the English. They are sometimes
called 'Somers Isles,' from the circumstance of Sir John Somers
being shipwrecked on the rocks by which they are surrounded.
Previous to this occurrence Henry May, an Englishman, was cast
ashore on one of the largest, and as the islands abound with cedar,
he contrived, with the assistance of the materials he obtained from
the wreck, to build a small vessel, in which he returned to England,
and was the first person who gave any account of the group."

GEORGE. "Now for the Bahamas. They are 300 in number! but only
twelve are large. Nassau is the capital They were the first land
discovered by Columbus in the year 1492."

MR. WILTON. "And were once a nest of pirates, but the English
expelled them, and established a colony in 1720."

MR. BARRAUD. "Speaking of pirates, have you ever heard the plan
adopted by the Portuguese for the suppression of piracy?"

No one had heard it, and Mr. Barraud proceeded.

"The Portuguese, in their early intercourse with the Indians, had a
summary punishment, and accompanied it with a terrible example to
deter others from the commission of the crime. Whenever they took a
pirate ship they instantly hanged every man, carried away the sails,
rudder, and everything that was valuable in the ship, and left her
to be buffeted about by the winds and waves, with the carcasses of
the criminals dangling from the yards, a horrid object of terror to
all who might chance to fall in with her."

CHARLES. "Almost as dreadful a vessel to fall in with as the Phantom
Ship in Coleridge's 'Ancient Mariner,' I always feel uncomfortable
when I read that poem, and yet I admire it very much."

MRS. WILTON. "It is replete with such truthful descriptions, that
you are involuntarily borne on the wings of imagination until all
seems reality, and you identify yourself with the Ancient Mariner."

MR. WILTON. "I anticipate we shall all be ancient mariners before we
conclude our voyage, but we must not be idle ones. Lead on, Emma,
we will follow."

EMMA. "I have no more bays yet, and it is mamma's province to
describe the islands."

MRS. WILTON. "Well and good: here are the Antilles. I shall not
hasten over _them_, for they are _our_ isles, whither we hope
shortly to sail in reality; therefore it is highly necessary that we
should be well informed concerning their locality. They form an arch
between the two continents of America, and extend from the Gulf of
Florida to that of Venezuela. They are divided into the greater and
the less; Cuba, Jamaica, St. Domingo, and Porto Rico are called the
Great Antilles, all the others the less Antilles.

"Cuba is the largest and most important: it commands the windward
passage, as well as the entrance into the gulfs of Mexico and
Florida, and is for that reason sometimes called the Key of the West
Indies. It is more than 700 miles in length, and its medium breadth
70 miles. Havannah is the capital.

"Jamaica is a delightful island, endeared to me by many fond
recollections; it is mountainous, extremely fertile, and abounding
with springs (as its name signifies) of delicious water, a great
luxury in a warm climate. The top of the highest mountain, Blue
Mountain Peak, is 7800 feet above the level of the sea. Kingston is
the chief place for trade. The island is 150 miles from east to
west, and its breadth is 60 miles in its widest part.

"St. Domingo, capital same name, is a pleasant fertile country. The
first town founded by Europeans in America was St. Domingo. The
bones of Christopher Columbus and his brother Lewis are deposited in
two leaden coffins in the cathedral of this city.

"Porto Rico is 100 miles long and 40 broad. It is beautifully
diversified with woods, valleys, and plains, and extremely fertile."

GRANDY. "The Antilles are lovely islands, and some of the happiest
moments of my life have been passed in admiring the wonderful works
of our Creator, as shown to such advantage in the bright lands of
the West. Beautiful are the mornings in Jamaica, when the sun,
appearing through a cloudless and serene atmosphere, illumines with
his rays the summits of the mountains, and gilds the leaves of the
plantain and orange-trees. The plants are spread over with gossamer
of fine and transparent silk, or gemmed with dew-drops, and the
vivid hues of industrious insects, reflecting unnumbered tints from
the rays of the sun. The aspect of the richly cultivated valleys is
different, but not less pleasing; the whole of nature teems with the
most varied productions. The views around are splendid; the lofty
mountains adorned with thick foliage; the hills, from their summits
to their very borders, fringed with plants of never fading verdure.
The appearance of the valleys is remarkable: to form an imperfect
idea of it, we must group together the stately palm-tree, the
cocoa-nut, and tamarind trees, the clustering mango and
orange-trees, the waving plumes of the feathery bamboo, and many
others, too numerous to mention. On these plains, too, you will
find the bushy oleander, many varieties of Jerusalem thorn and
African rose, the bright scarlet of the cordium, bowers of
jessamine, vines of grenadilla, and the silver and silky leaves of
the portlandia. Fields of sugar-cane, houses of the planters, huts
of the negroes almost hidden by the patches of cultivated ground
attached to them, and the distant coast with ships, add to the
beauty of the West Indian landscape."

MR. WILTON. "That is the bright side of the scene, my dear mother;
and lest we should form wrong impressions, we will let the young
folks hear how all this beauty is sometimes marred by hurricanes and
earthquakes. One specimen will be sufficient; and I will describe a
hurricane, in order that you may have some slight notion of the many
_delights_ attendant on a residence in the West Indies.--A hurricane
is generally preceded by an awful stillness of the elements, the air
becomes close and heavy, the sun is red, and the stars at night seem
unusually large. Frequent changes take place in the thermometer,
which rises sometimes from 80 deg. to 90 deg.. Darkness extends over the
earth; the higher regions gleam with lightning. The impending storm
is first observed on the sea; foaming mountains rise suddenly from
its clear and motionless surface. The wind rages with unrestrained
fury; its noise may be compared to distant thunder. The rain
descends in torrents; shrubs and lofty trees are borne down by the
mountain stream; the rivers overflow their banks, and submerge the
plains. Terror and consternation seem to pervade the whole of
animated nature: land birds are driven into the ocean; and those
whose element is the sea, seek for refuge in the woods. The frighted
beasts of the field herd together, or roam in vain for a place of
shelter. All the elements are thrown into confusion, and nature
appears to be hastening to her ancient chaos. Scenes of desolation
are disclosed by the next morning's sun; uprooted trees, branches
shivered from their trunks; and even the ruins of houses scattered
over the land. The planter has sometimes been scarcely able to
distinguish the place of his former possessions. By these dreadful
hurricanes, fertile valleys may in a few hours be changed into
dreary wastes, covered with the remains of domestic animals and the
fowls of heaven."

CHARLES. "I do not envy you the prospect of an abode in the
Antilles, friend George; but I shall be heartily glad to see you
safe back again."

GRANDY. "Every country has an evil; 'tis right it should be so, or
we should like this fair world and its enjoyments so well, that we
should not care to 'go up higher.' There are many evils 'tis true,
but there is also so much good to counter-balance the evil, that we
should raise our hearts with thankfulness, and open our lips with
praises to sing the goodness of our God.

"Emma, my child, where roam we next?"

EMMA. "We cannot quit the Gulf of Mexico yet, dear Grandy, until we
have examined its environs. We entered it through the Gulf of
Florida, which is situated between Florida and Cuba. The Gulf of
Mexico almost intersects the two continents; and is, in fact, an
extensive sea. It washes the shores of Mexico and Yucatan, and
contains many comparatively small bays."

MR. BARRAUD. "This gulf may be considered as a Mediterranean Sea,
which opens a maritime commerce with all the fertile countries by
which it is encircled. The islands scattered in it are inferior only
to those in the Indian Archipelago in number, in magnitude, and in

MRS. WILTON. "Mexico is a very rich city; the shops literally
overflowing with gold, silver, and jewels. The cathedral, in some
respects, surpasses all the churches in the world. The balustrade
which surrounds the altar is composed of massive silver. A lamp, of
the same metal, is of so vast a size that three men go into it when
it has to be cleaned; and it is enriched with lion's heads and other
ornaments of pure gold. The statues of the Virgin and the saints,
are made of solid silver, richly gilded and ornamented with precious

"Yucatan is celebrated for beautiful ruins, adorned with the most
striking, imposing, and elegant decorations, but who were the
architects, or when built, is at present a mystery; for when
discovered by the Spaniards in the fifteenth century, it was
inhabited by a fierce tribe of Indians, who were perfectly ignorant
of arts and sciences; therefore, these magnificent erections must
have been the work of civilized men, before Yucatan was possessed by
the Indians. Many attempts were made by the Spaniards to obtain a
footing in this country, but to no purpose. At length they hit upon
the expedient of sending priests among the people. Five were found
willing to go: they were introduced as men of peace by the Mexicans,
were amicably received, and allowed to settle in the country. Their
conduct soon gained them the love and esteem of the fierce Indians,
and they brought their children to be taught, and were baptized with
their whole families. Every day strengthened their attachment to the
Padres: they built them houses to live in, and a temple for worship;
and at last, without any compulsion, the chiefs acknowledged the
authority of the King of Castile. But this allegiance was of short
duration. Some Spanish soldiers went over, and carried fire and
sword into the heart of their country, and soon obliterated the
impression made by the good Padres. The Indians again waged war with
civilized man, and the priests fled for their lives. Many years
after the Spaniards were the conquerors, and succeeded in planting
their standard in Yucatan, in the year 1537. It is now inhabited by
Spaniards and Indians: there is an appearance of civilization
surrounding many of these desolated places. Villages and towns have
been formed, and lands cultivated in every direction."

EMMA. "Through the Bay of Honduras we enter the Caribbean Sea, and
it is the last sea on this side of the equator."

MR. BARRAUD. "The Caribbean Sea is, generally speaking, still and
quiet, and in fine weather the water is so transparent, that the
mariner can discern fish and coral at fifty fathoms below the
surface. The ship seems to float in the air, and the spectator is
often seized with vertigo, while he beholds through the crystalline
fluid, submarine groves and beautiful shells glittering among tufts
of fucus and sea-weed. Fresh-water springs issue from the sea on
both sides of the Channel between Yucatan and Cuba. They rush with
so much violence out of the deep, that it is dangerous for small
vessels to approach them; boats have been dashed to pieces by the
force of the surge. Ships on the coast sail here sometimes for a
supply of fresh water, which the seamen draw from the bottom of the

EMMA. "What extraordinary things we meet with in our travels! May
we, before crossing the equator, visit the lakes, mamma?"

MRS. WILTON. "I am quite agreeable. Who wishes to go to the lakes?"

CHARLES. "I do, and will start directly I have prepared the
necessary documents. Oh! here they are; Lakes Superior, Michigan,
and Huron, are considered as forming one large inland sea, dividing
the United States from Canada. There are several islands in these
lakes, particularly in Lake Superior, which islands the savages
believe to be the residence of the Great Spirit. It is strange that
these lakes are never frozen over, although the entrances are
frequently obstructed with ice."

EMMA. "Lake Superior is more than 500 leagues in circumference; its
clear waters, fed by forty rivers, are contained in extensive
strata of rocks, and their surges nearly equal those of the Atlantic
Ocean. Lake Huron is connected with Superior, by the Straits of St.
Mary. Lake Michigan communicates with Huron by a long strait, and
the country around its banks belongs exclusively to the United

CHARLES. "Lake Erie is my favorite, because it communicates with the
river Niagara, and with those celebrated cataracts of which so much
has been written."

GEORGE. "For the same reason then, you should patronize Lake
Ontario. It is 170 miles long, and 60 miles broad, at its widest
part, and empties itself through the romantic 'Lake of a thousand
Isles,' into the St. Lawrence."

EMMA. "Lake Winnipeg is the next nearest; it is more than sixty
leagues in length, by thirty or forty broad. Its banks are shaded by
the sugar-maple and poplar, and it is surrounded by fertile plains,
which produce the rice of Canada.

"The Great Slave Lake is quite north, and the last of any
consequence. It is more than a hundred leagues in length, and
sprinkled with islands, covered with trees resembling the mulberry.
Mackenzie found them loaded with ice in the middle of June."

MRS. WILTON. "There is nothing in other parts of the globe which
resembles the prodigious chain of lakes in North America. They may
properly be termed inland seas of fresh water; and even those of
second and third class in magnitude, are of larger circuit than the
greatest lake in the old continent. They all unite to form one
uninterrupted current of water, extending above 600 leagues in
length. The country around is intersected with rivers, lakes, and
marshes to a greater extent than any other part of the world: but
few mountains rise above this savage icy plain. One is tempted to
inquire, why do such superb streams waste their fertilizing waters
upon these frozen deserts? We only know they manifest the Power, and
we must not doubt the Wisdom of their Creator."

MR. WILTON. "Now, Emma, return to our former situation in the Bay of
Honduras. What of that bay?"

EMMA. "Only this, papa, that it washes the shores of Yucatan, which
has already been described, and runs into the Caribbean Sea. Mamma
will help me here."

MRS. WILTON. "The coast of Honduras was discovered by Columbus, in
his last voyage, but its verdant beauties (for it is a lovely
place.) could not win him to the shore. Without landing, he
continued on to the Isthmus of Darien, in search of that passage to
India which was the aim of all his hopes, but which it was destined
he should never see."

EMMA. "The Caribbean Sea contains the Caribbee Islands, which are
also distinguished by the names of Windward and Leeward Isles. The
only one we should have to pass near in sailing out of this sea, is

MR. WILTON. "But, Emma, are you going to leave this coast without a
visit to Panama?"

EMMA. "My only reason for so doing, dear papa, is because I know
nothing about it, except that it is situated close to the Isthmus of
Darien, and its chief town is Porto Bello."

MR. WILTON. "Panama is itself an isthmus, and is most luxuriant in
vegetable productions, and could challenge competition with any part
of the world, in the vigor and variety of its woods. There are known
to be growing there, no less than ninety-seven different qualities
of wood. It is famed, as most woody places are, for snakes and
poisonous reptiles: the country people will scarcely move abroad
after nightfall for fear of them, and always carry a charm about
their person to prevent injury from their bite. This charm is an
alligator's tooth, stuffed with herbs, compounded and muttered over
by some old woman."

MR. BARRAUD. "I have heard that toads at Porto Bello are so
numerous, that it is the popular prejudice that the drops of rain
are changed into toads; and even the more learned maintain that the
eggs of this animal are raised with the vapors from the adjoining
swamps, and being conveyed to the city by the succeeding rains, are
there hatched. They are large and frightful, many of them six inches
in breadth; and after a night of rain, the streets are almost
covered, so that it is impossible to walk any distance without
crushing dozens of them. The city is so badly situated, and the
climate so unhealthy, that few persons can exist there, and it is
justly termed by the Spaniards 'La Sepultura de los Europeanos.'"

CHARLES. "The people of Porto Bello are not particularly dainty. I
am sure I should starve there, for I could not consent to eat their
food. What do you think of shovel-nosed sharks being sold in the
markets, and guanas--which you know are lizards--being considered a
special treat? and then, worse than all, the country folks mostly
feed upon monkeys. How should you fare amongst them, George? Could
you make a dinner off a roasted monkey?"

GEORGE. "I do not think I should enjoy it, but if I were very
hungry, I might not be particular: however, I must own I should even
then prefer beef or mutton to lizards and monkeys."

MR. WILTON. "Panama is, notwithstanding their want of taste, a rich
country; rich in gold, silver, and other mines. Commerce is gaining
ground there, and in the present day the people are more anxious to
make their fortunes than to display their magnificence. Formerly, no
family in Panama ate off anything but plate, almost every domestic
utensil was of the same material, and the women wore a profusion of
chains, pearls, and other ornaments. But times are altered there as
elsewhere; most of the gold has passed through the melting-pot to
the Old World."

MR. BARRAUD. "True; but they have still enough left to make very
grand displays on gala days; and, on these occasions, the dresses of
the women are peculiarly splendid. A loose chemise of beautiful
cambric, with innumerable and immense frills richly worked with
lace, is, with a petticoat of the same, fastened at the waist by
several massive chased-gold buttons. Round the neck are several gold
chains, with pearl rosettes, crosses, and rows of pearls; the
ear-rings are of the shape of a telegraph, and reach nearly to the
shoulders; the fingers are covered with rings: and various combs,
studded with rows of pearl cased in gold, are placed together with a
massive gold bodkin, to great advantage in beautiful hair, plaited
in two tails down the back. The feet are barely introduced into a
little slipper, turned up very much at the toes, and also richly
ornamented. The whole appearance is elegant and becoming."

MR. WILTON. "The pearls thus tastefully disposed around the person
of a fair Panamenian, are procured among the islands of the coast by
diving. The occupation is very laborious, and success most
uncertain; but the pursuit is a favorite one, and the divers are
very expert. They generally proceed in companies of several canoes
together, each containing six or seven men, who dive in succession,
armed with a sharp knife, rather for the purpose of detaching the
oysters from the rocks to which they adhere, than for defence
against danger. Before descending, they repeatedly cross themselves,
(for you must understand, nearly all Central America is inhabited by
Roman Catholics,) and generally bring up four oysters, one under
each arm, and two in the hand. The usual time of stopping under
water is from fifty seconds to two and a half minutes. Much has
been said of the danger of these fisheries, both from the shark, and
another enemy called the 'Manta.' which crushes its victim. But the
shark is ever a coward, and no match for an expert diver with a
knife; and accidents rarely occur."

EMMA. "Oh! how much information I should have lost, had I gone
sailing on by myself. I think I had better resign my station at the
wheel to some member who is better able to steer. Who will have it?"

MR. BARRAUD. "Keep it, Emma, unless you are weary, and we will
direct your course occasionally. I am sure you have proved yourself
so indefatigable on all occasions, that our vessel cannot be in
better hands."

EMMA. "Before proceeding any further, I wish to read the enclosed
account. I received it with two or three other papers, from our
friend Dora, a few minutes before we assembled. She knew we should
be explaining the Atlantic to-night, and begged I would introduce
this at the meeting.

#The Seaboy's Grave.#

"'There was a poor little middy on board, so delicate and fragile,
that the sea was clearly no fit profession for him; but he or his
friends thought otherwise; and as he had a spirit for which his
frame was no match, he soon gave token of decay. This boy was a
great favorite with everybody; the sailors smiled whenever he
passed, as they would have done to a child; the officers patted
him, and coddled him up with all sorts of good things; and his
messmates, in a style which did not altogether please him, but which
he could not well resist, as it was meant most kindly, nicknamed
him, "Dolly." Poor fellow! he was long remembered afterwards. I
forget what his particular complaint was, but he gradually sank, and
at last went out just as a taper might have done, exposed to such
gusts of wind as blew in that tempestuous region. He died in the
morning, but it was not until the evening that he was prepared for a
seaman's grave.

"'I remember in the course of the day, going to the side of the
boy's hammock; and, on laying my hand upon his breast, being
astonished to find it still warm; so much so, that I almost imagined
I could feel the heart beat. This, of course, was a vain fancy; but
I was greatly attached to my little companion, being then not much
taller myself, and I was soothed and gratified, in a childish way,
by discovering that my friend, though many hours dead, had not yet
acquired the usual revolting chilliness.

"'Something occurred during the day to prevent the funeral taking
place at the usual hour; and the ceremony was deferred until long
after sunset. The evening was extremely dark, and it was blowing a
treble-reefed topsail breeze. We had just sent down the top-gallant
yards, and had made all snug for a boisterous winter's night. As it
became necessary to have lights to see what was done, several signal
lanterns were placed on the break of the quarter-deck, and others
along the hammock railing on the lee-gangway. The whole ship's
company and officers were assembled; some on the booms, others in
the boats; while the main-rigging was crowded half-way up to the
cat-harpings. Overhead the mainsail, illuminated as high as the yard
by the lamps, was bulging forwards under the gale, which was rising
every minute, and straining so violently at the main-sheet, that
there was some doubt whether it might not be necessary to interrupt
the funeral in order to take sail off the ship. The lower-deck ports
lay completely under water, and several times the muzzles of the
main-deck guns were plunged into the sea; so that the ends of the
grating on which the remains of poor "Dolly" were laid, once or
twice nearly touched the tops of the waves, as they foamed and
hissed past. The rain fell fast on the bare heads of the crew,
dropping also on the officers during all the ceremony, from the foot
of the mainsail, and wetting the leaves of the prayer-book. The wind
sighed over us amongst the wet shrouds, with a note so mournful,
that there could not have been a more appropriate dirge.

"'The ship pitching violently, strained and cracked from end to end;
so that, what with the noise of the sea, the rattling of the ropes,
and the whistling of the wind, hardly one word of the service could
be distinguished. The men, however, understood by a motion of the
captain's hand, when the time came, and the body of our dear little
brother was committed to the deep.

"'So violent a squall was sweeping past the ship at this moment that
no sound was heard of the usual splash, which made the sailors
(naturally superstitious) allege, that their young favorite never
touched the water at all, but was at once carried off in the gale to
his final resting-place!'"

GEORGE. "Oh! how very melancholy. It seems much more dismal to be
buried in the sea than on the land:

  "'For the dead should lie in the churchyard green,
  Where the pleasant flowers do spring.'"

EMMA. "I shall be grateful to Captain Hall if his pathetic
description of the funeral of 'Dolly' checks your desire to become a
sailor, George; for I cannot bear to think of it. We are now to sail
along the coast of South America, and the first gulfs in the north
of this coast are the gulfs of Maracaybo, Coro, Trieste, and Paria,
by the island of Trinidad, where----"

CHARLES. "Stop! stop! Emma. Out of four gulfs there must be
something to be had worth fishing for, is there not?"

MR. BARRAUD. "You may fish for melancholy in the Gulf of Trieste,
Charles, if you are so disposed, for it is a dreadful place. Here,
in the midst of furious waves, enormous rocks raise their isolated
heads, and scarcely, even with a fair wind, can ships overcome the
strength of the stream."

CHARLES. "We will not angle in _that_ gulf; but I have fished up an
island in Maracaybo, or Venezuela Gulf. It is called Curacoa, and is
arid and sterile. There is very little water, and only one well in
the island, and the water is sold at a high price. Its capital is
Williamstadt, one of the neatest cities in the West Indies."

MRS. WILTON. "The entrance to the Gulf of Paria on the north side is
called Dragon's Mouth, on the south, Serpent's Mouth. This gulf
separates Trinidad from South America. Trinidad is about 70 miles
from east to west, and nearly 50 from north to south. The most
remarkable phenomenon there is a bituminous lake, situated on the
western coast, near the village of La Brea. It is nearly three miles
in extent, of a circular form, and about 80 feet above the level of
the sea. Small islands, covered with plants and shrubs, are
occasionally observed on this lake, but it is subject to frequent
changes, and the verdant isles often disappear. Trinidad is
important on account of its fertility, its extent, and its

EMMA. "The next bay in our course is the Bay of Oyapok."

MRS. WILTON. "And the next country in our course is Guiana, washed
by the Atlantic. This country is subject to annual inundations. All
the rivers overflow their banks; forests, trees, shrubs, and
parasitical plants seem to float on the water, and the sea tinged
with yellow clay, adds its billows to the fresh-water streams.
Quadrupeds are forced to take refuge on the highest trees: large
lizards, agoutis, and pecaries[12] quit their watery dens and
remain on the branches. Aquatic birds spring upon the trees to avoid
the cayman[13] and serpents that infest the temporary lakes. The
fish forsake their ordinary food, and live on the fruits and berries
of the shrubs through which they swim,--the crab is found upon
trees, and the oyster multiplies in the forest. The Indian, who
surveys from his canoe this new chaos, this confusion of earth and
sea, suspends his hammock on an elevated branch, and sleeps without
fear in the midst of so great danger."

[Footnote 12: Animals similar to the wild boar of Europe, but very

[Footnote 13: Cayman: a species of alligator.]

GRANDY. "Emma will have more than she can accomplish to-night, if
she wishes to enter all the bays around South America, for no
country in the world is so famous for its enormous gulfs."

MR. WILTON. "Yes; we must make a division for another meeting.
To-night we will sail down to Cape Horn, and sojourn there until the
21st of this month. We could not choose a more favorable time than
March for our visit."

EMMA. "Very well, then, we will merely mention some of these bays,
viz.:--Pinzon, Maripani, Gurupy, Turiassu, Cuma, Paraiba, All
Saints, Camanu, and St. Salvador Bay, near Rio de Janeiro."

MR. WILTON. "Well, Emma, you have certainly manoeuvred well to bring
us over the equator without the usual visitation of Neptune and
Amphitrite, and we must all thank you for landing us, without a
ducking, in the principal town of Brazil. So now we will walk about
and see the lions."

GEORGE. "We can go and fill our pockets, papa; for it is said that
through the whole of this country, at the depth of twenty-four feet
from the surface, there is a thin vein of gold, the particles of
which are carried by the springs and heavy rains into the
neighboring rivers, from the sands of which they are gathered by
negroes employed for that purpose. There, too, we might happen to
find some diamonds"

CHARLES. "You would find it not so easy to collect gold and diamonds
as you imagine, and I expect you would come back poorer than you

MRS. WILTON. "Rio de Janeiro possesses one of the finest harbors
known, having at its entrance a bar, at the extremes of which rise
two rocks. This bay is twenty-four leagues in length, and eight in
width, and has in it many islands; some are cultivated and possess
sugar-works. The most celebrated of them is named De Cobra, off
which island ships cast anchor. On the opposite side of this city, a
natural wall of rocks, called Los Organos, extends itself as far as
the sea, and forms a perfect line of defence independently of the
neighboring fortresses."

EMMA. "Paraguay is the adjacent coast, and derives its name from the
Payaguas, a treacherous and deceitful people, who subsist by
fishing. It is a fertile district, and produces a species of
ilex,[14] which makes the tea so much used in South America. The
laborers, who esteem it vastly more than we do our Chinese tea,
will refuse to work if deprived of it. The twigs are steeped with
the leaves, and the tea is taken through a silver or glass tube. The
gulfs along here are not very important. I have no account of them."

[Footnote 14: Ilex: a species of oak.]

