Infomotions, Inc.After Waterloo: Reminiscences of European Travel 1815-1819 / Frye, Major W. E



Author: Frye, Major W. E
Title: After Waterloo: Reminiscences of European Travel 1815-1819
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Title: After Waterloo: Reminiscences of European Travel 1815-1819

Author: Major W. E Frye

Release Date: February 4, 2004 [EBook #10939]

Language: English

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AFTER WATERLOO

Reminiscences of European Travel 1815-1819

By

MAJOR W.E. FRYE

EDITED WITH A PREFACE AND NOTES

By SALOMON REINACH

Member of the Institute of France




LONDON
1908




To

 V.A.M.
 S.R.




PREFACE

The knowledge of Major Frye's manuscript and the privilege of publishing it
for the first time I owe to the kindness of two French ladies, the Misses
G----. Their father, a well known artist and critic, used to spend the
summer months at Saint Germain-en-Laye together with his wife, who was an
English woman by birth. They had been for a long time intimately acquainted
with Major Frye, who lived and ended his life in that quiet town. The
Major's hostess, Mme. de W----, after his death in 1858, brought the
manuscript to Mrs. G---- and gave it to her in memory of her friend. It was
duly preserved in the G---- family, but remained unnoticed. The Misses
G---- rediscovered it in 1907, when it had been lying in a cupboard for
upwards of half a century. On their showing it to me I thought it was
interesting for many reasons, and worthy of introduction to the public. I
hope the reader will share my opinion, which is also that of several
English scholars and men of letters, to whom I communicated extracts from
the manuscript.

The reminiscences are in the form of letters addressed to a correspondent
who, however, is never named and of whose health, family and private
circumstances not the slightest mention is to be found. So I am inclined to
believe that he never existed, and that Major Frye chose to imitate
President de Brosses and others who thus recorded their travelling
experiences in epistolary form.

The manuscript--which will eventually be deposited in a public library--is
entirely in Major Frye's large and legible hand; at some later time it was
evidently revised by himself, but many names which I have endeavoured to
complete were left in blank or only indicated by initials. There are three
folio volumes, bound in paper boards. In this edition it has been thought
advisable to leave out a certain number of pages devoted to theatricals, of
which Major Frye was a great votary, and also some lengthy descriptions of
landscapes, museums and churches, the interest of which to modern readers
does not correspond to the space occupied by them. For the information
contained in the footnotes I am indebted to many correspondents, English,
French, Swiss, Belgian and Italian, to whom I here express my hearty
thanks. I am under special obligation to Sir Charles Dilke, Mr Oscar
Browning, Professor Novati, Professor Corrado Ricci, Commandant
Esperandieu, Professor Cumont, Professor Stilling and Mr Hoechberg.

Major Frye's tombstone is in the cemetery of Saint Germain, and reads thus:
"To the memory of Major William Edward Frye, who departed this life the 9th
day of October, 1858." On the same stone has been added in French:
"Perceval Edmond Litchfield, decede le 15 Avril, 1888." About P.E.
Litchfield I know nothing; he must have been the Major's intimate friend
during the last period of his life.

       *       *       *       *       *

W.E. Frye was born Oct. 29, 1784, and received his education at Eton
(1797-9) in the time of the French Revolution. "The system was," he says,
"to drill into the heads of the boys strong aristocratic principles and
hatred of democracy and of the French in particular." The effect produced
on the youth was the reverse of that intended. From 1799 to 1822 he
belonged to the British army: here is an abstract of his services:

  Ensign, 2nd Foot, 5th August, 1799.
  Lieutenant, 2nd Foot, 7th March, 1800.
  Half-pay, 4th Foot, 14th April, 1808.
  Lieutenant, 24th Foot, 8th December, 1804.
  Captain, 56th Foot, 18th April, 1805.
    3rd Ceylon Regt., 15th Feb., 1810.
    Half-pay, 3rd Foot, 7th March, 1816.
    4th Foot, 24th Feb., 1820.
  Brevet-Major, 12th August, 1819.
  Sold out, 15th August, 1822.

In 1799, Frye took a part in the British Expedition to Holland. In 1801 he
was in Egypt with Lord Abercrombie's army and received the medal for war
service. His career in India lasted six years and gave him occasion to
visit the three presidencies and Ceylon. In 1814 he returned on furlough to
Europe and was in Brussels during the Waterloo campaign. The subsequent
years--1815 to 1819--he employed visiting Western Europe, as appears from
his reminiscences. I have read letters of his which prove that he lived in
Paris from 1830 to 1832. Later, about 1848, he took an apartment in Saint
Germain, and died there in 1858.

Major Frye was a very distinguished linguist; besides knowing Greek and
Latin, he understood almost all European languages, and was capable of
writing correctly in French, Italian and German. The Misses G---- have
shown me a rare book published by him at Paris in 1844 under the following
title:

"Trois chants de l'Edda. Vaftrudnismal, Thrymsquidal, Skirnisfor, traduits
en vers francais, accompagnes de notes explicatives des mythes et
allegories, et suivis d'autres poemes par W.E. Frye, ancien major
d'infanterie au service d'Angleterre, membre de l'Academie des Arcadiens de
Rome. Se vend a Paris, pour l'auteur, chez Heideloff & Cie, Libraires, 18
Rue des Filles St. Thomas. 1844" (In 8vo, xii, 115 pp.)

At the end of that volume are translations by Major Frye of several
Northern poems--in German, Italian and English verse--from the Danish and
the Swedish; then come two sonnets in French verse, the one in honour of
Lafayette, the other about the Duke of Orleans, whose premature death he
compares with that of the Northern hero of the Edda, Balder. A part of
Frye's translation of the Edda, before appearing in book form, had been
published in _l'Echo de la Litterature et des Beaux Arts_, a periodical
edited by the Major's friend, M. de Belenet.

Frye loved poetry, though his ideas on the subject were rather those of the
eighteenth century than our own. It is interesting to find an English
officer reading Voltaire, Gessner, Ariosto, and quoting them from memory
(which explains that some of his quotations had to be corrected). The
sentimental vein of Rousseau's generation still flows and vibrates in him,
as when he says that he has never been able to read the letters of Wolmar
to St Preux in Rousseau's _Nouvelle Heloise_ without shedding tears. German
minor poetry, now quite forgotten, attracted him almost as much as the
great pages of Schiller, Buerger, and Goethe. The Misses G. possess a
manuscript translation in three volumes, in the Major's own hand, of
Wieland's _Agathodemon_ done into English. This he evidently intended to
publish, as he had written the title-page which is worded as follows:

"Agathodemon, a philosophical romance translated from the German of Wieland
by W.E. Frye, member of the Academy degli Arcadi in Rome, and of the Royal
Society of Northern Antiquarians of Copenhagen, ex-major of infantry in His
British Majesty's service."

Frye describes with accuracy, and shows much appreciation of fine scenery
and architecture. His judgements in painting and sculpture are sincere,
though often betraying the autodidact and amateur. He loved music,
especially Rossini's operas which were then beginning their long career of
triumph. Theatricals of all sorts, especially ballets, had a great
attraction for him and elicited his enthusiastic comments. In comparing
tragedies and comedies which he had seen performed in different countries,
he gave repeated proofs of his knowledge and critical insight. We can take
him as a good example of that intelligent class of English travellers whose
intercourse with the Continental _litterati_ has so well contributed to
establish the good reputation of British culture and refined appreciation
of the arts.

The chief interest of Frye's reminiscences lies, however, in quite another
direction. He was a friend of liberty, a friend of France, an admirer of
Napoleon, and a hater of the Tory regime which brought about Napoleon's
downfall. "France's attempts at European domination, in the Napoleonic era,
are graciously described as but so many efforts towards spreading the light
of civilization over Europe." These words, written about a quite recent
work and a propos of the "Entente cordiale," apply perfectly to Frye's
reminiscences. Travelling immediately before and after the Emperor's
collapse, he found that everywhere, excepting in Tuscany, the French
domination was regretted, because the ideals of liberty and equality had
shone and vanished with the tricolour flag. He admires the French people,
though not the _Ultras_ and bigots, and has fine words of praise for the
French army: "Yes, the French soldier is a fine fellow. I have served
against them in Holland and in Egypt, and I will never flinch from
rendering justice to their exemplary conduct and lofty valour." He takes
trouble to refute the exaggerated reports which were then circulated all
over Europe about the cruelties and vandalism practised by the French: "If
the French since the Revolution have not always fought for liberty, they
have done so invariably for science; and wherever they carried their
victorious arms abuses were abolished, ameliorations of all kinds followed
and the arts of life were improved. Our government, since the accession of
George III, has never raised its arm except in favour of old abuses, to
uphold despotism and unfair privileges or to establish commercial
monopoly."

Sometimes, indeed, speaking of his own country and its government, Major
Frye uses very hard words, which might seem unpatriotic if we did not know,
from many other memoirs and letters, to what a terrible strain orthodox
Toryism, coupled with bigotry and hypocrisy, had put the patience of
liberal Englishmen at that period. He called the British government "the
most dangerous, artful, and determined enemy of all liberty,"--"England,"
he says, "has been always ready to lend a hand to crush liberty, to
perpetuate abuses and to rivet the fetters of monarchical, feudal and
ecclesiastical tyranny." And later on he inveighs against the English
merchants, who "contributed with their gold to uphold the corrupt system of
Pitt and to carry on unjust, unreasonable and liberticide wars."

Whatever may be the final judgement of history on the Tory principles in
politics in the days of the Congress of Vienna, Major Frye's love of
liberty and intellectual progress entitle him to the sympathy of those who
share his generous feelings and do not consider that personal freedom and
individual rights are articles for home use only. Since Frye wrote, the
whole of Europe, excepting perhaps Russia, has reaped the benefits of the
French Revolution, and reduced, if not suppressed, what the Major called
"kingcraft and priestcraft." He did not attempt to divine the future, but
the history of Europe in the nineteenth century has been largely in
accordance with his desires and hopes. It is not a small merit for a
writer, in the midst of one of the most rabid reactions that the world has
known, to have clung with such tenacity to ideals, the complete victory of
which may now be contemplated in the near future.

S.R.






CONTENTS



PART I.


CHAPTER I

MAY-JUNE, 1815

Passage from Ceylon to England--Napoleon's return--Ostend--Bruges
--Ghent--The King of France at Mass--Alost--Bruxelles--The Duke of
Wellington very confident--Feelings of the Belgians--Good conduct of
British troops--Monuments in Bruxelles--Theatricals--Genappe and
Namur--Complaints against the Prussian troops--Mons--Major-General
Adam--Tournay--A French deserter--General Clinton's division--Cavalry
review--The Duke de Berri--Back to Bruxelles--Unjust opinions about
Napoleon and the French--Battle at Ligny--The day of Waterloo in
Bruxelles--Visit to the battlefield--Terrible condition of the
wounded--Kindness of the Bruxellois.


CHAPTER II

From Bruxelles to Liege--A priest's declamation against the French
Revolution--Maastricht--Aix-la-Chapelle--Imperial relics--Napoleon
regretted--Klingmann's "Faust"--A Tyrolese beauty--Cologne--Difficulties
about a passport--The Cathedral--King-craft and priest-craft--The
Rhine--Bonn and Godesberg--Goethe's "Goetz von Berlichingen"--The Seven
Mountains--German women--Andernach--Ehrenbreitstein--German hatred against
France--Coblentz--Intrigues of the Bourbon princes in Coblentz--Mayence--
Bieberich--Conduct of the Allies towards Napoleon--Frankfort on the
Mayn--An anecdote about Lord Stewart and Lafayette--German poetry--The
question of Alsace and Lorraine--Return to Bruxelles--Napoleon's surrender.


CHAPTER III

From Bruxelles to Paris--Restoration of Louis XVIII--The officers of the
allied armies--The Palais Royal--The Louvre--Protest of the author against
the proposed despoiling of the French Museums--Unjust strictures against
Napoleon's military policy--The _cant_ about revolutionary robberies--The
Grand Opera--Monuments in Paris--The Champs Elysees--Saint-Cloud--The
Hotel des Invalides--The Luxembourg--General Labedoyere--Priests and
emigrants--Prussian Plunder--Handsome behaviour of the English
officers--Reminiscences of Eton--Versailles.


CHAPTER IV

From Paris to Bruxelles--Visiting the plains of Waterloo--The Duke de Berri
at Lille--Beauvais--Return to Paris--Remarks on the French theatre
--Talma--Mlle Duchesnois--Mlle Georges--French alexandrine verse--The Abbe
Delille--The Opera Comique.


CHAPTER V

From Paris to Milan through Dijon, Chalon-sur-Saone, Lyons, Geneva and the
Simplon--Auxerre--Dijon--Napoleon at Chalon-sur-Saone--The army of the
Loire--Macon--French _grisettes_--Lyons--Monuments and theatricals--
Geneva--Character and opinions of the Genevois--Voltaire's chateau at
Ferney--The chevalier Zadera--From Geneva to Milan--Crossing the
Simplon--Arona--The theatres in Milan--Rossini--Monuments in Milan--Art
encouraged by the French--Mr Eustace's bigotry--Return to Switzerland
--Clarens and Vevey--Lausanne--Society in Lausanne--Return to Paris--The
Louvre stripped--Death of Marshal Ney.



PART II


CHAPTER VI

MARCH-JUNE, 1816

Ball at Cambray, attended by the Duke of Wellington--An Adventure between
Saint Quentin and Compiegne--Paris revisited--Colonel Wardle and Mrs
Wallis--Society in Paris--The Sourds-Muets--The Cemetery of Pere La
Chaise--Apathy of the French people--The priests--Marriage of the Duke de
Berri.


CHAPTER VII

Journey from Paris to Lausanne--Besancon--French refugees in Lausanne
--Francois Lamarque--General Espinassy--Bordas--Gautier--Michau--M. de
Laharpe--Mlle Michaud--Levade, a Protestant minister--Chambery--Aix
--Details about M. de Boigne's career in India--English Toryism and
intolerance--Valley of Maurienne--Passage across Mont Cenis and arrival at
Suza--Turin.


CHAPTER VIII

Journey from Turin to Bologna--Asti--Schiller and Alfieri--Italian
_cuisine_--The _vetturini_--Marengo--Piacenza--The Trebbia--Parma--The
Empress Maria Louisa--Modena--Bologna--The University--The Marescalchi
Gallery--Character of the Bolognese.


CHAPTER IX

Journey across the Appennines to Florence--Tuscan idioms and
customs--Monuments and galleries at Florence--The Cascino--Churches--
Theatres--Popularity of the Grand Duke--Napoleon's downfall not
regretted--Academies in Florence.


CHAPTER X

Journey from Florence to Rome--Sienna--Radicofani--Bolsena--Montefiascone
wine--Viterbo--Baccano--The Roman Campagna--The papal _douans_--Monuments
and Museums in Rome--Intolerance of the Catholic Christians--The Tiber and
the bridges--Character of the Romans--The _Palazzi_ and _Ville_--Canova's
atelier--Theatricals--An execution in Rome.


CHAPTER XI

From Rome to Naples--Albano--Velletri--The Marshes--Terracina--Mola di
Gaeta--Capua--The streets of Naples--Monuments and Museums--Visit to
Pompeii and ascent to Vesuvius--Dangerous ventures--Puzzuoli and
Baiae--Theatres at Naples--Pulcinello--Return to Rome--Tivoli.


CHAPTER XII

NOVEMBER-DECEMBER, 1816

From Rome to Florence--Sismondi the historian--Reminiscences of
India--Lucca--Princess Elisa Baciqochi--Pisa--The Campo Santo--Leghorn--
Hebrews in Leghorn--Lord Dillon--The story of a lost glove--From Florence
to Lausanne by Milan, Turin and across Mont Cenis--Lombardy in winter--The
Hospice of Mont Cenis.



PART III


CHAPTER XIII

MARCH-SEPTEMBER, 1817

Journey from Lausanne to Clermont-Ferrand--A wretched conveyance--The
first dish of frogs--Society in Clermont-Ferrand--General de Vergennes--
Cleansing the town--Return to Lausanne--A zealous priest--Journey to Bern
and back to Lausanne--Avenches--Lake Morat--Lake Neufchatel--The Diet in
Bern--Character of the Bernois--A beautiful Milanese lady.


CHAPTER XIV

SEPTEMBER, 1817-APRIL, 1818

Journey from Lausanne to Milan, Florence, Rome and Naples--Residence at
Naples--The theatre of San Carlo--Rossini's operas--Gaming in Naples--The
_Lazzaroni_--Public writers--Carbonarism--Return to Rome--Christmas eve at
Santa Maria Maggiore--Mme Dionigi--Theatricals--Society in Rome--The papal
government--Lucien Bonaparte, prince of Canino--Louis Napoleon, ex-King of
Holland--Pope Pius VII--Thorwaldsen--Granet--The Holy Week in Rome--The
Duchess of Devonshire--From Rome to Florence by the Perugia road.


CHAPTER XV

APRIL-JULY, 1818

Journey from Florence to Pisa and from thence by the Appennines to
Genoa--Massa--Carrara--Genoa--Monuments and works of art--The
Genoese--Return to Florence--Journey from Florence through Bologna and
Ferrara to Venice--Monument to Ariosto in Ferrara--A description of
Venice--Padua--Vicenza--Verona--Cremona--Return to Milan--The Scala
theatre--Verona again--From Verona to Innspruck.


CHAPTER XVI

JULY-SEPTEMBER, 1818

Innspruck--Tyrol and the Tyrolese--From Innspruck to Munich--Monuments and
churches--Theatricals--Journey from Munich to Vienna on a floss--Trouble
with a passport--Complicated system of Austrian money--Description of
Vienna--The Prater--The theatres--Schiller's _Joan of Arc_--A
_Kinderballet_--The young Napoleon at Schoenbrunn--Journey from Vienna to
Prague.


CHAPTER XVII

SEPTEMBER, 1818-MARCH, 1819

The splendid city of Prague--The German expression, "To give the basket"--
Journey from Prague to Dresden--Journey from Dresden to Berlin--A
description of Berlin--The Prussian Army--Theatricals--Peasants talk about
Napoleon--Prussians and French should be allies--Absurd policy of the
English Tories--Journey from Berlin to Dresden--A description of
Dresden--The battle of Dresden in 1813--Clubs at Dresden--Theatricals--
German beds--Saxon scholars--The picture gallery--Tobacco an ally of
Legitimacy--Saxon women--Meissen--Unjust policy of Europe towards the King
of Saxony.


CHAPTER XVIII

MARCH-APRIL, 1819

Journey from Dresden to Leipzig--The University of Leipzig--Liberal
spirit--The English disliked in Saxony--The English Government hostile to
liberty--Journey to Frankfort--From Frankfort to Metz and Paris--A.F.
Lemaitre--_Bon voyage_ to the Allies--Return to England.

       *       *       *       *       *








CHAPTER I

MAY-JUNE, 1815

Passage from Ceylon to England--Napoleon's return--Ostend--Bruges--Ghent--
The King of France at Mass--Alost--Bruxelles--The Duke of Wellington very
confident--Feelings of the Belgians--Good conduct of British
troops--Monuments in Bruxelles--Theatricals--Genappe and Namur--Complaints
against the Prussian troops--Mons--Major-General Adam--Tournay--A French
deserter--General Clinton's division--Cavalry review--The Duke de
Berri--Back to Bruxelles--Unjust opinions about Napoleon and the
French--Battle at Ligny--The day of Waterloo in Bruxelles--Visit to the
battlefield--Terrible condition of the wounded--Kindness of the Bruxellois.


BRUXELLES, May 1, 1815.

I proceed to the fulfilment of my promise, to give you from time to time
the details of my tour, and my reflections on the circumstances that occur
at this momentous crisis.

To me, who have spent the greatest part of my life out of Europe, the whole
scene is so new that I am quite bewildered with it; and you will, I am
afraid, as I write on the impulse of the moment, find my ideas at times
rather incoherently put together. What changes have taken place in Europe
within the last two years! and how great were those which occurred during
the interval of my passage from Ceylon last year, which island I quitted
about the time that we received in that part of the world intelligence of
the battle of Leipsic! Having had a long passage from distant Taprobane, it
was only on my arrival at the Cape of Good Hope, that I learned, to my
utter astonishment, the news of the capitulation of Paris to the allied
powers, and of the overthrow of the power and dynasty of Napoleon. I
recollect that at the Cape there was great rejoicing and jubilee on this
occasion; but I confess, as to myself, I did not see any reason for giving
vent to this extravagant joy; and I must have had even at that time somehow
or other a presentiment of what would soon happen, as in communicating this
intelligence to a friend in India I made use of these words: "get a court
dress made, my good friend, and a big wig, ruffled shirt, and hair-powder,
and stick an old-fashioned sword by your side, for, depend on it, old
fashions will come into play again; the most arbitrary and aristocratic
notions will be revived and terrible machinations will be framed against
the liberties of Europe."

Of course at the Cape we only heard one side of the question; and I began
to be almost convinced that it was as necessary for humanity, as for the
repose of Europe, that the giant should be put down; and I was consoled
when it was effected, ostensibly, at least, by the voice of the people.

I had scarcely been three months in England, when the return of Napoleon
from Elba, and the extraordinary dislocation of the Bourbons from the
throne of France, summoned Europe again to arms; the crusade is preached at
Vienna, and behold! his Grace of Wellington appointed the Godfrey of the
holy league. I had reason, about six weeks before the news of this event
reached London, from some conversation I had with an intelligent friend,
who had just returned from a tour on the Continent, to suppose that the
slightest combination against the Bourbons would prove successful, from
their injudicious conduct and from the temper of the people; but I never
could have supposed that the return of the man of Elba would be hailed with
such unparalleled and unanimous acclamation. As I had long ago wished for
an opportunity of visiting the continent of Europe, which had never before
occurred to me, I eagerly embraced the offer made to me by my friend
Major-General Wilson, formerly Lieut.-Governor of Ceylon,[1] to accompany
him on a military tour through the country about to be the theatre of war.
Though I had never before visited the Continent (except with the British
army in the invasion of Holland in 1799, when I began my military career),
yet I was not wholly unprepared for travelling, having united to a
classical, as well as military education, a tolerable knowledge of history,
and a partial acquirement of the principal modern European languages, which
I had begun to learn when very young and which I kept up during my leisure
hours in India, which, like those of Don Quixote, were many. I preferred
this study infinitely to that of the Asiatic languages, for which I never
felt any taste, as I dislike bombast, hyperbole and exaggeration; and
though an ardent admirer of the Muses, I never could find pleasure in what
Voltaire terms "le bon style oriental, ou l'on fait danser les montagnes et
les collines," and I prefer the amatory effusions of Ovid to those of the
great King Solomon himself.

The war will no doubt commence in Belgium, and of course the Emperor
Napoleon will be the assailant, for it cannot be supposed that after the
act of ban passed against him by the Amphictyons of Vienna he will remain
tranquil, and not strike the first blow, which may render him master of
Belgium and its resources.

We embarked at Ramsgate on the first of May for Ostend on board of a small
vessel bound thither. Our fellow passengers were two officers of dragoons,
several commissaries with their servants, horses, etc. After a passage of
twenty-four hours, we entered the harbour of Ostend at one o'clock the
following day. Ostend, once so flourishing and opulent, has long since
fallen into decay; its usual dullness is however just now interrupted by
the bustle of troops landing to join the allied army. Cavalry, infantry,
artillery, horses, guns, stores, etc., are landed every minute. The quays
are the only parts of this city which can boast of handsome buildings; the
fortifications seem to be much out of repair; in fact, the aggrandizement
of Antwerp occasioned necessarily the deterioration of Ostend.

The General and myself went to put up at the _Tete d'Or_, the only inn
where we could procure beds; and we embarked early next morning at the
embouchure of the canal on board of a _treckschuyt_ which conveyed us in
three hours to Bruges.

The landscape between Ostend and Bruges is extremely monotonous, it being a
uniformly flat country; yet it is pleasing to the eye at this season of the
year from the verdure of the plains, which are all appropriated to
pasturage, and from the appearance of the different villages and towns, of
which the eye can embrace a considerable number. There is a good road on
the banks of the canal, and the troops, on their line of march, enlivened
much the scene. Bruges, formerly the grand mart and emporium of the
commerce of the East, not only for the Low Countries, but for all the North
of Europe, seems, if we may judge from the state of the buildings and the
stillness that prevails, to be also in a state of decline. We however had
only time to visit the _Hotel de Ville_ and to remark the immense height of
the steeple on the _Grande Place_. We observed a number of pretty women in
the streets and in the shops employed in lace making. Bruges has been at
all times renowned for the beauty of the female sex, and this brought to my
recollection a passage in Schiller's tragedy of the _Maid of Orleans_,
wherein the Duke of Burgundy says that the greatest boast of Bruges is the
beauty of its women.

Another _treckschuyt_ was to start at twelve o'clock for Ghent; but we
preferred going by land and General Wilson hired a carriage for that
purpose. The distance is about thirty miles. The road from Bruges to Ghent
or Gand is perfectly straight, lined with trees and paved like a street.
The country is quite flat, and though there is nothing to bound the
horizon, the trees on each side of the road intercept the view.

We arrived at Ghent about six in the afternoon of the 4th and had some
difficulty in finding room, as the different hotels were filled with
officers of the allied army; but at length, after many ineffectual
applications at several, we obtained admission at the _Hotel de Flandre_,
where we took possession of a double-bedded room, the only one unoccupied.

Gand seems to be a very neat, clean and handsome city, with an air of
magnificence about it. The _Grande Place_ is very striking, and the
promenades are aligned with trees. We inspected the exterior of several
public buildings and visited the interior of several churches. In the
cathedral we had the honour of seeing at High Mass his most Christian
Majesty, Monsieur and the Comte de Blacas, Vicomte de Chateaubriand and
others, composing the Court of _notre Pere de Gand_, as Louis XVIII is
humorously termed by the French, from his having fixed his head-quarters
here. A great many French officers who have followed his fortunes are also
here, but they seem principally to belong to the Gardes du Corps. A number
of military attended the service in the cathedral in order to witness the
devotions of the Bourbon family. Monsieur has all the appearance of a worn
out debauchee, and to see him with a missal in his hand and the strange
contrite face he assumes, is truly ridiculous. These princes, instigated no
doubt by the priests, make a great parade of their sanctity, for which
however those who are acquainted with their character will not give them
much credit. But religious cant is the order of the day _intra et extra
Iliacos muros_, abroad as well as in England. The King of France takes the
lead, having in view no doubt the advice of Buckingham to Richard III:

  A pray'r book in your hand, my Lord, were well,
  For on that ground I'll make an holy descant.

and M. de Chateaubriand will no doubt trumpet forth the devotion and
Christian humility of his master. Those, however, who are at all acquainted
with this prince's habits, and are not interested in palliating or
concealing them, insinuate that his devotions at the table are more sincere
than at the altar and that, like the Giant Margutte in the Morgante
Maggiore of Pulci, he places more faith and reliance on a cappone lesso
ossia arrosto than on the consecrated but less substantial wafer.[2]

After contemplating this edifying spectacle, we returned to our inn, and
the next morning after breakfast we set out on our journey to Bruxelles.
The road is exactly similar to that between Bruges and Gand, but the
country appears to be richer and more diversified, and many country houses
were observable on the road side. We passed thus several neat villages. At
one o'clock we stopped at Alost to refresh our horses and dine. At the
table d'hote were a number of French officers belonging to the Gardes du
Corps. On entering into conversation with one of them, I found that he as
well as several others of them had served under Napoleon, and had even been
patronised and promoted by him; but I suppose that being the sons of the
ancient _noblesse_ they thought that gratitude to a _parvenu_ like him was
rather too plebeian a virtue. Some of them, however, with whom I conversed
after dinner seemed to regret the step they had taken. "If we are
successful," said they, "it can only be by means of the Allied Armies, and
who knows what conditions they may impose on France? If we should be
unsuccessful, we are exiled probably for life from our country." During
dinner, two pretty looking girls with musical instruments entered the hall,
and regaled our ears with singing some romances, among which were _Dunois
le Troubadour_ and _La Sentinelle_. They sang with much taste and feeling.
I surmise this is not the only profession they exercise, if I might judge
from the _doux yeux_ they occasionally directed to some of the officers.
These girls did not at least seem by their demeanour as if likely to incur
the anathema of Rinaldo in the _Orlando Furioso_:

  meritamente muoro Una crudele,

but rather more disposed to

  dar vita all'amator fidele.[3]

Alost is a neat, clean town or large village, and the same description will
serve for all the towns and villages in Brabant and Flanders, as they are
built on the same plan. We arrived at Bruxelles late in the evening and put
up at the _Hotel d'Angleterre_.

This morning, the General and myself went to pay our respects to the _Gran
Capitano_ of the _Holy League_, and we left our cards. He is, I hear, very
confident of the result of the campaign, and no doubt he has for him the
prayers of all the pious in England against those atheistical fellows the
French; and these prayers will surely elicit a "host of angels" to come
down to aid in the destruction of the Pandemonium of Paris where Satan's
lieutenant sits enthroned. The reflecting people here are astonished that
Napoleon does not begin the attack. The inhabitants of Belgium are in
general, from all that I can hear or see, not at all pleased with the
present order of things, and they much lament the being severed from
France. The two people, the Belgians and Hollanders, do not seem to
amalgamate; and the former, though they render ample justice to the
moderation, good sense, and beneficent intentions of the present monarch,
who is personally respected by every one, yet do not disguise their wish to
be reunited to France and do not hesitate to avow their attachment to the
Emperor Napoleon. This union does not please the Hollanders either, on
other grounds. They complain that their interests have been sacrificed
entirely to those of the house of Orange, and they say that from the
readiness they displayed in shaking off the yoke of France, and the great
weight they thereby threw into the scale, they were entitled to the
restitution of all their colonies in Asia, Africa, and America. The
colonies of the Cape of Good Hope and Ceylon are what they most regret; for
these colonies in particular furnished ample employment and the means of
provision for the cadets of patrician families. If you tell them they have
acquired the Belgic provinces as an indemnification, they answer: "So much
the worse for us, for now the patronage of the colonial offices must be
divided between us and the Belgians."

The preparations for the grand conflict about to take place are carried on
with unabating activity; the conscription is rigorously enforced and every
youth capable of bearing arms is enrolled. Almost all the officers of the
Belgian army and a great proportion of the soldiery have served with the
French and have been participators of their laurels; one cannot therefore
suppose that they are actuated by any very devouring zeal against their
former commander; nor have I found amongst the shop-keepers or respectable
people with whom I have conversed, and who have been falsely represented as
having suffered much from the tyranny of Napoleon, any who dislike either
his person or government, and certainly none either high or low express the
cannibal wish that I heard some English country gentlemen and London
merchants utter for the destruction of Paris and of the French people, nor
would it be easy to find here men of the _humane_ and _generous_ sentiments
professed by some of our aldermen and contractors when they welcomed with
ferocious acclamations of joy and were ready to embrace the Baschkir or
Cossack who told them that he had slaughtered so many French with his own
hand; nor would the ladies here be so eager to kiss old Blucher as was the
case in London.

This city is filled with British and Hanoverian troops. Their conduct is
exemplary, nor is any complaint made against them. The Highland regiments
are however the favourites of the Bruxellois, and the inhabitants give them
the preference as lodgers. They are extremely well behaved (they say, when
speaking of the Highlanders) and they cheerfully assist the different
families on whom they are quartered in their household labour. This
reflects a good deal of credit on the gallant sons of Caledonia. Their
superior morality to those of the same class either in England or in
Ireland must strike every observer, and must, in spite of all that the
_Obscuranten_ or _Chevaliers de l'Eteignoir_ and others who wish to check
the progress of the human mind may urge to the contrary, be mainly
attributed to the general prevalence of education _a la portee de tout le
monde_. Wherever the people are enlightened there is less crime; ignorance
was never yet the safeguard of virtue. As for myself I honour and esteem
the Scottish nation and I must say that I have found more liberal ideas and
more sound philosophy among individuals of that nation than among those of
any other, and it is a tribute I owe to them loudly to proclaim my
sentiments; for though personal gratitude may seem to influence me a little
on this subject, yet I should never think of putting forth my opinion in
public, were it not founded on an impartial observation of the character of
this enterprising and persevering people. A woman who had some Highlanders
quartered in her house told me in speaking of them: "Monsieur, ce sont de
si bonnes gens; ils sont doux comme des agneaux." "Ils n'en seront pas
moins des lions an jour du combat," was my reply.

I have amused myself with visiting most of the remarkable objects here, but
you must not expect from me a detail of what you will find in every
description book. You wish to have my ideas on the subjects that most
strike me individually, and those you shall have; but it would be very
absurd and presumptuous in me to attempt to give a _catalogue raisonne_ of
buildings and pictures and statues, or to set up as a connoisseur when I
know nothing either of sculpture, of architecture or painting; nor am I
desirous of imitating the young Englishman, who, in writing to his father
from Italy, described so much in detail, and so scientifically, every
production, or staple, peculiar to the cities which he happened to visit,
that he wrote like a cheese-monger from Parma, like a silk mercer from
Leghorn, like an olive and oil merchant from Lucca, like a picture dealer
from Florence, and like an antiquarian from Rome.


BRUXELLES, May 10.

The _Hotel d'Angleterre_ where we are lodged is within four minutes walk
from the finest part of the city, where the Parc and Royal Palace is
situated. The Parc is not large, but is tastefully laid out in the Dutch
style, and is the fashionable promenade for the _beau monde_ of Bruxelles.
The women, without being strikingly handsome, have much grace; their air,
manner and dress are perfectly _a la francaise_. A good cafe and restaurant
is in the centre of one of the sides, and the buildings on the quadrangle
environing the Parc, which form the palace and other tenements are superb.
The next place I went to see was the _Hotel de Ville_ and its tower of
immense height. It is a fine Gothic building, but that which should be the
central entrance is not directly in the centre of the edifice, so that one
wing of it appears considerably larger than the other, which gives it an
awkward and irregular appearance. On the Place or Square as we should call
it, where the _Hotel de Ville_ stands, is held the fruit and vegetable
market, and a finer one or more plentifully supplied I never beheld. This
_Place_ is interesting to the historian as being the spot where Counts
Egmont and Hoorn suffered decapitation in the reign of Philip II of Spain,
by order of the Duke of Alva, who witnessed the execution from a window of
one of the houses. The conduct of these noblemen at the place of execution
was so dignified that even the ferocious duke could not avoid wiping his
eyes, hardened as his heart was by religious and political fanaticism; and
though he held them in abhorrence as rebels and traitors a tear did fall
for them down his iron cheek. How fortunate for the liberties of Holland
that William the Taciturn did not also fall into the claws of that Moloch
Philip! I next visited the museum and picture gallery, where I witnessed
the annual exposition of the modern school of painting. The specimens I saw
pleased me much, particularly because the subjects were well chosen from
history and the mythology, which to me is far more agreeable than the
subjects of the paintings of the old Flemish school; but I am told often
that I know nothing about painting, so I shall make no further remarks but
content myself with sending you a catalogue, with the pictures marked
therein which made most impression on me. With respect to the churches of
Brussels those of Ste. Gudule and of the Capuchins are the finest and most
remarkable. In the former is the Temptation of Adam by the Serpent, richly
carved in wood in figures as large as life grouped round the pulpit.[4]

The _Place du Sablon_ is very striking from the space it occupies, and on
it is a fountain erected by Lord Bruce.[5] The fountains which are to be
met with in various parts of the city are highly ornamental, and among them
I must not omit to mention a singularly grotesque one which is held in
great veneration by the lower orders of the Bruxellois and is by them
regarded as a sort of Palladium to the city. It is the figure of a little
boy who is at _peace_, according to the late Lord Melville's[6]
pronunciation of the words, and who spouts out his water incessantly,
reckless of decorum and putting modesty to the blush. What would our
vice-hunters say to this? He is a Sabbath breaker in the bargain and
continues his occupation on Sundays as well as other days and _in fine_ he
rejoices in the name of _Mannekenpis_.

The ramparts, or rather site of the ramparts (for the fortifications of
Bruxelles no longer exist), form an agreeable promenade; but the favourite
resort of all the world at Bruxelles in the afternoon is the _Attee verte_.
Here all classes meet; here the rich display their equipages and horses;
and the lower orders assemble at the innumerable _guinguettes_ which are to
be met with here, in order to play at bowls, dominoes, smoke and drink
beer, of which there is an excellent sort called _Bitterman._ The avenues
on each side of the carriage road are occupied by pedestrians, and on one
side of the road is the canal, covered at all times with barges and boats
decked with flags and streamers. At the cabarets are benches and tables in
the open air under the trees; and here are to be seen the artisan, the
bargeman and the peasant taking their afternoon _delassement_, and groups
of men, women and children drinking beer and smoking. These groups reminded
me much of those one sees so often in the old Flemish pictures, with this
difference, that the old costume of the people is almost entirely left off.
Female minstrels with guitars stroll about singing French romances and
collecting contributions from this cheerful, laughter-loving people. The
dark walk, as it is called, near the park is a favourite walk of the upper
classes in the evening. There his Grace of Wellington is sometimes to be
seen with a fair lady under his arm. He generally dresses in plain clothes,
to the astonishment of all the foreign officers. He is said to be as
successful in the fields of Idalia as in those of Bellona, and the ladies
whom he honours with his attentions suffer not a little in their
reputations in the opinion of the _comperes_ and _commeres_ of Bruxelles.

I have only been twice to the theatre since I have been here. The _Salle de
Spectacle_ is indifferent, but they have an excellent company of comedians.
The representations are in French. I saw the _Festin de Pierre_ of
Corneille exceedingly well performed. The actors who did the parts of Don
Juan and Sganarelle were excellent, and the scene with M. Dimanche, wherein
he demands payment of his bill, was admirably given. I have also seen the
_Plaideurs_ of Racine, a very favourite piece of mine; every actor played
his part most correctly, and the scene between the Comtesse de Pimbeche and
Chicaneau and L'Intime wherein the latter, disguised as a _Bailli_, offers
himself to be kicked by the former, was given in very superior style. The
scene of the trial of the dog, with the orations of Petit Jean as
_demandeur_ and L'Intime as _defenseur_, were played with good effect. I
never recollect having witnessed a theatrical piece which afforded me
greater amusement.


NAMUR, May 12.

We left Brussels yesterday afternoon, and having obtained passports to
visit the military posts we went to Genappe, a small village half-way
between Bruxelles and Namur, where we brought to for the night at a small
but comfortable inn called _Le Roi d'Espagne_. Two battalions of the
regiment Nassau-Usingen are quartered in Genappe. We arrived at Namur this
morning at nine o'clock and put up at the _Hotel d'Arenberg_. On the road
we stopped at a peasant's house to drink coffee; and we were entertained by
our hostess with complaints against the Prussians, who commit, as she said,
all sorts of exactions on the peasantry on whom they are quartered. Not
content with exacting three meals a day, when they were only entitled to
two, and for which they are bound to give their rations, they sell these,
and appropriate the money to their own use; then the demand for brandy and
_schnapps_ is increasing. But what can be expected from an army whose
leader encourages them in all their excesses? Blucher by all accounts is a
vandal and is actuated by a most vindictive spirit. The Prussians reproach
the Belgians with being in the French interest; how can they expect it to
be otherwise? They have prospered under French domination, and certainly
the conduct of the Prussians is not calculated to inspire them with any
love towards themselves nor veneration for the Sovereign who has such
all-devouring allies. I asked this woman why she did not complain to the
officers. She answered! "Helas, Monsieur, c'est inutile; on donne toujours
la meme reponse: '_Nichts verstehn_,'" for it appears when these complaints
are made the Prussian officers pretend not to understand French.

Namur is now the head-quarters of Marshal Blucher, who is in the enjoyment
of divers _noms de guerre_, such as "Marshall Vorwaerts," "Der alte Teufel."
On the high road, about two miles and a half before we reached Namur, we
met with a party of Prussian lancers, who were returning from a foraging
excursion. They were singing some warlike song or hymn, which was
singularly impressive. It brought to my recollection the description of the
Rhenish bands in the _Lay of the Last Minstrel_:

  Who as they move, in rugged verse
  Songs of Teutonic feuds rehearse.

The Prussian cavalry seem to be composed of fine-looking young men, and I
admire the genuine military simplicity of their dress, to which might be
most aptly applied the words of Xenophon when describing the costume of the
younger Cyrus: [Greek: _En tae Persikae stolae ouden ti hubrsmenae_][7] in
substituting merely the word [Greek: _Prussikae_] for [Greek: _Persikae_].
One sees in it none of those absurd ornaments and meretricious foppery
which give to our cavalry officers the appearance of Astley's men.[8]

The situation of Namur is exceedingly picturesque, particularly when viewed
from the heights which tower above the town, whereon stood the citadel
which was demolished by order of Joseph II, as were the fortifications of
all the frontier fortresses. The present Belgian Government however mean to
reconstruct them, and Namur in particular, the citadel of which, from the
natural strength of its position, is too important a post to be neglected.
The town itself is situated on the confluent of the Sambre and Meuse and
lies in a valley completely commanded and protected by the citadel. The
churches are splendid, and there is an appearance of opulence in the shops.
The inhabitants, from its being a frontier town, are of course much alarmed
at the approaching contest, for they will probably suffer from both
parties. We heard at the inn and in the shops which we visited the same
complaints against the Prussians. The country in the environs of this place
is exceedingly diversified, and it presents the first mountain scenery we
have yet met with. The banks of the Meuse hereabouts present either an
abrupt precipice or coteaux covered with vines gently sloping to the
water's edge. Namur is distant thirty-four miles from Brussels, and there
is water conveyance on the Meuse from here to Liege and Maastricht.


MONS, May 14.

We started yesterday morning at four o'clock from Namur. The whole road
between Namur and Mons presents a fine, rich open country abounding in
wheat, but not many trees. We stopped to breakfast at Fleurus, at an inn
where there were some Prussian officers. One of them, a lieutenant in the
2nd West Prussian Regiment, had the kindness to conduct us to see the field
of battle where the French under Jourdan defeated the Austrians in 1794. It
is at a very short distance from the town; he explained the position of the
two armies in a manner perfectly clear and satisfactory to us. The Prussian
officers all seem very eager for the commencement of hostilities, and their
only fear is now that all these mighty preparations will end in nothing;
viz., either that the French people, alarmed at the magnitude of the
preparations against them, will compel the Emperor Napoleon to abdicate, or
that the Allies will grow cool and, under the influence of Austria, bring
about a negotiation which may end in a recognition of the Imperial title
and dynasty. They would compound for a defeat at first, provided the war
were likely to be prolonged. In the meantime, reinforcements continue to
arrive daily for their army. We hear but little news of the intentions or
movements of the other Allies; it being forbidden to enter into political
discussions, it is difficult to ascertain the true state of affairs.

We continued our journey through Charleroy and Binch to this place. At a
small village between Binch and Mons we were stopped by a sentinel at a
Prussian outpost and our passports demanded. Neither the sentinel, however,
nor the sergeant, nor any of the soldiers present, could read or understand
French, in which language the passport was drawn up; but the sergeant told
me that the officers were in a house about a quarter of a mile distant and
that he would conduct me thither, but that he himself could not presume to
let us pass, from not knowing the tenor of our passport. I went accordingly
with the sergeant to this house, There I found the officer commanding the
piquet and several others sitting at table, carousing with beer and tobacco
and nearly invisible from the clouds of smoke which pervaded the room. I
explained to the officer who we were and requested him to put on the
passport his _visa_ in the German language, so that the non-commissioned
officers at the various posts through which we might pass would be able to
understand it and let us pass without hindrance. This he did accordingly
and we proceeded on our journey.

We arrived here in the evening and put up at the _Hotel Royal_. We found at
Charleroy, Binch and here, a number of people employed in repairing and
reconstructing the fortifications. Men, women and boys are all put in
requisition to accelerate this object, as it is the intention of the
Belgian Government to put all the frontier fortresses in the most complete
state of defence. On ascending one of the steeples this morning we had a
fine view of the surrounding country and of the height of Genappe, which
are close to Mons and memorable for the brilliant victory gained by
Dumouriez over the Austrians in 1792. The landscape presents an undulating
campaign country, gentle slopes and alternate plains covered with corn, as
far as the eye can reach, and interspersed with villages and farmhouses. In
Mons is a very large splendid shop or warehouse of millinery, perfumery,
jewellery, etc. It is called _La Toilette de Venus_, and is served by a
very pretty girl, who, I have no doubt from her simpering look and eloquent
eyes, would have no objection to be a sedulous priestess at the altar of
the Goddess of Amathus. A battalion of Hollanders--a very fine body of
men--marched into this place yesterday evening; the rest of the garrison is
composed of Belgians, chiefly conscripts.


LEUZE, May 15.

Yesterday morning we left Mons and proceeded to Ath to breakfast. A
multitude of people were employed there also at the fortifications. The
garrison of Ath is composed of Hanoverians. Ath reminded me of the wars of
King William III and my Uncle Toby's sieges.[9] There was so little
remarkable to be seen at Ath that we proceeded to this place shortly after
breakfast and arrived at one o'clock, it being only ten miles distance
between Ath and Leuze. We took up our quarters with Major-General Adam, who
commands the Light Brigade of General Sir H. Clinton's division. This
brigade is quartered here and in the adjacent farmhouses. General Adam,
though he has attained his rank at a very early age, is far more fitted for
it than many of our older generals, some of whom (I speak from experience)
have few ideas beyond the fixing of a button or lappel, or polishing a
belt, and who place the whole _Ars recondita_ of military discipline in
pipe-clay, heel-ball and the goose step. Fortunately for this army, the
Duke of Wellington has too much good sense to be a martinet and the good
old times are gone by, thank God, when a soldier used to be sentenced to
two or three hundred lashes for having a dirty belt or being without a
_queue_. To the Duke of York also is humanity much indebted for his
endeavours to check the frequency of corporal punishment. The Duke of York,
with all his zeal for the service, never loses sight of the comfort of the
soldier and is indefatigable in his exertions to ameliorate his conditions.
We had a pleasant dinner party at General Adam's, and at night I went to
sleep at the house occupied by Captain C., one of the aides-de-camp of the
General,[10] an active, intelligent officer who had formerly served in the
marines, which service he had quitted in order to enter the regular army.


May 16.

Yesterday morning we paid a visit to Tournay, which is distant from Leuze
about ten miles, and we breakfasted at the _Signe d'Or_. We then proceeded
to pay our respects to the Commandant General V.[11] The garrison consists
of Belgians. General V. had been some time in England as a prisoner of war.
He was made prisoner, I think he said, at Batavia. He received us very
politely, and not only gave us permission to visit the works of the
citadel, but sent a sergeant to accompany us. The new citadel is building
on the site of the old one, and, like it, is to be a regular pentagon. The
fortifications of the city itself are not to be reconstructed; these of the
citadel, which will be very strong, rendering them superfluous. The
sergeant was a native of Wuertemberg and had served in the army of his own
country and in that of France in most of the campaigns under Napoleon. He
was a fine old veteran, and very intelligent, for he explained to us the
nature of the works with great perspicuity. With true Suabian dignity he
refused a five franc piece which I offered him as a slight remuneration for
the trouble he had taken, and as he seemed, I thought, rather offended at
the offer, I felt myself bound to apologize. From the number of workmen
employed in repairing the citadel, it will not be long before it is placed
in a respectable state of defence. Tournay is a large handsome city and the
spacious quais on the banks of the Scheld which runs through it add much to
the neatness of its appearance. It is only ten miles distant from Lille,
but all communication from France is stopped. We learned that some of the
Hanoverians had been deserting. In return we met with a young French hussar
who had come over to the Allies. He seemed to be an impudent sort of
fellow, and said, with the utmost _sang-froid_, that the reason he deserted
was that he had not been made an officer as he was promised, and he hoped
that Louis XVIII would be more sensible of his merits than the Emperor
Napoleon. We returned to Leuze to dinner in the afternoon. This morning we
went to assist at a review of General Clinton's division, on a plain called
_Le Paturage_, about seven miles distant from Leuze. The Light Brigade and
the Hanoverian Brigades form this division. The manoeuvres were performed
with tolerable precision, but they were chiefly confined to advancing in
line, retiring by alternate companies covered by light infantry and change
of position on one of the flanks by _echelon_. The British troops were
perfect; the Hanoverians not so, they being for the most part new levies.
In one of the _echelon_ movements, when the line was to be formed on the
left company of the left battalion, a Hanoverian battalion, instead of
preserving its parallelism, was making a terrible diversion to its right,
when a thundering voice from the commander of the brigade to the commandant
of the battalion: "_Mein Gott, Herr Major, wo gehn Sie hin?_" roused him
from his reverie; when he must have perceived, had he wheeled up into line,
the fearful interval he had left between his own and the next battalion on
the left.

After the review had finished we repaired to the chateau of the Prince de
Ligne, then occupied by Lieut.-General Sir H. Clinton, to partake of a
breakfast given by him and his lady. On the breaking up of the breakfast
party, General Wilson and myself remained at the chateau to dine with
General Adam _al fresco_ in the garden under the trees. The palace and
garden of the Prince de Ligne are both very magnificent. The latter is of
great extent, but too regular, too much in the Dutch taste to please me.
Little or no furniture is in the palace; but there are some family pictures
and a theatre fitted up in one of the halls for the purpose of private
theatricals. In the garden is a monument erected by the late Prince de
Ligne to one of his sons, Charles by name, who was killed in the Russian
service at the siege of Ismail. The present prince is a minor and resides
at Bruxelles.


GRAMMONT, May 18.

We left Leuze yesterday afternoon and arrived here at seven in the evening
in order to be present at the cavalry review the next morning. We partook
of an elegant supper given to us by our friend, Major Grant of the 18th
Hussars, and we were much entertained and enlivened by the effusions of his
brilliant genius and inexhaustible wit. The whole cavalry of the British
army passed in review this morning before the Duke of Wellington, who was
there with all his staff and received the salutes of all the corps like
Godfrey, _con volto placido e composto_. It was a very brilliant spectacle.
The Duke de Berri was present. I think I never beheld so ignoble and
disagreeable a countenance as this prince possesses. I thought to myself
that he had much better have stayed away from this review; for he must be
insensible to all patriotism who could take pleasure in contemplating a
foreign force about to enter and ravage his own country. We learn that the
Duchess d'Angouleme is to have a review of the _fideles_ very shortly. She
is certainly much more warlike than the males of that family; this
disposition is increased by her religious fanaticism. This renders her, of
course, a most dangerous person to meddle with politics; but great
allowances must be made for her feelings, which must naturally be
embittered by the recollection of so much suffering during the Revolution
and of the barbarous and inhuman treatment experienced by her father and
mother.

I observed a peculiarity in this part of the country, viz., that there are
villages lying close to each other in some of which French is spoken, in
others Flemish; and that, with some few exceptions, the inhabitants of
neighbouring villages are reciprocally unintelligible. General Wilson does
not intend to return to Bruxelles. I shall accompany him as far as Gand and
then return to Bruxelles to await the issue of the contest.


BRUXELLES, June 11.

I took leave of General Wilson at Gand on the 22nd of last month and
immediately returned here, where I have been ever since. I have shifted my
quarters to a less expensive hotel and am now lodged at the _Hotel de la
Paix_. We get an excellent dinner at the table d'hote for one and a half
francs, wine not included; this is paid for extra, and is generally at the
price of three francs per bottle. This hotel is very neatly fitted up and
is very near the _Hotel de Ville_. At the table d'hote I frequently meet
Prussian officers who on coming in to visit Bruxelles put up here. We have
just learned the proceedings of the _Champ de Mai_ at Paris, by which it
appears that Napoleon is solemnly recognized and confirmed as Emperor of
the French. This intelligence sent a young Prussian officer, who sat next
to me, in a transport of joy, for this makes the war certain. The Prussians
seem determined to revenge themselves for the humiliation they suffered
from the French during the time they occupied their country, and I
sincerely pity by anticipation the fate of the French peasants upon whom
these gentlemen may chance to be quartered. Terrible will be the first
shock of battle, and it may be daily expected, and dreadful will be the
consequences to the poor inhabitants of the seat of war. Cannot this war be
avoided? I am not politician enough to foresee the consequences of allowing
Napoleon to keep quiet and undisturbed possession of the throne of France;
but the consequences of a defeat on the part of the Allies will be the loss
of Belgium and the probable annihilation of the British army; certainly the
dissolution of the coalition, for the minor German powers, and very likely
Austria also, would be induced to make a separate peace. We can clearly see
that Napoleon has not now the power he formerly possessed and that the
Republican party, into whose hands he has thrown himself, seem disposed not
only to remain at peace, but to shackle him in every possible manner. It is
evident, too, that his last success was owing to the dislike of the people
to the Bourbons from their injudicious and treacherous conduct; and the
threats and impossible language held by the priests and emigrants towards
the holders of property paved the way for the success of his enterprise and
enabled him to achieve a triumph unparalleled in history.

On the contrary, by forcing him to go to war, should he gain the first
victory, Belgium will be re-united to France, all the resources of that
country brought into the scale against the Allies; Napoleon will be more
popular than ever, the Republican party will be put to silence, the
enthusiasm of the army will rise beyond all restraint, and, in a word,
Napoleon will be himself again. The other Allies can do little without the
assistance of England, and our finances are by no means in a state to bear
such intolerable drains.

As to the Prussians, on minute enquiry I do not find that they were so
ill-treated by the French as is generally believed, and that, except the
burden of having troops quartered on them (no small annoyance, I allow),
they had not much reason to complain. The quartering of the troops on them
and the payment of the war contributions was the necessary consequence of
the occupation of their country by an enemy; but I have just been reading a
German work, written by a native of Berlin, shortly after the entry of the
French troops in that city after the battle of Jena in 1806. This work is
entitled _Vertraute Briefe aus Berlin_, and in it the author distinctly
declares that the discipline observed by the French troops during the
occupation of Berlin was highly strict and praiseworthy, and that the few
excesses that took place were committed by the troops of the Rhenish
Confederation; and he adds that the inhabitants preferred having a French
soldier quartered on them to a Westphalian, Bavarian or Wuertembergher.
Further, the troops that behaved with the greatest oppression and insolence
towards the burghers were those belonging to a corps composed of native
Prussians, raised for the service of Napoleon by the Prince of
Isenburg.[12] In his recruiting address the prince invites the Prussian
youth to enter into the service of the invincible Napoleon, and tells him
that to the soldier of Napoleon everything is permitted. The regiment was
soon fitted up and the soldiers began to put in practice in good earnest
the theory of the _affiche_. They committed excesses of all sorts; and one
officer in particular behaved so brutally and infamously to a poor tailor
on whom he was quartered, and to whom, before he entered the French
service, he was under the greatest obligations, that General Hulin, the
commandant of the place at Berlin during the French occupation, was obliged
to cashier him publicly on the parade and to cause his epaulettes to be
torn from his coat in order to mark the disgust and indignation that he and
all the French officers felt at the base ingratitude of this man.

This work, "Vertraute Briefe" (confidential letters), contains much curious
matter and very interesting anecdotes respecting the corruption, venality
and depravation that prevailed in the Prussian Court and army previous to
the war in 1806. Let this suffice to show that the Prussians have not so
much reason to complain against the French as they pretend to have;
besides, the conduct of the Prussian Government itself was so vacillating
and contradictory that they had themselves only to blame for what they
suffered. They should have supported Austria in 1805. But the fact is that
the vanity and the _amour propre_ of the Prussian military were so hurt at
the humiliation they experienced at and after the battle of Jena that it
was this that has embittered them so much against the French.

Let it not, however, be supposed for a moment that I seek to excuse or
palliate the conduct of Napoleon towards Prussia. I have always thought it
not only unjust but impolitic. Impolitic, because Prussia was, and ought
always to be, the obvious and natural ally of France, and Napoleon, instead
of endeavouring to crush that power, should have aggrandized her and made
her the paramount power in Germany. It was in fact his obvious policy to
cede Hanover in perpetuity to Prussia, and have rendered thereby the breach
between the Houses of Brandenburgh and Hanover irreparable and
irreconcilable. This would have thrown Prussia necessarily into the arms
of France, in whose system she must then have moved, and all British
influence on the Continent would have been effectually put an end to.
Another prime fault of Napoleon was that he did not crush and dismember
Austria in 1809 as he had it in his power to do; and by so doing he would
have merited and obtained the thanks and good will of all Germany for
having overturned so despotic and light-fearing a Government. But he has
paid dearly for these errors. Instead of destroying a despotic power
(Austria), he chose rather to crush an enlightened and liberal nation, for
such I esteem the Prussian nation, and I always separate the Prussian
people from their Government. The latter fell, and fell unpitied, after one
battle; but it has been almost miraculously restored by the unparalleled
exertions and energies of the burghers and people. May this be a lesson to
the Government! and may the King of Prussia not prove ungrateful!

Troops continue to arrive here daily, and now that the ceremony of the
_Champ de Mai_ is over, we may expect that Napoleon will repair to his army
and commence operations.


June 17.

Napoleon arrived at Maubeuge on the 18th and the grand conflict has begun.
The Prussians were attacked on the 14th and 15th at Ligny and driven from
their position.[13] They are said to have suffered immense loss and to be
retreating with the utmost confusion. Our turn comes next. The thunder of
the cannon was heard here distinctly the most part of yesterday and some
part of our army must have been engaged. Our troops have all marched out of
Bruxelles in the direction of the frontier. In the affair with the
Prussians we learn that the Duke of Brunswick was killed and that Blucher
narrowly escaped being made prisoner.


June 18.

The grand conflict has begun with us. It is now four o'clock p.m. The issue
is not known. The roar of the cannon continues unabated. All is bustle,
confusion and uncertainty in this city. Cars with wounded are coming in
continually. The general opinion is that our army will be compelled to
retreat to Antwerp, and it is even expected that the French will be in
Bruxelles to-night. All the towns-people are on the ramparts listening to
the sound of the cannon. This city has been in the greatest alarm and
agitation since the 16th, when a violent cannonade was heard during the
afternoon. From what I have been able to collect, the French attacked the
Prussians on the 14th, and a desperate conflict took place on that day, and
the whole of the 15th,[14] when the whole of the Prussian army at Ligny,
Fleurus and Charleroy was totally defeated and driven from its position; a
dislocation of our troops took place early in the morning of the 16th, and
our advanced guard, consisting of the Highland Brigade and two Battalions
of Nassau-Usingen, fell in with the advanced guard of the French Army
commanded by Marshal Ney near Quatre-Bras, and made such a gallant defence
against his corps d'armee as to keep it in check the whole day and enable
itself to fall back in good order to its present position with the rest of
the army, about ten miles in front of Bruxelles. Indeed, I am informed that
nothing could exceed the admirable conduct of the corps above mentioned.
Yesterday we heard no cannonade, but this afternoon it has been unceasing
and still continues. All the caricatures and satires against Napoleon have
disappeared from the windows and stalls. The shops are all shut, the
English families flying to Antwerp; and the proclamation of the Baron de
Capellen[15] to the inhabitants, wherein he exhorts them to be tranquil and
assures them that the Bureaux of Government have not yet quitted Bruxelles,
only serves to increase the confusion and consternation. The inhabitants in
general wish well to the arms of Napoleon, but they know that the retreat
of the English Army must necessarily take place through their town; that
our troops will perhaps endeavour to make a stand, and that the
consequences will be terrible to the inhabitants, from the houses being
liable to be burned or pillaged by friend or foe. All the baggage of our
Army and all the military Bureaux have received orders to repair and are
now on their march to Antwerp, and the road thither is so covered and
blocked up by waggons that the retreat of our Army will be much impeded
thereby. Probably my next letter may be dated from a French prison.


BRUXELLES, June 21.

Judge, my friend, of my astonishment and that of almost everybody in this
city, at the news which was circulated here early on the morning of the
19th, and has been daily confirmed, viz., that the French Army had been
completely defeated and was in full flight, leaving behind it 220 pieces of
cannon and all its baggage, waggons and _munitions de guerre_. I have not
been able to collect all the particulars, but you will no doubt hear enough
of it, for I am sure it will be _said_ or _sung_ by all the partisans of
the British ministry and all the Tories of the United Kingdom for months
and years to come; for further details, therefore, I shall refer you to the
Gazette. The following, however, you may consider as a tolerably fair
precis of what took place. The attack began on the 18th about ten
o'clock[16] and raged furiously along the whole line, but principally at
Hougoumont, a large _Metairie_ on the right of our position, which was
occupied by our troops, and from which all the efforts of the enemy could
not dislodge them. The slaughter was terrible in this quarter. From twelve
o'clock till evening several desperate charges of cavalry and infantry were
made on the rest of our line. Both sides fought with the utmost courage and
obstinacy, and were prodigal of life in the extreme. But it is generally
supposed that our army must have succumbed towards the evening had it not
been for the arrival of Bulow's division of Prussians, followed closely by
Blucher and the rest of the army, which had rallied with uncommon celerity.
These moved on the right flank of the French, and decided the fortune of
the day by a charge which was seconded by a general charge from the whole
of the English line on the centre and left of the French. Seeing themselves
thus turned, a panic, it is said, spread among the young Guard of the
French army, and a cry of "_Sauve qui peut! nous sommes trahis!_" spread
like wildfire. The flight became universal; the old Guard alone remained,
refused quarter and perished like Leonidas and his Spartans. The Prussian
cavalry being fresh pursued the enemy all night, _l'epee dans les reins_,
and it may be conceived from their previous disposition that they would not
be very merciful to the vanquished. Indeed, on the 15th, it is said that
the French were not very merciful to them. It was like the combat of
Achilles and Hector.

  No thought but rage and never ceasing strife
  Till death extinguish rage and thought and life.

France will now call out to Napoleon as Augustus did to Varus, "Give me
back my legions!" The loss on both sides was very great, but it must have
been prodigious on the side of the French. The whole Allied Army is in full
pursuit. Several friends and acquaintances of mine perished in this battle,
viz., Lieut.-General Sir T. Picton, Colonel Sir H. Ellis and Colonel
Morice.


June 22.

This morning I went to visit the field of battle, which is a little beyond
the village of Waterloo, on the plateau of Mont St Jean; but on arrival
there the sight was too horrible to behold. I felt sick in the stomach and
was obliged to return. The multitude of carcases, the heaps of wounded men
with mangled limbs unable to move, and perishing from not having their
wounds dressed or from hunger, as the Allies were, of course, obliged to
take their surgeons and waggons with them, formed a spectacle I shall never
forget. The wounded, both of the Allies and the French, remain in an
equally deplorable state.

At Hougoumont, where there is an orchard, every tree is pierced with
bullets. The barns are all burned down, and in the court-yard it is said
they have been obliged to burn upwards of a thousand carcases, an awful
holocaust to the War-Demon.

As nothing is more distressing than the sight of human misery when we are
unable to silence it, I returned as speedily as possible to Bruxelles with
Cowper's lines in my head:

  War is a game, which, were their subjects wise,
  Kings should not play at.

I hope this battle will, at any rate, lead to a speedy peace.


June 28.

We have no other news from the Allied Army, except that they are moving
forward with all possible celerity in the direction of Paris. You may form
a guess of the slaughter and of the misery that the wounded must have
suffered, and the many that must have perished from hunger and thirst, when
I tell you that all the carriages in Bruxelles, even elegant private
equipages, landaulets, barouches and berlines, have been put in requisition
to remove the wounded men from the field of battle to the hospitals, and
that they are yet far from being all brought in. The medical practitioners
of the city have been put in requisition, and are ordered to make
domiciliary visits at every house (for each habitation has three or four
soldiers in it) in order to dress the wounds of the patients. The
Bruxellois, the women in particular, have testified the utmost humanity
towards the poor sufferers. It was suggested by some humane person that
they who went to see the field of battle from motives of curiosity would do
well to take with them bread, wine and other refreshments to distribute
among the wounded, and most people did so. For my part I shall not go a
second time. Napoleon, it is said, narrowly escaped being taken. His
carriage fell into the hands of the Allies, and was escorted in triumph
into Bruxelles by a detachment of dragoons. So confident was Napoleon of
success that printed proclamations were found in the carriage dated from
"Our Imperial Palace at Laecken," announcing his victory and the liberation
of Belgium from the insatiable coalition, and wherein he calls on the
Belgians to re-unite with their old companions in arms in order to reap the
fruits of their victory. This was certainly rather premature, and reminds
me of an anecdote of a Spanish officer at the siege of Gibraltar, related
by Drinkwater in his narrative of that siege.[17] When the British garrison
made a sortie, they carried the advanced Spanish lines and destroyed all
their preparations; the Spanish officer on guard at the outermost post was
killed, but on the table of his guard room was found his guard report
filled up and signed, stating that "nothing extraordinary had happened
since guard-mounting."

Mr L. of Northumberland, having proposed to me to make a tour with him to
Aix-la-Chapelle and the banks of the Rhine, I shall start with him in a day
or two.


[1] Sir Wiltshire Wilson (1762-1842), Commander of the Royal Artillery in
    Ceylon, 1810-1815.--Ed.

[2] Pulci, _Morgante_, canto XVIII, ottava 114-115. The Giant Morgante
    meets the villain Margutte and asks him if he be a Christian or a
    Saracen. Margutte answers that he cares not, but only believes in
    boiled or in roasted capon:

      Rispose allor Margutte: A dirtel tosto
      Io non credo pio al nero ch'all' azzurro.
      Ma nel cappone, o lesso, o vuogll arrosto....

[3] Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_, iv, 63, f.--ED.

[4] A work of H, Verbruggen of Antwerp (1677).--ED.

[5] Lord Bruce, Earl of Ailesbury, caused this fountain to be erected in
    1751, as a token of gratitude to the town of Bruxelles where he had
    lived in exile.--E.D.

[6] Henry Dundas, Viscount Melville (1741-1811), elevated to the peerage in
    1802.--ED.

[7] Xenophon, _Education of Cyrus_, II, 4, 4.--ED.

[8] Astley's Amphitheatre, near Westminster Bridge.--ED.

[9] Uncle Toby, in Laurence Sterne's _Tristram Shandy_.--ED.

[10] Lieutenant R.P. Campbell, aide-de-camp to Major-General Adam.--ED.

[11] In May, 1815, the officer commanding-in-chief at Tournai was
    General-Major A.C. Van Diermen.--ED.

[12] Karl Friedrich Ludwig Moritz, Fuerst zu Ysenburg-Bierstein (1766-1820),
    took service with Austria (1784), with Prussia (1804), and later with
    Napoleon (1806), who commissioned him as brigadier-general. The
    shameless conduct of this officer is exposed by B. Poten, _Allgemeine
    Deutsche Biographie_, vol. XLIV, p. 611.--ED.

[13] The battle at Ligny was fought on June 16.--ED.

[14] The facts and dates here given are of course inaccurate; but this
    proves that Major Frye wrote his text in the very midst of the crisis,
    and that his manuscript has not been tampered with.--ED.

[15] Baron van Capellen, a Dutch statesman, was governor-general of the
    Belgian provinces, residing at Bruxelles. He was afterwards
    governor-general of Dutch India. Born in 1778, he died in 1848. His
    memoirs have been published in French by Baron Sirtema de Grovestins
    (1852), and contain an interesting passage on that momentous day,
    18th June, 1815.--ED.

[16] Not before half past eleven.--ED.

[17] John Drinkwater, also called Bethune (1762-1844), published a
    well-known _History of the Siege of Gibraltar, 1779-1783_.--ED.




CHAPTER II

From Bruxelles to Liege--A priest's declamation against the French
Revolution--Maastricht--Aix-la-Chapelle--Imperial relics--Napoleon
regretted--Klingmann's "Faust"--A Tyrolese beauty--Cologne--Difficulties
about a passport--The Cathedral--King-craft and priest-craft--The
Rhine--Bonn and Godesberg--Goethe's "Goetz von Berlichingen"--The Seven
Mountains--German women--Andernach--Ehrenbreitstein--German hatred against
France--Coblentz--Intrigues of the Bourbon princes in Coblentz--Mayence--
Bieberich--Conduct of the Allies towards Napoleon--Frankfort on the
Mayn--An anecdote about Lord Stewart and Lafayette--German poetry--The
question of Alsace and Lorraine--Return to Bruxelles--Napoleon's surrender.


LIEGE, June 26.

Mr L. and myself started together in the diligence from Bruxelles at seven
o'clock in the evening of the 24th inst. and arrived here yesterday morning
at twelve o'clock. I experienced considerable difficulty in procuring a
passport to quit Bruxelles, my name having been included in that of General
Wilson, which he carried back with him to England. Our Ambassador was
absent, and I was bandied about from bureau to bureau without success; so
that I began at last to think that I should be necessitated to remain at
Bruxelles all my life, when fortunately it occurred to Mr L. that he was
intimately acquainted with the English Consul, and he kindly undertook to
procure me one and succeeded. On arrival here we put up at the _Pommelette
d'Or_. The price of a place in the diligence from Bruxelles to Liege is
fifteen franks. We passed thro' Louvain, but too late to see anything. The
country about Liege is extremely striking and picturesque; the river Meuse
flows thro' the city, and the banks of the river outside the town are very
_riants_ and agreeable. Liege is a large, well-built city, but rather
gloomy as to its appearance, and lies in a hollow completely surrounded by
lofty hills. The remains of its ancient citadel stand on a height which
completely commands the city; on another height stands a monastery, a
magnificent building. There are a great many coal-pits in the vicinity of
Liege, and a great commerce of coals is carried on between this city and
Holland by the _treckschuyte_ on the Meuse. We visited the ancient
Episcopal palace and the Churches. The Palace is completely dismantled.
This city suffered much during the revolt of the Belgian provinces against
the Emperor Joseph II, and having distinguished itself by the obstinacy of
its defence, it was treated with great rigour by the Austrian Government.
The fortifications were blown up, and nothing now remains on the site of
the old citadel but a large barrack. I remained two whole hours on this
height to contemplate the beauties of the expanse below. The banks of the
river, which meanders much in these parts, and the numerous _maisons de
campagne_ with the public promenades and allees lined with trees,
exhilarate the scene of the environs, for the city itself is dull enough.
Several pretty villas are situated also on the heights, and were I to dwell
here I should choose one of them and seldom descend into the valley and
city below,

  Where narrow cares and strife and envy dwell.

Liege, however sombre in its appearance, is a place of much opulence and
commerce. A Belgian garrison does duty here. At the inn, after dinner, I
fell into conversation with a Belgian priest, and as I was dressed in black
he fancied I was one of the cloth, and he asked me if I were a Belgian, for
that I spoke French with a Belgian accent; "Apparemment Monsieur est
ecclesiastique?--Monsieur, je suis ne Anglais et protestant." He then began
to talk about and declaim against the French Revolution, for that is the
doctrine now constantly dinned into the ears of all those who take orders;
and he concluded by saying that things would never go on well in Europe
until they restored to God the things they had taken from Him. I told him
that I differed from him very much, for that the sale of the Church domains
and of the lands and funds belonging to the suppressed ecclesiastical
establishments had contributed much to the improvement of agriculture and
to the comfort of the peasantry, whose situation was thereby much
ameliorated; and that they were now in a state of affluence compared with
what they were before the French Revolution. I added: "Enfin, Monsieur,
Dieu n'a pas besoin des choses terrestres." On my saying this he did not
chuse to continue the conversation, but calling for a bottle of wine drank
it all himself with the zest of a Tartuffe. I believe that he was surprised
to find that an Englishman should not coincide with his sentiments, for I
observe all the adherents of the ancient regime of feudality and
superstition have an idea that we are anxious for the re-establishment of
all those abuses as they themselves are, and it must be confessed that the
conduct of our Government has been such as to authorize them fully in
forming such conjectures, and that we shall be their staunch auxiliaries in
endeavouring to arrest and retrograde the progress of the human mind. In
fact, I soon perceived that my friend was not overloaded with wit and that
he was one of those priests so well described by Metastasio:

          Il di cui sapere
  Sta nel nostro ignorar....


MAASTRICHT, 27th June.

This morning, after a promenade on the banks of the Meuse--for I am fond of
rivers and woods (_flumina amo silvasque inglorius_)--we embarked on a
_treckschuyt_ and arrived here after a passage of four hours. The scenery
on the banks of the Meuse all the way from Liege to Maastricht is highly
diversified and extremely romantic; but here at Maastricht this ceases and
the dull uniformity of the Dutch landscape begins. When on the ramparts of
the city to the North and West an immense plain as far as the eye can reach
presents itself to view; a few trees and sandhills form the only relief to
the picture. The town itself is neat, clean and dull, like all Dutch towns.
The fortifications are strong and well worth inspection. The most
remarkable thing in the neighbourhood of Maastricht is the Montagne de St
Pierre, which from having been much excavated for the purpose of procuring
stone, forms a labyrinth of a most intricate nature. I advise every
traveller to visit it, and if he has a classical imagination he may fancy
himself in the labyrinth of Crete.


AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, 29th June.

We started in the morning of the 28th from Maastricht in the diligence for
Aix-la-Chapelle and arrived here at twelve o'clock, putting up at Van
Guelpen's Hotel, _Zum Pfaelzischen Hofe_ (a la Cour palatine), which I
recommend as an excellent inn and the hosts as very good people. The price
of our journey from Liege to Maastricht in the water-diligence was 2-1/2
franks, and from Maastricht to Aix-la-Chapelle by land was 7 franks the
person. The road from Maastricht to this place is not very good, but the
country at a short distance from Maastricht becomes picturesque, much
diversified by hill and dale and well wooded. As the Meuse forms the
boundary between the Belgic and Prussian territory, we enter the latter
sooner after leaving Maastricht. I find my friend L. a most agreeable
travelling companion; travelling seems to be his passion, as it is mine;
and fortune has so far favoured me in this particular, that my professional
duties and private affairs have led me to visit the four quarters of the
globe. After dinner, on the first day of our arrival here, we went to visit
the _Hotel de Ville_, before which stands on a pedestal in a bason an
ancient bronze statue of Charlemagne. It has nothing to recommend it but
its antiquity. The _Hotel de Ville_ is similar to other Gothic buildings
used for the same purpose. In the great hall thereof there is a large
picture representing the ambassadors of all the powers who assisted at the
signing of the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1742; and a full length
portrait of the present King of Prussia, as master of the city, occupies
the place where once stood that of Napoleon, its late lord. We next went to
see the Cathedral and sat down on the throne on which the German Caesars
used to be crowned. We viewed likewise the various costly articles of
plate, the gifts of pious princes. The most remarkable things among them
are several superb dresses of gold and silver embroidery, so thickly laid
on that they are of exceeding weight. These dresses form part of the
wardrobe of the Virgin Mary. Next to be seen is a case or chest of massy
silver, adorned with innumerable precious stones of great value; which case
contains the bones or ashes of Charlemagne. His right arm bone is however
preserved separate in a glass case. The sword of this prince too, and the
Imperial crown is to be seen here. The sacristan next proceeded to show to
us the other relics, but having begun with the exhibition of a rag dipped
in the sweat of Jesus Christ and a nail of the Holy Cross, we began to
think we had seen enough and went away perfectly satisfied. There is no
other monument in honour of Charlemagne, but a plain stone on the floor of
the Church with the simple inscription "Carolo Magno." On going out of the
city thro' one of the gates, and at a short distance from it, we ascended
the mountain or rather hill called the Louisberg on which are built a
Ridotto and Cafe, as also a Column erected in honour of Napoleon with a
suitable inscription; the inscription is effaced and is about to be
replaced by another in the German language in commemoration of the downfall
of the _Tyrant_, as the Coalition are pleased to call him. This Tyrant is
however extremely regretted by the inhabitants of Aix-la-Chapelle and not
without reason, for he was a great benefactor to them and continually
embellished the city, confirming and increasing its privileges. The
inhabitants are not at all pleased with their new masters; for the
behaviour of the Prussian military has been so insulting and overbearing
towards the burghers and students that it is, I am told, a common
exclamation among the latter, alluding to the Prussians having stiled
themselves their deliverers: _De nostris liberatoribus, Domine, libera
nos_. Indeed, I can evidently discern that they are not particularly
pleased at the result of the battle of Waterloo.

In the evening I went to the theatre, which has the most inconvenient form
imaginable, being a rectangle. As anti-Gallicanism is the order of the day,
only German dramas are allowed to be performed and this night it was the
tragedy of Faust, or Dr Faustus as we term him in England, not the Faust of
Goethe, which is not meant for nor at all adapted to the stage, but a drama
of that name written by Klingmann.[18] It is a strange wild piece, quite in
the German style and full of horrors and diableries. In this piece the
sublime and terrible border close on the ridiculous; for instance the Devil
and Faust come to drink in a beer-schenk or ale-house. 'Tis true the Devil
is incognito at the time and is called "der Fremde" or "the Stranger"; it
is only towards the conclusion of the piece that he discovers himself to be
Satan.... The actor who played the part of the Stranger had something in
his physiognomy very terrific and awe-inspiring. In another scene, which to
us would appear laughable and absurd, but which pleases a German audience,
three women in masks come on the stage to meet Faust, in a churchyard, and
on unmasking display three skeleton heads.

Poor Faust had stipulated to give his soul to the Devil for aiding him in
the attainment of his desires; the Devil on his part agrees to allow him to
commit four deadly sins before he shall call on him to fulfil his contract.
Faust, in the sequel, kills his wife and his father-in-law. Satan then
claims him. Faust pleads in arrest of judgement, that he has only committed
two crimes out of the four for which he had agreed; and that there
consequently remained two others for him to commit before he could be
claimed. The Devil in rejoinder informs him that his wife was with child at
the time he killed her, which constituted the third crime, and that the
very act of making a contract with the Devil for his soul forms the fourth.
Faust, overwhelmed with confusion, has not a word to say; and Satan seizing
him by the hair of his head, carries him off in triumph. This piece is
written in iambics of ten syllables and the versification appeared to me
correct and harmonious, and the sentiments forcible and poetical; this
fully compensated for the bizarrerie of the story itself, which, by the
bye, with all the reproach thrown by the adherents of the classic taste on
those of the romantic, is scarcely more _outre_ than the introduction of
Death ([Greek: _thanatos_]) as a dramatic personage in the _Alcestis_ of
Euripides.

There is at Aix-la-Chapelle at one of the hotels a Faro Bank; it is open
like the gates of Hell _noctes atque dies_ and gaming goes forward without
intermission; this seems, indeed, to be the only occupation of the
strangers who visit these baths. There is near this hotel a sort of Place
or Quadrangle with arcades under which are shops and stalls. At one of
these shops I met with the most beautiful girl I ever beheld, a Tyrolese by
birth and the daughter of a print-seller. She was from the Italian Tyrol;
Roveredo, I think she said, was her birthplace. She united much grace and
manner with her beauty, on account of which I could not avoid complimenting
her in her native tongue, which she seemed pleased to hear. Her eyes and
eyebrows brought to my recollection the description of those of Alcina:

  Sotto due negri e sottilissimi archi,
  Son due neri occhi, anzi, due chiari soli,
  Pietosi a riguardare, a mover parchi,
  Intorno a cui par che Amor scherzi e voli.[19]

  Two black and slender arches rise above
    Two clear black eyes, say suns of radiant light;
  Which ever softly beam and slowly move;
    Round these appears to sport in frolic flight,
  Hence scattering all his shafts, the little Love.

  --_Trans_. W.S. ROSE.

We then proceeded to look at the suburb of this city called Bortscheid, by
far the finest part of the city and at some elevation above it. It commands
an extensive view. We also visited the various bath establishments; the
taste of the water had some resemblance to that of Harrogate, and is good
in bilious, scrofulous and cutaneous complaints. On our return to the hotel
we learned the news of the capitulation of Paris to the Allied powers. It
is said to be purely a military convention by which the French army is to
evacuate Paris and retire behind the Loire. There is no talk and no other
intelligence about Napoleon, except that he had been compelled by the two
Houses of Legislature to abdicate the throne. We are still in the dark as
to the intentions of the Allies. I regret much that my friend and fellow
traveller L. is obliged to return to Bruxelles and cannot accompany me to
Cologne, to which place I am impatient to go and to pay my respects to old
father Rhine, so renowned in history.


COLOGNE.

I left Aix-la-Chapelle on the morning of the 2nd of July and arrived at
Cologne about six o'clock in the evening, putting up at the Inn _Zum
heiligen Geist_ (Holy Ghost), which is situated on the banks of the river.
The price of the journey in the diligence is 18 franks. On the road hither
lies Juliers, a large and strongly fortified town surrounded by a marsh. It
must be very important as a military post. The road after quitting Juliers
runs for the most part thro' a forest, and has been much improved and
enlarged by the French; before they improved it, it was almost impassable
in wet weather. We met on the road several Prussian waggons and
reinforcements on their march to Bruxelles. Two of my fellow travellers in
the diligence were very intelligent young men belonging to respectable
families in Cologne and were returning thither; they likewise complained
much of the overbearing demeanour of the Prussian military towards the
burghers.

Cologne is a large, but very dull looking city, as dull as Liege; it would
seem as if all towns and cities under ecclesiastical domination were dull
or rendered so by the prohibition of the most innocent amusements. The
fortifications are out of repair; but the Prussian Government intend to
make Cologne a place of great strength. The name of the village on the
opposite of the river is Deutz, and in the time of the French occupation
there was a _tete-de-pont_. The next morning I was obliged to appear before
the police, and afterwards before the _Commandant de la Place_, in order to
have my passport examined and _vise_. At the bureau of the police it was
remarked to me that my passport was not _en regle_, the features of the
bearer not being therein specified. I replied that it was not my fault;
that it was given to me in that shape by the English Consul at Bruxelles
and that it was not my province to give to the Consul any directions as to
its form and tenor. The Commissary of Police then asked me what business I
was about in travelling, and the following conversation took place: "Was
haben Sie fuer Geschaefte?"--"Keine; ich reise nur um Vergnuegen's Willen."--"
Sonderbar!"--"Worin liegt das Sonderbare, dass man reist um ein schoenes
Land zu sehen?"[20]--He made no answer to this, but one of his coadjutors
standing by him said in a loud whisper, "Ein Herumreiser," which means an
adventurer or person who travels about for no good,--in a word, a
suspicious character. I then said with the utmost calm and indifference:
"Gentlemen, as soon as you shall have finished all your commentaries on the
subject of my passport, pray be so good as to inform me what I am to do,
whether I may go on to Mayence and Frankfort as is my intention, or return
to Bruxelles." The Commissary, after a slight hesitation, signed the _visa_
and I then carried it to the bureau of the Commandant, whose secretary
signed it without hesitation, merely asking me if I were a military man.

In the afternoon I went to visit the Dome or Cathedral. It is a fine
specimen of Gothic architecture, but singular enough the steeple is not yet
finished. In this Cathedral the most remarkable thing is the Chapel of the
Three Kings, wherein is deposited a massy gold chest inlaid with precious
stones of all sorts and of great value, containing the bones of the
identical three Kings (it is said) who came from the East to worship the
infant Jesus at Bethlehem. The Scriptures say it was three wise men or
Magi. The legend however calls them Kings and gives them Gothic names. Let
schoolmen and theologians reconcile this difference: _ce n'est point notre
affaire_. To me it appears that when the German tribes embraced
Christianity and enrolled themselves under the banner of St Peter, it was
thought but fair to allow them to give vent to a little nationality and to
blend their old traditions with the new-fangled doctrine, and no doubt the
Sovereign Pontiffs thought that the people could never be made to believe
too much; the same policy is practised by the Jesuit missionaries in China,
where in order to flatter the national vanity and bend it to their purposes
they represent Jesus Christ as being a great personal friend and
correspondent of Confucius.

To return to these monarchs, wise men or Magi: their _sculls_ are kept
separate to the rest of the bones and each _scull_ bears a crown of gold.
But if you are fond of miracles, legends, and details of relics, come with
me to the Church of St Ursula in this city, and see the proof positive of
the miraculous legend of the eleven thousand Virgins who suffered martyrdom
in this city, in the time of Attila; the bones of all of whom are carefully
preserved here and adorn the interior walls of the Church in the guise of
arms arranged in an armoury. Eleven thousand sculls, each bearing a golden
or gilt crown, grin horribly on the spectator from the upper part of the
interior walls of the church, where they are placed in a row. What a fine
subject this would make for a ballad in the style of Buerger to suppose that
on a particular night in the year, at the midnight hour when mortals in
slumbers are bound, the bones all descending from the walls where they are
arranged, forming themselves into bodies, clapping on their heads and
dancing a skeleton dance round the Ghost of Attila! The people of Cologne,
in the time of the ecclesiastical Electorate, had the reputation of being
extremely superstitious, and no doubt there were many who implicitly
believe this pious tale; indeed, who could refuse their assent to its
authenticity, on beholding the proof positive in the sculls and bones?

I recollect that in the History of the Compere Mathiew[21] the Pere Jean
rates mightily the natives of Cologne for their bigotry and superstition
and for the bad reception they gave to him and to his philosophy. That
people are happier from a blind belief, as some pretend, appears to me
extremely problematical. For my part, under no circumstances can I think
bliss to consist in ignorance; nor have I felt any particular discomfort in
having learned at a very early age to put under my feet, as Lucretius
expresses it, the _strepitum Acherontis avari_. On the contrary, it has
made me a perfect cosmopolitan, extinguished all absurd national and
religious prejudices, and rendered me at home wherever I travel; and I meet
the Catholic, the Lutheran, the Moslem, the Jew, the Hindou and the Guebre
as a brother. _Quo me cunque ferat tempestas, deferor hospes_.[22] Let me
add one word more to obviate any misrepresentation of my sentiments from
some malignant Pharisee, that tho' I am no friend to King-craft and
Priest-craft, and cannot endure that religion should ever be blended with
politics, yet I am a great admirer of the beautiful and consoling
philosophy or theosophy of Jesus Christ which inculcates the equality of
Mankind, and represents the Creator of the universe, the Author of all
being, as the universal Father of the human race.

Cologne derives its name from _Colonia_, as it was a Roman Colony planted
here to protect the left bank of the Rhine from the incursions of the
German hordes. It is here that the grand and original manufactory of the
far-famed _Eau de Cologne_ is to be seen. The _Eau de Cologne_ is a
sovereign remedy for all kinds of disorders, and if the _affiches_ of the
proprietor, Jean-Marie Farina, be worthy of credit, he is as formidable a
check to old Pluto as ever Aesculapius was. The sale of this water is
immense.

On my return to the inn, I met with a Dutch clergyman who was travelling
with his pupils, three very fine boys, the sons of a Dutch lady of rank. He
was to conduct them to the University of Neuwied, on the right bank of the
Rhine, in order to place them there for their education. The young men seem
to have profited much from their studies. Their tutor seemed to be a
well-informed man and of liberal ideas; he preferred speaking German to
French, as he said he had not much facility in expressing himself in the
latter language. He said if I were going his way he would be happy to have
the pleasure of my company, to which I very willingly acceded, and we
agreed to start the next morning early so as to arrive at Bonn to
breakfast, and then to go on to Godesberg, where he proposed to remain a
few days.

From the windows of our inn we have a fine view of the river, and I have
not omitted doing hommage to old Father Rhine by taking up some of his
water in the hollow of my hand to drink. The Rhine of later years has been
considered the guardian of Germany against the hostile incursions of the
French, and Schiller represents this river as a Swiss vigilant on his post,
yet in spite of his vigilance and fidelity unable to prevent his restless
neighbour from forcing his safeguard. The following are the lines of
Schiller where the river speaks in a distich:

  Treu wie dem Schwfeizer gebuehrt bewach'ich Germaniens Grenze,
  Aber der Gallier huepft ueber den duldenden Strom.

    In vain my stream I interpose
    To guard Germania's realm from foes;
    The nimble Gauls my cares deride
    And often leap on t'other side.


GODESBERG, 4th July.

The distance from Cologne to Bonn is 18 miles and Godesberg is three miles
further. We stopped to breakfast at Bonn and after breakfast made a
promenade thro' the city. Bonn is a handsome, clean, well-built and
cheerful looking city and the houses are good and solid.

The Electoral Palace is a superb building, but is not occupied and is
falling rapidly to decay. From the terrace in the garden belonging to this
Palace, which impends over the Rhine, you have a fine view of this noble
river. This Palace was at one time made use of as a barrack by the French,
and since the secularization of the Ecclesiastical Electorates it has not
been thought worth while to embellish or even repair it. There is a Roman
antiquity in this town called the _Altar of Victory_, erected on the Place
St Remi, but remarkable for nothing but its antiquity; it seems to be a
common Roman altar.[23] The road from Bonn to Godesberg is three miles in
length and thro' a superb avenue of horse-chesnut trees; but before you
arrive at Godesberg, there is on the left side of the road a curious
specimen of Gothic architecture called _Hochkreutz_, very like Waltham
cross in appearance, but much higher and in better preservation; it was
erected by some feudal Baron to expiate a homicide. The castle of Godesberg
is situated on an eminence and commands a fine prospect; it is now a mass
of rums and the walls only remain. It derives its name of Godesberg or
Goetzenberg from the circumstance of its having been formerly the site of a
temple of Minerva built in the time of the Romans, and thence called
Goetzenberg by the Christians, _Goetze_ in German signifying an idol.

On the plain at the foot of the hill of Godesberg and at the distance of an
eighth of a mile from the river, a shelving cornfield intervening, stand
three large hotels and a ridotto, all striking edifices. To the south of
these is situated a large wood. These hotels are always full of company in
the summer and autumn: they come here to drink the mineral waters, a
species of Seltzer, the spring of which is about a quarter of a mile
distant from the hotels. The hotel at which we put up bears the name of
_Die schoene Aussicht_ (la Belle Vue) and well does it deserve the name; for
it commands a fine view of the reaches of the river, north and south.
Directly on the opposite bank, abruptly rising, is the superb and
magnificent chain of mountains called the _Sieben Gebirge_ or Seven
Mountains. On the summit of these mountains tower the remains of Gothic
castles or keeps, still majestic, tho' in ruins, and frowning on the plains
below; they bring to one's recollection the legends and chronicles of the
Middle Ages. They bear terrible awe-inspiring names such as Drachenfels,
Loewenberg; the highest of them is called Drachenfels or the Rock of Dragons
and on it stood the Burg or Chateau of a Feudal Count or _Raubgraf_, who
was the terror of the surrounding country, and has given rise to a very
interesting romance called _The Knights of the Seven Mountains_. This
feudal tyrant used to commit all sorts of depredations and descend into the
plains below, in order to intercept the convoys of merchandize passing
between Aix-la-Chapelle and Frankfort. It was to check these abuses and
oppressions that was instituted the famous Secret Tribunal _Das heimliche
Gericht_, the various Governments in Germany being then too weak to protect
their subjects or to punish these depredations. This secret tribunal, from
the summary punishments it inflicted, the mysterious obscurity in which it
was enveloped, and the impossibility of escaping from its pursuit, became
the terror of all Germany. They had agents and combinations everywhere, and
exercised such a system of espionage as to give to their proceedings an
appearance of supernatural agency. A simple accusation was sufficient for
them to act upon, provided the accuser solemnly swore to the truth of it
without reserve, and consented to undergo the same punishment as the
accused was subjected to, in case the accusation should be false; till this
solemnity was gone through, no pursuit was instituted against the offender.
There was scarcely ever an instance of a false accusation, for it was well
known that no power could screen the delator from the exemplary punishment
that awaited him; and there were no means of escaping from the omniscience
and omnipotence of the secret tribunal.

To return to Godesberg, it is a most beautiful spot and much agreeable
society is here to be met with. The families of distinction of the
environing country come here for the purpose of recreation and drinking the
mineral waters. We sit down usually sixty to dinner, and I observe some
very fine women among them. On Sunday there is a ball at the ridotto. The
promenades in the environs are exceedingly romantic, and this place is the
favourite resort of many new married couples who come here to pass the
honeymoon. The scenery of the surrounding country is so picturesque and
beautiful as to require the pencil of an Ariosto or Wieland to do justice
to it:

  Ne se tutto cercato avessi il mondo
  Vedria di questo un pin gen til paese.[24]

    And, had he ranged the universal world,
    Would not have seen a lovelier in his round.

  --_Trans_. W.S. ROSE.

To the researches of the naturalist and mineralogist the Seven Mountains
offer inexhaustible resources. The living and accommodation of the three
hotels are very reasonable. For one and a half florins you have an
excellent and plentiful dinner at the table d'hote, including a bottle of
Moselle wine and Seltzer water at discretion; by paying extra you can have
the Rhine wines of different growths and crops and French wines of all
sorts.

I am much pleased with the little I have seen of the German women. They
appear to be extremely well educated. I observe many of them in their
morning walks with a book in their hand either of poetry or a novel.
Schiller is the favourite poet among them and Augustus Lafontaine the
favourite novel writer.[25] He is a very agreeable author were he not so
prolix; yet we English have no right to complain of this fault, since there
is no novel in all Germany to compare in point of prolixity with Clarissa,
Sit Charles Grandison, or Tom Jones. The great fault of Augustus Lafontaine
is that of including in one novel the history of two or three generations.
A beautiful and very interesting tale of his, however, is entirely free
from this defect and is founded on a fact. It is called _Dankbarkeit und
Liebe_ (Gratitude and Love). There is more real pathos in this novelette
than in the _Nouvelle Heloise_ of Rousseau.


EHRENBREITSTEIN, 8 July.

After a _sejour_ of three days at Godesberg, we left that delightful
residence and proceeded to Neuwied to deposit the boys. We stopped,
however, for an hour or two at Andernach, which is situated in a beautiful
valley on the left bank. We viewed the remains of the palace of the Kings
of Austrasia and the church where the body of the Emperor Valentinian is
preserved embalmed.

Andernach is remarkable for being the exact spot where Julius Caesar first
crossed the Rhine to make war on the German nations. Directly opposite
Neuwied, which is on the right bank, stands close to the village of
Weissenthurm the monument erected to the French General Hoche. We crossed
over to Neuwied in a boat. Neuwied is a regular, well-built town, but
rather of a sombre melancholy appearance and is only remarkable for its
university. Science could not chuse a more tranquil abode. This University
has been ameliorated lately by its present sovereign the King of Prussia.
It was not the interest of Napoleon to favour any establishment on the
right bank at the expence of those on the left, the former being out of his
territory. At Neuwied I took leave of my agreeable fellow travellers, as
they intended to remain there and I to go on to Ehrenbreitstein. An
opportunity presented itself the same afternoon of which I profited. I met
with an Austrian Captain of Infantry and his lady at the inn where I
stopped who were going to Ehrenbreitstein in their _caleche_, and they were
so kind as to offer me a place in it. I found them both extremely
agreeable; both were from Austria proper. He had left the Austrian service
some time ago and had since entered into the Russian service; from that he
was lately transferred, together with the battalion to which he belonged,
into the service of Prussia and placed on the retired list of the latter
with a very small pension. He did not seem at all satisfied with this
arrangement. He had served in several campaigns against the French in
Germany, Italy and France, and was well conversant in French and Italian
litterature.

We stopped _en passant_ at a _maison de plaisance_ and superb English
garden belonging to the Duke of Nassau-Weilburg. The house is in the style
of a cottage _orne_, but very roomy and tastefully fitted up; but nothing
can be more diversified and picturesque than the manner in which the garden
is laid out. The ground being much broken favours this; and in one part of
it is a ravine or valley so romantic and savage, that you would fancy
yourself in Tinian or Juan Fernandez. We arrived late in the evening in the
Thal Ehrenbreitstein, which lies at the foot of the gigantic hill fortress
of that name, which frowns over it and seems as if it threatened to fall
and crush it. My friends landed me at the inn _Zum weissen Pferd_ (the
White Horse), where there is most excellent accommodation. Just opposite
Ehrenbreitstein, on the left bank, is Coblentz; a superb flying bridge,
which passes in three minutes, keeps up the communication between the two
towns.

Early the next morning, I ascended the stupendous rock of Ehrenbreitstein,
which has a great resemblance to the hill forts in India, such as Gooty,
Nundydroog, etc. It is a place of immense natural strength, but the
fortifications were destroyed by the French, who did not chuse to have so
formidable a neighbour so close to their frontier, as the Rhine then was.
The Prussian Government, however, to whom it now belongs, seem too fully
aware of its importance not to reconstruct the fortifications with as
little delay as possible. Ehrenbreitstein completely commands all the
adjacent country and enfilades the embouchure of the Moselle which flows
into the Rhine at Coblentz, where there is an elegant stone bridge across
the Moselle. Troops without intermission continue to pass over the flying
bridge bound to France, from the different German states, viz., Saxons,
Hessians, Prussians, etc., so that one might apply to this scene Anna
Comnena's expression relative to the Crusades, and say that all Germany is
torn up from its foundation and precipitated upon France. I suppose no less
than 70,000 men have passed within these few days. The German papers,
particularly the _Rheinische Mercur_, continue to fulminate against France
and the war yell resounds with as much fury as ever. From the number of
troops that continue to pass it would seem as if the Allies did not mean to
content themselves with the abdication of Napoleon, but will endeavour to
dismember France. The Prussian officers seem to speak very confidently that
Alsace and Lorraine will be severed from France and reunited to the
Germanic body, to which, they say, every country ought to belong where the
German language is spoken, and they are continually citing the words of an
old song:


  Wo ist das deutsche Vaterland?....
  Wo man die deutsche Zunge spricht,
  Da ist das deutsche Vaterland.[26]

In English: "Where is the country of the Germans? Where the German language
is spoken, there is the country of the Germans!"

Coblentz is a clean handsome city, but there is nothing very remarkable in
it except a fine and spacious "Place." But in the neighbourhood stands the
_Chartreuse_, situated on an eminence commanding a fine view of the whole
_Thalweg_. This _Chartreuse_ is one English mile distant from the town and
my friend the Austrian Captain had the goodness to conduct me thither. It
is a fine large building, but is falling rapidly to decay, being
appropriated to no purpose whatever. The country is beautiful in the
environs of this place, and has repeatedly called forth the admiration and
delight of all travellers. Near Coblentz is the monument erected to the
French General Marceau, who fell gloriously fighting for the cause of
liberty, respected by friend and foe.


July 10th.

We had a large society this day at the table d'hote. The conversation
turned on the restoration of the Bourbons, which nobody at table seemed to
desire. Several anecdotes were related of the conduct of the Bourbon
princes and of the emigration, who held their court at Coblentz when they
first emigrated; these anecdotes did not redound much to their honor or
credit, and I remark that they are held in great disgust and abhorrence by
the inhabitants of these towns, on account of their treacherous and
unprincipled conduct. It was from here that "La Cour de Coblentz," as it
was called, intrigued by turns with the Jacobins and the Brissotins and, by
betraying the latter to the former, were in part the cause of the
sanguinary measures adopted by Robespierre.[27] The object of this
atrocious policy was that the French people would, by witnessing so many
executions, become disgusted at the sanguinary tyranny of Robespierre and
recall the Bourbons unconditionally; which, fortunately for France and
thanks to the heroism and bravery of the republican armies, did not take
place; for had the restoration taken place at that time, a dreadful
reaction would have been encouraged and the cruelties of the reign of
Terror surpassed. With the same view, emissaries were dispatched from the
Court of Coblentz to the South of France in order, under the disguise of
patriots, to preach up the most exaggerated corollaries to the theories of
liberty and equality.

Among other things at Ehrenbreitstein is a superb pleasure barge belonging
to the Dukes of Nassau for water excursions up and down the Rhine. A _coche
d'eau_ starts from here daily to Mayence and another to Cologne. The price
is ten franks the person. The superb _chaussee on_ the left bank of the
Rhine, which extends all the way from Cologne to Mayence, was constructed
by the direction of Napoleon. In the evening I went to the theatre at
Coblentz, where Mozart's opera of Don Giovanni was represented. I
recollected my old acquaintance "La ci darem la mano," which I had often
heard in England.


MAYENCE, 12th July.

I embarked in the afternoon of the 11th in the _coche d'eau_ bound to
Mayence. Except an old "Schiffer," I was the only passenger on board, as
few chuse to go up stream on account of the delay. I, however, being master
of my own time, and wishing to view the lovely scenery on the banks of the
river, preferred this conveyance, and I was highly gratified. After
Boppart, the bed of the river narrows much. High rocks on each bank hem in
the stream and render it more rapid. Nothing can be more sublime and
magnificent than the scenery; at every turn of the river you would suppose
its course blocked up by rocks, perceiving no visible outlet. Remains of
Gothic castles are to be seen on their summits at a short distance from
each other, and where the banks are not abrupt and _escarpes_ there are
_coteaux_ covered with vines down to the water's edge. The tolling of the
bells at the different villages on the banks gives a most aweful solemn
religious sound, and the reverberation is prolonged by the high rocks,
which seem to shut you out from the rest of the world. There are the walls
nearly entire of two castles of the Middle Ages, the one called "Die Katze"
(the cat); the other "Die Maus" (the Mouse); each has its tradition, for
which and for many other interesting particulars I refer you to Klebe's and
Schreiber's description of the banks of the Rhine.

We arrived early in the evening at St Goar, where we stopped and slept. St
Goar is a fine old Gothic town, romantically situated, and is famous from
having two whirlpools in its neighbourhood. It is completely commanded and
protected by Rheinfels, an ancient hill fortress, but the fortification of
which no longer exist. It requires half an hour's walk to ascend to the
summit of Rheinfels, but the traveller is well repaid for the fatigue of
the ascent by the fine view enjoyed from the top. I remained at Rheinfels
nearly an hour. What a solemn stillness seems to pervade this part of the
river, only interrupted by the occasional splash of the oar, and the
tolling of the steeple bell! Bingen on the right bank is the next place of
interest, and on an island in the centre of the river facing Bingen stand
the ruins of a celebrated tower call'd the "Mauesethurm" (mouse tower), so
named from the circumstance of Bishop Hatto having been devoured therein by
rats according to the tradition. This was represented as a punishment from
Heaven on the said bishop for his tyranny and oppression towards the poor;
but the story was invented by the monks in order to vilify his memory, for
it appears he was obnoxious to them on account of his attempts to enforce a
rigid discipline among them and to check their licentiousness.

Bieberich, a superb palace belonging to the Dukes of Nassau on the right
bank, next presents itself to view on your left ascending; to your right,
at a short distance from Bieberich, you catch the first view of Mayence on
the left bank, with its towers and steeples rising from the glade. We
reached Mayence at 4 o'clock p.m., and I went to put up at the three Crowns
(_Drei-Kronen_). The first news I learned on arriving at Mayence was that
Napoleon had surrendered himself to the Captain of an English frigate at
Oleron; but though particulars are not given, Louis XVIII is said to be
restored, which I am very sorry to hear. The Allies then have been guilty
of the most scandalous infraction of their most solemn promise, since they
declared that they made war on Napoleon alone and that they never meant to
dictate to the French people the form of government they were to adopt.
Napoleon having surrendered and Louis being restored, the war may be
considered as ended for the present, unless the Allies should attempt to
wrest any provinces from France, and in this case there is no saying what
may happen. This has finally ended the career of Napoleon.

There is in Mayence a remarkably fine broad spacious street called "die
grosse Bleiche" and in general the buildings are striking and solid, but
too much crowded together as is the case in all ancient fortified cities.
The Cathedral is well worth seeing and contains many things of value and
costly relics. When one views the things of value in the churches here, at
Aix-la-Chapelle and at Cologne, what a contradiction does it give to the
calumnies spread against the French republicans that they plundered the
churches of the towns they occupied! There is an agreeable promenade lined
with trees on the banks of the river called _L'Allee du Rhin._ Mayence is
strongly fortified and has besides a citadel (a pentagon) of great
strength, which is separated from the town by an esplanade. The _Place du
Marche_ is striking and in the _Place Verte_ I saw for the first time in my
life the Austrian uniform, there being an Austrian garrison as well as
troops belonging to the other Germanic states, such as Prussians,
Bavarians, Saxons, Hessians, and troops of the Duchy of Berg. This City
belongs to the Germanic Confederation and is to be always occupied by a
mixed garrison. The Archduke Charles has his head-quarters here at present.
I attended an inspection of a battalion of Berg troops on the _Place
Verte_; they had a very military appearance and went thro' their manoeuvres
with great precision. From the top of the steeple of the Church of Sanct
Stephen you have a fine view of the whole Rheingau. Opposite to Mayence, on
the right bank, communicating by an immensely long bridge of boats, is the
small town and fort of Castel, which forms a sort of _tete-de-pont_ to
Mayence. The works of Castel take in flank and enfilade the embouchure of
the river Mayn which flows into the Rhine. One of the redoubts of Castel is
called the redoubt of Montebello, thus named after Marshal Lannes, Duke of
Montebello.

The German papers continue their invectives against France. In one of them
I read a patriotic song recommending the youth of Germany to go into France
to revenge themselves, to drink the wine and live at the cost of the
inhabitants, and then is about to recommend their making love to the wives
and daughters of the French, when a sudden flash of patriotism comes across
him, and he says: "No! for that a German warrior makes love to German girls
and German women only!" (_Und kuesst nur Deutsche Maedchen._) With regard to
the women here, those that I have hitherto met with, and those I saw at
Ehrenbreitstein, were exceedingly handsome, so that the German warriors, if
love is their object, will do well to remain here, as they may go further
and fare worse, for I understand the women of Lorraine and Champagne are
not very striking for personal beauty. There were some good paintings in
the picture gallery here and this and the fortifications are nearly all
that need call forth the attention of a traveller who makes but a fleeting
visit.


FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAYN, 14th July.

I arrived here the day before yesterday in the diligence from Mayence, the
price of which is two and a half florins the person, and the distance
twenty-five English miles; there is likewise a water conveyance by the Mayn
for half the money. The road runs thro' the village of Hockheim, which in
England gives the name of _Hock_ to all the wines of Rhenish growth. The
country is undulating in gentle declivities and vales and is highly
cultivated in vines and corn. I put up here at the _Hotel Zum Schwan_ (The
Swan), which is a very large and spacious hotel and has excellent
accommodation. There is a very excellent table d'hote at one o'clock at
this hotel, for which the price is one and a half florins the person,
including a pint of Moselle wine and a _krug_ or jar of Seltzer water.
About four or five o'clock in the afternoon it is the fashion to come and
drink old Rhine wine _a l'Anglaise_. That sort called _Rudesheimer_ I
recommend as delicious. There is also a very pleasant wine called the
_Ingelheimer_, which is in fact the "red Hock." At one of these afternoon
meetings a gentleman who had just returned from Paris related to us some
anecdotes of what passed at the Conference between the French commissioners
who were sent after the abdication of Napoleon, by the provisional
government, to treat with the Allies; in which it appeared that the British
commissioner, Lord S[tewart],[28] brother to the Secretary of State for
Foreign Affairs, made rather a simple figure by his want of historical
knowledge or recollection. He began, it seems, in rather a bullying manner,
in the presence of the commissioners, to declaim against what he called the
perfidy and mutiny of the French army against their lawful Sovereign; when
the venerable Lafayette, who was one of the commissioners and who is ever
foremost when his country has need of his assistance, remarked to him that
the English revolution in 1688, which the English were accustomed always to
stile glorious, and which he (Lafayette) stiled glorious also, was
effectuated in a similar manner by the British army abandoning King James
and ranging themselves under the standard of the Prince of Orange; that if
it was a crime on the part of the French army to join Napoleon, their
ancient leader who had led them so often to victory, it was a still greater
crime on the part of the English army to go over to the Prince of Orange
who was unknown to them and a foreigner in the bargain; and that therefore
this blame of the French army, coming from the mouth of an Englishman,
surprised him, the more so as the Duke of Marlborough, the boast and pride
of the English, set the example of defection from his Sovereign, who had
been his greatest benefactor. Lord S[tewart], who did not appear to be at
all conscious of this part of our history, was staggered, a smile was
visible on the countenances of all the foreign diplomatists assembled
there, and Lord S[tewart], to hide his confusion, and with an ill-disguised
anger, turned to Lafayette and said that the Allies would not treat until
Napoleon should be delivered to them. "Je m'etonne, my lord, qu'en faisant
une proposition si infame et si deshonorante, vous vous plaisez de vous
adresser au prisonnier d'Olmuetz," was the dignified answer of that virtuous
patriot and ever ardent veteran of liberty.[29]

The main street in Frankfort called the _Zeil_ is very broad and spacious,
and can boast of a number of splendid houses belonging to individuals,
particularly the house of Schweitzer[30]; and on the Quai, on the banks of
the Mayn, there is a noble range of buildings. The bridge across the Mayn
is very fine and on the other side of the river is the suburb of
Sachsenhansen, which is famous for being the head-quarters of the
priestesses of the Venus vulgivaga who abound in this city. There are in
Frankfort an immense number of Jews, who have a quarter of the city
allotted to them. The gardens that environ the town are very tastefully
laid out, and serve as the favourite promenade of the _beau monde_ of
Frankfort. The Cathedral will always be a place of interest as the temple
wherein in later times the German Caesars were crowned and inaugurated. At
the _Hotel de Ville_ called the _Roemer_, which is an ugly Gothic building,
but interesting from its being in this edifice that the Emperors were
chosen, is to be seen the celebrated Golden Bull which is written on
parchment in the Latin language with a golden seal attached to it. In the
Hall where the Electors used to sit on the election of an Emperor of the
Romans, are to be seen the portraits of several of the Emperors, and a very
striking one in particular of the Emperor Joseph II, in full length, in his
Imperial robes. There is no table d'hote at the _Swan_ for supper, but this
meal is served up _a la carte_, which is very convenient for those who do
not require copious meals. At the same table with me at supper sat a very
agreeable man with whom I entered into conversation. He was a Hessian and
had served in a Hessian battalion in the English service during the
American war. He was so kind as to procure me admission to the Casino at
the Hotel Rumpf,[31] where there is a literary institution and where they
receive newspapers, pamphlets and reviews in the German, French, English
and Italian languages. In Frankfort there are several houses of individuals
which merit the name of palaces, and there is a great display of opulence
and industry in this city. In the environs there is abundance of _maisons
de plaisance_. For commerce it is the most bustling city (inland) in all
Germany, besides it being the seat of the present German Diet; and from
here, as from a centre, diverge the high roads to all parts of the Empire.

I have been once at the theatre, which is very near the _Swan_. A German
opera, the scene whereof was in India, was given. The scenery and
decorations were good, appropriate, and the singing very fair. The theatre
itself is dirty and gloomy. The German language appears to me to be better
adapted to music than either the French or English. The number of dactylic
terminations in the language give to it all the variety that the
_sdruccioli_ give to the Italian. As to poetry, no language in the world
suits itself better to all the vagaries and phantasies of the Muse, since
it possesses so much natural rythm and allows, like the Greek, the
combination of compound words and a redundancy of epithets, and it is
besides so flexible that it lends itself to all the ancient as well as the
modern metres with complete success: indeed it is the only modern language
that I know of which does so.

As for political opinions here, the Germans seem neither to wish nor to
care about the restoration of the Bourbons; but they talk loudly of the
necessity of tearing Alsace and Lorraine from France. In fact, they wish to
put it out of the power of the French ever to invade Germany again; a thing
however little to be hoped for. For the minor and weaker Germanic states
have always hitherto (and will probably again at some future day) invoked
the assistance of France against the greater and stronger. I observe that
the Austrian Government is not at all popular here, and that its bad faith
in financial matters is so notorious and has been so severely felt here,
that a merchant told me, alluding to the bankruptcy of the Austrian
Government on two occasions when there was no absolute necessity for the
measure, that Frankfort had suffered more from the bad faith of the
Austrian Government than from all the war contributions levied by the
French.


BRUXELLES, 28th July.

On arrival at Coblentz we heard that Napoleon had surrendered himself
unconditionally to Capt. Maitland of the _Bellerophon_. He never should
have humiliated himself so far as to surrender himself to the British
ministry. He owed to himself, to his brave fellow soldiers, to the French
nation whose Sovereign he had been, not to take such a step, but rather die
in the field like our Richard III, a glorious death which cast a lustre
around his memory in spite of the darker shades of his character; or if he
could not fall in the field, he should have died like Hannibal, rather than
commit himself into the hands of a government in which generosity is by no
means a distinguishing feature, and which on many occasions has shown a
petty persecuting and vindictive spirit, and thus I have no hesitation in
portraying the characteristics of our Tory party, which, unfortunately for
the cause of liberty, rules with undivided sway over England. He will now
end his days in captivity, for his destination appears to be already fixed,
and St Helena is named as the intended residence; he will, I say, be
exposed to all the taunts and persecutions that petty malice can suggest;
and this with the most uncomfortable reflections: for had he been more
considerate of the spirit of the age, he might have set all the Monarchs,
Ultras and Oligarchs and their ministers at defiance. But he wished to ape
Charlemagne and the Caesars and to establish an universal Empire: a thing
totally impossible in our days and much to be deprecated were it possible.

Consigned to St Helena, Napoleon will furnish to posterity a proverb like
that of Dionysius at Corinth. This banishment to St Helena will be very
ungenerous and unjust on the part of the English Government, but I suppose
their satellites and adherents will term it an act of clemency, and some
_Church and Kingmen_ would no doubt recommend hewing him in pieces, as
Samuel did to Agag.

I stopped three days at Aix-la-Chapelle to drink the waters and then came
straight to this place stopping half a day in Liege. I shall start for
Paris in a couple of days, as the communication is now open and the public
conveyances re-established. My passport is _vise_ in the following terms:
"Bon pour aller a Paris en suivant la route des armees alliees." I am quite
impatient to visit that celebrated city.


[18] Philipp Klingmann (1762-1824) was better known as an actor than as an
    author.--ED.

[19] Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_, VII, 12, 1.--ED.

[20] "What business have you? None, I travel for amusement. Strange! What
    is there strange in travelling to see a fine country?"

[21] _Le Compere Mathieu_, a satirical novel by the Abbe Henri Joseph
    Dulaurens, published 1765 and sometimes (though wrongly) attributed to
    Voltaire. One of the prominent talkers in the dialogues is Pere Jean
    de Domfront.--ED.

[22] Horace, _Epist_., I, i, 15.--ED.

[23] This altar, inscribed _Deae Victoriae Sacrum (Corpus inscr. lat_.
    XIII, 8252), was erected by the Roman fleet on the Rhine at the place
    now called _Altsburg_ near Cologne and, after its discovery, taken to
    Bonn, where it was set up on the _Remigius-Platz_ (now called
    _Roemer-Platz_) on Dec, 3, 1809. It is now in the Provincial
    Museum.--ED.

[24] Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_, vi, 20, 3.--ED.

[25] August Lafontaine (1758-1831), born in Brunswick of a family of French
    protestants, was the very prolific and now quite forgotten author of
    many novels and novelettes.--ED.

[26] From Ernst Moritz Arndt's (1779-1860) celebrated poem, _Des Deutschen
    Vaterland_.--ED.

[27] There seems to be much truth in this opinion, though the question of
    the intrigues of Louis XVIII with Robespierre is still shrouded in
    obscurity. Some pages of General Thiebault's memoirs might have
    cleared it up, but they have been torn out from the manuscript
    (_Memoires du General Baron Thiebault_, vol. I, p. 273). Louis XVIII
    paid a pension to Robespierre's sister, Charlotte.--ED.

[28] Sir Charles Stewart, created Lord Stewart In 1814; he was a
    half-brother of Lord Castlereagh.--ED.

[29] The same story is given, with slight differences, by Lafayette himself
    (_Memoires_, vol. V, p. 472-3; Paris and Leipzig, 1838). See also
    _Souvenirs historiques et parlementaires du Comte de Pontecoulant_,
    vol. III, p. 428 (Paris, 1863). Major Frye's narrative is by far the
    oldest and seems the most trustworthy.--ED.

[30] The house in question was built about 1780 by Nicolas de Pigage for
    the rich merchant, Franz von Schweizer; Pigage was the son of the
    architect of King Stanislas at Nancy. The Schweizer palace became
    later on the _Hotel de Russie_ and was demolished about 1890, the
    Imperial Post Office having been erected in its place. The Schweizer
    family is now extinct.--ED.

[31] A _Casinogesellschaft_, still in existence (1908), was founded at
    Frankfort in 1805, with the object of uniting the aristocratic
    elements of the city, admittance being freely allowed to distinguished
    strangers, in particular to the envoys of the _Bundestag_. The
    _Gesellschaft_ or club occupied spacious rooms in the house of the
    once famous _tapissier_ and decorator Major Rumpf, grandfather of the
    German sculptor of the same name. That building, situated at the
    corner of the _Rossmarkt_, was demolished about 1880.--ED.




CHAPTER III

From Bruxelles to Paris--Restoration of Louis XVIII--The officers of the
allied armies--The Palais Royal--The Louvre--Protest of the author against
the proposed despoiling of the French Museums--Unjust strictures against
Napoleon's military policy--The _cant_ about revolutionary robberies--The
Grand Opera--Monuments in Paris--The Champs Elysees--Saint-Cloud--The Hotel
des Invalides--The Luxembourg--General Labedoyere--Priests and
emigrants--Prussian Plunder--Handsome behaviour of the English officers--
Reminiscences of Eton--Versailles.


PARIS, August 3rd.

Here I am in Paris. I left Bruxelles the 29th July, stopped one night at
Mons and passing thro' Valenciennes, Peronne and St Quentin arrived here on
the third day. The villages and towns on the road had been pretty well
stripped of eatables by the Allied army, as well as by the French, so that
we did not meet with the best fare. In every village the white flag was
displayed by way of propitiating the clemency of the Allies and averting
plunder.


August 7th.

I have put up at the _Hotel de Cahors_, Rue de Richelieu, where I pay five
francs per diem for a single room; such is the dearness of lodgings at this
moment. It is well furnished, however, with sofas, commodes, mirrors and a
handsome clock and is very spacious withal, there being an alcove for the
bed. This situation is extremely convenient, being close to the Palais
Royal, Rue St Honore, Theatre Francais, Louvre and the Tuileries on one
side, and to the Grand Opera, the Theatre Feydeau, the Italian Opera and
the Boulevards on the other. The National Library is not many yards distant
from my hotel, and a few yards from that _en face_ is the Grand Opera house
or _Academie Royale de Musique_.

This city is filled with officers and travellers of all kinds who have
followed the army. The House of Legislature of the Hundred Days,--as it is
the fashion to style Napoleon's last reign--dissolved themselves on the
demand of a million of francs as a war contribution made by Marshall
Blucher. Louis XVIII has been hustled into Paris, and now occupies the
throne of his ancestors under the protection of a million of foreign
bayonets, and the _banniere des Lis_ has replaced the tricolor on the
castle of the Tuileries. A detachment of the British army occupies
Montmartre, where the British flag is flying, and in the Champs Elysees and
Bois de Boulogne are encamped several brigades of English and Hanoverians.
The Sovereigns of Russia, Austria and Prussia are expected and then it is
said that the fate of France will be decided. The Army of the Loire has at
length made its submission to the King, after stipulating but in vain for
the beloved tricolor. Report says it is to be immediately dissolved and a
new army raised with more legitimate inclinations. Should the King accede
to this, France will be completely disarmed and at the mercy of the Allies,
and the King himself a state prisoner. The entrance into Paris, thro' the
Faubourg St Denis, does not give to the stranger who arrives there for the
first time a great idea of the magnificence of Paris; he should enter by
the Avenue de Neuilly or by the Porte St Antoine, both of which are very
striking and superb.

Now you must not expect that I shall or can give you a description of all
the fine things that I have seen or am about to see, for they have been so
often described before that it would be a perfect waste of time, and I can
do better in referring you at once to the _Guide des Voyageurs a Paris_; so
that I shall content myself with merely indicating these objects which make
the most impression on me.

My first visit was, as you will have no doubt guessed, to the Palais Royal:
there I breakfasted, there I dined, and there I passed the whole day
without the least _ennui_. It is a world in itself. It swarms at present
with officers of the Allied army. The variety of uniforms adds to the
splendour and novelty of the scene. The restaurants and cafes are filled
with them. The Palais Royal is certainly the temple of animal
gratification, the paradise of gastronomes. The officers are indulging in
all sorts of luxury, revelling in Champaign and Burgundy, in all the
pleasures of the belly, as well as _in iis quae sub ventre sunt_. 'Twill be
a famous harvest for the restaurateurs and for the Cyprians who parade up
and down the Arcades, sure of a constant succession of suitors. In fact,
whatever be the taste of a man, whether sensual or intellectual or both, he
can gratify himself here without moving out of the precincts of the Palais
Royal. Here are cafes, restaurants, shops of all kinds whose display of
clocks, jewellery, stuffs, silks, merchandize from all parts of the world,
is most brilliant and dazzling; here you find reading-rooms where
newspapers, reviews and pamphlets of all tongues, nations and languages are
to be met with; here are museums of paintings, statues, plans in relief,
cosmoramas; here are libraries, gaming houses, houses of fair reception;
cellars where music, dancing and all kinds of orgies are carried on;
exhibitions of all sorts, learned pigs, dancing dogs, military canary
birds, hermaphrodites, giants, dwarf jugglers from Hindostan, catawbas from
America, serpents from Java, and crocodiles from the Nile. Here, so
Kotzebue has calculated, you may go through all the functions of life in
one day and end it afterwards should you be so inclined. You may eat,
drink, sleep, bathe, go to the _Cabinet d'aisance_, walk, read, make love,
game and, should you be tired of life, you may buy powder and ball or opium
to hasten your journey across Styx; or should you desire a more classic
_exit_, you may die like Seneca opening your veins in a bath. Deep play
goes forward day and night, and I verily believe there are some persons in
Paris who never quit these precincts. The restaurants and cafes are most
brilliantly fitted up. One, _Le Cafe des Mille Colonnes_, so called from
the reflection of the columns in the mirrors with which the wainscoat is
lined, boasts of a _limonadiere_ of great beauty. She is certainly a fine
woman, dresses very well, as indeed most French women do, and has a
remarkably fine turned arm which she takes care to display on all
occasions. I do not, however, perceive much animation in her; she always
appears the same, nor has she made any more impression on me--tho' I am of
a very susceptible nature in this particular--than a fine statue or picture
would do. There she sits on a throne and receives the hommage and
compliments of most of the visitors and the money of all, which seems to
please her most, for she receives the compliments which are paid her with
the utmost _sang-froid_ and indifference, and the money she takes especial
care to count. English troops, conjointly with the National Guard, do duty
at the entrance of the Palais Royal from the Rue St Honore; and it became
necessary to have a strong guard to keep the peace, as frequent disputes
take place between the young men of the Capital and the Prussian officers,
against whom the French are singularly inveterate.

The French, when left to themselves, are very peaceable in their pleasures
and the utmost public decorum is observed; their sobriety contributes much
to this; but if there were in London an establishment similar to that of
the Palais Royal, it would become a perfect pandemonium and would require
an army to keep the peace. The French police keep a very sharp look-out on
all political offences, but are more indulgent towards all moral ones, as
long as public decorum is not infringed, and then it is severely punished.
But they have none of that censoriousness or prying spirit in France which
is so common in England to hunt out and criticise the private vices of
their neighbours, which, in my opinion, does not proceed from any real
regard for virtue, but from a fanatical, jealous, envious, and malignant
spirit. Those vice-hunters never have the courage to attack a man of wealth
and power; but a poor artisan or labourer, who buys a piece of meat after
twelve o'clock on Saturday night, or a glass of spirits during church-time
on Sunday, is termed a Sabbath-breaker and imprisoned without mercy.

In the Palais Royal the three most remarkable temples of dissipation are
Very's for gastronomes, Robert's faro bank for gamesters, and the Cafe
Montausier for those devoted to the fair sex. The Cafe Montausier is fitted
up in the guise of a theatre where music, singing and theatrical pieces are
given; you pay nothing for admission, but are expected to call for some
refreshment. It is splendidly illuminated, and is the Cafe _par
excellence_, frequented by those ladies who have made the opposite choice
to that of Hercules, and who, taking into consideration the shortness and
uncertainty of life, dedicate it entirely to pleasure, reflecting that

  Laggiu nell' Inferno,
  Nell' obblio sempiterno,
  In sempiterno orrore,
  Non si parla d'amore.

Of course, this saloon is crowded with amateurs, and the Prussians and
English are not the least ardent votaries of the Goddess of Paphos; many a
vanquished victor sinks oppressed with wine and love on the breast of a
Dalilah: this last comparison suggests itself to me from the immense
quantity of hair worn by the Prussians, as if their strength, like that of
Samson's, depended on their _chevelure_. There is a very pretty graceful
girl who attends here and at the different restaurants and cafes with an
assortment of bijouterie and other knick-knacks to sell. She is full of wit
and repartee; but her answer to all those who attempt to squeeze her hand
and make love to her is always: "_Achetez quelque chose._" Her name is
Celine and she has a great flow of conversation on all subjects but that of
love, which she invariably cuts short by "_Achetez quelque chose._"



10th August.

I have been to see the Museum of sculpture and painting in the Louvre, but
what is to be seen there baffles all description:

  Se tante lingue avessi e tante voci
  Quanti occhi il cielo o quante arene il mare
  Non basterian a dir le lodi immense.

The _Apollo Belvedere_, the _Venus de Medici_ and the _Laocoon_ first
claimed my attention, and engaged me for at least an hour and a half before
I could direct my attention to the other masterpieces. I admire indeed the
_Laocoon_, still more the _Venus_, but the _Apollo_ certainly bears away
the palm and I fully participate of all Winkelmann's enthusiasm for that
celebrated statue. The _Venus_ is a very beautiful woman, but the _Apollo_
is a god. One is lost, and one's imagination is bewildered when one enters
into the halls of sculpture of this unparalleled collection, amidst the
statues of Gods, Demi-Gods, Heroes, Philosophers, Poets, Roman Emperors,
Statesmen and all the illustrious worthies that adorned the Greek and Roman
page. What subjects for contemplation! A chill of awe and veneration
pervaded my whole frame when I first entered into that glorious temple of
the Arts. I felt as I should were I admitted among supernatural beings, or
as if I had "shuffled off this mortal coil" and were suddenly ushered into
the presence of the illustrious tenants of another world; in fact, I felt
as if Olympus and the whole Court of Immortals were open to my view. No! I
cannot describe these things, I can only feel them; I throw down the pen
and call upon expressive silence to muse their praise.

Of the Picture Gallery too what can I say that can possibly give you an
idea of its variety and extent? Here are the finest works of the Italian,
Flemish, and French schools, and you are as much embarrassed to single out
the favourite object, as the Grand Signor would be, among six or seven
hundred of the most beautiful women in the world, to make his choice. The
only fault I find in this collection is that there were rather too many
Scripture pieces, Crucifixions, Martyrdoms and allegorical pictures, and
too few from historical or mythological subjects. Yet perhaps I am wrong in
classing the Scripture pieces with Martyrdoms, Crucifixions, Grillings of
Saints and Madonnas; there are very many beautiful episodes in the
Scriptures which would furnish admirable subjects for painters. Why then
have they chosen disgusting subjects such as Judith sawing off Holofernes'
head, Siserah's head nailed to the bedpost, John the Baptist's on a
trencher, etc.? But the pictures representing Martyrdoms are too revolting
to the eye and should not be placed in this Museum.

It is reported that the Allies mean to strip this Museum [of sculpture and
painting]. No! it cannot be, they never surely can be guilty of such an act
of Vandalism and contemptible spite. I am aware that there is a great
clamour amongst a certain description of English for restoring these
statues and pictures to the countries from whence they came, and that it is
the fashion to term the translation of them to Paris a revolutionary
robbery; but let us bring these gentlemen to a calm reasoning on the
subject.

The statues and paintings in question belonged either to Governments at war
with France, or to individuals inhabiting those countries; now, with
respect to individuals, I will venture to affirm, on the best authority,
that the property of no individual was taken from him without an
equivalent. Those who had statues and pictures of value and wished to sell
them, received their full value from the French Government, but there was
no force used on the occasion; in fact, many who were in want of money were
rejoiced at the opportunity of selling, as they could never have otherwise
disposed of those valuable articles to individuals at the same price that
the French Government gave. I recollect a day or two ago being in
conversation with a Milanese on this subject and others connected with the
occupation of Italy by the French. I happened to mention that the conquest
of Italy by the Republican armies must have been attended with confiscation
of property; he assured me that no such thing as confiscation of property
took place; that so far from being the losers by the French invasion and
the establishment of their system, they had on the contrary been
considerable gainers, for that the country flourished under their
domination in a manner before unknown, and that one of the greatest
advantages attendant on the occupation was the establishment of an equality
of weight and measures, the decimal division of the coin, the introduction
of an admirable code of laws free'd from all barbarisms--legal, political
and theological--and intelligible to all classes, so that there was no
occasion to cite old authors and go back for three or four hundred years to
hunt out authorities and precedents for what men of sense could determine
at once by following the dictates of their own judgment.

With respect to the statues and pictures belonging to the different
governments of Italy, it must never be forgotten that these governments
made war against the French Revolution either openly or insidiously, and
did their utmost to aid the coalition to crush the infant liberties of
France. Those who did not act openly did so covertly and indirectly; in
short, from their tergiversations and intrigues, they had no claim whatever
on the mercy of the conquerors, who treated them with a great deal of
clemency. The destruction of these governments was loudly called for by the
people themselves, who looked on the French as their deliverers.

It will be admitted, I believe, that it is and has been the custom on the
continent, in all wars, for all parties to levy war contributions on the
conquered or occupied countries; but Buonoparte thought it more glorious
for the French name to take works of art instead of money; and not a statue
or picture was taken from the vanquished governments except by a solemn
treaty of cession, or given in lieu of contributions at the option of the
owners, and the Princes were very glad to give up their pictures and
statues, which the most of them did not know how to appreciate, in lieu of
money which they were all anxious to keep; and on these articles a fair
value was fixed by competent judges. In this manner did the French become
the possessors of these valuable objects of art, and in this manner was the
noble Museum in Paris filled up, and surely nothing could be more generous
and liberal than the use made of the Museum by the French Government;
foreigners were indeed more favoured than the inhabitants themselves. To
the inhabitants of Paris this Museum is open twice a week; but to
foreigners on producing their passports, it is open every day in the week
all the year round; artists of all nations are allowed, during a certain
number of hours each day, to come to copy the statues and pictures which
suit their taste; and stoves are lighted for their accommodation during
winter, and all this gratis.--Now, before these objects of art were
collected here, they were distributed, some in churches, and some in
Government palaces. To see the first, required a specific introduction to
the owner; to see the second, application to the attendants of the churches
became necessary, and for both these you were required to pay fees to the
servants and church-attendants, who are always impatient to take your fee
and hurry you through the apartments or chapels, scarcely giving you time
to examine anything. To be admitted into the Government palaces was a
matter of favour, and here also fees were required.[32] Here in the Louvre
there is no introduction required; no court to be paid to _major-domos_, no
favour; it is open to all classes, high and low, without exception, and no
money is allowed to be given.

But there are some people, in their ridiculous fury against the French
Revolution, who would fain persuade us that before that epoch there was a
golden age on the earth, that there were no acts of violence committed, no
frauds practised, no property injured, no individuals ill-used; that every
Prince governed like Numa; that every noble was a Bayard, and every priest
like a primitive apostle. Why I need go no further than the Seven Years'
war to show that in that war, during the height of European civilisation,
and carried on between the most polished nations in Europe, there were much
more acts of violence and rapine carried on than ever were done by the
French republicans. I by no means wish to excuse or even palliate the acts
of ferocity which took place at that epoch of the French Revolution called
the reign of Terror, which were executed by a people wrought up to frenzy
by a recollection of their wrongs; and I know too well that many virtuous
individuals fell victims to their indiscriminating fury; but I do believe
and aver that much more clamour was made at the execution of a handful of
corrupt courtiers, intriguing and profligate women of quality and worthless
priests, than all the rest put together.

To return to the Seven Years' war (I may be permitted to take this
retrospect, I hope, since it is the fashion, and those who differ with me
in opinions go much farther back than I do), let the French royalists and
emigrants recollect the confiscation of property and barbarity exercised by
Marshall Richelieu in Hanover, where many families were reduced to beggary.
They may not chuse to recollect this; but the Hanoverians do and they have
not forgotten the _Pavillon de Hanovre_, so called by the wits of the time
from its having been built by the Marshall with money arising from the
spoils of Hanover; will they recollect also the harsh treatment inflicted
on the burghers and citizens of a town in Germany, who were shut up in a
room and kept without food or drink for nearly three days because they
would not consent to fix a heavy and unwarrantable contribution on their
fellow citizens; when these unhappy but virtuous men were only allowed to
go out for the necessities of nature attended by sentries, and on the third
day, when fainting with hunger, a little bread and water was given to them,
with an assurance that in future they were not to expect such luxuries.
Have they forgot the devastation committed in Berlin by the Austrians in
the Seven Years' war, when they pillaged, burned or destroyed all the
valuable property of the royal Palaces, the most valuable works of art,
vases, statues of antiquity, the loss of which could never be replaced;
when they lopped off the heads, arms and legs of the statues? Have they
forgot the conduct of the belligerent powers at the siege of Dresden at the
same epoch, when whole families, among whom were helpless old men and women
with children at the breast, were compelled to leave Dresden in the middle
of a most rigorous winter and were driven to take refuge in the fields
where the most of them perished with hunger and cold; and where many
individuals lost their reason and became insane from the treatment they
received? Have they forgotten the merciless barbarities inflicted by the
Russians in the same war on the inhabitants of the Prussian territory?
their ripping up and burning men, women, and children? and the dreadful
retaliation inflicted on them at the battle of Zorndorff, when the
Prussians, exasperated at the idea of those horrors so fresh in their
memory, on being ordered to bury the Russian dead, threw the wounded men
also belonging to that nation into the graves dug for the dead, to be thus
buried alive, and hastily filled them up with earth, as if fearful that
they might relent, did they give themselves time for reflection? These are
not exaggerations; they are given by an author celebrated for his
impartiality and deep research and who was an eye-witness of many of these
proceedings; I mean Archenholz in his admirable history of the Seven Years'
war.[33]

Then again in the war of American Independence (and here my countrymen must
excuse me if I point out the acts of injustice committed by them, when
acting in obedience to an unprincipled and arbitrary government and in a
cause hostile to freedom), who does not recollect the private property
wantonly destroyed and confiscated by the English? their employing the
Indian tribes, those merciless savages of the forest, to scalp, etc., which
called forth the indignation of a Chatham? and the grossly unjust pillage
and confiscation of property which took place at St Eustatius by the
commanders of a _religious and gracious King_?[34] Again, who does not
recollect the gentle but deep reproof given by the American General
Schuyler to the English General Burgoyne, when the latter was made prisoner
by the Americans under Gates? General Schuyler's valuable house, barns,
etc., had been burned by the express order of Burgoyne. Nevertheless,
Schuyler received him with dignified politeness, magnanimously stifled the
recollection of the injury he had received, and obtained for him a good
quarter, merely remarking, "General, had my house and farms not been
burned, I could have offered you a more comfortable abode." How Burgoyne
must have felt this reproof! yet he was not by nature a harsh man, but he
had the orders of his government to exercise severities; he was educated in
Tory principles, and passive obedience is their motto.

Can one forget likewise even, in the late war, Nelson's conduct to
Caraccioli at Naples, whom he caused to be hanged on board of an English
ship of war, together with a number of other patriots, in violation of a
solemn capitulation, by which it had been stipulated that they should be
considered as prisoners of war and sent to France? Then again the wanton
destruction of the Capitol and other public buildings at Washington not
devoted to military purposes, which it is not usual to destroy or deface;
and the valuable public library too which was burned? What excuse can be
offered for this? Were the times of Omar returned? It is fair and allowed
by the laws of war to blow up and destroy arsenals, magazines, containing
warlike stores and engines of destruction, but to destroy with Gothic
barbarity buildings of great symmetry and beauty, and a library too--O fie!

Why I will defy any man to point out a single instance where the French
republican armies or Napoleon ever injured or wantonly destroyed a single
national edifice, a single work of art, a single book belonging to any
other country! On the contrary, they invariably extended their protection
to the Arts and Sciences. Why at Vienna, where there is, I understand, a
most splendid museum, and many most valuable works of art and antiquity,
tho' this city fell twice into their possession, they never destroyed or
took away a single article; but, on the contrary, there, as well as in
Berlin, they invited the inhabitants to form a civic guard for the
protection of their property. As to the Vandalism shewn during the reign of
Terror, and I by no means seek to palliate it, that was of short duration,
it was madness, if you will, but it was disinterested--and other nations
who talk a great deal about their superior morality would do well to look
at home. They would there observe, in their own historic page, that the
atrocities of the French Revolution have not only been equalled but
surpassed perhaps by more dreadful scenes committed at Wexford in 1798,
under the auspices of the Government then ruling Ireland and which the
noble and virtuous ----[35] disdained to serve.

Excuse this long digression, but I feel it my duty to open the eyes of my
countrymen and prevent them from supporting on all occasions the unjust
acts of their Government, which reflect dishonour on a great and
enlightened nation; which can boast, among its annals, of some of the most
heroic, splendid, and disinterested characters that ever the world
produced.

All that I need add on the subject of the statues and pictures is, that
putting out of the question the justice or injustice of the restitution, it
will be a great loss to England and to English artists in particular,
should they be removed: many an artist can afford to make a trip to Paris,
who would find it beyond his means to make a journey to Florence or Rome.

If these objects of art are to be taken away, it should be stipulated so in
the treaty of peace; and then everybody would understand it. This would be
putting it on the fairest footing. You then say to France: "You gained
these things by conquest; you lose them by defeat"; but for God's sake let
us have no more of that _cant_ about revolutionary robberies!


PARIS, ----

I went for the first time to the Grand Opera, or, as it is here called, the
Academie Royale de Musique, which is in the Rue de Richelieu. _Armida_ was
the piece performed, the music by Glueck. The decorations were splendid and
the dancing beyond all praise. The scenes representing the garden of Armida
and the nymphs dancing fully expressed in the mimic art those beautiful
lines of Tasso:

  Cogliam d'amor la rosa! amiamo or, quando
  Esser si puote riamato amando![36]

The effect of the dissolution of the palace and gardens by the waving of
Armida's wand is astonishing; it appears completely to be the work of
inchantment, from the rapidity of execution which follows the _potentissime
parole_. The French recitative however does not please me. The serious
opera is an exotic and does not seem to thrive on the soil of France. The
language does not possess sufficient intonation to give effect to the
recitative.

On the contrary, the comic operas are excellent; and here the national
music and singing appear to great advantage. It never degenerates to the
grotesque or absurd _buffo_ of the Italians, but is always exquisitely
graceful, simple, touching and natural.

Among the ballets, I have seen perhaps three of the best, viz., _Achille a
Scyros, Flore et Zephire_ and _La folle par amour_. In the ballet of Flore
and Zephire, the dancers who did these two parts appeared more aerian than
earthly. To use a phrase of Burke's, I never beheld so _beautiful a vision.
Nina_, or _la folle par amour_, is a ballet from private life. The title
sufficiently explains its purport; it is exquisitely touching and pathetic.
O what a divine creature is Bigottini! what symmetry of form! what innate
grace, what a captivating expression of countenance; and then the manner in
which she did the mad scenes and her return to reason! Oh! I was moved even
to tears. Never had any performance such an effect upon me. What a
magnificent _tout ensemble_ is the Grand Opera at Paris! Whenever I feel
chagrined or melancholy I shall come here; I feel as if I were in a new
world; the fiction appears reality; my senses are ravished, and I forget
all my cares.

I have very little pleasure in visiting royal Palaces, unless they have
been the residence of some transcendent, person like Napoleon or Frederick
II of Prussia, as the sight of splendid furniture and royal pomp affords me
no gratification; and I would rather visit Washington's or Lafayette's
farms in company with these distinguished men than dine with all the
monarchs of Europe. After a hasty glance at the furniture of the Tuileries,
what fixed my attention for a considerable time was "La Salle des
Marechaux," where are the portraits of all the modern French Marshalls.
They are all full length portraits and are striking resemblances; some are
in the Marshall's undress uniform and others in the full court costume
which is very elegant, being the costume of the time of Francis I with the
Spanish hat and plumes. I did not observe Ney's or Soult's portraits among
them.

In front of the great square of the Tuileries where the troops exercise,
stands the Arch of Triumph erected by Napoleon, commonly called _l'Arc du
Carrousel_. It is a beautiful piece of architecture, but is far too small
to tally with such a vast mass of buildings as the Palace and offices of
the Tuileries. By the side of them it appears almost Lilliputian. It would
have been better to have made it in the style of the triumphal arch of the
Porte St Denis. On this arc of the Carrousel are _bas-reliefs_ both outside
and inside, representing various actions of Napoleon's life. He is always
represented in the Roman costume, with the imperial laurel on his brows,
with kings kneeling, and presenting the keys of conquered cities. On the
outside are statues, large as life, in modern military costume,
representing the different _armes_ which compose the French army.[37] On
the top of this Arc du Carrousel is an antique car of triumph, to which are
harnessed the four bronze horses which were taken from the facade of the
Church of San Marco in Venice. They are of beautiful workmanship and of
great antiquity. What various and mighty revolutions have these horses
witnessed! Cast in Corinth in the time of the glories of the Grecian
commonwealths and removed by conquest to Rome, they witnessed the
successive fall of the Grecian and Roman states; transferred to
Constantinople in the time of Constantine, and from thence removed to
Venice when Constantinople fell into the hands of the French and Venetians;
transferred from thence to Paris in 1798, they have witnessed the
successive falls of the Eastern and Western Empires, of the Republic of
Venice and the Napoleonic dynasty and Empire. Report says they are to be
restored to Venice; and who knows whether they may not be destined one day
to return to their original country, Greece, under perhaps Russian
auspices?

The Gardens of the Tuileries which lie at the back part of the palace are
very spacious, well laid out in walks and lined with trees. Large basins
inlaid with stone, fountains and statues add to the grandeur of these
gardens; they extend from the Tuileries as far as the Place Louis XV
parallel to the Seine, and are separated by a wall and parapet and a
beautiful cast iron railing from the Quai, and on the other side from the
Rue de Rivoli, one of the new streets, and the best in Paris for
pedestrians. On the side opposite the palace itself is the _Place Louis
XV_, called in the time of the republic _Place de la Revolution_, and where
the unfortunate Louis XVI suffered decapitation. The _Place Louis XV_ is by
far the most magnificent thing of the kind I have ever seen and far exceeds
the handsomest of our squares in London. On one side of it is the _Hotel du
Garde Meuble_, a superb edifice. On the other the Quai, the river; and on
the other side of the river is the _Palais du Corps legislatif_, now the
place where the Chamber of Deputies hold their sitting, and which has a
magnificent facade. In front of this place are the Champs Elysees and
avenue of Neuilly and behind the gardens and palace of the Tuileries.

My next visit was to the _Place Vendome_, where stands the majestic column
of the Grand Army. To me this column is the most striking thing of its kind
that I have hitherto seen. It is of bronze and of the most beautiful
workmanship, cast from the cannon taken from the Austrians in the war of
1805, and on it are figured in bas-relief the various battles and
achievements, winding round and round from the base to the capital. It is
constructed after the model of the Column of Trajan in Rome.

The next place I visited was the Chamber of Deputies. It is a fine building
with a Doric facade and columns; it is peculiarly striking from its noble
simplicity. On the facade are bas-reliefs representing actions in
Napoleon's life. The flight of steps leading to the facade is very grand,
and there are colossal figures representing Prudence, Justice, Fortitude
and other legislative virtues. The Chamber itself where the Deputies hold
their sittings is in the form of a Greek theatre; the arch of the
semi-circle forms the gallery appropriated to the audience, and comprehends
in its enclosure the seats of the deputies like the seats in a Greek
theatre; on the chord of the semi-circle where the _proscenium_ should be,
is the tribune and President's seat. The whole is exceedingly elegant. The
Orator whose turn it is to speak leaves his seat, ascends the tribune and
faces the Deputies. The anti-rooms adjoining this Chamber are fitted up
with long tables and fauteuils and are appropriated to the sittings of the
various committees. These antichambers are hung round with pictures
representing the victories of the French armies; but they are covered with
green baize and carefully concealed from the public eye in order to stifle
recollections and prevent comparisons.


PARIS, August.

I mounted on horseback and rode out to St Cloud to breakfast, passing
through the Champs Elysees, the Bois de Boulogne and the little town of
Passy, and returned by the Quai, as far as the bridge of Jena, which I
passed and went to visit the _Hotel des Invalides, le Champ de Mars_, the
_Pantheon_ or Church of St Genevieve and the Palace of the Luxembourg. This
was pretty good work for one day; and as you will expect some little
account of my ideas thereon, I shall give you a _precis_ of what most
interested me.