MRS. WILTON. "Monte Video is the next coast, and derives its name
from a mountain near the city; it is completely enclosed with
fortifications. The inhabitants are humane and well disposed. The
ladies in general affable and polite, and extremely fond of dress,
and very neat and cleanly in their persons. They adopt the English
costume at home, but go abroad usually in black, and always covered
with a large veil or mantle. Provisions here are very cheap; and
such is the profusion of flesh-meat, that the vicinity for two miles
round, and even the purlieus of the town itself, present filthy
spectacles of bones and raw flesh at every step, which feed immense
flocks of sea-gulls, and, in summer, breed myriads of flies, to the
great annoyance of the inhabitants, who are obliged, at table, to
have a servant or two continually employed in fanning the dishes
with feathers to drive away these troublesome intruders."

EMMA. "Between Monte Video and Buenos Ayres are many bays: False
Bay, Brightman Bay, and Union Bay are the principal."

MRS. WILTON. "Buenos Ayres was founded in 1535 by Don Pedro de
Mendoza, who gave it that name on account of the salubrity of its
climate. This town is in many respects the most considerable of all
the commercial towns in South America. Bread is by no means the
staff of life here, for meat and the great variety of roots and
grain with which the country abounds, afford to the poor inhabitants
an equally healthy and even more nutritious substance."

EMMA."--South of Buenos Ayres are Antonio Bay, Nuevo Gulf, Ergano
Bay, Gulf of Vera, and Gulf of St. George, which last runs into the
country of the gigantic Patagonians."

MR. BARRAUD. "The bays here afford good anchorage for ships; but
there are neither inhabitants, wood, nor fresh water in the adjacent
country: a few aquatic birds and sea-wolves remain unmolested on
these dismal shores."

MR. WILTON. "Patagonia is inhabited by wandering tribes of Indians.
From their extraordinary size they have given rise to many
remarkable tales. Fernandez de Magalhanes says, that one day, when
the fleet was anchored at Port San Julian, a person of gigantic
stature appeared on the shore. He sang, he danced, and sprinkled
dust on his forehead: a sailor was sent to land, with orders to
imitate his gestures, which were considered signals of peace. The
seaman performed his part so well, that the giant accompanied him to
the commander's vessel. He pointed to the sky, wishing to inquire if
the Spaniards had descended from heaven. His size was such that the
sailors' heads did not come up to his waist."

GEORGE. "But are they really giants, papa?"

MR. WILTON. "Not exactly _giants_, my dear; not men who could travel
in seven league boots: but they are really large people; many of
them seven feet high; and such men seen through a traveller's
microscope, would be magnified to huge giants!"

CHARLES. "Now, here we are in the land of Fires! and yet it is very
cold. Emma, you are surely not going to name all these little bays?"

EMMA. "Do not be alarmed, Charles: I will not so far tax your
patience; but we must see Terra del Fuego. It is divided into three
large islands,--South Desolation, Clarence Island, and King
Charles's Southland; besides which there are hundreds of smaller
isles, habited and uninhabited."

MRS. WILTON. "Having reached the southern extremity of the American
continent, we may take an excursion to some of the neighboring
islands; for although they are not all subject to America, still
they are nearer to it than to any other country. To the south of
Patagonia there is a number of cold, barren, and mountainous
islands; volcanoes which cannot melt, brighten and illumine the
perpetual snow in these dismal regions. Here it was that the sailors
observed fires on the southern shores of the strait, for which
reason the land on that side was called Terra del Fuego."

GEORGE. "Mamma, I wish to know why March is a favorable month for
visiting Cape Horn?"

MRS. WILTON. "Because midsummer takes place in February, and is the
best time of the year. July is the worst month, for then the sun
does not rise until nine o'clock, and it sets at three, giving
eighteen hours night; and then, also, snow and rain, gales and high
winds are in abundance. Charles, will you favor us with some account
of the islands?"

CHARLES. "Staten is a detached island, which may be considered as
forming part of the archipelago of Terra del Fuego. It was
discovered by Lemaire.

"The Falklands are two large islands, separated from each other by a
broad channel of the same name. We are now nearly out of the

MR. WILTON. "Yes; we had now better clear the decks, and pipe to

GEORGE. "One question more, dear papa. Can any one tell the depth of
the Atlantic?"

MR. WILTON. "The depth is extremely various, and in many places
wholly beyond the power of man to fathom. The greatest depth that
has ever been reached, was effected by Captain Scoresby in the sea
near Greenland, in the year 1817, and was 7,200 feet. Many parts of
the Atlantic are thought to be three times this depth. How much is
that, my boy?"

GEORGE. "21,600 feet, papa."

MR. WILTON. "Well done! Now go and discuss mamma's _realities_, and
try and remember as much as possible of our imaginary wanderings,
that they may prove of _real_ utility to you in your journey through


  The water of the vast ocean,
  When it has raged with all its fury, becalms itself again;
  This is the course of the world;--and likewise still to forget.
  _Kalmuck Song_.

There were no disappointments on the twenty-first; but there was
evidently some cause of uneasiness, for there was a great deal of
whispering between George and his sister, and a great many
significant glances at papa, which plainly indicated that some
important disclosure was about to be made. But muffins and tea
appeared, and disappeared, and still not a word. George fidgeted,
and Emma looked uneasy, which Mr. Wilton observing, he said: "I
apprehend there will be no business done to-night, unless I set
these anxious little folks at rest, by informing the present company
of the events which have transpired since our last meeting. I
believe you were aware that it was my intention shortly to visit
Jamaica. During the past week I have been bringing affairs to a
crisis, and it is now finally arranged, that, should nothing
intervene to the prevention of our plans, we sail for that island on
or about the thirtieth of next month. This, of course, will preclude
the possibility of meeting many more times; but I think we may
promise ourselves one farewell debate. I regret our separation
principally on account of our little society, for it has been the
means of passing our evenings, not only agreeably, but profitably.
Should our lives be spared, I trust we shall again assemble under
the same roof and again enjoy the advantages of each other's

This news spread a gloom over the little party, for they could not
contemplate a separation from their kind friends without feelings of
deep regret, and there were more tears than smiles in their usually
bright eyes.

Grandy looked from one young face to another: all wore the same
expression. Thoughtful, sorrowful, and silent, they sat around the
table where they had enjoyed so many happy hours; and she, too, felt
that, although it is delightful to possess the affection of friends,
yet too often that affection is the cause of much anxiety and deep
enduring sorrow.

A separation of 5000 miles was not a trifling cause of grief; but it
was a pity to tinge the next month of their existence with
unavailing melancholy: it had been better that it had remained a
secret, than to have caused such unhappiness to cloud their serene
and cheerful days; and Mrs. Wilton endeavored to make them view the
matter in a brighter light. "At all events," she said, "we must not
render each other miserable, because we are called upon to exercise
this self-denial. It is wrong to waste in unavailing regrets the
time we have still to be together, and be gloomy and sad for a whole
month. No! that cannot possibly improve our affairs, and will only
unfit us for the performance of our duty, and increase our misery.
Come, wipe away those glistening tears, my children, or they will
freeze on your cheeks; for, if I mistake not, we are supposed to be
somewhere about the sixtieth parallel of south latitude, and the
thermometer somewhat below Zero. Come, see who will find the
situation first. George, try what you can do."

The children commenced their search, and before George exclaimed
"South Shetland, dear mamma!" every eye, although still dimmed with
tears, was eagerly in quest of the desired parallel.

MRS. WILTON. "Right, George! I fear it will not be prudent to
venture any further south, as we may encounter some ice-islands, for
there are several in this vicinity; but I should like to hear, if
any of you can tell me why Deception Isle (one of the South Shetland
group) is so called?"

DORA. "It is so called from its very exact resemblance to a ship in
full sail, and has deceived many navigators. This island is
inhabited only by penguins, sea-leopards, pintadors, and various
kinds of petrels. It is volcanic, apparently composed of alternate
layers of ashes and ice, as if the snow of each winter, during a
series of years, had been prevented from melting in the following
summer by the ejection of cinders and ashes from some part where
volcanic action is still in progress; and that such is the case
seems probable, from the fact of there being at least one hundred
and fifty holes from which steam issues with a loud hissing noise,
and which are, or were, visible from the top of one of the hills
immediately above the small cone where Lieutenant Kendall's ship was
secured, to whom I am indebted for this information."

MRS. WILTON. "The only habitable islands near here are the Sandwich
Isles (not Captain Cook's) and Georgia; but they are neither large,
numerous, nor important: we will, therefore, round the Cape and
enter the Pacific Ocean."

DORA "According to Emma's chart we are to follow the coast, calling
at as many of the islands as are worthy of notice; but, previously,
here are the bays to be enumerated, and such a number of them! I
could scarcely have imagined it possible for any shores to be so

EMMA. "I need not read all the names, as with your maps you can each
read for yourself; but the following are the largest: Gulf of
Trinidad. Gulf of Penas, Gulf of Ancud by the Island of Chiloe, and
Conception Bay on the coast of Chili."

MRS. WILTON. "Here is a part for me to play, I perceive. The natives
of the coast of the Gulf of Penas are descendants of the
Araucanians, a warlike people, who, observing the great advantages
the Europeans possessed from the use of gunpowder, tried in vain to
learn its composition. They saw negroes among the Spaniards, and
because their color was supposed to resemble that of gunpowder, they
imagined they had discovered the long-wished-for secret. A poor
negro was caught by them and burnt alive, in the full belief that
gunpowder would be obtained from his ashes."

GEORGE. "Poor man! what ignorant people they must be. Are we to stop
at the Island of Chiloe?"

MR. BARRAUD. "Most certainly, as you will agree when you hear what I
have to say. It lies near the south coast of Chili: its length is
120 miles, average breadth 40 miles. It is mountainous and covered
with cedar, which is exported in great quantities to Peru and Chili.
The climate is healthy, but damp, as it rains ten months out of the
year. Money is here almost unknown, and traffic is conducted by
barter, or payment in indigo, tea, salt, or Cayenne pepper. All
these articles are much valued, particularly the indigo for dyeing
woollens, for the weaving of which there is a loom in every house.
According to Captain Blankley, the golden age would seem to be
revived in this part of the world. 'Murders,' says he, 'robbery, or
persons being in debt, are never heard of: drunkenness is only known
or seen when European vessels are in port: not a private dwelling in
the towns or country has a lock on the doors, and the prison is in
disuse.' The inhabitants are cheerful, and passionately fond of
music and dancing."

EMMA. "I think we had better remain at Chiloe: it must be a
delightful place to live in, where all the inhabitants are so
upright and honest."

MRS. WILTON. "Yes, my dear; but business must be attended to before
pleasure, and we are bound for Chili.

"Chili is an independent State, and includes the country of those
same ignorant Araucanians; who, notwithstanding their attributed
ignorance, have proved themselves equal in some respects to
Europeans; for _they_ have tried in vain to subdue this warlike race
of men. The shores of Chili are mostly high, steep, and rocky. The
whole country is extremely rich in metals: silver is there found
nearer the surface than in any other country. Nearly all the rivers
wash down gold and there are copper, lead, and even _coal_ mines.
The Chilians are good potters, and make light, strong, earthenware
jars, which ring like metal. Chili is _specially_ subject to
earthquakes; shocks are felt in some parts almost daily, and the
country is continually desolated by them."

MR. WILTON. "The little island of Mocha on this coast was once
celebrated as a resort of buccaneers, and thickly peopled; but it
was found deserted by Captain Strong in 1690; and appears to have
remained uninhabited since."

EMMA. "The most memorable island near our course is Juan Fernandez,
110 miles from the coast. I ought rather to have said islands, for
there are two. The largest was discovered by a Spaniard in 1563, and
has been so much praised by early navigators, that it has been
thought an earthly paradise. Its chief advantages arises from its
being a good resting-place for ships. This island is called
Mas-a-terra, because nearest the continent. There are many Spanish
settlers there, who have erected a battery, and built a town. The
smaller island is generally called Mas-a-fuero, because further from
the continent."

MR. WILTON. "Juan Fernandez has lately been taken on lease from the
Chilian Government, by an enterprising American, who has taken
thither about 150 families of Tahitians, with the intention of
cultivating the land, rearing cattle, and so improving the port of
Cumberland Bay, that it may become the resort of whalers, and other
vessels navigating the Pacific Ocean."

CHARLES. "Oh! for the imagination of Daniel de Foe to conjure up the
delightful pictures of his Robinson Crusoe. The poet Cowper has done
much towards handing the event down to posterity, in his touching
account of the feelings of the poor outcast when he found himself on
the desolate shore."

GEORGE. "Oh! you mean Alexander Selkirk's soliloquy. I think I can
remember some of the verses:--

  "' I am out of humanity's reach,
  I must finish my journey alone,
  Never hear the sweet music of speech,
  I start at the sound of my own.
  The beasts that roam over the plain
  My form with indifference bee;
  They're so unaccustomed to man,
  Their tameness is shocking to me.'

  "'Religion I what treasure untold
  Resides in that heavenly word!
  More precious than silver or gold,
  Or all that this earth can afford;
  But the sound of the church-going bell,
  These valleys and rocks never heard,
  Ne'er sigh'd at the sound of a knell,
  Or smil'd when a sabbath appear'd."

  "'Ye winds, that have made me your sport,
  Convey to this desolate shore,
  Some cordial, endearing report
  Of a land I shall visit no more.
  My friends--do they now and then send
  A wish or a thought after me?
  Oh! tell me I yet have a friend,
  Though a friend I am never to see!'"

EMMA. "A life of solitude must be very dreadful: we cannot conceive
such an existence while surrounded by our dear friends, and all the
luxuries of civilized life. How long was Alexander Selkirk on the

CHARLES. "Four years and four months, I believe."

DORA. "In sailing along the coast of Peru we must pass close to
Lima, its capital, which is a magnificent city. Like other Spanish
cities of America it is laid out in quadras or squares of houses,
and through the centre of nearly all the streets runs a stream of
water three feet wide, which carries away a good portion of the
refuse of the city."

MR. BARRAUD. "The ladies of Lima are celebrated for beauty and
fineness of figure. They wear a very remarkable walking dress,
peculiar to this city and Truxillo. It consists of two parts, one
called the _saya_, the other the _manto_. The first is an elastic
dress, fitting close to the figure down to the ankles; the other is
an entire envelope, disclosing scarcely more than one eye to the
most scrutinizing observer. A rich colored handkerchief or a silk
band and tassel are frequently tied around the waist, and hang
nearly to the ground in front."

MRS. WILTON. "The population of Peru consists principally of
Indians, Spaniards and Negroes. The first are represented by
travellers as in the lowest stage of civilization, without any
desire for the comforts of civilized life, immersed in sloth and
apathy, from which they can rarely be roused, except when they have
an opportunity of indulging to excess in ardent spirits, of which
they are excessively fond. They are dirty in the extreme, seldom
taking off their clothes even to sleep, and still more rarely using
water. Their habitations are miserable hovels, destitute of every
convenience and disgustingly filthy."

MR. WILTON. "The Peruvians had at one time a curious contrivance for
crossing their rivers. They did not know how to make a bridge of
wood or stone; but necessity, the parent of invention, supplied that
defect. They formed cables of great strength, by twisting together
some of the pliable withes or osiers with which their country
abounds; six of these cables they stretched across the stream
parallel to one another, and made them fast on each side; these they
bound firmly together, by inter-weaving smaller ropes so close as to
form a compact piece of net-work, which being covered with branches
of trees and earth, they passed along it with tolerable security.
Proper persons were appointed to attend to each bridge, to keep it
in repair, and to assist passengers."

GEORGE. "Almost as clever a contrivance as the bridge of the present
day, although neither so strong nor durable. They were a persevering

EMMA. "The Gulf of Guayaquil is so called from a river of this name
which is famous for its shifting sand-banks, on which as the water
recedes alligators are left in great numbers. The Bay of Choco is on
the same coast (Columbia), and is the scene of continual storms. The
greatest riches in washed gold are deposited in the provinces of
Choco. The largest piece found there weighed twenty-five pounds; but
this country, so rich in gold, is at the same time scourged with
continual famine."

GRANDY. "Proving that gold is only valuable as the means of
procuring the necessaries of life, and enabling its possessor to
benefit his fellow-creatures. 'Whoso seeth his brother have need,
and shutteth up his compassion, how dwelleth the love of God in
him?' The people here value not the gold, for it is unable to buy
them freedom from the awful scourge."

DORA. "Emma, the Bay of Choco is on the coast of Granada, which,
although it is a district of Columbia, is large enough to be
regarded with some attention, particularly as it is actually one of
the three great divisions of Columbia."

CHARLES. "Nearly in the same latitude, just over the equator, are
the Galapagos. They are pretty islands: the cactus and aloe cover
the sides of the rocks, flamingoes and turtle-doves fill the air,
and the beach is covered with enormous turtle. But no trace whatever
indicates the residence of man, and I believe no man has ever landed
on these lonely shores."

MRS. WILTON. "Columbia abounds in stupendous natural wonders;
amongst the rest are the natural bridges of Iconongo, not far from
Bogota; the fall of Tequendama, the loftiest cataract; and the Silla
de Caracas, the loftiest cliff yet discovered. The climate is hot
and unhealthy, and the country subject to earthquakes. It is
inhabited by Indians, Spaniards, and Negroes. The Caribs are the
ruling Indian tribe; they are tall, of a reddish copper-color, with
dark intelligent eyes, and a grave expression of features. They
raise the flesh of their legs and thighs in long stripes, and shave
most of the hair from their heads, but do not flatten the forehead,
as is customary with the other tribes along the Orinoco. Columbia is
a country of great natural riches, but suffered to lie for the most
part waste, for the people are naturally indolent; and Captain Hall
remarks, that the Columbian who can eat beef and plantains, and
smoke cigars as he swings in his hammock, is possessed of almost
everything his habits qualify him to enjoy, or which his ambition
prompts him to attain."

MR. BARRAUD. "Along this coast many of the inhabitants subsist as
fishermen; and the Indians of Cartago have a singular method of
catching wild-fowl, which may here be noticed:--They leave
calabashes continually floating on the water that the birds may be
accustomed to the sight of them. When they wish to catch any of
these wild-fowl, they go into the water with their heads covered
each with a calabash, in which they make two holes for seeing
through; they then swim towards the birds, throwing a handful of
maize on the water from time to time, the grains of which scatter
on the surface. The birds approach to feed on the maize, and at the
moment the swimmer seizes them by the feet, pulls them under water,
and wrings their necks before they can make the least movement, or,
by their noise, spread an alarm among the flock. Many families are
supported in this way by disposing of the birds thus caught at a low
price in the markets."

EMMA. "The next bay is Panama, in which are the Gulf of St. Michael
and Gulf of Parita. There are several islands here, but the largest
is Rey Isle. The Gulf of Dolce runs into Costa Rica, and so does the
Gulf of Nicoya: and the little bays about here must not detain us."

MRS. WILTON. "San Jose is the capital of Costa Rica. There are no
fine buildings in this city, and the churches are inferior to many
erected by the Spaniards in the smallest villages. Nevertheless, the
whole place exhibits a business like appearance, much more so than
most cities in this lethargic part of the world. In Costa Rica is a
volcanic mountain, Cartago (now quiet), from the top of which the
traveller can view the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans at one glance. In
a right line over the tops of the mountains, neither is more than
twenty miles distant, and from the great height from which they are
seen they appear to be almost at the traveller's feet. It is the
only point in the world which commands a view of the two Oceans."

GRANDY. "I remember a touching description of a funeral in San
Jose, which will not be out of place here:--

"'While Mr. Stephens (the author of several delightful books) was
standing in a corridor of his friend's house, a man passed with a
child in his arms. He was its father, and with a smile on his face
was carrying it to its grave. He was followed by two boys playing on
violins, and others were laughing around. The child was dressed in
white, with a wreath of roses around its head; and as it lay in its
father's arms, it did not seem dead but sleeping. The grave was not
quite ready, and the boys sat on the heap of dirt thrown out, and
played their violins until it was finished. The father then laid the
child carefully in its final resting-place, with its head to the
rising sun, folded its little hands across its breast, and closed
its fingers around a small wooden crucifix; and it seemed, as they
thought it was, happy at escaping the troubles of an uncertain
world. There were no tears shed; on the contrary, all were cheerful;
and though it appeared heartless, it was not because the father did
not love his child, but because he and all his friends had been
taught to believe, and were firm in the conviction, that, taken away
so young, it was transferred immediately to a better world. The
father sprinkled a handful of dirt over its face; the grave-digger
took his shovel; in a few moments the little grave was filled up,
and, preceded by the boys playing on their violins, they departed.'"

MRS. WILTON. "There is a spirit of thankfulness evinced in that
father's conduct which requires great faith. I fear none of us
would be found to possess as much under such a trial, for the spirit
is, unhappily, at most times under the dominion of the flesh."

GEORGE. "Is not Papagayo Bay close to the Lake of Nicaragua?"

EMMA. "It is only divided from the Ocean by a portion of the
district of Nicaragua. It is a great lake, ninety five miles long,
and thirty broad, and is navigable for ships of the largest class."

DORA. "It is covered with beautiful and populous islands, and two of
them--viz. Isola and Madeira--contain burning mountains. The largest
volcano--Omotepeque--always continues burning, and reminds one of
Mount Etna rising from the water's edge, a smooth unbroken cone to
the height of nearly 1000 feet. The waters of this lake descend by
the river St. John towards the Atlantic; but there is no outlet into
the Pacific Ocean."

GEORGE. "I should like to know why the Pacific is so called?"

[Illustration: THE EARTHQUAKE]

CHARLES. "I can tell you, George. In the year 1520, when Magellan
was on his way to the Spice Islands (the Moluccas, you know), he and
the crew suffered dreadful privations: they were nearly four months
at sea without discovering land. Their stock of provisions was
almost exhausted, the water became putrid, and in consequence the
poor men were attacked with that horrible disease the scurvy. The
only source of consolation, under these troubles, was the
uninterrupted fair weather they enjoyed, and the favorable winds
which wafted them gently onward; so that Magellan was induced to
call the Ocean Pacific: hence the origin of its name."

GEORGE. "Thank you, Charles. How pleasant it is to get all the
information we require, without the trouble of searching in great
dusty books. Now, Emma, will it please you to travel onward?"

EMMA. "What, George! Have you, too, caught the mania, that you are
in such a hurry to get to California?"

GEORGE. "Not to go gold-hunting, indeed; but the Rocky Mountains are
up in the north, and I have a story about them."

EMMA. "Well, to oblige you and ourselves too, we will proceed. The
Gulfs of Fonseca and Conchagua are deep indentations, about the
middle of the coast of Guatemala, to which country Costa Rica

MRS. WILTON. "The city of Guatemala was founded in 1776. It is
situated on table-land, 5000 feet above the sea and enjoys a
delicious climate,--literally, a perpetual spring. Beautiful
churches and buildings adorn this city; but the houses are built
only one story high, in order more effectually to resist the action
of earthquakes; for you must know this city has close to it two
burning mountains--Fuego and Agua, which prove the volcanic nature
of the earth. Among all the phenomena of nature few appear to be
attended with such horrible consequences as earthquakes. Thousands,
who in one moment are full of busy life, are, the next, swallowed up
as if they had never existed, or crushed to death by fragments of
falling buildings. In _six minutes_, by the great earthquake of
Lisbon, in 1755, sixty thousand souls were launched into eternity;
and though none in this city have equalled in destructiveness the
great one at Lisbon, yet Guatemala has been several times nearly
destroyed by earthquakes, combined with the eruptions of the
neighboring volcanoes."

MR. BARRAUD. "The inhabitants are mostly of Spanish origin;
consequently, mostly Roman Catholics; and a recent traveller says
that from the moment of his arrival, he was struck with the devout
appearance of the city of Guatemala. At matins and vespers, the
churches were all open, and the people, particularly the women, went
regularly to prayers. Every house had its figure of the Virgin, the
Saviour, or some tutelary saint, and on the door were billets of
paper with prayers. You will be surprised to hear that nearly all
the ladies in Central America smoke. The married ladies smoke
_puros_, or all tobacco; the unmarried ladies smoke _cigars_, or
tobacco wrapped in paper or straw."

DORA. "What an odd indulgence for a lady! In England, ladies never
smoke; although I must say I have often seen poor women with pipes
in their mouths, and thought what a dirty habit it was."

MRS. WILTON. "It is the custom of the country, and were you a
Spanish lady, Dora, I have no doubt you would enjoy a cigar as much
as any of the senoritas. We shall next see the shore of Mexico. What
gulfs must we pass to accomplish this?"

EMMA. "Only the Gulf of Tehuantepec which is worth noticing."

MRS. WILTON. "Mexico has been travelled over already; so we will
pass on to the Gulf of California."

GEORGE. "But is there not a place called New Mexico?"

DORA. "Yes, but not near the coast: however, I will tell you all I
know about it. It is mostly inhabited by Christian Indians, of whom
there are no fewer than thirty villages. They are of various tribes,
but all trained to industrial habits, and are in every respect a
worthy set of people. Their clothing is the skin of wild goats;
their women wear mantles of cotton or wool. Their mode of travelling
is on horseback, and the only access to their huts, which are
square, with open galleries on the top, is by a ladder, which is
removed during the night."

CHARLES. "Robinson Crusoe fashion, I presume?"

DORA. "Exactly. 'Now we are in front of the entrance to San
Francisco Bay. The mountains on the northern side are 3000 feet in
height, and come boldly down to the sea As the view opens through
the splendid strait, three or four miles in width, the island rock
of Alcatraz appears, gleaming white in the distance. At last we are
through the Golden Gate--fit name for such a magnificent portal to
the commerce of the Pacific. The Bay is crowded with the shipping of
the world, and the flags of all nations are fluttering in the
breeze.'[15] Before us lies the grand emporium of the Gold
Region--a city which has well nigh realized the extravagance of the
Arabian Nights Entertainments. As if by the touch of a magic wand,
what was five years ago a little Indian village is now a large and
flourishing city, which is increasing at a prodigious rate. From
every nation and people and clime, emigrants have been pressing to
it in pursuit of the precious metal. The golden sands of California,
with their brilliant glitter, have attracted thousands upon
thousands from every land--and there is now arising on the far
distant shores of the Pacific a great Empire destined to exert a
mighty influence in the affairs of the world. The glowing prospect
which the success of the first adventurers had created, soon drew to
her shores the energy and enterprise of the nations of both Europe
and America. 'Around the curving shore of the Bay and upon the sides
of three hills, which rise steeply from the water, the middle one
receding so as to form a bold amphitheatre, the town is planted and
seems scarcely yet to have taken root, for tents, canvass, plank,
mud and adobe houses are mingled together with the least apparent
attempt at order and durability.' However, the appearance of the
city is fast improving--for churches and schools and public
buildings are springing up on every side, and substantial edifices
are fast taking the place of the more temporary erections. The
sudden rush or so many people to one point, and many of them poorly
provided, combined with the abundance of the gold, caused provision,
rents, and labor to rise to enormous prices. A tent for instance,
called Eldorado, fifteen by twenty feet, occupied mostly by gamblers
brought the enormous yearly rent of $40,000. 'Miners' Bank,' used by
Wright & Co., brokers, about half the size of a fire-engine house,
was held at a rent of $75,000. A gentleman who wished to find a law
office, was shown a cellar in the earth, about twelve feet square
and six feet deep, which he could have at $250 _per month_. One of
the common soldiers at the battle of San Pasquale was reputed to be
among the millionaires of the place, and had an income of fifty
thousand dollars monthly.

[Footnote 15: J. Bayard Taylor's 'Eldorado.']

"The prices paid for labor were in proportion to everything else.
The carman of Mellus Howard & Co., had a salary of $6000 a year, and
many others made from fifteen to twenty dollars daily. Servants were
paid from a hundred to two hundred dollars a month. This state of
things, as might have been expected, did not long continue, for all
things soon find their level, and the rapid importation of produce,
materials and laborers, had soon the effect of lowering the prices
to a fair and ordinary scale.

"California territory belongs to the United States of North America,
and will, doubtless, in a short time, form several distinct states
in that already powerful confederacy."

MR. WILTON. "Now, George, we have arrived at the Gulf of
Georgia;--you will not have very far to travel to the Rocky

CHARLES. "The Gulf of Georgia is very considerable: it divides
Quadra or Vancouver's Island from the continent, and communicates
with the Pacific to the south by Claaset's Straits, and to the north
by Queen Charlotte's Sound. Quadra is a large island, and I think
better known by the name of Nootka Sound, which is at the south end
of the island, and contains an English establishment."

MRS. WILTON. "The natives of Nootka Sound are not an interesting
people, and are greatly inferior to the other tribes inhabiting the
continent. They are short, plain-looking people, not unlike the
Esquimaux. Their ordinary dress consists of a mantle edged with fur
at the top, and fringed at the bottom, which is made out of the bark
of the pine, beaten into fibres. Their food is mostly drawn from the
sea. Large stores of fish are dried and smoked, and the roes,
prepared like caviare, form their winter bread. They drink fish-oil,
and mix it with their food. The women go fishing occasionally, and
are as skilful as the men; but their usual occupation is within
doors, preparing the fabric of which their garments are composed.
Captain Cook, in speaking of their houses, says: 'They are as filthy
as hog-sties,--everything in and about them stinking of fish,
train-oil, and smoke.'"

GEORGE. "I shall have to travel upwards of 600 miles to tell my
story; but, as truth is worth seeking, I do not mind the trouble: so
here it is:--

#Story of Boone and the Bear.#

"A young man named Boone, son of the mighty American hunter, made a
settling amongst the Rocky Mountains, and when his hut was erected
he used to leave it for days, out on hunting expeditions. One night,
after returning from one of these enterprises, he retired to rest on
his solitary pallet. The heat was intense, and, as usual in these
countries during summer, he had left his door wide open. It was
about midnight, when he was awakened by the noise of something
tumbling in the room: he rose in a moment, and hearing a short and
heavy breathing, he asked who it was, for the darkness was such that
he could not see two yards before him. No answer being given, except
a kind of half smothered grunt, he advanced,--and, putting out his
hand, he seized the shaggy coat of a BEAR! Surprise rendered him
motionless; and the animal, giving him a blow on the chest with his
terrible paw, threw him down outside the door. Boone could have
escaped, but, maddened with the pain of his fall, he only thought of
vengeance,--and, seizing his knife and tomahawk, which were
fortunately within his reach, he darted furiously at the beast,
dealing blows at random. Great as was his strength, his tomahawk
could not penetrate through the thick coat of the animal, which,
having encircled the body of his assailant with his paws, was
pressing him in one of those deadly embraces which could only have
been resisted by a giant like Boone (who was six feet nine inches
in height and proportionably strong). Fortunately, the Black bear,
unlike the Grizzly, very seldom uses his claws and teeth in
fighting, contenting himself with smothering his victim. Boone
disentangled his left arm, and with his knife dealt a furious blow
upon the snout of the animal, which, smarting with pain, released
his hold. The snout is the only vulnerable part in an old black
bear. Even at forty yards, the ball of a rifle will flatten against
his skull, and if in any other part of the body it will scarcely
produce any serious effect. Boone, aware of this, and not daring to
risk another hug, darted away from the cabin. The bear, now quite
angry, followed and overtook him near the fence. Fortunately, the
clouds were clearing away, and the moon threw light sufficient to
enable the hunter to strike with a more certain aim: he found also
on the ground one of the rails, made of the blue ash, very heavy,
and ten feet in length; he dropped his knife and tomahawk, and,
seizing the rail, he renewed the fight with caution, for it had now
become a struggle for life or death.

"Had it been a bull or a panther, they would have had their bones
shivered to pieces by the tremendous blows which Boone dealt upon
his adversary with all the strength of despair; but Bruin is by
nature an admirable fencer, and, in spite of his unwieldy shape,
there is not in the world an animal whose motions are more rapid in
a close encounter. Once or twice he was knocked down by the force of
the blows, but generally he would parry them with a wonderful
agility. At last he succeeded in seizing the other end of the rail,
and dragged it towards him with irresistible force. Both man and
beast fell, Boone rolling to the place where he had dropped his
arms, while the bear advanced upon him. The moment was a critical
one; but Boone was accustomed to look at and brave death under every
shape,--and, with a steady hand, he buried the tomahawk in the snout
of his enemy, and, turning round, he rushed to his cabin, believing
he would have time to secure the door. He closed the latch, and
applied his shoulders to it; but it was of no avail: the terrible
brute dashed in head foremost, and tumbled into the room, with Boone
and the fragments of the door. The two foes rose and stared at each
other. Boone had nothing left but his knife; but Bruin was tottering
and unsteady, and Boone felt that the match was more equal. Once
more they closed.

"A few hours after sunrise a friend called at the hut,--and, to his
horror, found Boone apparently lifeless on the floor, and alongside
of him the body of the bear. Boone soon recovered, and found that
the timely blow which had saved him from being crushed to death had
buried the whole blade of his knife through the left eye, in the
very brain of the huge animal."

CHARLES. "That is a spirited story, and very well told, George. I
should not like to have been Mr. Boone in such a situation, although
he was a 'mighty hunter;' a bear is an ugly animal to embrace."

DORA. "Yes; and, lest we should meet with any, we will leave the
Rocky Mountains and go on to the north of Quadra, where are situated
King George's Archipelago and the Admiralty Isles. The inhabitants
of the former bear some resemblance to the Esquimaux. The women wear
an extraordinary kind of ornament, which gives them the appearance
of having two mouths: it consists of a small piece of wood, which
they force into the flesh below the under lip."

MR. BARRAUD. "Those are Norfolk Sound people; but they are a kindly
race, notwithstanding their outrageous customs; and, to show you how
readily they are affected for good or evil, I will relate a
circumstance which happened when Captain Cleveland was trading with
them. A canoe containing eleven persons went alongside his vessel,
and raised the screens at the port-holes, to look in on the deck.
Before the captain had time to speak to them, the cook (either by
accident or design) threw a ladleful of hot water over them, which
causing an involuntary and sudden motion of their bodies to the
other side of the boat, immediately upset, and all were immersed in
the water. The confusion was then very great,--as those who at the
time were under the stern, engaged in traffic, fearing some
treachery, made haste to paddle away, without regarding the distress
of their comrades. All of these, however, appeared to be capable of
taking care of themselves; excepting an infant of about a year old,
whose struggles being observed by one of the mates, he jumped
overboard and saved it. The weather was very raw and chilly: the
captain had the child dried and warmed by the fire, then wrapped it
in a blanket, gave it a piece of sugar, and returned it to its
parents, who were exceedingly pleased and grateful; and, as soon as
all had recovered from the effects of their immersion, their
business (which was trading for skins of various kinds) was
conducted throughout the day to the mutual satisfaction of all

MR. WILTON. "As these islands are near the coast of Columbia, I wish
to inform you that here there is an excellent harbor and a navy
yard, to which ships of the largest tonnage may ascend. The yard
covers a space of thirty-seven acres, and in it are made nearly all
the anchors, cables, and blocks required for the service of the
United States' Navy, which, although inconsiderable in point of
numerical strength, is perhaps the best organized and most effective
in the world. The unexpected success of their frigates in contests
with British vessels of the same class has established the
reputation of the American navy for skill and prowess in the eyes of
Europe; and the United States, with comparatively few ships, already
rank high as a naval power."

EMMA. "We now pass Admiralty Bay, go through Cook's Inlet, out by
the Straits of Chilogoff, round by the Aleutian Isles into Bristol

MRS. WILTON. "The Aleutian Isles are very numerous, principally
volcanic: the three largest are Bhering's, Attoo, and Onolaska. The
natives are of a dark brown complexion, and the women disfigure
themselves by cutting an aperture in the under lip, to which various
trinkets are suspended. Their subsistence is principally obtained by
hunting and fishing. The seal is particularly valuable to them,
affording a constant supply of food and clothing. Their dwellings
are spacious excavations in the earth, roofed over with turf, as
many as 150 individuals sometimes residing in the different

GEORGE. "Must we go through Bhering's Straits: they will take us
into such very cold regions?"

EMMA. "We must not mind the cold if we can learn anything by going;
but, as you are afraid of venturing so far, we will leave you at
Point Hope, while we make our way to Point Barrow."

CHARLES. "Appear not at Point Hope. George; for if you do, you must
never hope to see us again. Do you know that the Indians who live in
the mountains not far from the Point are cannibals, and would seize
you for a delicious morsel? They are not at all particular folks;
and when there is a scarcity of food among them, they cast lots for
victims, and eat their relations without the slightest remorse."

MR. BARRAUD. "The fierce and savage propensities of these mountain
Indians have been circumstantially described by an old man, who,
while yet a stripling, fled from the tribe, and joined himself to
another tribe called Dog Ribs, in consequence of his finding his
mother, on his return from a successful day's hunting, employed in
roasting the body of her own child, his youngest brother!"

MRS. WILTON. "Oh! horrible! Let us quit this savage Point, and see
what Point Barrow resembles."

Mr. WILTON. "It is a long spit of land composed of sand and gravel.
When Captain Simpson was on an exploring expedition in the Polar
Seas, he landed there, and one of the first objects that presented
itself was an immense cemetery. There, the miserable remnants of
humanity lay on the ground, in the seal-skin dresses worn when
alive. A few were covered with an old sledge, or some pieces of
wood, but far the greater number were exposed to the voracity of
dogs and wild animals. The inhabitants of this Point are Esquimaux."

EMMA. "Bhering's Straits divide the Old from the New Continent, and
the water to the south beyond the Gulf of Anadir is called Bhering's
or Kamtschatka Sea, and washes the shores of Kamtschatka."

MRS. WILTON. "Kamtschatka is a portion of Asia, about the same size
as Great Britain. It is a cold, foggy country, and subject to sudden
storms of snow and sleet, which the natives call '_poorgas_,' and
when overtaken by one they do not attempt to travel through it, but
suffer the snow to bury them and their dogs, and as soon as it is
over, they extricate themselves as well as they can. The natives
comprising the two tribes of the Kamtschatdales and Koriaks differ
principally in their mode of life. They are all of low stature, and
not remarkable for their beauty. They are shy, averse to strangers,
but honest, and extremely hospitable. They dwell in fixed
habitations, although hunters and fishers; but their dwellings are
low, comfortless, and filthy, sunk in the ground in the winter
months, and raised on posts during summer to facilitate the curing
of fish, which are hung up on lines to dry. In travelling, they use
dogs harnessed to a sledge instead of horses."

DORA. "We are now to leave the coasts, and sail about in search of
the islands in the Pacific Ocean; and, as we happen to be above the
equator, we can more conveniently see those of the North Pacific. We
have each selected our favorite isles for description, and Charles
is at the head of the catalogue."

MRS. WILTON. "To make our remarks better understood, we will, like
scientific geographers, class all these islands under the head of
Polynesia, for the term is applied to the numerous groups, both
above and below the equator, in the Pacific Ocean. The equator
forming a dividing line between North and South Polynesia. Sir
Francis Drake was the first English captain to whom appertained the
honor of sailing on the Pacific Ocean.

  "'The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,
    The furrow followed free;
  He was the first that ever burst
    Into that silent sea.'"[16]

[Footnote 16: Coleridge]

CHARLES. "The Sandwich Islands appear to me one of the most
interesting groups, although the most isolated of all in North
Polynesia. They are ten in number,--eight inhabited,--and were named
by their discoverer, Captain Cook, in honor of the Earl of Sandwich,
a minister who had warmly promoted his labors. The island of Owyhee,
or more properly Hawaii, is the largest, being 415 miles in
circumference. It obtained a celebrity, as the scene of Captain
Cook's death, who was killed by the natives on the 14th of February,
1779. A celebrity of a different kind now awaits it, as the focus of
civilization in Polynesia. The inhabitants have, with the assistance
of the English and Americans, built twenty merchant-ships, with
which they perform voyages to the north-west coast of America, and
even visit Canton. They used to sacrifice human victims, but were
never cannibals; they tattoo their bodies, and the women tattoo the
tips of their tongues. Hawaii contains a tremendous volcano, the top
of which is 16,000 feet above the level of the sea. The whole
island, indeed, is one complete mass of lava. Christianity was
introduced by the American missionaries in 1820, and is now the
religion of the state. Schools have been established, and churches
built. Honoruru, in the Island of Cahu, is the capital of the group.
Some of the houses are built of stone; but the natives still prefer
living in their huts, so that the town is grotesquely irregular. The
principal public building is the English school, where children of
both sexes are taught to read and write. The place is altogether in
a flourishing condition, and so advanced in the refinements of life,
that the news-paper, lately established in the town, sets forth the
following articles for sale:--'Ladies' shoes from Paris, Ices, and
Eau de Cologne.'"

GRANDY. "It is a great cause for thankfulness, that religion is
spreading her benign influence over these volcanic isles. The women
who, truly speaking, were the most callous and obdurate, have
exhibited bright and numerous proofs of that change of heart, which
is the single end and aim of pure Christianity. Kekupuhe, who in
Cook's days was one of the wives of the king of Hawaii, evinced the
sincerity of her conversion, which took place in 1828, by learning
to read when she was more than eighty years of age, and by inditing
hymns in honor of the God of her old age."

GEORGE. "I cannot understand why they killed Captain Cook; and I
have never read the account of his first visit to the Sandwich
Islands: have you, Charles?"

CHARLES. "Yes, and a very interesting account it is. On the first
appearance of the English ships, the chiefs and priests, taking them
for floating islands, imagined that their long-expected guardian
spirit, 'Etuah Orono,' was arrived. Hence Captain Cook was received
with honor approaching to adoration, as they imagined him to be
their 'Orono.' The king was absent at the time of his arrival; but
the chief priest and his son received the captain. Scarcely were the
ships anchored, when a priest went on board, and decorating Cook
with a red cloth, such as adorned their deities, offered him a pig
in the manner of a sacrifice, and pronounced a long harangue. They
chanted hymns before him, and priests, bearing wands, preceded him
on his landing, while the in habitants prostrated themselves on the
ground, as he walked from the beach to the village."

GEORGE. "But if they held him in such reverence, how was it they
killed him?"

MR. WILTON. "His own imprudence brought about his melancholy end.
Some time after his arrival, it appears, that one of his smaller
boats was stolen by some of the natives, for the sake of the nails
in her, and was broken up the very night it was stolen. Captain
Cook, angry at losing his boat, attempted to get the king on board
his ship, to confine him there, until the boat should be restored.
This caused a tumult, and in the tumult, Captain Cook was slain.
There certainly was no malice in the case,--not the slightest
intention of injuring him; and his body was treated in the same
manner as those of their own chiefs, the bones being assigned to
different Eries (chiefs), who, either from affection, or from an
idea of good luck attending them, desired to preserve them. Long
after Captain Cook's death, the natives believed he would re-appear,
and perhaps punish them for their breach of hospitality."

MR. BARRAUD. "They are a most interesting people; and, to prove to
you how they have advanced in civilization, I will give you two
instances of their mode of living and taking their meals. Forty
years ago, the Rev. Mr. Stewart, being then on a mission, visited a
chief, and, when he entered the apartment, one of his queens was
seated on the ground _a la Turc_, with a large wooden tray in her
lap. Upon this a monstrous cuttle-fish had just been placed, fresh
from the sea, and in all its life and vigor. The queen had taken it
up with both hands, and brought its body to her mouth, and, by a
single application of her teeth, the black blood with which it was
filled gushed over her face and neck, while the long sucking arms of
the fish, in the convulsive paroxysm of the operation, were twisting
and writhing about her head, like the snaky hairs of a Medusa.
Occupied as both hands were, she could only give her visitor a nod.
Mr. Stewart remarks, 'It was the first time I had seen her Majesty,
and I soon took my departure, leaving her, as I found her, in the
full enjoyment of her luxurious luncheon.' Now,--observe the
contrast. In 1841, Sir George Simpson and friends visited a chief.
They were received in an immense apartment: several white persons
were there to meet them: all the rules of etiquette were observed on
going to table. The chiefs were all handsomely attired, their
clothes fitting to a hair's breadth, for they had imported a tailor
from England to make them. The dining-room was handsomely furnished,
and lighted with elegant lamps. The dinner was excellent, with fine
pastry and preserves from every country, and the glass and plate on
the table would have been admired even in a London mansion. The
chiefs, especially the host, were men of excellent address, and,
adds Sir George Simpson, 'we soon forgot that we were sipping our
coffee in a country which is deemed uncivilized, and among
individuals who are classed with savages. There were but few
incongruities in the course of the evening's entertainment, such as
could at all mar the effect, excepting that one of the chiefs
frequently inquired, with much solicitude, whether or not we thought
his whiskers handsome.' In conclusion, he says, 'After chatting a
good deal, and smoking a few cigars, we took our leave, highly
gratified with the hospitality and courtesy of the governor and his

DORA. "It must have been a work of time to convert these people; for
their belief in the power of their idols was so strong, and had been
preserved through so many generations."

GRANDY. "The work was of God, my dear, and he made it to prosper.
Civilization once introduced, the way to Christianity was paved; and
the chiefs with their wives setting the example, the mission was
soon full of hopes for the future. The great women of the islands,
when converted themselves, endeavored to propagate the truths of the
Gospel; and amongst them, one of the most justly celebrated
Christians was Kapiolani. She wished to undeceive the natives
concerning their false gods; and knowing in what veneration Peli,
the goddess of the volcano, was held, she determined to climb the
mountain, descend into the crater, and by thus braving the volcanic
deities in their very homes, convince the inhabitants that God is
God alone, and that the false and subordinate deities existed only
in the fancies of their ignorant adorers. Thus determined, and
accompanied by a missionary, she, with part of her family, and a
number of followers, both of her own vassals, and those of other
chiefs, ascended Peli. At the edge of the first precipice that
bounds the sunken plain, many of her followers and companions lost
courage and turned back: at the second, the rest earnestly entreated
her to desist from her dangerous enterprise, and forbear to tempt
the powerful gods of the fires. But she proceeded; and, on the very
verge of the crater, caused a hut to be constructed for herself and
people. Here she was assailed anew by their entreaties to return
home; and their assurances, that, if she persisted in violating the
dwellings of the goddess, she would draw on herself, and those with
her, certain destruction. Her answer was noble:--'I will descend
into the crater,' said she; 'and if I do not return safe, then
continue you to worship Peli; but, if I come back unhurt, you must
learn to adore the God who created Peli.' She accordingly went down
the steep and difficult side of the crater, accompanied by a
missionary, and by some whom love or duty induced to follow her.
Arrived at the bottom, she thrust a stick into the liquid lava, and
stirred the ashes of the burning lake. The charm of superstition was
at that moment broken. Those who had expected to see the goddess,
armed with flames and sulphurous smoke, burst forth and destroy the
daring heroine who thus braved her, in her very sanctuary, were
awe-struck when they saw the fire remain innocuous, and the flames
roll harmless, as though none were present. They acknowledged the
greatness of the God of Kapiolani; and from that time few indeed
have been the offerings, and little the reverence paid to the fires
of Peli."

CHARLES. "What delightful anecdotes concerning my island! but I have
one reserved for the conclusion, which illustrates the truth of the
assertion, that the women of the Sandwich Islands are superior to
the men in many exercises requiring skill, and also in their powers
of endurance. The latter quality may, I believe, be fairly adjudged
to the women of all countries. 'A man and his wife, both Christians,
were passengers in a schooner, which foundered at a considerable
distance from the land. All the natives on board promptly took
refuge in the sea; and the man in question, who had just celebrated
divine service in the ill-fated vessel, called his fellows (some of
them being converts as well as himself) around him, to offer up
another tribute of praise and supplication from the deep; exhorting
them, with a combination of courage and humility rarely equalled, to
worship God in that universal temple, under whose restless pavement
he and most of his hearers were destined to find their graves. It
was done: they called on God from the midst of the waves, and then
each struggled to save the life they valued. The man and his wife
had each succeeded in procuring the support of a covered bucket by
way of a buoy; and away they struck with the rest for Kahoolawe,
finding themselves next morning alone in the ocean, after a whole
afternoon and night of privation and toil. To aggravate their
misfortunes, the wife's bucket went to pieces soon after daylight,
so that she had to make the best of her way without assistance or
relief; and, in the course of the second afternoon, the man became
too weak to proceed; till his wife, to a certain extent, restored
his strength by shampooning him in the water. They had now Kahoolawe
in full view after having been about four-and-twenty hours on their
dreary voyage. In spite, however, of the cheering sight, the man
again fell into such a state of exhaustion, that the woman took his
bucket for herself, giving him at the same time the hair of her head
as a towing-line; and, when even this exertion proved too much for
him, the faithful creature, after trying in vain to rouse him to
prayer, took his arms round her neck, holding them together with one
hand, and making with the other for the shore When a very trifling
distance remained to be accomplished, she discovered that he was
dead, and dropping his corpse she reached the land before night,
having swam upwards of twenty-five miles during an exposure of
thirty hours! The only means of resting from her fatigue being by
floating on the top of the water."

MR. WILTON. "Very good, Charles; but if our notes of all the other
islands in Polynesia be as extensive as those of the Sandwich Isles,
I fear we shall not cross the equator before midnight."

EMMA. "I can soon quiet your fears, dear papa; for the description
of the remaining isles in North Polynesia rests with the elder
members, and of course they are at liberty to abridge them if they

MR. WILTON. "In that case I will undertake to run over the Ladrones,
sometimes called the Marianne Isles. There are twenty of them; but
only five are inhabited, and they lie in the south extremity of the
cluster. They are so close together, and so broken and irregular in
their form and position, as to appear like fragments disjointed from
each other, at remote periods, by some sudden convulsion of nature.
The coasts consist for the most part of dark brown rocks,
honey-combed in many places by the action of the waves. The islands
are fertile, abounding in hogs, cattle, horses, mules, and many
other agreeable things; while in order that, like other countries in
this sublunary world, they may lay claim to a portion of
disagreeables, they are infested with mosquitoes and endless
varieties of loathsome insects; and the fish that are found around
the coasts are not fit for food. So much for the country--now for
the natives:--They are tall, robust, and active; the men wear
scarcely any covering, and the women only a petticoat of matting.
Both sexes stain their teeth black, and many of them tattoo their
bodies. The Ladrone Islands were originally discovered by Magellan,
who called them 'las Islas de las Ladrones' or the islands of
thieves; because the Indians stole everything made of iron within
their reach. At the latter end of the seventeenth century, they
obtained the name of Marianne from the Queen of Spain, who sent
missionaries thither to propagate the Christian religion. Guajan is
the largest island of the group. Near the Ladrones lies the famous
pyramidal rock called 'Lot's wife.' A sea neither broken nor
interrupted for an immense space in all directions, here dashes with
sublime violence on the solid mass which rises almost
perpendicularly to a height of 350 feet. On the south-east side is a
deep cavern, where the waves resound with a prodigious noise."