In the Champs Elysees are quartered several English regiments who are
encamped there, and this adds to the liveliness of the scene; our soldiers
seem to enjoy themselves very much. They are in the midst of places of
recreation of all kinds, such as guinguettes, tennis-courts, dancing salons
and cafes, and besides these (places of Elysium for English soldiers), wine
and brandy shops innumerable; our soldiers seem to agree very well with the
inhabitants. In the Bois de Boulogne are Hanoverian troops as well as
English. At Passy I stopped at the house occupied by my friend, Major C. of
the 33rd Regt.,[38] who was to accompany me to St Cloud. St Cloud is an
exceedingly neat pretty town, well and solidly built, and tolerably large.
There are a great many good restaurants and cafes, as St Cloud with its
Palace, promenades and gardens forms one of the most favourite resorts of
the Parisians on Sundays and _jours de fete_. Diners _de societe_ and
_noces et festins_ are often made here; and there is both land and water
conveyance during the whole day. There are two roads by land from Paris:
the one on the Quai the whole way; the other through the Bois de Boulogne
and Champs Elysees. The gardens of St Cloud are laid out something in the
style of a _jardin anglais_, but mixed with the regular old fashioned
garden; it abounds in lofty trees, beautiful sites and well arranged vistas
commanding extensive views of Paris and the country environing. St Cloud
was the favourite residence of Napoleon; and the furniture in the palace
here shows him to be a man of the most refined taste. All is elegant and
classic; there is nothing superfluous; the furniture is modern, but in
strict imitation of the furniture of the ancients and chiefly in bronze.
There are superb vases and candelabras in marble, magnificent clocks of
various kinds, marble busts, and busts in bronze of great men, and bronze
statues large as life holding lamps. The chairs and sofas too are in a
classic taste, as are the beds and baths. We were informed here that
Blucher, who passed one night here, tore with his spur the satin covering
of one of the sofas and that he did it wilfully; but I never can believe
that the old man would be so silly, and I rather think that this story is
an invention of the keeper of the Palace, or that if it was done, it was
done by an accident merely. But the fact is that Blucher has a contempt for
and hates the Parisians and likes to mortify them on all occasions; he
threatens to do a number of things which he never seriously intends, merely
for the sake of teasing them; and it must be owned that they deserve a
little contempt from the want of _caractere_ they showed on the entrance of
the Allies. Be it as it may, Blucher is the _bete noire_ of the Parisians
and they are as much afraid of him as the children are of _Monsieur
Croque-mitaine_.

We returned from St Cloud by the Quai, crossed the bridge of Jena,
galloped along the _Champs de Mars_, took a hasty glance at the _Hotel des
Invalides_, a magnificent edifice and which may be distinguished from all
other buildings by its gilded cupola. It is a superb establishment in every
respect, and is furnished with an excellent library. A great many old
soldiers are to be seen in this library occupied in reading; they are very
polite to all visitors, particularly to ladies. Nothing can better
demonstrate the superior character, intelligence and deportment of the
French soldiers over those of all other countries than the way in which
they employ their time in literary pursuits, their dignified politeness to
visitors and the intelligent answers they give to questions. I am afraid
our British veterans, brave as they are in the field, occupy themselves,
when laid up as invalids, more in destroying their bodies by spirituous
liquors than in improving their minds by reading. The Chapel of this
establishment where were displayed the banners and trophies taken at
different epochs from the enemies of France, and which were much mutilated
by the wars since the Revolution, is now stripped of all the ensigns of
glory. They were all burned by the French themselves previous to the
capitulation of Paris in 1814, in order to prevent their falling into the
hands of the enemy. An old soldier who was my guide related this with tears
in his eyes, but suddenly checking himself said: "_Mais telle est
l'histoire_."

The only things now in this Chapel that interest the eye of the traveller
are the monuments of Vauban and Turenne. Of the rest nought remains but the
brilliant souvenirs.

        Fuit Ilium, et ingens
  Gloria Teucrorum!...[39]

I had a great deal of difficulty in inducing this old soldier to accept of
three franks; I told him at last that, as he did not want it himself, to
take it and give it to somebody that did. I then visited the rest of the
establishment. There is a whole range of rooms which contains models or
plans in relief of all the fortresses of France; they are admirably and
most minutely executed; not only the fortifications and public buildings,
but the private houses, the gardens, orchards, meadows, mountains, hill and
dale, bridges, trees, every feature of the ground in fine and of the
surrounding country are given in miniature. In fact it gives you the same
idea of the places themselves and of the environing country as if you were
held up in the air over them to inspect them; or as if you viewed them from
a balloon at the distance of 800 yards from the earth. The models of
Strassburg, Lille and three or four others have been taken away by the
Austrians and Prussians, but I have seen those of Calais, Dunkirk,
Villefranche, Toulon, and Brest, and in fact almost every other French
fortress. This is one of the most interesting sights in Paris, and for this
we are certainly indebted to the occupation; for I question much if
travellers were ever permitted to see these models until Paris fell into
the hands of the Allies. Prussian sentries do duty at the doors; how
grating this must be to the old invalids! Among the models I must not omit
to mention a very curious one which represents the battle of Lodi. The town
of Lodi, the bridge and river are admirably executed. The soldiers are
represented by little figures about a quarter of an inch in height and
cobwebs are disposed so as to represent the smoke of the firearms,
Buonaparte and his staff are on horseback on one side of the bridge. There
is also a very fine model of the _Hotel des Invalides_ itself.

From hence we went to the garden and palace of the Luxembourg. These
gardens form the midday and afternoon promenade of that part of the city.
In one wing of the Palace is the Chamber of Peers, elegantly fitted up and
in some respect resembling a Greek theatre. The busts of Cicero, Brutus,
Demosthenes, Phocion and other great men of antiquity adorn the niches of
this chamber and on the grand _escalier_ are the statues in natural size of
Kleber, Dessaix, Caffarelli and other French generals. Report says that
these statues will be removed.

In the picture gallery at the Luxembourg is a choice collection of pictures
of the modern French school such as Guerin, David, etc. The subjects are
extremely well chosen, being taken from the mythology or from ancient and
modern history. I was too glad to find no crucifixions, martyrdoms, nor
eternal Madonnas. I distinguished in particular the _Judgment of Brutus_
and the _Serment des Horaces et des Curiaces_. Connoisseurs find the
attitudes too stiff and talk to you of the Italian school; but I prefer
these; yet I had better hold my tongue on this subject, for I am told I
know nothing about painting.

Poor Labedoyere[40] is sentenced to be shot by the Court Martial which
tried him, and the sentence will be carried immediately into execution. His
fate excites universal sympathy, and I have seen many people shed tears
when talking on this subject. He certainly ought to be protected by the
12th Article of the Capitulation. The French are very uneasy; the Allies
have begun to strip the Louvre and there is no talk of what the terms of
peace are to be, or what is the determination of the Allies. This is a
dreadful state of uncertainty for the French people and may lead to a
general insurrection. The Allies continue pouring troops into France and
levying contributions. "_Vae victis_" seems their motto. France is now a
disarmed nation, and no French uniform is to be seen except that of the
National Guard and the "Garde Royale." France is at the mercy of her
enemies and prostrate at their feet; a melancholy prospect for European
liberty!

The Allies have parades and reviews two or three times a week and the
Sovereigns of Russia, Austria and Prussia constantly attend; Wellington is
their showman. These crowned Heads like mightily playing at soldiers; I
should think His Grace must be heartily tired of them. Massacres and
persecutions of the Protestants have begun to take place in the South of
France, and the priests are at work again threatening with excommunication
and hell the purchasers and inheritors of emigrant estates and church
lands. These priests and emigrants are incorrigible. Frequent quarrels take
place almost every evening in the Palais Royal between the Prussian
officers and the French, particularly some of the officers from the army of
the Loire. I rather suspect these latter are the aggressors. The Prussians
being gorged with plunder come there to eat, drink and amuse themselves and
have as little stomach for fighting as the soldier of Lucullus had after
having enriched himself; but the officers of the army of the Loire are,
poor fellows, in a very different predicament; they have not even been paid
what is due to them, and they, having none of those nice felicities (to use
an expression of Charlotte Smith's)[41] which make life agreeable, are
ready for any combat, to set their life on any cast, "to mend it, or to be
rid of 't." The Prussians indulge in every sort of dissipation, which they
are enabled to do by the plunder which they have accumulated, and of which
they have formed, I understand, a _depot_ at St Germain. They send these
articles of plunder to town every day to be sold, and then divide the
profits, which are sure to be spent in the Palais Royal, and other places
of revel and debauchery.

They sometimes affect a fastidiousness of stomach which is quite laughable,
and not at all peculiar to the Germans, who are in general blessed by
nature with especial good appetites; and they spend so much money that the
English officers who have not had the advantages of plunder that these
Prussians have had must appear by the side of them stingy and niggardly.

I was witness one day to a whimsical scene, which will serve to give you an
idea of the airs of importance these gentlemen give themselves. I was one
day at Versailles and after having visited the palace and gardens I entered
the Salon of a restaurateur and called for a veal cutlet and _vin
ordinaire_. There was a fat Prussian Major with two or three of his
companions at one of the tables, who had been making copious libations to
Bacchus in Burgundy and Champaign. He heard me call for _vin ordinaire_,
and whether it was to show his own magnificence I know not, but he called
out to the _cafetiere_: "Madame, votre vin ordinaire est il buvable? car
j'en veux donner a mon trompette, et s'il n'est pas bon, il n'en boira pas.
Faites venir mon trompette." Now I dare say in his own country this Major
would not have disdained even the "schwarze Bier" of Brandenburgh.

Scarcely any quarrels, I believe, take place between the English and
French, nor did I hear of any violent fracas but one. In this instance, the
English officers concerned must have been sad, brutal, vulgar fellows.
They, however, after behaving in a most gross insulting manner, were
compelled by some Frenchmen not to eat but to drink their words, and that
out of a vessel not usually employed in drinking. I shall not repeat the
contemptible affair, but it furnished the subject of a caricature.

The English officers in general behave in a handsome and liberal manner,
and their conduct was spoken of in high terms of encomium by very many of
the French themselves. I regret however exceedingly that any of the British
officers should have imbibed the low prejudices and vulgar hatred against
the French, which certain people preach up in England to cover their own
peculations and interested views. A young friend of mine, with whom I was
one day talking on political subjects, said to me: "I cannot help agreeing
with you in many things, but I am staggered when I think that your ideas
and reasoning are so contrary to the ideas in which I have been brought up;
so that I rather avoid entering at all on political questions."

I do not wonder at all at this, for I recollect when I was at school at
Eton, the system was to drill into the heads of the boys strong
aristocratic principles and hatred of Democracy and of the French in
particular; we were ordered to write themes against the French Revolution
and verses of triumph over their defeats, with now and then a sly theme on
the great advantage of hereditary nobility; in these verses God Almighty
was to be represented as closely allied to the British Government and a
_sleeping partner_ of the Administration. One of the fellows of Eton
College actually told the late Mr Adam Walker, the celebrated lecturer on
natural and experimental philosophy, who was accustomed to give lectures
annually to the Etonians, that his visits were no longer agreeable and
would be dispensed with in future; as "Philosophy had done a great deal of
harm and had caused the French Revolution."

With respect to my visit to Versailles, I was much struck with the vast
size and magnificence of the buildings and with the ingenuity displayed in
the arrangement of the grounds and the numerous groups of statues,
grottos, aqueducts, fountains and ruins. Still it pleases me less than St
Cloud, for I prefer the taste of the present day in gardening and the
arrangement of ground, to the ponderous and tawdry taste of the time of
Louis XIV, and I prefer St Cloud to Versailles, just as I should prefer a
Grecian Nymph in the simple costume of Arcadia to a fine court lady rouged
and dressed out with hoops, diamonds, and headdress of the tune of Queen
Anne. Napoleon must have had an exquisite taste.


[32] Exceptions to this are, I understand, the Gallery at Florence, and the
    Museo Vaticano at Rome, which are both open to all and no fees allowed.

[33] Johann Wilhelm Archenholz (1743-1812), author of the _Geschichte des
    Siebenjaehrigen Krieges_, 1789.--ED.

[34] In February, 1781, before the declaration of war was generally known
    in the West Indies, Rodney's fleet surrounded the Dutch island of
    Eustatius, which had become a sort of entrepot for supplying America
    with British goods; two hundred and fifty ships, together with several
    millions worth of merchandise, were seized and sold at a military
    auction. The plunder of Eustatius was bitterly commented upon In the
    British House of Commons.--Lee Richard Hildreth, _The History of the
    United States_, vol. III, p. 335.--ED.

[35] The name is in blank. Major Frye may have meant Beauchamp Bagenal
    Harvey (1762-1798), the squire of Wexford who deserted to the Irish
    rebels.--ED.

[36] Tasso, _Jerusalemme liberata_, canto XVI, ottava 15.--ED.

[37] For instance, a Cuirassier, a Dragoon, a Grenadier, a Tirailleur, an
    Artilleryman.

[38] Major G. Colclough, senior major of the 33rd Regt.--ED.

[39] Virgil, _Aen_., II. 325.--ED.

[40] La Bedoyere (Charles Huchet, Comte de) distinguished himself in
    several of the Napoleonic wars, in particular at Ratisbonne and
    Borodino. Being a colonel at Grenoble, in March, 1815, he deserted to
    Napoleon's cause and was nominated by him general and _pair de
    France_. In July, 1815, he was arrested in Paris, tried for high
    treason and shot, August 19, in spite of Benj. Constant's efforts to
    save him.--ED.

[41] Charlotte Smith (1749-1806), author of _Emmeline, or the Orphan of the
    Castle_ (1788), _Celestina_ (1792), _The Old Manor House_ (1793),
    etc.--ED.




CHAPTER IV

From Paris to Bruxelles--Visiting the plains of Waterloo--The Duke de Berri
at Lille--Beauvais--Return to Paris--Remarks on the French theatre--
Talma--Mlle Duchesnois--Mlle Georges-French alexandrine verse--The Abbe
Delille--The Opera Comique.

I met with my brother-in-law and his nephew at Paris, and hearing from them
that they had an intention of returning to England by the way of Bruxelles,
with the idea of visiting the plains of Waterloo, I was induced to
accompany them. We started on the 18th August, taking the exact route from
Paris that was taken by Napoleon. Passed the first night at St Quentin; the
second at a small village on the line between Mons and Charleroy in the
Belgian territory. The next morning, after breakfasting at Nivelles, we
proceeded to Quatre Bras and Mont St Jean. At the little cabaret called _a
la belle Alliance_ we met a host of Englishmen who had been to behold the
field of battle; Lacoste, the peasant who was Napoleon's guide on the day
of battle, was about to conduct them across the fields to Hougoumont. We
followed them. The devastation of the place, every tree being pierced with
bullets, and the whole premises being nearly burned to the ground, seemed
to astonish their _weak minds_; one of them was not contented till he had
measured the length and breadth of the garden and orchards.

Cuirasses, helmets, swords and various other spoils of war found on the
spot, were offered for sale by some boys and eagerly bought up as relics.
My brother-in-law made a purchase of a helmet, sword and cuirass, intending
to hang it up in his hall. For my part I have seen, and can see no reason
whatever to rejoice at this event. I fear it is pregnant with infinite
mischief.

We arrived at Bruxelles on the afternoon of the 20th August and after
visiting thePark, _Alee verte_ and Palace of Laeken, we proceeded the next
morning on our journey to Lille.

The Duke of Berri was at Lille and a grand _fete_ was given in the evening
to celebrate the second restoration of the Bourbons. Fireworks were let
off, the city was brilliantly illuminated and boys (hired of course) went
about the streets singing the following refrain

  A bas, a bas Napoleon!
  Vivent, vivent les Bourbons!

A number of beautiful women elegantly attired paraded up and down the
public promenades, which are exceedingly well and tastefully laid out. This
city is built with great regularity, and the streets are broad, neat, and
clean. It is by far the handsomest city I have ever seen either in France
or Belgium. The _Hotel de Ville_ and the theatre both are on the _Grande
Place_ and are well worth seeing. Lille is renowned for its fortifications;
I much wished to visit the citadel but I was not permitted. At dinner at
the table d'hote at the _Hotel du Commerce_, I remarked a French officer
declaiming violently against Napoleon; but I heard afterwards that he was
the son of an Emigrant; the rest of the company did not seem to approve his
discourse and shewed visible impatience at it.

Lille may be easily recognised at its approach from the immense quantity of
wind-mills that are in the vicinity of this city, some of which are used
for grinding of wheat and others for the expression of oil. A great deal of
flax from whence the oil is made, grows in the country.

I left Lille on the morning of the 24th inst., with the courier for Amiens.
From Amiens I took the diligence to Beauvais and on arrival there I put up
under the hospitable roof of my friend Major G., of the 18th Light
Dragoons, lately made Lt.-Colonel for his gallantry at Waterloo.[42] I did
not want for amusement here, for the next day a _fete champetre_ was given
just outside the walls of the town, and I admired the grace and tournure of
the female peasantry and their good dancing. How much more creditable are
these innocent and agreeable _fetes_ to the fairs and meetings in England,
which are generally signalized in drunkenness! The next afternoon presented
a novel sight to the inhabitants of Beauvais, it being a grand cricket
match played between the officers of the 10th and 18th Dragoons. It was won
by the latter, mainly owing to the superior play of Colonel G. of the 18th,
who never touched a bat since he was at Burney's school. The Officers
afterwards dined _al fresco_ and many toasts accompanied by the huzzas were
given, to the astonishment of the bystanders, who seemed to consider us as
little better than barbarians. One of the officers wishing to pay a
compliment to the inhabitants of Beauvais proposed the health of Louis
XVIII, but they seemed to take it coldly and not at all to be flattered by
the compliment.

After five days very agreeable residence at Beauvais, I put myself in the
diligence to return to Paris. During the journey an ardent political
altercation arose between a young lady, who appeared to be a warm partisan
of Napoleon, on the one side, and a Garde du Corps on the other. The lady
was seconded by a young gentleman, of whom it was difficult to say, whether
he sustained her argument from a dislike to the present order of things, or
from a wish to ingratiate himself in her favour. The argument of the Garde
du Corps was espoused, but soberly, by one of the passengers who was a
mathematical professor at one of the Lyceums; he was not by any means an
Ultra, but he supported the Bourbons, with moderate, gentlemanly and I
therefore believe sincere attachment. This professor seemed a well informed
sort of man; he told me that he was acquainted with Sir James M., formerly
recorder at Bombay. On our arrival at the _Bureau des Messageries_, the
whole company forgot their disputes and parted good friends; and the young
man who was partisan of the young lady in the political dispute took care
to
inform himself of her abode in Paris.

       *       *       *       *       *

Remarks on the various dramatic performances which I witnessed at Paris,
with opinions on the French theatre in general.

In my ideas of dramatic works I am neither rigidly classic nor romantic,
and I think both styles may be good if properly managed and the interest
well kept up; in a word I am pleased with all genres _hors le genre
ennuyux_,[43] and tho' a great admirer of Shakespeare and Schiller, I am
equally so of Voltaire, Racine and Corneille; I take equal delight in the
pathos of the sentimental dramas of Kotzebue as in the admirable satire and
_vis comica_ of the unrivalled Moliere, so that on my arrival at Paris I
was not violently prejudiced either for or against the French stage, but
rather pre-occupied, to use a gentler term, in its favour; and I have not
been at all disappointed, for I think I can pronounce it with safety the
first, perhaps the only stage in Europe.

I now mean to speak not of Operas, nor of Operas-comiques, nor of
melodrames, nor of vaudevilles; all these have their respective merits; but
when I speak of the French stage, I confine myself to the regular theatre
of tragedy and comedy, of their classical pieces; in a word, to the
dramatic performances usually given at the _Theatre Francais_.

The first piece I saw performed was _Manlius_;[44] but I was too far off
from the stage to judge of the acting, and could do little more than catch
the sounds. The parterre and the whole house was full. I was in the fourth
tier of boxes, yet I could distinguish at intervals the finest and most
prominent traits, of Talma's acting, particularly in that scene where he
upbraids his friend with having betrayed him. This he gave with uncommon
energy and effect. The plot of this piece is very similar to that of
_Venice preserved_.[45]

The next piece I saw represented was the _Avare_ of Moliere, which to me
was one of the greatest dramatic treats I had ever witnessed. Every part
was well supported. The next was _Athalie_ of Racine. Here too I was highly
gratified. Mlle Georges performed the part of Athalie and gave me the
perfect ideal of the haughty Queen. Her narration of the dream was given
with the happiest effect, and in her attempt to conceal her uneasiness and
her affected contempt of the dream in these lines:

  Un songe, me devrois--je inquieter d'un songe?

she seemed in reality to labour under all the anxiety and fatigue arising
from it. That fine scene between Joad and Joas was well given, and the
little girl who did the part of Joas performed with a good deal of spirit.
The actor who played Joad recited in a most impressive manner the advice to
the young prince terminating in these lines:

  Vous souvenant, mon fils, que cache sous ce lin,
  Comme eux vous futes pauvre et comme eux orphelin.

The interrogating scene between Athalie and Joad was given spiritedly, but
the rather abrupt and uncourtierlike reply to the Queen's remark, "Ils sont
deux puissans dieux"--"Lui seul est dieu, Madame, et le votre n'est rien"--
excited a laugh and I fancy never fails to do so, every time the piece is
performed.

Racine has several passages in his tragedies which perhaps have rather too
much _naivete_ for the dignity of the cothurnus; for instance in the answer
of Agamemnon to Achille in the tragedy of _Iphigenie_:

  Puisque vous le savez, pourquoi le demander?

A poet of to-day would be quizzed for a line like the above, but who dare
venture to point out any defect in an author of whom Voltaire has said and
with justice too, that the only criticism to be made of him (Racine) would
be to write under every page: "Admirable, harmonieux, sublime!"

The costume and the decorations at the _Theatre francais_ are so strictly
classical and appropriate in every respect, that it is to me a source of
high delight to witness the representation of the favourite pieces of
Racine, Corneille, Moliere and Voltaire, which I have so often read with so
much pleasure in the closet and no small quantity of which I have by heart.

The next piece I saw was the _Cinnna_ of Corneille; and here it was that I
beheld Talma for the second time. I was of course highly pleased, tho' I
was rather far off to hear very distinctly; this was, however, no very
great loss, as I was perfectly well acquainted with the tragedy. Talma's
gestures, his pause's, his natural mode of acting gave a great relief to
the long declamation with which this tragedy abounds. When this tragedy was
given it was during the time that poor Labedoyere's trial was going on, and
the allusions to Augustus' clemency were eagerly seized and applauded. It
was hoped that Louis XVIII would imitate Augustus. Vain hope!

I have seen _Phedre_; the part of Phedre by that admirable actress Mlle
Duchesnois, who performs the part so naturally and with so much passion
that we entirely forget the extreme plainness of the person. She acts with
far more feeling and pathos than Mlle Georges. I shall never be able to
forget Mlle Duchesnois in _Phedre_. She gave me a full idea of the
impassioned Queen, nor were it possible to depict with greater fidelity the
"Venus toute entiere a sa proie attachee," as in that beautiful speech of
Phedre to Oenone wherein she reveals her passion for Hippolyte and
pourtrays the terrible struggle between duty and female delicacy on the one
hand, and on the other a flame that could not be overcome, convinced as it
were of the complete inutility of further efforts of resistance and
invoking death as her only refuge. I was moved even to tears. I am so great
an admirer of the whole of this speech beginning "Mon mal vient de plus
lorn" etc., and ending "Un reste de chaleur tout pret a s'exhaler," that I
think in it Racine has not only united the excellencies of Euripides,
Sappho and Theocritus in describing the passion of love, but has far
surpassed them all; that speech is certainly the masterpiece of French
versification and scarcely inferior to it is that beautiful and ingenuous
confession of love by Hippolyte to Aricie. What an admirable _pendant_ to
the love of Phedre! In Hippolyte you behold the innocence, simplicity and
ingenuousness of a first and pure attachment: in Phedre the _embrasement_,
the ungovernable delirium of a criminal passion.

I have seen Mlle Duchesnois again in the _Merope_ of Voltaire and admire
her more and more. This is an admirable play. The dialogue is so spirited;
the agitation of maternal tenderness, and the occasional bursts of feelings
impossible to be restrained, render this play one of the most interesting
perhaps on the French stage, and Mlle Duchesnois gave with the happiest
effect her part in those two scenes; the first wherein she supposes Egisthe
to be the person who has killed her son; in the other where having
discovered the reality of his person, she is obliged to dissemble the
discovery, but on Egisthe being about to be sacrificed she exclaims
"Barbare, c'est mon fils!" The part of Egisthe was given by a young actor
who made his appearance at this theatre for the first tune, and he executed
his part with complete success (Firmin, I think, was his name). Lafond did
the part of Polyphonte and did it well. At this tragedy many allusions were
caught hold of by the audience according as they were Bourbonically or
Napoleonically inclined; at that part of Polyphonte's speech wherein he
says:

  Le premier qui fut Roi fut un soldat heureux.
  Qui sert bien son pays n'a pas besoin d'ayeux.

Thunders of applause proceeded from those who applied it to Napoleon. At
the line:

  Est il d'autre parti que celui de nos rois?

a loud shout and clapping proceeded from the Royalists; but I fancy if
hands had been shown these last would have been in a sad minority. I have
often amused myself with comparing the _Merope_ of Voltaire with that of
Maffei and am puzzled to which to give the preference. Maffei has made
Polyphonte a more odious and perhaps on that account a more theatrical
character, while Voltaire's Polyphonte is more in real life. In the play of
Voltaire he is a rough brutal soldier, void of delicacy of feeling and not
very scrupulous, but not that praeternatural deep designing villain that he
is represented in the piece of Maffei. In fact Maffei's Polyphonte appears
too _outre_; but then on the stage may not a little exaggeration be
allowed, just as statues which are destined to be placed in the open air or
on columns appear with greater effect when larger than the natural size?
Alfleri seems to have given the preference to the Merope of Voltaire.

I have seen Talma a second time in the part of Nero in the Britannicus of
Racine; Mlle Georges played the part of Agrippina. Talma was Nero from head
to foot; his very entry on the stage gave an idea of the fiery and
impatient character of the tyrant, and in the scene between him and his
mother Agrippina nothing could be better delineated. The forced calm of
Agrippina, while reproaching her son with his ingratitude, and the
impatience of Nero to get rid of such an importunate monitress, were given
in a style impossible to be surpassed. Talma's dumb show during this scene
was a masterpiece of the mimic art. If Talma gives such effects to his
roles in a French drama, where he is shackled by rules, how much greater
would he give on the English or German stages in a tragedy of Shakespeare
or Schiller!

Blank verse is certainly better adapted to tragedy than rhymed
alexandrines, but then the French language does not admit of blank verse,
and to write tragedies in prose, unless they be tragedies in modern life,
would deprive them of all charm; but after all I find the harmonious pomp
and to use a phrase of Pope's "The long majestic march and energy divine"
of the French alexandrine, very pleasing to the ear. I am sure that the
French poets deserve a great deal of credit for producing such masterpieces
of versification from a language, which, however elegant, is the least
poetical in Europe; which allows little or no inversion, scarce any poetic
license, no _enjambement_, compels a fixed caesura; has in horror the
hiatus; and in fine is subject to the most rigorous rules, which can on no
account be infringed; which rejects hyperbole; which is measured by
syllables, the pronunciation of which is not felt in prose; compels the
alternative termination of a masculine or feminine rhyme; and with all this
requires more perhaps than any other language that cacophony be sedulously
avoided. Such are the difficulties a French poet has to struggle with; he
must unite the most harmonious sound with the finest thought. In Italian
very often the natural harmony of the language and the music of the sound
conceal the poverty of the thought; besides Italian poetry has innumerable
licenses which make it easy to figure in the Tuscan Parnassus, and where
anyone who can string together _rime_ or _versi sciolti_ is dignified with
the appellation of a poet; whereas from French poetry, a mediocrity is and
must be of necessity banished. Neither is it sufficient for an author to
have sublime ideas; these must be filed and pruned. Inspiration can make a
poet of a German, an Italian or an Englishman, because he may revel in
unbounded license of metre and language, but in French poetry inspiration
is by no means sufficient; severe study and constant practise are as
indispensable as poetic verve to constitute a French poet. The French poets
are sensible of this and on this account they prefer imitating the
ancients, polishing their rough marble and fitting it to the national
taste, to striking out a new path.

The Abbe Delille, the best poet of our day that France has produced, has
gone further; he had read and admired the best English poets such as
Milton, Pope, Collins and Goldsmith, and has not disdained to imitate them;
yet he has imitated them with such elegance and judgment that he has left
nothing to regret on the part of those of his countrymen who are not
acquainted with English, and he has rendered their beauties with such a
force that a foreigner Versed in both languages who did not previously know
which was the original, and which the translation, might take up passages
in Pope, Thomson, Collins and Goldsmith and read parallel passages in
Delille and be extremely puzzled to distinguish the original: for none of
the beauties are lost in these imitations. And yet, in preferring to
imitate, it must not be inferred that he was deficient in original
thoughts.

To return to the theatre, I have seen Mlle Mars in the _role_ of Henriette
in the _Femmes Savantes_ of Moliere. Oh! how admirable she is! She realizes
completely the conception of a graceful and elegant Frenchwoman of the
first society. She does not act; she is at home as it were in her own
salon, smiling at the silly pretensions of her sister and at the ridiculous
pedantry of Trissotin; her refusing the kiss because she does not
understand Greek was given with the greatest _naivete_. In a word Mlle Mars
reigns unrivalled as the first comic actress in Europe.

I have seen too, _Les Plaideurs_ of Racine and _Les fourberies de Scapin_
of Moliere, both exceedingly well given; particularly the scene in the
latter wherein it is announced to Geronte that his son had fallen into the
hands of a Turkish corsair, and his answer "Que diable allait-il faire dans
la galere?"

I have seen also _Andromaque_, _Iphigenie_ and _Zaire_. Mlle Volnais did
the part of Andromaque; but the monotonous plaintiveness of her voice,
which never changes, wearies me. In _Iphigenie_ I was more gratified; for
Mlle Georges did the part of Clytemnestre, and her sister, a young girl of
seventeen, made her debut in the part of Iphigenie with great effect. The
two sisters supported each other wonderfully well, and Lafond did Agamemnon
very respectably.

Mlle Georges the younger, having succeeded in _Iphigenie_, appeared in the
part of Zaire, a bold attempt, and tho' she did it well and with much
grace, yet it was evidently too arduous a task for her. The whole onus of
this affecting piece rests on the _role_ of Zaire. In the part where
_naivete_ was required she succeeded perfectly and her burst: "Mais
Orosmane m'aime et j'ai tout oublie" was most happy; but she was too faint
and betrayed too little emotion in portraying the struggle between her love
for Orosmane and the unsubdued symptoms of attachment to her father and
brother and to the religion of her ancestors. In short, where much passion
and pathos was required, there she proved unequal to the task; but she has
evidently all the qualities and dispositions towards becoming a good
actress, and with more study and practise I have no doubt that three or
four years hence, she will be fully equal to the difficult task of giving
effect to and portraying to life, the exquisitely touching and highly
interesting _role_ of Zaire. She was not called for to appear on the stage
after the termination of the performance, tho' frequently applauded during
it. The actor who did the part of Orosmane, in that scene wherein he
discovers he has killed Zaire unjustly, gave a groan which had an unhappy
effect; it was such an awkward one, that it made all the audience laugh; no
people catch ridicule so soon as the French.

What I principally admire on the French stage is that the actors are always
perfect in their parts and all the characters are well sustained; the
performance never flags for a moment; and I have experienced infinitely
more pleasure in beholding the dramas of Racine and Voltaire than those of
Shakespeare, and for this reason that, on our stage, for one good actor you
have the many who are exceedingly bad and who do not comprehend their
author: you feel consequently a _hiatus valde deflendus_ when the principal
actor or actress are not on the stage. I have been delighted to see Kemble,
and Mrs Siddons and Miss O'Neil, and while they were on the stage I was all
eyes and ears; but the other actors were always so inferior that the
contrast was too obvious and it only served to make more conspicuous the
flagging of interest that pervades the tragedies of Shakespeare, _Macbeth_
alone perhaps excepted. I speak only of Shakespeare's faults as a
dramaturgus and they are rather the faults of his age than his own; for in
everything else I think him the greatest litterary genius that the world
ever produced, and I place him far above any poet, ancient or modern; yet
in allowing all this, I do not at all wonder that his dramatic pieces do
not in general please foreigners and that they are disgusted with the low
buffoonery, interruption of interest and want of arrangement that ought of
necessity to constitute a drama; for I feel the same objections myself when
reading Shakespeare, and often lose patience; but then when I come to some
sublime passage, I become wrapt up in it alone and totally forget the piece
itself. In order to inspire a foreigner with admiration for Shakespeare, I
would not give him his plays to read entire, but I would present him with a
_recueil_ of the most beautiful passages of that great poet; and I am sure
he would be so delighted with them that he would readily join in the "All
Hail" that the British nation awards him. Thus you may perceive the
distinction I make between the creative genius who designs, and the artist
who fills up the canvas; between the Poet and the Dramaturgus. I am
probably singular in my taste as an Englishman, when I tell you that I
prefer Shakespeare for the closet and Racine or Voltaire or Corneille for
the stage: and with regard to English tragedies, I prefer as an acting
drama Home's _Douglas_[46] to any of Shakespeare's, _Macbeth_ alone
excepted; and for this plain reason that the interest in _Douglas_ never
flags, nor is diverted.

In giving my mite of admiration to the French stage, I am fully aware of
its faults, of the long declamation and the _fade galanterie_ that
prevailed before Voltaire made the grand reform in that particular: and on
this account I prefer Voltaire as a tragedian to Racine and Corneille. The
_Phedre_ and _Athalie_ of Racine are certainly masterpieces, and little
inferior to them are _Iphigenie, Andromaque_ and _Britannicus_, but in the
others I think he must be pronounced inferior to Voltaire; as a proof of my
argument I need only cite _Zaire, Alzire, Mahomet, Semiramis, l'Orphelin de
la Chine, Brutus_. Voltaire has, I think, united in his dramatic writings
the beauties of Corneille, Racine and Crebillon and has avoided their
faults; this however is not, I believe, the opinion of the French in
general, but I follow my own judgment in affairs of taste, and if anything
pleases me I wait not to ascertain whether the "master hath said so."

It shows a delicate attention on the part of the directors of the _Theatre
Francais_, now that so many foreigners of all nations are here, to cause to
be represented every night the masterpieces of the French classical
dramatic authors, since these are pieces that every foreigner of education
has read and admired; and he would much rather go to see acted a play with
which he was thoroughly acquainted than a new piece of one which he has not
read; for as the recitation is extremely rapid it would not be so easy for
him to seize and follow it without previous reading.

Of Moliere I had already seen the _Avare_, the _Femmes savantes_ and the
_Fourberies de Scapin_. Since these I have seen the _Tartuffe_ and _George
Dandin_ both inimitably performed; how I enjoyed the scene of the _Pauvre
homme!_ in the _Tartuffe_ and the lecture given to George Dandin by M. and
Mme de Sotenville wherein they recount the virtues and merits of their
respective ancestors. Of Moliere indeed there is but one opinion throughout
Europe; in the comic line he bears away the palm unrivalled and here I
fully agree with the "general."

I must not quit the subject of French theatricals without speaking of the
_Opera comique_ at the _Theatre Faydeau_. It is to the sort of light pieces
that are given here, that the French music is peculiarly appropriate, and
it is here that you seize and feel the beauty and melody of the national
music; these little _chansons_, _romances_ and _ariettas_ are so pleasing
to the ear that they imprint themselves durably on the memory, which is no
equivocal proof of their merit. I cannot say as much for the tragic singing
in the _Opera seria_ at the Grand French Opera, which to my ear sounds a
perfect psalmody. There is but one language in the world for tragic
recitative and that is Italian. On the other hand, in the _genre_ of the
_Opera comique_, the French stage is far superior to the Italian. In the
French comedy everything is graceful and natural; the Italians cannot catch
this happy medium, so that their comedies and comic operas are mostly
_outre_, and degenerate into downright farce and buffoonery.


[42] Major James Grant, of the 18th Light Dragoons, was made a Brevet
    Lieutenant Colonel on 18th June, 1815.--ED.

[43] A phrase in prose, often quoted as a verse, from Voltaire's preface to
    the _Enfant Prodigue: Tous les genres sont bons, hors le genre
    ennuyeux_.--ED.

[44] A tragedy often acted by Talma, the work of Antoine d'Aubigny de
    Lafosse (1653-1708).--ED.

[45] Thomas Otway's once celebrated tragedy, 1682.--ED.

[46] _The Tragedy of Douglas_, by John Home (1722-1808).--ED.




CHAPTER V

From Paris to Milan through Dijon, Chalon-sur-Saone, Lyons, Geneva and the
Simplon--Auxerre--Dijon--Napoleon at Chalon-sur-Saone--The army of the
Loire--Macon--French _grisettes_--Lyons--Monuments and theatricals--
Geneva--Character and opinions of the Genevois--Voltaire's chateau at
Ferney--The chevalier Zadera--From Geneva to Milan--Crossing the
Simplon--Arona--The theatres in Milan--Rossini--Monuments in Milan--Art
encouraged by the French--Mr Eustace's bigotry--Return to Switzerland--
Clarens and Vevey--Lausanne--Society in Lausanne--Return to Paris--The
Louvre stripped--Death of Marshal Ney.

I left Paris on the 17th Sept., in the diligence of Auxerre, The company
was as follows: a young Genevois who had served in the National Guard at
Paris, and had been wounded in a skirmish against the Prussians near that
city; a young Irish Templar; a fat citizen of Dijon and an equally fat
woman going to Dole. We arrived the following day at 11 o'clock at Auxerre,
a town situated on the banks of the Seine. Water conveyance may be had from
Paris to Auxerre, price 12 francs the person: the price in the diligence is
28 francs. We had during our journey much political conversation; the
Bourbons and the English government were the objects of attack, and neither
my friend the barrister nor myself felt the least inclined to take up their
cause. The Genevois had with him Fouche's expose of the state of the
nation, wherein he complains bitterly of the conduct of the Allies. All
France is now disarmed and no troops are to be seen but those in foreign
uniform. The face of the country between Paris and Auxerre is not
peculiarly striking; but the soil appears fertile and the road excellent.
After breakfast we started from Auxerre and stopped to sup and sleep the
same night at Avallon. At Semur, which we passed on the following day,
there is a one arched bridge of great boldness across the river Armancon.
We arrived in the evening at Dijon. The country between Auxerre and Dijon
is very undulating in gentle hill and dale, but for the want of trees and
inclosures it has a bleak appearance. As you leave Avallon and approach
Dijon, the hills covered with vines indicate your arrival in a wine
country. I put up at the _Chapeau rouge_ at Dijon and remained there one
day, in order to visit the _Chartreuse_ which is at a short distance from
the town and commands an extensive view. It was devastated during the
Revolution. The view from it is fine and extensive and that is all that is
worth notice. The country about it is rich and cultivated, and the
following lines of Ariosto might serve for its description:

  Culte pianure e delicati colli,
  Chiare acque, ombrose ripe e prati molli.[47]

  'Mid cultivated plain, delicious hill,
  Moist meadow, shady bank, and crystal rill.

  --_Trans_. W.S. ROSE.

The city of Dijon is large, handsome and well built. It has an appearance
of industry, comfort and airiness. There are several mustard manufactories
in this town. A dinner was given yesterday by the municipality to the
National Guard, and an immense quantity of mustard was devoured on the
occasion in honor of the staple manufactory of Dijon. From Dijon I put
myself in the diligence to go to Chalon and after stopping two hours at
Beaune, arrived at Chalon at 5 o'clock p.m. The country between Dijon and
Chalon is flat, but cultivated like a garden. It is likewise the wine
country _par excellence_. I do not know a wine more agreeable to palate
than the wine of Beaune.

At Chalon I put up at the _Hotel du Parc_. Chalon is beautifully situated
on the banks of the Saone. The Quai is well constructed and forms an
agreeable promenade. There is an Austrian garrison in Chalon. The hostess
of the inn told me that Napoleon stopped at her house on his way from Lyons
to Paris, when he returned from Elba, and she related to me with great
eagerness many anecdotes of that extraordinary man: she said that such was
the _empressement_ on the part of the inhabitants to see him, and embrace
him by way of testifying their affection, that the Emperor was obliged to
say: "Mais vous m'etouffez, mes enfans!" In fact, had the army remained
neutral, the peasantry alone would have carried the Emperor on their
shoulders to Paris. It is quite absurd to say that a faction did this and
that it was effectuated merely by the disaffection of the Army. The Army
did its duty in the noblest manner, for it is the duty of every army to
support the national cause and the voice of the people, and by no means to
become the blind tools of the Prince; for it is absurd, as it is degrading
to humanity, it is impious to consider the Prince as the proprietor of the
country and the master of the people; he is, or ought to be, the principal
magistrate, the principal soldier paid by the people, like any other
magistrate or soldier, and like them liable to be cashiered for misconduct
or breach of faith. This is not a very fashionable doctrine nowadays, and
there is danger of it being forgotten altogether in the rage for what is
falsely termed legitimacy; it becomes therefore the bounden duty of every
friend of freedom to din this unfashionable doctrine into the ears of
Princes and unceasingly to exclaim to them and to their ministers:

  Discite justitiam moniti et non temnere gentes.[48]

In their conduct on this occasion the French soldiers proved themselves far
more constitutional than those of any other army in Europe; let despots,
priests and weak-headed Tories say what they please to the contrary.

I embarked the following morning at 12 o'clock in the _coche d'eau_ for
Lyons. There was a very numerous and motley company on board: there were
three bourgeois belonging to Lyons returning thither from Paris; a quiet
good-humoured sort of woman not remarkable either for her beauty nor
vivacity; a young Spaniard, an adherent of King Joseph Napoleon, very
taciturn and wrapped up in his cloak tho' the weather was exceeding hot; he
seemed to do nothing else but smoke _cigarros_ and drink wine, of which he
emptied three or four bottles in a very short time--a young Piedmontese
officer, disbanded from the army of the Loire, who no sooner sat down on
deck than he began to chaunt Filicaja's beautiful sonnet, "_Italia, Italia,
O tu cui feo la sorte_," etc.--a merchant of Lyons who had been some time
in England, and spoke English well--a Lyonnese Major of Infantry, also of
the army of the Loire, who had served in Egypt in the 32nd Demi-brigade;
three Austrian officers of Artillery with their servants. A large barge
which followed and was towed by the _coche d'eau_ was filled with Austrian
soldiers, and on the banks of the river were a number of soldiers of the
Army of the Loire returning to their families and homes.

The peaceable demeanour and honourable conduct of this army is worthy of
admiration, and can never be sufficiently praised: not a single act of
brigandage has taken place. The Austrian officers expressed to me their
astonishment at this, and said they doubted whether any other army in
Europe, disbanded and under the same circumstances, would behave so well. I
told them the French soldier was a free-man and a citizen and drawn from a
respectable class of people, which was not the case in most other
countries. Yes, these gallant fellows who had been calumniated by furious
Ultras, by the base ministerial prints of England, and the venal satellites
of Toryism, who had been represented as brigands or as infuriated Jacobins
with red caps and poignards, these men, in spite, of the contumely and
insult they met with from servile prefects, and from those who never dared
to face them in the field, are a model of good conduct and they preserve
the utmost subordination, tho' disbanded: they respect scrupulously the
property of the inhabitants and pay for everything. Mr. L., the young Irish
barrister, told me at Dijon that he left his purse by mistake in a shop
there in which were 20 napoleons in gold, when a soldier of the army of the
Loire, who happened to be in the shop, perceived it and came running after
him with it, but refused to accept of anything, tho' much pressed by Mr.
L., who wished to reward him handsomely for his disinterested conduct. Yes,
the French soldier is a fine fellow. I have served against them in Holland
and in Egypt and I will never flinch from rendering justice to their
exemplary conduct and lofty valour. No! it is not the French soldiery who
can be accused of plundering and exaction, but what brought the French name
in disrepute was the conduct of certain _prefects_ and _administrators_ in
Germany who were promoted to these posts for no other reason than because
they were of the old _noblesse_ or returned _Emigrants_, whom Napoleon
favoured in preference to the Republicans whom he feared. These emigrants
repaid his favours with the basest ingratitude; after being guilty of the
grossest and most infamous _concussions_ on the inhabitants of those parts
of Germany where their jurisdiction extended, they had the hypocrisy after
the restoration to declaim against the oppression of the _Usurper's_
government and its system: but Napoleon richly deserved to meet with this
ingratitude for employing such unprincipled fellows. I believe he was never
aware of the villany they carried on, or they would have met with his
severest displeasure in being removed from office, as was the case with
Wirion at Verdun.[49]

I do not find that the French soldiers with whom I have conversed are so
much attached to the person of the Emperor as I was led to believe; but
they are attached to their country and liberty; and in serving him, they
conceived they were serving the man _par excellence_ of the People.

The French army too was beloved by the people, instead of being dreaded by
them as the armies of most other European nations are. In short, whenever I
met with and held conversation with soldiers of this army, I was always
tempted to address them in the words of Elvira to Pizarro when she seeks to
console him for his defeat:

  Yet think another morning shall arise,
  Nor fear the future, nor lament the past.[50]

The French Major was very much inclined to take up a quarrel with an
Austrian officer, on my account, but I dissuaded him. The cause was as
follows. A young Austrian boy, servant to one of the officers of Artillery,
had entered the _coche d'eau_ at Chalon, some minutes before his master,
and began to avail himself of the right of conquest by taking possession of
the totality of one of the cabins and endeavouring to exclude the other
passengers; among other things he was going to thrust my portmanteau out of
its place. I called to him to let it alone, when the French Major stepped
forward and said that if he dared to touch any of the baggage belonging to
the passengers, he would punish him on the spot and his master also, for
that he longed to measure swords with those "Jean F---- d'Autrichiens."
Fearful of a serious quarrel between them and being unwilling that any
dispute should occur on my account, I requested the Major not to meddle
with the business, for that I was sure the Austrian officer would check the
impertinence of his servant when he came on board; and that if he did not,
I was perfectly able and willing to defend my own cause. The Austrian
officers came on board a few minutes after, when I addressed them in
German, and explained to them the behaviour of the boy; they scolded him
severely for his impertinence to us and threatened him with the _Schlag_,
should it occur again. The rest of the journey passed without any incident.
I found that my friend the Major had served in the French army in Egypt in
the division Lanusse in the battle of the 21st March, 1801, (30 Ventose)
and that consequently we were opposed to each other in that battle, as I
was then serving as a Lieutenant in the Queen's Regiment, commanded by that
excellent and amiable officer the Earl of D[alhousie] in General Doyle's
brigade.

The voyage on the Saone presents some pleasing and picturesque points of
view; the _coteaux_ on the banks of the river are covered with vines. We
arrived at 8 o'clock in the evening to sup and sleep at Macon and put up at
the _Hotel des Sauvages_. We had a most sumptuous repast, fish, flesh,
fowls, game, fruit and wine in profusion, for all which, including our
beds, we had only to pay 2-1/2 francs the person.

There is a spacious Quai at Macon, which always adds to the beauty of a
city, and there are some fine buildings, public and private. I need not
enlarge on the excellence of the Macon wine. The country girls we observed
on the banks of the river as we floated along, and the _grisettes_ of the
town who were promenading on the Quai when we arrived, wore a peculiarly
elegant _costume_ and their headdress appeared to me to be something
Asiatic.

The voyage on the subsequent day was more agreeable than the preceding one.
The country between Macon and Lyons is much more beautiful and diversified
than that which we have hitherto seen and resembles much the picturesque
scenery of the West-Indian landscape. One part between Macon and Trevoux
resembles exactly the island of Montserrat.

Within two miles of Trevoux we were hailed by some _grisettes_ belonging to
the inns at that place, in order to invite us to dine at their respective
inns. There was one girl exceedingly beautiful whose name was Sophie,
daughter of the proprietor of the _Hotel des Sauvages_ at Trevoux. She, by
her grace and coquetry, obtained the most recruits and when we disembarked
from the boat, she led us in triumph to her hotel. From her beauty and
graceful manner, Sophie, in a country where so much hommage is paid to
beauty, must be a most valuable acquisition to the interests of the inn,
and tho' she smiles on all, she takes care not to make herself cheap, and
like Corisca in the _Pastor Fido_ she holds put hopes which she does not at
all intend to gratify. After passing by the superb scenery on the banks of
the river (which increases in interest as you approach Lyons), the _Isle
Barbe_ and _la Tour de la belle Allemande_, we arrived at Lyons at 5 p.m.
and debarked on the _Quai de la Saone_. A _fiacre_ took me up and deposited
me safe at the _Hotel du Nord_ situated on the _Place St Claire_ and not
many yards distant of the _Quai du Rhone_.


LYONS, 26th Sept.

Lyons is situated on a tongue of land at the junction of the Saone and
Rhone, and there is a fine bridge on the spot where the streams unite,
called _le pont du Confluent_, which joins the extremity of the tongue of
land with the right bank of the Saone. There is besides a large bridge
across the Rhone, higher up, before it joins the Saone, leading in a right
line from the _Hotel de Ville_; and two other bridges across the Saone. The
_Quai du Rhone_ is by far the finest and most agreeable part of the city.
It is spacious, well paved, aligned with trees, and boast the finest
edifices public and private in the whole city; it is the favourite
promenade of the _beaux_ and _belles_ of Lyons. The sight of the broad and
majestic Rhone itself is a grand object, and on a fine day the prospect is
augmented by the distant view of the fleecy head of Mont Blanc. On this
Quai and within a 100 yards of the bridge on the Rhone are the justly
celebrated _bains du Rhone_, fitted up in a style of elegance even superior
to those called _les Bains Vigier_ on the Seine at Paris. The grand
Hospital is also on the Quai; the facade is beautiful; its architecture is
of the Ionic order and the building itself as well as its interior economy
has frequently elicited the admiration of travellers. Among the Places in
this city the finest is that of Bellecour.

The scenery is extremely diversified in the environs of Lyons, and in the
city there is great appearance of wealth and splendour. Lyons flourished
greatly during the time of the continental blockade, as it was the central
depot of the commerce between France and Italy. Napoleon is much respected
and regretted here, and with reason, as he was a great benefactor to this
city. The Lyonnese are too frank, too open in their sentiments and too
grateful not to render justice to his great talents and good qualities,
while they blame and deplore his ambition. In fact an experience of a few
days and some acquaintance I made here has given me a very favourable
impression of the inhabitants of this city. The men are frank in their
manners, polite, well informed, and free from all frivolity. The women are
in general handsome, well shaped, and have much grace and are exceedingly
well educated; they seem totally free from the _Petite-maitressism_ of the
Parisian women, and both sexes seem to possess a good deal of what the
French term _caractere_. Had the Parisians resembled the Lyonnese, Paris
would never have fallen twice into the hands of the enemy, nor would the
Lyonnese women have welcomed the entry of the invaders into their city with
waving handkerchiefs, etc. These qualities of the inhabitants, the beauty
of the country, and the cheapness of all the comforts and luxuries of life,
would make Lyons one of the most agreeable places of residence to a
foreigner of liberal sentiments and principles.

Cloth and silk are the staple manufactures of Lyons, particularly the
latter; I accompanied my friend Mr M---- to see his fabrique of silk which
is of considerable extent and importance, and everything appeared to me, as
far as one totally ignorant of the business and its process could judge,
admirably regulated and rapid in its execution. The _tournure_ of the
_grisettes_ of Lyons is very striking and they possess completely the
_grata protervitas_, the _vultus nimium lubricus aspici_ which Horace so
much admires in Glycera.

I visited both the theatres here, viz.: the _Grand Theatre_, situated near
the _Hotel de Ville_, and the smaller one called the _Theatre des
Celestins_. At the former was some good dancing, and at the latter I was
engaged in a conversation which I cannot forbear citing as it will serve to
show the dislike the people have to the feudal system and the dread they
have of its re-establishment, tho' they can know nothing about it except by
tradition. The piece performed was called _Le petit Poucet_ (Tom Thumb and
the Ogre); but I missed my old acquaintance the Ogre and his seven-league
boots of Mother Goose, and found that in this melodrama he was transformed
into a tyrannical and capricious _Seigneur Feodal_. There was a very pretty
young lady about 16 years of age accompanied by her father in the same box
with me, and I observed to her, "Ou est donc l'Ogre? il parait que l'on en
a fait un Seigneur feodal." "Oui, monsieur (she replied), et avec raison,
car ils etaient bien les Ogres de ce temps la." I entered into a long
conversation with my fair neighbour and found her well informed and well
educated, with great good sense and knowledge of the world far beyond her
years. She told me that she had begun to study English and that her father
was a miniature painter. I took leave of her not without feeling much
affected and my heart not a little "percosso dall' amoroso strale."

I must not forget to mention that there is a most spacious and magnificent
building on the _Quai du Rhone_ to the North of the bridge, which serves as
a cafe and ridotto or assembly room for balls, etc. I am afraid to say how
many feet it has in length; but it is the most superb establishment of the
kind I have ever met with.

Fortunately for the city of Lyons, the famous decree of Robespierre for
its destruction, and the column with the inscription, "Lyon a porte les
armes contre la liberte; Lyon n'est plus," which was to occupy its place,
was never put in execution and tho' this city suffered much from
revolutionary vandalism yet it soon recovered and has flourished ever since
in a manner unheard of at any former period. No people are more sensible
than the Lyonnese of the great benefits produced by the Revolution, and no
people more deprecate a return to the _ancien regime_.


Oct. 2nd, GENEVA.

I started in the diligence for Geneva on the 28th Sept. and found it
exceedingly cold on ascending the mountain called the _Cerdon_; the scenery
is savage and wild, and the road in many parts is on the brink of
precipices. We stopped at Nantua for supper and partook of some excellent
trout. There is a large lake near the town, and 'tis here that the Swiss
landscape begins. Commanding a narrow pass stands the fort of L'Ecluse. The
Austrians lost a great many men in attempting to force it. From this place
you have a noble view of the Alps and Mont-Blanc towering above them. As
this was the first time I beheld these celebrated mountains I was
transported with delight and my mind was filled with a thousand classical
and historical recollections! The scenery, the whole way from Fort l'Ecluse
to Geneva, is most magnificent and uncommonly varied. Mountain and valley,
winter and summer, on the same territory. Descending, the city of Geneva
opens gradually; you behold the lake Leman and the Rhone issuing from it.
We entered the city, which is fortified, and after crossing the double
bridge across the Rhone, we arrived at the _Hotel de l'Eau de Geneve_ at 12
o'clock. The most striking thing in the city of Geneva to the traveller's
eye as he enters it, is the view of the arcades on each side of the street,
excellent for pedestrians and for protection against sun and rain, but
which give a heavy and gloomy appearance to the city. An immense number of
watch-makers is another distinguishing feature in this city. The first
thing shewn to me by my _valet de place_ was the house where Jean Jacques
Rousseau was born; I then desired him to shew me the spot where that
barbarian Calvin caused to be burnt the unhappy Servetus for not having the
same religious opinions as himself.

The most agreeable promenades of the city are on the bastions and ramparts,
a place called _La Treille_ and a garden or park of small extent called
_Plain Palais_. In this park stands on a column the bust of J.J. Rousseau.
This park was the scene of a great deal of bloodshed in 1791 on account of
political disputes between the aristocratic and democratic parties, or
rather between the admirers and imitators of the French Revolution and
those who dreaded such innovations. This affair excited so much horror, and
the recollection of it operated so powerfully on the imagination of the
inhabitants, that the place became entirely abandoned as a public
promenade, and avoided as a polluted spot for many years. Very likely
however a sort of lustration has taken place; an oration was pronounced and
the place again declared worthy of contributing to the recreation of the
inhabitants. It is now become the favourite promenade of the citizens of
Geneva, tho' there are still some who cannot get over their old prejudices
and never set their foot in it. There is likewise a pleasant walk as far as
the town of Carrouge in Savoy, which town has been lately ceded by the King
of Sardinia to the republic of Geneva. In Geneva the sentiments of the
inhabitants do not seem to be favourable either to the French Revolution,
or to Napoleon. Their political ideas accord very much with those professed
by the government party in England, and they make a great parade of them
just now, as a means of courting the favour of England and of the Allied
Sovereigns. The government here have shewn a great disposition to second
the views of the Allied Powers in persecuting those Frenchmen who have been
proscribed by the Bourbon government.

This state lost its independence during the revolutionary wars and was
incorporated with France. As the citizens were suspected of being more
favourable to the English than suited the policy of the French government
of that time, they were viewed with a jealous eye and I believe some
individuals were harshly treated; but what most vexed and displeased them
was the enforcement of the conscription among them, for the Genevois do not
like compulsion; they are besides more pacific than war-like and tho' like
the Dutch they have displayed great valour where their interest is at
stake, yet Mercury is a deity far more in veneration among them than
Bellona. The natural talent of this people is great, and it has been
favoured and developed by the freedom of their institutions; and this
republic has produced too many eminent men for that talent to be called in
question; they seem to have decided talents and dispositions for financial
operations. A Genevois has the aptitude of great application united to a
very discerning, natural genius, and he generally succeeds in everything he
undertakes. Literature is much cultivated here, and the females, who are
in general handsome and graceful, excel not only in the various feminine
accomplishments, such as music, dancing and drawing, but they carry their
researches into the higher branches of litterature and science and acquire
with great facility foreign languages. It is true that you now and then
meet with a little pedantry on the part of the young men and some of the
young women are _tant soit feu precieuses_; and you may guess from their
conversation, which is sometimes forced, that the person who speaks has
been learning his discourse by heart from some book in the morning, with
the intention of sporting it as a natural conversation in the evening. In
short, one does not meet with that _abandon_ in society that is to be met
with in Paris; you must measure your words well to shine in a Genevese
society. This, however, is a very pardonable sort of coxcombry; and tho' it
appear sometimes pedantic, and occasionally laughable, yet it tends to
encourage learning and science, and compels the young men to read in order
to shine and captivate the fair.

The Genevese women make excellent wives and mothers; and many strangers,
struck with their beauty and talent, as well as with the _agremens_ of the
country in general, marry at Geneva and settle themselves there for life.
It is observed that the Genevoises are so attached to their country that on
forming a matrimonial connection with foreigners, they always stipulate
that they shall not be removed from it. On the dismemberment of the Empire
of Napoleon, Geneva was _agrege_ to the Helvetic Confederation, as an
independent Canton of which there are now twenty-two. Three, viz. Geneva,
Vaud, and Neufchatel, are French in language and manners. One, the Tessino,
is Italian, and the remaining eighteen are all German. It is a great
advantage to Geneva to belong to the Helvetic Confederacy, as formerly,
when she was an isolated independent state, she was in continual dread of
being swallowed up by one or other of her two powerful neighbours, France
and the King of Sardinia, and only existed by their forbearance and mutual
jealousy.

I walked out one morning to Ferney in order to visit the chateau of
Voltaire and to do hommage to the memory of that great man, the benefactor
of the human race. It was he who gave the mortal blow to superstition and
to the power of the clergy. It is the fashion for priests, Ultras and
Tories to rail against him, but I judge him by his works and the effect of
his works. His memory is held in reverence by the inhabitants of Ferney as
their father and benefactor. He spent his whole fortune in acts of the most
disinterested charity; he saved entire families from ruin and portioned off
many a young woman who was deprived of the gifts of fortune and enabled
them to form happy matrimonial connections; in short, doing good seems to
have been one of the most ardent passions of his soul. In three memorable
instances he shewed his hatred of cruelty and injustice, and unmasked
triumphantly ecclesiastical imposture and fanaticism. He has been
reproached with vanity, but surely that may be pardoned in a man who
received the hommage of the whole literary world, who was considered as an
oracle, and whose every sentence was recorded; whose talent was so
universal, that he excelled in every branch of litterature that he
undertook.

Ferney, which was only a miserable village when Voltaire first took up his
residence there, is now a large flourishing and opulent town.

I found Voltaire's Chateau occupied by a fat heavy Swiss Officer who was on
duty there, Ferney being at this moment occupied by the troops of the Swiss
confederation. He was at breakfast, but on my stating to him that I was
come to see the apartments of Voltaire he directed the housekeeper to shew
them to me. On the left hand side after ascending a flight of steps, before
you come into the Chateau, is a Chapel built by Voltaire with this simple
inscription: "_Deo erexit Voltaire_." In the apartment usually occupied by
him for the purpose of composition, are preserved his chair, table,
inkstand and bed as sacred relics; and in the Salon are to be seen the
portraits of several public characters, his contemporaries, and which were
constantly appended there in his life time. Among these portraits I
distinguished those of Frederick the Great of Prussia, Catherine II of
Russia, Lekain, Diderot, Alembert, Franklin, Helvetius, Marmontel and
Washington, besides many others. There is nothing remarkable either in the
Chateau, or in the gardens appertaining to it; but as it stands on an
elevation, it commands a fine view, which is so well described in that ode
which begins:

  O maison d'Aristippe, o jardins d'Epicure!

I returned to Geneva and dined with my friend M. Picot the banker, who
presented me to his brother's family, which I found a very amiable one, and
I was particularly delighted with his father, a fine venerable old man, who
is a pastor of the Church of Geneva and a great admirer of our poets
Thomson and Milton.

I have made acquaintance at the _Ecu de Geneve_ with a very gallant and
accomplished officer, the Chevalier Zadera, a Pole by birth and a Colonel
in the French army.[51] He had been on the staff of the Prince d'Eckmuehl at
Hamburgh and had served previously in St Domingo, in Germany and in Italy.
He had just quitted the French service, having a great repugnance to serve
under the Bourbon dynasty, and he is about to go to Italy on private
business. He seems a very well informed man and well versed in French,
Italian and German litterature. He also understands well to read and write
English and speaks it, but not at all fluently. He acquired his English in
the United States of America, whither he went when he escaped from the
horrors of St Domingo. By the Americans he was received with open arms and
unbounded hospitality as the compatriot of Pulaski who fell gloriously
fighting in their cause, the cause of liberty, at the battle of Savannah.
He was liberally supplied with money by several individuals without the
smallest expectation or chance of repayment at the time, and was forwarded
in this manner from town to town and from state to state throughout the
whole Union; so that the tour he made and the time he passed in that land
of liberty, he reckons as far the most agreeable epoch of his life. One
evening at the _Ecu de Geneve_ I found Zadera in altercation on political
subjects with two French Ultras who had been emigrants, a Genevois and a
Bernois, both anti-liberal. This was fearful odds for poor Zadera to be
alone against four _acharnes_. I sat down and espoused his cause and we
maintained our argument gloriously. The dispute began on the occasion of
Zadera condemning the harshness shewn by the government of Geneva towards
the _Conventionnels_ and others who were banished from France on the second
restoration of Louis XVIII by a vote of the _Chambre introuvable_ in
refusing them an asylum in the Republic and compelling them to depart
immediately in a very contumelious manner. I said it was inconsistent and
unworthy of the Genevese who called themselves republicans to persecute or
join in the persecution of the republicans of France in order to please
foreign despots. The others then began to be very violent with me. I
replied, "Messieurs, vous avez beau parler; les Genevois sont de tres bons
cambistes et les meilleurs banquiers de l'Europe, mais il ne sont pas bons
republicains."

Geneva has been so often described by tourists that I shall not attempt any
description except to remark that there are several good Cabinets and
collections of pictures belonging to individuals. There is a magnificent
public library. The manufactures are those of watches and models of the
Alps which are exceedingly ingenious. There are no theatrical amusements
here; and during divine service on Sunday the gates of the city are shut,
and neither ingress nor egress permitted; fortunately their liturgy (the
Calvinistic) is at least one hour shorter than the Anglican. Balls and
concerts take place here very often and the young Genevois of both sexes
are generally proficient in music. They amuse themselves too in summer with
the "tir de l'arc" in common with all the Swiss Cantons.


October 3rd.

I have been in doubt whether I should go to Lausanne, return to Paris or
extend my journey into Italy; but I have at length decided for the latter,
as Zadera, who intends to start immediately for Milan, has offered me a
place in his carriage _a frais communs_. I found him so agreeable a man and
possessing sentiments so analogous to my own that I eagerly embraced the
offer, and we are to cross the Simplon, so that I shall behold a travel
over that magnificent _chausee_ made by Napoleon's orders, which I have so
much desired to see and which everybody tells me is a most stupendous work
and exceeding anything ever made by the Romans. As the Chevalier has served
in Italy and was much _repandu_ in society there, I could not possibly have
a pleasanter companion. He has with him Dante and Alfieri, and I have
Gessner's _Idylls_ and my constant travelling companion Ariosto, so that we
shall have no loss for conversation, for when our native wits are
exhausted, a page or two from any of the above authors will suggest
innumerable ideas, anecdotes, and subjects of discourse.


MILAN, 10th Oct.

We started from Geneva at seven in the morning of the 4th October, and in
half an hour entered the Savoyard territory, of which _douaniers_ with blue
cockades (the cockade of the King of Sardinia) gave us intimation. The road
is on the South side of the lake Leman. In Evian and Thonon, the two first
villages we passed thro', we do not find that _aisance_, comfort and
cleanliness that is perceivable on the other side of the lake, in the
delightful Canton de Vaud. The double yoke of priestcraft and military
despotism presses hard upon the unhappy Savoyard and wrings from him his
hard-earned pittance, while no people are better off than the Vaudois; yet
the Savoyards are to the full as deserving of liberty as the Swiss. The
Savoyard possesses honesty, fidelity and industry in a superior degree, and
these qualities he seldom or ever loses, even when exposed to the
temptations of a great metropolis like Paris, to which they are compelled
to emigrate, as their own country is too poor to furnish the means of
subsistence to all its population. When in Paris and other large cities,
the Savoyards contrive, by the most indefatigable industry and incredible
frugality, to return to their native village after a certain lapse of time,
with a little fortune that is amply sufficient for their comfort. The
poorest Savoyard in Paris never fails to remit something for the support of
his parents. Both Voltaire and Rousseau have rendered justice to the good
qualities of this honest people. It is a thousand pities that this country
(Savoy) is not either incorporated with France, or made to form part of the
Helvetic confederacy.

On passing by La Meillerie we were reminded of "La nouvelle Heloise" and
the words of St Preux: "Le rocher est escarpe: l'eau est profonde et je
suis au desespoir." On the opposite side of the lake is to be seen the
little white town of Clarens, the supposed residence of the divine Julie. A
little beyond St Gingolph, which lies at the eastern extremity of the lake,
we quit Savoy and enter into the Valais, which now forms, a component part
of the Helvetic confederacy. German is the language spoken in the Valais.
As the high road into Italy passes thro' the whole length of this Canton,
Napoleon caused it to be separated from the Helvetic union and to form a
Republic apart, with the ulterior view and which he afterwards carried into
execution of annexing it to the French Empire. The Valais forms a long and
exceedingly narrow valley, thro' the whole length of which the Rhone flows
and falls into the lake Leman at St Gingolph. The breadth of this valley in
its widest part is not more probably than 1,000 yards, and in most places
considerably narrower, and it is enclosed on each side, or rather walled up
by the immense mountains of the higher Alps which rise here very abruptly
and seem to shut out this valley from the rest of the world. The high road
runs nearly parallel to the course of the Rhone and is sometimes on one
side of the river and sometimes on the other, communicating by bridges;
from the sinuosity of the road and the different points of view presented
by the salient and re-entering angles, of the mountains the scenery is
extremely picturesque, grand and striking, and as sometimes no outlet
presents itself to view, you do not perceive how you are ever to get out of
this valley but by a stratagem similar to that of Sindbad in the Valley of
Diamonds. At St Maurice is a remarkable one-arched bridge built by the
Romans. We stopped at Martigny to pass the night; within one mile of
Martigny and before arriving at it, we perceived the celebrated waterfall
called the _Pissevache_; and the appellation, though coarse, is perfectly
applicable. From Martigny a bridle road branches off which leads across the
Grand St Bernard to Aoste. The next morning we arrived at Sion, called in
the language of the country Sitten, the metropolis of the Valais; it is a
neat-looking and tolerably large town, and which from its position might be
made a most formidable military post, as there is a steep hill close to it
which rises abruptly from the centre of the valley, and commands an
extensive view east and west. Works erected on this height would enfilade
the whole road either way and totally obstruct the approach of an enemy.
There is besides a large castle on the southern _paroi_ of mountains which
hem in this valley, which would expose to a most galling fire and take in
flank completely those who should attempt to force the passage whether
coming from St Maurice or Brieg. We stopped two hours at Sion to mend a
wheel and this gave me time to ascend the mountain on which the castle
stands. There were several masons and workmen employed in the construction
of a church which they are erecting at the request and entire expense of
His Sardinian Majesty. I could not ascertain what were the reasons that
induced the King to build a church in a foreign territory. I did not
observe either on the road or in any of the village thro' which we passed
any striking specimen of Valaisan female beauty; but I often remarked the
prominent bosom that Rousseau describes as frequent among them. We met with
several _cretins_ or idiots, all of whom had _goitres_ in a greater or less
degree. These _souls of God without sin_, as the cretins are called, are
very merry souls; they always appear to be laughing. They seem to have
adopted and united three systems of philosophy: they are Diogenes as to
independence and neglect of decency and cleanliness; Democriti as to their
disposition to laugh perpetually; and Aristippi inasmuch as they seem to be
perfectly contented with their state. They are in general fat and well fed,
for the poorest inhabitants give them something. They have a good deal of
cunning, and many curious anecdotes are related of them which shews that
they are endowed with a sort of sagacity resembling the instinct of
animals. I recollect one myself mentioned by Zimmermann in his Essay on
Solitude, of a cretin who was accustomed to imitate with his voice the
sound of the village clock whenever it struck the hours and quarters; one
day, by some accident, the clock stopped; yet the cretin went through the
chimes of the hours and quarters with the same regularity as the clock
would have done had it been going.

We arrived at night at the village of Brieg at the foot of the Simplon and
put up at a very comfortable inn. Brieg and Glisse are two small villages
lying within a quarter of a mile distance from each other. The direct road
runs thro' Brieg and is a great advantage to this town; while Glisse lost
this benefit from the opposition shewn by its inhabitants to the annexation
of the Valais to the French Empire. They now deeply regret this refusal as
few travellers chuse to stop at Glisse.

_Passage of the Simplon_.

  Chi mi dara la voce e le parole
  Convenienti a si nobil soggetto?[52]

  Who will vouchsafe me voice that shall ascend
  As high as I would raise my noble theme?

  --Trans. W.S. ROSE.

How shall I describe the Simplon and the impressions that magnificent piece
of work, the _chaussee_ across it, made on my mind? On arrival at the
village of the Simplon, which lies at nearly the greatest elevation off the
road and is more than half-way across, I wrote in my enthusiasm for the
author of this gigantic work, the following lines:

  O viaggiator, se avessi tu veduto
  Quel monte, pria che fosse il cammin fatto,
  Leveresti le mani, e stupefatto
  Diresti, "chi l'avrebbe mai creduto?
  Son come quel d'Alcide i tuoi miracoli!
  Vincesti, Napoleon', piu grandi ostacoli!"

Imagine a fine road or causeway broad enough for three carriages to go
abreast, cut in the flanks of the mountains, winding along their contours,
sometimes zigzag on the flank of one ravine, and sometimes turning off
nearly at right angles to the flank of another; separated from each other
by precipices of tremendous depth, and communicating by one-arched bridges
of surprising boldness; besides stone bridges at each re-entering angle, to
let pass off the water which flows from the innumerable cascades, which
fall from the summits of the mountains. Ice and snow eternal on the various
_pics_ or _aiguilles_ (as the summits are here called) which tower above
your head, and yet in the midst of these _belles horreurs_ the road is so
well constructed, so smooth, and the slope so gentle that when there are
fogs, which often happen here and prevent you from beholding the
surrounding scenery, you would suppose you were travelling on a plain the
whole time. Balustrades are affixed on the sides of the most abrupt
precipices and buttresses also in order to secure the exterior part of the
_chaussee_. On the whole length of the _chaussee_ on the exterior side are
conical stones of four feet in height at ten paces distant from each other,
in order to mark the road in case of its being covered with snow. There are
besides _maisons de refuge_ or cottages, at a distance of one league from
each other, wherein are stationed persons to give assistance and food to
travellers, or passengers who may be detained by the snow storms. There is
always in these cabins a plentiful supply of biscuit, cheese, salt and
smoked meats, wine, brandy and fire-wood. In those parts of the road where
the sides of the ravines are not sloping enough to admit of the road being
cut along them, subterraneous galleries have been pierced through the rock,
some of fifty, some of a hundred and more yards in length, and nearly as
broad as the rest of the road. In a word it appears to me the grandest work
imagined or made by man, and when combined with its extreme utility, far
surpasses what is related of the Seven Wonders of the world. There are
fifty-two bridges throughout the whole of this route, which begins at the
distance of three miles from Geneva, skirts the southern shore of the lake,
runs thro' the whole Valais, traverses the Simplon and issuing from the
gorges of the mountains at Domo d'Ossola terminates at Rho in the Milanese.
From Brieg to the toll-house, the highest part of the road, the distance is
about 18 miles. It made me dreadfully giddy to look down the various
precipices; and what adds to the vertigo one feels is the deafening noise
of the various waterfalls. As the road is cut zigzag, in many parts, you
appear to preserve nearly the same distance from Brieg after three hours'
march, as after half an hour only, since you have that village continually
under your eyes, nor do you lose sight of it till near the toll-house.
Brieg appears when viewed from various points of the road like the
card-houses of children, the Valais like a slip of green baize, and the
Rhone like a very narrow light blue ribband; and when at Brieg before you
ascend you look up at the toll-house, you would suppose it impossible for
any human being to arrive at such a height without the help of a balloon.
It reminded me of the castle of the enchanter in the _Orlando Furioso_, who
keeps Ruggiero confined and who rides on the Hippogriff.

The village of the Simplon is a mile beyond the toll-house, descending. We
stopped there for two hours to dine. A snow storm had fallen and the
weather was exceedingly cold; the mountain air had sharpened our appetite,
but we could get nothing but fish and eggs as it was a _jour maigre_, and
the Valaisans are rigid observers of the ordinances of the Catholic church.
We however, on assuring the landlord that we were _militaires_, prevailed
on him to let us have some ham and sausages. German is the language here.
The road from the toll-house to Domo d'Ossola (the first town at the foot
of the mountain on the Italian side) is a descent, but the slope is as
gentle as on the rest of the road. Fifteen miles beyond the village of the
Simplon stands the village of Isella, which is the frontier town of the
King of Sardinia, and where there is a rigorous _douane_, and ten miles
further is Domo d'Ossola, where we arrived at seven in the evening. Between
Isella and Domo d'Ossola the scenery becomes more and more romantic,
varying at every step, cataracts falling on all sides, and three more
galleries to pass. Domo d'Ossola appears a large and neat clean town, and
we put up at a very good inn. At Isella begins the Italian language, or
rather Piedmontese.

The next morning we proceeded on our journey till we reached Fariolo, which
is on the northern extremity of the _Lago Maggiore_. The road from Domo
d'Ossola thro' the villages of Ornavasso and Vagogna is thro' a fertile and
picturesque valley, or rather gorge, of the mountain, narrow at first, but
which gradually widens as you approach to the lake. The river Toso runs
nearly in a parallel direction with the road. The air is much milder than
in Switzerland, and you soon perceive the change of climate from its
temperature, as well as from the appearance of the vines and mulberry trees
and Indian corn called in this country _grano turco_.

At Fariolo, after breakfast, my friend Zadera took leave of me and embarked
his carriage on the lake in order to proceed to Lugano; and I who was bound
to Milan, having hired a cabriolet, proceeded to Arona, after stopping one
hour to refresh the horses at Belgirate. The whole road from Fariolo to
Arona is on the bank of the _Lago Maggiore_, and nothing can be more neat
than the appearance of all these little towns which are solidly and
handsomely built in the Italian taste.

Before I arrived at Arona, and at a distance of two miles from it, I
stopped in order to ascend a height at a distance of one-eighth of a mile
from the road to view the celebrated colossal statue in bronze of St
Charles Borromaeus, which may be seen at a great distance. It is seventy
cubits high, situated on a pedestal of twenty feet, to ascend which
requires a ladder. You then enter between his legs, or rather the folds of
his gown, and ascend a sort of staircase till you reach his head. There is
something so striking in the appearance of this black gigantic figure when
viewed from afar, and still more when you are at the foot of it, that you
would suppose yourself living in the time of fairies and enchanters, and it
strongly reminded me of the Arabian Nights, as if the statue were the work
of some Genie or Peri; or as if it were some rebel Genius transformed into
black marble by Solomon the great Prophet. I am not very well acquainted
with the life and adventures of this Saint, but he was of the Borromean
family, who are the most opulent proprietors of the Milanese. Every tract
of land, palace, castle, farm in the environs of Arona seem to belong to
them. If you ask whose estate is that? whose villa is that? whose castle is
that? the answer is, to the Count Borromeo, who seems to be as universal a
proprietor here as _Nong-tong-paw_ at Paris or _Monsieur Kaniferstane_ at
Amsterdam.[53] Arona is a large, straggling but solidly built town, and
presents nothing worth notice.

We proceeded on our journey the next morning. Shortly after leaving Arona,
the road diverges from the lake and traverses a thick wood until it reaches
the banks of the Tessino; on the other bank of which, communicating by
means of a flying bridge, stands the town of Sesto Calende. The Tessino
divides and forms the boundary between the Sardinian and Austrian
territory, and Sesto Calende is the frontier of His Imperial, Royal and
Apostolic Majesty. After a rigorous search of my portmanteau at the
_Douane_, and exhibiting my passport, I was allowed to proceed on my
journey to Milan.

At Rho, where I stopped to dine, stands a remarkably ancient tree said to
have been planted in the time of Augustus. The country presents a perfect
plain, highly cultivated, all the way from Sesto to Milan. The _chaussee_
is broad and admirably well kept up and lined on both sides with poplars.
The roads in Lombardy are certainly the finest in Europe. I entered Milan
by the gate which leads direct to the esplanade between the citadel and the
city, and drove to the _Pension Suisse_, which is in a street close to the
Cathedral and Ducal palace.


MILAN, 12 October.

I am just returned from the _Teatro della Scala_, renowned for its immense
size: it certainly is the most stupendous theatre I ever beheld and even
surpassed the expectation I had formed of it, so much so that I remained
for some minutes lost in astonishment. I was much struck with the
magnificence of the scenery and decorations. An _Opera_ and _Ballo_ are
given every night, and the same are repeated for a month, when they are
replaced by new ones. The boxes are all hired by the year by the different
noble and opulent families, and in the _Parterre_ the price is only thirty
soldi or sous, about fifteen pence English, for which you are fully as well
regaled as at the _Grand Opera_ at Paris for three and a half francs and
far better than at the Italian theatre in London for half a guinea. The
opera I saw represented is called _L'Italiana in Algieri_, opera buffa, by
Rossini.

The _Ballo_ was one of the most magnificent spectacles I ever beheld. The
scenery and decorations are of the first class and superior even to those
of the _Grand Opera_ at Paris. The _Ballo_ was called _Il Cavaliere del
Tempio_. The story is taken from an occurrence that formed an episode in
the history of the Crusades and which has already furnished to Walter Scott
the subject of a very pleasing ballad entitled the _Fire-King_, or _Count
Albert and Fair Rosalie_. Battles of foot and horse with real horses,
Christians and Moslems, dancing, incantations, excellent and very
appropriate music leave nothing to be desired to the ravished spectator. In
the _Ballo_ all is done in pantomime and the acting is perfect. The
Italians seem to inherit from their ancestors the faculty of representing
by dumb show the emotions of the mind as well as the gestures of the body,
and in this they excel all other modern nations. The dancing is not quite
so good as what one sees at the Paris theatre, and besides that sort of
dancing they are very fond in Italy of grotesque dances which appear to me
to be mere _tours de force_. But the decorations are magnificent, and the
cost must be great.

It was a fine moonlight night on my return from the _Scala_, which gave a
very pleasing effect to the _Duomo_ or Cathedral as I passed by it. The
innumerable aiguilles or spires of the most exquisite and delicate
workmanship, tapering and terminating in points all newly whitened, gave
such an appearance of airiness and lightness to this beautiful building
that it looked more visionary than substantial, and as if a strong puff of
wind would blow it away. The next morning I went to visit the Cathedral in
detail. It stands in the place called _Piazza del Duomo_. On this _piazza_
stands also the Ducal Palace; the principal cafes and the most splendid
shops are in the same _piazza_, which forms the morning lounge of Milan.
Parallel to one side of the _Duomo_ runs the _Corsia de' Servi_, the widest
and most fashionable street in Milan, the resort of the _beau monde_ in the
evening, and leading directly out to the _Porta Orientale_. The Cathedral
appears to me certainly the most striking Gothic edifice I ever beheld. It
is as large as the Cathedral of Notre Dame at Paris, and the architecture
of the interior is very massive. There is little internal ornament,
however, except the tomb or mausoleum of St Charles Borromeo, round which
is a magnificent railing; there are also the statues of this Saint and of
St Ambrogio. There are several well-executed bas-reliefs on the outside of
the Church, from Scripture subjects, and the view from any of the balconies
of the spires is very extensive. On the North the Alps, covered with snow
and appearing to rise abruptly within a very short horizon, tho' their
distance from Milan is at least sixty or seventy miles; and on all the
other sides a vast and well-cultivated plain as far as the eye can reach,
thickly studded with towns and villages, and the immense city of Milan nine
miles in circumference at your feet. The streets in general in Milan are
well paved; there is a line of trottoir on each side of the street
equi-distant from the line of houses; so that these trottoirs seem to be
made for the carriage wheels to roll on, and not for the foot passengers,
who must keep within the space that lies between the trottoirs and line of
houses. With the exception of the _Piazza del Duomo_ there is scarcely
anything that can be called a _piazza_ in all Milan, unless irregular and
small open places may be dignified with that name; the houses and buildings
are extremely solid in their construction and handsome in their appearance.
A canal runs thro' the city and leads to Pavia; on this canal are stone
bridges of a very solid construction. The shops in Milan are well stored
with merchandize, and make a very brilliant display. The finest street,
without doubt, is the _Corsia de' Servi_. In the part of it that lies
parallel to the Cathedral, it is about as broad as the _Rue St Honore_ at
Paris; but two hundred yards beyond it, it suddenly widens and is then
broader than Portland Place the whole way to the _Porta Orientale_. On the
left hand of this street, on proceeding from the Cathedral to the _Porta
Orientale_, is a beautiful and extensive garden; an ornamental iron railing
separates it from the street. From the number of fine trees here there is
so much shade therefrom that it forms a very agreeable promenade during the
heat of the day. On the right hand side of the _Corsia de' Servi_,
proceeding from the Cathedral, are the finest buildings (houses of
individuals) in Milan, among which I particularly distinguished a superb
palace built in the best Grecian taste with a colonnaded portico,
surmounted by eight columns. Just outside the _Porta Orientale_ is the
_Corso_, with a fine spacious road with _Allees_ on each side lined with
trees. The _Corso_ forms the evening drive and _promenade a cheval_ of the
_beau monde_. I have seen nowhere, except in Hyde Park, such a brilliant
show of equipages as on the Corso of Milan. I observe that the women
display a great _luxe de parure_ at this promenade.

The women here appear to me in general handsome, and report says not at all
cruel. They have quite a _fureur_ for dress and ornaments, hi the adapting
of which, however, they have not so much taste as the French women have.
The Milanese women do not understand the _simplicite recherchee_ in their
attire, and are too fond of glaring colours. The Milanese women are accused
of being too fond of wine, and a calculation has been made that two bottles
_per diem_ are drank by each female in Milan; but, supposing this
calculation were true, let not the English be startled, for the wine of
this, country is exceedingly light, lighter indeed than the weakest
Burgundy wine; indeed, I conceive that two bottles of Lombard wine are
scarce equivalent in strength to four wine glasses of Port wine. The
Lombards for this reason never drink water with their wine; and indeed it
is not necessary, for I am afraid that all the wine drank in Milan is
already baptised before it leaves the hands of the vendor, except that
reserved for the priesthood; such, at any rate, was the case before the
French Revolution, and no doubt the wine sellers would oppose the abolition
of so _ancient_ and _sacred_ a custom. The Milanese are a gay people,
hospitable and fond of pleasure: they are more addicted to the pleasures of
the table than the other people of Italy, and dinner parties are in
consequence much more frequent here than in other Italian towns. The women
here are said to be much better educated than in the rest of Italy, for
Napoleon took great pains to promote and encourage female instruction, well
knowing that to be the best means of regenerating a country.

The dialect spoken in the Milanese has a harsh nasal accent, to my ear
peculiarly disagreeable. Pure Italian or Tuscan is little spoken here, and
that only to foreigners. French, on the contrary, is spoken a good deal;
but the Milanese, male and female, among one another, speak invariably the
_patois_ of the country, which has more analogy to the French than to the
Italian, but without the grace or euphony of either.

I have visited likewise the _Zecca_, or Mint, where I observed the whole
process of coining. They still continue to coin here Napoleons of gold and
silver, with the date of 1814, and they coin likewise crowns or dollars
with Maria Theresa's head, with the date of the last year of her reign. The
double Napoleon of forty _franchi_ of the Kingdom of Italy is a beautiful
coin; on the run are the words, _Dio protegge l'Italia_. It may not be
unnecessary to remark that in Italy by the word _Napoleone_, as a coin, is
meant the five franc piece with the head of Napoleon, and a twenty franc
gold piece is called _Napoleone d'oro_.

At the _Zecca_ I was shown some gold, silver and bronze medals, struck in
commemoration of the formation of the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom, under the
sceptre of Austria. They bear the following inscription, which, if I
recollect aright, is from Horace:

  Redeunt in aurum
  Tempora priscum,[54]

but this golden age is considered by the Italians as a very leaden one; and
it seems to bear as much analogy to the golden age, as the base Austrian
copper coin, daubed over with silver, and made to pass for fifteen and
thirty soldi, has to the real gold and silver _Napoleoni_, which by the way
are said to be fast disappearing; they are sent to Vienna, and Milan will
probably be in time blessed with a similar paper currency to that of
Vienna.

Napoleon seems to be as much regretted by the Milanese as the Austrian
Government is abhorred; in fact, everybody speaks with horror and disgust
of the _aspro boreal scettro_ and of the _aquila che mangia doppio_, an
allusion taken from the arms of Austria, the double-headed Eagle.

I have visited the ancient Ducal, now the Royal, Palace; it is a spacious
building, chaste in its external appearance, but its ulterior very
magnificent; its chiefest treasures are the various costly columns and
pilasters of marble and of _jaune antique_ which are to be met with. The
_salle de danse_ is peculiarly elegant, and in one of the apartments is a
fine painting on the plafond representing Jupiter hurling thunderbolts on
the Giants. Jupiter bears the head of Napoleon. Good God! how this man was
spoiled by adulation!

The staircase of the Palace is superb, and the furniture is of the most
elegant description, being faithfully and classically modelled after the
antique Roman and Grecian. After visiting the Ambrosian library (by the
way, it is quite absurd to visit a library unless you employ whole days to
inspect the various editions), I went to the Hospital, which is a
stupendous building, and makes up 8,000 beds. The arrangement of this
hospital merits the greatest praise. I then peeped into several churches,
and I verily believe my conductor would have made me visit every church in
Milan, if I had not lost all patience, and cried out: _perche sempre
chiese? sempre chiese? andiamo a vedere altra cosa_. He conducted me then
to the citadel, or rather place where the citadel stood, and which now
forms a vast barrack for the Austrian troops. We then went to visit the
_Teatro Olimpico_, which was built by Napoleon. It is built in the style of
the Roman amphitheatres, but much more of an oval form than the Roman
amphitheatres were in general; that is to say, the transverse axis is much
longer in proportion to the conjugate diameter than is the case in the
Roman amphitheatres, and it is by no means so high. In the time of
Napoleon, games were executed in this circus in imitation of the games of
the ancients, for Napoleon had a great hankering to ape the Roman Caesars
in everything. There were, for instance, gymnastic exercises, races on
foot, horse races, chariot races like those of the Romans, combats of wild
beasts, and as water can be introduced into the arena, there were sometimes
exhibited _naumachiae_ or naval fights. These exhibitions were extremely
frequent at Milan during the vice-regency of Prince Eugene Napoleon; during
this Government, indeed, Milan flourished in the highest degree of opulence
and splendour and profited much by being one of the principal depots of the
inland trade between France and Italy, during the continental blockade,
besides enjoying the advantage of being the seat of Government during the
existence of the _Regno d'Italia_. Even now, tho' groaning under the leaden
sceptre of Austria, it is one of the most lively and splendid cities I ever
beheld; and I made this remark to a Milanese. He answered with a deep sigh:
"Ah! Monsieur, si vous aviez ete ici dans le temps du Prince Eugene! Mais
aujourd'hui nous sommes ruines."

My next visit was to the _Porta del Sempione_, which is at a short distance
from the amphitheatre, and which, were it finished, would be the finest
thing of the kind in Europe; it was designed, and would have been completed
by Napoleon, had he remained on the throne. Figures representing France,
Italy, Fortitude and Wisdom adorn the facade and there are several
bas-reliefs, among which is one representing Napoleon receiving the keys of
Milan after the battle of Marengo. All is yet unfinished; columns,
pedestals, friezes, capitals and various other architectural ornaments,
besides several unhewn blocks of marble, lie on the ground; and probably
this magnificent design will never be completed for no other reason than
because it was imagined by Napoleon and might recall his glories. Verily,
Legitimacy is childishly spiteful!

Yesterday morning I went to see an Italian comedy represented at the
_Teatro Re_. The piece was _l'Ajo nell' imbarazzo_--a very droll and
humorous piece--but it was not well acted, from the simple circumstance of
the actors not having their parts by heart, and the illusion of the stage
is destroyed by hearing the prompter's voice full as loud as that of the
actors, who follow his promptings something in the same way that the clerk
follows the clergyman in that prayer of the Anglican liturgy which says "we
have erred and strayed from our ways like lost sheep." An Italian audience
is certainly very indulgent and good-natured, as they never hiss, however
miserable the performance.

But in speaking of theatrical performances, no person should leave Milan
without going to see the _Teatro Girolamo_, which is one of the
"curiosities" of the place, peculiar to Milan, and more frequented,
perhaps, than any other. This is a puppet theatre, but puppets so well
contrived and so well worked as to make the spectacle well worth the
attention of the traveller. It is the _Nec plus ultra of Marionettism_, in
which Signer Girolamo, the proprietor, has made a revolution, which will
form an epoch in the annals of puppetry; having driven from the stage
entirely the _graziosissima maschera d'Arlecchino_, who used to be the hero
of all the pieces represented by the puppets and substituted himself, or
rather a puppet bearing his name, in the place of Harlequin, as the
principal _farceur_ of the performance. He has contrived to make the puppet
Girolamo a little like himself, but so much caricatured and so monstrously
ugly a likeness that the bare sight of it raises immediate laughter. The
theatre itself is small, being something under the size of our old
Haymarket little theatre, but is very neatly and tastefully fitted up. The
puppets are about half of the natural size of man, and Girolamo, aided by
one or two others, works them and gives them gesture, by means of strings,
which are, however, so well contrived as to be scarcely visible; and
Girolamo himself speaks for all, as, besides being a ventriloquist, he has
a most astonishing faculty of varying his voice, and adapting it to the
_role_ of each puppet, so that the illusion is complete. The scenery and
decorations are excellent. Sometimes he gives operas as well as dramas, and
there is always a _ballo_, with transformation of one figure into another,
which forms part of the performance. These transformations are really very
curious and extremely well executed. Almost all the pieces acted on the
theatre are of Girolamo's own composition, and he sometimes chooses a
classical or mythological subject, in which the puppet Girolamo is sure to
be introduced and charged with all the wit of the piece. He speaks
invariably with the accent and _patois_ of the country, and his jokes never
fail to keep the audience in a roar of laughter; his mode of speech and
slang phrases form an absurd contrast to the other figures, who speak in
pure Italian and pompous _versi sciolti_. For instance, the piece I saw
represented was the story of Alcestis and was entitled _La scesa d'Ercole
nell Inferno_, to redeem the wife of Admetus. Hercules, before he commences
this undertaking, wishes to hire a valet for the journey, has an interview
with Girolamo, and engages him. Hercules speaks in blank verse and in a
phrase, full of _sesquipedalia verba_, demands his country and lineage.
Girolamo replies in the Piedmontese dialect and with a strong nasal accent:
"_De mi pais, de Piemong_." Girolamo, however, though he professes to be as
brave as Mars himself has a great repugnance to accompanying his master to
the shades below, or to the "_casa del diavolo_," as he calls it; and while
Hercules fights with Cerberus, he shakes and trembles all over, as he does
likewise when he meets _Madonna Morte_.

All this is very absurd and ridiculous, but it is impossible not to laugh
and be amused at it. An anecdote is related of the _flesh and blood_
Girolamo, that he had a very pretty wife, who took it into her head one day
to elope with a French officer; and that to revenge himself he dramatized
the event and produced it on his own theatre under the title of _Colombina
scampata coll'uffiziale_, having filled the piece with severe satire and
sarcastic remarks against women in general and Colombina in particular.

The atelier of the famous artist in mosaic Rafaelli is well worth
inspecting; and here I had an opportunity of beholding a copy in mosaic and
nearly finished of the celebrated picture of Leonardo da Vinci representing
the _Caena Domini_. What a useful as well as admirable art is the mosaic to
perpetuate the paintings of the greatest masters! I recollected on
beholding this work that Eustace, in his _Tour thro' Italy_,[55] relates
with a pious horror that the French soldiers used the original picture as a
target to practise at with ball cartridge, and that Christ's head was
singled out as the mark. This absurd tale, which had not the least shadow
of truth in it, has, it appears, gained some credit among weak-minded
people; and I therefore beg leave to contradict it in the most formal
manner. It was Buonaparte who, the moment the picture was discovered,
ordered it to be put in mosaic. No! the French were the protectors and
encouragers, and by no means the destroyers of the works of art; and this
ridiculous story of the picture being used as a target was probably
invented by the priesthood, who seemed to have taken great delight in
imposing on poor Eustace's credulity. To me it seems that such a story
could only have been invented by a monk, and believed and repeated by an
old woman or a bigot. The priests and French emigrants have invented and
spread the most shameful and improbable calumnies against the French
republicans and against Napoleon, and that credulous gull John Bull has
been silly enough to give full credence to all these tales, and stand
staring with his eyes and mouth open at the recital, while a vulgar jobbing
ministry (as Cobbet would say) _picked his pockets_.

Quite of a piece with this is the said Mr Eustace's bigotry, in not chusing
to call Lombardy by its usual appellation "Lombardy," and affectedly
terming it "the plain of the Po." Why so, will be asked? Why because Mr
Eustace hates the ancient Lombards, and holds them very nearly in as much
horror as he does the modern French; because, as he says, they were the
enemies of the Church and made war on and despoiled the Holy See. The fact
is that the Lombard princes were the most enlightened of all the monarchs
of their time; they were the first who began to resist the encroachments of
the clergy and to shake off that abject submission to the Holy See which
was the characteristic of the age. The Lombards were a fine gallant race of
men and not so bigoted as the other nations of Europe. Where has there ever
reigned a better and more enlightened and more just and humane prince than
Theodoric?[56] But Theodoric was an Arian, hence Mr Eustace's aversion, for
he, with the most servile devotion, rejects, condemns and anathematizes
whatever the Church rejects, condemns and anathematizes. For myself I look
on the extinction of the Lombard power by Charlemagne to have been a great
calamity; had it lasted, the reformation and deliverance of Europe from
Papal and ecclesiastical tyranny would have happened probably three hundred
years sooner and the Inquisition never have been planted in Spain. I have
made this digression from a love of justice and from a wish to vindicate
the French Republic and Napoleon from one at least of the many unjust
aspersions cast on them. I feel it also my duty to state on every occasion
that I, belonging to an army sent to Egypt in order to expel them from that
country, have been an eyewitness of the good and beneficial reforms and
improvements that the French made in Egypt during a period of only three
years. They did more for the good of that country in this short period,
than we have done for India in fifty years.

Being obliged to be in London on the 24th December I took leave of the
agreeable city of Milan with much regret on the 19th of October and engaged
a place in a Swiss _voiture_ going to Lausanne. My fellow travellers were
two Brunswick officers in the service of the Princess of Wales, who were
returning to their native country; and a Hungarian and his son settled in
Domo d'Ossola. Nothing occurred till we arrived at Arona, where we were
detained a whole day, in consequence of some informality in the passport of
the two Germans, viz., that of its not having been _vise_ by the Sardinian
Charge d'Affaires at Milan.

During our detention at Arona, I fell in with a young Frenchman who was
going to Milan in company of some Swiss friends. The Swiss were permitted
to proceed, but the other was not, for no other reason than because he was
a Frenchman; so that he took a place in our carriage in order to return to
Switzerland. I found him a very agreeable companion, for tho' much
chagrined and vexed at this harsh and ungenerous treatment on the part of
the Piedmontese authorities, he soon recovered his good humour, and
contributed much to the pleasure of our journey. The Germans came back to
Arona very late at night, and during the rest of the journey gave vent to
their feelings with many an execration such as _verfluchter Spitzbube,
Hundsfott_, on the heads of the inexorable police officers of Arona. The
next day, on passing by Belgirate, we took a boat to visit the Borromean
islands, and afterwards returned to rejoin our carriage at Fariolo. The
first of these islands that we visited was the _Isola Bella_, where there
is a large and splendid villa, belonging to the Borromean family. The rooms
are of excellent and solid structure, and there are some good family
pictures. The furniture is ancient, but costly. The _rez de chaussee_ or
lower part of the house, which is completely _a fleur d'eau_ with the lake,
is tastefully paved, and the walls decorated with a mosaic of shells. One
would imagine it the abode of a sea nymph. I thought of Calypso and
Galatea. There are in these apartments _a fleur d'eau_ two or three
exquisite statues.


LAUSANNE, 11th November.

I have been now nearly three weeks at Lausanne and am much pleased both
with the inhabitants, who are extremely affable and well-informed, and with
the beautiful sites that environ this city, the capital of the Canton de
Vaud. The sentiments of the Vaudois, with the exception of a few absurd
families among the _noblesse_, who from ignorance or prejudice are
sticklers for the old times, are highly liberal; and as they acquired their
freedom and emancipated themselves from the yoke of the Bernois, thro' the
means of the French Revolution, they are grateful to that nation and
receive with hospitality those who are proscribed by the present French
Government; their behaviour thus forming a noble contrast to the servility
of the Genevese. The Government of the Canton de Vaud is wholly democratic
and is composed of a Landamman and grand and petty council, all
_bourgeois_, or of the most intelligent among the agricultural class, who
know the interests of their country right well, and are not likely to
betray them, as the _noblesse_ are but too often induced to do, for the
sake of some foolish ribband, rank, or title. The _noblesse_ are in a
manner self-exiled (so they say) from all participation in the legislative
and executive power; for they have too much _morgue_ to endure to share the
government with those whom they regard as _roturiers_; but the real state
of the case is that the people will not elect them, and the people are
perfectly in the right, for at the glorious epoch when, without bloodshed,
the burghers and plebeians upset the despotism of Bern, the conduct of the
_noblesse_ was very equivocal. La Harpe was the leader of this beneficial
Revolution, for which, however, the public mind was fully prepared and
disposed; and La Harpe was a virtuous, ardent and incorruptible patriot.

This canton had been for a long period of years in a state of vassalage to
that of Bern; all the posts and offices of Government were filled by
Bernois and the Vaudois were excluded from all share in the government, and
from all public employments of consequence. When the Sun of Revolution,
after gloriously rising in America, had shone in splendour on France, and
had successfully dissipated the mists of tyranny, feudality, priestcraft
and prejudice, it was natural that those states which had languished for so
many years in a humiliating situation should begin to look about them and
enquire into the origin of all the shackles and restraints imposed on them;
and no doubt the Vaudois soon discovered that it was an anomaly in politics
as well as in reason that two states of such different origin, the one
being a Latin and the other a Teutonic people, with language, customs, and
manners so different, should be blended together in a system in which all
the advantages were on the side of Bern, and nought but vassalage on the
part of Vaud. A chief was alone wanting to give the impulse; he was soon
found; the business was settled in forty-eight hours; and by the mediation
of the French Government, Vaud was declared and acknowledged an independent
state and for ever released from the dominion of Bern. The federative
constitution was then abolished throughout the union, and a general
Government, called the Helvetic Republic, substituted in its place; but
this constitution not suiting the genius and habits of the people, nor the
locality of the country, was not of long duration; troubles broke out and
insurrections, which were fomented and encouraged by the adherents of the
old regime. But Napoleon, by a wise and salutary mediation, stepped in
between them, and prevented the effusion of blood, by restoring the old
confederation, modified by a variety of ameliorations. In the act of
mediation, Napoleon contented himself with separating the Valais entirely
from the confederation, and shortly after annexing it to France, on account
of the high road into Italy across the Simplon running thro' that
territory, and which it became of the utmost importance to him to be master
of. The new Helvetic Confederation was inviolably respected and protected
by Napoleon; for never after the act of mediation did any French troops
enter in the Canton de Vaud, or any part of the Union to pass into Italy.
They always moved on the Savoy side of the Lake to enter into the Valais.
This act of mediation saved probably a good deal of bloodshed and in a very
short time gave such general satisfaction, and was in every respect so
useful and beneficial to the Helvetic Union, that in spite of the intrigues
of the Senate of Bern, who have never been able to digest the loss of Vaud,
the Allied Powers in the year 1814 solemnly guaranteed the Helvetic
Confederation as established by the Act of Mediation, merely restoring the
Valais to its independence and aggregating it as an independent Canton to
the general Union. Geneva, on its being severed from the French Empire, and
recovering its independence, solicited the Helvetic Union to be admitted as
a member and component part of that Confederacy; which was agreed to, and
it was and remains aggregated to it also.

In 1815, on the return of Napoleon from Elba and on the renewal of the war,
the Bern Government made a most barefaced attempt to regain possession of
the Canton de Vaud; to this they were no doubt secretly encouraged by the
Allies, and principally it is said by the British Government, the most
dangerous, artful and determined enemy of all liberty; but this project was
completely foiled, by the penetration, energy and firmness of the
inhabitants of the Canton de Vaud and of its Government in particular. The
central Government of the Union was at that time held at Bern and it was
agreed upon in the Diet that Switzerland should remain perfectly neutral
during the approaching conflict; an army of observation of 80,000 men was
voted and levied to enforce this neutrality, but the command of it was
given to De Watteville, who had been a colonel in the English service, and
was a determined enemy of the French Revolution and of everything connected
with or arising out of it. On the approach of the Austrian army, De
Watteville, instead of defending the frontier and repelling the invasion,
disbanded his army and allowed the Austrians to enter. No doubt he was
encouraged, if not positively ordered to do this, by the Government of
Bern, many members of which are supposed to have received bribes from the
British Government to render the decreed neutrality null and void. At the
same moment that this army was disbanded, the directoral Canton (Bern)
caused to be intimated to the Canton de Valid that it was the wish and
intention of the High Allies to replace Switzerland in the exact state it
was in, previous to the French Revolution; and that, in consequence, two
Commissioners would be sent from Bern to Lausanne, to take charge of the
Bureaux, Archives and _insignia_ of Government, etc., and to act as a
provisional Government under the direction of Bern. The Landamman and the
grand and petty council at Lausanne, on learning this intelligence,
immediately saw thro' the scheme that was planned to deprive them of their
independence; they, therefore, passed a decree, threatening to arrest and
punish as conspirators the Commissioners, should they dare to set their
foot in the Canton, and declaring such of their countrymen who should aid
or abet this scheme, or deliver up a single document to the Commissioners,
traitors and rebels; they likewise called on the whole Canton to arm in
defence of its independence and proclaimed at the same time that should
this plan be attempted to be carried into execution, they would join their
forces to those of Napoleon and thus endanger the position of the Allies.
They took their measures accordingly; the whole Canton Sew to arms; the
Bernois and the Allies were alarmed and consultations held; the Count de
Bubna, the Austrian General, being consulted, thought the attempt so
hazardous and so pregnant with mischief that he had the good sense to
recommend to the Allied Powers and to the Canton of Bern to desist from
their project and not to make or propose any alteration in the Helvetic
Constitution, as guaranteed in 1814. His advice was of great weight and was
adopted, and thus the Vaudois by their firmness preserved their
independence. They met with great support likewise on this trying occasion
from General La Harpe, preceptor to the Emperor of Russia, and a relation
to the gentleman of the same name who was so instrumental in the
emancipation of Vaud. La Harpe, who enjoyed the confidence of his pupil,
exerted himself greatly in procuring his good offices in favour of the
Vaudois his countrymen, and this was no small weight in the scale.

Lausanne is an irregularly built city, and not very agreeable to
pedestrians, for its continual steep ascents and descents make it extremely
fatiguing, and there is a part of the town to which you ascend by a flight
of stairs; the houses in Lausanne have been humorously enough compared to
musical notes. The country in the environs is beautiful beyond description
and has at all times elicited the admiration of travellers. There is an
agreeable promenade just outside the town, on the left hand side of the
road which leads to Geneva, called _Montbenon_, which is the fashionable
promenade and commands a fine view of the lake. On the left hand side is a
Casino and garden used for the _tir de l'arc_, of which the Vaudois, in
common with the other Helvetic people, are extremely fond. On the right
hand side of the road is a deep ravine planted in the style of an English
garden, with serpentine gravel walks, and on the other side of the ravine
stands the upper part of the city, the Cathedral, _Hotel de Ville_, and the
_Chateau du Bailli_, which is the seat of Government. From the terrace of
the Cathedral you enjoy a fine view, but a still finer and far more
comprehensive one is from the Signal house, or _Belvedere_ near the forest
of Sauvabelin (_Silva Bellonae_ in Pagan times)[57]. In this wood fairs,
dances and other public festivals are held, and it is the favourite spot
for parties of pleasure to dine _al fresco_; it is a pity, however, that
the edifice called the _Belvedere_ was not conceived in a better taste; it
has an uncouth and barbarous appearance.

Lausanne is situated about a quarter of a mile (in a right line) from the
lake, and you descend continually in going from the city to the Lake Leman
by a good carriage road, until you arrive on the borders of the lake, where
stands a neat little town called Ouchy, or as it is sometimes termed _le
port de Lausanne_. There is a good quai and pier. The passage across the
lake from Ouchy to the Savoy side requires four hours with oars.

I have made several pleasant acquaintances here, viz., M. Pidon the
Landamman, a litterato of the first order; Genl La Harpe, the tutor of the
Emperor of Russia; but the most agreeable of all is the Baron de
F[alkenskiold], an old gentleman of whose talents, merits and delightful
disposition I cannot speak too highly. He has the most liberal and
enlightened views and opinions, and is extremely well versed in English,
French and German litterature. He is a Dane by birth and was exiled early
in life from his own country, on account of an accusation of being
implicated in the affair of Struensee; and it is generally supposed that he
was one of Queen Matilda's favoured lovers, which supposition is not
improbable, as in his youth, to judge from his present dignified and
majestic appearance, he must have been an uncommonly handsome man. He has
lived ever since at Lausanne, and tho' near seventy-four years of age and
tormented with the gout, he never loses his cheerfulness, and passes his
time mostly with his books. He gives dinner parties two or three times a
week, which are exceedingly pleasant, and one is sure to meet there a
small, but well informed society of natives and foreigners. Most German
travellers of rank and litterary attainments, who pass thro' Lausanne,
bring letters of introduction and recommendation to the Baron and are sure
to meet with the utmost hospitality and attention.

The women of the Canton de Vaud are in general very handsome, well shaped
and graceful; litterature, music, dancing and drawing are cultivated by
them with success; and among the men, tho' one does not meet perhaps with
quite as much instruction as at Geneva (I mean that it is not so general),
yet no pedantry whatever prevails as in Geneva. At Lausanne they have
sincere and solid republican principles and they do not pay that servile
court to the English that the Genevese do; nor have they as yet adopted the
phrase "_Dieu me damne_."


PARIS, Dec. 5th.

I returned to Paris by Geneva and crossing the Jura chain of mountains
passed thro' Dole, Auxonne and Dijon. At Geneva, where I stopped three
days, I met, at a musical party given by M. Picot the banker, the
celebrated cantatrice Grassini, who looked as beautiful as ever, and sung
in the most fascinating style several airs, particularly "_Quelle pupille
tenere_" in the opera of the _Orazj e Curiazi_. To my taste her style of
singing is far preferable to that of Catalani; there is much more pathos
and feeling in the singing of Grassini; it is completely and truly the
"_cantar che nell'anima si sente_." Catalani is very powerful, wonderful,
if you will, in execution; but she does not touch my heart as Grassini
does.

On my return to Paris from Geneva I found that the conditions of peace had
been made public. They are certainly hard, not so much on account of the
cession of territory, which is trifling, as on account of the vast sums of
money that Prance is obliged to pay, and the still more galling condition
of having to pay and feed at her expense an army of occupation of 150,000
men, of the Allied troops, for a term of three or five years, and to cede
during that period several important fortresses. The inhabitants of Paris
look very gloomy and nobody seems to think that the peace will last half as
long. Prussia and Austria strove hard to wrest Alsace and German Lorraine
from France; hosts of German publicists had accompanied their armies into
France and had written pamphlet upon pamphlet to prove that mountains and
not rivers were the proper boundaries of nations and that wherever the
German language prevails, the country ought to belong to the Germanic body.
Ergo, the Vosges mountains were the natural boundaries of France, and
Alsace and German Lorraine should revert to Germany. Russia and England,
however, opposed this, and insisted that these two provinces should remain
with France; but I have no doubt that the first movements that may occur in
France (and they will perhaps be secretly encouraged) will serve as a
pretext for the Allies to separate these countries definitively from
France.

The Louvre has been stripped of the principal statues and pictures which
have been sent back to the places from whence they were taken, to the great
mortification of the Parisians, most of whom would have consented to the
cession of Alsace and Lorraine and half of France to boot on condition of
keeping the statues and pictures. The English Bureaux are preparing to
leave Paris and the troops will soon follow; a new French army is
organizing and several Swiss battalions are raised. It is generally
supposed that by the end of December France, with the exception of the
fortresses and districts to be occupied by the Allied Powers, will be freed
from the pressure of foreign troops.

The Chamber of Peers is occupied with the trial of Marshall Ney, the
Conseil de Guerre, which was ordered to assemble for that purpose having
declared itself incompetent. The friends of Ney advised him to claim the
protection of the 12th Article of the Capitulation of Paris, and Madame
Ney, it is said, applied both to the Duke of Wellington and to the Emperor
of Russia; both ungenerously refused; to the former Nature has not given a
heart with much sensibility, and the latter bears a petty spite against Ney
on account of his title, _Prince de la Moskowa_. It is pretty generally
anticipated that poor Ney will be condemned and executed; for tho' at the
representation of _Cinna_ a few nights ago, at the Theatre Francais, the
allusions to clemency were loudly caught hold of and applauded by the
audience, yet I suspect Louis XVIII is by no means of a relenting nature,
and that he is as little inclined to pardon political trespasses as his
ancestor Louis IX was disposed to pardon those against religion; for,
according to Gibbon, his recommendation to his followers was: _"Si
quelqu'un parle contre la foi chretienne dans votre presence, donnez lui
l'epee ventre-dedans_."


December 18th.

I met with an emigrant this day at the Palais Royal who was acquainted with
my family in London. It was the Vicomte de B*****ye.[58] He had resided
some time in England and also in Switzerland. He is an amiable man, but a
most incorrigible Ultra. He displayed at once the ideas that prevail among
the Ultras, which must render them eternally at variance with the mass of
the French nation. In speaking of the state of France, he said: "_Je n'ai
jamais cesse et jamais je ne cesserai de regarder comme voleurs tous les
acquereurs des biens des emigres. Il faudroit, pour le bonheur de la
France, qu'elle fut places dans le meme etat ou elle etait avant la
Revolution._" He would not listen to my reasons against the possibility of
effecting such a plan, even were the plan just and reasonable in itself. I
told him that for the emigrants to expect to get back their property was
just as absurd as for the descendants of those Saxon families in England,
whose ancestors were dispossessed of their estates by William the
Conqueror, to think of regaining them, and to call upon the Duke of
Northumberland, for instance, as a descendant of a Norman invader, to give
up his property as unjustly acquired by his progenitors. We did not hold
long converse after this; his ideas and mine diverged too much from each
other.

The English are very much out of favour with the emigrants, as well on
account of the stripping of the Louvre as on account of not having shot all
the _liberaux_. They had the folly to believe that the Allied troops would
merely make war for the emigrants' interests, and after having put to death
a considerable quantity of those who should be designated as rebels and
Jacobins by them (the emigrants), would replace France in the exact
position she was in 1789, and then depart.

Poor Marshall Ney's fate is decided. He was sentenced to death, and the
sentence was carried into execution not on the _Place de Grenelle_ as was
given out, but in the gardens of Luxemburgh at a very early hour. He met
his fate with great firmness and composure. I leave Paris to-morrow for
London.


[47] Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_, VI, 20, 7.

[48] Virgil, _Aen_., VI, 620 (temnere _divos_).--ED.

[49] Louis Wirion (1764-1810), an officer of _gendarmerie_,
    commander-general of the _place_ de Verdun since 1804, was accused in
    1808 of having extorted money from certain English prisoners quartered
    in Verdun (Estwick, Morshead, Garland, etc.). Wirion shot himself
    before the end of the long proceedings, which do not seem to have
    established his guilt, but had reduced him to misery and despair.--ED.

[50] Richard Brinsley Sheridan's (1751-1816) _Pizarro_, produced at Drury
    Lane in 1799.--ED.

[51] Three brothers Zadera, all born in Warsaw, served in the Imperial
    army.--ED.

[52] Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ III, 2, i.--ED.

[53] These words mean, or are supposed to mean, in French and in Dutch: "I
    don't understand" (_je n'entends pas_).--ED.

[54] Horace, _Carm._, IV, 2,39.--ED.

[55]John Chetwode Eustace (1762-1815), author of _A Tour through Italy_
    (2 vol., London, 1813), the eighth edition of which appeared in
    1841.--ED.

[56] Theodoric was a Goth, not a Lombard.--ED.

[57] Of course, _Silva Beleni_.--ED.

[58] Perhaps Clement Francois Philippe de Laage Bellefaye, mentioned in the
    _Souvenirs_ of Baron de Frenilly, p. 94. His large estates had been
    confiscated in the Revolution.--ED.








AFTER
WATERLOO






PART II




CHAPTER VI

MARCH-JUNE,1816

Ball at Cambray, attended by the Duke of Wellington--An Adventure between
Saint Quentin and Compiegne--Paris revisited--Colonel Wardle and Mrs
Wallis--Society in Paris--The Sourds-Muets--The Cemetery of Pere La
Chaise--Apathy of the French people--The priests--Marriage of the Duke de
Berri.


March, 1816.

This time I varied my route to Paris, by passing thro' St Omer, Douay and
Cambray. At Cambray I was present at a ball given by the municipality. The
Duke of Wellington was there. He had in his hand an extraordinary sort of
hat which had something of a shape of a folding cocked hat, with divers red
crosses and figures on it, so that it resembled a conjurer's cap. I
understand it is a hat given to his Grace by magnanimous Alexander; St
Nicholas perhaps commissioned the Emperor to present it to Wellington, for
his Grace is entitled to the eternal gratitude of the different Saints, as
well as of the different sovereigns, for having maintained them
respectively in their celestial and terrestrial dominions; and it is to be
hoped, after his death, that the latter will celebrate for him a brilliant
apotheosis, and the former be as complaisant to him and make room for him
in the Empyreum as Virgil requests the Scorpion to do for Augustus:

  ...Ipse tibi jam brachia contrahit ardens
  Scorpios, et coeli jusia plus parts reliquit.[59]

I met with an adventure in my journey from St Quentin to Compiegne, which,
had it happened a hundred years ago in France, would have alarmed me much
for my personal safety. It was as follows. I had taken my place at St
Quentin to go to Paris; but all the diligences being filled, the _bureau_
expedited a _caleche_ to convey me as far as Compiegne, there to meet the
Paris diligence at nine the next morning. It was a very dark cold night,
and snowed very hard.

Between eleven and twelve o'clock at night, half way between St Quentin and
Compiegne, the axle tree of the carriage broke; we were at least two miles
from any village one way and three the other; but a lone house was close to
the spot where the accident happened. We had, therefore, the choice of
going forward or backward, the postillion and myself helping the carriage
on with our hands, or to take refuge at the lone house till dawn of day. I
preferred the latter; we knocked several times at the door of the lone
house, but the owner refused to admit us, saying that he was sure we were
_gens de mauvaise vie_, and that he would shoot us if we did not go away.
The postillion and I then determined on retrograding two miles, the
distance of the nearest village, and remaining there till morning. We
arrived there with no small difficulty and labour, for it snowed very fast
and heavily, and it required a good deal of bodily exertion to push on the
carriage. Arrived at the village, we knocked at the door of a small
cottage, the owner of which sold some brandy. He received me very civilly,
gave me some eggs and bacon for supper, and a very fair bed.

The next morning, after having the axle tree repaired, we proceeded on our
journey to Compiegne. I suffered much from the cold during this adventure,
and did not sleep well, having fallen into a train of thought which
prevented me from so doing; and I could not help bringing to my
recollection the adventure of Raymond in the forest near Strassburg, in the
romance of _The Monk_. Nothing worthy of note occurred during the rest of
the journey; but this adventure obliged me to remain one day at Compiegne
to wait for the next diligence.


PARIS, April 8th, 1816.

I delivered my letters to the Wardle family and am very much pleased with
them. I meet a very agreeable society at their house. Col Wardle is quite a
republican and very rigid in his principles.[60] His daughter is a young
lady of first rate talents and has already distinguished herself by some
poetical compositions. I met at their house Mrs Wallis, the sister of Sir
R. Wilson.[61] She is an enthusiastic Napoleonist, and wears at times a
tricolored scarf and a gold chain with a medal of Napoleon's head attached
to it; this head she sometimes, to amuse herself, compels the old emigrants
she meets with in society to kiss. The trial of her brother is now going on
for aiding and abetting the escape of Lavalette. I sincerely hope he will
escape any severity of punishment, but I more fear the effects of Tory
vengeance against him in England, in the shape of depriving him of his
commission, than I do the sentence of any French court. Yet tho' I wish him
well, I cannot help feeling the remains of a little grudge against him for
his calumny against Napoleon in accusing him of poisoning the sick of his
own army before the walls of St Jean d'Acre. I have always vindicated the
character of Napoleon from this most unjust and unfounded aspersion,
because having been in Egypt with Abercrombie's army and having had daily
intercourse with Belliard's division of the French army, after the
capitulation of Cairo, and during our joint march on the left bank of the
Nile to Rosetta, I knew that there was not a syllable of truth in the
story. Mrs Wallis, however, tells me that her brother has expressed deep
regret that he ever gave credence and currency to such a report; and that
he acknowledges that he was himself deceived. But he did Napoleon an
irreparable injury, and his work on the Egyptian campaign contributed in a
very great degree to excite the hatred of the English people against
Napoleon, as well as to flatter the passions and prejudices of the Tories.

In the affair however of Lavalette Wilson has nobly retrieved his character
and obliterated all recollection of his former error. It is amazing the
popularity he and his two gallant associates have acquired in France by
this generous and chevaleresque enterprise.

I meet at Col Wardle's a very pleasant French society: conversation, music
and singing fill up the evening.


April 15th.

I have been presented to a very agreeable lady, Madame Esther Fournier, who
holds a _conversazione_ at her house in the Rue St Honore every Wednesday
evening. Here there is either a concert, a ball or private theatricals;
while in a separate room play goes forward and _crebs_, a game of dice
similar to hazard, is the fashionable game. Refreshments are handed round
and at twelve o'clock the company break up. Mme Fournier is a lady of very
distinguished talent and always acts a principal role herself in the
dramatic performances given at her private theatricals.

I have become acquainted too with a very pleasant family, M. and Mme
Vanderberg, who are the proprietors of a large house and magnificent garden
in the Faubourg du Roule. M. Vanderberg is a man of very large fortune.[62]
He has three daughters, handsome and highly accomplished, and one son; one
of them was married to General R----, but is since divorced; the second is
married to a young colonel of Hussars, and the third is still unmarried;
but being very young, handsome, accomplished and rich, there will be no
lack of suitors whenever she is disposed to accept the connubial chain. I
have dined several times with this family. There is an excellent table. The
choicest old wines are handed about during dinner, and afterwards we
adjourn to another room to take coffee and liqueurs.

If there is no evening party, the company retire, some for the theatre,
some for other houses, where they have to pass the evening; if the family
remain at home you have the option of retiring or remaining with them, and
the evening is filled up with music or _petits jeux_. I meet with several
agreeable and distinguished people at this house, among whom are M. Anglas,
Mme Duthon from the Canton de Vaud, a lady of great vivacity and talent,
and General Guilleminot and his lady. Col. Paulet, who married M.
Vanderberg's second daughter, was on the staff of General Guilleminot at
the battle of Waterloo and suffered much from a fever and ague that he
caught on the night bivouacs.

I have attended a seance of the Institution of the _Sourds-Muets_ founded
by the famous Abbe de l'Epee, and continued with equal success by his
successor the Abbe S[icard],[63] who delivered the lecture and exhibited
the talent and proficiency of his pupils. The eldest pupil, Massieu,
himself deaf and dumb, is an extraordinary genius and he may be said in
some measure to direct all the others. Massieu, who has a very interesting
and even handsome countenance, and manners extremely prepossessing,
conducts the examination of the pupils by means of signs, and writing on a
slate or paper; and it is wonderful to observe the progress made by these
interesting young persons, who have been so harshly treated by Nature. The
definitions they give of substances and qualities are so just and happy;
and in their situation, definition is everything, for they cannot learn by
rote, as other boys often do, who, in the study of philology, acquire only
words and not things or meanings. The deaf and dumb persons, on the
contrary, acquire at once by this method of instruction the philosophy of
grammar; and then it is far from being the dry study that many people
suppose. A German princess who was present exclaimed in a transport of
admiration at some of the specimens of definitions and inferences given by
the pupils; " Oh! I wish that I were born deaf and dumb, were it only to
learn grammar properly!" Sir Sidney Smith was present at this lecture and
seemed inclined to make himself a little too conspicuous. For instance,
before the examination began, he seated himself close by the Abbe S[icard]
and pulling a paper out of his pocket said that he had found it on the
ground on his way hither; and that it was part of a leaf from an edition of
Cicero which contained a sentence so applicable to the character and
talents of his friend the Abbe, that he requested permission to read it
aloud and translate it into French for the benefit of those who did not
understand Latin. He then read the sentence. The Abbe, not to be out-done
in compliments, then rose and made a most flaming speech in eulogium of his
friend "the heroic defender of St John d'Acre" and pointed him out to the
audience as the first person who had foiled the arms of the "Usurper."

Now this word "Usurper" applied to Napoleon did not at all please the
audience, and it shewed a great deal of servility on the part of the Abbe
to insult fallen greatness, and in the person too of a man who had rendered
such vast services to science. In fact this episode was received coldly,
and somewhat impatiently by the audience; and many thought it was a thing
_got up_ between the Admiral and the Abbe to flatter each other's vanity;
indeed my friend Mrs Wallis, next to whom I was placed, and who does not at
all agree with the gallant Admiral in politics, intimated this in a
whisper, loud enough to be heard by all the audience and added: "Such a
humbug is enough to make one sick." Sir Sidney Smith heard all this and
seemed a good deal abashed and disconcerted; he, however, had the good
sense to say nothing, and the examination began.


PARIS, May 5th.

I formed a party with some friends to visit the cemetery of Pere la Chaise.
We remarked in particular the places where poor Labedoyere and Marshal Ney
are buried. There is no tombstone on the former, but some shrubs have been
planted, and a black wooden cross fixed to denote the spot where he lies.

To Marshal Ney there is a stone sepulchre with this inscription: "_Cy-git
le Marechal Ney, Prince de la Moskowa_." This cemetery is most beautifully
laid out. The multitude of tombs, the variety of inscriptions in prose and
verse, some of which are very affecting, the yews, the willows, all render
this a delightful spot for contemplation; it commands an extensive view of
Paris and the surrounding country. Foreigners of distinction who die in
Paris are generally buried here; but it would require a volume to describe
to you in detail this interesting cemetery. I think the practice of
strewing flowers over the grave is very touching and classic; it reminded
me of the description of Marcellus's death in Virgil:

  ... Manibus date lilia plenis.

We however strewed over the tombs of Labedoyere and Ney not lilies, but
violets, for my friend Mrs W[allis], who was of our party, has a great
aversion to the lily.

We have just heard of Didier's capture and execution at Grenoble.[64] There
are continual reports of insurrections and plots, but it is now well known
that the most of them are _got up_ by the Ultras to entrap the unwary. The
French people seem sunk in apathy and to wish for peace at any rate;
nothing but the most extreme provocation will induce them to take up arms;
but then, if they once do so, woe to the _Chambre Introuvable_, as the
present Chamber of Deputies is called; certainly such a set of venal,
merciless and ignorant bigots and blockheads never were collected in any
assembly. There have occurred several scandalous scenes at Nimes and other
places. The Protestants are openly insulted and threatened, and the
government is either too weak to prevent it, or, as is supposed, secretly
encourages those excesses. In fact in Paris there are two polices; the one,
that of the Government, the other, and by far the most troublesome, that of
_Monsieur_[65] and the violent Ultra party, or as they are collectively
called the _Pavilion Marsan_.[66] The priests are at work everywhere
trumping up old legends, forging communications from the Holy Ghost,
receiving letters dropped from heaven by Jesus Christ, and all this is done
with the idea of working on fanatical minds, to induce them to commit acts
of outrage and violence on those whom the priests designate as enemies to
the faith, and on weak ones, with the idea of frightening them into
restoring the lands and property which they have purchased or inherited and
which formerly belonged to emigrants or to the Church.

A lady of my acquaintance (to give you an idea of the arts of these holy
hypocrites) sent for a priest to confess and to receive absolution, not
from any faith in the efficacy of the business, but merely from a desire of
conforming to the ceremonies of the national worship. The priest arrived,
but began by apologizing to her that he was sorry he could not administer
to her the sacrament of absolution; she, surprized, asked the reason; he
answered that it was because her uncle had purchased Church lands, which
she inherited, and that unless she could resolve to restore them to the
church, he could not think of giving her absolution. The lady was at a loss
whether to be indignant at his impudence or to laugh outright at his folly.
She however assumed a becoming gravity and _sang-froid_, and told him that
he was very much mistaken if he thought he had got hold of a simpleton or a
bigot in her; that she had sent for him merely with the idea of conforming
to the national worship, and not with the most remote persuasion of the
necessity or efficacy of his or any other priest's absolution; she added:
"Your conduct has opened my eyes as to the views of all your cloth; I see
you are incurable. I shall never send for any of you again; and be assured
this anecdote shall not be forgotten. You may retire." The priest, abashed
and mortified in finding himself mistaken in his supposed prey, stammered
an excuse and retired.

I intend to remain at Paris until after the marriage ceremony of the Duke
and Duchess of Berri, and I shall then proceed to Lausanne. It is expected
there will be some disturbance on the occasion of this marriage.

I have witnessed an execution by the guillotine on the Place de Greve near
the _Hotel de Ville_. The criminal was guilty of a burglary and murder. It
is the only execution (except political ones) that has taken place at Paris
for the last six months, whereas in England they are strung up by dozens
every fortnight. Independent of there being far less crimes committed in
France than in England, the French code punishes but few offences with
death.

Why is not the sanguinary English criminal code with death in every
line--why is it not reformed, I say? 'Twould be well if our legislators,
instead of their puerile and frothy declamations against revolutionary
principles and the ambition of Napoleon, would occupy themselves seriously
with this subject. But then the lawyers would all oppose the simplification
of our Code. They find by experience that a complicated one, obstructed by
customs, statutes and acts of Parliament, difficult to be correctly
interpreted, and frequently at variance with each other, is a much more
profitable thing, a much wider and more lucrative field for the exercise of
their profession, than the simplicity of the Code Napoleon; and they would
die of rage and despair at the thought of anybody not a lawyer being able
to interpret the laws himself. Now as our country gentlemen and members of
Parliament are always much inclined to take lawyer's advice, and are
besides fully persuaded and convinced that there are no abuses whatever in
England and that everything is as it should be, there is no hope of any
amelioration in this particular. All reasoning and argument is lost on such
political optimists.

The punishment of the guillotine certainly appears to be the most humane
mode of terminating the existence of a man that could possibly be invented.
The apparatus is preserved in the _Hotel de Ville_, and is never exposed to
view or erected on the place of execution, till about an hour before the
execution itself takes place. At the hour appointed the criminal is brought
to the scaffold, fastened to the board, placed at right angles with the
fatal instrument, the head protruding thro' the groove, which embraces the
neck; the executioner pulls a cord, the axe descends and the head of the
criminal falls into a basket. The whole ceremony of the execution does not
take three minutes when the criminal once arrives at the foot of the
guillotine. There is none of that horrible struggling that takes place in
the operation of hanging.

June 21st, 1816.

The ceremony of the marriage of the Duke and Duchess of Berri passed off
quietly enough. Several people, it is true, were arrested for seditious
expressions, but no tumult occurred. A great apprehension seemed to prevail
lest something should occur, but the gendarmerie and police were so
vigilant that all projects, had there been any, would have proved abortive.


[59] Virgil, _Georg._, I, 35.--ED.

[60] Colonel Gwyllym Lloyd Wardle was the celebrated exposer of the scandal
    in 1808-9, when the mistress of the Duke of York was found to be
    trafficking in Commissions. He had retired from active service in
    1802, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. Financial reasons obliged
    him, after 1815, to live on the Continent; he died in Florence,
    1833.--ED.

[61] Sir Robert Thomas Wilson (1779-1849), author of _The History of the
    British Expedition to Egypt_, 1802; a French translation of that work
    elicited a protest from Napoleon.--ED.

[62] Vanderberg had made a fortune as a contractor to the French army; he
    is mentioned in Ida Saint Elme's _Memoires d'une contemporaine_ and
    elsewhere.--ED.

[63] Abbe Sicard (Rooh Ambroise) was director of the Institution of
    Sourds-Muets from 1790 to 1797 and from 1800 to 1822.--ED.

[64] Paul Didier (1758-1816) took part in a Bonapartist conspiracy at Lyons
    in 1816, raised an insurrection in the Isere and fled to Piedmont,
    whence he was surrendered to the French authorities, condemned to
    death and executed at Grenoble.--ED.

[65] The King's brother, afterwards Charles X.--ED.

[66] The N.E. pavilion of the Tuileries.--ED.




CHAPTER VII

Journey from Paris to Lausanne--Besancon--French refugees in
Lausanne--Francois Lamarque--General Espinassy--Bordas--Gautier--Michau--
M. de Laharpe--Mlle Michaud--Levade, a Protestant minister--Chambery--Aix--
Details about M. de Boigne's career in India--English Toryism and
intolerance--Valley of Maurienne--Passage across Mont Cenis and arrival at
Suza--Turin.


LAUSANNE, July 8th.

Departing from Paris on the 24th June, 1816, I varied my journey into
Switzerland this time, for instead of travelling thro' Lyons or Dole, I
took the route of Besangon, Pontarlier, Jougne and Orbe. The country
between Dijon and Besancon is a rich and fertile plain. At Besancon the
mountainous country begins; it is a strong fortress, and the last
considerable town of the French frontier. It lies in a very picturesque
situation, being nearly environed by the Doubs, which meanders under its
walls, and by very lofty mountains; on the other side of the Doubs stands
the citadel, its chief strength. The town of Besangon is exceedingly
handsome and well built, and there are several agreeable promenades, two of
which I must particularize, viz., the promenade de Chamarre and the garden
of the Palace of Granvelle. There are besides several Roman antiquities and
the remains of a large amphitheatre. I amused myself very well for a couple
of days at Besancon, and met with some agreeable society at the _Hotel de
France_ where I lodged. I left Besancon at eight in the morning of the 30th
June, and arrived at Pontarlier at six the same evening. Pontarlier is a
dreary, melancholy looking place, consisting of a very long street and
several offsets of streets, situated in the midst of mountains, eternally
covered with snow. Winter reigns here during nine months of the year. At
Pontarlier the whole garrison were under arms, when I arrived, to pay the
last duties to a most respectable and respected officer, whose death was
occasioned by falling into the river, while at the _necessary_, by the
under board giving way. This officer had served in almost all the campaigns
of Napoleon and had greatly distinguished himself. What a cruel death for a
warrior who had been in fifty battles! That death should have shunned him
in the field of battle, to make him fall in a manner at once inglorious and
ridiculous! yet such is destiny. Pyrrhus fell by a tile flung from a house
by an old woman, and I am acquainted with a gallant captain in the British
Navy who lost his leg by amputation, having broken it (oh horror!) by a
fall from the top of a stage coach.

I left Pontarlier on the 2d July, and arrived at Lausanne the same evening
at five o'clock. On my return to Lausanne I had the pleasure to form an
acquaintance with several eminent Frenchmen proscribed and banished from
France, on account of having voted the death of Louis XVI, as members of
the National Convention, which tried him, and for having voted, after the
return of Napoleon from Elba, the _Acte additionnel_, which excluded the
Bourbons for ever from the throne of France, Among them are, 1st, Monsieur
Lamarque, who was one of the commissioners sent by the Convention to arrest
Dumouriez, but being seized by him, and delivered over to the Austrians, he
passed some time in captivity and was at length released, by being
exchanged with some others against the Duchess d'Angouleme.[67] He is a
very able man and seems to have far more political talent than any of the
other _Conventionnels_ who are here. On Napoleon's return from Elba he
voted for him, but made strong objections against the formation of a
peerage, which he said was perfectly useless in France, and pregnant with
mischief to boot, as it would only serve as an _appui_ to despotism. He
wrote a pamphlet with some excellent remarks on this, subject. He therein
points out the evils of an hereditary Chamber, and of a priviledged
aristocracy, who have nothing to expect from the people, but all from the
Prince; and in its stead he proposes an additional elective Chamber,
something on the plan of the Senate in America, but he decidedly reprobates
an hereditary peerage.

The next is General Espinassy, a very good classical scholar and a most
upright and amiable man.[68] In his vote he was solely influenced by strong
but conscienscious republican principles; he resides here with his wife and
two sons; he was considered as one of the best engineer officers in France
and he opposed the nomination of Napoleon to the Imperial dignity in 1804.

Another, M. Bordas,[69] opposed Napoleon's assumption of the Consulship on
the 18th Brumaire, and was proscribed by him for a short time, but
afterwards amnestied and received into favour. He gave his vote for
Napoleon on the _Champ de Mai_ in 1815, but accompanied this vote by a bold
speech towards Napoleon wherein he found fault with his former despotic
practises, and reminded him of the solemnity of his promise to govern in
future paternally and nationally, as became the sovereign of a free people.
M. Bordas is a very cheerful, lively, companionable man and tho' seventy
years of age, he has an uncommon share of vivacity, with something of the
_ci-devant jeune homme_ about him, and He is pleased to be considered still
as a man _a bonnes fortunes_.

The next to him is M. Gauthier, who had been a lawyer, and held a
considerable post as a magistrate in the time of the Republic and under the
Empire.[70] He possesses a good deal of talent, close logical reasoning,
and has determined public principle.

The next, M. Michaud, had been also an advocate, and is possessor of
considerable property in the department of the Doubs;[71] he is a most
rigid unbending republican, something in the style of Verrina in Schiller's
_Fiesco_; he opposed the assumption of the supreme power by Buonaparte on
the 18th Brumaire; he voted against the Consulship for life, as well as
against the assumption of the Imperial dignity. He is a very good classical
scholar. He is a widower and has with him here Mlle Elisa, his only
daughter, who follows her father's fortunes. She is a very amiable and
accomplished young lady; she has a thorough knowledge of music and of
painting in oils, and is classically versed in the Italian language. I soon
became acquainted with the whole of these illustrious exiles, and I find
great delight and instruction from their conversation; and this is a great
relief to me, for the life one leads in a Swiss town is rather monotonous.


LAUSANNE.

I dine very often with my neighbour the Baron de Falkenskioeld, and at his
house I became acquainted with M. de Laharpe, who was preceptor to the
present Emperor of Russia. He is a native of this Canton, and has returned
here to pass the remainder of his life. He is married to a very amiable
Russian lady, and having acquired a pretty good fortune in Russia, he lives
here very happily and comfortably; but notwithstanding this, he is often
tempted to visit Paris, Milan and other great cities, and when there, sighs
to return to his native mountains.

As the Ultras of France bear a great hatred towards the inhabitants of the
Canton de Vaud, on account of the asylum given and sympathy shown to the
_proscrits_, they have been at the pains of trumping up and printing a
pretended petition from the inhabitants of the department of the Doubs,
praying that the French Government would endeavor to obtain the removal of
these _proscrits_ from the Canton de Vaud, and stating that the said Canton
was the _foyer_ of Jacobinical principles, and the place where Napoleon's
return from Elba was planned and accelerated, and thro' which the
conveyance of intelligence backwards and forwards was conducted. I have no
doubt that in this petition more is meant than meets the ear; that the
Oligarchs of Bern, as well as the Ultras of France, have a share in it, and
that it may be considered not so much as an attempt to compel the Canton to
refuse asylum to these exiles, as to excite the Great Powers to enforce the
abolition of the independence of Vaud, and to replace it under the dominion
and authority of the Canton of Bern.

Everybody here, however, sees thro' the drift of this petition, and many
persons whose names are put down as having signed it, have written to their
friends at Lausanne, to declare not only that they never signed such a
petition, but their entire ignorance even of the agitation of the question
till they saw the petition itself in print. The French government, however,
has not ventured to act any further upon it, than to make a pompous display
of the royalist zeal and _bon esprit_ that pervades the Department of the
Doubs.

I see a good deal of Mlle Michaud. I find her conversation extremely
agreeable. She had lent to me an Italian work by Verri entitled _Le notti
Romane al sepolcro di Stipione_. She is a very rigid Catholic, having been
educated by a priest of very strict ideas. Her devotion however does not
render her less cheerful or less amiable. She having expressed a wish to
hear the Protestant church service, I offered to accompany her and we went
together one Sunday to the Cathedral Church at Lausanne. But it
unfortunately happened that on that day a sermon was preached which must
have given a great deal of pain to her filial feelings. Mr Levade, the
minister, took it into his head to give a political sermon, in which, after
a great deal of commonplace abuse of Voltaire, Rousseau and the French
Revolution, and very fulsome adulation towards the English government (a
subject which was brought in by the head and shoulders), of that _island_
(as he termed it) _surrounded by the Ocean_, he lavished a great deal of
still more fulsome adulation on the Bourbons; and then most wantonly and
unnecessarily began a furious declamation against the _regicides_ as he
termed them, who had taken refuge in the Canton, and intimated pretty
plainly how pleasing it would be to God Almighty that they should be
expelled from it. This intolerant discourse, more worthy of a raving Jesuit
than of a Protestant minister, was deservedly scouted by the inhabitants of
Lausanne; but this did not hinder poor Mlle Michaud from being much
affected at the opprobrious tirade directed against a set of men, among
whom her father bore a conspicuous part, and who acted from patriotic
motives. I must not omit to state that in this discourse M. Levade
interwove some hyperbolical compliments towards the young Prince of Sweden,
who attended the service that morning. He told him that the eyes of all
Europe were fixed upon him, and that Providence had him under his especial
care.

Now the following is the character of M. Levade.[72] He is a time-serving,
meddling priest, and a most flagrant adulator of the powers that be. He
thinks that by declaiming against the French Revolution, and against
Voltaire and Rousseau, that he will get into favor with the great people
who pass thro' Lausanne, with the French and English Government adherents,
and with the great Tory families of England. No considerable personage ever
passes through Lausanne, but Mr Levade is the first to make him a visit;
and no rich or noble English family arrives with whom he does not
ingratiate himself, and he is not sparing of his adulations. This mode of
procedure has been a very profitable concern to him, as he has received a
vast number of presents, and several valuable legacies, besides securing a
number of pupils among the English families, that come or that have been
here. He is in short a thorough parasite and time server, in every sense of
the word. This adulation of the Bourbon family in his sermon, besides the
meanness of it, was highly misplaced, coming from the mouth of a Protestant
minister, and somebody exclaimed on leaving the Church: "_Que doit-on
penser d'un ministre protestant du Canton de Vaud, qui prodigue des
louanges a une famille qui a ete l'ennemie acharnee de l'Elise reformee, et
qui a persecute les protestants d'une maniere si atroce?_" But Mr Levade
(tho' to the honor of the clergymen of the Canton de Vaud he is singular
among _them_), yet he has many persons who perfectly resemble him among the
members of the Church of England, and who are as eager to support despotism
and to crush liberty as any disciple of Loyola or any Janissary of the
Grand Signor. The other Protestant ministers of this Canton were highly
indignant at this sermon; in fact, it was the first time in this city that
the House of God had been profaned by the introduction of political
subjects into a religious discourse. This sermon was the common topic of
conversation for many days after.


CHAMBERY, 2d August.

I left Lausanne for Geneva on 28 July. I stopped at Nyon to pay a visit to
Mme Duthon, with whom I became acquainted at Paris. I dined with her and
passed a most agreeable day. Her talents are of the first order, and she is
as great an enthusiast for the German language and litterature as myself,
besides being well versed in Italian. She had a female relation with her.
We took a boat after dinner to navigate the lake, and we visited the
Chateau and domains of Joseph Napoleon. The next day I proceeded to Geneva.

I determined on making the journey into Italy this time by Mont-Cenis, and
to make it on foot as far as the foot of Mont-Cenis on the Italian side,
intending to profit of the opportunity of the first conveyance I should
meet with at Suza to proceed to Turin. I accordingly forwarded my
portmanteau to Turin to the care of a banker there, and sallied forth from
Geneva at six o'clock on the morning of 1st August.

I stopped to dine at Frangy and reached Romilly at seven in the evening.
There is nothing worthy of remark at Romilly. The next morning I stopped at
Aix to breakfast, and visited the bath establishment. The scenery is
picturesque on this route, and the whole road from Aix to Chambery is
aligned with remarkably fine large trees. At three in the afternoon I
arrived at Chambery, the capital of Savoy. It is a large handsome city,
situated in a fruitful valley, with a great many gardens and orchards
surrounding it. There is a strong garrison here. Among the many _maisons de
plaisance_ in the environs of this city, the most distinguishable is the
villa of General De Boigne, who has passed the greatest part of his life in
India, in the service of Scindiah, one of the Mahratta chiefs;[73] and it
was by De Boigne's assistance that Scindiah, from being a petty chief, with
not more than three or four hundred horse, became the founder of a powerful
kingdom, comprized chiefly of the provinces of the Ganges and Jumna, torn
from the Mogol Empire, whose Sovereign fell into the hands of Scindiah.
Scindiah caused the Mogol Emperor's eyes to be put out, and kept him as a
state prisoner in Delhi, till the year 1805, when on the Mahrattas engaging
in war with the English, Scindiah was defeated by Lake and lost the greater
part of his conquests. De Boigne had quitted India in 1796, long before
this rupture took place, and at that time Scindiah had a fine regular army
of thirty battalions of 1,000 men, each disciplined, armed and equipped in
the European manner. He had likewise sixty squadrons of regular cavalry and
a formidable train of artillery. At Chambery I met with two French
_voyageurs de commerce_, who with that positiveness, which is often the
national characteristic, insisted that De Boigne owed his riches and
fortune to his treachery, in having betrayed and sold Tippoo Saib to the
English, when he was in Tippoo's service; and I find this is the current
report all over Savoy.

Now it is an accusation totally devoid of foundation, as I shall presently
show; and I took this opportunity of vindicating the reputation of De
Boigne, by simply stating that De Boigne could never have betrayd Tippoo,
since he was never in his service; 2dly, that he had, when in the service
of Scindiah, fought against Tippoo, when the Mahrattas coalesced with the
English against that Prince in 1792; and that had it not been for the
assistance given by the Mahrattas to the English (a most impolitic
coalition on the part of the Mahrattas, as it turned out afterwards),
Tippoo would not have been compelled to conclude so humiliating a treaty of
peace; 3dly, that De Boigne had quitted India in 1796, three years before
the second war and death of Tippoo in 1799. I stated, too, that I was
perfectly well acquainted with these particulars of De Boigne's career,
from having served six years in India, and from having been personally
acquainted with a gentleman of the name of Lucius Ferdinand Smith, who was
the ultimate friend of De Boigne and his lieutenant general in the service
of Scindiah; I added that I could not conceive how so unjust and unfounded
an aspersion on De Boigne's character could find currency.

I hope that what I said will be effectual towards doing away this injurious
report; but very probably it will not, for when the vulgar once imbibe an
opinion, it is difficult to eradicate it from their minds, and they are not
at all obliged to the person who endeavors to undeceive them, so that
General De Boigne's treachery and sale of Tippoo to the English will be
handed down to posterity among the Savoyards, as a fact of which it will be
as little permitted to doubt as of the treachery of Judas.