MR. BARRAUD. "The Philippine Isles fall to my share. They are,
correctly speaking, in the Eastern Archipelago. Luzon, the most
northerly, is the largest: it is a long narrow island, and, like all
the others, abounding in volcanoes. Gold, iron, and copper have been
found in the mountains, and rock salt is so abundant in some parts
as to be an article of export. These islands are exceedingly
mountainous and fertile, but from the large swamps are very
unhealthy. There are no beasts of prey, but numerous herds of
cattle; the inhabitants, however, are too indolent to profit by
these gifts of nature; they are actually too idle to make their
cow's milk into butter, and throughout the islands use hog's lard
instead, because they will not be at the trouble of keeping and
milking the cows. Rice is the chief support of the population.
Sugar, coffee, and many other delightful things grow here, and
cotton shrubs thrive well. Manilla is the only port of trade in the
Philippines: it is a fortified city inhabited by people from all
parts of the world. This city is entered by six gates. The streets
have carriage ways and footpaths, and are lighted at night. The
houses are solidly constructed, but, on account of earthquakes,
seldom more than one story above the ground floor. Most of the
houses are furnished with balconies and verandahs; the place of
glass in the windows is supplied by thin semi transparent pieces of
shell, which though more opaque repel heat better. In the year 1762
Manilla was taken by the English; but ransomed by Spain for 1,000
000_l_. sterling. There! who can compete with my islands in value?"

MRS. WILTON. "Quantity must compensate for the loss of quality. Here
are the Caroline or New Philippines,--forty-six groups of them,
comprising several hundred islands. A few of them are high, rising
in peaks, but by far the greater number are merely volcanic
formations. They were discovered in 1686, by a Spaniard, who named
them after Charles II. of Spain. There are no hogs on these islands,
and the inhabitants subsist chiefly on fish. They are reputed to be
the most expert sailors and fishermen in Polynesia; and,
notwithstanding the tremendous sea by which they are surrounded,
they have a considerable trading intercourse with the Ladrone and
many other islands."

GEORGE. "Papa, it is your turn again.--Pelew Isles."

MR. WILTON. "They are chiefly known from the accounts of Captain
Wilson, who was wrecked on them in 1783. He describes the
inhabitants as hospitable, friendly, and humane; and they are a gay
and comparatively innocent people; but they do not appear to have
any form of religion, although they conceive that the soul survives
the body. These islands are covered with close woods. Ebony grows
in the forests. Bread-fruit and cocoa-nut trees are in abundance.
Cattle, goats, poultry, &c., have been sent there and thrive well.
The Pelews have a considerable trade with China.

"Now it seems to me that we had better cross the equator with all
expedition, for there are so many islands up here, we cannot
possibly go to all, and I think we have noticed the most important."

DORA. "South Polynesia then. Papua or New Guinea is my portion, and
it happens to lie near the Pelew Isles. It is supposed to be the
first part of Australia discovered by Europeans, and is the favorite
residence of the superb and singular birds of paradise, of which
there are ten or twelve kinds. There are three kinds reckoned the
most gorgeous: viz., the King, which has two detached feathers
parallel to the tail, ending in an elegant curl with a tuft: the
Magnificent, which has also two detached feathers of the same length
with the body, very slender, and ending in a tuft: the Golden
Throat, which has three long and straight feathers proceeding from
each side of the head. These birds are considered the best, but they
are all arrayed in brilliant colors, and all superbly magnificent.
They are caught chiefly in the Aroo Isles, either by means of
bird-lime, or shot with blunted arrows. After being dried with smoke
and sulphur, they are sold for nuts or pieces of iron and carried to

EMMA. "The New Hebrides are in my course, but the Friendly Isles are
allotted to me."

MRS. WILTON. "Nevertheless, the New Hebrides claim a few words.
They were discovered in 1506, and so named by Captain Cook. They are
considerably hilly, and well clothed with timber. The valleys are
extremely abundant, producing figs, nutmegs, and oranges, besides
the fruits common to the rest of Polynesia. The inhabitants present
the most ugly specimen extant of the Papuan race; the men wear no
covering, and the women, who are used as mere beasts of burden; wear
only a petticoat, made from the plantain leaf. Their canoes are more
rudely constructed than in most of the other islands; and, on the
whole, these people seem to be among the most degraded of the
islanders of the Pacific."

EMMA. "I should not like to live with such people; therefore we will
pass on to my _Friendly_ Islands. They are low and encircled by
dangerous coral reefs; the soil is almost throughout exceedingly
rich, producing with very little care, the banana, bread-fruit, and
yam. The population may amount to about 90,000; but the natives,
though favorably mentioned by Captain Cook, appear to be as
treacherous, savage, and superstitious as any in the worst parts of
Polynesia. The Wesleyan Missionaries established themselves in these
islands in 1821, and are reported to have met with considerable
success. The leading island is that which is called Tongataboo, or
the 'consecrated island.' The name is properly two words 'Tonga
Taboo,' signifying 'Sacred Island,' the reason of which appellative
will appear, when I tell you that the priest of this island, whose
name was Diatonga, was reverenced and resorted to by all the
surrounding islands. Earthquakes are very frequent here; but the
islands display a spectacle of the most abundant fertility. The
foundations of this group are coral rocks, and there is scarcely any
other kind of stone to be found. Tongataboo has a large and
excellent harbor, which admits of being well fortified."

GRANDY. "You wisely passed the Feejees, Emma; and I will explain why
I say _wisely_. They have the reputation of being cannibals; but
they are industrious, and at times kindly; and their islands are
tolerably fertile. A missionary ship was nearly lost here, in broad
daylight and calm weather, by coming in contact with a reef, of
which no previous warning was presented. George, my child, you are
next; what have you selected for your display?"

GEORGE. "The Society Islands, Grandy. They consist of six large and
several smaller islands. The principal is called Otaheite, or more
properly, Tahiti; which is often styled the 'Queen of the Pacific.'
The whole circumference of this royal isle is 180 miles; on all
sides, rivers are seen descending in beautiful cascades, and the
entire land is clothed, from the water's edge to its topmost heights
with continual verdure, which for luxuriance and picturesque effect,
is certainly unparalleled."

CHARLES. "Excuse me interrupting you, George; but how do you
contrive to remember all those long words?"

MR. WILTON. "I have heard of honorable members being taken to task
for ignorance, but never for possessing superior abilities, and I
suggest that the learned member be allowed to proceed with his
account, without further interruption."

GEORGE. "There, Charles, you are called to 'order,' and I hope you
will not commit yourself again, by trying to break the thread of my

CHARLES. "I am full of contrition; pray proceed, and I trust you
will find no great difficulty in joining your _thread_ again. If you
are disposed to retaliate, I give you free permission to criticize
me to any extent when my turn comes."

GEORGE. "Never fear but I will watch for an opportunity. The Society
Islanders are light-hearted, merry, and fond of social enjoyment,
but, at the same time, indolent, deceitful, thievish, and addicted
to the excessive use of ardent spirits. The highest ambition of an
Otaheitan is to have a splendid 'morai,' or family tomb. The
funerals, especially those of the chiefs, have a solemn and
affecting character. Songs are sung; the mourners, with sharks'
teeth, draw blood from their bodies, which, as it flows, mingles
with their tears. An apron, or _maro_ of red feathers, is the badge
of royal dignity, and great deference is paid to the chiefs. These
people manufacture handsome cloths and mats; but the commerce
consisting of pearl-shells, sugar, cocoa-nut oil, and arrow-root, in
exchange for European manufactures, is carried on chiefly by
foreigners, as the natives have no vessels larger than their double
canoes. Otaheite is a fine place, but not so important a commercial
station as Oahu, in the Sandwich Islands. There, Charles, I am at
the end of my thread."

GRANDY. "And very well you have spun it, George; but as you have not
informed us on the subject of the religion of these islanders, I
presume it is unknown to you. They believe in a sort of deity, that
he resides in the palace of heaven, with a number of other
divinities, who are all designated 'children of the night.' The
forms of Christian worship are enforced here as rigidly as in the
Sandwich Islands; but civilization is considerably less advanced;
although I am happy to add, in conclusion, that the people are
undergoing a remarkable change, and Christianity is certainly
gaining ground; for the idols are being destroyed, and the labors of
the zealous missionaries are now sanctioned by the highest
authorities. We will make no more remarks on the Society Islands;
for they have formed the subject of more writings, perhaps, than
many a kingdom of Europe, and the Otaheitans are positively better
known to us than the inhabitants of Sardinia or Corsica."

GEORGE. "Thanks, dear Grandy, for winding up my subject so
beautifully. Now, friend Charles, perhaps you will spin _your_

CHARLES. "Most willingly; but it will be a short one, as I have very
little material. Pitcairn's Island stands alone near the eastern
extremity of Polynesia. It is chiefly interesting on account of its
having been the refuge of the mutinous crew of Captain Bligh's ship,
the 'Bounty.' The mutineers, after having turned their captain and a
few of the crew out in an open boat, tried to make a settlement in
the Society Islands; but failing, they, accompanied by some
Otaheitans, fixed themselves in this isolated spot. They landed here
in 1790, fifteen men, and twelve women. Nine of the men were
mutineers; all the others were Otaheitans. Captain Beachey visited
the island in 1825, and found about sixty persons on it, the
descendants of Captain Bligh's men. Pitcairn's Isle is a little spot
not more than seven miles in circumference, with an abrupt rocky
coast. I believe the reason there are so few persons on the island,
is accounted for by the dismal fate of the original settlers. The
sailors had married Otaheitan women, whose brothers in one night
murdered them, only one escaping, whose name was Adams. On the
following night, the Otaheitan widows of the English inflicted
dreadful vengeance, by murdering all their brothers who had
committed the first frightful deed. Their children grew up under the
fostering care of Adams, who officiated as a sort of patriarch. The
present population comprises about eighty individuals, who form an
interesting link between the European and Polynesian races."

MR. WILTON. "In a Bermuda paper of August, 1848, there is an
interesting letter from a school-master named Nobbs, which is so
replete with information, that I will read it all to you, as it is
not so remarkable for its length as its interest:--

"More than twenty years ago, I left England for the express purpose
of visiting Pitcairn's Island, and to remain there if I could render
my talents available to the inhabitants. The proprietor of a small
vessel of but eighteen tons' burthen, hearing me express my anxiety
to obtain a passage to Pitcairn's Island, remarked, it was a spot he
had long desired to visit, and if I would assist him in fitting out
his vessel, he would go with me. I accepted his proposal advanced
him what money I could command, and embarked from Callao de Lima,
with no other person than the owner of the little cutter; and in six
weeks arrived here (Pitcairn's Island) in safety.

"'Five months after my arrival, John Adams departed this life. After
his decease, the superintendence of the spiritual affairs of the
island, and the education of the children, devolved on me chiefly;
and from that time to the present (with the exception of ten months,
during which period I was banished from the island by brute force,
and recalled by letters of penitential apology), I have been with
them, and have lived to see the labor of my hands prosper; for there
is not a person on the island, between the ages of six years and
twenty-five, who has not received, or is not receiving, a tolerable

"'There is one untoward but prominent object on the horizon of
paternal affection, and which, though imperceptibly, yet rapidly
approaches our increasing colony, and that is the imperious
necessity of a separation; for so very limited are the available
portions of the island, that some families who number ten or twelve
persons, have not five acres of arable land to divide among them.

"'Animal food is a luxury obtained with difficulty once or twice in
the week; and though we have, by dint of very hard labor, been
enabled to obtain cloth and other indispensable necessaries from
whale-ships, in exchange for potatoes, yet this resource is
beginning to fail us; not from scarcity of visitors, but from
inability on our part to supply them.

"'This is the exact state of affairs at present: how much it will be
aggravated ten years from this, may be imagined, but cannot be fully
realized even by ourselves. Whether the British Government will
again interest itself in our behalf, is doubtful; if it does not,
despite the most assiduous industry, a scanty allowance of potatoes
and salt must be the result, and the "Tibuta" and "Maro," will be
the unchanging food and raiment of the rising generation.'"

GEORGE. "What a pity the coral insects have not been at work there,
and enlarged these poor peoples' island; then they could have all
remained together, and brought up their families. As it is, some
_must_ migrate. Charles, you are very ingenious; cannot you contrive
a plan for overcoming these difficulties."

CHARLES. "Much as I should glory in benefiting mankind, I could not
by any effort or sacrifice ameliorate the condition of these poor
people, although I would willingly do anything in my power to
testify my sorrow for their wretched destitution."

DORA. "I fear none of us can accord them more than our sympathy; so
we must needs journey on to the Marquesas, which were discovered by
the Spaniards in 1595. There are thirteen. The largest, Nukahiva, is
about seventy miles in circumference, and is the only one generally
frequented by shipping. The coast scenery is neither picturesque nor
inviting; its principal features being black, naked cliffs, or
barren hills; but in the interior are grassy plains and forests
filled with birds of elegant plumage. The inhabitants, with regard
to personal beauty, are superior to most of the Polynesian tribes,
some of the women being almost as fair as a European; in
civilization, however, they are far behind the Sandwich Islanders.
They have steadily resisted all attempts to convert them to
Christianity, and have practised cannibalism within a very recent
period. The tattooing of the Marquesans is remarkable for its
regularity and good taste."

CHARLES. "You call them Marquesans, Dora? I thought they were

DORA. "So they denominate themselves: but I have more to tell you
yet. They are all excellent swimmers; men, women, and children. They
throw themselves fearlessly into the water several times a day, and,
although in a state of perspiration, they suffer no harm. They are
also dexterous climbers of trees; making the ascent like monkeys,
with the hands and feet only. But their treatment of their sick is,
in the highest degree, cruel and unnatural. Instead of giving
assistance, every one shuns the invalid; and if he is thought to be
at all in the way, he is taken to some distant spot, whither it is
thought sufficient to carry him food at intervals. It is also their
custom to prepare the dying man's coffin before his eyes; and what
is still more incredible, when they see him about to render up his
last sigh, they place a bit of moistened 'tapa'[17] in his mouth,
whilst the fingers of some _friend_ are employed in closing the lips
and nostrils!"

[Footnote 17: Tapa is a species of stuff made from the inner bark of
the mulberry-tree.]

GRANDY. "All this appears very unfeeling to us my dear; but cruelty
is not the intention of the poor Kannaks. They believe that the soul
escapes with the parting breath, and their desire is to secure the
spirit within the body until the body wastes; when, according to
their doctrine, it animates another body, which, during the process
of decomposition in the old one, has been created in a far distant
island, where all the good things of this life are found in
abundance, and the soul flies thither as soon as its old habitation
is destroyed."

EMMA. "Poor people! What a lamentable state of ignorance! How I pity
them. Are there any more miserable people to be visited here?"

CHARLES. "Well, here are the Low Islands to the south of the
Marquesans; but I have not the pleasure of an acquaintance with the
people, therefore I cannot say if they be happy or miserable.
Gambia, Crescent, and Clermont Isles are the principal. Gambia
contains upwards of a thousand inhabitants. Crescent Isle is not
very fertile, and occupied by a few natives, who have erected little
huts their, and procure a scanty subsistence."

MR. BARRAUD. "Those islands were discovered by the ship 'Duff,' when
on a missionary voyage in the year 1797. We shall have to retrace
our steps to come to the large islands in our chart; but Easter
Island is so near, it may be as well to call; although we may gain
nothing by the visit, for it is a sterile spot inhabited by
demi-savages, who worship small wooden deities. They tattoo
themselves so as to have the appearance of wearing breeches. Most of
them go naked; some few wear a _maro_ which is made either of fine
Indian cloth of a reddish color, of a wild kind of parsley, or of a
species of sea-weed."

GEORGE. "There are more small islands before we go to New Zealand or
Australia, and I have an account of one,--viz., New Caledonia, lying
south-west of the New Hebrides. It is rather a large island, rocky
for the most part; and there not being much food for animals, very
few are found there. One, however, must be mentioned. It is a spider
called a 'nookee,' which spins a thread so strong, as to offer a
sensible resistance before breaking. This animal (for I have
discovered that a spider is not an insect) constitutes part of the
people's food. The inhabitants are cannibals from _taste_. They eat
with an air of luxurious pleasure the muscular parts of the human
body, and a slice of a child is esteemed a great dainty. Horrible
wretches! They wear no clothes; the women just have a girdle of
fibrous bark, and the men sometimes encircle their heads with a
fillet of sewed net-work or leaves, and the hair of the vampire
bat. Their houses are in the form of beehives, and the door-posts
are of carved planks."

DORA. "New Zealand, almost the antipodes of England, lies in the
South Pacific, and consists of two large islands, the extreme points
of which are called North and South Cape. Near North Cape is Norfolk
Island, where the English, at one time, had a flourishing colony,
now removed to Van Diemen's Land. We must all help to work our ship
round these larger islands, for no individual can be responsible for
the entire management."

MRS. WILTON. "I will set the example. New Zealand was discovered by
Tasman in 1642; but its extent and character were ascertained by
Cook in his voyage of 1774. It is now a regularly established colony
belonging to the British crown. There is a bishop, several clergymen
of the Church of England, and many other missionaries resident
there. It is a fertile group, but contains several active volcanoes.
In the north island, or New Ulster, are various cavities, which
appear to be extinct craters; and in their vicinity numerous hot
springs are to be met with; some of them, as they rise to boiling
point, the natives use for cooking."

GRANDY. "The New Zealanders belong to the Malay family: they are a
fine handsome race, and possess fewer of the vices of the savage
than almost any other savage people. The Missionaries have been
eminently successful in the conversion of the natives to
Christianity. The first establishment formed there, was commenced in
the Bay of Islands, at a village called Rangiona, in 1814. The
persons were sent out by the Church Missionary Society, and have
never relaxed in their endeavors to promote the laudable work of
converting the heathen natives from the error of their
superstitions, although they have had numerous difficulties to
overcome. They went out, in the strength of the Lord, resolved to do
nothing in strife or vain-glory, but all in lowliness of mind,
esteeming others better than themselves: and they succeeded
notwithstanding the numerous hindrances; for the work was of God,
and He gave them power to do all things without murmuring, in order
to attain the salvation of the souls of their fellow-creatures."

MR. BARRAUD. "The Bay of Islands is quite in the north, and has been
for the last thirty years the favorite resort of whale-ships.
Upwards of thirty vessels have been anchored there at the same time;
and at this bay the chief intercourse between European vessels and
New Zealand has principally taken place. Numerous islands are
sprinkled over the space, and several creeks or entrances of rivers
penetrate the surrounding country. It is on the north and west sides
of this bay that the principal territories of Shunghee, the New
Zealand chief who visited this country, are situated; and in these
spots the horrid rites of this superior race of savages have also
been witnessed."

MR. WILTON. "It is remarkable that when New Zealand was first
discovered, there were no animals whatever on the islands except a
few species of lizards, which quadrupeds the inhabitants held in
great veneration and terror. Even the rat and dog were introduced
by Europeans; and the rat is at present the principal species of
_game_. A good many parrots, parroquets, wild ducks, pigeons of
large size and fine flavor, inhabit the forests; and poultry are
found to thrive very well, though not yet reared to any great
extent. Indeed, if we except their prisoners of war, (for the New
Zealanders _were_ cannibals,) almost the only animal food hitherto
used by them has been fish, which abounds around their coasts."

GEORGE. "They must be right glad that Europeans have visited them."

CHARLES. "I understand that when pigs were first introduced into New
Zealand, the natives, not knowing what animals they were, nor what
were their uses, mounted two, and forthwith rode them to death! They
had seen some horses on board Captain Cook's vessel, and supposed
the pigs to be for the same purpose."

MRS. WILTON. "The New Zealanders are a fine race, but not exempt
from vice. They do not regard lying or stealing as crimes, and are
remarkable for their propensities to make use of these
qualifications on every available occasion. Captain Cook relates an
instance which will give you a tolerable idea of the native
character:--He had been purchasing a great quantity of fish from the
natives. He says, 'While we were on the traffic, they showed a great
inclination to pick my pockets; and to take away the fish with one
hand which they had just given me with the other. This evil, one of
the chiefs undertook to remove, and with fury in his eyes made a
show of keeping the people at a proper distance. I applauded his
conduct, but at the same time kept so good a look-out as to detect
_him_ picking my pocket of a handkerchief, which I suffered him to
put in his bosom, before I seemed to know anything of the matter,
and then told him what I had lost. He seemed quite ignorant and
innocent, until I took it from him; then he put it off with a laugh,
acting his part with so much address, that it was hardly possible to
be angry with him; so we remained good friends, and he accompanied
me on board to dinner.'"

EMMA. "But they are better now, are they not?"

MRS. WILTON. "Very slightly in these points, my dear; and still less
so as regards their superstitions. Generations to come may be free
from these vices; but at present they are too deeply rooted to be
discarded altogether. They have some curious and simple notions
peculiar to themselves, and some extraordinary legends concerning
natural objects of earth, sea, and sky. They account for the
appearance of the face in the moon thus:--They say, 'A native girl,
named Rona, went with a calabash to fetch water. The moon hid her
pale beams behind dark and sweeping clouds. The maid, vexed at this
uncourteous behavior, pronounced a curse on the celestial orb; but
as a punishment, for so doing, she stumbled and fell. The moon
descended--raised the maid from the ground, and took her to reside
on high, in her realms of silvery light.'"

MR. BARRAUD. "A curious idea: they have many such. I remember an
anecdote of a chief who lost a son for whom he grieved greatly; but
one day a European met him, and observed he was very merry: he
accosted him, and inquired the cause of so sudden a discontinuance
of his grief. The chief replied, he had passed a bush some few days
previously, when his late son, who had inserted himself into the
body of a little Tikan bird, whistled to him, and bade him dry up
his tears, as he felt perfectly satisfied with the quarters he then
occupied. 'Shall I grieve at his happiness?' added the old man."

DORA. "There is a sweet simplicity about that little story which
prepossesses me in favor of these New Zealanders, although they were
once such horrible cannibals. Do they not tattoo very much?"

MR. WILTON. "The art of tattooing has been brought to such
perfection here, that it actually excites admiration. It is looked
upon as answering the same purposes as clothes. When a chief throws
off his mats, he seems as proud of displaying the beautiful
ornaments figured on his skin, as a civilized dandy does of his
fashionable attire. Mr. Earle speaks of a man named Aranghie, a
professor of the art of tattooing, thus:--'He was considered by his
countrymen a perfect master in the art, and men of the highest rank
and importance were in the habit of travelling long journeys, in
order to put their skins under his skilful hands. Indeed, so highly
were his works esteemed, that I have seen many of his drawings
exhibited even after death. A neighbor of mine very lately killed a
chief who had been tattooed by Aranghie, and appreciating the
artist's work so highly, he skinned the chieftain's thighs, and
covered his cartouch box with it!--I was astonished to see with what
boldness and precision Aranghie drew his designs upon the skin, and
what beautiful ornaments he produced: no rule and compasses could be
more exact than the lines and circles he formed. So unrivalled is he
in his profession, that a highly finished face of a chief from the
hands of this artist, is as greatly prized in New Zealand as a head
from the pencil of Sir Thomas Lawrence is amongst us. Such respect
was paid to this man by the natives, that Mr. Earle expresses the
gratification he felt, on seeing the fine arts held in such
estimation by the savages."

MR. BARRAUD. "I do not doubt but the New Zealanders are still
cannibals in heart; for, so late as 1832, when Mr. Earle was there,
he unfortunately had ocular proof of the fact. He had been residing
with them some months, when a chief claimed one of his (Mr. Earle's)
servants, stating she was a runaway slave. He tied her to a tree and
shot her through the heart, and his men prepared an oven and cooked
her. Mr. Earle heard of it, and hastened to the spot. He caught them
in the act of preparing some of the poor girl's flesh, and
endeavored, in vain, to prevent the horrible feast; but to no
purpose; for they assembled at night and devoured every morsel
except the head, which he saw a hungry dog run off with to the
woods. The poor girl was only sixteen years of age, pretty and
well-behaved, and her murderer was one of the aristocracy of New
Zealand, and, as Mr. Earle observes, a remarkably polite savage."

CHARLES. "We must bid adieu to these interesting savages, and pass
on to the last, but certainly not the least, of the Pacific
islands.--viz. Australia."

MR. WILTON. "As all land is surrounded by water, and continents
differ from islands merely in point of size, and as Australia or New
Holland is in extent as large as Europe, and ten times larger than
either Borneo or New Guinea, it is certainly more proportionate with
continents than with islands; and it seems reasonable to class
Australia with the former rather than with the latter."

MRS. WILTON. "With Australia we close our investigations. To use a
nautical expression, it is, compared with Europe and Asia, almost an
iron-bound coast. It possesses only two large indentations,--the
Gulf of Carpentaria on the north, and Spencer's Gulf on the south.
Shark's Bay, on the west, and Hervey's Bay, on the east, are the
next in size."

MR. WILTON. "New Holland was discovered by Paulmyer de Gonville.
That navigator sailed from Honfleur for the East Indies about the
middle of 1503, and experienced a violent storm off the Cape of Good
Hope, during which he lost his reckoning, and was driven into an
unknown sea. After sailing for some time, he observed birds flying
from the south, and, directing his course towards that quarter, he
soon fell in with land. This was thought to have been New Holland or

MR. BARRAUD. "It is remarkable how extremely ignorant the
Australians are: they are certainly the lowest in intellect of the
human creation. The tribes on the western shores of Spencer's Bay
are positively ignorant of any method of obtaining fire: they say
that it originally came down from the north. Like the vestal
virgins, the women keep it constantly lighted, and carry it about
with them in firesticks when they travel: should it happen to go
out, they procure a fresh supply from a neighboring encampment. Then
their manners are so atrociously savage. Their mode of courtship is
one which I fancy would not become popular among English ladies. If
a chief, or any other individual, be in love, with a damsel of a
different tribe, he endeavors to waylay her; and if she be surprised
in any quiet place, the ambushed lover rushes upon her, beats her
about the head with his 'waddie' till she becomes senseless, when he
drags her in triumph to his hut, and thenceforth she is his lawful

GRANDY. "After that, you will readily credit the story I am going to
tell you. A Mr. Meredith went over with his goods to Kangaroo
Island, whence he journeyed across the bay to Yankalilly, where he
built a hut, placed in it a glass window or two, and made it look
snug. As he was a young man of about twenty-one or twenty-two, his
warm, generous spirit had led him into difficulties; and, the
friends of his brief sunshine flying from him in his distress, he
contracted a disgust for the world. He lived some time amongst these
people, acquired their language, and seemed to be beloved by them
all. But volumes might be filled with accounts of their treachery,
and the sequel will sufficiently prove the malignity of these
wretched people. He had adopted one of their sons, and was
endeavoring to instruct him in a few points of education. He had
also taken a native woman to assist him in household matters. One
day he went out in his boat, and his favorite boy went with him.
When in the boat, the boy complained of hunger, and Mr. Meredith
gave him a biscuit. The boy commenced eating it, when Mr. Meredith
(who was a religious man) observed that he had not thanked the Great
God for the food,--a practice which he invariably endeavored to
inculcate. The boy appeared unwilling to do so: Mr. Meredith
insisted, and on his refusal, he boxed his ears. The boy thereupon
leaped out of the boat, and swam ashore, saying, he should repent

"In the evening, Mr. Meredith put his boat ashore, and went to his
hut, had his supper, and was preparing for bed; and taking up a
prayer-book, as was his custom, was reading the prayers before the
fire, with his back to the door, when some natives looked through
the window, saw their advantage, and opened the door silently. The
woman, his attendant, then entered with an axe belonging to him in
her hand, and several men followed her. She approached the
unsuspecting youth, and, while his soul was devoutly engaged in
prayer, she raised the fatal axe, and, with one blow, severed his
skull, and the men with their clubs beat his body into a shapeless

EMMA. "Poor Mr. Meredith! What a frightful murder!"

MRS. WILTON. "The Australians thought nothing of it, for they glory
in the most atrocious deeds. I fear it will be long before they will
be civilized. But let us look at their country, of which, in some
respects, but little can be said; for it is not remarkable for its
fertility, and in many parts exceedingly barren. But few animals
range there, and in the south-west the natives subsist during the
winter chiefly on opossums, kangaroos, and bandicoots, in the summer
upon roots, with occasionally a few fish."

DORA. "Port Adelaide appears to be a neat town. Its harbor is a deep
creek or inlet of the sea, running out of Gulf St. Vincent: it
contains two spacious wharfs, alongside of which, vessels from Great
Britain, Singapore, Manilla, China, Mauritius, Sydney, Hobart Town,
and New Zealand, are continually discharging their cargoes."

MRS. WILTON. "There are many lakes in Australia, but none of them
very large. Lake Alexandria is the largest, but it is very shallow;
and Lake St. George, the second in size, which, in 1828, was a sheet
of water 17 miles long by 7 broad, was said by an old native female
to have been a forest within her memory, and in 1836 it was dried up
to a grassy plain."

EMMA. "Does not Van Diemen's Land belong to New Holland, mamma?"

MRS. WILTON. "Yes, my dear; and the part nearest to it is New South
Wales, from which it is separated by Bass's Straits, which are 100
miles broad, and contain a great many small islands. Van Diemen's
Land was discovered by Tasman, in 1644, and named by him in honor of
the Dutch Governor-General of the East Indies: but it is now more
appropriately called Tasmania. This island contains several
mountains of considerable elevation. The highest is ascertained to
be 3964 feet in height. Hobart Town is the capital. The population
of Tasmania has of late years much increased, for, owing to its
eligibility, the tide of emigration has been strong. For many years,
three or four vessels have annually sailed from Great Britain, laden
with emigrants possessed of more or less capital, and they have, in
most cases, prospered equal to their expectations."

GEORGE. "Are there not more coral reefs about Australia than in any
other part of the Ocean?"

MR. WILTON. "It is generally supposed so; but, in asking that
question, do you know what coral reefs are?"

GEORGE. "Yes, papa; they are the work of insects, who build them for
their habitations; but it is very wonderful."

GRANDY. "It is wonderful, my dear; and there are many other
marvellous productions of the Most High God, so infinitely beyond
the power of man to produce, that, in meditating on them, the mind
is lost in wonder and surprise. 'The most powerful, acutest, and
holiest mind,' says a learned divine, 'will eternally be unable
fully to find out God, or perfectly to comprehend Him.' May these
wonders then increase our reverence, and humble us before the mighty
Creator of all things."

MR. WILTON. "Captain Hall examined some coral reefs during the
different stages of one tide, and gives the following description as
the result:--'When the tide has left it for some time, it becomes
dry, and appears to be a compact rock, exceedingly hard and rugged;
but as the tide rises, and the waves begin to wash over it, the
coral worms protrude themselves from holes that were before
invisible. These animals are of a great variety of shapes and sizes,
and, in such prodigious numbers, that, in a short time, the whole
surface of the rock appears to be alive and in motion. The most
common worm is in the form of a star, with arms from four to six
inches long, which are moved about with a rapid motion, in all
directions, probably to catch food. Others are so sluggish, that
they may be mistaken for pieces of rock; and are generally of a dark
color, from four to five inches long, and two or three round. When
the coral is broken about high-water mark, it is a solid hard stone;
but if any part of it be detached at a spot where the tide reaches
every day, it is found to be full of worms of different lengths and
colors, some being as fine as a thread and several feet long, of a
bright yellow, and sometimes of a blue color; others resemble
snails, and some are not unlike lobsters in shape, but soft, and
not above two inches long.'"

DORA. "We must be content to see these in imagination. But sometimes
I feel disposed to regret that we are not _really_ afloat in the
'Research;' and at other times I congratulate myself that the voyage
is only imaginary; for in Polynesia particularly, we have met with
so many ignorant, savage people, it is well for us that we can, if
we choose, steer clear of them. I suppose it would not be possible
in all Europe to find a country where such unreasonable things were
done from religious superstition?"

GRANDY. "My dear Dora, you are very much mistaken. Europe has been,
and still is in many parts, a slave to superstition; and, although
not savages, there are many vices and iniquitous deeds committed in
civilized Europe, which no temptation would induce the savages of
Polynesia to commit. But, to assure your mind that horrible crimes
were perpetrated from zeal in the doctrines of their religion, I
will give you an instance connected with Sweden in olden time. The
story is told by a slave girl named Kumba, thus:--'My mother was
amongst the slaves of Queen Gunnild: she was the most faithful of
her servants. Poor and heavy was her lot, yet did she wish to live.
My father was a free-born person, who thought little of forsaking
the woman who loved him, and the child she had nursed for him. I
remember a night--that night has stretched itself over my whole
life. Flames arose from a pile: they ascended high into heaven. It
was the corpse of the Queen which was burned. My mother was amongst
those who tended the pile: she with many others was cast alive into
the flames. The Queen, it was said, needed her attendance in another
world. I stood amongst the people, still a child, and heard my
mother's cry, and saw her burn! Fatherless and motherless, I went
thence into the world alone, and wandered in the woods without
knowing whither. There came people who seized me, and carried me
back to the Court of King Atle. They said that I wished to run away,
and I was conducted to the presence of the king. I answered
haughtily to his questions, and he caused me to be whipped till the
blood came: in punishment, as he said, of my disobedience.' Is not
that barbarous enough for a savage land, Dora?"

DORA. "Oh yes, madam, that is very shocking. Poor, unhappy Kumba!
What a life of wretchedness was hers."

MR. WILTON. "Grandy's story must conclude our conversation to-night.
At the next meeting we will endeavor to explore the coast of Africa,
and visit the islands of the Indian Ocean. Carry away the books,
boys: I am sure you must all be hungry, and tired too, for we have
been over an immense space of water.

  "Right gaily our bark's glided over the ocean,
    Bright nature we've viewed in majestic array;
  But our own native shores we greet with emotion,
    For the heart of a Briton exults in her sway."


    They journeyed at night
    In the pale moonlight,
  'Mid sunshine and storm on they sail'd;
    Baffling winds and still calms
    Caused our friends no alarms,
  For Faith ever fearless prevail'd.

"It is of no use, Emma: I cannot do it. Girls are certainly a most
persevering race of beings, and you deserve to be at the top of the
class; for, if you determine to accomplish anything, I believe not
even Mr. Stanley's knock at the door, or, what would be more to you,
Dora Leslie's loving kiss, would make you swerve from your purpose.
Ah well! You are quite welcome to the work; and if you are not
tired, I know _I_ am, and these very _important_ articles may remain
unpacked for the trouble I shall take. I wonder you are so
particular about them: what signifies how they are put in, if you
can but shut the box? It can be of no consequence; and yet you have
been on your knees for the last two hours, arranging and placing,
until I am positively weary with watching you."

"George! George! Where is your boasted patience? Your fellow
traveller in your anticipated voyage? Only see what a trifling
exertion makes you weary and complaining. Now, suppose I act
according to your sage proposition, and merely fill the trunk; we
can then both jump on the lid, and _make_ it shut--what think you
would be the effect?"

GEORGE. "Well, my most patient sister, I think it very probable that
my microscope would be smashed to atoms, and all your little knick
knacks reduced to a similar condition. But surely there is no
necessity for such violent means to secure the lid: let me see, I
have no doubt it will shut quite easily."

"There, you see it will not shut," said Emma, as George in vain
endeavored, by moderate pressure, to bring the lid to its proper
place. "Now the things _must_ be arranged differently; and, if you
will only help me this once, we shall have done before Dora or Mr.
Stanley or any one else knocks at the door: come, be my own good
brother, and lay all these parcels carefully on the floor while I
find places for them."

Emma looked so irresistibly kind and coaxing, that George once more
good humoredly set to work; and presently the carpet was strewed
with packages, apparently sufficient to fill three such trunks, but
which Emma was determined should be snugly packed into one.

The articles might almost be arranged alphabetically, there was such
a miscellaneous collection; but the variety in their size and shape
rendered it actually a puzzle to dispose them so as to allow space
for all, without the hazard of any portion being crushed.

"Perseverance overcomes difficulties," said Emma, as she carefully
deposited the last paper, and turned the key in the lock.

"Hurrah!" shouted George. "Now we have done it. Well, really, I did
not think it possible: only imagine the number of parcels in that
one trunk, Emma! What a treat it will be when we get to Jamaica to
unpack it all again. Oh dear! how I wish we were there!"

"Miss Emma, you are wanted," said Hannah, entering the room;
"Mistress cannot find the books that came to-day, and she wants to
pack them up."

"Ah! it is nothing but _pack up_ now all day, and every room is in
confusion," said George, wearily. "Well, I am glad our share is at
an end for _this_ day, for I am heartily tired of the business, and
shall be thoroughly glad when there is nothing more left to _pack

"Oh! master George, how impatient you are," exclaimed Hannah. "But
come, you have no time to be grumbling now. Only look at your dirty
fingers, and dinner will be ready in five minutes: why, you will
scarcely be washed before the bell rings;" and the anxious maid
bustled out of the room with her weary charge.

The mention of Mr. Stanley's name requires an explanation. On the
previous evening, when Mr. Wilton returned from his office, he
brought with him a letter, which he put into George's hand after
tea, desiring him to read it aloud. It was from Mr. Stanley, and
George almost shouted for joy, when he read that his dear, dear
friend was then at Liverpool, and hoped to be with them the next
day to dinner.

"What a grand muster we shall have to-night, George," said Mr.
Wilton, while they were waiting the arrival of their expected guest.
"Why, we shall not find sufficient subject for so many speakers,
shall we?"

"Oh yes! papa. Emma and I have been too busy, _packing up_, to
prepare much. Besides, Mr. Stanley is sure to have a great deal to
tell: he has been away so long, and seeing strange countries all the
while. But there he is! I saw him pass the window;" and away ran
George to embrace his beloved friend.

"What bright eyes and rosy cheeks!" exclaimed Mr. Stanley, kissing
his pet. "My boy has indeed grown since I was here: why you will
soon reach my shoulder. I suppose, when next I come, I must inquire
for Mr. Wilton, junior. But where is sister Emma, and mamma and
papa, and dear, kind Grandy?"

"Oh! they are all in the dining-room," replied George: "we were only
waiting for you, sir."

Into the dining-room they went accordingly; and the welcome guest
was soon engaged, equally with the rest of the party, in discussing
a hearty meal, and the various events that had taken place during
his absence.

The hours flew like moments; and the arrival of the other members
quite astonished George, who had no idea it was so near seven
o'clock. He was in high glee, as he assisted Charles in placing the
chairs and books. But when Mr. Stanley, taking his hand, requested
_permission_ to sit by his side, the proud and happy boy looked
doubtingly into his face, not thoroughly comprehending the drift of
the request.

"I am anxious to have the services of an experienced pilot through
the stormy seas," said Mr. Stanley; "and if you are by my side,
George, to direct me, I think I can manage to steer clear of

"Now, you are joking," returned George: "why, you have positively
been to these very countries, and yet apply to _me_ for directions!
But I understand the reason. You intend to make observations on
subjects _not_ geographical, and I expect you will be keeping a
sharp look-out on _my_ observations, to discover what progress I
have made lately."

MR. STANLEY. "I perceive already that there is a decided
improvement, my boy; and I candidly aver that I expect to be edified
by these juvenile discoveries. Now to business--weigh anchor and
start. Who is pilot?"

CHARLES. "I have charge of the 'Research' for the present; but I am
not an experienced navigator, and if I happen to run you on a shoal,
I hope all hands will help to get the vessel clear off?"

MR. BARRAUD. "We will make due allowance for your youth and
inexperience, Charles. Now give your orders."

CHARLES. "The first voyage, we are to navigate the Indian Ocean,
calling on as many Robinson Crusoes as we can find in the various
little islands: our second voyage is to explore the whole coast of

"Our ship was last at anchor off the coast of New Holland, and our
next stoppage will be at the Moluccas. The name signifies 'Royal
Islands,' and was given by the Arabs in the days of their maritime
prosperity. The principal are Celebes, Gililo, and Ceram. Dora,
Emma, and George have patronized those isles, and will set forth
their various qualifications."

DORA. "Celebes is the largest of the Moluccas, and is a ragged,
irregular-looking island, in shape similar to a star-fish. The
inhabitants are rendered active, industrious, and robust by an
austere education. At all hours of the day, the mothers rub their
children with oil or water, and thus assist nature in forming their
constitutions. At the age of five or six, the male children of
persons of rank are put in charge of a friend, that their courage
may not be weakened by the caresses of relatives, and habits of
reciprocal tenderness. They do not return to their families until
they attain the age at which the law declares them fit to marry.
Celebes was first discovered by the Portuguese in 1512; but the
Dutch expelled them in 1660, and it now belongs to them. Unlike most
of the other islands, it abounds in extensive grassy plains, free
from forests, which are looked upon as the common property of the
tribes who dwell thereon, and are carefully guarded from the
intrusion of aliens. The people are Mohammedans."

GEORGE. "Gililo is Celebes in miniature, being of the same singular
shape, and producing similar fruits. I have little more of its
advantages to set forth. But near here is a portion of the Ocean
called Molucca Sea, which possesses a strange peculiarity. It is the
periodical appearance of a current of opaque white water, like milk,
which, from June to August or September, covers the surface of the
basin in which the Banda Islands are situated. During the night it
is somewhat luminous, which makes the spectator confound it with the
horizon. It is dangerous for vessels, for the sea seems to undergo
an inward boiling agitation wherever it passes. During its
prevalence the fish disappear. This white water is supposed to come
from the shores of New Guinea and the Gulf of Carpentaria."

MR. STANLEY. "You are slightly wrong, George, in stating this
curious sea to be near Gililo. Gililo is _on_, the equator, and the
Molucca Sea is at least 5 deg. _below_ the equator, and directly south
of Ceram."

EMMA. "Ceram produces quantities of sago, and contains large forests
of those trees: they are extremely profitable, for one tree will
sometimes yield as much as five or six hundred pounds of sago! The
original inhabitants were called Alfoors, and, as some of the race
still exist, I will introduce them. The only dress of the men is a
girdle encircling the loins. They fix bunches of palm leaves to
their heads, shoulders, and knees, and wear square bucklers, which
they ornament with considerable taste. The eyesight of these people
is uncommonly acute; and their swiftness is such as to enable them
to chase the wild hog with success. Rats and serpents form part of
their food. This island is equally fertile with the other Moluccas,
and produces spices of all kinds, but particularly cloves and
nutmegs. There are, happily, more Christians now to be found in
Ceram than there were a few years since: nevertheless the majority
are still Mohammedans, and barbarous in their habits."

MR. BARRAUD. "Yes. Very little improvement has taken place in the
manners of the Alfoors. The young men, even to this day, adhere to
the savage practice of propitiating their intended wives, by
presenting them with the heads of five or six of their enemies. In
order to seize their victims by surprise, they lie in ambush in the
woods, cover themselves with moss, and hold branches of trees in
their hands, which they shake in a manner so natural, that they have
the appearance of real trees: they then allow the enemy to pass,
assassinate him by coming up behind him, and, cutting off his head,
carry it away as a trophy. These murderers are received by the
people of the village with all the honors of a barbarous triumph."

MR. STANLEY. "These identical Alfoors have a singular method of
evincing their respect for friends or visitors: as an instance: One
of the kings (for the nation has _three_ to share the government)
invited a Dutch missionary to an entertainment. When Mr. Montarnes
arrived, he was received with great demonstrations of joy, and
treated by the king with the most splendid repast that the
resources of the country could afford. When the meal was over, the
king ordered a number of men armed with swords to step forward. They
performed a war-dance, and, after a few feats of this sort,
commenced a serious fight: their swords clashed, blood flowed, and
some of their bodies were laid dead on the ground. The peaceful
minister of religion, shocked at the horrid spectacle, entreated the
king to put a stop to it. 'It is nothing,' was the reply: 'they are
my slaves! it is only the death of a few dogs! Happy shall I be if
this mark of my high respect convinces you of my eager desire to
please you!'"

GRANDY. "Astonishing! that people with any belief in a superior
power, should hold life in such low estimation; and, simply for
amusement, deprive a fellow-creature of that which their utmost
stretch of power cannot restore. Oh! may God, in his mercy, soon
enlighten these wretched Alfoors, and write in plain characters on
the tables of their hearts--'Thou shalt do no murder.'"

CHARLES. "We now come to Java, one of the finest and most
flourishing colonies in the world. It is about 600 miles in length,
and 90 miles average breadth; almost entirely volcanic; therefore,
metals and precious stones are not to be expected. Iron is not to be
found in Java; indeed, it is extremely rare in the whole
Archipelago; consequently it bears a high price, and the art of the
blacksmith is held in a sort of reverence. The term for a son of the
anvil signifies 'learned.' The inhabitants of this island trace
their origin to a monkey, which they call 'woo-woo.' They are, for
the most part, Mohammedans, but not strict, as they will not
hesitate to drink wine at the religious festivals."

MRS. WILTON. "The Javanese are remarkable for their veracity and
love of music: their ear is so delicate, that they readily learn to
play the most difficult and complex airs on any instrument. They are
remarkable also for their superstition, and people their forests,
caves, and mountains with numerous invisible beings of their own
creation. I will quote two instances of whimsical superstition,
which took place in Java about thirty years ago. The skull of a
buffalo was conducted from one end of the island to the other; this
skull was to be kept in constant motion, for a dreadful fate was to
await the individual who detained it in his possession, or allowed
it to rest. After travelling many hundred miles, it reached
Samarang, where the Dutch governor caused it to be thrown into the
sea. No person could tell how this originated; but no person refused
to obey while the skull was on _terra firma_. Again, in 1814, a
smooth road, fifty or sixty miles long, and twenty feet broad,
leading to the top of an inland mountain, called Sumbong, was
suddenly formed, crossing no rivers, but passing in an undeviating
line through private property of all descriptions. The population of
whole districts was employed in the labor, and all because an old
woman dreamed that a divine personage was to descend on the

"Oh! how very ridiculous!" exclaimed Charles. "Such silly people
deserve to be imposed upon, for not using the faculties they
possess, to greater advantage."

GRANDY. "When once superstition usurps the throne of reason,
Charles, it is a difficult task to displace her. There are so many
pleasing fallacies connected with her sway over the naturally
indolent mind of man, that reason is altogether banished, and
superstition's authority knows no bounds."

MR. STANLEY. "Java produces, in great abundance, the _Hirundo
esculenta_, a species of swallow, whose nests are used as an article
of luxurious food among the Chinese. This nest has the shape of a
common swallow's nest, and the appearance of ill-connected
isinglass. The bird always builds in the caves of the rocks, at a
distance from any human dwelling. Along the sea-shore, these nests
are particularly abundant, the caverns there being more frequent.
The finest are those obtained before the nest has been contaminated
by young birds. Some of the caverns are very difficult of access,
and dangerous to climb; so that none can collect the nests but
persons accustomed to the trade from their youth."

GEORGE. "Oh, yes! I remember all the particulars of that business;
we were told at one of our meetings; but I do not care to taste
them: it is both nasty and cruel to eat bird's-nests."

CHARLES. "Sumatra is, next to Borneo, the largest island in the
Eastern seas. It is situated in the midst of the torrid zone, is
upwards of 1000 miles long, nearly 200 in breadth, and is divided
from Java by the Straits of Sunda.

"The Sumatrans are a well-made people, with yellow complexions,
sometimes inclining to white. They have some of the customs of the
South Sea Islanders; amongst others, those barbarous practices of
flattening the noses, and compressing the heads of children
newly-born, whilst the skull is yet soft or _cartilaginous_. They
likewise pull out the ears of infants to make them stand at an angle
from the head. They file, blacken, and otherwise disfigure the
teeth; and the great men sometimes set theirs in gold, by casing the
under row with a plate of that metal."

GEORGE. "Is Sumatra a gold country?"

"Why," said Mr. Wilton, smiling, "have you never heard of the gold
of Mount Ophir? Well, that is the name of the highest mountain in

GEORGE. "Then there is gold in Sumatra, and I suppose it is washed
down by the rivers. Is there any other metal there?"

MR. WILTON. "Gold is the most abundant; but saltpetre and naphtha
are among the products. Quantities of rice are grown here, and a
singular method is adopted for separating the grain from the ear.
The bunches of paddy are spread on mats, and the Sumatrans rub out
the grain under their feet, supporting themselves, for the more easy
performance of this labor, by holding with their hands a bamboo
placed horizontally over their heads."

[Illustration: A WATER SPOUT]

CHARLES. "I should hope they wash the rice after this process:
although, as rice is so dry, they doubtless consider it unnecessary:
I find Sumatra is a foggy island, and contains only one important
kingdom.--viz., Acheen."

MR. BARRAUD. "Fogs are not its worst calamities: thunder-storms and
water-spouts off the coasts are very frequent."

GEORGE. "What produces water-spouts?"

MR. BARRAUD. "Dr. Franklin supposed that water-spouts and whirlwinds
proceed from the same cause. A fluid moving from all parts
horizontally towards a centre, must at that centre either mount or
descend. If a hole be opened in the bottom of a tub filled with
water, the water will flow from all sides to the centre, and there
descend in a whirl; but air flowing in or near the surface of land
or water, from all sides towards a centre, must at that centre
ascend, because the land or water will hinder its descent."

MR. WILTON. "As Charles states, Acheen, with regard to business
transactions, is the only place of note in the island of Sumatra.
The inhabitants have no coin, but make their payments in gold dust,
which they keep in divided parcels, contained in pieces of bladder,
and these are weighed by the person who takes them in payment. They
have some odd forms about them; for instance, in _marriage_ and
_burial_. The bride is bargained for with the parents, and if
settled satisfactorily, the young couple partake together of two
different sorts of rice, and the ceremony is concluded by the father
of the lady throwing a piece of cloth over them.

"When a man of rank dies, his body is kept in a coffin for several
months; the soft parts dissolving during that interval are conveyed
in a fluid state by a bamboo tube, from the bottom of the coffin
into the earth."

EMMA. "How very disgusting! and how very unwholesome for the
relatives of the deceased, in such a hot country too. I wonder the
inhabitants do not all die from infection."

MR. STANLEY. "These practices do vastly increase the mortality; but
old customs are not easily abolished. Do you sail as far north as
the Bay of Bengal, Charles?"

CHARLES. "No, sir, all that portion of the ocean has been navigated:
our next island is Borneo."

MR. STANLEY. "But I suppose there would be no objection to my
putting in a word on the Burman Empire, which probably you are not
_much_ acquainted with. Parts of it are in the same longitude as the
north of Sumatra; and I merely wish to mention some peculiarities
connected with the Burmese. The government is entirely despotic, and
the sovereign almost deified. When anything belonging to him is
mentioned, the epithet 'golden' is invariably attached to it. When
he is said to have heard anything, 'it has reached the golden ears:'
the perfume of roses is described as grateful to the 'golden nose.'
The sovereign is sole proprietor of all the elephants in his
dominions; and the privilege to keep or ride on one is only granted
to men of the first rank. No honors here are hereditary. All
officers and dignities depend on the crown. The 'tsaloe,' or chain,
is the badge of nobility, and superiority of rank is signified by
the number of cords or divisions."

GEORGE. "Is it true that they are a proud, consequential people?"

MR. STANLEY. "Yes, quite true. Men of rank have their barges tugged
by war-boats, common watermen not being admitted into the same boat
with them.

"A singularly absurd custom takes place in this country, in certain
forms of political homage shown to a white elephant,--a
preternatural animal kept for the purpose,--superbly lodged near the
royal palace, sumptuously dressed and fed, provided with
functionaries like a second sovereign, held next in rank to the
king, and superior to the queen, and made the recipient of presents,
and other tokens of respect from foreign ambassadors."

CHARLES. "Well, that _is_ an odd superstition. I am much obliged to
you for going out of the track to tell us these strange 'sayings and
doings' of the Burmese. Are we now to resume our station?"

MR. WILTON. "You are pilot. Charles; we rely on your guidance! Go
where you please: we are not to control your movements."

CHARLES. "Then, like Sir James Brooke, I will go to Borneo; but I do
not expect to be made a rajah for my trouble: indeed I scarcely know
if I should like to live there, although it is the largest island in
the world, and is very fertile, and contains diamond mines and vast
quantities of gold."