CHAMBERY, August 3d.

At the _table d'hote_ this day I nearly lost all patience on hearing an
elderly English gentleman extolling the English Ministry to the skies, and
abusing the army of the Loire, calling them rebels and traitors. I stood up
in defence of these gallant men, and stated that the French Army in the
time of the Republic and of the Empire were the most constitutional of all
the European armies, since they were taken from and identified with the
people; and that it was this brotherly feeling for their fellow citizens
that induced them to join the standards of Napoleon, on his return from
Elba; that they only followed the voice of the nation; that all France was
indignant at the tergiversation and breach of faith on the part of the
restored Government, in a variety of instances; and that, had Napoleon and
the army been out of the question, the Bourbons would not have failed to be
upset, from the indignation their measures had excited among the people. He
then said that the Army of the Loire was a most dangerous body of men, and
that that was the reason why the Allies insisted on their being disbanded.
I replied that this was the highest compliment he could pay them, and the
greatest feather in their cap, since it went to prove, that as long as this
Army was in existence, neither the crowned despots, nor the Ultras thought
themselves safe; and that they could not venture to pursue their
anti-national projects, which were all directed towards depriving the
French people of all they had gained by the Revolution and bringing them
back to the _blessings_ of the ancient _regime_. He could say nothing in
reply, but that he feared I had Jacobin principles, to which I made
rejoinder: "If these be Jacobin principles, I glory in them." Some
Sardinian officers, who were present, seemed to enjoy my argument, tho'
they said nothing; and one took me aside, when we quitted the table, and
said he rejoiced to see me take the old man in hand, as he disgusted them
every day by his tirades against the liberal party, and by his fulsome
adulations of the British Government. The old gentleman held forth likewise
in a long speech respecting the finances of England, in praise of the
sinking fund, and when it was suggested to him that England from the
immense national debt must one day become bankrupt: "_Non, Monsieur_," (he
said),"_la Caisse d'Amortissement empechera cela_." In fine, the _Caisse
d'Amortissement_ was to work miracles. I replied that the principle of the
_Caisse d'Amortissement_ was good, provided a constant and consistent
economy were practised; but that at present and during the whole time from
its establishment, it had been a mockery on the understanding of the
Nation, when we reflected on the profligate expenditure of public money,
occasioned by the ruinous, unjust and liberticide wars, which were entered
into and fomented by the British Government. Indeed, I said it was like the
conduct of a man who possessing an income of 200L per annum, should set
apart, in a box as a _Caisse d'epargne_, 20L annually, and at the same time
continue a style of living, the annual expence of which would so far exceed
his income, as to oblige him to borrow 7 or 800L every year. The old
gentleman was all amort at this comparison, which must be obvious to every
one. Nothing shows in a more glaring light the blind and superstitious
reverence paid to great names; for because this sinking fund was proposed
by Pitt, all his adherents extol it to the skies, without analysing it, and
give him besides the credit of an invention to which he had no right
whatever.


ST JEAN DE MAURIENNE.

I started from Chambery on the morning of the fourth of August, and stopped
at Montmelian to breakfast. Here begins the valley of Maurienne, and as
this valley, along which the road is cut, is extremely narrow, being hemmed
in on each side by the High Alps, Montmelian, which stands on an eminence
in the centre of the valley (the road running thro' the town), must be a
post of the utmost importance towards the defence of this pass. It was a
fortified place of great consideration in the former wars, and if the
fortifications were repaired and improved, it might be made almost
impregnable, as it would enfilade the road on each side. From the
above-mentioned features of the ground, the valley narrowing more and more
as you proceed, from the high mountains that align it and from its
sinuosities, it follows that at every angle or curve caused by these
sinuosities, you appear as if you were shut out from all the rest of the
world and could proceed no further. The river Isere runs thro' and parallel
with this valley. It rises in the mountains of Savoy and falls into the
Rhone in Dauphine. I passed the night at Aiguebelle.

From Aiguebelle to St Jean de Maurienne is twelve leagues, and I found
myself so tired with walking, and my legs from being swelled gave me so
much pain, that I determined to give up the _gloriole_ of making the whole
journey on foot as I intended and to remain here for two days to repose and
then profit by the first conveyance that might pass to conduct me to Turin.

From Aiguebelle the valley becomes still more narrow, and there is a
continual ascent, tho' it is so gentle as scarcely to be perceptible. Every
spot of ground in this valley, which will admit of cultivation, is put to
profit by the industry of the inhabitants. Here one sees beans, indian
corn, and even wines; for the heat is very great indeed in summer and
autumn, owing to the rays of the sun being concentrated, as it were, into a
focus, in this narrow valley, and were the bed of the Isere to be deepened,
or were it less liable to overflow, from the melting of the snow in spring
and summer, much land, which is now a marsh, might be applied to
agricultural purposes. The inhabitants of this valley regret very much the
separation of Savoy from France, as during the time that Duchy was annexed
to the French Empire, each peasant possessing an ass could earn three
franks per diem in transporting merchandise across Mont-Cenis. St Jean de
Maurienne is a neat little town. I put up at the same inn, and slept in the
same bedroom which was occupied by poor Didier who was put to death at
Grenoble for having raised the standard of liberty. He was surprized here
in bed by the _Carabiniere Reali_ of the Sardinian government, those
satellites of despotism; and according to the barbarous principles laid
down by the crowned heads, delivered over to the French authorities. I
observed a great many _cretins_ in this valley.


SUZA, 10th August.

On the morning of the 8th August two _vetturini_ passed by the inn at St
Jean de Maurienne, and I engaged a place in one of them, as far as Turin.
We arrived at the village of Modena in the evening. The landscape is much
the same as what we have hitherto passed, but the climate is considerably
colder, from the land being more elevated. Hitherto I had suffered much
inconvenience from the heat. The next morning we reached Lans-le-Bourg, the
last town of Savoy lying at the foot of Mount Cenis.

After breakfast we began the ascent of Mont Cenis, and I made the whole way
from Lans-le-Bourg to the _Hospice_ of Mont Cenis, that is, the whole
ascent, a distance of twenty-five Italian miles, on foot. This _chaussee_
is another wonderful piece of work of Napoleon; a broad carriage road, wide
enough for three carriages to go abreast, and cut zig-zag with so gentle a
slope as to allow a heavy French diligence to pass, with the utmost ease,
across a mountain where it was formerly thought impossible a wheel could
ever run. This _chaussee_ is passable at all seasons of the year; the
mountain is not so high as that of the Simplon and is less liable to
impediments from the snow; the obstacles from nature are less, and you can
descend in a sledge from the _Hospice_ by gliding down the side of the
cone, and thus descending in nine or ten minutes, whereas the ascent
requires four hours' time. From Lans-le-Bourg to the _Hospice_ on
Mont-Cenis the road is on the flank of an immense mountain and you have no
ravines to cross; the road is cut zig-zag on the flank of the mountain and
forms a considerable number of very acute angles, as it is made with so
gentle a slope that you scarcely feel the difficulty of the ascent. These
repeated zig-zags and acute angles formed by the road, and the very slight
slope given to the ascent, make the different branches appear to be almost
parallel to each other, and it is a very curious and novel sight when a
number of carriages are travelling together on this road to see them with
their horses' heads turned different ways, yet all following the same
course, just like ships on different tacks beating against the wind to
arrive at the same port, a comparison that could not fail immediately to
occur to a sailor. There is scarcely ever any detention on this road from
the fall of snow, as there are a considerable number of persons employed to
_deblay_ it as soon as it falls; but here, as well as on the Simplon, there
are _maisons de refuge_ at a short distance from each other. We stopped for
two hours at the inn at Mont-Cenis, which is about one hundred yards from
the _Hospice_. It was a remarkable fine day, and I enjoyed my walk very
much. The mountain air was keen and bracing and particularly delightful
after being shut up for some many days in the close valley. We had some
excellent trout for dinner. At Mont-Cenis, near the _Hospice_, is a large
lake which is frozen during eight months of the year. Here reigns eternal
winter and the mountains are covered with snows that never melt. From
Mont-Cenis to Suza the descent is very grand and striking, and the scenery
resembles that of the Simplon; there are more obstacles of nature than on
the former part of the road, and here ravines are connected by the means of
bridges, and there are subterraneous galleries to pass thro. Several
_chutes d'eau_ are here observable; one of them I cannot avoid mentioning,
as being very magnificent. It is formed by the Cenischia[74] which divides
Savoy from Piedmont and runs into the Dora at Suza. We were highly
gratified at the sight of the sublime scenery on all sides, and at the
magnificent _chaussee_, and we all (I mean the passengers in the two
coaches and myself) did hommage to the mighty genius who conceived and
caused to be executed such a stupendous work. We arrived at Suza at six
o'clock p.m.


TURIN, 18th August.

Suza is a tolerably large town and has a neat appearance. It is commanded
and defended by the fort of Brunetti, now dismantled, but which is to be
repaired according to the treaty of 1815. It will then be a very important
post and completely barr the pass of Suza. The road from Suza to Rivoli is
thro' a valley widening at every step; at Rivoli you _debouche_ at once
from the gorge of the mountain into a boundless plain. The road is then on
a magnificent _chaussee_ the whole way to Turin, and every vegetable
production announces a change of climate to those coming from Savoy. Here
are fields of wheat, indian corn, mulberry and elm trees and vines hung in
festoons from tree to tree, which give a most picturesque appearance to the
landscape, and, together with the country houses, serve as a relief to the
boundless plain. The _chaussee_ is lined with trees on each side the whole
way from Rivoli to Turin; I observed among carriages of all sorts small
cars, like those used by children, drawn by dogs. These cars contain one
person each. They are frequent in this part of the country, and such a
conveyance is called a _cagnolino_. The Convent of St Michael, situated on
an immense height to the right of the road between Suza and Rivoli, is a
very striking object. The mountain forms a single cone and it appears
impossible to reach the summit except on the back of a Hippogriff:

  E ben appar che d'animal ch'abbia ale
  Sia questa stanza nido o tana propria.[75]

  The castle seemed the very neat and lair
  Of animal, supplied with plume and quill.

  --Trans. W.S. ROSE.


TURIN, 14 August.

Turin is a large, extremely fine and regular city, with all the streets
built at right angles. The shops are very brilliant; the two _Places_, the
_Piazza del Castello_ and the _Piazza di San Carlo_, are very spacious and
striking, and there are arcades on each side of the quadrangle formed by
them. The _Contrada del Po_ (for in Turin the streets are called
_Contrade_) leads down to the Po, and is one of the best streets in Turin.
Over the Po is a superb bridge built by Napoleon. In the centre of the
_Piazza del Castello_ stands the Royal Palace, and on one side of the
_Piazza_ the Grand Opera house. The streets in Turin are kept clean by
sluices. The favorite promenades are, during the day, under the arcades of
the _Piazza del Castello_ and those of the _Contrada del Po_; and in the
evening round the ramparts of the city, or rather on the site where the
ramparts stood. The French, on blowing up the ramparts, laid out the space
occupied by them in walks aligned by trees. The fortifications of the
citadel were likewise destroyed.

In the Cathedral Church here the most remarkable thing is the _Chapelle du
Saint Suaire_ (holy winding sheet). It is of a circular form, is inlaid
with black marble and admits scarce any light; so that it has more the
appearance of a Mausoleum than of a Chapel. It reminded me of the _Palace
of Tears_ in the Arabian Nights.

In the environs of Turin, the most remarkable buildings are a villa
belonging to the King called _La Venezia_, and the _Superga_, a magnificent
church built on an eminence, five miles distant from Turin. In the Royal
Palace, on the _Piazza del Castello_, there is some superb furniture, but
the exterior is simple enough. The country environing Turin forms a plain
with gentle undulations, increasing in elevation towards the Alps, which
are forty miles distant, and is so stocked with villas, gardens and
orchards as to form a very agreeable landscape. From the steeple of the
_Superga_ the view is very fine.

In the University of Turin is a very good _Cabinet d'Histoire naturelle_,
containing a great variety of beasts, birds and fishes stuffed and
preserved; there is also a Cabinet of Comparative Anatomy, and various
imitations in wax of anatomical dissections. Among the antiquities, of
which there is a most valuable collection, are two very remarkable ones:
the one a beautiful bronze shield, found in the Po, called the shield of
Marius; it represents, in figures in bas-relief, the history of the
Jugurthine war.[76] This shield is of the most exquisite workmanship. The
other is a table of the most beautiful black marble incrusted and inlaid
with figures and hieroglyphics of silver. It is called the _Table of Isis_,
was brought from Egypt and is supposed to be of the most remote antiquity.
It is always kept polished. Among the many valuable pieces of sculpture to
be met with here is a most lovely Cupid in Parian marble. He is represented
sleeping on a lion's skin. It is the most beautiful piece of sculpture I
have ever seen next to the Apollo Belvedere and the Venus dei Medici; it
appears alive, and as if the least noise would awake it.[77]

Turin used to be in the olden time one of the most brilliant Courts and
cities in Europe, and the most abounding in splendid equipages; now very
few are to be seen. When Piedmont was torn from the domination of the House
of Savoy and annexed to France, Turin, ceasing to be the capital of a
Kingdom, necessarily decayed in splendor, nor did its being made the _Chef
lieu_ of a _Prefecture_ of the French Empire make amends for what it once
was. The Restoration arrived, but has not been able to reanimate it; an air
of dullness pervades the whole city. Obscurantism and anti-liberal ideas
are the order of the day.

I witnessed a military review at which the King of Sardinia assisted. The
troops made a very brilliant appearance and manoeuvred well. His Majesty
has a very good seat on horseback and a distinguished military air. He is a
man of honor tho' he has rather too high notions of the royal dignity and
authority, and is too much of a bigot in religion; but his word can be
depended on, a great point in a King; there are so many of them that break
theirs and falsify all their promises. He will not hear of a constitution,
and endeavors to abolish or discountenance all that has been effected
during his absence. The priests are caressed and restored to their
privileges, so that the inhabitants of Piedmont are exposed to a double
despotism, a military and a sacerdotal one; the last is ten times more
ruinous and fatal to liberty and improvement than the former.

I have put up in Turin in the _Pension Suisse_, where for seven franks per
diem I have breakfast, dinner, supper and a princely bed room. The houses
are in general lofty, spacious and on a grand scale.


[67] Francois Lamarque, born 1756, a member of the Convention, ambassador
    in Sweden, prefect of the Tarn and member of the Cour de Cassation
    (1804). He was exiled in 1816.--ED.

[68] Major Frye (who wrote the name Despinassy) certainly means
    Antoine-Joseph Marie Espinassy de Fontanelle's (1787-1829), who was a
    member of the Convention, voted the King's death and served in the
    Republican army of the Alps. In 1816, he was banished and went to
    Lausanne, where he died 1829.--ED.

[69] Pardoux Bordas (1748-1842) was a member of the Convention. Though he
    had not voted the death of Louis XVI, he was banished from France in
    1816 and did not return there before 1828.--ED.

[70] Antoine Francis Gauthier des Orcieres (1752-1838) was elected to the
    Etats Generaux in 1789, and, in 1792, to the Convention, where he
    voted the death of Louis XVI. Later on, he was member of the Conseil
    des Anoiena, juge au tribunal de la Seine and conseiller a la cour
    imperiale de Paris (1815). Banished in 1816, he returned to France in
    1828.

[71] Jean Baptists Michaud, a member of the Directoire du departement du
    Doubs, and a member of the National Convention, voted the death of
    Louis XVI and against the proposed appeal to the people.--ED.

[72] Jean Daniel Paul Etienne Levade (1750-1834), Protestant minister first
    in England, then in Amsterdam, finally minister at Lausanne and
    professor of theology at the _Academie_ of the same town.--ED.

[73] Countess de Boigne, in her interesting _Memoirs_ (of which there is an
    English translation) abstained from describing her husband's career in
    India; this lends additional interest to the information collected by
    Major Frye,--ED.

[74] The manuscript has _Sennar_, a name quite unknown at Suza.--ED.

[75] Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_, iv, 13, 5.--ED.

[76] This shield, now at the _Armoria Reale_, is not antique, but is
    ascribed to Benvenuto Cellini.--ED.

[77] This statue of Cupid is not antique, and has been recently ascribed to
    Michelangelo (Knapp, _Michelangelo_, p. 155.)--ED.




CHAPTER VIII

Journey from Turin to Bologna--Asti--Schiller and Alfieri--Italian
_cuisine_--The _vetturini_--Marengo--Piacenza--The Trebbia--Parma--The
Empress Maria Louisa--Modena--Bologna--The University--The Marescalchi
Gallery--Character of the Bolognese.


August ---- 1816

'Twas on a fine morning the 16th August that I took my departure from Turin
with a _vetturino_ bound to Bologna. I agreed to pay him sixty francs for
my place in the coach, supper and bed. When this stipulation for supper and
bed is included in the price fixed for your place with the _vetturino_, you
are said to be _spesato_, and then you have nothing extra to pay for but
your breakfast. There were two other travellers in the _vettura_, both
Frenchmen; the one about forty years of age was a Captain of cavalry _en
retraite_, married to a Hungarian lady and settled at Florence, to which
place he was returning; the other, a young man of very agreeable manners,
settled likewise at Florence, as chief of a manufactory there, returning
from Lyons, his native city, whither he had been to see his relations. I
never in my life met with two characters so diametrically opposite. The
Captain was quite a _bourru_ in his manners, yet he had a sort of dry,
sarcastic, satirical humour that was very diverting to those who escaped
his lash. Whether he really felt the sentiments he professed, or whether he
assumed them for the purpose of chiming in with the times, I cannot say,
but he said he rejoiced at the fall of Napoleon. My other companion,
however, expressed great regret as his downfall, not so much from a regard
for the person of Napoleon, as for the concomitant degradation and conquest
of his country, and he spoke of the affairs of France with a great deal of
feeling and patriotism.

The Captain seemed to have little or no feeling for anybody but himself;
indeed, he laughed at all sentiment and said he did not believe in virtue
or disinterestedness. When, among other topics of conversation, the loss
the French Army sustained at Waterloo was brought on the _tapis_, he said,
"_Eh bien! qu 'importe? dans une seule nuit a Paris on en fabriquera assez
pour les remplacer!_" A similar sentiment has been attributed to the great
Conde.[78] We had a variety of amusing arguments and disputes on the road;
the Captain railed at merchants, and said that he did not believe that
honor or virtue existed among mercantile people (no compliment, by the bye,
to the young fabricant, who bore it, however, with great good humour,
contenting himself with now and then giving a few slaps at the military for
their rapacity, which mercantile people on the Continent have now and then
felt, before the French Revolution, as well as after). The whole road from
Turin to Alexandria della Paglia is a fine broad _chausee_. The first day's
journey brought us to Asti. A rich plain on each side of the road, the
horizon on our right bounded by the Appennines, on our left by the Alps,
both diverging, formed the landscape. Asti is an ancient, well and solidly
built city, but rather gloomy in its appearance. It is remarkable for being
the birthplace of Vittorio Alfieri, the celebrated tragic poet, who has
excelled all other dramatic poets in the general _denouement_ of his
pieces, except, perhaps, Voltaire alone. I do not speak of Alfleri so much
as a poet as a _dramaturgus_. I may be mistaken, and it is, perhaps,
presumptuous in me to attempt to judge, but it has always appeared to me
that Voltaire and Alfieri have managed dramatic effect and the intrigue and
catastrophe of their tragedies better than any other authors. Shakespeare,
God as he is in genius, is in this particular very deficient. Schiller,
too, the greatest modern poetic genius perhaps and the Shakespeare of
Germany, has here failed also, and nothing can be more correct than the
estimate of Alfieri made by Forsyth[79] when, after speaking of his
defects, he says: "Yet where lives the tragic poet equal to Alfieri?
Schiller (then living also) may perhaps excel him in those peals of terror
which flash thro' his gloomy and tempestuous scene, but he is far inferior
in the mechanism of his drama."

To return to my first day's journey from Turin. It was a very long day's
work, and we did not arrive at Asti till very late, after having performed
the last hour, half in the dark, on a road which is by no means in good
repute. The character of the lower class of Piedmontese is not good. They
are ferocious, vindictive and great marauders. They make excellent soldiers
during war and they not unfrequently, on being disbanded after peace, by
way of keeping their hand in practise and of having the image of war before
their eyes, ease the traveller of his coin and sometimes of his life. Our
conversation partook of these reminiscences, and during the latter part of
our journey turned entirely on bandits "force and guile," so that we were
quite rejoiced at seeing the smoke and light of the town of Asti and
hearing the dogs bark, which reminded me of Ariosto's lines:

  Non molto va che dalle vie supreme
  De' tetti uscir vede il vapor del fuoco
  Sente cani abbajar, muggire armento,
  Viene alla villa, e piglia alloggiamenti.[80]

  Nor far the warrior had pursued his best,
  Ere, eddying from a roof, he saw the smoke,
  Heard noise of dog and kine, a farm espied,
  And thitherward in quest of lodging hied.

  --_Trans_. W.S. ROSE.

We met on alighting at the door of a large spacious inn, two ladies who had
very much the appearance of the two damsels at the inn where Don Quixote
alighted and received his order of knighthood; but, in spite of their
amorous glances and a decided leer of invitation, I had like Sacripante's
steed more need of "_riposo e d'esca che di nuova giostra_." The usual
Italian supper was put before us, and very good it was, viz., _Imprimis: A
minestra_ (soup), generally made of beef or veal with vermicelli or
macaroni in it and its never failing accompaniment in Italy, grated
Parmesan cheese. Then a _lesso_ (bouilli) of beef, veal or mutton, or all
three; next an _umido_ (fricassee) of cocks' combs and livers, a favourite
Italian dish; then a _frittura_ of chickens' livers, fish or vegetables
fried. Then an _umido_ or ragout of veal, fish with sauce; and lastly, an
arrosto (roast) of fowls, veal, game, or all three. The _arrosto_ is
generally very dry and done to cinders almost. Vegetables are served up
With the _umidi_, but plain boiled, leaving it optional to you to use
melted butter or oil with them. A salad is a constant concomitant of the
_arrosto_. A desert or fruit concludes the repast. Wine is drank at
discretion. The wine of Lombardy is light and not ill flavored; it is far
weaker than any wine I know of, but it has an excellent quality, that of
facilitating digestion. A cup of strong coffee is generally made for you in
the morning, for which you pay three or four _soldi_ (sous), and in giving
five or six _soldi_ to the waiter, all your expenses are paid supposing you
are _spesato_, i.e., that the _vetturino_ pays for your supper and bed; if
not, your charges are left to the conscience of the aubergiste, which in
Italy is in general of prodigious width. I therefore advise every traveller
who goes with a _vetturino_ to be a spesato, otherwise he will have to pay
four or five times as much and not be a whit better regaled. The
_vetturini_ generally pay from three to three and a half francs for the
supper and bed of their passengers. As the _vetturini_ invariably make a
halt of an hour and half or two hours at mid-day in some town or village,
this halt enables you to take your _dejeuner a la fourchette_, which you
pay for yourself, unless you stipulate for the payment of that also with
the _vetturino_ by paying something more, say one a half franc per diem for
that. In this part, and indeed in the whole of the north of Italy not a
female servant is to be seen at the inns and men make the beds. It is
otherwise, I understand, in Tuscany.

The whole appearance of the country from Asti to Alexandria presents an
immense plain extremely fertile, but the crops of corn being off the
ground, the landscape would not be pleasing to the eye, were it not
relieved by the frequency of mulberry trees and the vines hung in festoons
from tree to tree. The villages and farmhouses on this road are extremely
solid and well built. We arrived at Alexandria about twelve o'clock, and
after breakfast I hired a horse to visit the field of battle of Marengo,
which is in the neighbourhood of this city, Marengo itself being a village
five miles distant from Alexandria. Arrived on the plain, I was conducted
to the spot where the first Consul stood at the time that he perceived the
approach of Desaix's division. I figured to myself the first Consul on his
white charger, halting his army, then in some confusion, riding along the
line exposed to a heavy fire from the Austrians, who cannonaded the whole
length of the line; aides-de-camp and orderlies falling around him, himself
calm and collected, "spying 'vantage," and observing that the Austrian
deployment was too extended, and their centre thereby weakened, suddenly
profiting of this circumstance to order Desaix's division to advance and
lead the charge which decided the victory on that memorable day, which,
according to Mascheroni:

      _splende
  Nell' abisso de' secoli, qual Sole_.

The whole field of battle is an extensive plain, with but few trees, and to
use Campbell's lines:

      every turf beneath the feet
  Marks out a soldier's sepulchre.

The Column, erected to commemorate this glorious victory, has been thrown
down by order of the Austrian government--a poor piece of puerile spite,
but worthy of legitimacy. Alexandria is, or rather _was_, for the
fortifications no longer exist, more remarkable for being an important
military post than for the beauty of the city itself. There is, however, a
fine and spacious _Place_, which serves as a parade for the garrison, and
being planted with trees by the French when they held it, forms an
agreeable promenade. The fortifications were blown up by the Austrians
before the place was given over to the Sardinian authorities, a flagrant
breach of faith and contract, since by the treaty of 1814 they were bound
to give up all the fortified places that were restored or ceded to the King
of Sardinia in the same state in which they were found when the French
evacuated them, and the Austrians took possession provisorily. The French
regarding (and with reason) this fortress as the key of Lombardy always
kept the fortifications in good repair and well provided with cannon. But
the Austrian government, knowing itself to be unpopular in Italy and
trembling for the safety of her dominions, being always fearful that the
Piedmontese Government might one day be induced to favour an
insurrectionary or national movement in the north of Italy, determined,
finding that it could not keep the fortress for itself, which it strove
hard to do under divers pretexts, to render it of as little use as they
possibly could do to the King of Sardinia; so they blew up the
fortifications and carried off the cannon, leaving the King without a
single fortified place in the whole of his Italian dominions to defend
himself, in case of attack, against an Austrian invasion.

On the morning of the 15th August we passed thro' Tortona, now no longer a
fortress of consequence. All this country may be considered as classic
ground, immortalized by the campaigns of Napoleon, when commander in chief
of the army of the French Republic in Italy, a far greater and more
illustrious _role_ than when he assumed the Imperial bauble and
condescended to mix with the vulgar herd of Kings.

We arrived at Voghera to breakfast and at Casteggio at night. The country
is much the same as that which we have already passed thro', being a plain,
with a rich alluvial soil, mulberry trees and a number of solidly built
stone farmhouses. The next morning at eleven o'clock we arrived at Piacenza
on the Po, and were detained a quarter of an hour at the _Douane_ of Her
Majesty the Archduchess, as Maria Louisa, the present Duchess of Parma, is
stiled, we being now arrived in her dominions. We drove to the _Hotel di
San Marco_, which is close to the _Piazza Grande_, and alighted there. On
the Piazza stands the _Hotel de Ville_, and in front of it are two
equestrian statues in bronze of the Princes Farnesi; the statues, however,
of the riders appear much too small in proportion with the horses, and they
resemble two little boys mounted on Lincolnshire carthorses.

I did not visit the churches and palaces in this city from not having time
and, besides, I did not feel myself inclined or _bound_ (as some travellers
think themselves) to visit every church and every town in Italy. I really
believe the _ciceroni_ think that we _Ultramontani_ live in mud hovels in
our own country, and that we have never seen a stone edifice, till our
arrival in Italy, for every town house which is not a shop is termed a
_palazzo_, and they would conduct you to see all of them if you would be
guided by them. I had an opportunity, during the two hours we halted here,
of walking over the greater part of the city, after a hasty breakfast.
Piacenza is a large handsome city; among the females that I saw in the
streets the Spanish costume seems very prevalent, no doubt from being so
long governed by a Spanish family.

On leaving Piacenza we passed thro' a rich meadow country and met with an
immense quantity of cattle grazing. The road is a fine broad _chaussee_
considerably elevated above the level of the fields and is lined with
poplars. Where this land is not in pasture, cornfields and mulberry trees,
with vines in festoons, vary the landscape, which is additionally enlivened
by frequent _maisons de plaisance_ and excellently built farmhouses. We
passed thro' Firenzuola, a long well-built village, or rather _bourg_, and
we brought to the night at Borgo San Donino. At this place I found the
first bad inn I have met with in Italy, that is, the house, tho' large, was
so out of repair as to be almost a _masure_; we however met with tolerably
good fare for supper. We fell in with a traveller at Borgo San Donino, who
related to us an account of an extraordinary robbery that had been
committed a few months before near this place, in which the _then_ host was
implicated, or rather was the author and planner of the robbery. It
happened as follows. A Swiss merchant, one of those men who cannot keep
their own counsel, a _bavard_ in short, was travelling from Milan to
Bologna with his cabriolet, horse and a large portmanteau. He put up at
this inn. At supper he entered into conversation with mine host, and asked
if there was any danger of robbers on the road, for that he should be sorry
(he said) to fall into their hands, inasmuch as he had with him in his
portmanteau 24,000 franks in gold and several valuable articles of
jewellery. Mine host assured him that there was not the slightest danger.
The merchant went to bed, directing that he should be awakened at daybreak
in order to proceed on his journey. Mine host, however, took care to have
him called full an hour and half before daybreak, assuring him that light
would soon dawn. The merchant set out, but he had hardly journeyed two
miles when a shot from behind a hedge by the road side brought his horse to
the ground. Four men in masks rushed up, seized him and bound him to a
tree; they then rifled his portmanteau, took out his money and jewels and
wished him good morning.

Before we arrived at Borgo San Donino we crossed the Trebbia, one of the
many tributary streams of the Po, and which is famous for two celebrated
battles, one in ancient, the other in modern tunes (and probably many
others which I do not recollect); but here it was that Hannibal gained his
second victory over the Romans; and here, in 1799, the Russians under
Souvoroff defeated the French under Macdonald after an obstinate and
sanguinary conflict; but they could not prevent Macdonald from effecting
his junction with Massena, to hinder which was Souvoroff's object. In fact,
in this country, to what reflections doth every spot of ground we pass,
over, give rise! Every field, every river has been the theatre of some
battle or other memorable event either in ancient or modern times.

  _Quis gurges aut quae flumina lugubris
  Ignara belli?[81]_

We started from Borgo San Donino next morning; about ten miles further on
the right hand side of the road stands an ancient Gothic fortress called
Castel Guelfo. Between this place and Parma there is a very troublesome
river to pass called the Taro, which at times is nearly dry and at other
times, so deep as to render it hazardous for a carriage to pass, and it is
at all times requisite to send on a man to ford and sound it before a
carriage passes. This river fills a variety of separate beds, as it
meanders very much, and it extends to such a breadth in its _debordements_,
as to render it impossible to construct a bridge long enough to be of any
use.

This, however, being the dry season, we passed it without difficulty. Two
or three other streams on this route, _seguaci del Po_, are crossed in the
same manner.

The road to Parma, after passing the Taro, lies nearly in a right line and
is bordered with poplars. If I am not mistaken, it was somewhere in this
neighbourhood that the Carthaginians under Hannibal suffered a great loss
in elephants, who died from cold, being incamped during the winter. I am
told there is not a colder country in Europe than Lombardy during the
winter season, which arises no doubt from its vicinity to the Alps.

Opulence seems to prevail in all the villages in the vicinity of Parma, and
an immense quantity of cattle is seen grazing in the meadows on each side
of the road. The female peasantry wear the Spanish costume and are
remarkably well dressed.

We arrived at Parma at twelve o'clock and stopped there three hours.


PARMA.

After a hasty breakfast, Mr G-- and myself sallied forth to see what was
possible during the time we stopped in this city, leaving the Captain, who
refused to accompany us, to smoke his pipe. This city is very large and
there is a very fine _Piazza._ The streets are broad, the buildings
handsome and imposing, and there is a general appearance of opulence. We
first proceeded to visit the celebrated amphitheatre, called _l'Amfiteatro
Farnese_ in honour of the former sovereigns of the Duchy. It is a vast
building and unites the conveniences both of the ancient and modern
theatres. It has a roof like a modern theatre, and the seats in the
_parterre_ are arranged like the seats in an ancient Greek theatre. Above
this are what we should call boxes, and above them again what we usually
term a gallery. A vast and deep arena lies between the _parterre_ and the
orchestra and fills up the space between the audience and the _proscenium_.
It is admirably adapted both for spectators and hearers; when a tragedy,
comedy or opera is acted, a scaffolding is erected and seats placed in the
arena. At other times the arena is made use of for equestrian exercises and
chariot races in the style of the ancients, combats with wild beasts, etc.,
or it may be filled with water for the representation of naval fights
(_naumachia_); in this case you have a vast oval lake between the
spectators and the stage. It is a great pity that this superb and
interesting building is not kept in good repair; the fact is it is seldom
or ever made use of except on very particular occasions: it is almost
useless in a place like Parma, "so fallen from its high estate," but were
such an amphitheatre in Paris, London, or any great city, it might be used
for all kinds of _spectacles_ and amusements. A small theatre from the
design of Bernino stands close to this amphitheatre, and is built in a
light tasteful manner. If fresh painted and lighted up it would make a very
brilliant appearance. This may be considered as the Court theatre. At a
short distance from the theatres is the Museum of Parma, in which there is
a well chosen gallery of pictures. Among the most striking pictures of the
old school is without doubt that of St Jerome by Correggio; but I was full
as much, dare I be so heretical as to say more pleased, with the
productions of the modern school of Parma. A distribution of prizes had
lately been made by the Empress Maria Louisa, and there were many
paintings, models of sculpture and architectural designs, that did infinite
credit to the young artists. I remarked one painting in particular which is
worthy of a Fuseli. It represented the battle of the river God Scamander
with Achilles. The subjects of most of the paintings I saw here were taken
from the mythology or from ancient and modern history; and this is perhaps
the reason that they pleased me more than those of the ancient masters. Why
in the name of the [Greek: to kalon] did these painters confine
themselves so much to Madonnas, Crucifixions, and Martyrdoms, when their
own poets, Ariosto and Tasso, present so many subjects infinitely more
pleasing? Then, again, in many of these crucifixions and martyrdoms, the
gross anachronisms, such as introducing monks and soldiers with match-locks
and women in Gothic costume at the crucifixion, totally destroy the
seriousness and interest of the subject by annihilating all illusion and
exciting risibility.

Parma will ever be renowned in history as the birthplace of Caius Cassius,
the Mend and colleague of Brutus.

The Empress Maria Louisa lives here in the Ducal Palace, which is a
spacious but ornamental edifice. She lives, 'tis said, without any
ostentation. Out of her own states, her presence in Italy would be attended
with unpleasant consequences to the powers that be, on account of the
attachment borne to Napoleon by all classes of society; and it is on this
account that on her last visit to Bologna she received an intimation from
the papal authorities to quit the Roman territory in twenty-four hours. We
next passed thro' St Hilario and Reggio and brought to the evening at the
village of Rubbiera. At St Hilario is the entrance into the Duke of
Modena's territory, and here we underwent again &n examination of trunks,
as we did both on entering and leaving the territory of Maria Louisa.

Reggio is a large walled city, but I had only time to visit the Cathedral
and to remark therein a fine picture of the Virgin and the Chapel called
"Capella della Morte." Reggio pretends to the honour of having given birth
to the Divine Ariosto:

  Quel grande che canto l'armi e gli amorl,

as Guarini describes him, I believe. The face of the country from Parma to
Reggio is exactly the same as what we have passed thro' already.

The next day (20 August) we passed thro' Modena, where we stopped to
breakfast and refresh horses. It is a large and handsome city, the Ducal
Palace is striking and in the Cathedral is presented the famous bucket
which gave rise to the poem of Tassoni called _La Secchia rapita._ An air
of opulence and grandeur seems to prevail in Modena.

At Samoggia we entered the Papal territory and again underwent a search of
trunks. Within three miles of Bologna a number of villas and several
tanneries, which send forth a most intolerable odour, announce the approach
to that celebrated and venerable city. On the left hand side, before
entering the town, is a superb portico with arcades, about one and a half
miles in length, which leads from the city to the church of San Luca. On
the right are the Appennines, towering gradually above you. Bologna lies at
the foot of these mountains on the eastern side and here the plain ends for
those who are bound to Florence, which lies on the western side of the vast
ridge which divides Italy. We arrived at Bologna at half-past seven in the
evening, and here we intend to repose a day or two; I shall then cross the
Appennines for the first time in my life. A reinforcement of mules or oxen
is required for every carriage; from the ascent the whole way you can
travel, I understand, very little quicker _en poste_ than with a
_vetturino_. We are lodged at Bologna in a very comfortable inn called
_Locanda d'Inghilterra_.


BOLOGNA, 22d August.

The great popularity of Bologna, which is a very large and handsomely built
city, lies in the colonnaded porticos and arcades on each side of the
streets throughout the whole city. These arcades are mightily convenient
against sun and rain, and contradict the assertion of Rousseau, who
asserted that England was the only country in the world where the safety of
foot passengers is consulted, whereas here in Bologna not only are
_trottoirs_ broader than those of London in general, but you are
effectually protected against sun and rain, and are not obliged to carry an
umbrella about with you perpetually as in London. This arcade system, is,
however, rather a take off from the beauty of the city, and gives it a
gloomy heavy appearance, which is not diminished by the sight of friars and
mendicants with which this place swarms, and announce to you that you are
in the holy land. At Bologna it is necessary to have a sharp eye on your
baggage, on account of the crowds of ragged _faineans_ that surround your
carriage while it is unloading.

The first thing that the _ciceroni_ generally take you to see in Italy are
the churches, and mine would not probably have spared me one, but I was
more anxious to see the University. I however allowed him to lead me into
two of the principal churches, viz., the _Duomo_ or Cathedral, and the
church of San Petronio, both magnificent Gothic temples and worth the
attention of the traveller. On the _Piazza del Gigante_ is a fine bronze
statue of Neptune. The _Piazza_ takes its name from this statue, as at one
time in Italy, after the introduction of Christianity and when the ancient
mythology was totally forgotten, the statues of the Gods were called Giants
or named after Devils and their prototypes believed to be such.

In the Museum at the University is an admirable collection of fossils,
minerals, and machines in every branch of science. There are some excellent
pictures also; the University of Bologna was, you know, at all times famous
and its celebrity, is not at all diminished, for I believe Bologna boasts
more scientific men, and particularly in the sciences _positives_, than any
other city in Italy.

In the _Palazzo pubblico_ (_Hotel de Ville_) is a Christ and a Samson by
Guido Reni; but what pleased me most in the way of painting was the
collection in the gallery of Count Marescalchi. The Count has been at great
pains to form it and has shown great taste and discernment. It is a small
but unique collection. Here is to be seen a head of Christ, the colouring
of which is so brilliant as to illuminate the room in which it is appended,
when the shutters are closed, and in the absence of all other light except
what appears thro' the crevices of the window shutters. This head, however,
does not seem characteristic of Christ; it wants the gravity, the soft
melancholy and unassuming meekness of the _great Reformer_: in short, from
the vivid fire of the eyes and the too great self-complacency of the
countenance, it gave me rather the idea

  Del biondo Dio che in Tessalia si adora.

I passed two hours in this cabinet. I next repaired to the centre of the
city with the intention of ascending one at least of the two square towers
or _campanili_ which stand close together, one of which is _strait_, the
other a leaning one. _Garisendi_ is the name of the leaning tower, and it
forms a parallelipipedon of 140 feet in height and about twenty feet in
breath and length. It leans so much as to form an angle of seventy-five
degrees with the ground on which it stands. The other tower, the strait
one, is called _Asinelli_ and is a parallelipipedon of 310 feet in height
and about twenty-five feet in length and breadth. I ascended the leaning
tower, but I found the fatigue so great that I was scarcely repaid by the
fine view of the surrounding country, which presents on one side an immense
plain covered with towns, villages and villas, and on the other the
Appennines towering one above another. When on the top of _Garisendi_,
_Asinelli_ appears to be four times higher than its neighbour, and the bare
aspect of its enormous height deterred me from even making the attempt of
ascending it. When viewed or rather looked down upon from _Garisendi_,
Bologna, from its being of an elliptical form and surrounded by a wall and
from having these two enormous towers in the centre, resembles a boat with
masts.

From the great celebrity of its University and the eminent men it has
produced, Bologna is considered as the most litterary city of Italy.
Galvani was born in Bologna and studied at this University, and among the
modern prodigies is a young lady who is professor of Greek and who is by
all accounts the most amiable _Bas bleu_ that ever existed.[82] The
Bolognese are a remarkably fine, intelligent and robust race of people, and
are renowned for their republican spirit, and the energy with which they at
all times resisted the encroachments of the Holy See. Bologna was at one
time a Republic, and on their coins is the word Libertas. The Bolognese
never liked the Papal government and were much exasperated at returning
under the domination of the Holy Father. In the time of Napoleon, Bologna
formed part of the _Regno d'ltalia_ and partook of all its advantages.
Napoleon is much regretted by them; and so impatiently did the inhabitants
bear the change, on the dismemberment of the kingdom of Italy, and their
transfer to the pontifical sceptre, that on Murat's entry in their city in
1815 the students and other young men of the town flew to arms and in a few
hours organised three battalions. Had the other cities shown equal energy
and republican spirit, the revolution would have been completed and Italy
free; but the fact is that the Italians in general, tho' discontented, had
no very high opinion of Murat's talents as a political character, and he
besides _committed_ a great fault in not entering Rome on his march and
revolutionising it. Murat, like most men, was ruined by half-measures. The
last tune that Maria Louisa was here the people surrounded the inn where
she resided and hailed her with cries of _Viva I'Imperatrice!_ The Pope's
legate in consequence intimated to her the expediency of her immediate
departure from the city, with a request that she would not repeat her
visit. Bologna is considered by the Ultras, _Obscuranten,_ and _Eteignoirs_
as the focus and headquarters of Carbonarism.

In the evening I visited the theatre built by Bibbiena and had the pleasure
of hearing for the first time an Italian tragedy, which, however, are now
rarely represented and scarcely ever well acted. This night's performance
formed an exception and was satisfactory. The piece was _Romeo and
Giulietta_. The actress who did the part of Giulietta performed it with
great effect, particularly in the tomb scene. In this scene she reminded me
forcibly of our own excellent actress, Miss O'Neill. This was the only part
of the play that had any resemblance to the tragedy of Shakespeare. All the
rest was on the French model. I saw a number of beautiful women in the
boxes. The Bolognese women are remarkable for their fine complexions; those
that I saw were much inclined to _embonpoint_.


[79] And also to Napoleon, after the battle at Eylau.--ED.

[80] Joseph Forsyth (1763-1815), author of _Remarks on antiquities, arts
    and letters in Italy_, London, 1813.--ED.

[81] Horace, _Carm._, II, I, 33.--ED.

[82] The young woman in question was Clotilda Tambroni (1768-1818). She
    taught Greek at the University of Bologna and was in correspondence
    with the great French scholar Ansse de Villoison.--ED.




CHAPTER IX

Journey across the Appennines to Florence--Tuscan idioms and
customs--Monuments and galleries at Florence--The Cascino--Churches--
Theatres--Popularity of the Grand Duke--Napoleon's downfall not
regretted--Academies in Florence.


FLORENCE, 26th August.

The moment you leave Bologna to go to Florence you enter the gorges of the
Appennines, and after journeying seven miles, begin to ascend the ridge.
The ascent begins at Pianoro. Among these mountains the scenery is wild and
romantic, and tho' not so grandiose and sublime as that of the Alps, is
nevertheless extremely picturesque. One meets occasionally with the ruins
of old castles on some of the heights, and I was strongly reminded, at the
sight of these antique edifices, of the mysteries of Udolpho and the times
of the Condottieri. The silence that reigns here is only interrupted by the
noise of the waterfall and the occasional scream of the eagle. The wild
abrupt transition of landscape would suggest the idea of haunting places
for robbers, yet one seldom or never hears of any, on this road. In Tuscany
there is, I understand, so much industry and morality, that a robbery is a
thing unknown; but in his Holiness's dominions, from the idleness and
poverty that prevails, they are said to be frequent. Why it does not occur
in these mountains, in that part of them, at least, which belongs to the
Papal Government, I am at a loss to conceive.

Here the chesnut and olive trees salute the Ultramontane traveller for the
first time. The olive tree, tho' a most useful, is not an ornamental one,
as it resembles a willow or osier in its trunk and in the colour of its
leaves. The chesnut tree is a glorious plant for an indolent people, since
it furnishes food without labour, as the Xaca or Jack fruit tree does
to the Cingalese in Ceylon. On one of the heights between Pianoro and
Lojano you have in very clear weather a view of both the Adriatic and
Tyrrhene seas. We brought to the night at Scarica l'Asino and the next
morning early we entered the Tuscan territory at Pietra Mala, where there
is a _Douane_ and consequently an examination of trunks. At one o'clock we
arrived at an inn called _Le Maschere_, about fifteen miles distance from
Florence; it is a large mansion and being situated on an eminence commands
an extensive view. One becomes soon aware of being in the Tuscan territory
from the number of cultivated spots to be seen in this part of the
Appennines: for such is the industry of the inhabitants that they do
wonders on their naturally sterile soil. One sees a number of farms. Every
spot of ground is in cultivation, between _Le Maschere_ and Florence in
particular; these spots of ground, gardens, orchards and villas forming a
striking and pleasing contrast with the wild and dreary scenery of the
Appennines. Another thing that indicates one's arrival among the Tuscans is
their aspiration of the letter _c_ before _a_, _o_ and _u_, which is at
first extremely puzzling to a foreigner accustomed only to the Roman
pronunciation. For instance, instead of _camera_, _cotto_, _curvo_, they
pronounce these words _hamera_, _hotto_, and _hurvo_ with an exceeding
strong aspiration of the _h_. It is the same too with the _ch_ which they
aspirate, _ex gr._ instead of _pochino_, _chiave_, they say _pohino_,
_hiave_. The language however which is spoken is the most classical and
pure Italian and except the above mentioned aspiration it is delightful to
the ear; peculiarly so to those who come from the north of Italy, and have
only hitherto heard the unpleasing nasal twang of the Milanese and the
exceeding uncouth barbarous dialect of Bologna. Another striking
peculiarity is the smart appearance of the Tuscan peasantry. They are a
remarkably handsome race of men; the females unite with their natural
beauty a grace and elegance that one is quite astonished to find among
peasants. They express themselves in the most correct and classical
language and they have a great deal of repartee. As the peasantry of
Tuscany enjoy a greater share of _aisance_ than falls to the lot of those
of any other country, and as the females dress with taste and take great
pains to appear smart on all occasions, they resemble rather the
shepherdesses on the Opera stage or those of the fabled Arcadia than
anything in real life. The females too are remarkably industrious and will
work like horses all the week to gain wherewithal to appear smart on
holidays. Their dress is very becoming, and they wear sometimes jewellery
to a large amount on their persons; a very common ornament among them is a
collar of gold around their necks. Their usual head-dress is either a white
straw hat, or a black round beaver hat, with black ostrich feathers. I
prefer the straw hat; it is more tasteful than the round hat which always
seems to me too masculine for a woman. At the inn at _Le Maschere_ we were
waited on by three smart females. The whole road from _Le Maschere_ to
Florence is very beautiful and diversified. Vineyards, gardens, farm houses
and villas thicken as one approaches and when arrived within three miles of
Florence, which lies in a basin surrounded by mountains, one is quite
bewildered at the sight of the quantity of beautiful villas and _maisons de
plaisance_ in every direction.

Every thing indicates life, industry and comfort in this charming country.
We stopped at a villa belonging to the Grand Duke called _II Pratolino_,
seven miles distant from Florence. Here is to be seen the famous statue
representing the genius of the Appennines. The Villa is unfurnished and out
of repair and the garden and grounds are neglected: it is a great pity, for
it is a fine building and in a beautiful position. The celebrated Bianca
Capello, a Venetian by birth, and mistress of Francesco II de' Medici,
Grand Duke of Tuscany, used to reside here.


FLORENCE, 27th August.

I am extremely well pleased with my accommodations at the hotel where I am
lodged. Mme Hembert, the proprietor, was once _femme de chambre_ to the
Empress Josephine; she is an excellent woman and a very attentive hostess,
and I recommend her hotel to all those travellers who visit Florence and do
not care to incur the expence of Schneider's. There is an excellent and
well served _table d'hote_ at two o'clock, wine at discretion, for which,
and for my bedroom, I pay seven _paoli_ per day. This hotel has the
advantage of being in a very central situation. It is close to the _Piazza
del Gran Duca_, the post-office, the _Palazzo Vecchio_, the Bureaux of
Government, the celebrated Gallery of Sculpture and Painting and to the
Arno. It is only 300 yards from the _Piazza del Duomo_, where the Cathedral
stands, and 600 yards from the principal theatre _Della Pergola_ on the one
side; while on the other side, after crossing the _Ponte Vecchio_, stands
the _Palazzo Pitti_, the residence of the Grand Duke, at a distance of
seven or 800 yards.

The _Piazza del Gran Duca_ is very striking to the eye of the northern
traveller; the statues of the Gods in white marble in the open air would
make him fancy himself in Athens in the olden time. The following statues
in bronze and white marble are to be seen on this _Piazza_. In bronze are:
a statue of Perseus by Cellini; Judith with the head of Holofernes by
Donatello; David and Goliath; Samson. In white marble are the following
beautiful statues: a group representing Hercules and Cacus; another
representing a Roman carrying off a Sabine woman. The Hercules, who is in
the act of strangling Cacus, rests on one leg. Nearly in the centre of the
_Piazza_, opposite to the post office and in front of the _Palazzo
Vecchio_, is the principal ornament of the _Piazza_, which consists of a
group representing Neptune in his car or conch (or shell) drawn by
sea-horses and accompanied by Tritons. The statue of Neptune is of colossal
size, the whole group is in marble and the conch of Egyptian granite. This
group forms a fountain. There is likewise on this _Piazza_ an immense
equestrian statue in bronze of Cosmo the First by John of Bologna. The
_Palazzo Vecchio_ is a large Gothic building by Arnulpho and has a very
lofty square tower or _campanile_.

The Gallery of Florence being so close to my abode demanded next my
attention. The building in which this invaluable Museum is preserved forms
three sides of a parallelogram, two long ones and one short one, of which
the side towards the south of the quai of the Arno is the short one.

On the north is an open space communicating with the _Piazza del Gran
Duca_. The Gallery occupies the whole first floor of this vast building.
The _rez de chaussee_ is occupied, on the west side, by the bureaux of
Government, and on the south and east sides by shopkeepers, in whose shops
is always to be seen a brilliant display of merchandize. As there are
arcades on the three sides of this parallelogram, they form the favorite
meridian promenade of the _belles_ and _beaux_ of Florence, particularly on
Sundays and holidays, after coming out of Church. I ascended the steps from
a door on the east side of the building, to visit the Gallery.

The quantity and variety of objects of art, of the greatest value, baffle
all description, and it would require months and years to attempt an
analysis of all it contains. I shall therefore content myself with pointing
out those objects which imprinted themselves the most forcibly on my
imagination and recollection. In a chamber on the left hand of one wing of
the Gallery stands the Venus de' Medici, sent back last year from France.
In the same chamber with her are the following statues: the extremely
beautiful _Apollino_; the spotted Faun; the _Remouleur_ or figure which is
in the act of whetting a sickle. All these were in Paris, and are now
restored to this Gallery. In this chamber two pictures struck me in
particular: the one the Venus of Titian, a most voluptuous figure; the
other a portrait of the mistress of Rafaello, called "_La Fornarina_," from
her being a baker's daughter.

Returning to the Gallery I was quite bewildered at the immense number of
statues, pictures, sarcophagi, busts, altars, etc. Among the pieces of
sculpture those that most caught my attention were: the _Venus genetrix_
(which I had seen before at Paris); the _Venus victrix_; the _Venus
Anadyomene_; Hercules and Nessus, a superb groupe; a young Bacchus; and an
exquisitely chiselled group representing Pan teaching Olympus to play the
syrinx, tho' the attitude of the former is rather indecorous from not being
in a very quiescent state; a fine statue of Leda with the swan; a Mercury,
both worthy of great attention. I remarked also in particular a statue of
Marsyas attached to a tree and flayed. It is of a pale reddish marble, and
tho' I perfectly agree with Forsyth, that colored marble is not at all
adapted to statuary, yet in this instance it gives a wonderful effect and
is strikingly suitable, as the slight reddish colour gives a full idea of
the flesh after the skin is torn off. It makes one shudder to look at it.
In one of the halls are the statues of Niobe and her daughters, a beautiful
group. Then there is the celebrated copy of the group of the Laocoon by
Bandinelli, which none but the most perfect and skilful connoisseur could
distinguish from the original. But it is totally impossible for me to
describe the immense variety of paintings, historical, portrait and
landscape; the statues single or in groups; the sarcophagi, altars,
bas-reliefs, inscriptions, bronzes, medals, vases, baths, candelabra,
cameos, Etruscan and Egyptian idols with which this admirable Museum is
filled. In a line on each side of the Gallery near the ceiling is a
succession of portraits in chronological order of the Grand Dukes of
Tuscany, the Germanic Emperors, the Kings of France, of England, of Spain,
of Portugal, of the Popes and of the Ottoman Emperors. Among the
antiquities I particularly noticed a large steel mirror and a Roman Eagle
in bronze of the 24th Legion.

Having passed full four hours in this Museum, I descended the steps,
crossed the Arno and repaired to the building in which is preserved the
_Cabinet d'Histoire Naturelle_. In this Museum what is most remarkable are
the imitations in wax of the whole anatomy of the human body. It is the
first collection of its kind; indeed it is unique in Europe. These
imitations are kept in glass cases and are so true and so perfectly correct
as to leave nothing to desire to the student in anatomy. These imitations
in wax not only include all the details of anatomy, but also the progress
of generation, gestation, and of almost every malady to which the human
body is liable. They are of a frightful exactitude. There are likewise in
this Museum imitations in wax of various plants and shrubs exotic as well
as indigenous and the collection of stuffed birds, beasts and fishes and
that of insects, mineralogy and conchology scarcely yields to the
collection at the _Jardin des Plantes_ at Paris. Neither here nor at the
Florentine gallery are fees allowed to be taken; on the contrary a strict
prohibition of them is posted up in the French, Italian, German and English
languages.

On the _Ponte Vecchio_ on each side are jewellers' shops, who sell besides
jewellery, cameos and works in mosaic. The Quais on each side of the Arno
are very broad and spacious and form agreeable promenades in the winter
season. The buildings on the banks of the Arno are magnificent. The streets
of Florence have this peculiarity that they are all paved with large flag
stones, which makes them mightily pleasant for pedestrians, but dangerous
at times for horses who are apt to slip. Most of the houses in Florence
have walls of prodigious thickness; one would suppose each house was meant
to be a fortress in case of necessity.


FLORENCE, 29th August.

On the other side of the Arno, a little beyond the _Cabinet Physique_ and
Museum of Natural History stands the _Palazzo Pitti_, the residence of the
Grand Duke. It is a vast building and has a large and choice collection of
pictures; but its finest ornament in my opinion is the statue of Venus by
Canova, which to me at least appears to equal the Medicean Venus in beauty
and in grace. The magnificent and spacious garden belonging to the Palace
is called the garden of Boboli. These gardens form the grand promenade of
the Florentines on Sundays and holidays. The alleys are well shaded by
trees, which effectually protect the promenaders from the rays of the sun.
There are a great many statues in this garden, but the most striking is a
group which lies nearly in the centre of the garden. It is environed by a
large circular basin or lake lined with stone and planted with orange trees
on the whole circumference. In the centre of the lake is a rock and on this
rock is a colossal statue in white marble of Neptune in his car. The car is
in the shape of a marine conch and serves as a basin and fountain at the
same time. There are several other fountains and _jets d'eau_, among which
is a group representing Adam and Eve and the statue of a man pouring out
water from a vase which he has on his shoulder.

The _Corso_ or grand evening promenade for carriages and equestrians is on
a place called the Cascino, pronounced by the Florentines _Hascino_. The
Cascino consists of pleasure grounds on the banks of the Arno outside the
town, laid out in roads, alleys and walks for carriages, equestrians and
pedestrians. There is a very brilliant display of carriages every evening.
There are _restaurants_ on the Cascino and supper parties are often formed
here. This place is often the scene of curious adventures. Cicisbeism is
universal at Florence, tho' far from being always criminal, as is generally
supposed by foreigners. I find the Florentine women very graceful and many
very handsome; but in point of beauty the female peasantry far exceed the
_noblesse_ and burghers. All of them however dress with taste. The
handsomest woman in Florence is the wife of an apothecary who lives in the
_Piazza del Duomo_ and she has a host of admirers.

On the promenade _lungo l'Arno_ near the Cascino is a fountain with a
statue of Pegasus, with an inscription in Italian verse purporting that
Pegasus having stopped there one day to refresh himself at this fountain,
found the place so pleasant that he remained there ever since. This is a
poetic nation _par excellence_. _Affiches_ are announced in sonnets and
other metres; and tho' in other countries the votaries of the Muses are but
too apt to neglect the ordinary and vulgar concerns of life, yet here it by
no means diminishes industry, and the nine Ladies are on the best possible
terms with Mr Mercury.

I shall not attempt a description of the various _palazzi_ and churches of
Florence, tho' I have visited, thanks to the zeal and importunity of my
_cicerone_, nearly all, except to remark that no one church in Florence,
the Cathedral and Baptistery on the _Piazza del Duomo_ excepted, has its
facade finished, and they will remain probably for ever unfinished, as the
completion of them would cost very large sums of money, and the restored
Government, however anxious to resuscitate the _ancient faith_, are not
inclined to make large disbursements from their own resources for that
purpose. I wish however they would finish the facade of two of these
churches, viz., that of _Santa Maria Novella_ and that of _Santa Croce_.
_Santa Maria Novella_ stands in the Piazza of that name which is very
large. It is a beautiful edifice, and can boast in the interior of it
several columns and pilasters of _jaune antique_ and of white marble. But
they have a most barbarous custom in Florence of covering these columns
with red cloth on _jours de Fete_, which spoils the elegant simplicity of
the columns and makes the church itself resemble a _theatre des
Marionnettes_. But the Italians are dreadfully fond of gaudy colours. In
the church of _Santa Croce_ what most engaged my attention was the monument
erected to Vittorio Alfieri, sculptured by Canova. It is a most beautiful
piece of sculpture. A figure of Italy crowned with turrets seems fully
sensible of the great loss she has sustained in one who was so ardent a
patriot, as well as an excellent tragic poet. This monument was erected at
the expence of the Countess of Albany (Queen of England, had _legitimacy_
always prevailed, or been as much in fashion as it now is) as a mark of
esteem and affection towards one who was so tenderly attached to her, and
of whom in his writings Alfieri speaks with the endearing and affectionate
appellation of _mia Donna_. The beautiful sonnet to her, which accompanies
the dedication of his tragedy of _Mirra_, well deserves the monument; there
is so much feeling in it that I cannot retrain from transcribing it:

  Vergognando talor, che ancor si taccia,
  Donna, per me l'almo tuo nome in fronte
  Di queste omai gla troppe a te ben conte
  Tragedie, ond'io di folle avrommi taccia;

  Or vo' qual d'esse meno a te dispiaccia
  Di te fregiar; benche di tutte il fonte
  Tu sola fosti, e'l viver mio non conte
  Se non dal Di, ch'al viver tuo si allaccia.

  Della figlia di Ciniro infelice
  L'orrendo a un tempo ed innocente amore
  Sempre da' tuoi begli occhi il planto elice;

  Prova emmi questo, ch'al mio dubbio core
  Tacitamente imperiosa dice,
  Ch'io di Mirra consacri a te il dolore.

In this sanctuary (church of the _Santa Croce_) are likewise the tombs and
monuments of other great men which Italy has produced. There is the
monument erected to Galileo which represents the earth turning round the
sun with the emphatic words: _Eppur si muove._ Here too repose the ashes of
Machiavelli and Michel Angelo. This church is in fact the Westminster Abbey
of Florence.

To go from the _Piazza del gran Duca_ to the _Piazza del Duomo_, where
stands the Cathedral, you have only to pass thro' a long narrow street or
rather alley (for it is impervious to carriages) with shops on each side
and always filled with people going to or returning from the Duomo. This
Cathedral is of immense size. The architecture is singular from its being a
mixture of the Gothic and Greek. It appears the most ponderous load that
ever was laid on the shoulders of poor mother earth. There is nothing light
in its structure to relieve the massiveness of the building, and in this
respect it forms a striking contrast to the Cathedral of Milan which
appears the work of Sylphs. The outside of this Duomo of Florence is
decorated and incrusted with black and white marble, which increases the
massiveness of its appearance. The steeple or Campanile stands by itself,
altogether separate from the Cathedral, and this is the case with most of
the Churches in Italy that are not of pure Gothic architecture. This
_Campanile_ is curiously inlaid and incrusted on its outside with red,
white and black marble. The Baptistery is another building on the same
_Piazza_. It is in the same stile of building as the Duomo, but incloses
much less space, and was formerly a separate church, called the church of
St John the Baptist. The immense bronze doors or rather gates, both of the
Duomo and Battisterio, attracted my peculiar notice. On them are figured
bas-reliefs of exquisite and admirable workmanship, representing Scripture
histories. It was the symmetry and perfection of these gates that induced
Michel Angelo to call them in a fit of enthusiasm _The Gates of Paradise_.
At the door of the Battisterio are the columns in red granite, which once
adorned the gates of the city at Pisa, and were carried off by the
Florentines in one of their wars. Chains are fastened round these columns,
as a memorial of the conquest. The cupolas both of the Duomo and
Battisterio are octangular. There is a stone seat on the _Piazza del Duomo_
where they pretend that Dante used occasionally to sit; hence it is called
to this day _Il Sasso di Dante_.

You will now no doubt expect me to give some account of the theatres. At
the _Pergola_, which is a large and splendid theatre, I have seen two
operas; the one, _L'Italiana in Algieri_, which I saw before at Milan last
year; the other, the _Barbieri di Seviglia_ by Rossini, which afforded to
my ears the most delightful musical feast they ever enjoyed. The cavatina
_Una voce poco fa_ gave me inconceivable delight. The _Ballo_ was of a very
splendid description and from a subject taken from the Oriental history
entitled _Macbet Sultan of Delhi_. How the Mogul Sultan came to have the
name of Macbet I know not. On the _plafond_ of the _Pergola_ is an
allegorical painting representing the restored Kings of Europe replaced on
their thrones by Valor and Justice. The decorations at this theatre are not
quite so splendid as those of the _Scala_ at Milan, but living horses and
military evolutions seem to be annexed to every historical _Ballo_. Horses
indeed appear to be an indispensable ingredient in the _Balli_ in the large
cities of Italy.

In the _Teatro Cocomera_, comedies are performed, and very generally those
of the inexhaustible Goldoni. I saw the _Bugiardo_ very fairly performed at
this theatre. The story is nearly the same as that of our piece, _The
Liar_, which is I believe imitated from _Le Menteur_ of Corneille. The
actor who did the Liar was a very good one. The actresses screamed too much
and were rather coarse. Another night at the theatre I saw a piece call'd
_II furioso_, a _comedie larmoyante_ which was interesting and well given;
but the voice of the prompter was occasionally too loud. Tragedies are very
seldom played; the language of Alfieri could never, I will not say be given
with effect, but even conceived by the modern actors. It would be like a
tragedy of Sophocles performed by boys at school. There is another reason
too why these tragedies are not given; they abound too much in republican
and patriotic sentiments to be grateful to the ears of the Princes who
reign in Italy, all of whom being of foreign extraction and unshackled by
constitutions, come under the denomination of those beings called by Greeks
[Greek: Turannoi], I use this word in its Greek sense. Of the Tuscan
Government it is but justice to say that from the days of Leopold to the
present day it was and is a mild, just and paternal government, more so
perhaps than any in Europe; and the only one that can any way reconcile one
altogether to those lines of Pope:

  For forms of Government let fools contest;
  Whate'er is best administer'd is best.[83]

In the time of Leopold the factious nobility were kept in check, and the
industrious classes, mercantile and agricultural, encouraged. The peasantry
were, and are, the most affluent in Europe; and this is no small incitement
to the industry that prevails. On the elevation of Leopold to the throne of
the Caesars, the present Grand Duke succeeded in Tuscany; and he followed
the same system that Leopold did, and was equally beloved by his subjects.
Tuscany was the only country in Italy that did not desire a change at the
period of the French conquest, and the only state wherein the French were
not hailed as deliverers. The Tuscans exhibited a very honorable spirit on
the occasion of Buonaparte's visit to the Grand Duke in 1797. They went
together to the Theatre della Pergola, and on their entering into the Grand
Ducal box, the Grand Duke was hailed with cries of _Viva il Nostro
Sovrano_: now this proof of attachment at a period when Buonaparte was
all-mighty in Italy, when the Grand Duke was but an inferior personage, at
a time too when it was doubtful whether or not he would be dethroned, and
in the very presence of the mighty conqueror, reflects great honor and
credit on the Tuscan character. Buonaparte was much struck at this proof of
disinterested attachment on the part of the Florentines towards their
Sovereign, and told the Grand Duke very ingenuously that he had received
orders to revolutionize the country, from the French Directory; but that as
he perceived the people were so happy, and the Prince so beloved, he could
not and would not attempt to make any change.

The applause given to the Grand Duke at this critical period is so much the
more creditable to the Florentines as they in general receive their Prince,
on his presenting himself at the theatre, with no other ceremonial than
rising once and bowing. There is no fulsome _God save the King_ repeated
even to nausea, as at the English theatres. In fact none of the Italians
pay that servile adulation to their Sovereigns that the French and English
do.

The changes projected in Italy at the treaty of Luneville by Napoleon then
first Consul, and his further views on Italy, induced him at length to
eject an Austrian Prince from the sovereignty of a country which he
intended to annex to the French Empire. The Grand Duke was indemnified with
a principality in Germany, where he remained until the downfall of Napoleon
in 1814; subsequent arrangements again restored him to the sway of the land
he loved so well, and he returned to Florence as if he had only been absent
on a tour, finding scarcely any change in the laws and customs and habits
of the country; for tho' Tuscany was first erected into a Kingdom by the
title of Etruria, and afterwards annexed to the French Empire, the
institutions and laws laid down by Leopold and followed strictly by his
successor were preserved; very little innovation took place, and the few
innovations that were effected were decided ameliorations; for the Emperor
Napoleon had too much tact not to preserve and protect the good he found,
tho' he abolished all old abuses. The improvements introduced by the French
have been preserved and confirmed by the Grand Duke on his return, for he
is a man of too much good sense, and has too much love of justice, to think
of abolishing the good that has been done, merely because it was done by
the French. Tuscany has now a respectable military force of 8,000 men well
armed, clothed and equipped in the French manner.

Tuscany is the only part of Italy where the downfall of Napoleon was not
regretted; the inhabitants of Leghorn indeed rejoiced at it, for the
commerce of Tuscany being chiefly maritime, Leghorn suffered a good deal
from the continental system. Leghorn in fact decayed in the same proportion
that Milan and other inland cities rose into opulence.

The character of the Tuscan people is so amiable and pacific that crime is
very rare indeed. Murder is almost unknown and the punishment of death is
banished from the penal code. Where the government is good, the people are
or soon become good. I know of no country in the world more agreeable for a
foreigner to settle in than Tuscany.

I omitted to remark that in the street called _Borgo d'Ognissanti_ is a
large house or _palazzo_ which belonged to Americo Vespucci. His bust is to
be seen in the Florentine Gallery. It is curious to remark the different
appellations given to the word _street_ in the different cities of Italy.
In Milan a street is called _vico_ and in Turin, _contrada_; in Florence
_strada_ and in Rome, I understand, _via_.


FLORENCE, 1st Sept.

I shall start in a day or two for Rome, being very impatient to behold the
Eternal City, a plan which I have had in view from my earliest days and
which I have not been able hitherto to effect; for like the Abbe Delille I
had sworn to visit the sacred spot where so many illustrious men had spoke
and acted, and to do hommage in person to their Manes. I was always a great
admirer of the "_Popolo Re_."

In Florence there are a great many literary societies such as the
_Infuocati, Immobili_, and the far renowned _La Crusca_.

Frequent _Academies_, for so a sitting of a litterary society in Italy is
termed, are held in Florence. There are likewise two Casinos, one for the
nobility and the other for the merchants and burghers; the wives and
daughters of the members attend occasionally; and cards, music and dancing
are the amusements. Florence abounds in artists in alabaster whose
workmanship is beautiful. They make models in alabaster of the most
celebrated pieces of sculpture and architecture, on any scale you chuse:
they fabricate busts too and vases in alabaster. The vases made in
imitation of the ancient Greek vases are magnificent, and some of them are
of immense size. Foreigners generally chuse to have their busts taken; for
almost all foreigners who arrive here are or pretend to be smitten with an
ardent love for the fine arts, and every one wishes to take with him models
of the fine things he has seen in Italy, on his return to his native
country. Here are English travellers who at home would scarcely be able to
distinguish the finest piece of ancient sculpture--the Mercury, for
instance, in the Florentine Gallery, from a Mercury in a citizen's garden
at Highgate--who here affect to be in extacies at the sight of the Venus,
Apollino, &c., and they are fond of retailing on all occasions the terms of
art and connoisseurship they have learned by rote, in the use of which they
make sometimes ridiculous mistakes. For instance I heard an Englishman one
day holding forth on the merits of the Vierge _quisouse_, as he called it.
I could not for some time divine what he meant by the word _quisouse_, but
after some explanation I found that he meant the celebrated painting of the
_Vierge qui coud_, or _Vierge couseuse_, as it is sometimes called, which
latter word he had transformed into _quisouse_. This affectation, however,
of passion for the _belle arti_, tho' sometimes open to ridicule, is very
useful. It generates taste, encourages artists, and is surely a more
innocent as well as more rational mode of spending money and passing time
than in encouraging pugilism or in racing, coach driving and cock fighting.


[83] Pope, _Essay on Man_, ep. III, 303-4.--ED.




CHAPTER X

Journey from Florence to Rome--Sienna--Radicofani--Bolsena--Montefiascone
wine--Viterbo--Baccano--The Roman Campagna--The papal _douane_--Monuments
and Museums in Rome--Intolerance of the Catholic Christians--The Tiber and
the bridges--Character of the Romans--The _Palassi_ and _Ville_--Canova's
atelier--Theatricals--An execution in Rome.


September----, 1816.

I made an agreement with a _vetturino_ to take me to Rome for three _louis
d'or_ and to be _spesato_. In the carriage were two other passengers, viz.,
a Neapolitan lady, the wife of a Colonel in the Neapolitan service, and a
young Roman, the son of the _Barigello_ or _Capo degli Sbirri_ at Rome. We
issued from the _Porta Romana_ at 6 o'clock a.m. the 3d September.

The road winds thro' a valley, and has a gentle ascent nearly the whole way
to Poggibonsi, where we brought to the first night. The soil hereabouts is
far from fertile, but every inch of it is put to profit. The olive tree is
very frequent and several farms and villages are to be met with. The next
day we arrived at 12 o'clock at Sienna. The approach to Sienna is announced
by a quantity of olive trees. The situation of this city being on an
elevation, makes it cold and bleak. We remained here three hours, so that I
had time to visit some of the places worthy of remark in this venerable
city, which is handsome and very solidly built, but has rather a sombre
appearance. The _Piazza Grande_ lies in a bottom to which you descend from
the environing streets. It is in the shape of a mussel shell and of very
large size. The Cathedral is Gothic and is a very majestic and venerable
building. Inside it is of black and yellow marble. The pavement of this
church contains Scripture histories in mosaic. A library is annexed to the
church. The librarian pointed out to me 80 folio volumes of church music
with illuminated plates; likewise an ancient piece of sculpture much
mutilated, viz., a group of the three Graces. In one of the chapels of this
Cathedral are eight columns of _verd-antique_. I observed a monument of the
Piccolomini family who belong to this city; one of which family figured a
good deal in the Thirty Years' War in Germany. I saw several women in the
Cathedral and at the windows of the houses. The greater part of them were
handsome. The Italian language is spoken here in its greatest purity; it is
the pure Tuscan dialect without the Tuscan aspiration. The Siennese
language is in fact the identical _lingua Toscana in bocca Romana_.

We arrived the same evening at Buon Convento, an old dismal dirty-looking
town formerly fortified; but the country in the environs is pleasing
enough. The inn here is very bad. On the road between Sienna and this place
I observed a number of mulberry trees.