MR. STANLEY. "By-the-by, that reminds me of the fact that the petty
prince of Mattan, in Borneo, is in possession of one of the largest
diamonds in the world. It was obtained a hundred years ago from the
mines of Landak, and is worth 269,378_l_."

EMMA. "Which are the other large diamonds?"

MR. WILTON. "The Great Russian diamond, which is valued at
304,200_l._; and the Great Pitt diamond, valued at 149,605_l_. But
we are departing from our subject. Borneo is, next to New Holland,
the largest island in the world. It is 900 miles long, and 700

DORA. "When did Sir James Brooke go to Borneo, and what was his
object in going?"

MR. WILTON. "In August, 1839, he anchored off Borneo; and his object
was purely philanthropic. He went to spread abroad the glorious
truths of Christianity--to arouse the slumbering energies of these
interesting people--to increase trade--to suppress piracy,--and to
gain information for the profit of his own native land. Such were
his principal motives. Particulars of his success, of the benefits
he has conferred on thousands of his fellow-creatures, and of his
travels and adventures, may be seen in his own published journal, to
more advantage than I can possibly set them before you."

MR. BARRAUD. "Since Sir James Brooke's visit, the Dido and several
other vessels of war have cruised in the Asiatic Archipelago, all
tending to suppress piracy, and encourage native trade and commerce.
The island of Labuan, off the north-west of Borneo, has been ceded
to England, and Sir James Brooke appointed agent for the British
Government,--an appointment which confers on him additional power
and influence; besides which, the Sultan has nominated him Rajah of
Sarawak. Thus in the course of a few years has a complete revolution
been worked in one of the finest portions of our globe, and a new
and better system of things been established, all through the
enlightened and philanthropic energy of a single individual."

CHARLES. "Borneo is the chief of the Sunda group, is extremely
fertile, producing all sorts of tropical fruits, and various spices
and drugs. Much of the interior is covered by immense forests,
inhabited by wild animals, and aboriginal tribes of human beings
almost as wild. It is in Borneo that the largest of the monkey
tribe, the ponga, equalling the human race in stature, is to be
found; also the ourang-outang, or Simia Satyrus, which comes nearer
to man in his looks, manners, and gait. Some writers assert that
these animals light fires, at which they broil their fish and rice;
but these accounts are not verified by recent observers. Wild bees
are so numerous here, that their wax forms a very extensive article
of export."

MRS. WILTON. "Borneo is called, by the natives, Pulo Kalamantan.
Borneo was the name of a city, the residence of a powerful prince in
1520, when Magellan went there: hence the Spaniards concluded that
the whole island belonged to this prince, and they called it all
Borneo. There are a great many tribes of Indians in this large
island, and the sea-coasts are inhabited by Malayans, of whom Sir
James Brooke speaks in the higher terms, as regards honesty,
cleanliness, &c. They understand the art of cutting, polishing, and
setting their diamonds. Gold and silver filigree works they excel
in; and they are otherwise ingenious, but can scarcely be considered

DORA. "South-west of Sumatra, in latitude 12 deg. south, longitude 97 deg.
east, are the Cocos or Keeling Islands, which are entirely coralline
in their formation; very fertile, with a salubrious climate. In
1830, Captain Ross and Alexander Hare, Esq., undertook to cultivate
these islands, and render them productive. They succeeded, and they
now form a fine settlement."

CHARLES. "I shall feel greatly obliged if Mr. Stanley will take the
helm, and steer us across the Indian Ocean; for there are such
hundreds, I might almost say thousands, of islands, that I feel
convinced I shall run you all ashore, where none of you are disposed
to go."

MR. STANLEY. "Come, then, I will relieve you for a while, because it
would be most unpleasantly awkward for the ladies to be cast ashore
on a desert island; and equally so on an inhabited one, if they
possessed no letters of introduction to the natives.

"In crossing the Indian Ocean, we must sail by a great many islands;
but I do not think it will be prudent to go ashore until we arrive
at the Isle of Bourbon, and there we can pass a few days very
comfortably before we sail for Madagascar."

EMMA. "Oh, yes! Bourbon is quite a civilized island. It belongs to
the French, does it not, mamma?"

MRS. WILTON. "Yes, my dear; but the discovery was not theirs.
Mascarenhas, a Portuguese navigator, claims the credit. He
discovered it in 1545, and it bore his name until the French took
possession of it in the next century. When they first occupied it,
the sides of the mountains were covered with forests, which reached
even to the shores. The whole of the lower lands have since been
cleared; but the centre of this island is still covered with its
primitive vegetation, which affords forty-one different species of
woods serviceable for arts and manufactures. The coasts abound with
fish and large turtles, and furnish also coral and ambergris.
Bourbon contains a college, and numerous schools, sixteen churches,
two hospitals, two establishments for the relief of the poor, and
two prisons."

MR. BARRAUD. "Why are we to take no notice of the fine colony of
Mauritius, or Isle of France? It is quite as large as Bourbon:
moreover it is a British possession."

MR. STANLEY. "I see no just cause or impediment why we should not
land there. Let us see, what is its size?"

CHARLES. "Its circumference is about 140 miles. Port Louis is its
principal town, and is said to contain 30,000 inhabitants; it has an
excellent harbor, capable of containing 50 large vessels; and it is
well protected by nature from the violence of the weather, and from
the attacks of enemies, by strong fortifications."

GEORGE. "Now to Madagascar. I am longing to go there; for I know
nothing about either country or people."

MRS. WILTON. "Madagascar is a large and beautiful island, with
mountains, valleys, lakes and streams, diversifying its whole
extent. It is between 800 and 900 miles long, and between 200 and
300 broad. The metals dug here, are gold, silver, copper, steel, and
iron; and a great variety of precious stones are found in the rivers
and brooks of Madagascar. Civet is plentiful, and is taken from the
civet cat; and the natives obtain musk from the crocodile, and call
it tartave. Tananarievo, the capital, stands on the summit of a
lofty hill, and commands an extensive prospect of the surrounding
country. The principal houses are of wood, and the palace of the
king is about the centre of the town, enclosed in a high palisading
of strong poles."

GEORGE. "If the palace be so homely, what can the poor folks' houses
be like?"

MR. WILTON. "Oh! they are of wood too, but mere huts; they have no
chimneys, and the door and window affording the only means of escape
for the smoke arising from the fires, which are kindled on the floor
of the house, the soot collects on the inner side of the roofs of
their dwellings, where it is never disturbed by the people, who
consider it a badge of honorable ancestry to have large quantities
of soot hanging in long black shreds from the roof of their

EMMA. "What a dirty badge! Are they dirty people?"

MR. STANLEY. "They are not exactly dirty, but very slothful; and
when not compelled to exert themselves in husbandry or war, they
pass their time in sleep. They have little thought for the morrow;
and, in fact, seem to be a thoroughly contented happy race; and so
they ought to be, in one sense, for they are surrounded by every
comfort, and even luxury, which the hand of nature can produce.
Their characteristic feature is simplicity; and they regard the
example of their forefathers as authority for every action."

DORA. "They are Christians, I believe?"

MRS. WILTON. "I wish I could say they are, my dear Dora. Some
Christians there certainly are in Madagascar; but the majority are
ruled by superstition. They acknowledge one only true God, the
Creator of heaven and earth, and the Supreme Ruler of the universe,
and they call him 'Ungharry,' or 'Zanhare,' which signify the
'Highest God,' or 'God above.' They believe him to possess infinite
power; but they consider him too great a being to condescend to
attend to the concerns of mortals: they therefore suppose that four
inferior spirits are appointed, to whom are delegated the affairs of
the world. These are denominated the Lords of the North, South,
East, and West. The East is supposed to be the dispenser of plagues
and miseries to mankind, by the command of the Great God. The other
three are employed in the dispensation of benefits. Besides this,
they have faith in a _world_ of spirits, and believe that every
family has its guardian angel, which is generally supposed to be
the soul of a particular ancestor; and, strangely enough, although
they believe in the immortality of the soul, they deny that there
can be a future punishment, or that the soul can suffer evil after
its separation from the body; but they assert that bad men will be
punished in this world by a complication of misfortunes, and that
the good will be rewarded by health, constancy of friends, increase
of fortune, and obedience of children."

GRANDY. "There was at one period great hopes concerning Madagascar.
Missionaries went out, and were cordially welcomed by the
authorities, although the people, from ignorance, were hostile. But,
poor creatures! white men had never visited their shores but to
carry away their children and friends to sell them for slaves in
different parts of the world; and, of course, they were very
suspicious; so much so, that when the missionaries first endeavored
to establish schools in Madagascar, the parents refused to allow
their children to attend, alleging that the white men wanted them
for no other purpose than to eat them; for they attributed all their
sorrows to the cannibalism of the white people, believing that the
slaves they captured were caught, as wild animals would be, only for
food. They carried their antipathy so far, that, rather than permit
their little ones to enter the schools, they hid them in rice holes,
where they were often suffocated. King Radama reigned at that time,
and, being a convert himself, he naturally desired the conversion of
his people. He reasoned with them, and prohibited the secretion of
the unfortunate children, and after a time, by God's blessing, the
people became aware of the advantage of the schools and many were
converted from the error of their ways, and died rejoicing in God
their Saviour. But Radama died also; and there arose a sovereign who
knew not God; enemies crept into the fold, and endeavored to destroy
the good work of the pious missionaries. They partially succeeded;
and in 1837 these worthy men were obliged to quit Madagascar, and
have never since been able to revisit it with any prospect of
success. We cannot understand why this great work should be allowed
to fall to the ground; but God in His wisdom appears to have
withheld his blessing for a season, and we must in patience await
the issue."

GEORGE. "The Malagasses were never cannibals, were they?"

MR. WILTON. "No. Their ordinary food consists of the natural produce
of the soil; principally rice, dressed in the simplest manner, and
seasoned with pepper; and they usually drink hot water or broth from
the boiled meats; wines, of which they make several kinds, are
reserved for the entertainments of their friends on occasions of
festivity or ceremony. Their usual dinner hour is ten in the
morning, and that of supper four in the afternoon."

MR. STANLEY. "Although not cannibals, their superstition prompts
them to many acts of cruelty; for instance, one half of the infant
population is murdered by the misfortune of being born on an unlucky
day; and, to prove the truth of the dogma, they are deliberately
killed. One mode of perpetrating this unnatural deed, is by taking
the infant to a retired spot in the neighborhood of the village,
digging a grave sufficiently large to receive it pouring in a
quantity of water slightly warmed, putting a piece of cloth upon the
infant's mouth, placing it in the grave, filling this up with earth,
and leaving the helpless child, thus buried alive, a memorial of
their own affecting degradation, and the relentless barbarism of
their gloomy superstition, and a painful illustration of the truth
of God's word, which declares that 'the dark places of the earth are
full of the habitations of cruelty.'"

MR. WILTON. "We cannot enlighten these people without help from on
high; and their circumstances are too melancholy to dwell on. Let us
continue our voyage, and pray for their conversion. Who can inform
me how many bays there are around this great island?"

GEORGE. "I can, papa. There are fourteen on my map; and the Bay of
Antongil, up in the north-east, is the largest"

MR. WILTON. "So it is, George; and near it lies the Island of St.
Mary, which once formed the principal retreat of the pirates who, in
the 17th century, infested the Indian Ocean. It is a delightful
island, abounding in every necessary of life. Now, I have a droll
story to tell you, and that will conclude our remarks on

#Translation of a Malagassy Fable, accounting for the enmity between
the Crocodile and the Dog.#

"A serpent and a young crocodile dwelt in the same part of the
country. The serpent fixed itself in a tree by the water-side; and
underneath the same tree the young crocodile watched for prey. After
a time a dog came to drink; the crocodile pursued him; down came the
serpent to stop the crocodile. "What have you to do with me?" said
the crocodile.--"Why, you are seeking to eat everybody that passes
this way," replied the serpent--"Be quiet,"--said the crocodile,
"lest I give you a blow with my tail, and cut you in two."--"And
pray what are you?" asked the serpent: "I suppose you are thinking
that, because I have neither hands nor feet, I can do nothing; but,
perhaps, you have not looked at _my_ tail, how sharp it is."--"Cease
your noise," replied the crocodile, "or I'll just break you in two."
The serpent, then becoming excessively angry, struck the crocodile
with his tail, and wounded his loins, so as nearly to break his
body. All the fish were astonished; and, addressing the crocodile,
said, "How is this,--you that can conquer people and cattle, however
large, and anything else?" The crocodile, ashamed, dived out of
sight; while the serpent resumed his place on the tree. The
crocodile, however, hoping to repay him, kept watching for prey.
After a time, there came a goose to the water. The crocodile
pursued, and got hold of him; when down came the serpent, to stop
him, as before. "Where are you going?" cried the crocodile.--"Let
that goose alone," said the serpent, "lest I kill you." The
crocodile replied contemptuously, and the serpent, enraged,
exclaimed, "Well, this time, see if you are not the worse for it;"
and then he struck the crocodile, and wounded him on the face, and
made him scream again. So he was conquered _that_, time, and the
goose got off. Then all the little fish came again, and said to the
crocodile, "How is it that you are beaten by that foolish serpent?
You are wise and powerful, and that little fellow conies and beats
you." Completely ashamed, again the crocodile hid himself in the
water, and began to think by what means he might conquer this
serpent upon the tree. After thinking a long time, the crocodile
determined on boring a hole through the root of the tree; and for a
whole week he kept on boring. Presently, a dog came to drink;
afterwards a goose; also a man; but, the crocodile keeping at his
work, the serpent exulted in having intimidated his adversary, and
said, 'There's nothing so strong, then, as I am." The crocodile
heard him, and labored with all his might to finish boring at the
root, one branch of which remained to cut. The crocodile then
watched at the water-side a good while, when down came the dog to
drink: the crocodile pursued him; the serpent, as before, came to
oppose him, calling out, "Let that dog alone there, lest you get the
worst of it."--"You," said the crocodile, "do not fear God. Yonder
dogs deceive us, and that's the reason I pursue them: as to people,
I never touch them, unless they are guilty of witchcraft. I only
eat the small things,--so just let _me_ alone." When the serpent
heard that, he replied, "There _is_ no God; for if there were, I
should have had both hands and feet: there is no God at all. But I
will have your carcass to-day." Then the dog and the serpent
together made an attack on the crocodile; the crocodile got weaker,
and dived in the water; when all the little fish came again, and
expressed their astonishment, as before, that he should be conquered
by that little serpent, "Wait a little," said the crocodile, "and
you will see I am not conquered by him." The serpent got up the tree
as usual; the crocodile watched,--bored the hole completely,--then
looked up, and saw the serpent sound asleep on a branch overhanging
the water; then, cutting what remained of the root, the tree broke
and fell into the water, the serpent falling with it. Then all the
fishes acknowledged that the crocodile was superior, for he had got
the serpent into the water, and made him dive in it, and kept him
under water half-an-hour. The serpent, however, survived it, and
repented of what he had done. "Oh! that I had never opposed you;
only let me go, and I will never attack you again."--"Ah!" said the
crocodile; "but as often as I pursued the dog, I was pursued by you;
so you must suffer in your turn." Thus the crocodile made him
heartily repent before he let him go. "Then," said the serpent, "if
ever I touch you again, may I be conquered." After that, the
crocodile let him go. He was glad to get off; but he had been
beaten, and took an oath not to renew the attack when the crocodile
went to look out for prey. The crocodile, however, owed the dog a
grudge, because he had attacked him, and so laid all his family
under a curse to devour the dog whenever opportunity offered.
"Unless you do that," said he, "may you die without posterity; for
yonder dog took part with the serpent against me."

MR. STANLEY. "Well, George, are you like the serpent? Have you had
enough of the water?"

GEORGE. "Oh! no! I shall be very sorry when the voyages are over."

MR. STANLEY. "You have been on the ocean a weary while. Have you,
like Sir James Ross, reached either of the Poles?"

GEORGE. "No, sir; but we have been very near the North Pole; have we
not, Charles?"

CHARLES. "Yes; in the Arctic Ocean we have been as high as 80 deg.
parallel of north latitude to Spitzbergen; and in the Antarctic as
high as the 66 deg. parallel of south latitude, to the New South
Shetland Isles."

MR. STANLEY. "Well done! You will not then start any objections on
the score of cold, to accompany me to Kerguelan's Land?"

"Oh dear, no!" exclaimed the boys. "We do not mind the cold."

MR. STANLEY. "Kerguelan's land was discovered in 1772 by Monsieur de
Kerguelan, a French navigator, who took it for a continent, and so
reported it to his government. He was sent back the following year
to make critical examination. Three years after this, Captain Cook
fell in with the island, and, not finding it of any importance,
called it Isle of Desolation. But, despite its name, it is not a bad
place by any means. It is a safe and commodious harbor, and
abundance of fresh water. However, considering its latitude, it is
exceedingly bare of vegetation; and there is only one plant which
claims attention, that is the famous cabbage discovered by Captain
Cook. For 130 days his crew enjoyed the luxury of fresh vegetables,
which were served out with their salt beef and pork, and prevented
sickness among them."

GEORGE. "Are there any animals on the island?"

MR. BARRAUD. "Numbers of birds; penguins, albatrosses, gulls, ducks,
cormorants, &c.; and the island is the resort of seals and

CHARLES. "It cannot be a very pretty place?"

MR. STANLEY. "Here is an idea of it. The whole island appears to be
deeply indented by bays and inlets, the surface intersected by
numerous small lakes and water-courses. These becoming swollen by
the heavy rains, which alternate with the frost and snow,
accompanied by violent gusts of wind, rush down the sides of the
mountains and along the ravines in countless impetuous torrents,
forming in many places beautiful foaming cascades, wearing away the
rocks, and strewing the valleys below with vast fragments."

CHARLES. "That is _grand_, but decidedly not _comfortable_."

GRANDY. "Sailors need great powers of endurance to undergo such
hardships as they must continually encounter on these voyages of
discovery. How grateful we ought to feel towards the brave men who
hazard life, property, everything to extend our knowledge! for how
many happy hours are we indebted to their researches! how often have
we perused with delight, the voyages, the discoveries, the exciting
descriptions of enterprising sailors! and all, perhaps, without
reflecting that the very adventures which have so much amused us,
may have been the ruin of all their hopes, and the destroyer of all
their happiness in this world. While you are sipping your wine,
preparatory to our last voyage, I will tell you a true

#Story of a Sailor as related by himself.#

"Four years ago I left the port of Boston, the master of a fine ship
bound for China. I was worth ten thousand dollars, and was the
husband of a young and handsome wife, whom I married but six months
before. When I left her, I promised to return to her in less than a
twelvemonth. I took all my money with me, save enough to support my
wife in my absence, for the purpose of trading when in China, on my
own account. For a long time we were favored with prosperous winds;
but when in the China seas a terrible storm came upon us, so that in
a short time I saw the vessel must be lost, for we were drifting on
the rocks of an unknown shore. I ordered the men to provide each for
himself in the best possible manner, and forget the ship, as it was
an impossibility to save her. We struck: a sea laid me upon the
rocks senseless; and the next would have carried me back to a watery
grave, had not one of the sailors dragged me further up the rocks.
There were only four of us alive; and when morning came, we found
that we were on a small uninhabited island, with nothing to eat but
the wild fruit common to that portion of the earth; and there we
remained sixty days before we could make ourselves known to any
ship. We were at length taken to Canton; and there I had to beg, for
my money was at the bottom of the sea, and I had not taken the
precaution to have it insured. It was nearly a year before I had an
opportunity of coming home; and then I, _a captain_, was obliged to
ship as a common sailor. It was two years from the time I left
America that I landed in Boston. I was walking in a hurried manner
up one of its streets, when I met my brother-in-law. He could not
speak nor move, but he grasped my hand, and tears gushed from his
eyes. 'Is my wife alive?' I asked. He said nothing. Then I wished
that I had perished with my ship, for I thought my wife was dead;
but he very soon said, 'She is alive.' Then it was my turn to cry
for joy. He clung to me and said, 'Your funeral sermon has been
preached, for we have thought you dead for a long time.' He said
that my wife was living in our little cottage in the interior of the
state. It was then three o'clock in the afternoon, and I took a
train of cars that would carry me within twenty-five miles of my
wife. Upon leaving the cars I hired a boy, though it was night, to
drive me home. It was about two o'clock in the morning when that
sweet little cottage of mine appeared in sight. It was a warm
moonlight night, and I remember how like a heaven it looked to me. I
got out of the carriage and went to the window of the room where the
servant girl slept, and gently knocked. She opened the window and
asked, 'Who is there?' 'Sarah, do you not know me?' said I. She
screamed with fright, for she thought me a ghost; but I told her to
unfasten the door and let me in, for I wished to see my wife. She
let me in and gave me a light, and I went up stairs to my wife's
room. She lay sleeping quietly. Upon her bosom lay her child, whom I
had never seen. She was as beautiful as when I left her; but I could
see a mournful expression upon her face. Perhaps she was dreaming of
me. I gazed for a long time; I did not make any noise, for I dared
not wake her. At length I imprinted a soft kiss upon the cheek of my
little child. While doing it a tear dropped from my eye and fell
upon her cheek. Her eyes opened as clearly as though she had not
been sleeping. I saw that she began to be frightened, and I said,
'Mary, it is your husband!' and she clasped me about my neck, and
fainted. But I will not describe that scene. She is now the happy
wife of a poor man. I am endeavoring to accumulate a little
property, and then I will leave the sea forever."

MR. WILTON. "A vote of thanks for Grandy. That little narrative has
agreeably refreshed our minds, while the wine and cake has had the
like effect on our bodies. Now, voyage the last!"

GEORGE. "Oh, papa! that sounds so strangely. I cannot bear the last
of anything; and now particularly, it reminds us how soon our happy
evening meetings will be at an end, and naught left but the bare
recollection of them."

MRS. WILTON. "Well, my dear, I will not distress you by repeating
the obnoxious word. We will start anew, and sail round the coast of
Africa. We are a goodly party, and I dare venture to say, shall not
lack for amusement during the voyage."

MR. STANLEY. "Then we are not to go so far south as Victoria Land,
and see all the wonderful things Sir James Ross saw?"

MR. WILTON. "No: we have been in the cold long enough, and I am
rejoiced that we have no more enormous icebergs to encounter--no
more still ice-fields stretching away in every direction, or
clashing and grinding under the influence of mighty storms--no more
mountains cased in eternal ice; but we have really bid adieu to the
wintry desolation of those frozen regions that

  'Lie dark and wild, beat with perpetual storms.'"

MR. STANLEY. "I am glad to get into a more genial climate, and I
perceive our next voyage commences in the Mediterranean; that is, if
it be the intention of our young discoverers to call at the bays on
the north of Africa."

DORA. "It is our intention, sir; and the first gulf, called
Malillih, is on the coast of Morocco. Mrs. Wilton has kindly
undertaken the land survey."

MRS. WILTON. "Morocco is now only the remains of a state, although
at one period, when the Moors were in the zenith of their power, it
was a splendid country. Still, however, the inhabitants entertain
the loftiest ideas of themselves and their native land, and
half-naked creatures as they are, they style the Europeans 'agein,'
or barbarians, and hold them in contempt."

GRANDY. "But the Moors, although Mohammedans, are not destitute of
virtues; and, as a peculiarly good trait in their character, a Moor
never abandons himself to despair; neither sufferings nor losses can
extort from him a single murmur; to every event he submits as
decreed by the will of God, and habitually hopes for better times.
We might learn something even from the Moors."

MR. STANLEY. "Ay! but we must keep at a distance if we wish the
ladies of our party to learn; for the Moors would altogether object
to teach them, as women are there regarded merely as tools
--creatures without souls. They would not admire our ladies
either, for their idea of female loveliness is most singular. Beauty
and corpulence are synonymous. A perfect Moorish beauty is a load
for a camel; and a woman of moderate pretensions to beauty requires
a slave on each side to support her. In consequence of this depraved
taste for unwieldy bulk, the Moorish ladies take great pains to
acquire it early in life; and for this purpose, the young girls are
compelled by their mothers to devour a great quantity of kous-kous
and to drink a large portion of camel's milk every morning. It is no
matter whether the girl has an appetite or not, the kous-kous and
milk _must_ be swallowed, and obedience is frequently enforced by

DORA. "How very disagreeable! I scarcely know which is the worst
stage of the affair, the cause or the effect."

EMMA. "I should say the _cause_; for the fat comes by degrees, and
cannot inconvenience them so much as swallowing quantities of food
and drink when they require it not."

MR. WILTON. "They have other quaint notions. Among the points of
etiquette which prevail at the court of Morocco, the following is
mentioned:--The word _death_ is never uttered in presence of the
Sultan. When it is unavoidable to mention the death of any person,
it is expressed by such words as, 'He has fulfilled his destiny;' on
which the monarch gravely remarks, 'God be merciful to him!' Another
point of whimsical superstition is, that the numbers _five_ and
_fifteen_ must not be mentioned in presence of the sovereign."

GEORGE. "I should be continually saying forbidden words if I were
there; so we will go on, if you please, pilot."

EMMA. "I have the bays. They are Boujanyah, and Storah, on the coast
of Algiers. This state is inferior to Morocco, both in extent and
fertility; but the city has a grand harbor, is itself very populous,
and contains some splendid ruins."

DORA. "I have the gulfs. They are Tunis, Hammamet, and Khabs, on
the coast of Tunis, which was once the seat of Carthaginian power,
but like the other states, is now reduced to a tithe of its former
greatness, although it is still one of the finest cities in Africa.
It has a good harbor and fortifications. The manufactures are silks,
velvets, cloth, and red bonnets, which are worn by the people."

MR. WILTON. "There is yet another Barbary state to pass: who has a
word for Tripoli?"