The next morning, the 5th Sept., we arrived at Radicofani or rather at an
inn or post house facing Radicofani. This is a very ancient city, and from
its being on an eminence it has an imposing appearance. Above it towers an
immense conical shaped mountain, evidently a volcano in former times. In
fact, the whole country hereabouts is volcanic, which is plainly seen from
the immense masses of calcined stones, the exhalations of sulphur and the
dreary wild appearance of the country, where scarce a tree is to be seen. I
never in my life saw so many calcined rocks and stones of great magnitude
heaped together as at Radicofani. It gave the idea as if it were the
identical field of battle between Jupiter and the Titans, and as if the
masses of rock that everywhere meet the eye had been hurled at the Empyreum
by the Titans and had fallen back on the spot from whence they were torn
up. It is indeed very probable that this volcano which vomited forth rocks
and stones in a very remote age, gave rise to the Fable of the war between
Jupiter and the Giants; just as the volcanos in Sicily and Stromboli gave
rise to the story of the Cyclops with one eye (the crater) in their
forehead. But the mountain of Radicofani must have been a volcano anterior
even to Aetna; it presents the image of an ancient world destroyed by fire.

At Ponte Centino the next morning we took our leave of

        _La patria bella
  Di vaghe Donne e di dolce favella;_

in plain prose, we left the Tuscan territory, and re-entered the dominions
of His Holiness. After being detained half an hour at the _Douane_, we
proceeded to Acquapendente to breakfast. The country between Radicofani and
Acquapendente is dreary, thinly populated, little cultivated, and volcanic
steams of sulphur assail the nostrils. Before we arrived at Acquapendente
we had a troublesome river to cross, which at times is nearly dry, and at
other times the water comes down in torrents from the surrounding mountains
and precipices, so as to render its passage extremely dangerous. It is
always necessary previous to the passage of a carriage, to send on a man to
ford and sound it, from its meandering and forming different beds crossed
seven times, twice less than Styx _novies interfusa_, and it is a very slow
operation from the number of rocks and quicksands; so that, should the
torrent come down while you are in the act of crossing, you and your whole
equipage would be swept away by the stream and drowned or dashed to pieces.
Travellers going to and returning from Rome are frequently detained for a
day or two at Ponte Centino or Acquapendente during the rainy season; for
immediately after heavy rains, there is always a great risk and it is
better to halt for several hours to allow the waters to pass off. The
extent of ground that this river covers by its meandering and forming so
many beds nearly parallel to each other renders it impossible to construct
a bridge long enough; and it would be always liable to be swept away by the
torrent. Nobody ever thinks of crossing the river in the dark. There having
no rain fallen for several days we passed it without difficulty.

Within a mile of Acquapendente the landscape varies and the approach to
this town is exceedingly picturesque. Acquapendente is situated on a lofty
eminence from which several magnificent cascades descend into the ravine
below and which give the name to the town. There are a great number of
trees about this town and they afford a great relief to the eye of the
traveller after so many hours' journey thro' volcanic wastes. The town of
Acquapendente is very ancient; it is very large, but ill-paved and dirty;
the best buildings in it are, however, modern. The inhabitants appear lazy
and dirty. On entering into conversation with some soldiers belonging to
the Papal army, who were stationed at this place, I found that most of them
had served under Napoleon. They spoke of him with tears of affection in
their eyes, and I pleased them much by reciprocating their opinions of that
great man. To speak well of Napoleon is the surest passport to civility and
good treatment on the part of the soldiers and _douaniers_.

In the evening we arrived at Bolsena, the ancient Volsinium, a city of the
Volscians. It is an ancient looking town, not very clean, and inhabited by
indolent people. It is situated on the banks of a large lake, on which
there are three small islands. It is very aguish and unhealthy, and the
inhabitants appear sickly, with marvellous sallow complexions. The inn
where we put up was a pretty good one, and as this lake abounds in fish, we
had some excellent trout and pike for supper; among other dishes there was
one that was very gratifying to me, an old East and West Indian; and that
was the _Peveroni_ or large red and green peppers or capsicums fried in
oil. Some excellent Orvieto wine crowned our repast, and helped to restore
us from our fatigues.

On leaving Bolsena the next morning, the 7th, and within a very short
distance from that town we entered a thick and venerable forest, thro'
which the road runs for several miles. Fine old trees of immense height
covered with foliage and thickly studded together give to this forest an
aweful and romantic appearance. It is quite a _lucus opaca ingens_. This
forest has been held sacred since the earliest times and is even now held
in such superstitious veneration by the people that they do not allow it to
be cut. The Dryads and Hamadryads have no doubt long ago taken their
flight, but the wood, from its length and opaqueness, inspired me with some
apprehension lest it might be the abode of some modern votaries of Mercury,
people having confused ideas of _meum_ and _tuum_, and the _appropriative
faculty_ too strongly developed in their organization, and I expected every
moment to hear a shot and the terrible cry of _ferma_; but we met with no
accident nor did we fall in with a living soul. On issuing from this forest
we perceived on an eminence before us, at a short distance, the town of
Montefiascone. We stopped there as almost all travellers do to taste the
famous Montefiascone wine or _Est_ wine, as it is frequently called. This
wine is fine flavored, _petillant_ and wonderfully exhilarating. It is
renowned for having occasioned the death of a German prelate in the
sixteenth century, who was travelling in Italy and who was remarkably fond
of good wine. The story is as follows. He was accustomed to send on his
servant to the different towns thro' which he was to pass with directions,
to taste and report on the quality of the different wines to be found
there, and if they were good to mark the word _Est_ on the casks from which
he tasted them. The servant, on arrival at Montefiascone, was highly
pleased with the flavour of the wine, of which there were three casks at
the inn where they put up. He accordingly wrote the word _Est_ on each of
the casks. The Bishop arrived soon after and took such a liking to this
wine that he died in a few days of a fever brought on by continual
intoxication. He was buried in one of the churches at Montefiascone and the
monks of the Convent there, themselves _bons-vivans_, determined to give
him a suitable epitaph. They accordingly caused to be engraved on his tomb
the following Latin inscription commemorative of the event: _Est, Est, Est,
propter nimium Est, Dominus Episcopus mortuus_ EST. From the above
circumstance this wine is called _Vino d'Est_, and it affords no small
revenue to the proprietor of the _cabaret_ on the road side who sells it.

We arrived at Viterbo to breakfast and at Ronciglione in the evening.
Viterbo is a large and handsome city and contains several striking
buildings. It is paved with lava and contains a great variety of fountains.
There is some appearance of commerce and industry in this town and there
are several _maisons de plaisance_ in the neighbourhood. From Viterbo,
thro' Monterosi, to Ronciglione the road lies over a mountain of steep
ascent; here and there are patches of forest. There is not a house to be
seen on this route and from there being a good deal of wood, and no
appearance of cultivation, one fancies oneself rather in the wilds of a new
country like America, than in so old a one as Italy.

Ronciglione is an old rubbishing town half in ruins and contains no one
thing remarkable.

The next morning at four o'clock we started from Ronciglione and reached
Baccano to breakfast.

Baccano contains only two buildings; but they are both very large and
roomy; the one is the inn, and the other serves as a barrack for the
Military. There is always a strong military detachment here for the
security of the road against robbers, who occasionally infest this
neighbourhood. The inn is of immense size. Travellers, who arrive here
late, would do well to halt here the whole night, as not only the road is
dangerous on account of robbers, but because if they arrive at Rome after
five o'clock p.m., they cannot release their baggage and carriage from the
Custom house till next day. Every carriage public or private that arrives
in Rome is bound, unless a special permission to the contrary be obtained
from the Government, to drive direct to the Custom house (_Dogana_). In the
like manner, on travelling from Rome to Florence, people generally prefer
to start from Rome at twelve o'clock and bring to the night at Baccano, so
as to avoid the bad inn at Ronciglione and sleep in preference at Viterbo.
I here speak only of those who travel by short stages as the _vetturini_
do.

Ariosto has given a celebrity to this wretched place Baccano in his poem of
the _Orlando Furioso_, in the story of Giocondo in the 28th Canto, as being
the identical place where Fausto, the brother of Giocondo, remained to
await the return of his brother from Rome, to which place he had gone back,
when half way between Baccano and Rome, to fetch the _monile_ which he had
left behind him, and found his wife not _alone_ and _dying with grief_ as
he apprehended, but _sotto la coltre_ with a servant of the family.

The country between Baccano and Rome is as unpleasing and even worse than
that between the former place and Ronciglione. It is hilly, but not a tree,
nor a house, nor a sign of cultivation to be seen except the two or three
wretched hovels at La Storta. There is nothing at all that announces the
approach to a capital city; and in addition to the dismal landscape there
is a sight still more dismal that salutes the eye of the traveller at
intervals of two or three miles and which does not tend to inspire pleasing
ideas; and this is the sight of arms and legs of malefactors and murderers
suspended on large poles on the road side; for it is the custom here to cut
off the arms and legs of murderers after decapitation, and to suspend them
_in terrorem_ on poles, erected on the very spot where they committed the
murder. The sight of these limbs dangling in the wind is not a very
comfortable one towards the close of the evening.

We left the _Sepolero di Nerone_, an ancient tomb so called, on the right
of our road and half a mile beyond it crossed the Tiber at the _Ponte Molle
(Pons Milvius)_, where there is a gate, bridge and military post. From this
post to the _Porta del Popolo_, the entrance into the city for those coming
from the North, the distance is one mile; there is a white wall on each
side of the road the whole way, and some farm houses and villas. Near the
_Ponte Molle_ is the field of battle where Maxentius was defeated by
Constantine.

We entered the _Porta del Popolo_, crossed the _Piazza_ of the same name,
where three streets present themselves to view. In the centre is the street
called the _Corso_, running in a direct line from the _Porta_ across the
_Piazza_. We drove along the _Corso_ till we arrived at a _Piazza_ on our
right hand, which _Piazza_ is called _della Colonna_ from the Column of
Antoninus, which stands on it. We then crossed the _Piazza_ which is very
large and soon reached the _Dogana_ or Custom house, formerly the temple of
Antoninus Pius, where vile modern walls are built to fill up the intervals
between eleven columns of Grecian marble. Here our baggage underwent a
rigorous research; this rigour is not so much directed against the
fraudulent introduction of contraband or duty-bearing merchandise, as
against _books_, which undergo a severe scrutiny. Against Voltaire and
Rousseau implacable war is waged, and their works are immediately
confiscated. Other authors too are sometimes examined, to see whether they
contain anything against Mother Church. As the people employed in
inspecting books are not much versed in any litterature or language but
their own, except perhaps a little French, it is not easy for them to find
out the contents of books in other languages. I had Schiller's works with
me, a volume of which one of the _douaniers_ took up and looked at; on
seeing the Gothic letter he seemed as much astonished as if he had got hold
of a book of _Cabbala_ or _Magic_. He detained the whole work, but it was
sent to me the next day, on my declaring that there was nothing damnable or
heretical in it; for there was no person belonging to the department who
could read German. When the _douaniers_ proceeded to the examination of the
books belonging to one of my fellow travellers, the Neapolitan lady, she
expressed great repugnance to the procedure; the _douaniers_ however
insisted and, behold! there were several _livres galants_ with plates
somewhat _lubriques_, the discovery of which excited blushes on her part
and considerable laughter on the part of the byestanders. These books,
however, not being contraband, were immediately returned to her, as was an
edition of Baffo, belonging to my other fellow traveller, returned to him.
Now this Baffo was a Venetian poet and his works are the most profligate
that ever were penned or imagined by mortal man. Martial and Petronius
Arbiter must hide their diminished heads before Baffo. The owner of this
book chose to read out loud, quite unsolicited, several _choice_ sonnets of
this poet for our edification during the journey; and this branch of
litterature seemed to be the only one with which he was acquainted.

When the examination was over I took leave of my fellow travellers, and
repaired to the _German Hotel_ in the _Via de' Condotti_, where I engaged
an apartment, and sat down to dinner at an excellent _table d'hote_ at five
o'clock. There was a profusion of everything, particularly of fish and
game. Mullets and wild boar are constant dishes at a Roman table. The
mullets at Rome are small but delicious, and this was a fish highly prized
by the ancient Romans. Game of all kinds is very cheap here, from the
abundance of it that is to be met with in wild uninhabited wastes of Latium
and in the Pontine marshes. Every peasant is a sportsman and goes
constantly armed with fire-arms, not only to kill game, but to defend
himself against robbers, who infest the environs of Rome, and who sometimes
carry their audacity so far as to push their _reconnaissances_ close to the
very walls of the city. At the _German Hotel_ the price of the dinner at
_table d'hote_, including wine at discretion, is six _paoli_, about three
franks. I pay for an excellent room about three _paoli_ per diem and my
breakfast at a neighbouring _Caffe_ costs me one _paolo_. A _paolo_ is
worth about five pence English. There are ten _paoli_ to a _scudo Romano_
and ten _bafocchi_ to a _paolo_, The _bafocco_ is a copper coin.


ROME, 12th Sept.

A great number of Germans dine at the _table d'hote_ of Franz's hotel.
Among them I distinguished one day a very intelligent Bavarian Jew. I
proposed to him a walk to the Coliseum the following morning, as
independent of the benefit I derived from his conversation I was curious to
see whether it was true or not that the Jews always avoided walking under
the Arch of Titus, which was erected in commemoration of the capture of
Jerusalem by the Romans under Titus, in the reign of Vespasian. On stepping
out of the _Hotel Allemand_, the first thing that met my eye was the
identical beggar described by Kotzebue in his travels in Italy, and he
gives the very same answer now as then to those who give him nothing, viz.,
_Pazienza_.

We crossed the _Piazza di Spagna_, ascended the superb flight of steps of
the _Trinita de' Monti_, where there is a French church called the Church
of St Louis: near it is the _Villa Medici_, which is the seat of the French
Academy of the fine arts at Rome. We then filed along the _Strada Felice_
till we arrived at the church of _Santa Maria maggiore_, a superb edifice,
the third church in Rome in celebrity, and the second in magnificence. An
immense Egyptian Obelisk stands before it. We then, turning a little to the
right, made the best of our way to the Coliseum where we remained nearly
two hours. I had figured to myself the grandest ideas of this stupendous
building, but the aspect of it far exceeded the sketch even of my
imagination. In Egypt I have seen the Pyramids, but even these vast masses
did not make such an impression on me as the Coliseum has done. I am so
unequal to the task of description that I shall not attempt it; I will give
you however its dimensions which my friend the Jew measured. It is an
ellipse of which the transverse axis is 580 feet in length and its
conjugate diameter 480; but it is not so much the length and breadth as the
solidity of this building that strikes the traveller with astonishment. The
arcaded passage or gallery (on the _rez de chaussee_ between the interior
and the exterior wall), which has a vaulted roof over which the seats are
built, is broad enough to admit three carriages abreast: and the walls on
each side of this gallery are at least twenty feet thick. What a
magnificent spectacle it must have been in the time of the ancient Romans,
when it was ornamented, gilded, and full of spectators, of which it could
contain, it is said, 86,000! The Coliseum has been despoiled by various
Popes and Cardinals to furnish stone and marble to build their palaces;
otherwise, so solid is the building, Time alone would never suffice to
destroy it. At present strict orders are given and sentries are posted to
prevent all further dilapidations, and buttresses have been made to prop up
those parts which had given way. What a pity it is that the Arena has not
been left empty, instead of being fitted up with tawdry niches and images
representing the different stations of the Crucifixion! In the centre is an
immense Cross, which whoever kisses is entitled to one hundred days
indulgence. To what reflections the sight of this vast edifice leads! What
combats of gladiators and wild beasts! What blood has been spilled! Was it
not here that the tyrannical and cowardly Domitian ordered Ulpius Glabrio,
of consular dignity, to descend into the arena and fight with a lion? The
Christian writers mention that many of their sect suffered martyrdom here
by being compelled to fight with wild beasts; but even this was not half so
bad as the conduct of the Christians, when they obtained possession of
political power and dominion, in burning alive poor Jews, Moors and
heretics some centuries afterwards. Indeed the cruelty of the Pagans was
much exaggerated by the above writers and were it even true to its full
extent, their severity was far more excusable than that of the Christians
in later times, for the efforts of the Christian sect in the times of
Paganism were unceasingly directed towards the destruction of the whole
fabric of polytheism, on which was based the entire, social and political
order of the Empire; and they thus brought on themselves perhaps merited
persecution, by their own intolerance; whereas, when they got the upper
hand, they showed no mercy to those of a different religion, and Orthodoxy
has wallowed successively in the blood of Arians, Jews, Moors and
Protestants.

How many a poor Jew or Moor in Spain and Portugal has been burned alive for
no other reason than

  _Pour n'avoir point quitte la foi de leurs ancetres._

No, no; no sect or religion was ever so persecuting as the Catholic
Christians! The Polytheists of all times, both ancient and modern, were
tolerant to all religions and so far from striving to make proselytes,
often adopted the ceremonies of other worships in addition to their own;
witness the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans of old, and the Hindoos and
Chinese of the present day. The Jews, ferocious and prejudiced as they
were, never persecuted other nations on the ground of religion, and if they
held these nations in abhorrence as idolaters, and considered themselves
alone as the holy people, the people of God (Yahoudi), they never dreamed
of making converts. The Mussulmans tho' they hold it as a sacred precept of
their religion to endeavour to make converts to Islam, do not use violent
means and only compel those of a different faith to pay a higher tribute.
At any rate, they never have or do put people to death merely for the
difference of religious opinions. Such were the reflections I made on
walking about the Arena of this colossal edifice so worthy of the _popolo
Re_.

On leaving the Coliseum the first thing that meets the eye is the Arch of
Constantine, under which the Roman triumphal and ovationary processions
moved towards the Capitol. The Arch of Constantine stands just outside the
Coliseum. It is of immense size and extremely well preserved. The ground on
which it stands being much filled up and only half of the Arch appearing,
the rest remaining buried in the earth, it was judged adviseable to
excavate all around it in order to come to the pedestal; so that now there
is a walled enclosure all around it and into this enclosure it is a descent
of at least eighteen feet from the ground outside. Several statues of
captive Kings and bas-reliefs representing the victories of Constantine
adorn the facade of this triumphal arch. The inscriptions are perfect, and
the letters were formerly filled up with bronze; but these have been taken
out at the repeated sackings that poor Rome has undergone from friend and
foe. At a short distance from the Arch of Constantine is the Arch of Titus,
under which we moved along on our road towards the Capitol and my friend
the Jew was too much of a cosmopolite to feel the smallest repugnance at
walking under the Arch. Our conversation then turned on the absurd hatred
and prejudice that existed between Christians and Jews; he was very liberal
on this subject and in speaking of Jesus Christ he said: "Jesus Christ was
a Jew and a real philosopher and was therefore persecuted, for his
philosophy interfered too much with, and tended to shake the political
fabric of the Jewish constitution and to subvert our old customs and
usages: for this reason he was put to death. I seek not to defend or
palliate the injustice of the act or the barbarity with which he was
treated; but our nation did surely no more than any other nation ancient or
modern has done or would still do against reformers and innovators."

The Arch of Titus is completely defaced outside, but in the interior of the
Arch, on each side, is a bas relief: the one representing Vespasian's
triumph over the Jews, and the Emperor himself in a car drawn by six
horses; the other represents the soldiers and followers of the triumph,
bearing the spoils of the conquered nation, and among them the famous
candlesticks that adorned the temple of Jerusalem are very conspicuous.
These figures are in tolerable preservation, only that the Emperor has lost
his head and one of the soldiers has absconded.

On issuing from the Arch of Titus we found ourselves in the Forum, now the
_Campo Vaccino_: so that cattle now low where statesmen and orators
harangued, and lazy priests in procession tread on the sacred dust of
heroes.

  Ou des pretres heureux foulent d'un pied tranquille
  Les tombeaux des Catons et les cendres d'Emile.

So sings Voltaire, I believe, or if they are not his lines, they are the
Abbe Delille's.[84]

The imagination is quite bewildered here from the variety of ancient
monuments that meet the eye in every direction. What vast souvenirs crowd
all at once on the mind! Look all around! the _Via Sacra_, the Arch of
Severus, and the Capitol in front; on one side of you, the temple of Peace,
that of Faustina and that of the Sun and Moon: on the other the remaining
three columns of the temple of Jupiter Stator; the three also of the temple
of Jupiter Tonans; the eight columns of the temple of Concord; and the
solitary column of Phocas. At a short distance the temple of Castor and
Pollux and that of Romulus and Remus, which is a round building of great
antiquity, whose rusticity forms a striking contrast with the elegance of
the colonnaded temples, and which was evidently built before the conquest
of Greece by the Romans and the consequent introduction of the fine arts
and of the Grecian orders of architecture.

You may wish to know my sensations on traversing this sacred ground. The
_Via Sacra_ recalled to me Horace meeting the _bavard_ who addresses him:
_Quid agis, dulcissime rerum_?[85] I then thought of the Sabine rape; of
Brutus' speech over the body of Lucretia; then I almost fancied I could see
the spot where stood the butcher's shop, from whence Virginius snatched the
knife to immolate his daughter at the shrine of Honor; next the shade of
Regulus flitted before my imagination, refusing to be exchanged; then I
figured to myself Cicero thundering against Catiline; or the same with
delicate irony ridiculing the ultra-rigor of the Stoics, so as to force
even the gravity of Cato to relax into a smile; then the grand, the heroic
act of Marcus Brutus in immolating the great Caesar at the altar of
liberty. All these recollections and ideas crowded on my imagination
without regard to order or chronology, and I remained for some time in a
state of the most profound reverie, from which I was only roused by my
friend the Jew reminding me that we had a quantity of other things to see.

The first object that engaged my attention on being roused from my reverie,
was the Arch of Severus at the foot of the Capitol which towers above it.
Excavations have been made around this Arch (for otherwise only half of it
could be seen) and a stone wall built around the excavated ground in the
same manner as at the Arch of Constantine. Round several of the columns of
the temples I have above enumerated, excavations have been also made;
otherwise the lower half of them would remain buried in the earth and give
to the monuments the appearance of a city which had been half swallowed up
by an earthquake. By dint of digging round the column of Phocas, the
ancient paved road which led to the Capitol has been discovered and is now
open to view. This ancient road is at least thirty feet below the surface
of the present road and the ground about it. This shows how the ground must
have been filled up by the destruction of buildings at the different
sackings of Rome and the consequent accumulation of rubbish. The French
when they were here began these excavations and the Duchess of Devonshire
continues them.[86] It is useful in every way; it employs a number of poor
people and may be the means of discovering some valuable remains of
antiquity and objects of art. At any rate it is highly gratifying to have
discovered the identical road to the Capitol on which so many Consuls,
Dictators and Emperors moved in triumph, and so many captive Kings wept in
chains.

We then ascended the steps that lead to the modern Capitol and mounted on
the _Campanile_ of the same, from whence there is a superb panoramic view
of Rome. On descending from the _Campanile_, we visited the Tarpeian rock,
which is now of inconsiderable height, the ground about it and heaps of
rubbish having filled up the abyss below. We then entered the court yard of
the Capitol. The Capitol and building annexed to it form three sides of a
rectangle, the centre or _corps de logis_ lying North and South, and the
wings East and West, the whole inclosing a court yard open on the South
side of the rectangle, from whence you descend into the street on the plain
below, by a most magnificent escalier or flight of steps. Of the Capitol,
the _corps de logis_ or central building to which the _Campanile_ belongs,
is reserved for the occupation and habitation of the _Senator Romano_, a
civil magistrate, corresponding something to the mayor in France or
_Oberbuergermeister_ in the German towns, and who is chosen from among the
nobility and nominated by the Pope. The wings contain the _Museum
Capitolinum_ of painting and sculpture. There is a great deal to call forth
the admiration of the traveller in the court yard of the Capitol. The most
prominent object is the famous bronze equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius,
which cannot fail to rivet the attention of the least enthusiastic
spectator. I observed at each angle of the facade of the Capitol a colossal
statue of a captive King in a Phrygian dress; but still more striking than
these are the colossal statues of Castor and Pollux leading horses, which
stand a little in front of the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, and
nearer the _escalier_, the one on the right the other on the left. Two
lions in basalt on each side of the _escalier_ are very striking objects,
and the _escalier_ itself is the most superb thing of the kind perhaps in
the world. This _escalier_ and the Marcus Aurelius, unique also in its
kind, are both the workmanship of Michael Angelo.[87] We descended this
_escalier_ and then fronted it to take a view of the Capitol from the
bottom; but the statue of Marcus Aurelius is so prominent and so grand that
it absorbed all my attention.

After dinner I walked a little in the gardens on the Pincian hill, and then
visited some friends belonging to the French Academy of Painting and
Sculpture, who were so good as to shew me their productions, and also a
copy of the superb folio edition of Denon's work on Egypt which to me, who
had been in that country, was highly gratifying. Oh! what a pity that the
French could not keep that country! What a paradise they would have made of
it! As it is (and to their credit be it said) they did more good for the
country during three years only, than we have done for our possessions in
India for fifty years.


ROME, 15th Septr.

The next morning, after an early breakfast, I repaired to the Pantheon, now
called _Santa Maria della Rotonda_, and appropriated to the Catholic
worship. It is easily recognizable by its rotundity and by the simple
grandeur of its facade and portico. The bronze has been taken out of the
letters of the inscription. This beautiful specimen of ancient architecture
is situated in a small _piazza_ or square called _Piazza della Rotonda_,
where a market of poultry, game, and vegetables is held. There are only now
three or four steps on the _escalier_ to ascend, in order to enter into the
portico; but as it is known that according to the descriptions of the
Pantheon in ancient times there was an immense flight of steps to ascend,
it is an additional proof how much the ground on which modern Rome stands
has been filled up, and consequently it is evident that the greater part of
this flight of steps remains still buried in the earth.

If I was so struck with the appearance of this interesting edifice outside,
how much more so should I have been on seeing the inside, were not the
niches, where formerly stood the statues of the Gods, filled with tawdry
dolls representing the Virgin Mary and _he_ and _she_ saints. The columns
and pilasters in the interior of this temple are beautiful, all of _jaune
antique_ and one entire stone each. How much better would it have been to
replace the statues of the _Dii Majorum Gentium_ which occupied the niches,
by statues in marble of the Apostles, instead of the dolls dressed in
tawdry colors, and the frippery gilding of the altars on which they stand,
which disfigure this noble building. The Pantheon was built by Agrippa as
the inscription shews. In the interior are sixteen columns of _jaune
antique_. The bronze that formerly ornamented this temple was made use of
to fabricate the baldachin of St Peter's. Of late years it has been the
fashion to erect monuments affixed to the walls of the interior of the
Pantheon to the memory of the great men and heroes of poetry, painting,
sculpture and music who were natives of Italy, or for foreigners,
celebrated for their excellence in those arts, who have died in Rome. Here
are for instance, tablets to the memory of Metastasio, Rafael Mengs,
Sacchini, Poussin, Winckelmann; the Phidias of modern days, the illustrious
Canova, has recommended the placing in the Pantheon of the busts in marble
of all the great men who have flourished in Italy, as the most appropriate
ornament to this temple. He himself with a princely liberality has made a
present to it of the busts of Dante, Petrarca, Ariosto, Tasso, Guarini,
Alfieri, Michel Angelo, Rafaello, Metastasio and various other worthies.
These busts are all the production either of Canova himself, or made by his
pupils under his direction; they are not the least remarkable ornament of
the place. In the centre of the _Piazza della Rotonda_ stands an obelisk
brought from Egypt, which belonged to a temple sacred to Isis in that
country.

I next repaired to the _Piazza di Navona_, a large and spacious square,
where there is a superb fountain representing a vast rock with four
colossal figures, one of which reclines at the foot of the rock, at each
angle of the pedestal that supports it, and it is surmounted by an Obelisk
which was brought from Egypt and was found in the gardens of Sallust. The
four colossal figures represent the four river Gods of the four great
rivers in Europe, Asia, Africa and America, viz., the Danube, the Ganges,
the Nile, and the Plata. The statue of the Nile has his head half-concealed
by a cloak, emblematical of the source of that river not being discovered.
In the _Piazza_ are frequently held fairs, shews of wild beasts, theatrical
exhibitions and sometimes combats of wild beasts.

I crossed the Tiber on my way to St Peter's at the _Ponte di Sant' Angelo_;
directly on the other side of the river stands the castle of that name, an
immense edifice formerly the _Moles Adriana_ or Mausoleum of the Emperor
Adrian. It is of a circular form and is a remarkably striking object. From
here there is a spacious street as broad as Portland place, which leads to
the magnificent _Piazza_, where stands the Metropolitan Church of the
Christian world, the pride of Christendom, the triumph of modern
architecture, flanked on each side by a semi-circular colonnaded portico,
which constitutes one of its greatest beauties and distinguishes it from
all the other temples in the world. On the Piazza, considerably in front of
this wonderful edifice and nearly in the centre, stands an immense Egyptian
Obelisk, and at a short distance on each side of the Obelisk two
magnificent fountains which spout water to a great height and which
contribute greatly to the ornament of the _Piazza_.

Now you must not expect me to give you a description of this glorious
temple. I never in my life possessed descriptive powers, even for objects
of no great importance: how then could I attempt to delineate the
innumerable beauties of this edifice? Yet, vast as it is, the proportions
of the facade are so correct, that they, together with the semi-circular
colonnaded portico, serve to diminish its apparent size and to render its
mass less imposing, but perhaps more beautiful. On this account it appears
at first sight of less size than the Church of St Paul's in London. The
beauty of the architecture, viz., of the facade and of the colonnaded
portico would require days to examine and admire. What shall I say then of
the wonders of the interior, crowded and charged as it is with the finest
pieces of sculpture, columns of the most beautiful _verd antique_ and of
_jaune antique_; the masterpieces of painting copied in mosaic; the
precious, stones and marbles of all sorts that adorn the variety of
magnificent chapels and altars; the immense baldachin with its twisted
columns of bronze (the spoils of the Pantheon and of the temple of
Jerusalem); the profusion of gilding and ornament of all sorts and where in
spite of this profusion there seems _rien de trop_. At first entrance the
eye is so dazzled with the magnificent _tout ensemble_ as to be incapable
for a long time of examining any thing in detail. Each chapel abounds in
the choicest marbles and precious stones: in a word it would seem as if the
whole wealth of the Earth were concentrated here. Without impiety or
exaggeration, I felt on entering this majestic temple for the first time
just as I conceive a resuscitated mortal would feel on being ushered into
the scene of the glories of Heaven. The masterpieces of painting are here
perpetuated in mosaic, and so correctly and beautifully done, that unless
you approach exceedingly close indeed, it is impossible to distinguish them
from paintings. What an useful as well as ornamental art is the mosaic!
There are a great variety of confessionals where penitents and pilgrims may
confess, each in his own tongue, for there is a confessional for the use of
almost every native tongue and language in the Catholic world. The cupola!
What an astonishing sight when you look up at it from below! How can I
better describe it than by relating the anecdote of Michel Angelo its
constructor, who when some one made a remark on the impossibility of making
a finer Cupola than that of the Pantheon, burst out into the following
exclamation: "Do you think so? Then I will throw it in the air," and he
fulfilled his word; for the cupola of St Peter's is exactly of the size of
that of the Pantheon, tho' at such an elevation as to give it only the
appearance of one fourth of its real size, or even less. The sublimity of
the design can only be equalled by the boldness and success of its
execution. Till it was done, it was thought by every artist impossible to
be done. What an extraordinary genius was this Michel Angelo! Ariosto has
hot at all exaggerated in his praise when he speaks of him in punning on
his name:

  _Michel_ piu che mortal, _Angel_ divino.[88]

  Michael, less man than Angel and divine.

  --Trans, W.S. ROSE.

Among the various splendid marble monuments with which this temple abounds
is one erected to the memory of Pope Rezzonico, constructed by Canova and
reckoned one of his masterpieces. The Pope is represented in his
canonicals. Behind and above him is a colossal statue of Religion with a
cross in one hand and rays in form of spikes issuing from her head. I do
not like these spikes. On the dexter side of this monument, is a beautiful
male youthful figure representing a funereal genius with an inverted torch.
The signal delicacy, beauty and symmetry of this statue forms a striking
contrast with the figure of an immense lion sleeping on the sinister side;
and this lion is an irrefragable proof that Canova excels in the
delineation of the terrible as well as the beautiful, for it is admirably
executed.

At another monument is a superb female figure of colossal size representing
Truth. It was formerly naked, but they have contrived to execute in
coloured marble a vestment to cover her loins and veil her secret beauties.
The reason of which is, that this beautiful statue made such an impression
once upon a traveller (some say he was an Englishman, others a Spaniard)
that it inspired him with a sort of Pygmalionic passion which he attempted
to gratify one night; he was discovered in the attempt, and since that
time, to prevent further scandal or attempts of the sort and to conceal
from profane eyes the charms of the too alluring Goddess, this colored
marble vestment was imagined and executed. This story is borrowed from
Lucian.[89]

There is also here a fine statue of Pope Gregory XIII and a magnificent
bas-relief, the subject of which is the reform of the calendar by that
Pope. Here too is a monument to Christina Queen of Sweden, and a bas-relief
representing her abjuration of the Lutheran Faith.

But why should I attempt to detail all these monuments, while it would
require folios for the purpose; let me rather introduce you to the hero and
tutelary saint of this sanctuary. St Peter, a superb bronze statue
something above the usual size of men, is seated on a curule chair in the
nave of the church on the right hand side as you approach the baldachin. He
holds in his hands the keys of Heaven. He receives the adoration of all the
faithful who enter into this temple, and this adoration is performed by
kissing his foot which, from the repeated kissings, is become of a bright
polish and is visibly wearing away. The statue was formerly a statue of
Jupiter Capitolinus, but on the grand revolution among the inhabitants of
Olympus and the downfall of Jupiter, it was broken to pieces, melted down
and fabricated into an image of St Peter, so that this statue has lost
little of its former sovereignty and still rules Heaven and Earth if not
with regal, with at least vice-regal power, tho' under a different name.

In the Sistine Chapel is the celebrated painting al fresco of the day of
Judgment by Michel Angelo, an aweful subject and nobly and awefully
executed.

In the porch under the facade of St Peter's are two marble statues on
horseback, one at each end of the porch: they represent Constantine the
Great and Charlemagne, the two great benefactors of the holy Catholic
Church; the one, in fact, its founder, the other its preserver.

As the Palace of the Vatican stands close to the Church of St Peter's and
communicates with it by an _escalier_, I ascended the _escalier_ in order
to behold and examine the famous Museum of the Vatican, the first in the
world, and unique for the vast treasures of the fine arts that it contains;
treasures which the united wealth of all Europe and India to boot could not
purchase at their just price. Here in fact it may be said are preserved the
riches and plunder of the whole world, which was stripped of all its
valuables by those illustrious brigands the ancient Romans. And mark in
this point the good fortune of Rome; instead of losing them again as other
nations have lost their trophies, Superstition came to her aid and caused
them to be respected and preserved, 'till an enlightened age arose which
guided by Philosophy, Humanity and Science will for ever preserve them
secure against all attacks of barbarians in a sanctuary so worthy of them.


_Museum Vaticanum_[90]

A superb flight of steps leads into a hall of immense length filled on each
side with statues, busts, sarcophagi, altars, urns, vases and candelabra,
all monuments of antiquity and of the most exquisite workmanship. The walls
on each side of this hall are inlaid with tablets bearing inscriptions in
Greek, Latin and Etruscan. One is quite bewildered amongst such a profusion
of Gods, Semi-Gods, Heroes. I must single out a few of the most remarkable
for their workmanship. Here is a group representing the sacrifice of
Mithras. On ascending a few steps at the other end of this hall, in a small
octangular room, are the statue of Meleager; the famous Torso; the tomb of
Scipio with bas-reliefs. On leaving the chamber you come into an octangular
gallery, issuing from which are four circular chambers; each chamber
contains a masterpiece of art. In one is the Apollo Belvedere, in another
the Laocoon (both safely arrived from Paris); in the third Antinous; in the
fourth the Perseus of Canova, with Medusa's head and his famous group of
the two pugilists. Descriptions of the three first would be superfluous--
for of them

  Mills altri han detto e con via miglior plettro,

and even with respect to the Perseus of Canova, I shall content myself with
remarking that the sculptor had evidently the Apollo Belvedere in his
ideal, and if he has not quite equalled that celebrated statue, it is
because it is impossible; but he certainly has given the nearest possible
approximation to its excellence.

In another hall and just at its entrance are the statues of Menander and
Posidippus in a sitting posture, one on either side. In this hall are
innumerable fine statues, but the further end of it, fronting you as you
enter, is a statue which at once engages and rivets your undivided
attention; it at once induces you to approach and to take no notice of the
statues on the right and left of the hall. And how should it be otherwise,
since it is the identical statue of the father of the Gods and men, the
famous Jupiter Capitolinus which adorned the Capitol in ancient Rome. He is
sitting on a throne with a sceptre in one hand and the thunderbolts in the
other, at his feet an eagle. It is a glorious statue and in every respect
characteristic; such grandeur, such majesty in the countenance! It is
impossible not to feel awe and reverence on beholding it. It was on
contemplating this venerable statue that an Englishman who was at Rome some
sixty years ago, stood wrapt for a time in silent veneration; then suddenly
breaking silence he made a profound obeisance before the statue and
exclaimed: "Recollect, O father of the Gods and men, that I have paid my
hommage to you in your adversity and do not forget me, should you ever
raise your head above water again!"

In the hall of the Muses are the statues of the tuneful Nine which were
found underground among the ruins of Hadrian's villa at Tivoli.

In the centre of a circular chamber of vast dimensions, is an enormous
circular basin of porphyry, of forty-one feet in diameter. A superb mosaic
adorns the floor of the centre of this chamber, and is inclosed.
Appropriate ornaments to this immense chamber are the colossal statues of
the _Dii majorum Gentium_. Here are Juno, Minerva, Cybele, Jupiter,
Serapis, Mars, Ceres, and others.

In another hall are two enormous Egyptian Gods in yellow granite; two
superb sarcophagi in red marble and two immense Sphinxes in granite. In
another chamber is an antique car drawn by two horses: the near one is
modern, the off one ancient. The wheels of this car are modern; both car
and horses are of exquisite workmanship. Several fine statues adorn this
chamber, among which the most remarkable are a Phocion, a Paris, an
Antinous, and a Triton carrying off a Nereid.

I must not omit to mention that in one of the halls is the famous group of
the Nile, represented by an enormous colossal River God, surrounded by
fourteen children playing with young crocodiles. Opposite to this group is
another equally celebrated, viz., the colossal statue of the Tiber, with
the she-wolf giving suck to Romulus and Remus by his side. The mosaic
pavements in this Museum surpass in richness any in the world. In one of
the halls, among the works of modern times, are two beautiful marble tables
richly inlaid with all sorts of stones of value, with bas-reliefs on them;
the one representing the visit of the Emperor Joseph II, and the other that
of Gustavus III of Sweden to Rome, and their reception by the Pope.

One of the halls of sculpture is appropriated to the figures of animals of
all kinds, from the lion and eagle down to the rat and crawfish in marbles
of all colors, and of all sizes; the best executed among them appeared to
me a group representing a greyhound bitch giving suck to her young. As for
the valuable cameos, coins, medals, and smaller remnants of antiquity in
this Museum, they are innumerable.

With regard to the paintings that belong to this Museum, there is only a
small, collection but it is unique. Here is the Transfiguration and some
other masterpieces of Rafaello.

In the _Stanze di Rafaello_ (so they are called) are several large fresco
paintings, viz., one representing the battle of Maxentius and Constantine;
another, the school of Athens and Socrates sitting among the other
philosophers; a third representing a fire; besides others.

In one of these _stanze_ is a work in tapestry representing Jesus Christ
bursting forth from the sepulchre, but he has a visage far too rubicund and
wanting in dignity; he looks like a person flushed with wine issuing from a
tavern; in the countenance there is depicted (so it appears to me) a
vulgar, not a dignified triumph.

The Palace of the Vatican is of immense size and is said to cover as much
ground as the city of Turin; and I am inclined to think that there is not a
great deal of exaggeration in this statement, for the vista along the
corridors and galleries appears to be endless. The Library of the Vatican
is of course very extensive and of immense value; but the books, as well as
the manuscripts, are kept in presses which are locked, and it is rather
awkward to be continually applying to the _custode_ to take out and put
back a book.

The Museum of the Vatican is open twice a week to the public, viz.
Thursdays and Sundays; but foreigners, on shewing their passports, may
obtain admission at any time.


ROME, 17th Sept.

My next visit was to the Capitol in order to inspect the _Museum
Capitolinum_. This time I ascended the magnificent _escalier_ of Michel
Angelo, having the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius in front. On
arriving at the courtyard, I entered the building on my left (which is on
the right of the facade). Under the colonnaded portico of this wing are the
statues of Caesar and Augustus; here too is the naval column of the consul
Duilius, in commemoration of the first naval victory gained over the
Carthaginians; also a colossal statue of the Rhine called Marforio. In one
of the halls two large statues of the Egyptian Goddess Isis and various
other Egyptian divinities. In this Museum among other things is an altar
representing Claudia drawing to the land the Ship of Cybele; a magnificent
sarcophagus with a bas relief on its side representing the progress of
life; Amalthea giving suck to Jupiter; the God Anubis found among the ruins
of Adrian's palace at Tivoli. On ascending the staircase, I observed on the
right hand fixed in the wall a tablet with a plan of ancient Rome carved on
it. In one of the halls above stairs the most remarkable statue is that of
the dying gladiator (brought back from Paris); this is certainly a noble
piece of sculpture; the bodily pain and mental anguish are singularly well
expressed in the countenance; a superb bronze statue of Hercules; a Centaur
in black marble; a Faun in _rosso antico_; a group of Cupid and Psyche; a
Venus in Parian marble rather larger than the common size. One of the halls
in this museum contains the busts of all the philosophers; another those of
all the Roman emperors; there is also a colossal statue of Pyrrhus; a
superb Agrippina and the celebrated mosaic of the four pigeons. In
enumerating the above I have only to observe that they only constitute a
thousandth part of what is to be seen here. After passing three hours in
this wing of the building, I went over across the courtyard to the other
wing. Under the portico of this wing the following are the most remarkable
among the statues: a Roman _triumphans_, two Phrygian kings in black
marble. In one of the rooms above stairs is a very remarkable piece of
antiquity, viz., the bronze wolf giving suck to Romulus and Remus, which
was found in the temple of Romulus and which was struck by lightning during
the consulate of Julius: the marks made by the lightning are quite
distinct. There is in this wing a small but excellent collection of
paintings, and a great variety of statues, busts, sarcophagi, candelabra,
and antiquities of all sorts.

The front part, or _corps de logis_ of the Capitol is called _Il Palazzo
del Senato conservatore_, and is the residence of the _Senator Romano_ who
is chosen by the Pope. By the bye, I understand this dignity is generally
given to a foreigner, the Pontiffs being, rather jealous of the Roman
nobility.

This wing of the Capitol employed me two hours; but I must visit this
Museum as well as that of the Vatican often again; for it would require
months and years to examine them duly.


ROME, 18th Sept.

On this side of the river which is called _Transtevere_, I had an
opportunity of observing the inhabitants, who are called _Transteverini_,
the most of whom pretend to be the descendants of the ancient Romans,
unmixed with any foreign blood. They certainly have very much of that
physiognomy that is attributed to the ancient Romans, for they are a tall,
very robust race of men having something of a ferocious dignity in their
countenance which, however, is full of expression, and the aquiline nose is
a prominent feature among them. They are exceedingly jealous of their
women, whom they keep within doors as much as they can, and if a stranger
on passing by their doors should chance to observe their wives or daughters
who may be standing there and should stop to admire them (for many of them
have an air of antique beauty and majesty of countenance which is
remarkably striking), they will instantly order the females to retire, with
an air of asperity.

Whether they really be the pure descendants of the ancient Romans is
difficult to say: but it is by no means improbable, since even to this day
they intermarry solely with one another, and refuse to give their daughters
in marriage to foreigners or to those of mixed blood.

Instances have been known of these families, who are for the most part very
poor, refusing the most advantageous offers of marriage made to their
daughters by rich foreign merchants and artists, on the ground merely that
the suitors were not _Romani_ but _Barbari._

As for the _bourgeoisie_ of Rome in general, they _have been_ for some
centuries back and _are_ a very mixed race, composed of all the nations of
Europe. Most of the foreign artists who come here to study the fine arts,
viz., Belgians, Dutch, German, French, English, Swedes, Danes, Poles and
Russians, as well as those from other parts of Italy, struck with the
beauty of the women, and pleased with the tranquility and agreeable society
that prevails in this metropolis, and the total freedom from all _gene_ and
etiquette, marry Roman women and fix here for life: so that among this
class you meet with more foreign names than Roman; and it is this sort of
colonisation which keeps up the population of Rome, which would otherwise
greatly decrease as well from the celibacy of the number that become
priests, as from the malaria that prevails in and about the city in July
and August.


ROME, 19th Sept.

I have been employed for the last two days in visiting some of the
churches, _palazzi_ and villas of modern Rome; but the number is so
prodigious and there are such a variety of things to be seen in each that I
shall only make mention of a few; indeed there are many that I have not
seen and probably shall not have time to see. As sacred things should
precede profane, let us begin with the churches.

The first that claims the attention of the traveller after St Peter's, is
the church of St John Lateran which is the oldest church in Christendom,
and was the metropolitan of Rome and of the Christian world before the
building of St Peter's. It lies very nearly in a right line with the
_Piazza di Spagna_, and on a prolonged line, forming an obtuse angle with
the church of Santa Maria Maggiore, which, as I first visited, I shall
first describe and afterwards resume what I have to remark on the subject
of St John Lateran.

Santa Maria Maggiore is the third church in importance, but the second in
magnificence in Rome. Before its facade stands a single column of granite
of the Corinthian order. The facade of this church is beautiful but it
would be far better without the _campanile_, which I think always
disfigures a church of Grecian architecture; besides it is not in the
centre of the building. The church is richly adorned with mosaics and its
several chapels are admirable from the execution of their architecture and
sculpture and the value of the different rich marbles and precious stones
with which the monuments therein are made and incrusted. Among these
Chapels are those of Sixtus V, Paul V. The grand altar is of porphyry. But
the most striking beauty of this church and which eclipses all its other
ornaments, are the forty columns of beautiful Grecian marble on each side
of the nave. The ceiling, too, is superb and richly gilt; the gilding must
have cost an immense sum and was done, it is said, with the first gold that
was brought from America. Nothing can be more rich than this plafond. The
above forty columns belonged formerly to the temple of Juno Lucina. It is
singular that the ceremony of the _accouchement_ of the Virgin and the
birth of Christ should be performed here. On the 24th December this
pantomime is regularly acted, and crowds of all sorts of people attend,
particularly women. At the moment that the Virgin is supposed to be
delivered a salve of artillery announces the good tidings. This is
singular, I say, when one recollects the peculiar attributes of Juno Lucina
and the assistance she was supposed to give to persons in the same
situation.

You cannot expect me to detail to you all the riches in precious stones and
gifts of pious princes that adorn the several chapels of this and other
churches; but they appear to contain every stone and jewel mentioned in the
Arabian Nights as being to be found in the cave where Aladdin was left by
the magician; and it must be allowed that the Popes have been remarkably
adroit inchanters in conjuring to Rome all the riches of the Earth.

The church of St John Lateran is larger and more striking as to its
exterior and as to its architecture than that of Santa Maria Maggiore, but
it is not so charged with ornament and there is scarce any gilding. There
is a simple elegance about it that I think far more pleasing than the
magnificence of Santa Maria.

St John Lateran contains several beautiful pieces of sculpture in white
marble, rather larger than the usual size of man, of the twelve Apostles,
six on one side of the nave and six on the other; and above them are
bas-reliefs, also in marble, representing the various scenes from the
history of the Old and New Testament. These twelve statues are admirably
well executed and they give to this temple an air of simple grandeur. In
this church are very few paintings on mosaics, but little gilding and no
superfluous ornaments. Sculpture is, in my opinion, far more appropriate to
a place of worship than paintings or dazzling ornaments. Another very
striking beauty of this noble and venerable temple are the columns it
contains some of which are in granite and others of the most beautiful
_verd-antique_. There are besides two superb Corinthian columns of bronze
which adorn one of the altars. Among the chapels of this Cathedral is one
belonging to the Corsini family, which is probably the richest in Europe,
and contains more precious stones and marbles than any other. Yet as this
and the other chapels are in recesses and separated from the aisles of the
church by large bronze gates, you cannot see their contents till you enter
the said chapels; and thus your attention is not diverted by them from the
contemplation of the simple grandeur of the columns and statues which adorn
the body of the temple.

The bronze columns above mentioned were taken from the temple of Jupiter
Capitolinus. On one side in front of the church of St John Lateran stands
an immense Egyptian Obelisk 115 feet in height, brought from Egypt to Rome
in the time of Constantine.

I think the placing of these Obelisks in front of the facade of the most
remarkable edifices is an excellent arrangement, as they are never-failing
landmarks to distinguish from afar off the edifices to which they belong.
This Obelisk was found in the _Circus Maximus_, from which it was removed
and placed on this spot by Sixtus V. A large Orphan establishment is close
to this church; and close to it also the _Battisterio_ of Constantine,
which rests on forty-eight columns of porphyry, said to be the finest in
Europe. Another church in the vicinity contains _La Scala Santa_ or holy
staircase of marble which, according to the tradition, adorned Pontius
Pilate's palace at Jerusalem, and on which identical staircase Jesus Christ
ascended to be interrogated by Pilate. The tradition further says that it
was transported to Rome by Angels. This staircase has twenty-eight steps,
and no one is allowed to mount it except on his knees. Nobody ever descends
it, but there are two other _escaliers_ parallel to it, one on the right
hand, the other on the left, by which you descend in the usual manner. Not
being aware of this ceremony, I, on entering the edifice, began to ascend
the _escalier_ which was nearest to me, which proved to be the _Scala
Santa_, for no sooner had I begun to ascend it as I would any other flight
of steps than two or three voices screamed out: "_Signore! O signore! a
ginocchia; o'e la scala santa_!" I asked what was meant and was then told
the whole story, and that it was necessary to mount this staircase on one's
knees or not at all. This I did not think worth the trouble, being quite
contented with beholding it. The marble of this staircase is much worn by
the number of devout people who ascend it in this manner, and this
ceremony, aided by a _quantum suff_ of faith is no doubt of great efficacy.

The fourth church in estimation, and I believe the next ancient in Rome to
St John Lateran, is the church of _San Paolo fuor della mura_, so called
from its being situated outside the gates of the city. It is of immense
size, but out of repair and neglected. The most striking object of its
architectural contents are the 120 columns of Parian marble which support
its nave.

_St Pietro in Vincoli_ is chiefly remarkable for its being built near the
dungeon where, according to the tradition, St Peter was confined and from
whence he was released by Angels; its chief ornament is the colossal statue
of Moses. Somewhere close to this place are shewn the ruins of the
Mamertine prison where Jugurtha was incarcerated and died.

There are in Rome about three hundred other churches, all of which can
boast of very interesting and valuable contents. One in particular called
the Portuguese Church is uncommonly beautiful tho' small; another, that of
St Ignazio, or the Jesuits' church, is vast and imposing, and very fine
singing is occasionally to be heard there.


ROME, 21st Sept.

The Palace occupied by the Pope is that of the Quirinal, standing on the
Quirinal Hill, which is commonly called _Monte Cavallo_ from the statues of
the two _Hippodamoi_ or tamers of horses, thought to be meant for Castor
and Pollux which stand on this hill; this group is surmounted by an
Egyptian obelisk. These statues are said to be the work of Phidias; but
there is a terrible disproportion between the men and the horses they are
leading; they give you the idea of Brobdignagians leading Shetland ponies.
The Quirinal palace is every way magnificent and worthy of the Sovereign
Pontiff; there are large grounds annexed to it; it stands nearly in the
centre of Rome and from this palace are dated the Papal edicts. The Pope
resides here during the whole year, with the exception of three or four
months in the hot season, when he repairs to Castel Gandolfo near la
Riccia.

Of the fountains the grandest and most striking is that of Trevi, which
lies at the foot of Quirinal Hill. Here is a magnificent group in marble of
Neptune, in his car in the shape of a mussel-shell drawn by Sea-horses and
surrounded by Nymphs and Tritons. An immense basin of white marble, as
large as a moderate sized pond, receives the water which gushes from the
nostrils of the Sea-horses and from the mouths of the Tritons. There is a
very good and just remark made on the subject of this group by Stolberg,
viz. the attention of Neptune seems too much directed towards one of his
horses, a piece of minutiae more worthy of a charioteer endeavouring to
turn a difficult corner, than of the God who at a word could control the
winds and tranquillize the Ocean.

The fountain Termina, so called from its vicinity to the Thermes of
Diocletian, is the next remarkable fountain. Here is a colossal statue of
Moses striking the rock and causing the water to gush forth. The grandeur
and majesty of this statue would be more striking but for the incongruity
of the arcades on each side of the rock, and the two lions in black basalt
who spout water. Moses and the rock would have been sufficient. Simplicity
is, in my opinion, the soul of architecture, and where is there in all
history a subject more peculiarly adapted to a fountain than this part of
the history of Moses?

The Fountain Paolina is a fountain that springs from under a beautiful
arcade, but there are no statues nor bas-reliefs. It is a plain neat
fountain and the water is esteemed the best in Rome. This fountain is
situated on the Janicule Hill, from which you have perhaps the best view of
Rome; as it re-unites more than any other position, at one _coup d'oeil_,
both the modern and debris of the ancient city, without the view of the one
interfering with or being intercepted by the other. From here you can
distinguish rums of triumphal arches, broken columns, aqueducts, etc., as
far as the eye can reach. It demonstrates what an immense extent of ground
ancient Rome must have covered. Near the fountain is the church where St
Peter is said to have suffered martyrdom with his head downwards.

The Column of Trajan is near the fountain Trevi, and it stands in an
inclosure, the pavement of which is seven feet lower than the _piazza_ on
which it stands. The inclosure is walled round. Had not this excavation
been made, one third of the column (lower part) would not be seen. The
_Piazza_, on which this column stands is called _Il foro Trajano_. The
column represents Trajan's triumphs over the Daci, Quadi and Marcomanni,
and is the model from whence Napoleon's column of the Grand Army in the
_Place Vendome_ at Paris is taken. A statue of St Peter stands on this
column.

The Column of Antoninus stands on the _Piazza Colonna_; on it are
sculptured the victories gained by that Emperor. Round this column it has
not been necessary to make excavations. On this column stands the statue of
St Paul.

Amongst the immense variety of edifices and ruins of edifices which most
interest the antiquarian are the Thermes of Diocletian. Here are four
different semi-circular halls, two of which were destined for philosophers,
one for poets and one for orators; baths; a building for tennis or rackets;
three open courts, one for the exercise of the discus, one for athletes and
one for hurling the javelin. Of this vast building part is now a
manufactory, and the hall of the wrestlers is a Carthusian church.

I have now, I believe, visited most, if not all that is to be seen in Rome.
I have visited the Pyramid of Cestius, the tomb of Metella, I have
consulted, the nymph Egeria, smelled at the _Cloaca Maxima_; in fine, I
have given in to all the _singeries_ of _pedantry_ and _virtu_ with as much
ardour as Martinus Scriblerus himself would have done. But it yet remains
for me to speak of the most interesting exhibition that modern Rome can
boast, and of the most interesting person in it and in all Italy, and that
is the atelier of Canova and Canova himself, the greatest sculptor,
perhaps, either of ancient or modern times, except the mighty unknown who
conceived and executed the Apollo of the Vatican.

In the atelier of Canova the most remarkable statues I observed are: a
group of Hector and Ajax of colossal size, not quite finished; a Centaur,
also colossal; a Hebe; two Ballerine or dancing girls, one of which
rivetted my attention most particularly. She is reclining against a tree
with her cheek _appuyed_ on one hand; one of her feet is uplifted and laid
along the other leg as if she were reposing from a dance. The extreme
beauty of the leg and foot, the pulpiness of the arms, the expressive
sweetness of the face, and the resemblance of the marble to wax in point of
mellowness, gives to this beautiful statue the appearance of a living
female _brunette_. It was a long time before I could withdraw my eyes from
that lovely statue.

The next object that engaged my attention was a group representing a Nymph
reclining on a couch _semi-supine_, and a Cupid at her feet. The luxurious
contour of the form of this Nymph is beyond expression and reminded me of
the description of Olympia:

  Le parti che solea coprir la stola
  Fur di tanta eccellenza, ch'anteporse
  A quante n'avea il mondo potean forse.[91]

  Parts which are wont to be concealed by gown
  Are such, as haply should be placed before
  Whate'er this ample world contains in store.

   --Trans. W.S. ROSE

This group is destined for the Prince Regent of England. Another beautiful
group represents the three Graces; this is intended for the Duke of
Bedford. Were it given to me to chuse for myself among all the statues in
the atelier of Canova, I should chuse these three, viz., the Ballerina, the
Nymph reclining, and this group of the Graces.

Canova certainly is inimitable in depicting feminine beauty, grace and
delicacy. Among the other statues in this atelier the most prominent are: a
statue of the Princess Leopoldina Esterhazy in the attitude of drawing on a
tablet with this inscription:

  _Anch'io voglio tentar l'arte del bello._

This lady is, it seems, a great proficient in painting.

Here too are the moulds of the different statues made by Canova, the
statues themselves having been finished long ago and disposed of; viz., of
the Empress Maria Louisa of France; of the mother of Napoleon (_Madame
Mere_ as she is always called) in the costume and attitude of Agrippina; of
a colossal statue of Napoleon (the statue itself is, I believe, in the
possession of Wellington.[92]) Here too is the bust of Canova by Canova
himself, besides a great variety of bas-reliefs and busts of individuals,
models of monuments, etc.

And now, my friend, I have given you a _precis_ not of all that I have
seen, but of what has most interested me and made on my mind impressions
that can never be effaced. I trust entirely to my memory, for I made no
notes on the spot. Many of the things I have seen too much in a hurry to
form accurate ideas and judgment thereon; most of what we see here is shewn
to us like the figures in a _lanterna magica_, for in the various _palazzi_
and villas the servants who exhibit them hurry you from room to room,
impatient to receive your fee and to get rid of you. I am about to depart
for Naples. On my return to Rome I shall not think of revisiting the
greater number of the _palazzi_, villas and churches; but there are some
things I shall very frequently revisit and these are the two Museums of the
Vatican and of the Capitol, St Peter's, the Coliseum and antiquities in its
neighbourhood, the Pantheon, and last but not least the atelier of the
incomparable Canova.

You may perhaps be unwilling to let me depart from Rome without some
information as to theatricals. With regard to these, Rome must hang down
her head, for the pettiest town in all the rest of Italy or France is
better provided with this sort of amusement than Rome. There is a theatre
called _Teatro della Valle_, where there is a very indifferent set of
actors, and this is the only theatre which is open throughout the year.
Comedies only and farces are given. The theatres Aliberti and Argentino are
open during the Carnaval only. Operas are given at the Argentino, and
masquerades at the Aliberti. But in fact the lovers of Operas and of the
Drama must not come to Rome for gratification. It is not considered
conformable to the dignity and sanctity of an ecclesiastical government to
patronize them; and it is not the custom or etiquette for the Pope,
Cardinals or higher Clergy ever to visit them. The consequence is that no
performer of any consideration or talent is engaged to sing at Rome, except
one or two by chance at the time of the Carnaval. In amends for this you
have a good deal of music at the houses of individuals who hold
_conversazioni_ or assemblies; in which society would flag very much but
for the music, which prevents many a yawn, and which is useful and
indispensable in Italy to make the evening pass, as cards are in England.

I intend to stop several days here on my return from Naples, for which
place I shall start the day after to-morrow having engaged a place in a
_vettura_ for two and half _louis d'or_ and to be _spesato_. I am not to be
deterred from my journey by the many stories of robberies and
assassinations which are said to occur so frequently on that road.

By the bye, talking of robberies and murders, a man was executed the day
before yesterday on the _Piazza del Popolo_ for a triple murder. I saw the
guillotine, which is now the usual mode of punishment, fixed on the centre
of the _Piazza_ and the criminal escorted there by a body of troops; but I
did not stop to witness the decapitation, having no taste for that sort of
_pleasuring_. This man richly deserved his punishment.


[84] These lines are from Voltaire's _Henriade_, a poem which no Frenchman
    reads nowadays, but that Major Frye could quote from memory. The
    correct reading of the first verse is: _Des pretres fortunes_, etc.
    (_Henriade_, canto iv. ed. Kehl, vol. x, p. 97.)--ED.

[85] Horace, _Sat_., 1, 9, 4.--ED.

[86] Lady Elizabeth Hervey, second wife of William, fifth Duke of
    Devonshire (1809); died March, 1824.--ED.

[87] A singular slip of the pen; Frye must have known that the equestrian
    statue is a Roman work--ED.

[88] Ariosto, Orlando Furioso, xxxiii, 2, 4.--ED.

[89] See Lucian, _Imag._, iv; _Amores_, xv, xvi.--ED.

[90] Major Frye's description is incorrect in many particulars, on which it
    seemed unnecessary to draw attention.--ED.

[91] Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_, XI, 67, 6.

[92] That colossal marble statue was given to the Duke of Wellington by
    Louis XVIII, and is still to be seen in London, at Apsley House.--ED.




CHAPTER XI

From Rome to Naples--Albano--Velletri--The Marshes--Terracina--Mola di
Gaeta--Capua--The streets of Naples--Monuments and Museums--Visit to
Pompeii and ascent to Vesuvius--Dangerous ventures--Puzzuoli and
Baiae--Theatres at Naples--Pulcinello--Return to Rome--Tivoli.

I started from Rome on the 26th September; in the same _vettura_ I found an
intelligent young Frenchman of the name of R---- D----, a magistrate in
Corsica, who was travelling in Italy for his amusement. There were besides
a Roman lawyer and not a very bright one by the bye; and a fat woman who
was going to Naples to visit her lover, a Captain in the Austrian service,
a large body of Austrian troops being still at Naples. We issued from Rome
by the _Porta Latina_ and reached Albano (the ancient Alba) sixteen miles
distant at twelve o'clock. We reposed there two hours which gave me an
opportunity of visiting the _Villa Doria_ where there are magnificent
gardens. These gardens form the promenade of the families who come to
Albano to pass the heat of the summer and to avoid the effect of the
exhalations of the marshy country about Rome.

As Albano is situated on an eminence, you have a fine view of the whole
plain of Latium and Rome in perspective. The country of Latium however is
flat, dreary and monotonous; it affords pasture to an immense quantity of
black cattle, such as buffaloes, etc.

Just outside of Albano, on the route to Naples, is a curious ancient
monument called _Il sepolcro degli Orazj e Curiazj._ It is built of brick,
is extremely solid, of singular appearance, from its being a square
monument, flanked at each angle by a tower in the shape of a cone. It is of
an uncouth rustic appearance and must certainly have been built before

  _Grecia capia ferum victorem cepit et artes
  Intulit agresti Latio....._[93]

and I see no reason against its being the sepulchre of the Horatii and
Curiatii, particularly as it stands so near Alba where the battle was
fought; but be this as it may there is nothing like faith in matters of
antiquity; the sceptic can have little pleasure.

The country on leaving Albano becomes diversified, woody and picturesque.
Near Gensano is the beautiful lake of Nemi, and it is the spot feigned by
the poets as the scene of the amours of Mars and Rhea Silvia. Near Gensano
also is the country residence of the Sovereign Pontiffs called Castel
Gandolfo. La Riccia, the next place we passed thro', is the ancient Aricia,
mentioned in Horace's journey to Brundusium. We arrived in the evening at
Velletri.

Velletri is a large town or rather city situated on a mountain, to which
you ascend by a winding road skirting a beautiful forest. From the terrace
of one of the _Palazzi_ here, you have a superb view of all the plain below
as far as the rock of Circe, comprehending the Pontine marshes. There are
several very fine buildings at Velletri, and it is remarkable as being the
birthplace of Augustus Caesar. There is a spacious _Piazza_ too on which
stands a bronze statue of Pope Urban VIII. Velletri is twenty-eight miles
from Rome.

The next morning, the 27th, we started early so as to arrive by six o'clock
in the evening at Terracina. At Cisterna is a post-house and at Torre tre
Ponti is a convent, a beautiful building, but now delapidated and
neglected. Near it is a wretched inn, where however you are always sure to
find plenty of game to eat. Here begin the Pontine marshes and the famous
Appian road which runs in a right line for twenty-five miles across the
marshes. It was repaired and perfectly reconstructed by Pius VI, and from
him it bears its present appellation of _Linea Pia_. This convent and
church were also constructed by Pius VI with a view to facilitate the
draining and cultivating of the marshes by affording shelter to the
workmen. The _Linea Pia_ is a very fine _chaussee_ considerably raised
above the level of the marsh, well paved, lined with trees and a canal sunk
on one side to carry off the waters. The Pontine marshes extend all the way
from Torre tre Ponti to Terracina. On the left hand side, on travelling
from Rome to Naples, you have two miles or thereabouts of plain bounded by
lofty mountains; on the right a vast marshy plain bounded by the sea at a
distance of seven or eight miles. Nothing can be more monotonous than this
strait road twenty-five miles in length, and the same landscape the whole
way. The air is extremely damp, aguish and unhealthy. Those who travel late
in the evening or early in the morning are recommended not to let down the
glasses of the carriage, in order to avoid inhaling the pestilential miasma
from the marshes, which even the canal has not been able to drain
sufficiently.

No one can find amusement in this desolate region but the sportsman; and he
may live in continual enjoyment, and slay wild ducks and snipes in
abundance; a number of buffaloes are to be seen grazing on the marshes.
They are not to be met with to the North of Rome. They resemble entirely
the buffaloes of Egypt and India, being black, and they are very terrific
looking animals to the northern traveller, who beholds them here for the
first time.

These marshes supply Rome abundantly with waterfowl and other game of all
kinds. Every _vetturino_ who is returning to Rome, on passing by, buys a
quantity, for a mere trifle, from the peasantry, who employ themselves much
_a la chasse_, and he is certain to sell them again at Rome for three or
four times the price he paid, and even then it appears marvellous cheap to
an Englishman, accustomed as he is to pay a high price for game in his own
country.

We arrived a little before six at Terracina, which is on the banks of the
Mediterranean and may be distinguished at a great distance by its white
buildings. The chain of mountains on the left of our road hither form a
sort of arch to the chord of the _linea Pia_ and terminates one end of the
arch by meeting the _linea Pia_ at Terracina, which forms what the sailors
call a bluff point. Terracina stands on the situation of the ancient Anxur
and the description of it by Horace in his Brundusian journey;

  Impositum saxis late candentibus Anxur[94]

is perfectly applicable even now. It is a handsome looking city and is the
last town in the Pope's territory: part of it is situated on the mountain
and part on the plain at its foot close to the sea.

The fine white buildings on the heights, the temple of Jupiter Anxurus (of
which the facade and many columns remain entire) towering above them, the
orange trees and the sea, afford a view doubly pleasing and grateful to the
traveller after the dreary landscape of the Pontine Marshes. There is but
one inn at Terracina but that is a very large one; there is, however, but
very indifferent fare and bad attendance. The innkeeper is a sad
over-reaching rascal, who fleeces in the most unmerciful manner the
traveller who is not _spesato_. He is obliged to furnish those who are
_spesati_ with supper and lodging at the _vetturino's_ price; but he always
grumbles at it, gives the worst supper he can and bestows it as if he were
giving alms. As the road between Terracina and Fondi (the first Neapolitan
town) is said to be at times infested by robbers, few travellers care to
start till broad daylight. We did so accordingly the following morning. On
arriving at a place called the _Epitafio_, from there being an ancient tomb
there, we took leave of the last Roman post. At one mile and half beyond
the _Epitafio_ is the first Neapolitan post at a place called _Torre de'
Confini_, where we were detained half an hour to have our passports
examined and our portmanteaus searched. Three miles beyond this post is the
miserable and dirty town of Fondi, wherein our baggage again underwent a
strict search. On leaving Terracina the road strikes inland and has
mountains covered with wood to the right and to the left, nor do we behold
the sea again till just before we arrive at Mola di Gaeta, which is an
exceeding long straggling town on its banks; several fishing vessels lie
here and it is here that part of the Bay of Naples begins to open. The
country from Terracina to Fondi is uncultivated and very mountainous;
between Fondi and Mola di Gaeta it is pretty well cultivated; Itri, thro'
which we passed, is a long, dirty, wretched looking village.

The next day at twelve o'clock we arrived and stopped to dine at St Agatha,
a miserable village, with a very bad tho' spacious inn the half of which is
unroofed. We arrived at Capua the same evening having passed the rivers
Garigliano and Volturno, and leaving the Falernian Hills on our left during
part of the road. The landscape is very varied on this route, sometimes
mountainous, sometimes thro' a rich plain in full cultivation.

Capua is a fortified town situated in a flat country and marshy withal. It
is a gloomy, dirty looking city and whatever may have been its splendour
and allurements in ancient times, it at present offers nothing inviting or
remarkable. The lower classes of the people of this town are such thieves
that our _vetturino_ recommended us to remove every thing from the carriage
into our bed rooms, so that we had the trouble of repacking every thing
next morning. Capua is the only place on the whole route where it is
necessary to take the trunks from the carriage. From Capua to Naples is
twenty miles; a little beyond Capua are the remains of a large Amphitheatre
and this is all that exists to attest the splendour of ancient Capua. The
road between Capua and Naples presents on each side one of the richest and
most fruitful countries I ever beheld. It is a perfect garden the whole
way. The _chaussee_ is lined with fruit trees. Halfway is the town or
_borgo_ of Aversa which is large, well-built, opulent and populous. We
entered Naples at one o'clock, drove thro' the _strada di Toledo_ and from
thence to the _largo di Medina_ where we put up at the inn called the
_Aquila nera_. A cordon of Austrian troops lines the whole high road from
Fondi to the gates of Naples; and there are double sentries at a distance
of one mile from each other the whole way.


NAPLES, Octr. 5th.

In Naples the squares or _Piazze_ are called _Larghi_; they are exceedingly
irregular as to shape; a trapezium would be the most appropriate
denomination for them. The _Largo di Medina_ is situated close to the Mole
and light house and is not far from the _Largo del Palazzo_ where the Royal
Palace stands, nor from the _Strada di Toledo_, which is the most bustling
part of the town. On the Mole and sometimes in the _Largo di Medini_
Pulcinello holds forth all day long, quacks scream out the efficacy of
their nostrums and _improvisatori_ recite battles of Paladins. Here and in
the _Strada di Toledo_ the noise made by the vendors of vegetables, fruit,
lemonade, iced water and water-melons, who on holding out their wares to
view, scream out "_O che bella cosa_!"--the noise and bustle of the cooks'
shops in the open air and the cries of "_Lavora_!" made by the drivers of
_calessini_ (sort of carriage) makes such a deafening _tintamarre_ that you
can scarcely hear the voice of your companion who walks by your side. In
the _Largo del Palazzo_ there is always a large assembly of officers and
others, besides a tolerable quantity of _ruffiani_, who fasten upon
strangers in order to recommend to them their female acquaintances. A
little further is the Quai of St Lucia, where the fish market is held, and
here the cries increase. The quantity of fish of all sorts caught in the
bay and exposed for sale in the market is immense and so much more than can
be sold, that the rest is generally given away to the _Lazzaroni_. Here are
delicious mullets, oysters, whitings, soles, prawns, etc. There is on the
Quai of St Lucia a _restaurant_ where naught but fish is served, but that
is so well dressed and in such variety that amateurs frequently come to
dine here on _maigre_ days; for two _carlini_[95] you may eat fish of all
sorts and bread at discretion. The wine is paid for extra. On the Quai of
St Lucia is a fountain of mineral water which possesses the most admirable
qualities for opening the _primae viae_ and purifying the blood. It is an
excellent drink for bilious people or for those afflicted with abdominal
obstructions and diseases of the liver. It has a slight sulfurous mixed
with a ferruginous taste, and is impregnated with a good deal of fixed air,
which makes it a pleasant beverage. It should be taken every morning
fasting. The presidency over this fountain is generally monopolized by a
piscatory nymph who expects a _grano_ for the trouble of filling you a
glass or two. In reaching it to you she never fails to exclaim _"Buono per
le natiche,"_ and it certainly has a very rapid effect; I look upon it as
more efficacious than the Cheltenham waters and it is certainly much more
agreeable in taste. At the end of the Quai of St Lucia is the _Castello
dell 'Uovo,_ a Gothic fortress, before the inner gate of which hangs an
immense stuffed crocodile. This crocodile is said to have been found alive
in the _fosse_ of the castle, but how he came there has never been
explained; there is an old woman's story that he came every day to the
dungeon where prisoners were confined, and took out one for his dinner. The
_Castello dell 'Uovo_ stands on the extremity of a tongue of land which
runs into the sea. After passing the _Castello dell 'Uovo_ I came to the
_Chiaia_ or Quai properly so called, which is the most agreeable part of
Naples and the favorite promenade of the _beau-monde._ The finest buildings
and _Palazzi_ line the _Chiaia_ on the land side and above them all tower
the Castle of St Elmo and the _Chartreuse_ with several villas intervening.
The garden of the _Chiaia_ contains gravel walks, grass plots, alleys of
trees, fountains, plantations of orange, myrtle and laurel trees which give
a delightful fragrance to the air; and besides several other statues, it
boasts of one of the finest groups in Europe, called the _Toro Farnese._ It
is a magnificent piece of sculpture and represents three men endeavouring
to hold a ferocious bull. It is a pity, however, that so valuable a piece
of sculpture should be exposed to the vicissitudes of the season in the
open air. The marble has evidently suffered much by it. Why is such a
valuable piece of sculpture not preserved in the Museum?