CHARLES. "I have, madam. Tripoli is the most easterly, and the most
wretched of the Barbary states. It extends straggling along a great
extent of coast, where may be seen the enormous Gulf of Sidra or
Sert, called by the natives 'Djou al Kabit,' or Gulf of Sulphur, and
the Gulf of Bombah. Tripoli received its name from once containing
three cities of considerable importance, which are now little else
than ruins."

MRS. WILTON. "The 'Research' has not tarried long on that coast, at
any rate. We must now suppose ourselves _authors_ instead of
_travellers_; and without thinking of impossibilities, straightway
carry our ship overland, across the Isthmus of Suez, and launch
quietly on the waters of the Red Sea."

MR. BARRAUD. "It is scarcely fair to pass Egypt without a
recognition: the Egyptians would sympathize with us in our
partiality for the _ancient element_. They are special lovers of two
things--gardens and water. Even stagnant water, if sweet, they
consider a luxury; running water, however dirty, they hold to be
extremely luxurious; when during the inundation, the canal of Cairo
is full, all the houses on its banks are occupied by persons, who
sit in their leisure hours, smoking by its muddy waters; but the
height of their enjoyment consists in sitting by a fountain--this
they esteem equal to paradise."

MRS. WILTON. "In the Red Sea there are eleven gulfs of moderate
dimensions, and some small bays: we will not wait to examine them,
as they are not important; but how are we to sail out of this sea?
George, will you undertake to pilot us?"

GEORGE. "I know no other way out than through the Straits of
Babelmandeb, by Abyssinia, of which country I should like to have a

MRS. WILTON. "The country consists of a succession of hills and
valleys, the former for the most part well-wooded, and the latter
fertile; with the climate mild upon the whole for so tropical a
latitude. For the people and customs I must refer you to some other
more intelligent member."

MR. STANLEY. "The present Bishop of Jerusalem[18] went to Abyssinia
some years ago; and he has sketched a few interesting particulars
concerning the people. 'As soon as a child is born, it is
immediately taught to drink lukewarm butter, with a little honey.
After the age of six or seven years, the children are considered
servants. The boys are shepherds, till the age of fourteen or
fifteen, and reside with their parents; but if their parents are
poor, they leave them, by their own choice at the age of eight or
nine years, in order to get their livelihood by keeping cattle
elsewhere. The girls are occupied in managing the little affairs of
the house; and begin to fetch water, which is always at a distance,
as soon as they can walk steadily. At the age of eight or nine years
they begin to fetch wood from the mountains. There are some fathers
who send their children into convents to have them instructed; but
there are many who will not do this, lest their children should
become monks: on this account many boys desert their parents, in
order to seek instruction for themselves. Some enter the house of a
priest as servants during the day, and they receive instruction at
night. Others go, after the lessons are over, to get food by
begging. There are also many persons in easy circumstances who
support those children who seek for instruction without the help of
their parents. Nearly all the great men send their children into
convents to learn reading, and to repeat the psalms from memory;
this is all the instruction they receive. The daughters of the
higher class learn nothing but spinning and managing the affairs of
the house; there are, however, a _few_ ladies who can read.'"

[Footnote 18: Right Rev. Samuel Gobat.]

MR. BARRAUD. "They seem early accustomed to habits of industry; but
in other respects, the training of the children is not very rigid:
almost the only crime they punish them for, is stealing. Mr.
Stanley's author, Bishop Gobat, says, he saw a mother, usually of a
very meek temper, and who would not see a man cause suffering to the
smallest reptile, burn the skin off both the hands and lips of her
daughter, only nine years of age, for having dipped her finger into
a jar of honey!"

EMMA. "Oh! how extremely cruel! they surely are not Christians."

GRANDY. "They are--and differ very little from the Roman Catholics
of more civilized countries. Some of the points of variation in
their doctrine are as follow:--They believe in no separate
purgatory; but that almost all men go to hell at their death, and
that from time to time, the Archangel Michael descends into that
place of torment, in order to deliver men's souls, and to introduce
them to paradise, sometimes for the sake of the prayers and
meritorious works of their relatives and their priests. They have a
great number of tales in support of this doctrine; the one they most
frequently make use of, is the story of a man who had done nothing
but evil when on earth, except that he had always observed the
_fast_ on Wednesday and Friday. When he died, he descended into
hell, to a dark place; but had always two lights surrounding him, by
the assistance of which he could go to the gate which separated hell
from paradise. The Archangel Michael then went to receive him;
saying, that the two lamps which had saved him, were the _fasts_
which he had observed on Wednesdays and Fridays."

MR. STANLEY. "That is one of the fallacies of the Romish Church. But
I am not surprised that popery acquires such power over the
ignorant; for it assails the mind through every sense; through the
sight by its pageantry, the hearing by its splendid music, the
smell by the delicious odor of the incense, and thus gratifies and
soothes its votaries by the application of forms destitute of power.
But enough of this; if we venture on such a subject, we are
continually reminded, that to speak evil of other sects is
malicious, and that we cannot disapprove of a man's doctrine without
having an uncharitable feeling towards the individual. _I_ most
strenuously deny the truth of that assertion; for I reckon many
amongst my dearest connections, whose friendship I value extremely,
but whose religious tenets I utterly repudiate. But I fear this is
incomprehensible to the youngsters; we will return to business.

"The coast of Africa, from the Red Sea to the River Juba, which is
as far as the equator, is inhabited by a tribe called Somauli, who
are reckoned to be descendants from the aborigines of the country,
and were early subjected to the laws of the Koran, by the Arab
merchants trading with them. They are a mild people, of pastoral
habits, and confined entirely to the coast; the whole of the
interior of this portion being occupied by an untamable tribe of
savages, called Galla, perhaps the most uncultivated and ferocious
people in existence."

EMMA. "We shall cross the equator before we enter another bay; then,
in the parallel of 3 deg. south, lies the Bay of Formosa, on the coast
of Zanguebar; and 4 deg. nearer south, is the little island of Zanzibar.
I am a stranger here."

MRS. WILTON. "Zanzibar is a most valuable possession of the Imaun
of Muscat, on account of its abundant produce of grain and sugar.
The climate is particularly fatal to Europeans, so that the crews of
vessels trading there are never allowed to sleep on shore. But there
is perhaps no place, where refreshments are so cheap as in this
island: fowls may be had for two shillings the dozen, sugar
twopence, and rice one penny a pound; and a large bullock is sold
for one sovereign."

CHARLES. "No great advantage to get food cheap in a country so
unhealthy that you lack the appetite to eat it."

MR. BARRAUD. "No; we will not go there to victual _our_ ship. Here
are the Seychelle Isles almost in the latitude of Formosa Bay;
suppose we ''bout ship' and look in upon them. There appear to be
fifteen, and navigators say they are composed of granite rocks.
Their chief inhabitants are French Roman Catholics, who have very
little of either religion or morality, but spend the greater portion
of their time in dancing and gambling. All the blacks resident on
these isles are unhappy slaves, although their owners live in
luxurious indolence."

GEORGE. "They are such small islands, and some of them so close
that, if I lived there, I would build bridges to go from one island
to another."

MR. BARRAUD. "The inhabitants do that without a bridge. They have
numerous canoes, built and fitted with much skill and neatness. In
these they pay their visits, and at the close of a party a stranger
would be surprised at hearing the announcement--'Madame le Jeune's
_canoe_ is waiting!' instead of Madame le Jeune's _carriage_ stops
the way.' But that is the fashion in the Seychelle Isles. Torches
are at hand; the ladies and gentlemen are lighted to the water,
where some stout negroes almost in a state of nudity, await to
transport them to their own island."

DORA. "That may be very delightful when you are accustomed to it,
but I should prefer a carriage.

"There are no more indentations until we enter Mozambique Channel,
where we shall find Pemba Bay and Sofala Bay."

MRS. WILTON. "Pemba Bay is on the coast of Mozambique, which belongs
to the Portuguese. The harbor of Mozambique is formed by a deep
inlet of the sea. At the entrance are three small islets, which,
together with reefs and shoals, render the anchorage perfectly safe
in the worst weather. The city stands on an island of the same name,
formed of coral, very low and narrow, and scarcely one mile and a
half in length. The streets in the city are narrow, although the
houses are mostly lofty and well constructed; but the place in
itself is fast sinking into insignificance, and its finest buildings
falling rapidly into decay. Mozambique, like many other cities of
the world, is now reduced from its ancient wealth and vice-regal
splendor, to the almost forgotten seat of desolation and poverty."

MR. WILTON. "Between this island and Sofala Bay is the slave town
Quillimane. It is in a commodious situation and one of the finest
countries in the world; but is continually in a state of turmoil,
from the different tribes striving by mutual conflict to obtain
prisoners for sale to the Portuguese, who wickedly excite the wars
and fatten and grow wealthy on the blood and wretchedness they

GRANDY. "The port of Sofala, its castle, its town; in short
everything relating to it, is most interesting; for in olden time
this was the Ophir of King Solomon, whence his fleets returned laden
with gold, algum-trees, and precious stones."

GEORGE. "Then the Ophir of Sumatra is not the real Ophir, but only
named after the place in Africa, because it was rich in gold?"

MR. WILTON. "Exactly so, George. I did not then explain it, as I
wish you to feel sufficient interest in the subject to inquire into
the truth yourself."

DORA. "Delagoa Bay. This coast is a continued tract of land and
sand-hills from fifty to five or six hundred feet high, with a few
straggling black rocks."

MR. WILTON. "The inhabitants of this coast are a harmless race, but
have their own little peculiarities; and one of the greatest
luxuries in life in the opinion of a Delagoan is smoking the
'hubble-bubble.' A long hollow reed, or cane, ending in two branches
the lower one immersed in a horn of water, and the upper one capped
by a piece of earthenware, forming a bowl, is held in the hand; they
cover its top, with the exception of a small aperture, through
which by a peculiar action of the mouth, they draw the smoke through
the water below; they fill the mouth, and after having kept it there
some time, they eject it with violence from the ears and nostrils.
It makes them giddy, half stifles them, and produces a violent
coughing, accompanied by profuse perspiration, and yet these people
consider it highly strengthening and beneficial."

CHARLES. "Is not Caffraria near here?"

MR. STANLEY. "Yes: but you must go a few miles inland to see them;
for the Caffres have an extraordinary dislike to water, and will
never trust themselves on it, but from extreme necessity."

MR. BARRAUD. "The Caffres (Kaffirs) are worth looking at, for they
are a fine, handsome race of men, nearly black, with very good and
pleasing features. Their dress, male and female, is composed
principally of softened hides; but the women are so fond of
ornaments as often to wear fifty necklaces at one time. Their huts
are constructed in the form of a beehive, and are perfectly
water-tight and warm. In times of peace the men tend the cattle, the
women cultivate the land. The elephant, rhinoceros, buffalo,
hippopotamus, lion, and various others are hunted in Caffraria with
great spirit by the natives. Of a Divine Being whom they call
'Uhlanger,' or 'Supreme,' they have some idea; but as to a state of
future rewards or punishments they are altogether in ignorance.
Sorcery and witchcraft in various forms most extensively prevail,
and are the causes of much cruelty."

GRANDY. "To hundreds of the Caffres, however, the preaching of the
everlasting Gospel has been productive of much temporal and eternal
benefit; and an interesting illustration of this occurs in some of
the missionary records, which also exemplifies the character of the
unconverted Caffre.

#Story of the little Caffre.#

"A little girl about eight years of age, was reclining on the
ground, in the cool of the day, when four wolves rushed upon the
place. One of them seized the child by the head, a second by the
shoulder, and the other two by her legs. The people of the kraal
with all possible speed flew to her help, and succeeded in releasing
her, but apparently too late. They tried for a few days to help her
with their medicines; but finding all hope fail, and as from the
heat and flies she had now become loathsome, they gave her her
choice, either to be put to death by the youths of the place, or go
to the woods to die or be farther devoured as might happen. The
little girl chose the woods. In this forlorn condition she
determined to cast herself on the mercy of the missionaries; and
although she had never been at the station, she believed from what
she had heard, that could she reach the place, she should receive
that protection and help which her unnatural relatives refused to
give. With this resolution she set out; and although she had to
travel several miles through deep glens, she succeeded in reaching
the station, an awful picture of deformity and suffering, all but
in a state of nudity, covered with large wounds to the number of
fourteen, among the most ghastly of which was that of the head and
face, where the wolf having endeavored to grasp the whole head, had
torn the mouth open to the ear, stripping the head of the upper part
of its covering and making a ghastly wound of eight inches. Through
the mercy of God she recovered, and was scarcely at all deformed;
but she refused ever to return to the cruel people who forced her
into the woods to die. She became a Christian, and the Rev. Mr.
Shaw, who relates the incident, says, that one day, as he was
walking a little distance from his house, he heard some one engaged
in fervent prayer; he listened, it was the voice of a child; and
going towards the place, he beheld in a secluded spot among the
weeds, the young Caffre girl who had been rescued from the jaws of
death, earnestly pouring out her soul to the God of her mercies,
when she thought no eye saw, and no ear heard her, but God."

MRS. WILTON. "How encouraging for the missionaries to find that the
seed had been sown on good ground, and was brought to bear the fruit
of righteousness through the blessing of the Almighty God!"

DORA. "Algoa Bay is on the coast of that portion of Cape Colony,
known by the name of Albany. It was discovered by Bartholomew Dias.
His sailors becoming discontented with their long voyage, hesitated
to proceed any further, and he, to satisfy their scruples, landed
with the chief officers and several seamen, on an island in this
bay, hoping by the touching solemnities of religion to soften a
decision so discouraging to his adventurous hopes. He caused the
sacrament to be administered at the foot of a cross which he then
planted with his own hands, and which has given the name of Santa
Cruz to the island. There, upon this rugged spot, at present only
visited by a few fishermen, and where European foot had never before
trodden, were the symbols of Christianity first displayed in the
Southern Ocean."

MRS. WILTON. "Graham's Town is the emporium of these eastern
frontier districts of Cape Colony, and its main streets present a
scene of incessant commercial activity; while almost every article
whether of utility or of ornament, may be as readily obtained as in
most of the provincial towns of the mother country. There are
several good inns, where visitors may command and receive every
reasonable comfort and attention. Religious services are well
attended, and numerous schools established, in which the children
are making encouraging progress. The flowers and fruits of most
parts of Europe flourish here, and the climate is unexceptionable.
There are a great many missionaries in Graham's Town; and on the
whole it may be safely averred, that the general intelligence of the
inhabitants is not a whit inferior to that of the middle and lower
classes of any country in the United Kingdom."

EMMA. "Camtoos or St. Francis Bay, is a few miles further along the
coast, and Plestenburg, Mossel, Vaccas, and St. Sebastian's Bay,
are among those in the south of Cape Colony.

"Cow Bay, or Bahia das Vaccas, is in latitude 34 deg. south, longitude
22 deg. east, and is so called on account of the vast number of sea-cows
which used to frequent it in former times. The chief value of these
animals is in their ivory tusks, which, being harder than those of
the elephant, and not so liable to turn yellow, are much more
esteemed by dentists. Their hides are also valuable for harness
leathers; and the skins of the young ones make handsome coverings
for trunks.

"St. Sebastian's Bay is at the mouth of Breede River, and is said to
possess good holding ground. It is seldom visited, except by vessels
intending to enter the river; and, as that is not our intention, we
will pass it, and go on until we come to False Bay, near the Cape of
Good Hope."

MR. WILTON. "False Bay is rather a _sound_ than a _bay_. It contains
within its capacious bosom several fine and safe inlets, among which
Simon's Bay is the most important, for there is the naval arsenal
and _depot_: but the proximity of the metropolis, and its more
convenient bay, distant only twenty-one miles, diverts the whole of
the trade from this excellent and perfectly land-locked harbor."

MRS. WILTON. "The Cape of Good Hope is a crown colony. Its affairs
are administered by a governor and a lieutenant-governor. The first
has his residence at Cape Town; the second, at Graham's Town. With
much truth we may describe the inhabitants of Cape Colony at large,
as a serious and religious people. In the towns and villages the
strictest attention is paid to a close and regular attendance on
public worship; and in the country districts, where churches are
'few and far between,' and the opportunities difficult, the private
altar is every morning and evening duly served by the head of each
family. The Lord's Supper is administered four times a year at every
town and village, when the greater part of the population make a
point of resorting thither with all the members of their families,
though the distance to be traversed for the purpose often exceeds
200 miles."

MR. BARRAUD. "Cape Town is situated on the shores of Table Bay,
which is the chief harbor of the Cape of Good Hope, and is
exceedingly commodious; and close by rises a mountain of the same
name, to the height of 3582 feet, by a declivity so gradual, that it
has been ascended on horseback. I do not wish to detract from the
general goodness of the inhabitants of Cape Town, but I must say
they are an eager money-getting race. On the arrival of a ship from
England an auction is generally held, and the various articles
exhibited, damaged and sound, under the shade of some tree in the
centre of the town; where an Englishman would be amused to see one
of the first merchants shuffling round with a handful of tea, and
telling the audience that it is just upon the rise, and recommending
that he be allowed to send home a pound or two."

MR. STANLEY. "When I was there a few months since, I was much
struck with the appearance of the streets. They are broad and
handsome; but a wide _ditch_, which the townsfolk dignify with the
name of a canal, runs through the centre. There is generally but
little water in this ditch, but millions of restless mosquitoes,
which populate the whole town, and (I speak from experience) are a
perfect torture. The houses being mostly plastered, have a
stone-like and cleanly appearance, with their green Venetian blinds,
and plantations of acacias and other Eastern trees, waving
gracefully in front of them. The climate is salubrious, and
provisions of all kinds abundant and cheap. I was within a very few
miles of Constantia, so famous for its wines. Unfortunately I had no
time to visit it, but a description given by a gentleman,[19] who
was there much about the same time, will, perhaps, answer our
purpose better than my account. He says:--'The approach to
Constantia is as romantic and beautiful as it is possible to
conceive, from the mixture of the English shrubs and flowers with
those of Southern Africa. Here we passed by a long hedge of monthly
roses, all in full flower. Over our heads waved the fine foliage of
the banana and plantain. There was a long vineyard loaded with
grapes, and the African negroes employed therein. Now we pass an
avenue of English oaks; and this brings us to a fine large octagonal
building in the Dutch style, which is the residence of the
proprietor of Lower Constantia.' Mr. Leigh next describes the
interior of the wine vaults as 'a long building, 100 yards or more;
on either side enormous butts, with polished oak ribs, kept in the
cleanest style.' As I cannot offer you a glass of wine from these
celebrated butts, I will not detain the party any longer."

[Footnote 19: Mr. Leigh, surgeon of the Australian Company's ship
"South Australia."]

CHARLES. "The finest bay in the world falls to my share. It is
Saldana Bay, which is capable of containing at safe anchorage the
whole British fleet, during all seasons of the year."

MR. WILTON. "But dame Nature, always capricious in her favors, has
denied fertility to the adjacent soil; and the supply of water is
limited, in consequence of which it is seldom resorted to, except by
foreign whalers fishing on the coast. Almost the same may be said of
St. Helena Bay, and for the same reasons. How many more bays in Cape

EMMA. "Only one, papa, and that is Donkin's Bay. We must then sail
along the Hottentot coast until we arrive at Walwisch Bay."

GEORGE. "Papa, are not the Boschmen dwelling somewhere near here?"

MR. WILTON. "Why, they are a wandering people, and can scarcely be
said to hold any definite territory of their own; but they are to be
found north of Cape Colony, and are thus designated from the place
of their residence, which is in the bushes or woods. They are a
dirty, wild, savage people, and make a boast of the most inhuman
actions, to get glory from their companions. They neither cultivate
the ground, nor tend cattle, but are dependent on the chase for
animal food."

MR. STANLEY. "Many superstitions and traditions are entertained by
these rude people; among them there is one related by Sir J.E.
Alexander as follows:--

#A Transformation.#

"It is believed in the land that some of the Bosch people can change
themselves into wolves and lions when they like. Once on a time, a
certain Namaqua was travelling in company with a Bosch woman
carrying a child on her back. They had proceeded some distance on
the journey, when a troop of wild horses appeared; and the man said
to the woman, 'I am hungry, and I know you can turn yourself into a
lion: do so now, and catch us a wild horse, that we may eat.'

"The woman answered, 'You'll be afraid.'

"'No, no,' said the man; 'I am afraid of dying of hunger, but I am
not afraid of you.'

"Whilst he was yet speaking, hair began to appear at the back of the
woman's neck, her nails began to assume the appearance of claws, and
her features altered. She set down the child.

"The man, alarmed at the change, climbed a tree close by. The woman
glared at him fearfully, and, going to one side, she threw off her
skin petticoat, when a perfect lion rushed out into the plain. It
bounded and crept among the bushes, towards the wild horses; and
springing on one of them, it fell, and the lion lapped its blood.
The lion then came back to where the child was crying, and the man
called from the tree, 'Enough, enough! do not hurt me! Put off your
lion's shape. I will never ask to see you thus again.'

"The lion looked at him and growled. 'I will remain here till I
die,' said the man, 'if you do not become a woman again.'

"The mane and tail then began to disappear; the lion went towards
the bush where the skin petticoat lay; it was slipped on, and the
woman, again in her proper shape, took up the child. The man
descended, partook of the horse's flesh, but never again asked the
woman to catch game for him."

GEORGE. "This is very droll: but I think they must be very ignorant
people to believe such absurdities."

EMMA. "I have Walwisch Bay. There is a broad sandy beach around it,
and sand-hills heaped up in various forms inland, and the general
aspect of things here is very wild and Arabian-like. The climate is
healthy and good. It is hot in the beginning of the year; but from
May until August it is cool and pleasant."

MRS. WILTON. "About three miles from Walwisch Bay, or Bay of Whales,
is a Hottentot village, containing nearly 300 inhabitants, who are a
friendly, harmless people, but very indolent and filthy. Both sexes
dress alike, in the skins of animals sewed together with the sinews
of the same animals, in the form of a blanket, which they throw over
their shoulders, with the hair-side next to their bodies. The women
are only distinguished by the profusion of their ornaments. These
consist of shells, bones, and minerals of different kinds, and are
worn about the neck and wrists. They are all expert hunters and
fishers. They devour their fish raw, and the small ones without even
divesting them of their entrails; what they cannot eat they pickle
with salt procured at the head of the bay."

GEORGE. "What nasty disgusting people, to eat raw fish!"

MR. WILTON. "In appeasing the cravings of hunger they are, in fact,
horribly disgusting, being actually more fond of the entrails of
cattle and sheep than of any other part; and when an animal is
killed, these people positively devour its entrails raw, even before
they are cold, while they will refuse to partake of the carcass,
cooked or otherwise."

DORA. "Now we pass on to Great and Little Fish Bays, which are on
the coast of that wretched slave country, Benguela."

GRANDY. "Ah! poor Africa is cursed with evils, unknown to the rest
of the human race in any section of the globe--reptiles of the most
deadly venom, beasts of unparalleled ferocity, deserts of sand, and
moral deserts a thousand times more appalling. But her greatest
curse of all is the white man's cupidity, tearing asunder the
tenderest ties of human nature, and plunging villages and families
into mourning and despair. The hyena, the tiger, the crocodile, are
creatures existing by the will of God; the man-stealer is a
sin-created monster! The depredations of the former are the effects
of hunger; those of the latter avarice--the meanest passion that can
enter the human breast."

MR. WILTON. "It is now sixty years since Great Britain commenced
offensive warfare against the African slave-trade; but grieved am I
to say that little good has resulted from it; for the slave-trade is
still carried on as extensively as ever. Our ships, which are
continually on the look-out to recapture the slave-vessels, scarcely
ever take more than fifteen in the course of twelve months; and the
cost of maintaining this force to our country is 600,000_l_.
annually. This money, in my humble opinion, might be more
advantageously laid out--mean in reference to this degraded and
demoralized quarter of the world, Africa. It might be expended in
planting industry, knowledge, and security; in fact, in civilizing
the wretched people; and surely that would more effectually check
the slave-trade than the occasional capture of one or two cargoes.
For the African slave-trade is not the _cause_, but the _effect_, of
African ignorance, as any wretched creature there will seize and
sell his more wretched neighbor for the paltry sum of a dollar."

MRS. WILTON. "This civilization will take years to effect; for
deep-rooted evils cannot be destroyed in a day, among an ignorant
and prejudiced people."

EMMA. "We are at Fish Bay. Dora, will _you_ continue."

DORA. "Yes: Fish Bay is one of the finest places in the world for
fishing with a 'seine,' by which thousands of barrels of excellent
fish are caught in the course of the year."

GEORGE. "What sort of a town is Benguela?"

DORA. "Small: it consists of not more than 200 houses, mostly one
story high. Everything good to eat can be procured here; but there
is no good water, except in the rainy season."

MR. STANLEY. "Then we had better make all sail, and get away, for it
would be sad work to be becalmed with--

  'Water, water everywhere, and not a drop to drink.'

While we are in these latitudes, we may as well visit the two
islands, which look so tempting after a long voyage on the great
Atlantic. Come boys: St. Helena for Charles--Ascension for George."

CHARLES. "St. Helena was discovered by those pioneers of navigation,
the Portuguese, on Saint Helen's day, the 21st of May, 1501. It is
1200 miles from the continent, in latitude 5 deg. south, longitude 15 deg.
west. It is a beautiful island, inhabited by about 300 English
families, whose ancestors took possession of it in 1600. The
Portuguese stocked it well with cattle and fruit, and the English
now benefit by their forethought. 'St. Helena,' says a clever
writer,[20] 'is the dark monument of the most conspicuous man that
has arisen within the period of certain history.' Of course that
means Napoleon Bonaparte. I have done."

[Footnote 20: Captain Morrell]

GEORGE. "Ascension Isle lies between Africa and Brazil: it was
discovered in 1508. It is about 39 miles in circumference, and of
nearly a circular form. It has water only in one spot, called the
Green Mountain, from the rich verdure with which it is covered. The
natural productions are not numerous. Guinea-fowl have been
introduced, and are now quite wild. Ten head of cattle were likewise
imported, which have also taken to the woods, and are hunted by the
garrison as required. This island was at one period overrun with
enormous rats, to destroy which somebody with good intent imported a
cargo of cats, which are now become as great a plague as their
predecessors, keeping the sportsmen constantly on the alert to
destroy them."

MR. STANLEY. "Well done, George! I am glad to hear you not only
remember the information, but try to retain the phraseology of the
geographers. That is the right method to improve your memory; do not
halt at the trouble it cost you, for you will be abundantly repaid
in the end."

DORA. "We have only one more bay on this side of the equator to
notice. Among the numerous bays on the western coast of Africa,
first in rank stands Kabenda Bay, near Congo. It is a very fine
harbor, and is so agreeable a situation that it is denominated the
'Paradise of the Coast.' The sea is always smooth, and debarkation
easy. The town of Kabenda stands amidst delightful scenery, composed
of lofty cliffs, verdant hills, and deep luxuriant vales; it is
resorted to principally by slavers, who trade thither for slaves,
ivory, and wood. The poor inhabitants, strange to say,
notwithstanding their oppression, have a great respect for white
men, and believe that they know everything, or, in their dialect,
'_sabe ebery ting_.'"

MR. BARRAUD. "There is a fact worthy the attention of travellers
connected with the kingdom of Loango, which you will perceive lies
immediately north of Congo. It contains amongst its inhabitants
numbers of black Jews scattered throughout the country. They are
despised by the negroes, who do not even deign to eat with them.
They are occupied in trade, and keep the sabbath so strictly that
they do not even converse on that day; they have a separate
burying-ground, very far from any habitation. The tombs are
constructed with masonry, and ornamented with Hebrew inscriptions,
the singularity of which excites the laughter of the negroes, who
discern in these hieroglyphics only serpents, lizards, and other

MRS. WILTON. "Crossing the line is no longer a novelty to such
experienced voyagers as we are, and I think Dora may carry us on to
our next station without further remark."

DORA. "The Gulf of Guinea."

MR. WILTON. "Plenty of sea-room _there_, Dora; but I hope we are to
keep along the coast, for with the exception of Fernando Po and St.
Thomas's, I know of no place where I should feel disposed to go

MRS. WILTON. "We are on a coasting expedition, although, for the
_furtherance of science_, we occasionally sail out of the direct
track; and as, in this instance, the mention of your inclination to
visit these two islands implies some knowledge of their situation,
we expect you will furnish the meeting with the requisite

MR. WILTON. "Your mamma is very sharp upon me, George. Take warning
by my case, and do not interfere with the pilot."

GEORGE. "Ha, capital! Now, papa, Ferdinand Po!"

MR. WILTON. "Our sojourn there will be very brief; not because the
island is deficient in fertility, but simply because the society of
the natives would be intolerable to civilized noses. They are the
filthiest people in the whole world. Words cannot convey an idea of
their disgusting nature. They have long hair matted together with
red clay and palm oil. This composition has a most outrageous smell,
and with it they smear their faces and bodies. They are, generally
speaking, a stout, athletic, well made race of people, and
particularly harmless in their dispositions, though from their
appearance you would not imagine that to be the case, as each
individual is always armed with a spear about eight feet in length,
made of hard wood, and barbed at each end; which, added to their
fierce color and smell, would daunt the courage of a more
enlightened savage.

"St. Thomas's should have been first, as it is nearer the equator.
It is one of the four Guinea Islands; Prince's Island and Anaboa
will make up the number. I know very little of it, except that it
helps to furnish the Portuguese shipping with provisions and fresh
water. Now I have satisfied the demands of the meeting, and will
promise not to interfere again."

CHARLES. "I shall be rejoiced at your interference, sir, if it
always have the effect of bringing out your stores; and, now I am
pilot for a short time, I beg to state that I shall not require any
apology, should you interrupt _me_ in the discharge of my duty, but
be thankful for the same.

"Fernando Po. It is in the Bight of Biafra, the coast of which bight
is thus described by Dr. Bayle:--'This coast is forbidding in its
aspect, dangerous to approach, repulsive when examined, and
disgusting when known.' There: that is not a very inviting account:
had we not better sail on? Who cries forward?"

"Forward all," exclaimed Mr. Stanley; and Charles was about to
proceed, when George interrupted him to inquire if the chimpanzee
were not a native of these parts.

MR. STANLEY. "Yes, my boy; it is found not very far from the

GEORGE. "Is it not the largest ape in Guinea?"

MR. STANLEY. "Right again. I will tell you all I know about the
gentleman. Its height is four feet, and there is no appearance of a
tail. Monsieur de Grandpie gives an account of one which he had the
opportunity of observing during a voyage. This animal had learned to
heat the oven, and was particularly careful that no coals should
escape to set fire to the vessel. It perfectly understood when the
oven was sufficiently heated, and never failed to apprise the baker
of the circumstance; while he in his turn so entirely confided in
it, that he hastened with his bread as soon as the animal went to
fetch him, and was never once led into an error. When they turned
the capstan, it endeavored to assist with all its power, like a
sailor. When the sails were loosened, it mounted the yards of its
own accord. It belaced the shrouds as well as any sailor; and
observing how the end of the rope was fastened to prevent its
hanging, it did the same to the rope of which it had possession. It
was as clever as many of the men, and much more nimble, and was
treated by the sailors as one of their own crew. This animal died on
the passage, owing to the brutal treatment of the second mate. It
bore his cruel usage with the greatest resignation, raising its
hands in a suppliant manner to implore a remission of the stripes he
inflicted. From that moment it refused to eat, and died of hunger
and suffering on the fifth day, almost as much regretted as one of
the crew would have been. The chimpanzee generally walks upright,
supported by the branch of a tree, after the manner of a
walking-stick. The negroes dread it, and with much reason; for it is
powerful, and uses its power with great harshness whenever they
meet. I believe you may see a chimpanzee in the Zoological Gardens
in the Regent's Park. We will go some day on speculation, George.
Now, Charles, 'forward!'"

CHARLES. "The Bight of Benin washes the coast of Dahomey and other
countries, known also by the name of the Slave Coast. Dahomey,
including the subjugated districts, extends at least 150 miles into
the interior. The principal town is Abomey, lying about three
degrees east longitude."

MRS. WILTON. "Whidah on this coast must be noticed, as it is so
connected with Dahomey. It was once an independent kingdom; but in
the year 1727 was conquered by Guadja Irudo, King of Dahomey. Its
capital contains about 20,000 inhabitants. In Whidah the religion is
pagan; but for some unaccountable reason they worship their divinity
under the form of a particular species of snake, called _daboa_,
which is not sufficiently large to be terrible to man, and is
otherwise tamable and inoffensive. These _daboas_ are taken care of
in the most pious manner, and well fed on rats, mice, or birds in
their _fetish_ houses or temples, where the people assemble to pay
their adoration, and where those also who are sick or lame apply for

GRANDY. "Their creed is an odd mixture. They believe in two beings,
equal in power; the one doing good, the other evil; and they pray to
the demon to allow them to remain unmolested by the magicians, who
are constantly endeavoring to injure them."

MR. STANLEY. "In Dahomey the tiger is an object of religious regard;
but the people wisely deem it the safest mode of worship to perform
their acts of devotion to his skin only, and it is stuffed for that
purpose. The government of this country is entirely despotic. The
sovereign may cut off as many heads as he likes, and dispose of his
subjects' property as he thinks fit, without being accountable to
any earthly tribunal. He has from three to four thousand wives, a
proportion of whom, trained to arms under female officers,
constitute his body-guard."

CHARLES. "What a royal regiment! all queens; why the sight of them
would strike terror into an English army. I should throw down my
weapons directly."

MR. STANLEY. "But their enemies are not so gallant, and hesitate not
to fight this female army, who very often gain the advantage by
being so well disciplined."

MR. BARRAUD. "In Dahomey, at a particular period of the year, a
grand annual festival is held; and, amidst feastings and rejoicings,
deeds are done from which the civilized mind recoils with horror.
Numbers of human victims are sacrificed in solemn form.

"They are generally prisoners of war set aside for the purpose; but
as seventy is the required number, should there not be so many
prisoners, the king makes it up from his own subjects. Their bodies
are thrown to wild beasts, while their heads are used to decorate
the walls of the royal palace! Still more barbarous is the notion of
enjoying the gratification of trampling on the heads of their
enemies; and, in order to do this, the King of Dahomey has the
passage leading to his bedchamber paved with the skulls of his

EMMA. "O cruel murderous people! Sail on, Charles, and leave them
far behind. Is not the next coast Ashantee?"

CHARLES. "Yes; Ashantee is at present the most powerful state in all
Western Africa, and, in fact, rules over a considerable portion of
it. The natives are remarkable for oratory, and will discourse
fluently on a given subject for hours. A taste for music is also
extensively cultivated, and their taste is evidenced by the native
band at Cape Coast Castle, which plays admirably by ear several of
the most popular English tunes. The Ashantees, and the natives of
the countries contiguous to this coast, build their houses of mud
and sticks, which composition they call '_swish_.'"

MR. WILTON. "They are a more civilized set than the people of
Dahomey; and the Danes have furnished us with a portrait of one of
their kings, whose name was Opocco. Here is the account:--'The
monarch was seated on a throne of massive gold, under the shade of
an artificial tree with golden leaves. His body, extremely lean, and
inordinately tall, was smeared over with tallow mixed up with gold
dust. A European hat, bound with broad gold lace, covered his head;
his loins were encircled with a sash of golden cloth. From his neck
down to his feet cornelians, agates, lazulites, were crowded in the
form of bracelets and chains, and his feet rested on a golden basin.
The grandees of the realm lay prostrate on the ground, with their
heads covered with dust. A hundred complainers and accused persons
were in a similar posture; behind them twenty executioners, with
drawn sabres in their hands waited the royal signal, which generally
terminated each cause, by the decapitation of one or other of the

"The Danish envoy was introduced; and passing a number of bloody
heads, recently separated from the bodies, approached the throne.
The magnificent flaming prince addressed him with the following
most gracious questions:--'I would willingly detain thee for some
months in my dominions, to give thee an idea of my greatness. Hast
thou ever seen anything to be compared with it? 'No! lord and king,'
replied the obsequious envoy, 'thou hast no equal in the world!'
'Thou art right,' said Opocco, 'God in heaven does not much surpass
me!' The king drank some English beer from a bottle, and then handed
it to the Dane; the latter took a little, and excused himself by
saying that the liquor would intoxicate him. 'It is not the beer
that confounds thee,' said Opocco; 'it is the brightness of my
countenance which throws the universe into a state of inebriety!'
This same king conquered the brave prince Oorsoock, chief of the
Akims, who slew himself. He caused the head of the vanquished prince
to be brought to him, decked it with golden bracelets, and in
presence of his generals directed to him the following speech:
--'Behold him laid in the dust, this great monarch, who had
no equal in the universe, except God and me! He was certainly the
third. Oh! my brother Oorsoock, why wouldst thou not acknowledge
thyself my inferior? But thou hopedst to find an opportunity of
killing me; thou thoughtest that there ought not to be more than
_one_ great man in the world. Thy sentiment was not to be blamed; it
is one in which all mighty kings ought to participate.'"

GRANDY. "What fearful arrogance and presumption! It sufficiently
testifies their direful state of ignorance, which ignorance, I
trust to hear, will soon be effectually removed; for there are now
missionary establishments on this coast, which, since the year 1834,
have been progressing. At first, the ministers were much dispirited,
owing to the evil effects of the climate on the European
constitution, for after a year or two they were cut off by death;
and, in order to continue the mission, other pious men and their
wives were obliged to be sent out. Again, these died; but yet the
work prospered; and now, blessed be God! the few whose lives have
been spared, are enabled to report that many natives have turned
unto the Lord their God. Every Sabbath morning, public worship is
celebrated in the chapel at Cape Coast Town, when the beautiful
liturgy of our Church is read; and the decorum which is observed by
the natives, who read the responses, appears in striking opposition
to the wild irrational service which they formerly offered at the
temple of their fetish."

MRS. WILTON. "The unconverted believe in a Supreme Being; but they
have a curious tradition respecting the creation, which has
prevailed among them from the earliest period of their history. They
believe that, in the beginning of the world, God, having created
three white and three black men, with an equal number of women of
each color, resolved, in order that they might be left without cause
of complaint, to allow them to fix their own destiny, by giving them
the choice of good and evil. A large box or calabash was placed upon
the ground, together with a sealed paper or letter. The black men
had the first choice, and took the calabash, expecting that it
contained all that was desirable; but, upon opening it, they found
only a piece of gold, some iron, and several other metals of which
they did not know the use. The white men opened the paper, and it
told them everything. All this is supposed to have happened in
Africa, in which country it is believed God left the blacks, with
the choice which their avarice had prompted them to make, under the
care of inferior or subordinate deities; but conducted the whites to
the water-side, where he communicated with them every night, and
taught them to build a small vessel, which carried them to another
country, from whence, after a long period, they returned with
various kinds of merchandise to barter with the blacks, whose
perverse choice of gold in preference to the knowledge of letters
had doomed them to inferiority."

MR. STANLEY. "Affairs would have been better ordered for the blacks,
had they allowed the ladies to have a voice in the selection; but
they never had a good opinion of the fair sex, and they are no wiser
at the present day as many of their customs sufficiently testify.--A
peculiar provision is made in Ashantee with reference to the female
sex. One of the king's sisters is constituted the governess of the
empire, or queen over the females, and all are said to be placed
under her control and direction: but whatever may be the nature and
object of the training to which she subjects them, it is certain
that it is not intended to make the wife the rational companion and
confidential friend of her husband; for if an Ashantee wife is
detected in listening to a conversation of her husband, her
curiosity is sure to cost her an ear; and if she betray a secret
with which she has by any means become acquainted, her incensed
husband punishes her by cutting off her upper lip. The sight of
women who have suffered such inflictions, is common even in the
present day.'"

MR. BARRAUD. "These are the cruelties of a barbarous people, but
they are not horrified at deeds of blood; indeed, such is the union
of barbarism and magnificence in this African country, that on a
court day there is invariably in immediate attendance upon the king
the royal chief executioner, a man of gigantic size, bearing a
massive gold hatchet, and having exhibited before him the execution
stool, clotted with human blood and partly covered with a caul of

MRS. WILTON. "That is done, no doubt, from policy, to inure his
courtiers to scenes of horror, in hopes of rendering them callous to
human suffering and courageous in the field of battle. Ah, well! we
have heard enough of _them_: let us now visit some other country."

DORA. "Liberia is the next station and much more desirable; for the
climate is better than most other parts of the coast, the soil
fruitful, and the inland population quiet and inoffensive, and more
inclined to industry than their neighbors."

GRANDY. "There is a thriving missionary establishment at Liberia,
which I hope will before long exert its benign influence over the
Bowchee people, who are located some few miles distant. They are a
miserable race, entirely devoid of feeling; the gentle appeals of
nature are unknown to them; parental tenderness dwells not in their
bosoms, for they will sell their children as slaves to the greatest
strangers in the world, with no more remorse of conscience than if
they had been common articles of merchandise. I will tell you a
story of a Bowchee mother:--'A travelling slave-dealer passing
through the place had purchased several of their children of both
sexes, from the inhabitants, and amongst others an old woman had an
only daughter, whom she parted with for a necklace of beads. The
unhappy girl, who was about thirteen or fourteen years of age, on
being dragged away from the threshold of her parent's hut, clung
distractedly around the knees of her unfeeling mother, and looking
up wistfully in her face burst into a flood of tears, exclaiming
with passionate vehemence:--"O mother! do not sell me; what will
become of me? what will become of yourself in your old age if you
send me from you? who will fetch you corn and milk? who will pity
you when you die? Have I been unkind to you? O mother! do not sell
your only daughter. I will take you in my arms when you are feeble
and carry you under the shade of trees. I will repay the kindness
you showed me in my infant years. When you are weary, I will fan you
to sleep; and whilst you are sleeping, I will drive away flies from
you. I will attend on you when you are in pain; and when you die, I
will shed rivers of sorrow over your grave. O mother! dear mother!
do not push me away from you; do not sell your only daughter to be
the slave of a stranger!" Her tears were useless--her remonstrances
vain. The unnatural parent, shaking the beads in the face of her
only child, thrust her from her embraces; and the slave-dealer drove
the agonized girl from the place of her nativity.'"

EMMA. "Oh! how very shocking! Poor girl! how dreadful to have such
cruel, relentless parents. Oh dear! I hope the work of the
missionaries will be blessed, and that God will soften the hard
hearts of those savage and mercenary people."

CHARLES. "Between Liberia and Sierra Leone are Sherboro' Bay and
Yawry Bay. Sierra Leone, or 'Mountains of the Lioness,' is so
unhealthy that we should not live long if we went there."

MRS. WILTON. "You are right, Charles. It was established as a colony
in 1787, for the express purpose of laboring to civilize the
Africans. All the cargoes of the recaptured slavers are taken there,
and every comfort and convenience afforded to the unfortunate
negroes. But it is so extremely unhealthy that Europeans can
scarcely carry out their plans, and death mows them down in the
midst of their usefulness."

CHARLES. "Then I may conclude that all members are desirous of
proceeding. Between Sierra Leone and Cape Verd the bays are
immaterial; but from Cape Verd, sailing north, we pass four
tolerable-sized indentations--Tindal, Greyhound, Cintra, and Garnet
Bays. Then a brisk wind will speedily waft us to the point from
whence we started, viz. the Straits of Gibraltar."

MR. WILTON. "We have nearly come to a conclusion then, and without
any of the misfortunes incidental to travellers. We have gone over
the vast extent of waters which encompass our globe, and been for
some months engaged in examining the wonders of the ocean, without
meeting any of the monsters of the deep, such as krakens,
sea-serpents, &c.; nevertheless, I am not so skeptical as to
disbelieve all I have not the opportunity of viewing with my own
bodily eyes. I do think that the sea contains monsters such as Mrs.
Howitt describes:--

  'Things all misshapen, slimy, cold,
    Writhing, and strong, and thin,'

which it would be dangerous to observe too near; and I shall feel we
have gained an advantage by these little meetings if they lead you
young folks to reflect on the probabilities of different travellers'
assertions, before you either receive or reject them."

MRS. WILTON. "We have sailed all round the coast of Africa, but
would there be any danger in going to the lakes of Africa?"

MR. WILTON. "None that I am aware of; and as there are only three of
any magnitude there, we shall not be long on the excursion. I will
visit two myself, and report discoveries.

"Lake Ludea is in Tunis, and is scarcely worth the expense of a
journey thither. Lake Maravi is in the south, near Mozambique, and
is rather larger, but not an agreeable situation. Mr. Stanley, will
you be good enough to conduct the ladies to the banks of Lake

MR. STANLEY. "I should be sorry to take the ladies to such a
country; but I will venture alone and, like you, collect the
necessary information, if that will suit the purpose?"

EMMA. "Oh! yes, sir, that will do quite as well."

MR. STANLEY. "Lake Tchad is the largest inland sea in Africa, its
circumference about 300 miles, its situation in the country of
Bornou. It contains sweet, fresh, and still water; is surrounded by
many lakes, both fresh and salt; and has several rivers running into
it, although it has no outlet, which is the cause of its
occasionally overflowing the surrounding country. Bornou is not a
pleasant place, it swarms with innumerable creeping horrors, and
savage animals; the latter often enter the villages, and carry off
the unfortunate slaves while at work. Simplicity, good-nature, and
ugliness are the peculiar characteristics of the people; and
although the men are not warriors, nor the women favored by nature,
they are certainly a kind, inoffensive race. Angornou is the largest
and most populous town of Bornou; it is situated a few miles from
Lake Tchad, and contains 30,000 inhabitants. Major Denham gives a
very good account of an interview with the Sultan of Bornou. He
writes:--'The Sultan received us in an open space in front of the
royal residence: we were kept at a considerable distance, while his
people approached to within about 100 yards, passing first on
horseback; and after dismounting and prostrating themselves before
him, they took their places on the ground in front, but with their
backs to the royal person, which is the custom of the country. The
Sultan was seated in a sort of cage, of cane or wood, near the door
of his garden, on a seat which, at the distance, appeared to be
covered with silk or satin, and through the railing looked upon the
assembly before him, who formed a semicircle in front of him.
Nothing could be more absurd and grotesque than the figures who
formed this court. Large stomachs and large heads are indispensable
for those who serve the court of Bornou, and those who unfortunately
possess not the former by nature, make up the deficiency with
wadding. A little to our left, or nearly in front of the Sultan, was
an extempore declaimer, shouting forth praises of his master, with
his pedigree; and near him one who bore the long wooden "frum-frum,"
on which he ever and anon blew a blast, loud and unmusical,' The
major says, the appearance of these courtiers was ridiculous in the
extreme, squatting down in their places, or tottering under the
weight and magnitude of their turbans and their stomachs, while
their thin legs, that appeared underneath, but ill accorded with the
bulk of the other parts. I see George laughing at the picture I have
drawn of these curious little men, but you would not dare to laugh
in the presence of the mighty Sultan of Bornou; he would immediately
exclaim, 'Off with his head!' if you so far outraged the rules of
Bornouan etiquette. I will now give you a description of a wedding
in this African country, and we will then bid the people a long
farewell. The bridegroom's friends, to the number of 200 or 300,
sally forth, dressed in their best clothes, to meet the bride.
Behold her! mounted on a bullock whose back is covered with blue and
white cloths. She is followed by four female slaves, laden with
straw baskets, wooden bowls, and earthen pots; after them appear two
other bullocks carrying the remainder of the _fair_ bride's dowry.
She is attended by her mother, and five or six young ladies, who act
as bridesmaids. According to their mode of salutation, we must
gallop up to them repeatedly. See! the ladies cover their faces, and
scream their thanks; and as it is extremely indelicate to gaze upon
the bride, we must cast our eyes on the ground, wheel our horses
round, and gallop back again. You will ask, 'Is that all; and where
is the bridegroom?' Ah! poor fellow! he has been parading the
streets all the day, with a crowd after him, dressed in all the
finery he could buy or borrow, while the people blew horns, beat
drums, and cried, 'May you live forever!' 'God prosper you!' 'Gray
hairs to you!' There is no further ceremony. The bride is handed
over to her husband in the evening by her mother, and henceforth
they are man and wife."

GEORGE. "Oh! what very odd things are done in strange lands! I am so
sorry our examinations are over, and I wish we could begin them all
again. What religion are the people of Bornou?"

MR. STANLEY. "They are Mohammedans; and very superstitious, trusting
greatly to their medicine men."

GRANDY. "I have really enjoyed these meetings as much as the young
folks, for I think there is no study more delightful, nor more
useful, than that which makes us acquainted with the world and its
inhabitants. As our business has been mostly on the waters, I
consider that we ought not to close the subject without calling to
mind the period when 'the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the
earth,' and 'all that was in the dry land died.' Beware, my dear
children, that you forget not the awful catastrophe from which the
family of faithful Noah alone escaped; nor that the cause of it was
the iniquity of men!"

GEORGE. "I never see a rainbow, but I think of the Deluge, because
you taught me the texts concerning God's covenant, dear Grandy, and
the promise that the earth should no more be destroyed by a flood:
but I have often wondered what could be the size of the ark to
contain so many living creatures."

MR. WILTON. "I believe I can inform you somewhat on that head. A
scriptural cubit measures twenty-one inches, and it has been
calculated according to the dimensions given in the 6th chapter of
Genesis, that the ark must have been of the enormous burden of
19,530 tons!"

CHARLES. "Enormous! why our first-rate men-of-war are scarcely 3000
tons, and yet how large they look. How long was it in building?"

MRS. WILTON. "Many authors agree in stating it to have been one
hundred and twenty years in building."

MR. STANLEY. "There is now no alternative--our discussion _must_
come to an end. The last voyage has been highly interesting,
although, perhaps, not in the most delightful portion of the globe;
but I cannot help expressing a sincere wish, that your _real_ voyage
to the West Indies may afford you as much enjoyment and edification;
and its termination be as happy and well-ordered, as this
_imaginary_ voyage, which has not only proved us all tolerable
sailors and respectable navigators, but also testified that the good
ship 'Research' has truly merited her name, and earned many laurels
for herself and owners."

Mr. Stanley then presented George with a beautiful telescope, as a
reward for his perseverance in the acquirement of geographical
knowledge. He charged him to make a profitable use of it, for the
benefit of the captain on their voyage to Jamaica; and, added he, as
he placed the valuable gift in the hands of the delighted boy: "Keep
a sharp look-out, George; and mind that you are the first to shout a
sail! a sail! Then you will see how the faces of the weather-beaten
sailors will brighten as they run to _have a look at her_. Then will
the captain call for his speaking trumpet, and some such questions
as these will be put to the _stranger._ Where are you bound? Where
do you come from? Are you all hearty on board? The boatswain will
then hang out the black board, with the latitude and longitude
marked on it; the stranger will do the same. If they agree, all well
and good, they each sail on their separate courses, wishing for fair
winds and a prosperous voyage; such as I sincerely hope may fall to
the share of the members of our little Society."

We must now leave our young friends, as we cannot accompany them
across the Atlantic for want of a vessel. The "Research" having
behaved so well in their late expeditions, she is still to be
honored with their company; and being a merchant ship, she cannot
accommodate many passengers.

Should my readers be anxious to hear of the safe arrival of their
young friends in the "Land of Springs," I must beg to refer them to
Lloyd's for particulars of "Research," A. 1. 400 tons burden,
Commander Frederic Hamilton.


End of Project Gutenberg's The World of Waters, by Mrs. David Osborne


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