On the _Chiaia_ are _restaurants_ and _cafes_. 'Tis here also that the
nobility display their carriages and horses, it being the fashionable drive
in the afternoon: and certainly, except in London, I have never seen such a
brilliant display of carriages as at Naples.

The principal street at Naples is the _Strada di Toledo_. It resembles the
_Rue St Honore_ and can boast of as much wealth in its shops. The houses
are good, solid and extremely lofty, and the streets are paved with lava.
There are two excellent _restaurants_ at Naples, one in the _Largo del
Palazzo_, nearly opposite the Royal Palace, called the _Villa di Napoli_;
the other not far from it in the _Strada di Toledo_, called _La Corona di
Ferro_. Naples is renowned for the excellency of its ices. You have them in
the shape of all kinds of fruit and wonderfully cheap. Many of the ice
houses and _caffes_ remain open day and night; as do some of the gaming
tables, which are much frequented by the upper classes. The theatre of St
Carlo, which was consumed last year by fire, is rising rapidly from its
ashes and will soon be finished. In the mean time Operas are performed at
the _Teatro Fondi_, a moderate sized theatre. I here saw performed the
opera of _Don Giovanni_ of Mozart, with the _ballo_ of _La pazza per
amore_. Mme Colbran, a Spanish lady, is the _Prima Donna_ and an excellent
singer.

In all the private societies at Naples a great deal of gaming goes on, and
at some houses those visitors, who do not play, are coolly received. The
following may be considered as a very fair specimen of the life of a young
man of rank and fashion at Naples. He rises about two p.m., takes his
chocolate, saunters about in the _Strada di Toledo_ or in the _Largo del
Palazzo_ for an hour or two, then takes a _promenade a cheval_ on the
_Chiaia_; dines between six and seven; goes to the Opera where he remains
till eleven or half-past eleven; he then saunters about in the different
Cafes for an hour or two; and then repairs to the gaming table at the
_Ridotto_, which he does not quit till broad daylight. The ladies find a
great resource in going to church, which serves to pass away the time that
is not spent in bed, or at the Opera, or at the _promenade en voiture_. The
ladies seldom take exercise on foot at Naples. There being very little
taste for litterature in this vast metropolis, the most pleasant society is
among the foreign families who inhabit Naples or at the houses of the
_Corps diplomatique_. There is, however, a good _cabinet litteraire_ and
library in the _Strada di San Giacomo_, where various French and Italian
newspapers may be read. The Austrians occupy the greater part of the
military posts at Naples; at the Royal Palace however the Sicilian guards
do duty; they are clothed in scarlet and _a anglaise_.


NAPLES, 8th Octr.

One day I went to visit the Museum or _Studii_, as it is called, which is
situated at the extremity of the _Strada di Toledo_ on the land side. Here
is a superb collection of sculpture and painting; and this building
contains likewise the national library, and a choice and unique collection
of Etruscan vases. A large hall contains these vases, which were found at
Pompeii[96]; they are much admired for their beauty and simplicity; each
vase has a mythological or historical painting on it. In this Museum I was
shewn the rolls of papyrus found in Pompeii and Herculaneum and the method
of unrolling them. The work to unroll which they are now employed at this
Museum is a Greek treatise on philosophy by Epicurus. It is a most delicate
operation to unroll these leaves, and with the utmost possible care it is
impossible to avoid effacing many of the letters, and even sentences, in
the act of unrolling. It must require also considerable learning and skill
in the Greek language, combined with a good deal of practise, to supply the
deficiency of the words effaced. When these manuscripts are put in print,
the letters that remain on the papyrus are put in black type, and the words
guessed at are supplied in red; so that you see at one glance what letters
have been preserved, and what are supplied to replace those effaced by the
operation of unrolling; and in this manner are all the papyrus manuscripts'
printed.


_Visit to Pompeii and Ascent of Vesuvius_.

_11th Oct_.

We returned, Mr R---- D---- and I, from our visit to Vesuvius, half dead
with fatigue from having had little or no rest the whole night, about three
o'clock to Naples.

We left Naples in a _caleche_ yesterday after breakfast and drove to
Portici. Portici, Resina, and Torre del Greco are beautiful little towns on
the sea-shore of the bay of Naples or rather they may be termed a
continuation of the city, as they are close together in succession, and the
interval filled up with villas. The distance from the gates of Naples to
Portici is three miles. The road runs through the court yard of the Royal
Palace at Portici which has a large archway at its entrance and sortie. We
proceeded to Resina and alighted in order to descend under ground to
Herculaneum, Resina being built on the spot where Herculaneum stood. There
are always guides on this road on the look out for travellers; one
addressed us, and conducted us to a house where we alighted and entered.
Our guide then prepared a flambeau, and having unlocked and lifted up a
trap door invited us to descend. A winding _rampe_ under ground leads to
Herculaneum. We discovered a large theatre with its proscenium, seats,
corridors, vomitories, etc., and we were enabled, having two lighted
torches with us, to read the inscriptions. Some statues that were found
here have been removed to the Museum at Portici. This is the only part of
Herculaneum that has been excavated; for if any further excavations were
attempted, the whole town of Resina, which is built over it, would fall in.
Herculaneum no doubt contains many things of value, but it would be rather
too desperate a stake to expose the town of Resina to certain ruin, for the
sake of what _might_ be found. At Pompeii the case is very different, there
being nothing built over its site.

After having satisfied our curiosity here, we regained the light of heaven
in Resina, and proceeded to Pompeii, which is seven miles further, the
total distance from Naples to Pompeii being ten miles. The part of Pompeii
already discovered looks like a town with the houses unroofed situated in a
deep gravel or sand pit, the depth of which is considerably greater than
the height of the buildings standing in it. You descend into it from the
brink, which is on a level with the rest of the country; Pompeii is
consequently exposed to the open air, and you have neither to go under
ground, nor to use _flambeaux_ as at Herculaneum, but simply to descend as
into a pit. There is always a guard stationed at Pompeii to protect the
place from delapidation and thefts of antiquarians. From its resembling, as
I have already said, a town in the centre of a deep gravel pit, you come
upon it abruptly and on looking down you are surprized to see a city newly
brought to day. The streets and houses here remain entire, the roofs of the
houses excepted, which fell in by the effect of the excavation; so that you
here behold a Roman city nearly in the exact state it was hi when it was
buried under the ashes of Vesuvius, during its first eruption in the year
79 of the Christian era. It does not appear to me that the catastrophe of
Pompeii could have been occasioned by an earthquake, for if so the streets
and houses would not be found upright and entire: it appears rather to have
been caused by the showers of ashes and _ecroulement_ of the mountain,
which covered it up and buried it for ever from the sight of day. The first
place our guide took us to see was a superb Amphitheatre about half as
large as the Coliseum: the arena and seats are perfect, and all the
interior is perfectly cleared out: so are the dens where the wild beasts
were kept; so that you look down into this amphitheatre as into a vast
basin standing on its brink, which is on a level with the rest of the
ground around it, and by means of the seats and passages you may descend
into the _arena_. This Amphitheatre is at a short distance from the rest of
the town. What is at present discovered of this city consists of a long
street with several off-sets of streets issuing from it: a temple, two
theatres, a praetorium, a large barrack, and a peculiarly large house or
villa belonging probably to some eminent person, but no doubt when the
excavation shall be recommenced many more streets will be discovered, as
from the circumstance of there being an amphitheatre, two other theatres
and a number of sepulchral monuments outside the gates, it must have been a
city of great consequence. Most of the houses seem to have had two stories;
the roofs fell in of course by the act of excavation, but the columns
remain entire. I observe that the general style of building in Pompeii in
most of the houses is as follows: that in each building there is a court
yard in the centre, something like the court yard of a convent, which is
sometimes paved in mosaic, and generally surrounded by columns; in the
middle of this court is a fountain or basin: the court has no roof and the
wings of the house form a quadrangle environing it. The windows and doors
of the rooms are made in the interior sides of the quadrangle looking into
the court yard; on the exterior there appears to be only a small latticed
window near the top of the room to admit light. I have seen in Egypt and in
India similarly built houses, and it is the general style of building in
Andalusia and Barbary. In the rooms are niches in the walls for lamps,
precisely in the style of the Moorish buildings in India.

In many of the chambers of the houses at Pompeii are paintings _al fresco_
and arabesques on the walls which on being washed with water appear
perfectly fresh. The subjects of these paintings are generally from the
mythology. In some of the rooms are paintings _al fresco_ of fish, flesh,
fowl and fruit; in others Venus and the Graces at their toilette, from
which we may infer that the former were dining rooms and the latter
boudoirs. A large villa (so I deem it as it stands without the gates) has a
number of rooms, two stories entire and three court yards with fountains,
many beautiful fresco paintings on the walls of the chambers. Annexed to
this villa is a garden arranged in terraces and a fish pond. A covered
gallery supported by pillars on one of the sides of the garden served
probably as a promenade in wet weather. In the cellars of this villa are a
number of _amphorae_ with narrow necks. Had the ancients used corks instead
of oil to stop their _amphorae_, wine eighteen hundred years old might have
been found here. It is not the custom even of the modern Italians to use
corks for the wine they keep for their own use: a spoonful of oil is poured
on the top of the wine in the flask and when they mean to drink it they
extract the oil by means of a lump of cotton fastened to a stick or long
pin which enters the neck of the flask and absorbs and extracts the oil.

Among the buildings discovered in Pompeii is a large Temple of Isis; here
you behold the altar and the pillar to which the beasts of sacrifice were
fastened. In this temple at the time of the first excavation were found all
the instruments of sacrifice and other things appertaining to the worship
of that Goddess. These and other valuables such as statues, coins, utensils
of all sorts were removed to Portici, where they are now to be seen in the
Museum of that place. The _Praetorium_ at Pompeii is the next remarkable
thing; it is a vast enclosure: a great number of columns are standing
upright here and the most of them entire; the steps forming the ascent to
the elevated seat where the Praetor usually sat, remain entire. There is a
large building and court yard near one of the gates of the city supposed to
have been a barrack for soldiers; three skeletons were found here with
their legs in a machine similar to our stocks. The scribbling and
caricatures on the walls of this barrack are perfectly visible and legible.
When one wanders thro' the streets of this singularly interesting city, one
is tempted to think that the inhabitants have just walked out. What a
dreadful lingering death must have befallen these inhabitants who could not
escape from Pompeii at the time of the eruption of Vesuvius which covered
it with ashes. The air could only be exhausted by degrees, so that a
prolonged suffocation or a death by hunger must have been their lot.

Four skeletons were found upright in the streets, having in their hands
boxes containing jewellery and things of value, as if in the act of
endeavouring to make their escape: these must soon have perished, but the
skeleton of a woman found in one of the rooms of the houses close to a bath
shews that her death must have been one of prolonged suffering.

What a fine subject Pompeii would furnish for the pen of a Byron! As I have
before remarked, all the valuables and utensils of all sorts found here
have been removed to Portici; it is a great pity that everything could not
be left in Pompeii in the exact situation in which it was found on its
first discovery at the excavation. What a light it would have thrown (which
no description can give) on the melancholy catastrophe as well as on the
private life and manners of the ancients! But if they had been left here,
they would, even tho' a guard of soldiers were stationed here to protect
them, have been by degrees all stolen.

There were some magnificent tombs just outside the gates which must have
been no small ornament to the city.

We returned to Resina to dinner at six o'clock.

We had made an arrangement with one of the guides of Vesuvius called
Salvatore that he should be ready for us at Resina at seven o'clock with a
mule and driver for each of us to ascend the mountain, and we found him
very punctual at the door of the inn at that hour. The terms of the journey
were as follows. One _scudo_ for Salvatore and one _scudo_ for each mule
and driver for which they were to forward us to the mountain, remain the
whole night and reconduct us to Resina the following morning. The object in
ascending at night and remaining until morning is to combine the night view
of the eruption with the visit (if possible) to the crater, which cannot
with safety be undertaken by night, and to enjoy likewise the noble view at
sunrise of the whole bay and city of Naples and the adjacent islands. We
started therefore at a quarter past seven and arrived at half past nine at
a small house and chapel, called the hermitage of Vesuvius, which is
generally considered as half-way up the mountain. In this house dwells an
old ecclesiastic who receives travellers and furnishes them with a couch
and frugal repast. We dismounted here and our worthy host provided us with
some mortadella and an omelette; and we did not fail to do justice to his
excellent _lacrima Christi_, of which he has always a large provision. We
then betook ourselves to rest, leaving orders to be awakened at two o'clock
in order to proceed further up the mountain. There was a pretty decent
eruption of the mountain, which vomited fire, stones and ashes at an
interval of twenty-five minutes, so that we enjoyed this spectacle during
our ascent. A violent noise, like thunder, accompanies each eruption, which
increases the awefulness and grandeur of the sight. At two o'clock our
guide and muleteers being very punctual, we bade adieu to the hermit,
promising him to come to breakfast with him the next morning; we then
mounted our mules and after an hour's march arrived at the spot where the
ashes and cinders, combined with the steepness of the mountain, prevent the
possibility of going any further except on foot. We dismounted therefore at
this place, and sent back our mules to the hermitage to wait for us there.
We now began to climb among the ashes, and tho' the ascent to the position
of the ancient crater is not more than probably eighty yards in height, we
were at least one hour before we reached it, from its excessive steepness
and from gliding back two feet out of three at every step we made. We at
length reached the old crater and sat ourselves down to repose till
day-break. Tho' it was exceeding cold, the exhalation from the veins of
fire and hot ashes kept us as warm as we could wish: for here every step is
literally

          _per ignes
  Suppositos cineri doloso_.[97]

We remained on this spot till broad daylight and witnessed several
eruptions at an interval of twenty or twenty-five minutes. I remarked that
the mountain toward the summit forms two cones, one of which vomited fire
and smoke, and the other calcined stones and ashes, accompanied by a
rumbling noise like thunder. The stones came clattering down the flanks of
the mountain and some of them rolled very near us; had we been within the
radius formed by the erupted stones we probably should have been killed.

At daylight Mr R---- D---- proposed to ascend the two cones in spite of the
remonstrances of our guide Salvatore, who told us that no person had yet
been there and that we must expect to be crushed to death by the stones,
should an eruption take place, and that it was almost as much madness to
attempt it, as it would be to walk before a battery of cannon in the act of
being fired. Tho' I did not admit all the force of this comparison, yet I
began to think there was a little too much risk in the attempt; my French
friend however was deaf to all remonstrance and said to me, "_As-tu peur_?"
I replied: "No! that I was at all times very indifferent as to life or
death, but that I did not like pain, and was not at all desirous to have an
arm or leg broken, the former accident having happened to a German a few
days before; nevertheless, I added, if you persist in going, I will
accompany you." We accordingly started to ascend the cone, which vomited
fire and smoke, taking care to place ourselves on the windward side in
ascending, and after much fatigue we arrived in about fifteen minutes close
to the apex of the cone, after groping amidst the ashes and stumbling on a
vein of red hot cinders. My shoes were sadly burnt, my stockings singed and
my feet scorched; my friend was less fortunate, for he tumbled down with
his hands on a vein of red hot cinders and burned them terribly. My great
and principal apprehension in making this ascent was of stumbling upon
holes slightly encrusted with ashes and that the whole might give way and
precipitate me into some _gouffre._ On arrival at the summit of the cone we
had just time to look down and perceive that there was a hole or _gouffre,_
but whether it were very deep or not we could not ascertain, for a blast of
fire and smoke issuing from it at this moment nearly suffocated us; we
immediately lost no time in gliding down the ashes on the side of the cone
on our breech, and reached its base in a few seconds, where we waited till
an eruption took place from the other cone, in order to profit of the
interval to ascend it also. It required four minutes' walk to reach the
base of the other cone and about twelve to ascend to its apex; on arrival
at the brink, where we remained about two minutes, we had just sufficient
time to observe that there was no deep hole or bottomless _gouffre_ as we
expected, but that it formed a crater with a sort of slant and not
exceeding thirty feet in depth to the bottom, which looked exactly like a
lime-kiln, being of a dirty white appearance, and in continual agitation,
as it were of limestones boiling; so that a person descending to the bottom
of this crater would probably be scorched to death or suffocated in a few
minutes, but would infallibly be ejected and thrown into the air at the
first eruption. I mean by this that he would not disappear or fall into a
bottomless pit (as I should have supposed before I viewed the crater), but
that his friends would be sure of finding his body either yet living or
dead, outside the brink of the crater, within the radius made by the
erupted stones and ashes.

Our guide now begged us for God's sake to descend, as an eruption might be
expected every minute. We accordingly glided down the exterior surface of
the cone among the ashes, on our breech, for it is impossible to descend in
any other way and in a few seconds we reached its base. Finding ourselves
on a little level ground we began to run or rather wade thro' the ashes in
order to get out of reach of the eruption, but we had not gone thirty yards
when one took place. The stones clattered down with a frightful noise and
we received a shower of ashes on our heads, the dust of which got into our
eyes and nearly blinded us. On reaching the brink of the old crater we
stopped half an hour to enjoy the fine view of Parthenope in all her glory
at sunrise. We then descended rapidly, sometimes plunging down the ashes on
our feet and sometimes gliding on our breech till we arrived at the place
where we had descended from our mules, and this distance, which required
one hour to ascend, cost us in its descent not more than seven minutes.

We then walked to the hermitage in about an hour and a quarter, and arrived
there with no other accident than having our shoes and stockings totally
spoiled, our feet a little singed, the hands of Mr. R.D. severely burned
and both begrimed with ashes like blacksmiths. The ecclesiastic gave us a
breakfast of coffee and eggs and a glass of Maraschino, and we gave him two
_scudi_ each. Before we departed he presented to us his Album, which he
usually does to all travellers, inviting them to write something. I took up
the pen and feeling a little inspiration wrote the following lines:

  Anch'io salito son sul gran Vesuvio,
  Mentre cadsa di cineri un diluvio;
  Questo cammin mi piace d'aver fatto,
  Ma plu mi piace il ritornare intatto.

which pleased the old man very much to see a foreigner write Italian verse.
I pleased him still more by letting him know that I was an enthusiastic
admirer and humble cultivator of the Tuscan Muse, and that having read and
studied most of their poets, particularly _il divino Ariosto_, I now and
then caught a _scintilletta_ from his verse. We now took a cordial farewell
of our worthy old host, mounted our mules and descended the mountain. On
arrival at Portici we dismissed our guide Salvatore with a _scudo pour
boire_, besides the stipulated price. Salvatore asked me to give him a
written certificate of his services, which he generally sollicits from all
those whom he conducts to the Volcano. I asked him for his certificate
book, and begged to know whether he would have it in prose or verse. He
laughed and said: _Vostra Excellenza e padrone_. I took out my pencil and
wrote the following quatrain:

  Dal monte ignivomo tornati siam stanchissimi,
  E del buon Salvator siam tutti contentissimi;
  Felice il pellogrin che a Salvator si fida,
  Che di lui non si puo trovare un miglior guida.

I never saw any body so delighted as Salvatore appeared when I read to him
what I had written in his book.

I have another observation to make before I take leave of this celebrated
mountain, which is, that the liquid lava which it ejects is far more
dangerous and destructive than the eruption of stones and ashes; the lava
flows from the flanks of the mountain in a liquid stream. Sometimes there
will be an eruption and no lava flowing: at other tunes the lava flows from
the flanks of the mountain, without any eruption from the crater; at other
times, and then it is most alarming, the eruption takes place accompanied
by the flowing of the lava. All this demonstrates that the volcano is the
effect of the efforts of the subterraneous fire to get some vent and escape
from its confinement. This time I did not observe any lava flowing, except
a slight vein of it on the spot where Mr R.D. fell down and burned his
hands; but it is easy to observe on the side of the mountain the course and
route taken at different times by the lava, which has become hardened and
is very plainly to be distinguished, as it resembles a _river_ (if I may
use the word) of slate meandering between the green sward of the mountain
and descending toward the sea. You can plainly distinguish the course and
direction of the lava which destroyed part of Torre del Greco and swept it
into the sea.

At Portici, having washed ourselves at the inn from head to foot in order
to get rid of our blacksmith's appearance, and having purchased a new pair
of shoes and stockings each, we visited the Royal Palace and Museum with a
view principally of examining the objects of art and valuables discovered
in Pompeii. The Royal Palace is called _la Favorita_, its architecture is
beautiful; the garden or rather lawn which is ornamented by statues and
enriched by orange groves extends to the sea. The first thing that presents
itself to the view of the visitor at the Museum of Portici are the two
equestrian statues of Marcus Balbus proconsul and procurator and of his
son, which statues were found in Herculaneum. I forgot to mention that
there is an inscription with that name on the side of the proscenium of the
theatre easily legible by the light of _flambeaux_.

To return to the Museum at Portici, we were then shewn into a room
containing curious _morceaux_ of antiquity discovered at Pompeii: a tripod
in bronze and various other articles of the same metal; tables, various
lamps in bronze, resembling exactly those used in Hindostan, wooden pens,
dice, grains of corn quite black and scorched, a skeleton of a woman with
the ashes incrusted round it (the form of her breast is seen on the crust
of ashes; golden armlets were found on her which were shewn to us), steel
mirrors, combs, utensils for culinary purposes, such as _casseroles_,
frying pans, spoons, forks, pestles and mortars, instruments of sacrifice,
weights and measures, coins, a _carcan_ or _stock_, &c.

In the upper rooms are to be seen the paintings and _fresques_ found in the
same place. The paintings are poor things, and in their landscapes the
Romans seem to have had little more idea of perspective than the Chinese;
but the _fresques_ are beautiful: the female figures belonging thereto are
delineated with the utmost grace and delicacy. They consist of subjects
chiefly from the mythology. I noticed the following in particular, viz.,
Chiron teaching the young Achilles to draw the bow; the discovery of
Orestes; Theseus and the Minotaur (he has just slain the Minotaur and a boy
is in the act of kissing his hand as if to thank him for his deliverance;
the Minotaur is here represented as a monster with the body of a man and
the head of a bull); a Centaur carrying off a nymph; a car drawn by a
parrot and driven by a cricket: a woman offering to another little Loves
for sale (she is pulling out the little Cupids from a basket and holding
them by their wings as if they were fowls); a beautiful female figure
seated on a monster something like the Chimaera of the ancients and holding
a cup before the monster's mouth (emblematical of Hope nourishing a
Chimaera). The arabesques taken from Pompeii and preserved here are very
beautiful. Here also are two statues found in Pompeii: the one representing
a drunken Faun, the other a sitting Mercury. We met two Polish ladies here,
who were amusing themselves in copying the _fresques_. We returned to
Naples at five o'clock, and dined at the _Villa di Napoli_. In the evening
we went to the _Teatro de' Fiorentini_. The piece performed was Pamela or
_La virtu premiata,_ which I understand is quite a stock piece in Italy. It
is written by Goldoni. It was very badly performed; the actors were not
perfect in their parts, and the prompter's voice was as loud as usual. The
costume was appropriate enough, which is far from being always the case at
this theatre.


NAPLES, 13 Octr.

We started on the 12th at six o'clock in the morning (Mr R----- D. and
myself) in a _caleche_ in order to visit Puzzuoli, Baii and all the
classical ground in that direction. We of course passed through the grotto
of Pausilippo. This grotto is thirty feet high and about five hundred feet
long. In fact, it is a vast rock undermined and a high road running thro'
it, the breadth of which is sufficient for three carriages to go abreast.
From its great length it is of course exceeding dark; in order therefore to
obviate this inconvenience lamps constantly lighted are suspended from the
roof and on the sides of the grotto, and holes pierced towards the top to
admit a little daylight. The road pierced thro' this rock and called the
grotto of Pausilippo abridges the journey to Puzzuoli very considerably, as
otherwise you would be obliged to go round by Cape Margelina, which would
increase the distance ten miles. On issuing from the grotto on the other
side, you arrive in a few minutes on the seashore, on the bay formed
between Cape Margelina and Puzzuoli. We stopped at the lake Agnano which is
strongly impregnated with sulfur. On the banks of this lake are the
_Thermae_ or vapour baths, and here is also the famous _Grotto del Cane_,
the pestilential vapour arising from which rises about three inches from
the ground and has the appearance of a spider's web. An unfortunate dog
performs the miracle of the resurrection to all those who visit this
natural curiosity; and we also were curious to see its effect. The guardian
of the Thermes seized the poor animal and held his nose close to the place
from whence the vapour exhales. The dog was seized with strong convulsions
and in two minutes he was perfectly senseless and to all appearance dead;
but on being placed in the open air, he soon recovers. The poor beast shews
evident repugnance to the experiment, and I wonder he does not endeavor to
make his escape, for he has sometimes to perform this feat four or five
times a day. I should suppose that he will not be very long lived, for the
repeated doses of this mephitic vapour must surely accelerate his
dissolution. The heat of the _Thermae_ and steam of the sulphur is almost
insupportable; but it has a most beneficial effect on maladies of the
nerves and cutaneous complaints.

We then proceeded on our journey to Puzzuoli, the ancient Puteoli, where
are the remains of the famous mole (or bridge as others call it) of
Caligula, intended to embrace or unite the two extremes of the bay of Baiae
formed on one side by Puzzuoli and on the other by cape Misenus. We
alighted to take a _dejeuner a la fourchette_ at Puzzuoli, and then went to
visit the temple of Jupiter Serapis, which is a vast edifice and tho' in
ruins very imposing. On wandering thro' the enceinte of this famous temple,
I thought of Apollonius of Tyana and his sudden appearance to his friend
Damis at the porch of this very temple, when he escaped from the fangs of
Domitian and when it was believed that, by means of magic art, he had been
able at once to transport himself from the Praetorium at Rome to Puteoli.
As I said before, the bay included by cape Misenus and Puzzuoli is what is
called Baiae. The land is low and marshy from Puzzuoli to a little beyond
the lake Avernus; but from Monte Nuovo it begins to rise and form high
cliffs nearly all way to Cape Misenus. It was on these high cliffs that the
opulent Romans built their villas and they must have been as much crowded
together as the villas at Ramsgate and Broadstairs. We embarked in a boat
at Puzzuoli to cross over to Baiae (i.e., the place where the villas
begin), but we stopped on our way thither at a landing place nearly in the
centre of the bay in order to visit the lake Avernus and the Cave of the
Cumaean Sybil, described by Virgil, as the entrance into the realm of
Pluto. The lake Avernus, in spite of its being invested by the poets with
all that is terrible in the mythology as a river of Hell, looks very like
any other lake, and tho' it is impregnated with sulphur, and emits a most
unpleasant smell, birds do not drop down dead on flying over it as
formerly. The ground about it is marshy and unwholesome. The silence and
melancholy appearance of this lake and its environing groves of wood are
not calculated to inspire exhilarating ideas. Full of classic souvenirs we
went to descend into the Cave of the Sybil, and as we descended I could not
refrain from repeating aloud Virgil's lines:

  _Di quibus imperium est animarum umbrasque silentes_,[98] etc.

This descent really is fitted to give one an idea of the descent to the
shades below, and what added to the illusion was that when we arrived at
the bottom of the descent and just at the entrance of the cave where the
Sybil held her oracles, we discovered four fierce looking fellows with
lighted torches in their hands standing at the entrance. My friend cried
out _Voila les Furies_, and these proved to be our boatmen who, while we
were contemplating the _bolge d'Averno_, had run on before to provide
torches to shew us the interior of the grotto of the Sybil. As this grotto
is nearly knee-deep filled with water we got on the backs of the boatmen to
enter it. It is about twenty-five feet long, fifteen broad and the height
about thirteen feet. As we were neither devoured by Cerberus nor hustled by
old Charon into his boat, we returned from the _Shades below_ to the light
of heaven, triumphant like Ulysses or Aeneas, considering ourselves now
among the _Pauci quos aequus amavit Jupiter_.[99]

Acheron, the dreadful Acheron, is not far from Avernus and is likewise a
lake, tho' call'd a river in the mythology. It is also sulfuric and the
ground about it is woody, low, marshy and consequently aguish.

We next ascended the cliffs of Baiae and we were shown the remains of the
villas of Cicero, Caesar, Sylla and other great names. We then went to the
baths of Nero (so called). Here it is the fashion to descend under ground
in order to feel the effect of the sulfuric heat, which is intense, and my
friend who descended soon returned dripping with perspiration and calling
out: _Qui n'a pas vu cela n'a rien vu!_ but I did not chuse to descend, as
I could feel no pleasure in being half stifled and the _grotto del Cane_
had already given me a full idea of the force of the vapour of the
_Thermes_.

We then descended from the cliffs of Baiae on the other side, and visited
the remains of three celebrated temples of antiquity situated on the beach
nearly and very close to each other, viz., the temples of Diana, of Venus
and of Mercury; all striking objects and majestic, tho' in a state of
dilapidation. Each of these temples has cupolas. We then ascended the slope
of ground leading towards cape Misensus, to visit the _Cento Camarelle_ and
_Piscina mirabile_, both vast edifices under ground, serving as cellars or
appendages to a Palace that stood on this spot. We then visited the lake
called the _Mare Morto_ or Styx; and then went round to the other side of
it, to visit those beautiful _coteaux_ planted in vines and their summits
crowned with groves which have obtained the name of the Elysian fields.
This Styx and these Elysian fields look like any other lake and _coteaux_
and are entirely indebted to the lyre of Maro for their celebrity.

From thence we went to the extremity of cape Misenus and embarked in our
boat (which we had sent on there to wait for us) to return to Puzzuoli by
crossing the bay at once. In this bay and near cape Misenus a Roman fleet
was usually stationed and Pliny's uncle, I believe, commanded one there at
the time of the first eruption of Vesuvius which cost him his life.

There is a singular phenomenon in this bay of a mountain that in one of the
later eruptions and earthquakes was formed in twenty-four hours near the
seashore and was named _Monte Nuovo._

The small salt water lake called _Lacus Lucrinus_ is also on this bay. It
appears to me to be an artificial lake, made probably by the opulent Romans
who resided at Baiae to hold their mullets and other sea fish which they
wished to fatten.

Near Puzzuoli likewise is the famous _Solfaterra,_ the bed of an ancient
volcano. It is well worth examining. It has been long since extinguished,
but you meet with vast beds of sulphur and calcined stones, and the smell
is at times almost insupportable. We returned to Naples by half-past seven
o'clock, not a little tired but highly gratified by our excursion.


NAPLES, 14th Oct.

At the _Teatro Nuovo_ I have seen another Italian tragedy performed. The
piece was _Tito Manlio Torquato_, taken from the well known anecdote in the
Roman history. The scenery, decorations and _costume_ were good and
appropriate, not so the acting; for the actors as usual were imperfect in
their parts. I fully agree with Alfieri that Italy must be united and enjoy
a free popular government before one can expect to see tragedies well
performed. It is very diverting to see the puppet shows at Naples and to
hear the witticisms and various artifices of the showman of Pulcinello to
secure payment in advance from his audience, who would otherwise go away
without paying as soon as the performance was over.

This performance is much attended by the _lazzaroni_ and _faineans_ of the
lower orders of Naples and the puppet showman is obliged to have recourse
to various stratagems and ingenious sallies to induce a handsome
contribution to be made. Sometimes he will say with a very grave face (the
curtain being drawn up and no Pulcinello appearing) that he is very sorry
there can be no performance this day; for that poor Signor Pulcinello is
sick and has no money to pay the Doctor: but that if a _quete_ be made for
him, he will get himself cured and make his appearance as usual. All the
while that one of the showmen goes about collecting the _grani_, the other
holds a dialogue with Pulcinello (still invisible). Pulcinello groans and
is very miserable. At length the collection is made. Pulcinello takes
medicine, says he is well again, makes his appearance and begins. At
another time the audience is informed that there can be no performance as
Pulcinello is arrested for debt and put in prison, where he must remain
unless a subscription of money be made for him to pay his debts and take
him out of gaol. Then follows an absurd dialogue between Pulcinello
(supposed to answer from the prison) and the showman. The showman scolds
him for being a spendthrift and leading a profligate life, calls him a
_briccone_, a _birbante_, and Pulcinello only groans out in reply, _Povero
me, Povero Pulcinello, che disgrazia! sventurato di me! di non aver
denari!_ These strokes of wit never fail to bring in many a _grano_.

At another time the curtain is drawn up and discovers a gibbet and
Pulcinello standing on a ladder affixed to it with a rope round his neck.
The showman with the utmost gravity and assumed melancholy informs the
audience that a most serious calamity is about to happen to Naples: that
Signor Pulcinello is condemned to be hanged for a robbery, and that unless
he can procure _molti denari_ to bribe the officers of justice to let him
escape, he will inevitably be hanged and the people will never more behold
their unhappy friend Pulcinello. The showman now implores the commiseration
of the audience, and now reproaches Pulcinello with his profligacy and
nefarious pranks which have brought him to an untimely end. Pulcinello
sobs, cries, promises to reform and to attend mass regularly in future.
What Neapolitan heart can resist such an appeal? The _grani_ are collected.
Pulcinello gives money to the puppet representing the executioner; down
goes the gibbet, and Pulcinello is himself again.

I shall return in a day or two to Rome, having seen nearly all that Naples
affords. I have now full liberty to die when I chuse according to the
proverb: _Veder Napoli e poi morire_.

Naples certainly is, taking it all in all, the most interesting city in
Europe, for it unites every thing that is conducive to the _agremens_ of
life. A beautiful city, a noble bay, a vast commerce, provisions of the
best sort, abundant and cheap, a pleasant society, a delicious climate,
music, Operas, _Balli,_ Libraries, Museums of Painting and Sculpture; in
its neighbourhood two subterraneous cities, a volcano in full play, and
every spot of ground conveying the most interesting _souvenirs_ and
immortalized in prose and verse. Add thereto the vapour baths of sulphur
for stringing anew the nerves of those debilitated by a too ardent pursuit
of pleasure, and the Fountain of St Lucia for those suffering from a
redundancy of bile. Now tell me of any other residence which can equal
this? Adieu.


ROME, 22nd Octr.

Nothing material occurred on my return from Naples to Rome; but on the 2d
day after my arrival I made an excursion to Tivoli, which is about eighteen
miles distant from Rome. I passed the night at the only inn at Tivoli. The
next morning I walked to the _Villa d'Este_ in this neighbourhood, which is
a vast edifice with extensive grounds. Here on a terrace in front of the
villa are models in marble of all the principal edifices and monuments,
ancient and modern, of Rome, very ingeniously executed. From the _Villa
d'Este_ is a noble view of the whole plain of Latium and of the "Eternal
City."

From hence I walked about two miles further to visit the greatest antiquity
and curiosity of the place, which is the Villa or rather the ruins of the
celebrated Villa built by Adrian, which must have been of immense size from
the vast space of ground it occupies. It was intended to unite everything
that the magnificent ideas of a Prince could devise who wished to combine
every sort of recreation, sensual as well as intellectual, within the
precincts of his Palace; columns, friezes, capitals, entablatures and
various other spoils of rich architecture cover the ground in profusion:
many of the walls and archways are entire and almost an entire cupola
remains standing. Besides the buildings above ground, here are cellars
under ground intended as quarters for the guards and capable of holding
three thousand men, as well as stabling for horses. In the inclosure of and
forming part of this Villa, which covers a circumference of seven miles,
were a gymnasium, baths, temples, a school of philosophers, tanks, a
theatre, &c. The greatest part of these buildings are choaked up and
covered with earth, since it is by excavation alone that what does appear
was brought to light. It was by excavation that a man discovered a large
hall wherein he found the nine beautiful statues of the Muses, which now
adorn the Museum of the Vatican; and no doubt if the Roman government would
recommence the excavations many more valuables might be found. Hadrian's
villa has already furnished many a statue, column and pilaster to the
Museums, churches and Palaces of Rome.

I was much more gratified in beholding the remains of this Villa than in
visiting Tivoli and I remained here several hours. At four o'clock in the
afternoon I started on my return to Rome; it was imprudent not to have
started sooner, as it is always dangerous to be outside the walls of Rome
after dark, in consequence of the brigands who infest the environs and
sometimes come close to the walls of the city.

I reached my hotel in Rome at nine o'clock, one hour and half after dark,
but had the good fortune to meet nobody. The Roman peasantry generally go
armed and those who feed cattle in the fields of the Campagna or have any
labour to perform there never sleep there on account of the _mal'aria._


[93] Horace, _Epist.,_ II, 1, 156.--ED.

[94] Horace, Sat., i, 5, 26.--ED.

[95] A _carlino_ is of the value of half a franc or five pence English. The
    accounts in Naples are kept in _ducati_, _carlini_ and _grani_. Ten
    _carlini_ make a ducat and ten _grani_ (a copper coin) make a carlino.
    A grano is a _sou_ French in value. The _ducato_ is an imaginary coin.
    The _soudo Napoletano_, a handsome silver coin of the size of an _ecu
    de six francs_, is equal to twelve carlini.

[96] Not one of these vases was found at Pompeii.--ED.

[97] Horace, _Carm_., II, 1, 7.--ED.

[98] Virgil, _Aen_., VI, 264.--ED.

[99] Virgil, _Aen_., VI, 129.--ED.




CHAPTER XII

NOVEMBER-DECEMBER, 1816

From Rome to Florence--Sismondi the historian--Reminiscences of
India--Lucca--Princess Elisa Baciocchi--Pisa--The Campo Santo--Leghorn--
Hebrews in Leghorn--Lord Dillon--The story of a lost glove--From Florence
to Lausanne by Milan, Turin and across Mont Cenis--Lombardy in winter--The
Hospice of Mont Cenis.


FLORENCE, Novr. 20th.

I bade adieu to Rome on the 28th October and returned here by the same road
I went, viz., by Radicofani and Sienna. I arrived here after a journey of
six days, having been detained one day at Aquapendente on account of the
swelling of the waters. The day after my arrival here I despatched a letter
to Pescia to Mr Sismondi de' Sismondi, the celebrated author of the history
of the Italian Republics, to inform him of my intended visit to him, and I
forwarded to him at the same time two letters of introduction, one from
Colonel Wardle and the other from Mr Piton, banker at Geneva, who mentioned
me in his letter to Sismondi as having _des idees parfaitement analogues
aux siennes_. I received a most friendly answer inviting me to come to
Pescia and to pass a few days with him at his villa. Pescia is thirty miles
distant from Florence and the same from Leghorn. I was delighted with the
opportunity of seeing a man whom I esteemed so much as an author and as a
citizen, and of visiting at the same time the different cities of Tuscany,
particularly Lucca and Pisa. I accordingly hired a cabriolet and on the
morning of the 6th Novr drove to Prato, a good-sized handsome town, solidly
built, ten miles distant from Florence. The country on each side of the
road appears highly cultivated, and the road is lined with villas and farm
houses with gardens nearly the whole way. Changing horses at Prato, I
proceeded ten miles further to Pistoia, a large elegant and well-built town
on the banks of the Ombrone.

The streets in Pistoia are broad and well paved and the _Palazzo pubblico_
is a striking building; so is the _Seminario_ or College. Here I changed
horses again and proceeded to Pescia, where I alighted at the villa of M.
Sismondi. The distance between Pistoia and Pescia is about ten or eleven
miles.

Pescia is a beautiful little town, very clean and solidly built, lying in a
valley surrounded nearly on all sides by mountains. Its situation is
extremely romantic and picturesque, and there are several handsome villas
on the slopes and summits of these mountains. On market days Pescia is
crowded with the country people who flock hither from all parts, and one is
astonished to see such a number of beautiful and well dressed country
girls. Industry and comfort are prevalent here, as is the case indeed all
over Tuscany; I mean agricultural industry, for commerce is just now at a
stand.

I passed three most delightful days and which will live for ever in my
recollection, with Mr Sismondi, in whom I found an inexhaustible fund of
talent and information, combined with such an unassuming simplicity of
character and manner that he appeared to me by far the most agreeable
litterary man that I ever met with. His mother, who is a lady of great
talent and perfectly conversant in English litterature, resides with him.
His sister also is settled at Pescia, being married to a Tuscan gentleman
of the name of Forti. The sister has a full share of the talents and
amiable qualities of her mother and brother. With a family of such
resources as this, you may suppose our conversation did not flag for a
moment, nor do I recollect in the course of my whole life having passed
such a pleasant time; and I only wished that the three days could be
prolonged to three years. Politics, the occurrences of the day, living
characters, classical reminiscences, French, English, Italian and German
litterature, afforded us an inexhaustible variety of topics for
conversation: and the profound local knowledge that Mr Sismondi possesses
of Italy, of its history and antiquities, renders his communications of the
utmost value to the traveller. Our supper was prolonged to a late hour and
I question if the suppers and conversations of Scipio and Atticus, those
_nodes caenaeque Deum_[100] were more piquant or afforded more variety than
ours. Shakespeare, Schiller, Voltaire, Ariosto, Dante, Filangieri, Michel
Angelo, Washington, Napoleon, all furnished anecdotes and reflexions in
abundance.

The last evening that I passed here, two families of Pescia came in. One of
the gentlemen was a great reader of voyages and travels, and India suddenly
became the subject of discourse. As I had passed six years in that country,
during which time I had visited the three Presidencies of Calcutta, Madras,
and Bombay, having ascended the Ganges as far as Benares, having visited
the Mysore country and Nizam's territory, having sojourned three weeks
among the splendid and magnificent ruins of Bijanagur or Bisnagar, having
travelled thro' the whole of the Deccan from Pondicherry to cape Comorin,
besides having traversed on horseback the whole circumference of Ceylon and
across the whole island from East to West by the Wanny, I was enabled to
furnish them with many an anecdote from the Eastern world, which to them
was a great treat, and I dare say at times my narration appeared almost as
marvellous as a story in the Arabian Nights, particularly when I related
the various religious ceremonies, the grim Idol of Juggernaut, the swinging
to _recover cast_, the exposure of old people to the holy death in the
Ganges by stopping up their nose, mouth and ears with mud, and placing them
on the water's edge at low tide in order that they should be swept off at
the high water; the holy city of Benares; the magnificent remains of
Bisnagar; the splendid Pagodas of Ramisseram; the policy of the Bramins;
the appalling voluntary penances of the _Joguis_ or _Fakirs_ as the
Europeans call them; the bed of spikes; the arm held up in the air for
fifteen years; the tiger hunt; the method of catching the elephant in
Ceylon; the pearl fishery; Sepoy establishment; in short I must have
appeared to them a Ulysses or a Sindbad, and I dare say that they thought I
added from time to time a little embellishment from my imagination, tho' I
can safely and solemnly aver that I did not extenuate nor exaggerate any
thing, but simply related what I had myself seen and witnessed.

Mr Sismondi is under a sort of banishment from his native country Geneva in
consequence of the side of the question he took in his writings on the
return of the Emperor Napoleon from Elba. It was indeed natural for the
restored government (the Bourbons) to desire the removal from France of a
man of talent who had exposed their past and might scrutinize their future
conduct and wilful faults; but why the Government of Geneva should espouse
their quarrel and visit one of their most estimable citizens with
banishment for opinions not at all connected with nor influential upon
Geneva, appears to me not only absurd and anomalous, but unjust in the
highest degree. But such is the state of degradation to which Europe is
reduced by the triumph of the old _regime_; and the Swiss Governments are
compelled to become the instruments of the vengeance of the coalition. But
I shall dwell no more on this subject at present. Let us hope that in a
short time a more liberal spirit will arise, and the Genevese will be eager
to recall in triumph the illustrious citizen of whom they have so much
reason to be proud.

We spent our mornings, Mr Sismondi and I, in promenades towards the most
striking points of the country immediately environing Pescia, and as I had
at this time some idea of coming to settle in Tuscany, he was so kind as to
conduct me to look at several villas that were to let; and I inspected
three very beautiful ones well furnished and each capable of holding a
large family, that were to be let for 18, 20, and 24 _louis d'or_ per
annum.

Wine and every article of life is of prodigious cheapness here, and the
inhabitants are so respectable, and there is such an absence of all crime,
that Pescia must be a very desirable and economical residence for any
foreign family possessing a sufficient knowledge of Italian to mix with the
society of the natives. There are several ancient and noble families in the
neighbourhood, highly respectable in point of moral character and manners,
but rather in _decadence_ in point of fortune.

It was with the greatest regret that I bade adieu to the amiable Sismondi,
his mother and sister; but I hope for a time only, as I have some idea of
removing my domicile from Lausanne to this part of the world.

I started at 10 o'clock a.m. on the 11th of November and after two hours'
journey in a cabriolet arrived at Lucca, a distance of ten miles, and put
up at the _Hotel del Pelicano._ The road runs thro' a highly cultivated
country.

Lucca is a large fortified city, situated hi a beautifully luxuriant plain
or basin surrounded on all sides by hills and mountains of various slopes,
contours and heights, and abounding in villas, vineyards, mulberry and
olive plantations. Every spot of ground is in cultivation and the industry
of the inhabitants of Lucca is proverbial. Indeed the whole territory of
this little _ci-devant_ Republic is a perfect paradise.

The city itself, from the massiveness and solidity of the edifices, has
more of a solemn than a lively appearance; but there is a delightful walk
on the ramparts which are lined with trees. The streets are well paved. The
extreme antiquity of the city and style of its edifices make it appear less
_riani_ than the other cities in Tuscany. The Cathedral is Gothic and there
are in it the statues of the four Evangelists. This and the _Palazzo
Pubblico_ are the most conspicuous edifices. Tho' the Republic is
annihilated, the word _Libertas_ still remains on an escutcheon on the
gates of the city. Lucca, tho' no longer a Republic and enclavee in
Tuscany, is for the present an independent state and belongs to an Infanta
of Spain (formerly Princess of Parma) who takes the title of Duchess of
Lucca. It is generally supposed however that on the demise of Maria Louisa,
ex-Empress of the French and now Duchess of Parma, this family, viz., the
Duchess of Lucca and her son will resume their ancient possessions in the
Parmesan, and that Lucca will then be incorporated with Tuscany.

Before the fall of Napoleon the Princess Elisa Baciocchi his sister was
sovereign of Lucca, and she it was who has embellished the outside of the
city with some beautiful promenades. She devoted her whole time, talents
and resources to the good of her subjects and is highly esteemed and much
regretted by them. The present Duchess of Lucca has no other character but
that which seems common to the Royal families of France, Spain and Naples;
viz., of being very weak and priest-ridden. Lucca furnishes excellent
female servants who are remarkable for their industry and probity. Their
only solace is their lover or _amoroso_, as they term him; and when they
enter into the service of any family, they always stipulate for one day in
the week on which they must have liberty to visit their _amoroso_, or the
_amoroso_ must be allowed to come to the house to visit them. This is an
ancient custom among them and has no pernicious consequences, nor does it
interfere with their other good qualities. At the back of Lucca is an
immense mountain which stands between it and Pisa, and intercepts the
reciprocal view of the two cities which are only ten miles distant from
each other. This mountain and its peculiarity is the very one mentioned by
Dante in his _Inferno_ in the _episode_ of Ugolino:

  _Cacciando il lupo e i lupicini_ AL MONTE,
  PER CHE i Pisan veder Lucca NON ponno.[101]

I started from Lucca in a cabriolet and in two hours arrived at Pisa,
putting up at the _Tre Donzelle_ on the Quai of the Arno. Between Lucca and
Pisa are the _Bagni di Lucca_, a favorite resort for the purpose of bathing
and drinking the mineral waters.

Pisa is one of the most beautiful cities I have seen in Italy. The extreme
elegance and comfort of the houses, the spacious Quai on the Arno which
furnishes a most agreeable promenade, the splendid style of architecture of
the _Palazzi_ and public buildings, the cleanliness of the streets, the
salubrity of the climate, the mildness of the winter, the profusion and
cheapness of all the necessaries of life, and above all the amenity and
simplicity of the inhabitants, combine to make Pisa an agreeable and
favorite residence. Yet the population having much decreased there appears
an air of melancholy stillness about the city and grass may be seen in some
of the streets. This decay in population causes lodgings to be very cheap.

The most striking object in Pisa is the leaning tower _(Torre cadente)_ and
after that the Cathedral, Baptistery, and _Campo Santo_ which are all close
to the tower and to each other. Imagine two fine Gothic Churches in a
square or place like Lincoln's Inn Fields; a large oblong building nearly
at right angles with the churches and inclosing a green grass plot in its
quadrangle and a leaning tower of cylindrical form facing the churches: and
then you will have a complete idea of this part of Pisa.

I must not omit to mention that there is a breed of camels here belonging
to the Grand Duke; I believe it is the only part of Europe except Turkey
where the breed of camels is attempted to be propagated.


LEGHORN, 17 Novr.

I left Pisa for Leghorn on the morning of the 15th November, and after a
drive of two hours in a cabriolet I arrived at the latter place and put up
at the _Aquila Nera._ The distance between Pisa and Leghorn is only 10 or
11 miles and a plain with few trees, either planted in corn or in
pasturage, forms the landscape between the two cities.

Leghorn (Livorno), being a modern city, does not offer anything remarkably
interesting to the classical traveller either from its locality or its
history. Founded under the auspices of the Medici it has risen rapidly to
grandeur and opulence, and has eclipsed Genoa in commerce. It is a
remarkably handsome city, the streets being all broad and at right angles;
the _Piazze_ are large and the _Piazza Grande_ in particular is
magnificent. There is a fine broad street leading from the _Piazza Grande_
to the Port. The Port and Mole are striking objects and considerable
commercial bustle prevails there.

Among the few things worthy of particular notice is the Jewish Synagogue,
decorated with costly lamps and inscriptions in gold in the Hebrew and
Spanish languages, many of which allude to the hospitality and protection
afforded to the Hebrew nation by the Sovereigns of Tuscany. There are a
great number of Hebrew families here: they all speak Spanish, being the
descendants of those unfortunate Jews who were expelled from Spain at the
time of the expulsion of the Moors in the reign of Don Felipe III surnamed
_el Discreto_, who was determined not to suffer either a Jew, Mahometan or
heretic in all his dominions. This barbarous decree was the ruin and
destruction of a number of industrious families, thousands of whom died of
despair at being exiled from their native land. In return for this what has
Spain gained? The Inquisition--despotism in its worst form--poverty--rags
--lice--an overbearing insolent and sanguinary priesthood of whom the
monarch is either the puppet or the slave; a degraded nobility; a half
savage, grossly ignorant, lazy and brutal people. A proper judgment on the
Spanish nation for its cruelty and fanaticism! My guide at Leghorn
conducted me to see the burying ground belonging to the English factory,
which is interesting enough from the variety of tombs, monuments and
inscriptions. Here all Protestants, to whatever nation they belong, are
buried. I noticed Smollett's tomb. It is on the whole an interesting spot,
tho' not quite so much so as the cemetery of Pere La Chaise at Paris.

I returned to Florence from Leghorn _tout d'une traite_ in the diligence.
We stopped at Fornacetti (half way) to dine. There is a good _table d'Hote
(ordinario)_ there.


FLORENCE, 22nd Novr.

I have become acquainted with Lord Dillon[102] and his family, who are
residing here and from whom I have received much civility. I met at his
house the Marchese Giuliani, one of the adherents of King Joachim, a very
amiable and clever man who speaks English fluently. Lord Dillon is a man of
much reading and information and his conversation is at all times a great
treat. His lady too is very amiable and accomplished. I went one day with a
friend of mine to a _pique-nique_ party at the Cascino, where a laughable
adventure occurred perfectly in the stile of the _novelle_ of Boccacio. As
it is not the custom in Florence that husbands and wives should go together
to places of public amusement, the lady is generally accompanied by her
_cavalier servente:_ but it by no means follows that the _cavalier
servente_ is the favored lover: one is often adopted as a cover to another
who enjoys the peculiar favors of the lady. A gentleman who arrived at the
hall where the supper table was laid out, somewhat earlier than the rest of
the company and before the chamber was lighted, observed a gentleman and
lady ascend the staircase, turn aside by a corridor and enter a chamber
together. It was dark and he could not distinguish their persons. He waited
fifteen or twenty minutes and observed them leave the chamber together,
pass along the corridor and disappear. He had the curiosity to go into the
chamber they had just left and found on the bed a lady's glove. He took up
the glove and put it in his pocket, determined that this incident should
afford him some amusement at supper and the company also by putting some
fair one to the blush. Accordingly, when the supper was nearly over, he
held up the glove and asked with a loud voice if any lady had lost a glove;
when his own wife who was sitting at the same table at some distance from
him called out with the utmost _sangfroid: E il mio! dammelo: l'ho lasciato
cadere._ You may conceive what a laugh there was against him, for he had
related the circumstances of his finding it to several of the company
before they sat down to supper. This reminded me of an anecdote mentioned
by Brantome as having occurred at Milan in his time, a glove being in this
case also the cause of the _desagrement_. A married lady had been much
courted by a Spanish Cavalier of the name of Leon: one day, thinking he had
made sure of her, he followed her into her bedroom, but met with a severe
and decided repulse and was compelled to leave her _re infecta_. In his
confusion he left one of his gloves on the bed which remained there
unperceived by the lady. The husband of the lady arrived shortly afterwards
and as he was aware of the attentions of the Spaniard to his wife and had
noticed his going into the house, he went directly to his wife's chamber,
where the first thing that captivated his attention was a man's military
glove on the bed. He, however, said nothing, but from that moment abstained
from all conjugal duty. The lady finding herself thus neglected by a
husband who had been formerly tender and attentive, was at a loss to know
the reason, and determined to come to an _eclaircissement_ with him in as
delicate a manner as she could. She therefore took a slip of paper, wrote
the following lines thereon and placed it on his table:

  _Vigna era, vigna son;
  Era podada, or piu non son;
  E non so per qual cagion
  Non mi poda il mio patron._[103]

The husband, on reading these lines, wrote the following in answer:

  _Vigna eri, vigna sei;
  Eri podada, e piu non sei;
  Per la gran fa del Leon
  Non ti poda il tuo patron._

The lady on reading these lines perceived at once the cause of her
husband's estrangement and succeeded in explaining the matter
satisfactorily to him, which was facilitated by the ingenuous declaration
of Leon himself that he had tried to succeed but had been repulsed. The
husband and wife being perfectly reconciled lived happily and no doubt the
vine was cultivated as usual.

I left Florence the 27th November, and arrived at Turin 5th December. In an
evil hour I engaged myself to accompany an old Swiss Baroness with whom I
became acquainted at the Hotel of Mine Hembert to accompany her to Turin.
She had with her her son, a fine boy of thirteen years of age but very much
spoiled. We engaged a _vetturino_ to conduct us to Turin, stopping one day
at Milan. The Baroness did not speak Italian and generally sent for me to
interpret for her when any disputes occurred between her and the people at
the inns, and these disputes were tolerably frequent, as she always gave
the servants wherever she stopped a good deal of trouble and on departing
generally forgot to give them the _buona grazia._ I sometimes paid them for
her myself in order to avoid noise and tumult; at other times we departed
under vollies of abuse and imprecations such as _brutta vecchia, maladetta
carogna,_ and so forth. The Baroness had strong aristocratic prejudices and
was a bitter enemy of the French Revolution to which she attributed
collectively all the _desagremens_ she had experienced during life and all
the inconveniences she met with during our present journey. The negligence
and impertinence of the servants in Italy were invariably attributed by her
to the revolutionary principle and she told me that the servants in her
native canton Bern were the best in the world, but that even in them the
French Revolution had made a great deal of difference and that they were
not so submissive as they used to be. As she sent for me to be her dragoman
in all her disputes on the road, you may conceive how glad I was to arrive
at Turin to be rid of her. She put me in mind of Gabrina in the _Orlando
Furioso._ We stopped one day at Milan but we were very near being detained
two or three days at Fiacenza owing to an informality in the Baroness's
passport, which had not been vise by the Austrian Legation at Florence. In
vain she pleaded that she was told at the inn at Florence that such _visa_
was not necessary; the police officer at the Austrian _Douane_, at a short
distance beyond Piacenza, was inexorable and refused to _viser_ her
passport to allow her to proceed. She was in a sad dilemma and it was
thought we should be obliged to remain at Piacenza. I however recommended
her to be guided by me and not to talk with or scold anybody, and that I
would ensure her arrival at Milan without difficulty, for I had observed
that her scolding the officer at the _Douane_ only served to make him more
obstinate. I recommended her therefore that when we should arrive within
sixty or seventy paces of the gate at Milan, she should get out of the
carriage with her son and walk thro' the gate on foot with the utmost
unconcern as if she belonged to the town and was returning from a
promenade; and that while they stopped us who were in the carriage to
examine our passports, she should walk direct to the inn where we were to
lodge, then write to the Consul of her nation to explain the business. She
followed my advice and passed unobserved and unmolested into Milan. On the
preceding evening at Castel-puster-lengo at supper I asked whether she
thought the rigour of the Austrian government was also the offspring of the
French Revolution. The Baroness had brought up her son in all these
feelings and particularly in a determined hatred of the Canton de Vaud; for
in the evening when we arrived at the inn and were sitting round the fire,
he would shake the burning faggots about and say: _Voila la ville de
Lausanne en cendres!_ If he grows up with these ideas and acts upon them,
he stands a good chance of being shot in a duel by some Vaudois. It is a
pity to see a child so spoiled, for he was a very fine boy, tho' very
violent in his temper which probably he inherited from his mother. Somebody
at the _pension Surpe_ at Milan who knew her told me that the Baroness was
of an aristocratic family and had married a rich _bourgeois_ of Bern whom
she treated rather too much _de haut en bas;_ in short that it was a
marriage quite _a la George Dandin_, till the poor man took it into his
head to die one day. At Turin we parted company, she for Genoa and I for
Lausanne.


_From Turin to Lausanne_.

I felt the cold very sensibly in the journey from Florence to Milan and
Turin. There is not a colder country in Europe than Lombardy in the winter.
The vicinity of the Alps contributes much to this; and the houses being
exceedingly large and having no stoves it is quite impossible that the
fireplaces can give heat sufficient to warm the rooms. I started from Turin
on the morning of the 9th December in the French diligence bound to Lyon,
but taking my place only as far as Chambery. In the diligence were a
Piedmontese Colonel who had served under Napoleon, and a young Scotchman, a
relation of Lord Minto. The latter was fond of excursions in ice and snow
and on our arrival at Suza he proposed to me to start from there two or
three hours before the diligence and to ascend Mont Cenis on foot as far as
the _Hospice_ and I was mad enough to accede to the proposal, for it
certainly was little less than madness in a person of my chilly habits and
susceptibility of cold and who had passed several years within the tropics
to scale the Alps on foot in the middle of December and to walk 24 miles in
snow and ice at one o'clock in the morning, which was the hour at which we
started. I was well clad in flannel and I went thro' the journey valiantly
and in high spirits and without suffering much from the cold till within
five miles of the Hospice, when a heavy snow storm came on; it then began
to look a little ugly and but for Napoleon's grand _chausses_ we were lost.
We struggled on three miles further in the snow before we fell in with a
_maison de refuge_. We knocked there and nobody answered. We then
determined _coute que coute_ to push on to the _Hospice_ which we knew
could not be more than two miles distant; indeed it was much more advisable
so to do than to run the risk of being frozen by remaining two or three
hours in the cold air till the diligence should come up. In standing still
I began to feel the cold bitterly; so in spite of the snow storm, we pushed
on and arrived at the inn at Mont-Cenis at five in the morning. We rubbed
our hands and faces well with snow and took care not to approach the fire
for several minutes, fortifying ourselves in the interim with a glass of
brandy. We then had some coffee made and laid ourselves down to sleep by
the side of an enormous fire until the diligence arrived, which made its
appearance at eight o'clock. The passengers stopped to breakfast and the
Scotchman proposed to me to make the descent of Lans-le-Bourg also on foot;
but I was quite satisfied with the prowess I had already exhibited and
declined the challenge. He however set off alone and thus performed the
entire passage of Mont Cenis on foot. As for the rest of us we were carried
down on a _traineau_; that is to say the diligence was unloaded and its
wheels taken off; the baggage and wheels were put on one _traineau_ and the
diligence with the passengers in it on another, and in this manner we
descended to Lans-le-Bourg. Nothing remarkable occurred on this journey and
we arrived at Chambery in good case. I hired a _caleche_ to go to Geneva,
remained there three days and arrived at Lausanne on the 18th December.


[100] Horace, _Sat_., II, 6, 65.--ED.

[101] Dante, _Inferno_, I, 33,29.--ED.

[102] Henry Augustus, thirteenth Viscount Dillon (1777-1832), married
    (1807) to Henrietta Browne (died 1862).--ED.

[103] Quoted from memory, with mistakes. The text has been corrected as it
    stands in Brantome, _Les Dames galantes_, ed. Chasles, vol. I, p.
    351.--ED.








AFTER
WATERLOO






PART III.




CHAPTER XIII

MARCH-SEPTEMBER, 1817

Journey from Lausanne to Clermont-Ferrand--A wretched conveyance--The
first dish of frogs--Society in Clermont-Ferrand--General de
Vergeunes--Cleansing the town--Return to Lausanne--A zealous
priest--Journey to Bern and back to Lausanne--Avenches--Lake Morat--Lake
Neufchatel--The Diet in Bern--Character of the Bernois--A beautiful
Milanese lady.

I started from Lausanne on the 4th March 1817, and arrived on the same day
at 4 o'clock at Geneva. On my arrival at Geneva, my banker informed me that
I had been denounced to the police, for some political opinions I had
spoken at the _Hotel de l'Ecu de Geneve_, previous to my journey into
Italy, and that I had been traced as far as Turin. I went directly on
hearing this to the police, and desired to know who my accusers were, and
that the accusation against me might be investigated immediately. Both
these propositions were however declined, and I was told it was an _affaire
passee_, and of no sort of consequence; so that from that day to this I
have never been able to ascertain who my friends were.

I left Lausanne with the intention of paying a visit to my friend Col.
Wardle and his family at Clermont-Ferrand, in the Department of the Puy de
Dome, in Auvergne, where they are residing. I staid three days at Geneva,
and then set off at 7 in the evening on the 8th March with the Courier for
Lyons.

I never regretted any thing so much, and was near paying severely for my
rashness in putting myself into such a wretched conveyance, at such a
season of the year; but I had made the agreement with the Courier without
inspecting his carriage, and was obliged to adhere to the bargain. It was a
vehicle entirely open before; it was a bitter cold, rainy, snowy night; and
I had the rain and snow in my face the whole way, and on crossing the
Cerdon I was seized with a violent ague fit, and suffered so much from it
that on arrival at a village beyond Nantua where we stopped for supper, I
determined to proceed no further, but to rest there that night; and I asked
the innkeeper if he could furnish me with a bed for the night. He however
made so many objections and seemed so unwilling that I should remain, that
I was obliged to make up my mind to proceed. I allayed the _frissonnement_
by a large glass of brandy and water, made fiery hot. At eight o'clock next
morning I arrived at Lyons, more dead than alive. A warm bath, however,
remaining in bed the whole day, buried in blankets, abstaining from all
food, a few grains of calomel at night and copious libations of rice gruel
the next day restored me completely to health; and after a _sejour_ of four
days at Lyons, I was enabled to proceed on my journey to Clermont on the
14th March. We arrived at Roanne in the evening and I stopped there the
whole night.

Between Lyons and Roanne is the mountain of Tarare where the road is cut
right athwart the mountain and is consequently terribly steep; indeed it is
the steepest ascent for a carriage I ever beheld. All the passengers were
obliged to _bundle out_ and ascend on foot; and even then it is a most
arduous _montee_ for such a cumbrous machine as a French diligence.

The country between Lyons and Roanne appears diversified; but this is not
the season for enjoying the beauties of nature. Roanne consists of one
immensely long street, but it is broad, and contains excellently built
houses and shops. There is a theatre also and baths. It is situated on the
Loire which I now salute for the first time.

The following morning at nine o'clock a _patache_ (a sort of two wheeled
carriage) was in waiting to convey me the remainder of my journey; and I
arrived at night at a large village or town called Thiers. Halfway between
Roanne and Thiers, on stopping at a small village to dine, I observed a
dish of frogs at the kitchen fire at the inn; and as it was the first time
I had observed them as an article of food in France, I was desirous to
taste them. They were dressed in a _fricassee_ of white sauce, and I found
them excellent. The legs only are used. They would be delicious as a curry.
The next morning we continued our journey; and crossing the river Allier at
twelve o'clock, arrived at Clermont-Ferrand at 2 p.m., and dined with Col.
Wardle. Clermont and Ferrand are two towns within a mile and half distant
from each other and this Clermont is generally called Clermont-Ferrand to
distinguish it from other towns of the same name.


CLERMONT, March 26th.

I have taken lodgings for a month, and board with a French family for 90
franks per month. On the road hither the immense mountain called the Puy de
Dome is discernible at a great distance; it is said to have been a volcano.

Clermont is a very ancient city and has an air of dullness; but the _Place_
and promenades round the town are excellent. It is the capital of this
department (Puy de Dome). There is a terrible custom here of emptying the
_aguas mayores y menores_ (as the Spaniards term those secretions) into the
small streets that lie at the back of the houses. The consequence is that
they are clogged up with filth and there is always a most abominable
stench. One must be careful how one walks thro' these streets at night,
from the liability of being saluted by a golden shower. The lower classes
of the Auvergnats have the reputation of being dirty, slovenly and idle.

Here is a church built by the English in the time of Edward III, when the
Black Prince commanded in this country; and it was in a chapel in this
city, the remains of which still exist, that Peter the Hermit preached the
first crusade. These are almost the only things worthy of remark in the
town itself, except that there is a good deal of commerce carried on,
manufactures of crockery, cloth and silk stockings. But in the natural
curiosities of the environs of Clermont there is a great deal to interest
the botanist and mineralogist and above all there is a remarkable
petrifying well, very near the town, where by leaving pieces of wood,
shell-fish and other articles exposed to the dropping of the water, they
become petrified in a short time. This water has the same effect on dead
animals and rapidly converts them into stone. I have myself seen a small
basket filled with plovers' eggs become in eight days a perfect
petrifaction.


CLERMONT, April 2d.

I am arrived here at rather a dull season: the Carnaval is just over and
all the young ladies are taking to their _Livres d'Heures_ to atone for any
levity or indiscretion they may have been guilty of during the hey day of
the Carnaval. The Wardle family have a very pleasant acquaintance here,
chiefly among the _liberaux_, or moderate royalists, but there are some
most inveterate _Ultras_ in this city, who keep aloof from any person of
liberal principles, as they would of a person infected with the plague. The
noblesse of Auvergne have the reputation of being in general ignorant and
despotic. There is but little _agrement_ or instruction to be derived from
their society, for they have not the ideas of the age. In general the
nobles of Auvergne, tho' great sticklers for feudality and for their
privileges, and tho' they disliked the Revolution, had the good sense not
to emigrate.

There is a Swiss regiment of two battalions quartered here. It bears the
name of its Colonel, De Salis. As there are a number of officers of the old
army here, on half pay, about three hundred in number, it is said, frequent
disputes occur between them and the Swiss officers. The Swiss are looked
upon by the people at large as the satellites of despotism and not without
reason. It is, I think, degrading for any country to have foreign troops in
pay in time of peace. Several attempts have been made in the Chamber of
Deputies to obtain their removal or _licenciement_, but without success. As
it is supposed that the song of the _Ranz des Vaches_ affects the
sensibility of the Swiss very much, and makes them long to return to their
native mountains, a wag has recommended to all the young ladies in France
who are musicians to play and sing the _Ranz des Vaches_ with all their
might, in order to induce the Swiss to betake themselves to their native
country.

There has been a great deal of denunciation going forward here; but the
General de V----[104] who commands the troops in Clermont, determined to
put a stop to it. He had the good sense to see that such a system, if
encouraged, would be destructive of all society, prejudicial to the
Government, and vexatious to himself; as he would be thereby kept
continually in hot water. Accordingly, on a delator presenting himself and
accusing another of not being well affected to the present order of things,
and of having spoken disrespectfully of the King, M. de V---- said to him:
"I have no doubt, Sir, that your denunciation proceeds from pure motives,
and I give you full credit for your zeal and attachment to the royal cause;
but I cannot take any steps against the person whom you accuse, unless you
are willing to give me leave to publish your name and consent to be
confronted with him, so that I may examine fairly the state of the case,
and render justice to both parties." The accuser declined acceding to this
proposition. The General desired him to withdraw, and shortly after
intimated publicly that he would listen to no denunciation, unless the
denouncer gave up his name and consented to be confronted with the accused.
The consequence of this intimation was that all denunciations ceased. The
late Prefect however was not so prudent, and chose rather to encourage
delation; but mark the consequence! He arrested several persons wrongfully,
was obliged to release them afterwards, was in continual hot water and it
ended by the Government being obliged to displace him. To avoid the merited
vengeance of many individuals whom he had ill-treated, he was obliged, on
giving up his prefecture, to make a precipitate retreat from Clermont. The
delators attempted the same system with the new Prefect and Col. Wardle,
having invited some of the Swiss officers to a ball, to which were likewise
invited people of all opinions, an information was lodged against him,
purporting that he wanted to corrupt the Swiss officers from their
allegiance. The Prefect sent the letter to Col. Wardle and said that it had
not made the slightest impression on his mind, and that he treated it as a
malicious report. The new Prefect adopted the same system as the General
and tranquillity is since perfectly restored.

Things have been taking a better turn since the dissolution of the _Chambre
introuvable_. Decazes, the present minister, is an able man, and if he is
not _contrarie_ by the _Liberaux_, he will keep the fanatical _Ultras_ in
good order. The Bishop of Clermont is a liberal man also, and as it seems
the wish of the present public functionaries here to conciliate, it is to
be hoped that their example will not be lost on the _bons vieux
gentilshommes_ of Auvergne.

I find an inexhaustible fund of entertainment from the conversation of M.
C----. He has so many interesting anecdotes to relate respecting the French
Revolution. With regard to his present occupations, which are directed
towards rural economy, he tells me that he has succeeded in a plan of
cleansing the town from its Augean filth, and making it very profitable to
himself; and that he calculates to obtain a revenue thereby of twenty
thousand franks annually. He has, in short, undertaken to be the grand
_scavenger_ of the town, and the Government, in addition to a salary of
2,500 francs per annum, which they give him for his trouble, give to him
the exclusive privilege of removing all the dung he can collect in the
precincts of the city, and of converting it to his own advantage. He began
by fitting up a large enclosure, walled on each side, and in which he
deposits all the filth he can collect in the stables, yards and streets of
Clermont. He sends his carts round the town every morning to get them
loaded. All their contents are brought to this repository, and shot out
there. Straw is then placed over this dung, and then earth or soil
collected from gullies and ravines, and this arranged _stratum super
stratum_, till it forms an immense compact cake of rich compost; and when
it has filled one of the yards and has completed a thickness of five feet,
he sells it to the farmers, who send their carts to carry it off. He has
divided this enclosure or repository into three or four compartments. The
compost therefore is prepared, and ready to be carried off in one yard,
while the others are filling. In this he has rendered a great benefit to
the public, for the Auvergnats are incurable in their custom of emptying
their _pots de chambre_ out of the windows; so that the streets every
morning are in a terrible state: but thanks to the industry of C---- his
cars go round to collect the precious material, and all is cleared away by
twelve o'clock. He collects bones too, and offal to add to the compost. He
conducted me to see his premises; but the odour was too strong....

I returned to Lausanne by the same route, leaving Clermont on the 6th
April, staying four days at Lyons and as many at Geneva. Young Wardle
accompanied me. We met with no other adventure on the road than having a
young Catholic priest, fresh from the seminary, for our travelling
companion, from Thiers to Roanne. This young man wished to convert Wardle
and myself to Catholicism.

Among many arguments that he made use of was that most silly one, which has
been so often sported by the Catholic theologians, viz.: that it is much
safer to be a Catholic than a Protestant, inasmuch as the Catholics do not
allow that any person can be saved out of the pale of their church, whereas
the Protestants do allow that a Catholic may be saved. I answered him that
this very argument made more against Catholicism than any other, and that
this intolerant spirit would ever prevent me (even had such an idea entered
into my head) of embracing such a religion. I then told him that, once for
all, I did not wish to enter into any theological disputes; that I had
fully made up my mind on these subjects; and that I would rather take the
opinion of a Voltaire or a Franklin on these matters than all the opinions
of all the theologians and churchmen that ever sat in council from the
Council of Nicsea to the present day. This silenced him effectually. Such
is the absurd line of conduct pursued by the Catholic priests of the
present day in France. Instead of reforming the discipline and dogmas of
their church and adapting it to the enlightened ideas of the present age,
they are sedulously employd in preaching intolerant doctrines, and reviving
absurd legends, and pretended miracles, which have been long ago consigned
to contempt and oblivion by all rational Catholics; and by this they hope
to re-establish the ecclesiastical power in its former glory and
preponderance. Vain hope! By the American and French Revolutions a great
light is gone up to the _Gentiles_. Catholicism is on its last legs, and
they might as soon attempt to replace our old friend and school
acquaintance Jupiter on the throne of heaven, as to re-establish the Papal
power in its pristine splendour; to borrow the language of the _Pilgrim's
Progress_, the Giant _Pope_ will be soon as dead as the Giant _Pagan_.

On arrival at Lyons we put up at the _Hotel du Parc_, where I found cheaper
and better entertainment than at the _Hotel du Nord_.

My friend young Wardle has fallen in love with a very beautiful _cafetiere_
at Lyons', and spends a great part of his time in the _cafe_, at which this
nymph administers, and looks at her, _sighs, looks and sighs again_. It is
not probable however that he will succeed in his suit, for she has been
courted by very many others and no one has succeeded. She remains constant
to her _good man_, and the breath of calumny has never ventured to assail
her. I met one day at Lyons with my old friend W----s of Strassburg, who
was a Lieutenant in the 25th Regiment in the French service and served in
the battle of Waterloo.[105] He is now here and being on _demi-solde_,
employs himself in a mercantile house here as principal commis. He dined
with us and we passed a most pleasant day together.

I arrived on the 20th April at Lausanne.

       *       *       *       *       *

After remaining some weeks, at Lausanne on my return from Clermont, I
determind on making a pedestrian trip as far as Bern and Neufchatel
previous to returning into Italy, which it is my intention to do in
September. I sent on my portmanteau accordingly to Payerne near Avenches,
intending to pay a visit and pass three days with my friend, the Revd. Mr.
J[omini],[106] the rector of the parish there, from whom I had received a
pressing invitation. I was acquainted at Lausanne with his daughter, Mme
C----, and was much pleased in her society. She had great talent of
conversation, and I never in my life met with a lady possessed of so much
historical knowledge. I started on the 27th June from Lausanne, passed the
first night at Mondon and the next afternoon arrived at Avenches, the
_Aventicum_ of the ancient Romans. Payerne is only a mile distant from
Avenches, and I was received with the utmost cordiality by the worthy
pastor and his daughter. The scenery on the road to Avenches is very like
the scenery in all the rest of the Canton de Vaud, viz., alternate mountain
and valley, lofty trees, and every spot capable of cultivation bearing some
kind of produce; corn just ready for the sickle and fruit such as cherries
and strawberries in full bloom. Avenches has an air of great antiquity and
looks very gloomy withal, which forms a striking contrast to the neat, well
built towns and villages of this Canton on the banks of the lake Leman
where everything appears so stirring and cheerful. Avenches, on the
contrary, is very dull, and there is little society.

At Mr. J[omini] there were, besides his daughter, his son and his son's
wife. All the _ministres_ (for such is the word in use to designate
Protestant clergymen and you would give great offence were you to call them
_pretres_) have a fixed salary of 100L sterling per annum, with a house and
ground attached to the cure; so that by farming a little they can maintain
then? families creditably. M. Jomini lost his wife some time ago, and still
remains a widower.

I left Payerne on the fifth of July and walked to the _campagne_ of M. de
T[reytorre]us,[107] situated on the banks of the lake Morat. It is a very
pretty country house, spacious and roomy, and I was received with the
utmost cordiality by M. de T[reytorrens] and his amiable family. He is a
very opulent proprietor in this part of the country, and has spent part of
his life in England. He is a dignified looking man, a little too much
perhaps of the old school and no friend to the innovations and changes
arising from the French Revolution. Having lived much among the Tory
nobility of England, he has imbibed their ideas and views of things. His
son is now employed in one of the public offices in London. His wife and
three daughters, one of whom is married to a _ministre_, dwell with him.
With this family I passed three days in the most agreeable manner. I find
the style and manner of living of the _noblesse_ (or country gentlemen, as
we should style them) of Switzerland very comfortable, in every sense of
the word. I wish my friends the French would take more to a country life,
it would essentially benefit the nation. The way of living in M. de
T[reytorre]us family is as follows. A breakfast of coffee and bread and
butter is served up to each person separately in their own room, or in the
_Salle a manger_, Before dinner every one follows his own avocation or
amusement. At one, the family assemble to dinner which generally consist of
soup, _bouilli, entrees_ of fish, flesh and fowl, _entremets_ of
vegetables, a _roti_ of butcher's meat, fowl or game, pastry and desert.
The wine of the country is drunk at dinner as a table wine, and _old_ wines
of the country or wines of foreign growth are handed round to each guest
during the desert. After dinner coffee and liqueurs are served. After an
hour's conversation or repose, promenades are proposed which occupy the
time till dusk. Music, cards or reading plays fill up the rest of the
evening, till supper is announced at nine o'clock, which is generally as
substantial as the dinner.

On taking leave of Mr. de T[reytorre]ns' family I walked to the banks of
the lake Neufchatel, having a stout fellow with me to carry my _sac-de
nuit_. On arrival at the lake I crossed over in a boat to Neufchatel, which
lies on the other side. I remained there the whole of the day. It is a very
pretty neat little city, in a romantic position. Its government is a
complete anomaly. Neufchatel forms a component part of the Helvetic
confederacy, and yet the inhabitants are vassals of the King of Prussia,
and the aristocracy are proud of this badge of servitude. The King of
Prussia however does not at all interfere with its internal government, and
his supremacy is in no other respects useful to him than in giving him a
slight revenue. French is the language spoken in the canton. There is a
marked distinction of rank all over Switzerland, except in Geneva, Vaud and
the small democratic cantons such as Zug and Schwytz, where it is merely
nominal. In short, tranquillity is the order of the day. Each rank respects
the privileges of the other and the peasant, however rich, is not at all
disposed to vary from his usual mode of life or to ape the noble; and
hence, tho' sumptuary laws are no longer in force, they continue so
virtually and the peasantry in all the German cantons adhere strictly to
the national costume.


BERN, 14 July.

I put myself in the diligence that plies between Neufchatel and Bern at
nine p.m., on the 12 July, and the following morning put up at the _Crown
Inn_ in the city of Bern, in the _Pays Allemand_, whereas the French
cantons are termed the _Pays Romand_. Bern is a remarkably elegant city as
much so as any in Italy, and much cleaner withal. The streets are broad,
and in most of them are _trottoirs_ under arcades. There are a great number
of book-sellers here, and the best editions of the German authors are to be
procured very cheap. Bern is situated on an eminence forming almost an
island as it were in the middle of the river Aar; steep ravines are on all
sides of it; and there is a bridge over the Aar to keep up the
communication; and as the borders of the island, on which the city stands,
are very steep, a zig-zag road, winding along the ravines, brings you to
the city gates. These gates are very superb. On each side of the gates are
two enormous white stone bears, the emblems of the tutelary genius of this
city. The houses are very lofty and solidly built. The promenades in the
environs of Bern are the finest I have seen anywhere, and the grounds
allotted to this purpose are very tastefully laid out. These promenades are
paved with gravel and cut thro' the forests, that lie on the _coteaux_ and
ravines on the other side of the Aar. There are several neat villas in the
neighbourhood of these promenades, and there are _cafes_ and _restaurants_
for those who chuse to refresh themselves. Such is the beauty of these
walks, that one feels inclined to pass the whole day among them. They are
laid out in such variety, and are so multiplied, that you often lose your
way; you are sure however to be brought up by a _point de vue_ at one or
other of the angles of the zig-zag; and this serves as a guide _pour vous
orienter_, as the French say. Another favorite promenade is a garden, in
the town itself, that environs the whole city from which and from the
superb terrace of the Cathedral you have a magnificent view of the glaciers
that tower above the Grindelwald and Lauterbrunn. The immense forests that
are in the neighbourhood of Bern form a striking contrast with the
cornfields in the vallies and on the _coteaw._ There are but few vineyards
in the neighbourhood of Bern.


BERN, 16 July.

The Diet is held this year in Bern and it is now sitting. I have met with
the two Deputies of the Canton de Vaud, MM. P----- and M-----. I am glad to
hear from them that the animosity existing between the two cantons of Bern
and Vaud is beginning to subside. M. P------ has made a most able and
conciliating speech at the Diet. Still there is a good deal of jealousy
rankling in the breast of the Bern _noblesse_ and the _avulsumimperium_ is
a very sore subject with them. I recollect once at Lausanne meeting with a
young man of one of the principal families of Bern, who had been hi the
English service. The conversation happened to turn on the emancipation of
the Canton de Vaud from the domination of Bern, when the young man became
perfectly furious and insisted that the Vaudois had no right whatever to
their liberty, for that the Canton of Bern had purchased the province of
Vaud from the Dukes of Savoy. _"En un mot" (said he), "ils sont nos
esclaves, nos ilotes et ils sont aussi clairement notre propriete que les
negres de la Jamaique le sont de leurs maitres"_

A very harsh measure has lately been passed in the Diet, evidently
suggested by the aristocracy of Bern, which tended to fine and punish those
Swiss officers who remained in Prance to serve under Napoleon after his
return from Elba, and who did not obey the order of the Diet which recalled
them. A very able objection has been made to this measure in a _brochure,_
wherein it is stated that many of these officers had no means of living
out of France and that, on a former occasion, when a number of Swiss
officers were serving the English Government and were employed in America
in the war against the United States in 1812 and 1818, the Diet, then under
Napoleon's influence, issued a decree recalling them and commanding them to
quit the English service forthwith. This they refused to do and continued
to serve. No notice whatever was taken of this act of disobedience, when
they returned to their native country on being disbanded in 1814, and they
were very favourably received. Why then, says the author of this pamphlet,
is a similar act of disobedience to pass unnoticed in one instance and to
be so severely punished in another? Or do you wish to prove that your
vengeance is directed only against those who remained in France, to fight
for its liberties, when invaded by a foreign foe, while those who remained
in America to fight against the liberties and existence of the American
Republic you have received with applause and congratulation? Is such
conduct worthy of Republicans? O, fie!

Such an argument is in my opinion convincing for all the world except for
an English Tory, a French _Ultra_ or a Bern Oligarch.

The Arsenal here is well worth seeing; here is a superb collection of
ancient armour, much of which were the spoils of the Austrian and
Burgundian chivalry, who fell in their attempts to crush Helvetic liberty.

By way of shewing how fond the Bernois are of old institutions and customs,
they have been at the trouble to catch three or four bears and keep them in
a walled pit in the city, where they are well fed and taken care of. The
popular superstition is that the bears entertained in this manner
contribute to the safety of the commonwealth; and this establishment
continued ever in full force, until the dissolution of the old Confederacy
took place and the establishment in its place of the Helvetic Republic
under the influence of the French directorial government. The custom, then,
appearing absurd and useless, was abolished, and the bears were sold. But
since the peace of 1814 other bears have been caught and are nourishd, as
the former ones were, at the expence of the state.

Bern derives its name from _Bueren_, the German word for _Bears_ (plural
number). Only the French spell _Berne_, with an _e_ at the end of it.

There are no theatrical amusements going forward here. Cards and now and
then a little music form the evening recreations.

In the inn at Bern I became acquainted with a most delightful Milanese lady
and her son. Her name is L------; she is the widow of an opulent banker at
Milan and has a large family of children. She was about thirty-eight years
of age and is still a remarkably handsome woman. Time has made very little
impression on her and she unites very pleasing manners with a great taste
for litterature. She is greatly proficient in the English language and
litterature, which she understands thoroughly, tho' she speaks it with
difficulty. She is an enthusiastic admirer of Shakespeare, Milton and
Byron. She had been to Zurich for her son, who was employed in a commercial
house there, in order to take him back with her into Italy. She spoke
French as well as Italian, and her son had a very good knowledge of German.
She offered me a seat in her carriage, on the understanding that I was
going to Lausanne, where she intended to stop a day or two. An offer of the
kind made by so elegant and fascinating a woman you may be assured I did
not scruple to accept, and I was in hopes of improving on this acquaintance
and renewing it at Milan. Indeed, did not business oblige me to remain some
weeks at Lausanne, I should certainly offer my services to escort her all
the way to Milan. She had letters of introduction for Lausanne, and during
her stay there I acted as her _cicerone_, to point out the most interesting
objects and points of view, which the place affords.


[104] Louis Charles Joseph Gravier, vicomte de Vergennes d'Alonne, was the
    son of the Comte de Vergennes, who was minister under the reign of
    Louisi XVI. Born at Constantinople in 1766, he took service at the
    early age of thirteen, was promoted captain in 1782 and colonel in
    1788. Having emigrated in 1791, he served in Conde's army, then took
    service in England from 1795 to 1797. On the 3rd March, 1815, he
    re-entered the army as "marechal de camp," and, on the 2nd November of
    that same year, was promoted general commander of the department of
    Puy de Dome. He retired on the 8th March, 1817, and seems to have been
    much regretted at Clermont. Died 1821.--ED.

[105] Jean Francois Wlnkens, born at Aix-la-Chapelle In 1790, is mentioned
    in the records of the French War Office as having served in the 25th
    Regiment at Waterloo. His family may have belonged to Strassburg.--ED.

[106] Pierre Jacques Jomini, Protestant minister at Avenches from 1808 to
    1819.--ED.

[107] The Treytorrens family, of old nobility and fame, now extinct,
    possessed a large estate at Guevaux, on the borders of the lake of
    Morat.--ED.




CHAPTER XIV

SEPTEMBER 1817-APRIL 1818

Journey from Lausanne to Milan, Florence, Rome and Naples--Residence at
Naples--The theatre of San Carlo--Rossini's operas--Gaming in Naples--The
_Lazzaroni_--Public writers--Carbonarism--Return to Rome--Christmas eve at
Santa Maria Maggiore--Mme Dionigi--Theatricals--Society in Rome--The papal
government--Lucien Bonaparte, prince of Canino--Louis Napoleon, ex-King of
Holland--Pope Pius VII--Thorwaldsen--Granet--The Holy Week in Rome--The
Duchess of Devonshire--From Rome to Florence by the Perugia road.

I started from Lausanne with a party of two ladies in a Milanese _vettura_
on the morning of the 20th September. We arrived at Milan on the 25th late
in the evening. On passing the Simplon we met with three or four men who
had the appearance of soldiers, and asked for alms something in the style
of the old Spanish soldier who accosted Gil Blas on his first journey. Our
ladies were a little alarmed. On travelling over the plains of Lombardy,
one of these ladies, who had never before been out of her country
(Switzerland) and was consequently accustomed to see the horizon bounded at
a very short distance by immense mountains on all sides, was much alarmed,
on arrival at the plain, at seeing no bounds to the horizon; she was
apprehensive of _falling down_ and _rolling over_. Her remark reminded me
of one of the objections made to the project of Columbus's voyage in
discovery of a western passage to India; it was said that in consequence of
the rotundity of the earth they would roll down and never be able to get up
again. The sensation experienced by my fellow traveller, however, may be
well accounted for and explained by any one who from a plain surface
situated on a great height looks down without a railing or balcony.

These ladies were quite delighted with the splendour and bustle of Milan
and particularly when I took them to the _Scala_ theatre, where a very
splendid _Ballo_ was given, intitled _Sammi Re d'Egitto_. The scenery and
decorations were magnificent, being taken from Denon's drawings of Egyptian
views, and the costume was exceedingly appropriate. My fellow travellers
were much struck at the appearance of the horses on the stage and the
grotesque dancing. The last scene was the most magnificent. It represented
the great Pyramids, on the angles of which stood a line of soldiers from
the _base_ to the _apex_ holding lighted torches. The _coup d'oeil_ was
enchanting. I took the ladies to see my old friend Girolamo and in fine was
their _cicerone_ every where. We remained only four days at Milan and then
proceeded to Florence, where we arrived on the 7th October. We employed six
days for our journey and one day we halted at Bologna. After remaining four
days at Florence and taking the Radicofani road we arrived at Rome the 18th
October.

At Rome I met my friend P.G. and his wife who were travelling towards
Naples and I likewise made two very pleasant acquaintances, the one a
Portuguese, the other a Milanese. The Milanese is a cousin of the
Neapolitan minister Di M------; and the Portuguese (M. de N------) had been
employed by his Government in a diplomatic capacity at Vienna. At Rome I
engaged appartments from the 20th of December for three months and then
started for Naples, with the intention of passing two months there, and
returning to Rome, to be in time to witness the fete at Christmas Eve. At
Velletri I met with a Jamaica family, Mr and Mrs O------, with their
daughter and daughter-in-law; and we were strongly advised to take an
escort as far as _Torre tre ponti_, being obliged to start very early from
Velletri in order to reach Terracina before night-fall. Nothing however
occurred and we arrived at Terracina without accident. The rascally
innkeeper there made Mr O------ pay forty franks for each miserable room
that he occupied, and fifteen franks a head for his supper; he was very
insolent with all. I was rejoiced to find that in one instance he failed in
his hopes of extortion. As he is obliged by law to furnish supper and beds
at a fixed price to those who travel with _vetturini_ and are _spesati_,
he, whenever a _vetturino_ arrives locks up all his decent chambers and
says that they are engaged, in order to keep them for those travellers who
may arrive in their own carriages and whom he can fleece _ad libitum_. A
friend of mine and his lady, who were travelling in their own carriage,
had, in order to avoid this extortion, engaged with a _vetturino_ to
conduct them from Naples to Rome with _his horses_, but their own carriage,
and, had stipulated to be _spesati_. Mine host of Terracina, seeing a smart
carriage drive up, ordered one of his best rooms to be got ready, ushered
them in himself and returnd in half an hour to ask what they would have for
supper; when to his great astonishment and mortification, they referred him
for the arrangement of the supper to the _vetturino_, saying that they were
_spesati_. He then began to curse and swear, said that they should not have
that room, and wanted to turn them out of it forcibly; but my friend Major
G---- took up one of his pistols, which were lying on the table, and told
the innkeeper that if he did not cease to molest them and instantly quit
the room, he would blow out his brains. This threat had the desired effect,
and he withdrew. It appears that this fellow has in the end outwitted
himself, for most people now, who travel on this road in their own
carriage, chuse to travel with a _vetturino_ and his horses and are
_spesati_, solely in order to avoid the extortion practised upon them.

We arrived at Naples on the 29th October without accident. A _buona grazia_
of a _scudo_ at the frontier obviated the delay which would otherwise have
occurred in examining our baggage by the _douaniers_. I put up at No 1
_Largo St Anna di Palazzo_, near the _Strada di Toledo_, at the house of
one Berlier, who had been a domestic of poor Murat's. The Austrian troops
being now withdrawn, the military cordon of sentinels from the frontier to
Naples is kept up by the Neapolitan troops; but what a contrast between the
vigilance of the Austrian sentinels, and the negligence of the Neapolitans!
The last time I travelled on this road, I never failed, after dusk, to hear
the shout of _Wer da?_ of the Austrian sentries, long before I came up to
them, and I always found them alert. Now that the cordon was Neapolitan, I
always found the sentries either asleep, or playing at cards with their
companion (the sentries being double), both having left their arms at the
place where they were posted. At night I have no doubt they all fall
asleep, so that three or four active _banditti_ might come and cut the
throats of the whole chain of sentries in detail.


30th October, 1818.

I have begun my course of water drinking at the fountain of Sta Lucia.
Since I was here the last time, the theatre of St Carlo has been finished
and I went to visit it the second night after my arrival. It is a noble
theatre and of immense size, larger it is said than the _Scala_ at Milan,
tho' it does not appear so. The profusion of ornament and gilding serves to
diminish the appearance of its magnitude. It is probably now the most
magnificent theatre in Europe. The performance was _Il Babiere di Siviglia_
by Rossini, and afterwards a superb _Ballo_ taken closely from Coleman's
_Blue-Beard_ and arranged as a _Ballo_ by Vestris. The only difference lies
in the costume and the scenery; for here the _Barbe Bleue,_ instead of
being a Turkish Pacha, as in Coleman's piece, is a Chinese Mandarin, and
the decorations are all Chinese. A great deal of Scotch music is introduced
in this _Ballo,_ and seems to give great satisfaction. At the little
theatre of San Carlino I witnessed the representation of Rossini's
_Cenerentola,_ a most delightful piece. The young actress who did the part
of Cenerentola acted it to perfection and sung so sweetly and correctly,
that it would seem as if the _role_ were composed on purpose for her. The
part of Don Magnifico was extremely well played, and those of the sisters
very fairly and appropriately. The three actresses who did the part of
Cenerentola and her sisters, were all handsome, but she who did Cenerentola
surpassed them all; she was a perfect beauty and a grace. I think the music
of this opera would please the public taste in England. Rossini seems to
have banished every other musical composer from the stage.

I have seen, at the Theatre of San Carlo, the _Don Giovanni_ of Mozart; but
certainly, after being accustomed to the extreme vivacity of Rossini's
style, the music, even of the divine Mozart, appears to go off heavily.
There is too much of what the French call _musique de fanfares_ in the
opera of _Don Giovanni_ and I believe most of the Italians are of my way of
thinking.

We have just heard of the death of the poor Princess Charlotte. I am no
great admirer of Kings and Queens; and yet I must own, I could not help
feeling regret for the death of this princess. I had formed a very high
opinion of her, from many traits in her character; and I fancied and hoped
that she was destined to redeem England from the degradation and bad odour
into which she had been plunged by the borough-mongers and bureaucrats,
engendered by the Pitt system. She had liberal ideas and an independent
spirit. I really almost caught myself shedding tears at this event, and had
she been buried here, I should have gone to scatter flowers upon her tomb:

  His saltem accumulem donis, et fungar inani
  Munere.[108]

Has no royalist or ministerial poet been found to do hommage to her
_manes_? Had she lived to be Queen of England she would have found a
thousand venal pens to give her every virtue under heaven.

There is a professor of natural philosophy now at Naples, of the name of
Amici, from Modena, who has invented a microscope of immense power. The
circulation of the blood in the thigh of a frog (the coldest animal in
nature), when viewed thro' this microscope, appears to take place with the
rapidity of a Swiss torrent.

Since I have been here, I have once more ascended Vesuvius; there was no
eruption at all this time, but I witnessed the sight of a stream of red-hot
liquid lava flowing slowly down the flank of the mountain. It was about two
and a half feet broad.

In my letters from Naples, the last time I was there, I gave you some idea
of the state of society. Among the upper classes gaming is reduced to a
science and is almost exclusively the order of the day. There is little or
no taste for litterature among any part of the native society. The upper
classes are sensualists; the middling ignorant and superstitious. With
regard to the _Lazzaroni_, I do not think that they at all deserve the ill
name that has been given to them. They always seem good humoured and
willing to work, when employment is given to them; and they do not appear
at all disposed to disturb the public peace, which, from their being so
numerous and formidable a body, they could easily do. The Neapolitan
dialect has a far greater affinity to the Spanish than to the Tuscan, and
there are likewise, a great many Greek words in it. When one takes into
consideration the extreme ignorance that prevails among the Neapolitans in
general, one is astonished that such a prodigy of genius as Filangieri
could have sprung up among them. What talent, application, deep research
and judgment were united in that illustrious man! And yet there are many
Neapolitans of rank who have never heard of him. Would you believe that on
my asking one of the principal booksellers in Naples for Filangieri's work
on legislation (an immortal work which has called forth the admiration and
eulogy of the greatest geniuses of the age, of which Benjamin Franklin and
Sir Wm Jones spoke in the most unqualified terms of approbation; a work
which has been translated into all the languages of Europe), I was told by
the bookseller that he had never heard either of the author or of his work.

A very curious thing at Naples is the number of public writers; who compose
letters and memorials in booths, fitted up in the streets. As the great
majority of the people are so ignorant as to be unable to read or write, it
follows that when they receive letters, they must find somebody to read
them for them and to write the answers required. They accordingly, on the
receipt of a letter, bring it to one of these public scribes, ask him to
read it for them and to write an answer, for which trouble he receives a
fixed pay. These writers are thus let into the secrets of family affairs of
more than half of the city; and as some-of them are in the pay of the
Government for communicating intelligence, you may guess how formidable
they may become to liberty and how dangerous an engine in the hands of a
despotic Government.

It appears that the theatre of San Carlo is principally kept up by gaming;
that is to say, the managers and proprietors would not undertake the
direction of it without the Gaming Bank being annexed to it; for otherwise
they would lose money, the expence of the Opera on account of the
magnificent decorations of the Ballets being very great, which the receipts
of the theatre are insufficient to meet; but the profits of the Casino
cover all and amply reimburse the proprietors.

With regard to political opinions here there is a great stagnation. It
costs the Neapolitans too much trouble to think and reflect. M-----, the
principal minister, is however no favourite; neither is N-----, who has
quitted the Austrian service, and is nominated Captain-General of the
Neapolitan army.[109]

There is a great talk about the increase of Carbonarism. You will probably
ask me what Carbonarism means. I am not initiated in the secret of the
Carbonari; but as far as I can understand, this sect or secret society has
its mysteries like modern Free-masonry or like the Orphics of old, and
several progressive degrees of initiation are required. Its secret object
is said to be the emancipation of Italy from a foreign despotism and the
forming of a government purely national. This is the reason why this sect
is regarded with as much jealousy by the different governments of Italy as
the early Christians used to be by the Pagan Emperors. Great proofs of
courage, constancy and self denial are required from the initiated; and
very many fail, or do not rise beyond the lower degrees of initiation, for
it is very difficult for an Italian to withstand sensuality. But the
leaders of this sect are perfectly in the right to require such proofs, for
no man is fit to be trusted with any political design whatever, who has not
obtained the greatest mastery over his passions. The word _Carbonari_, I
need not tell you, means _Coalmen_; the Italian history presents many
examples of secret societies taking their appellation from some mechanical
profession.

I have now been nearly two months in Naples, and the _zampogne_ or
bag-pipes, which play about the streets at night, announce the speedy
approach of Christmas, so that I shall soon take my departure for Rome.

       *       *       *       *       *

I left Naples on the 18th of December and arrived at Rome on the 22d. I am
settled in my old lodgings, No. 29 _Piazza di Spagna_. Nothing worth
mentioning occurred during the journey.

The fete, of the birth of Christ held at Santa Maria Maggiore on the
evening of the 24th December is of the most splendid description, and
attended by an immense crowd of women. Guns are fired on the moment that
the birth of the Saviour is announced, and this event occurs precisely at
midnight. The Romans seem to rejoice as much at the anniversary of this
event, as if it happened for the first time, and as if immediate temporal
advantage were to be derived from it.

I have mixed a good deal in society in Rome since my return from Naples.
Among other acquaintance I must particularly distinguish Mme Dionigi, a
very celebrated lady, possessing universality of talent.[110] She is well
known all over Italy, for the extent of her litterary attainments, but more
particularly for her proficiency in the fine arts, above all in painting,
of which she is an adept. She also possesses the most amiable qualities of
the heart, and is universally beloved and respected for the worth of her
private character, and for her generous disposition. She has all the
vivacity of intellect belonging to youth, tho' now nearly eighty-six years
of age,[111] and of a very delicate physical constitution; in short she
affords, and I often tell her so, the most striking proof of the
immortality of the soul. There is a _conversazione_ at her house twice a
week, where you meet with foreign as well as Italian _litterati_, and
persons of distinction of all nations, tongues and languages. Her eldest
daughter, Mme D'Orfei, is an excellent _improvisatrice_, and has frequently
given us very favourable specimens of the inspiration which breathes itself
in her soul. I have likewise witnessed the talent of two very extraordinary
_improvisatori_, the one a young girl of eighteen years of age, by name
Rosa Taddei. She is the daughter of the proprietor of the _Teatro della
Valle_ at Rome, and sometimes performs herself in dramatic pieces; yet,
strange to say, tho' she is an admirable _improvisatrice_ and possesses a
thorough classic and historical knowledge, she is but an indifferent
actress.

It is a great shame that her father obliges her to act on the stage in very
inferior parts, when she ought only to exhibit on the tripod. I assisted at
an _Accademia_ given by her one evening at the _Teatro della Valle_, when
she improvised on the following subjects, which were proposed by various
members of the audience: 1st, _La morte d'Egeo_; 2dy, _La Madre Ebrea_;
3rd, _Coriolano alle mura di Roma_; 4th, _Ugolino_; 5th, _Saffo e Faone_;
6th, in the Carnaval with the following _intercalario: "Maschera ti
conosco, tieni la benda al cor_!" which _intercalario_ compels a rhyme in
_osco_, a most difficult one. The _Madre Ebrea_ and _Coriolano_ were given
in _ottava rima_ with a _rima obbligata_ for each stanza. The _Morte
d'Egeo_ was given in _terza rima_. Her versification appeared to be
excellent, nor could I detect the absence or superabundance, of a single
syllable. She requires the aid of music, chuses the melody; the audience
propose the subject, and _rima obbligata_, and the _intercalario_, where it
is required. In her gestures, particularly before she begins to recite, she
reminded me of the description given of the priestess of. Delphi. She walks
along the stage for four or five minutes in silent meditation on the
subject proposed, then suddenly stops, calls to the musicians to play a
certain symphony and then begins as if inspired. Among the different rhimes
in _osco_, a gentleman who sat next to me proposed to her _Cimosco_. I
asked him what _Cimosco_ he meant; he replied a Tuscan poet of that name.
For my part, I had never heard of any other of that name than the King
_Cimosco_ in the _Orlando Furioso_, who makes use of fire-arms; and Rosa
Taddei was, it appears, of my opinion, since this was the _Cimosco_ she
chose to characterise; and she made thereby a very neat and happy
comparison between the gun of Cimosco and the arrow of Cupid. This talent
of the _improvisatori_ is certainly wonderful, and one for which there is
no accounting. It appears peculiar to the Italian nation alone among the
moderns, but probably was in vogue among the ancient Greeks also. It is
certain that Rosa Taddei gives as fine thoughts as are to be met with in
most poets, and I am very much tempted to incline to Forsyth's opinion that
Homer himself was neither more nor less than an _improvisatore_, the Greek
language affording nearly as many poetic licences as the Italian, and the
faculty of heaping epithet on epithet being common in both languages.

The other genius in this wonderful art is Signer Sgricci. He is so far
superior to Rosa Taddei in being five or six years older, in being a very
good Latinist and hi _improvising_ whole tragedies on any subject, chosen
by the audience. When the subject is chosen, he develops his plan, fixes
his _dramatis personae_ and then strikes off in _versi sciolti_. He at
times introduces a chorus with lyric poetry. I was present one evening at
an _Accademia_ given by him in the Palazzo Chigi. The subject chosen was
_Sophonisba_ and it was wonderful the manner in which he varied his plot
from that of every other dramatic author on the same subject. He _acted_
the drama, as well as composed it, and pourtrayed the different characters
with the happiest effect. The ardent passion and impetuosity of Massinissa,
the studied calm philosophy and stoicism of Scipio, the romantic yet
dignified attachment of Sophonisba, and the plain soldierlike honorable
behaviour of Syphax were given in a very superior style. I recollect
particularly a line he puts in the mouth of Scipio, when he is endeavouring
to persuade Massinissa to resist the allurements and blandishments of love:

  Che cor di donne e laberinto, in quale
  Facil si perde l'intelletto umano.

This drama he divided into three acts, and on its termination he improvised
a poem in _terza rima_ on the subject of the contest of Ajax and Ulysses
for the armour of Achilles.

Wonderful, however, as this act of improvising may appear, it is not
perhaps so much so as the mathematical faculty of a youth of eight years of
age, Yorkshireman by birth, who has lately exhibited his talent for
arithmetical calculation _improvised_ in England and who in a few seconds,
from mental calculation, could give the cube root of a number containing
fifteen or sixteen figures.

Is not all this a confirmation of Doctor Gall's theory on craniology? viz.,
that our faculties depend on the organisation of the scull. I think I have
seen this frequently exemplified at Eton. I have known a boy who could not
compose a verse, make a considerable figure in arithmetic and geometry; and
another, who could write Latin verse with almost Ovidian elegance, and yet
could not work the simplest question in vulgar fractions. Indeed, I think
there seems little doubt that we are born with dispositions and
propensities, which may be developed and encouraged, or damped and checked
altogether by education.

I have become acquainted with several families at Rome, so that I am at no
loss where to spend my evenings. Music is the never failing resource for
those with whom the spirit of conversation fails. The society at Rome is
perfectly free from etiquette or _gene_. When once presented to a family
you may enter their house every evening without invitation, make your bow
to the master and mistress of the house, enter into conversation or not as
you please. You may absent yourself for weeks together from these
_conversazioni_, and nobody will on your re-appearance enquire where you
have been or what you have been doing. In short, in the intercourse with
Roman society, you meet with great affability, sometimes a little _ennui_,
but no _commerage_. The _avvocati_ may be said to form almost exclusively
the middling class in Rome, and they educate their families very
respectably. This class was much caressed by the French Government during
the time that Rome was annexed to the French Empire, and most of the
employes of the Government at that time were taken from this class. I have
met with several sensible well-informed people, who have been accurate
observers of the times, and had derived profit in point of instruction from
the scenes they had witnessed.

The Papal Government began, as most of the restored governments did, by
displacing many of these gentlemen, for no other fault than because they
had served under the Ex-government, and replaced them by ecclesiastics, as
in the olden time. But the Papal Government very soon discovered that the
whole political machine would be very soon at a stand, by such an
_epuration_; and the most of them have been since reinstated. Consalvi, the
Secretary of State, is a very sensible man; he has hard battles to fight
with the _Ultras_ of Rome in order to maintain in force the useful
regulations introduced by the French Government, particularly the
organisation of a vigilant police, and the putting a stop to the murders
and robberies, which used formerly to be committed with impunity. The
French checked the system of granting asylum to these vagabonds altogether.
But on the restoration of the Papal Government a strong interest was made
to allow asylums, as formerly, to criminals. Many of these gentry began to
think that the good old times were come again, wherein they could commit
with impunity the most atrocious crimes; and no less than eighty persons
were in prison at one time for murder. This opened the eyes of the
Government, and Consalvi insisted on the execution of these men and carried
his point of establishing a vigilant police. The Army too has been put on a
better footing. The Papal troops are now clothed and disciplined in the
French manner, and make a most respectable appearance. The infantry is
clothed in white; the cavalry in green. The cockade is white and yellow. No
greater proof can be given of the merit and utility of the French
institutions in Italy, than the circumstance of all the restored
Governments being obliged by their interests (tho' contrary to their wishes
and prejudices), to adopt and enforce them. There is still required,
however, a severer law for the punishment of post office defalcations.
Simple dismissal is by no means adequate, when it is considered how much
mischief may ensue from such offences. A very serious offence of this
nature and which has made a great sensation, has lately occurred. As all
foreign letters must be franked, and as the postage to England is very
high, one of the clerks at the Post office had been in the habit of
receiving money for the franking of letters, appropriated it to his own
use, and never forwarded the letters. This created great inconvenience; a
number of families having never received answers to their letters and being
without the expected remittances, began to be uneasy and to complain. An
enquiry was instituted, and it was discovered that the clerk above
mentioned had been carrying on this game to a great extent. He used to tear
the letters and throw the fragments into a closet. Several scraps of
letters were thus discovered and, on being examined, he made an ample
confession of his practises. He was merely discharged, and no other
punishment was indicted on him. I am no advocate for the punishment of
death for any other crime but wilful murder; but surely this fellow was
worse than a robber, and deserved a greater severity of punishment.


ROME, 10th February, 1818.

The Carnaval has long since begun, and this is the heaven of the Roman
ladies. On my remarking to a lady that I was soon tired of it and after a
day or two found it very childish, she replied: "_Bisogna esser donna e
donna Italiana per ben godere de' piaceri del Carnevale_."

When I speak of the Carnaval, I speak of the last ten days of it which
precede Lent. The following is the detail of the day's amusement during the
season.

After dinner, which is always early, the masks sally out and repair to the
_Corso_. The windows and balconies of the houses are filled with
spectators, in and out of masks. A scaffolding containing an immense number
of seats is constructed in the shape of a rectangle, beginning at the
_Piazza del Popolo_, running parallel to the _Corso_ on each side, and
terminating near the _Piazza di Venezia_; close to which is the goal of the
horse race that takes place in this enclosure. Carriages, with persons in
them, generally masked, parade up and down this space in two currents, the
one ascending, the other descending the _Corso_. They are saluted as they
pass with showers of white comfits from the spectators on the seats of the
scaffolding, or from the balconies and windows on each side of the street.
These comfits break into a white powder and bespatter the clothes of the
person on whom they fall as if hair-powder had been thrown on them. This
seems to be the grand joke of this part of the Carnival. After the
carriages have paraded about an hour, a signal is given by the firing of a
gun that the horse race is about to begin. The carriages, on the gun being
fired, must immediately evacuate the _Corso_ in order to leave it clear for
the race; some move off and _rendezvous_ on the _Piazza del Popolo_ just
behind the scaffolding, from the foot of which the horses start; others
file off by the _Via Ripetta_ and take their stand on the _Piazza Colonna_.
The horse-race is performed by horses without riders, generally five or six
at a time. They are each held with a bridle or halter by a man who stands
by them, in order to prevent their starting before the signal is given; and
this requires no small degree of force and dexterity, as the horses are
exceedingly impatient to set off. The manes of the horses are dressed in
ribbands of different colours to distinguish them. Pieces of tin, small
bells and other noisy materials are fastened to their manes and tails, in
order by frightening the poor animals, to make them run the faster, and
with this view also squibs and crackers are discharged at them as they pass
along. A second gun is the signal for starting; the keepers loose their
hold, and off go the horses. The horse that arrives the first at the goal
wins the grand prize; and there are smaller ones for the two next. This
race is repeated four or five times till dusk, and then the company
separate and return home to dress. They then repair to the balls at the
different casinos, and at the conclusion of the ball, supper parties are
formed either at _restaurants_ or at each other's houses. During the time
occupied in the balls and promenades, as every body goes masked either in
character or in _domino_, there is a fine opportunity for pairing off, and
it is no doubt turned to account. This is a pretty accurate account of a
Roman Carnaval. A great deal of wit and repartee takes place among the
masks and they are in general extremely well supported, and indeed they
ought to be, for there is a great sameness of character assumed at every
masquerade, and very little novelty is struck out, except perhaps by some
foreigner, who chuses to introduce a national character of his own, which
is probably but little, or not at all, understood by the natives, and very
often not at all well supported by the foreigner himself. An American
gentleman once made his appearance as an Indian warrior with his
war-hatchet and calumet; he danced the war dance, which excited great
astonishment. He then presented his calumet to a mask, who not knowing what
the ceremony meant, declined it, when the Mohawk flourished his hatchet and
gave such a dreadful shriek as to set the whole company in alarm.[112] On
the whole this character was so little understood that it was looked upon
as a _mauvaise plaisanterie_.

The usual characters are Pulcinelli, Arlecchini, Spanish Grandees, Turks,
fortune tellers, flower girls and Devils; sometimes too they go in the
costume of the Gods and Goddesses of the ancient mythology. I observe that
the English ladies here prefer to appear without masks in the costume of
the Swiss and Italian peasantry.

There is a very large English society at Rome, and at some of the parties
here, you could suppose yourself in Grosvenor Square.

The late political changes have brought together in Rome many persons of
the most opposite parties and sentiments, who have fallen from the height
of political power and influence into a private station, but who enjoy
themselves here unmolested, and even protected by the Government, and are
much courted by foreigners. I have seen at the same masquerade, in the
_Teatro Aliberti_, in boxes close to each other, the Queen of Spam (mother
of Ferdinand VII), and the Princess Borghese, Napoleon's sister. In a box
at a short distance from them were Lucian Buonaparte, his wife and
daughters. Besides these, the following ex-Sovereigns and persons of
distinction, fallen from their high estate, reside in Rome, viz., King
Charles IV of Spain; the ex-King of Holland, Louis Buonaparte; the
abdicated King of Sardinia, Victor Emanuel; Don Manuel Godoy, the Prince of
Peace; Cardinal Fesch, and Madame Letitia, the mother of Napoleon.

I had an opportunity of being presented to Lucian, who bears the title of
Prince of Canino, before I left Rome for Naples, as on leaving the Pays de
Vaud I was charged by a Swiss gentleman to deliver a letter to him, the
purport of which was to state that he had rendered services to Joseph
Napoleon, when he was resident in that Canton, in consequence of which he
had been persecuted and deprived of his employment at Lausanne, which was
that of Captain of the Gendarmerie; and in the letter he sollicited
pecuniary assistance from the Prince of Canino. I rode out one morning to
the Villa of Ruffinella where the Prince resides and was very politely
received; it appeared however that the Prince was totally unacquainted with
the person who wrote the letter, nor was he at all aware of the
circumstances therein mentioned. I told him that I was but little
acquainted with the writer of the letter, but that he, on hearing of my
intention of going to Rome, asked me to deliver it personally. The Prince
told me he would write himself to the applicant on the subject. Here the
negotiation ended; but on my taking leave the Prince said he should be
happy to see me whenever I chose to call. The Prince has the character of
being an excellent father and husband, and seems entirely and almost
exclusively devoted to his family. He has a remarkably fine collection of
pictures and statues in his house at Rome.

I had an opportunity likewise of seeing the ex-King of Holland, Louis
Napoleon, who seems to be a most excellent and amiable man, and in fact
everybody agrees in speaking of him with eulogy.

With regard to the present Pontiff Pius VII, from the excellence of his
private character and virtues, and from his unassuming manners and goodness
of heart, there is but one opinion respecting him. Even those who do not
like the ecclesiastical Government, and behold in it the degradation of
Italy, render justice to the good qualities of Pius VII. He always
displayed the greatest moderation and humanity in prosperity, and in
adversity he was firm and dignified. In his morals and habits he is quite a
primitive Christian, and if he does not possess that great political talent
which has distinguished some of his predecessors, he has been particularly
fortunate and discriminating in the choice of his minister, in whom are
united ability, firmness, suavity of manner and unimpeachable character. I
think I have thus given a faithful delineation of Cardinal Consalvi.


ROME, March 12th.

I have made a very valuable acquaintance in M. K[oelle][113] the envoy of
the King of Wuertemberg, to the Holy See. He is an enthusiastic admirer of
his countryman the poet Schiller, and thro' his means of procuring German
books, I am enabled to prosecute my studies in that noble language. An
Italian lady there having heard much of Schiller and Buerger, and not being
acquainted with the German language, requested me to make an Italian
translation of some of the pieces of those poets; chusing the _Leonora_ of
Buerger as one, and leaving to myself the choice of one from Schiller, I
represented the extreme difficulty of the task, but as she had read a
sonnet of mine on Lord Guildford's project of establishing an University in
the Italian language, she would not hear of any excuse. To work then I set,
and completed the translation of _Leonora_, together with one of Schiller's
_Feast of Eleusis_. These and my sonnet were the cause of my being
recommended for admission as a member of the Academy _degli Arcadi_ in Rome
and I received the pastoral name of _Galeso Itaoense_.

The Carnaval is now over and the ladies are all at their _Livres d'Heures_,
posting masses and prayers to the credit side, to counterbalance the sins
and frailties committed during the carnaval in the account which they keep
in the Ledger of Heaven. Dancing and masquerading are now over and
_Requiems_ and the _Miserere_ the order of the day at the _conversazioni_.

At Mr K[oelle]'s house I have become acquainted with Thorwaldsen, the famous
Danish sculptor, who is by many considered as the successful rival of
Canova; but their respective styles are so different, that a comparison can
scarce be made between them. Canova excels in the soft and graceful, in the
figures of youthful females and young men; Thorwaldsen in the grave, stern
and terrible. In a word, did I wish to have made a Hebe, a Venus, an
Antinoues, an Apollo, I should charge Canova with their execution. Did I
wish for an Ajax, an Hercules, a Neptune, a Jupiter, I should give the
preference to Thorwaldsen.

In their private characters they much resemble each other, being both
honorable, generous, unassuming, and enthusiastic lovers of their
profession and of the fine arts hi general.

I have been to see a remarkably fine picture, by a modern French artist, of
the name of Granet. It may be considered as the _chef d'oeuvre_ of the
perspective or dioramic art. This picture represents the ulterior of the
convent of the Capuchins, near the Barberini Palace. The picture is by no
means a very large one; but the optical deception is astonishing. You fancy
you are standing at the entrance of a long hall and ready to enter it; on
looking at it, thro' a piece of paper rolled hi form of a speaking
trumpet--which by hiding from the sight the frame of the picture, prevents
the illusion from being dissipated--you suppose you could walk into the
hall; and each figure of a monk therein appears a real human creature, seen
from a long distance, so skilfully has the artist disposed his light and
shade. This picture has excited the admiration of connoisseurs, as well as
others, and it is universally proclaimed a masterpiece. M. Granet's house
is filled every day with persons coming to see this picture, and many
repeat their visits several tunes in the week. He has received several
orders for copies of this picture, and I fancy he begins to be tired of
eternally copying the same thing; for he told me that he wished that the
gentlemen who employed him would vary their subjects, and either chuse some
other themselves, or let him chuse for them. But no! such is the effect of
vogue and fashion, and such the despotic influence they exercise even over
the polite arts, that everybody must have a copy of Granet's picture of the
interior of the Convent of Capuchins _coute que coute_; so that poor Granet
seems bound to this Convent for life; except in the intervals of his
labours, he should hit off another subject, with equal felicity, and this
alone may perhaps serve to diminish the universal desire of possessing a
copy of the Convent. The original picture is destined for the King of
France.[114]

I remarked, in the collection of the works of this artist, a small picture
representing Galileo in prison, and a monk descending the steps of the
dungeon bringing him his scanty meal. A lamp hangs suspended from the roof,
in the centre of the dungeon, and the artist has made a very happy hit in
throwing the whole glare of the lamp on the countenance of Galileo, who is
seated reading a book, while the gaoler monk is left completely in the
shade. On seeing this I exclaimed: _Veramente, Signor Granet, e buonissimo
quel vostro concetto!_


Easter Tuesday.

I have at length seen all the fine sights that Rome affords during the Holy
Week, and have witnessed most of the religious ceremonies, viz., the
illuminated cross hi St Peter's on Good Friday; the high mass celebrated by
the Pope in person on Easter Sunday; the Papal benediction from a window of
the church above the facade on the same day; the illumination of the facade
of St Peter's on Easter Monday, and the _Girandola_ or grand firework at
the Castle of St Angelo on the same evening. The ceremony of the Pope
washing the feet of twelve poor men I did not see, for I could not get into
the Sistine Chapel, where the ceremony was performed: and at the mass
performed by the Pope in the Sistine Chapel I did contrive to enter, but
was so oppressed by the crowd and heat, that I almost fainted away, and was
very glad to get out of the Chapel again, before the ceremony commenced.
Why in the name of commonsense do they perform these ceremonies in the
Sistine Chapel which is small, instead of doing them in the church of St
Peter's, which would contain so many people and produce a much grander
effect?

A great many people are deprived of seeing the ceremonies in the Sistine
Chapel from the difficulty of getting in. The Pope's Swiss Guard attend on
that day in their ancient _costume_, with helmets, cuirasses and halberds;
these guard the entrance of the staircase leading to the Chapel, and they
have no small trouble and difficulty in maintaining order, as there is
always a great scuffle to get in, and they are particularly importuned by
German visitors, who thinking to be favored by them, in speaking to them in
their own language, vociferate; _Ich bin Ihr Landsmann!_ and hope by this
to obtain a preference.

On Friday evening a large Cross is erected before the grand altar; every
part of this Cross is filled with lamps, and at seven in the evening the
whole is illuminated. It has a most brilliant appearance and gives the
happiest _chiaro-oscuro_ effect to the statues, columns and pilasters which
abound in this vast temple. There is no other light on this occasion than
that reflected from the Cross. On Easter Sunday, when the Pope celebrates
high mass in the church of St Peter's, the Papal noble Guard, composed of
young men from the principal families in Rome, form a hedge on each side of
the nave of the church, from the entrance of the facade to the grand altar.
The street or interval formed between this double line may be about thirty
feet broad, and behind this guard or in any other part of the church, the
spectators may stand; but as these guards wear very large feathers in their
hats, they intercept very much the sight of those who stand behind them.
The uniform of the Papal Noble Guard is very splendid, being a scarlet
coat, covered with gold lace, white feathers, white breeches and long
military boots. The approach of the Pope is announced by the thunder of
cannon, and he is brought into the Church dressed in full pontificals, with
the triple Crown on his head, on a chair borne by men, _palanquin_ fashion;
he is conducted thro' the lane formed by the Papal Guard, and as he passes
he makes the sign of the cross several times with his finger, repeating the
words: _Urbi et Orbi_. He is then set down, with his face fronting the
baldachin, when he immediately takes off the tiara, and begins the
ceremony. That ended, he leaves the church in the same state, and then
ascends the staircase, in order to prepare to give the benediction, which
is usually given from a window above the facade of the church. The Pope is
there seated on a chair with the triple Crown on his head. Troops of
cavalry and infantry are drawn up in a semi-circle before the facade of the
church, and the whole vast _arena_ of the _Piazza di San Pietro_ is covered
with spectators. On a sudden his Holiness rises, extends his hands towards
heaven, then spreads them open, and seems as if he scattered something he
held in them on the crowd below; a silly young Frenchman who was standing
next to me said: _Le voila! Le voila qui arrache la benediction au ciel, et
qui la repand sur tout le monde!_ I could not refrain from laughing at this
sally, tho' I was much impressed with the solemnity of the scene, which I
think one of the grandest and most sublime I ever beheld. This ceremony
concluded, salves of ordnance were fired. The Pope retires amidst clouds of
smoke, and seems to vanish from the Earth. The troops then fire a _feu de
joie_ and move off, playing a march in quick time, and the company
disperse.

It is the etiquette on these occasions that no person be admitted either
into the church of St Peter or into the Sistine Chapel except in full
toilette. The ladies dress generally in black with caps and feathers; the
gentlemen either in black full dress or in military uniform. From the
variety of foreigners of all nations that are here, most of whom are
military men, or intitled to wear military uniforms, much is added to the
splendour of the spectacle.

On the evening of Easter Monday, I was present at the illumination of the
facade of St Peter's. Rows of lamps are suspended the whole length of the
columns and pilasters and all over the cupola, so that, when illuminated,
the style of the architecture is perceptible. The illumination takes place
almost at once. How it is managed I cannot say; but a splendid illuminated
temple seems at once to drop from the clouds, like the work of an
enchanter; I say _drop from the clouds_, because the illumination begins
from the cross and cupola and is communicated with the rapidity of
lightning to every other part of the edifice. About ten o'clock the same
evening the most magnificent firework perhaps in the world begins to play
from the castle of St Angelo. All kinds of shapes are assumed by these
fireworks: here are castles, pagodas, dragons, griffins, etc. These last
about an hour and then conclude, and with them conclude all the ceremonies
used in commemoration of the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

Among the sights of Rome I must not omit that of a famous robber of the
name of Barbone, who was the terror of the whole surrounding country from
the depredations he committed. Having capitulated, and surrendered himself
to the Papal Government, he is now confined in the Castle of St Angelo as a
state prisoner. His wife, or a woman calling herself so, is confined there
with him, and she is said to be a woman of uncommon beauty. It is quite the
rage among the English here to go to see these _illustrious_ captives, and
Madame Barbone, superbly dressed, receives the hommage of the visitors. The
Duchess of D[evonshire] is said to have visited her, and made her a present
of a pearl necklace. I hope this is not true. Surely the Duchess, who is a
woman of talent and an encourager of the fine arts, might have found some
other object worthier of her munificence. What claims the mistress, or even
the wife, of a public robber can have on the generosity of travellers, I am
at a loss to conceive; but such is the _bizarrerie_ and _inconsequence_ of
the English, and no doubt, be this story of her Grace of D[evonshire]
having given a present true or not, it will occasion many other presents
being made to the captive Princess by a host of silly lord-aping English
men and women. Barbone has, it is said, made an excellent capitulation. He
has stipulated to be released from prison after a year and a day's
confinement, and no doubt he will then resume his old trade of brigandage.
In the meantime he has disbanded his troops, as he calls them; but will his
troops obey him, now that he is a captive? will they not rather chuse
another leader?

In the time of the French occupation, nothing of this kind took place; but
the present Government is weak and timid. I have not been myself to see
either Barbone or his wife, but I have heard quite enough about them; they
form one of the principal sights in Rome, and I am quite _unfashionable_ in
not having gone to visit them; for according to the opinion of my English
acquaintance, he who has not seen Barbone and his wife has seen nothing.

       *       *       *       *       *

I started from Rome on the second of April with a _vetturino_, and on
arrival at Baccano, we struck off into a road on the right hand, and
arrived at Civita Castellana at a late hour. Civita Castellana merits no
further attention, except that it is supposed to stand on the site of the
ancient city of Veii. The following day at ten o'clock we reached the small
town of Narni. Here are the remains of a beautiful bridge, constructed over
the ravine, thro' which flows the river Nera, and which was built in the
time of Augustus. It affords a very favorable specimen of the Roman bridge
architecture. There is a small chapel here, and it contains, engraved on a
stone, a description of a miracle wrought here about four years ago by the
Virgin Mary, who saved the life of a postillion. He went into the river to
water his horses, when he was carried off by the torrent and would have
been drowned, had not the Virgin, on her aid being invoked, dashed into the
river and haled him out by the hair of his head. Of this story, to use a
phrase of old Josephus,[115] every one may believe as much as he thinks
proper; but certain it is that the postillion made oath (which oath is
registered) that his life was saved by the Virgin Mary in this manner, and
he has put up a votive tablet at her shrine, which remains to this day,
commemorative of the event. There is also a Roman aqueduct in the
neighbourhood, eleven Italian miles in length.

We arrived at Terni at three o'clock and immediately hired a _caleche_ (the
other travellers and myself) to visit the famous cascade of the Velino,
about three miles distant from the town of Terni. The road thither is very
rugged, and is a continual ascent on the flank of a ravine. For a long time
before you arrive on the brink of the cascade, you hear the roaring of the
waters; and it certainly is the most magnificent and awe-inspiring sight of
the kind I ever beheld. It is far more stupendous than any cascade in
Switzerland. That of Tivoli compared to it is as an infant six months old
to a Goliath. The Velino forms three successive falls, and the last is
tremendous, since it falls from a height of 1,068 feet into the abyss
below. The foam and the froth it occasions is terrific; and the spray
ascends so high that in standing at the distance of fifty yards from the
fall you become as wet as if you had been standing in a shower of rain. The
first fall it forms is of 800 feet; the second little less; the third I
have stated already. No painting can possibly give a faithful delineation
of this, and very possibly no poetic description can give an adequate idea
thereof. We passed the whole night at Terni and the next morning we stopped
to dine at Spoleto. The same evening we arrived at Foligno. Spoleto is a
neat town and well paved. Several ruins of ancient buildings are in its
vicinity. Before you arrive there, on the left of the road, is an immensely
high two-arched bridge. There is an aqueduct likewise just outside the
town. We did not omit to read the inscription on the gate of the town, in
commemoration of the repulse of Hannibal, who failed in his attempt to make
himself master of this city, after having beat the Romans near the lake
Trasymene. The gate is called in consequence _Porta Fugae_, and this gate
constitutes the principal glory of Spoleto. We were shown the rums of a
Palace built by Theodoric. On leaving the town, just outside the gate, we
were shewn a bridge which had laid underground for many centuries and had
been lately discovered. A bridge was known to have been built here in the
time of Augustus, and it is very probably the identical one; we could only
see the top and part of the parapet.

Foligno is a large, well built city, neatly paved, populous and commercial,
renowned for manufactories of paper, wax, and confectionary.

The whole road between Spoleto and Foligno is thro' a beautiful valley in
high cultivation. There is a good deal of rich pasture ground, and it is
watered by the river called in ancient tunes Clitumnus. Here are to be seen
a fine breed of white cattle for which this part of the country has been
long renowned, which cattle were used, in preference, for sacrifices
(_Albi, Clitumne, greges_).[116] A similar breed is to be found in India
and Egypt.

The streets in Foligno are broad. I remarked the _Palazzo Pubblico_ and
Cathedral as very fine buildings. Our next day's journey brought us to
Perugia, after passing by Assisi, the birth place of the famous St Francis,
founder of the order of Franciscans. It is situated on an eminence:
convents and churches abound therein.

Perugia is a large and opulent city, standing like a fortress on a
mountain, and towering over the plain below. It is of steep ascent from the
plain, and there are various terraces along the ramparts, commanding
several fine points of view of the rich and fertile plains all round. These
terraces are planted with trees and form the promenades appertaining to the
city. The architecture of the various churches and Palaces is very
superior. The streets are broad and every building has an air of
magnificence. The Cathedral, dedicated to St Laurence, is well worth
visiting; it stands on the _Piazza del Duomo_, where there is a fine
fountain ornamented with statues. In the church of St Peter's there are
some fine columns of marble and some pictures of Perugino and Raffaello.


[108] Virgil, _Aen_., VI, 886.--ED.

[109] Of the two persons here mentioned, by their initials only, the first,
    Luigi de' Medici, was chosen as Chancellor of the Exchequer by King
    Ferdinando in June, 1815. The second was Nugent, an Austrian
    _marescallo_, who became _capitano generale_ of the Neapolitan army,
    August, 1816, and _capo del supremo comando_, February, 1817.--ED.

[110] This most distinguished lady, Marianna Candidi, was born in Rome in
    1756; her mother, Magdalena Scilla, was the daughter of a well known
    antiquary of Messina, Agostino Scilla. Marianna learned Latin, drawing
    and music; she achieved a reputation as landscape painter, and was
    elected a member of the Academies of St Luke in Rome, of Bologna, Pisa
    and Philadelphia. She married the lawyer Domenico Dionigi, and gave him
    seven children, one of whom, Henrietta, became Madame Orfei, and was
    much esteemed as "improvisatrice." Madame Dionigi herself published
    several works, among which a _Storia de' tempi presenti_, written in
    view of the education of her children. Her _salon_ in Rome was
    frequented by many men of distinction, such as Visconti, d'Agincourt,
    Erskine, etc. She died on the 10th June, 1826, at the age of seventy.
    --ED.

[111] She was no more than sixty-two at that time.--ED.

[112] To present the calumet is an offer of peace and amity among the
    aborigines of North America and to refuse it is regarded as the
    greatest insult.

[113] Frye gives only the initial of the name, which I have completed from
    the _Almanach de Gotha_, 1818.--ED.

[114] The Interior of the Convent of the Capucini was first painted by
    Granet in the year 1811. None of the numerous replicas are in the
    Louvre, but there is one in London (Buckingham Palace) and one at
    Chatsworth.--ED.

[115] The author may have meant "old Herodotus."--ED.

[116] Virgil, _Georg._, II, 146.--ED.




CHAPTER XV

APRIL-JULY, 1818

Journey from Florence to Pisa and from thence by the Appennines to
Genoa--Massa-Carrara--Genoa--Monuments and works of art--The
Genoese--Return to Florence--Journey from Florence through Bologna and
Ferrara to Venice--Monument to Ariosto in Ferrara--A description of
Venice--Padua--Vicenza--Verona--Cremona--Return to Milan--The Scala
theatre--Verona again--From Verona to Innspruck.

It is the custom for most travellers going to Genoa to embark on board of a
_felucca_ at Spezia, which lies on the sea coast, not far from Sarzana: but
I preferred to go by land, and I cannot conceive why anyone should expose
himself to the risks, inconveniences and delays of a sea passage, when it
is so easy to go by land thro' the Appennines. I started accordingly the
following morning, mounted on a mule, and attended by a muleteer with
another mule to convey my portmanteau. I found this journey neither
dangerous nor difficult, but on the contrary agreeable and romantic. The
road is only a bridle road. I paid forty-eight franks for my two mules and
driver, and started at seven in the morning from Sarzana. The wild
appearance of the Appennines, the aweful solitudes and the highly
picturesque points of view that present themselves at the various
sinuosities of the mountains and valleys; the view of the sea from the
heights that tower above the towns of Oneglia and Sestri Levante, rendered
this journey one of the most interesting I have ever made. I stopped to
dine at Borghetto and brought to the night at Sestri Levante, breakfasted
the next morning at Rapallo, and arrived the same evening at four o'clock
in Genoa. Borghetto is a little insignificant town situate in a narrow
valley surrounded on all sides by the lofty crags of the Appennines. Sestri
Levante is a long and very straggling town, part of it being situated on
the sea shore, and the other part on the gorge of the mountain descending
towards the sea beach; so that the former part of the town lies nearly at
right angles with the latter, with a considerable space intervening. The
road for the last four miles between Borghetto and Sestri Levante is a
continual descent. The inn was very comfortable and good at Sestri Levante.
The beginning of the road between Sestri and Rapallo is on the beach till
near Rapallo, when it strikes again into the mountains and is of
considerable ascent. Rapallo is a very neat pretty place, situate on an
eminence commanding a fine view of the sea. The greater part of the road
between Rapallo and Genoa is on the sea-coast, but cut along the mountains
which here form a bluff with the sea. Villas, gardens and vineyards line
the whole of this route and nothing can be more beautiful. The neatness of
the villas and the abundance of the population form a striking contrast to
the wild solitudes between Sarzana and Sesto, where (except at Borghetto)
there is not a house to be seen and scarce a human creature to be met, and
where the eagle seems to reign alone the uncontrolled lord of the creation.


GENOA, 23rd April.

The view of Genoa from the sea is indisputably the best; for on entering by
land from the eastern side, the ramparts are so lofty as to intercept the
fine view the city would otherwise afford. From the sea side it rises in
the shape of an amphitheatre; a view therefore taken from the sea gives the
best idea of its grandeur and of the magnificence of its buildings, for
everybody on beholding this grand spectacle must allow that this city well
deserves its epithet of _Superba_.

I observe in my daily walks on the _Esplanade_ a number of beautiful women.
The Genoese women are remarkable for their beauty and fine complexions.
They dress generally in white, and their style of dress is Spanish; they
wear the _mezzara_ or veil, in the management of which they display much
grace and not a little coquetry. Instead of the fan exercise recommended to
women by the _Spectator_, the art of handling the _mezzara_ might be
reduced to a manual and taught to the ladies by word of command.

I put up at the house of a Spanish lady on the _Piazza St Siro_, and here
for four _livres_ a day I am sumptuously boarded and lodged. There are
three principal streets in Genoa, viz., _Strada Nuova_, _Balbi_, and
_Nuovissima_. Yet these three streets may be properly said to form but one,
inasmuch as they lie very nearly in a right line. These streets are broad
and aligned with the finest buildings in Genoa. This street or streets are
the only ones that can be properly called so, according to the idea we
usually attach to the word. The others deserve rather the names of lanes
and alleys, tho' exceedingly well paved and aligned with excellent houses
and shops. In fact the streets _Nuova_, _Nuovissima_ and _Balbi_ are the
only ones thro' which carriages can pass. The others are far too narrow to
admit of the passage of carriages. The houses on each side of them are of
immense height, being of six or seven stories, which form such a shade as
effectually to protect those who walk thro' these alleys from the rays of
the sun. The houses diminish in height in proportion as they are built on
the slant of the mountain from the bottom to the top, those at the bottom
being the loftiest. Carriages are scarcely of any use in the city of Genoa,
except to drive from one end of the town to another thro' the streets
_Nuova_, _Balbi_ and _Nuovissima_; and accordingly a carriage with four
wheels, or even with two, is a rare conveyance in Genoa. The general mode
of conveyance is on a sedan chair, carried by porters, or on the backs of
mules or asses. Genoa is distinguished by the beauty of the Palaces of its
patricians, which are more numerous and more magnificent than those of any
other city, probably, in the world.

The Ducal Palace or Palace of Government, where the Doge used to reside,
claimed my first attention; yet, tho' much larger, it is far less splendid
than many of the Palaces of individual patricians. In fact, the Ducal
Palace is built in the Gothic taste and resembles a Gothic fortress, having
round towers at each angle. The Hall, where the Grand Council used to sit,
is superb, and is adorned with columns of _jaune antique_. On the _plafond_
is a painting representing the discovery of America by Columbus; for the
Genoese duly appreciate, and never can forget their illustrious countryman.
The lines of Tasso, "_Un uom della Liguria avra ardimento_," etc., and the
following stanza, _Tu spiegherai Colombo a urn nuovo polo_, etc. are in the
mouth of everyone.[117] The Hall of the Petty Council is neat, but it is
the recollection of the history of this once famous Republic that renders
the examination of this Palace so interesting. But now Genoa's glory is
gone; she has been basely betrayed into the hands of a Government she most
detested. The King of Sardinia is nowhere; and he is not a little proud of
being the possessor of such a noble sea port, which enables him to rank as
a maritime power.

The Genoese are laborious and make excellent sailors; but now there is
nothing to animate them; and they will never exert themselves in the
service of a domination which is so little congenial to them. They sigh for
their ancient Government, of whose glories they had so often heard and
whose brilliant exploits have been handed down to the present day not
merely by historical writers and poets, but by _improvisatori_ from mouth
to mouth. The Genoese nobles, those merchant Kings, whose riches exceeded
at one time those of the most powerful monarchs of Europe, who were the
pawn-brokers to those Sovereigns, are now in a state of decay. Commerce can
only flourish on the soil of liberty, and takes wing at the sight of
military and sacerdotal chains; and tho' the present Sovereign affects to
caress the Genoese _noblesse_, they return his civilities with sullen
indifference, and half concealed contempt and aversion. The commerce of
Genoa is transferred to Leghorn, which increases in prosperity as the
former decays.

The climate of Genoa is said to be exceedingly mild during the winter,
being protected on the north by the Appennines, which tower above it to an
immense height. Beautiful villas and grounds tastefully laid out in
plantations of orange trees, pomegranates, etc., abound in the environs of
this city, and everything announces the extreme industry of the
inhabitants, for the soil is proverbially barren. This shews what they have
done and what they could still do were they free; but now they have nothing
to animate their exertions. The public promenades are on the bastions and
curtains of the fortifications, on the _Esplanade_ and in the streets
_Balbi_, _Nuova_ and _Nuovissima_. There is also another very delightful
promenade, tho' not much used by the ladies, viz., on the Mola or Pier
enveloping the harbour.

One of the most remarkable constructions in Genoa is the bridge of
Carignano, which is built over an immense ravine and unites the hills
Fengano and Carignano. It is so high that houses of six stories stand under
its arches in the valley below. No water except in times of flood runs
under this bridge and it much resembles, tho' somewhat larger, the bridge
at Edinburgh which unites the old and new towns. The principal churches
are: first, the Cathedral, which is not far from the Ducal Palace; it is
richly ornamented and incrusted with black marble; the church of the
Annunziata and that of St Sire. They are all in the Gothic style of
architecture and loaded with that variety of ornament and diversity of
beautiful marbles which distinguish the churches of Italy from those of any
other country. Near the bridge of Carignano is a church of the same name,
wherein are four marble colossal statues.

On the west of the city and running two miles along the sea-beach is the
_faubourg_ of St Pietro d'Arena, which presents a front of well built
houses the whole way; these houses are principally used as magazines and
store houses.


FLORENCE, 5 May.

I left Genoa on the 30th April, returned on mule-back from Genoa to
Sarzana, stopping the first night at Sestri. The second evening when near
Sarzana, it being very dark, I somehow or other got out of the road and my
mule fell with me into a very deep ditch; but I was only slightly bruised
by the fall; my clothes however were covered with dirt and wet. The road
from Genoa to Sarzana might with very little expense be made fit for
carriages by widening it. At present it is only a bridle road, and on some
parts of it, on the sides of ravines, it is I think a little ticklish to
trust entirely to the discretion of one's _monture_; at least I thought so
and dismounted twice to pass such places on foot. A winding stream is to be
forded in two or three places, but it is not deep except after rains; and
then I think it must be sometimes dangerous to pass, till the waters run
off. Those, who are fond of mountain scenery will, like myself, be highly
gratified in making this journey; for it is thro' the loftiest, wildest and
most romantic part of the Appennines. From Sarzana I hired a cabriolet to
return to Pisa and from thence I took the diligence to Florence.


FERRARA.

On the 9th of May I set out from Florence on my journey hither. Two days'
journey brought me to Bologna where I stopped one day; and the following
day I reached this place (Ferrara), six miles distant from Bologna. The
country between these two cities is a perfect plain and very fertile. At
Malalbergo (half-way) We crossed the Reno in a boat. I put up at the _Tre
Mori_ in Ferrara. Having remained two and half days here I have had time to
inspect and examine almost everything of consequence that the city affords.
The city itself has an imposing, venerable appearance and can boast of some
fine buildings; yet with all this there is an air of melancholy about it.
It is not peopled in proportion to its size and grass is seen growing in
several of the streets. I believe the unhealthiness of the environing
country is the cause of the decrease of population, for Ferrara lies on a
marshy plain, very liable to inundation In the centre of the city stands
the ancient Palace of the Dukes of Ferrara, a vast Gothic edifice, square,
and flanked with round towers, and a large court-yard in the centre. It was
in this court-yard that Hugo and Parisina were decapitated. From the top of
this palace a noble view of the plain of the Po represents itself, and you
see the meanderings of that King of Rivers, as the Italian poets term it.
As the Po runs thro' a perfectly flat country, and is encreased and swollen
by the torrents from the Alps and Appennines that fall into the smaller
rivers, which unite their tributary streams with the Po and accompany him
as his _seguaci_ to the Adriatic, this country is liable to the most
dreadful inundations: flocks and herds, farm-houses and sometimes whole
villages are swept away. Dykes, dams and canals innumerable are in
consequence constructed throughout this part of the country, to preserve it
as much as possible from such calamities. Ariosto's description of an
over-flowing of this river is very striking, and I here transcribe it:

  Con quel furor che il Re de' fiumi altero,
  Quando rompe tal volta argine e sponda,
  E che ne' campi Ocnei si apre il sentiero,
  E i grassi solchi e le biade feconde,
  E con le sue capanne il gregge intero,
  E co' cani i pastor porta neil' onde, etc.[118]

  Even with that rage wherewith the stream that reigns,
    The king of rivers--when he breaks his mound.
  And makes himself a way through Mantuan plains--
    The greasy furrows and glad harvests, round,
  And, with the sheepcotes, nock, and dogs and swains
    Bears off, in his o'erwhelming waters drowned.

  --Trans. W.S. ROSE.

The next place I went to see was the Lyceum or University, where there is a
very fair cabinet of natural history in all its branches. The Library is
very remarkable, and possesses a great number of valuable manuscripts. But
my principal object in visiting this Museum was to see the monument erected
in honour of Ariosto, which has been transferred here from the Benedictine
church. The inkstand and chair of this illustrious bard are carefully
preserved and exhibited. They exactly resemble the print of them that
accompanies the first edition of Hoole's translation of the _Orlando
Furioso_. Among the manuscripts what gratified me most was the manuscript
of the _Gerusalemme liberata_ of Tasso. But few corrections appear in this
manuscript; tho from the extreme polish and harmony of the versification
one would expect a great many. It is written in an extremely legible hand.

I also inspected the original manuscripts of the _Pastor Fido_ of Guarini
and of the _Suppositi_ of Ariosto.

I then went to visit the Hospital of St Anna, for the sake of seeing the
dungeon where poor Tasso was confined and treated as mad for several years.
When one beholds this wretched place, where a man can scarce stand upright,
one only wonders how he could survive such treatment; or how he could
escape becoming insane altogether. The old wooden door of this cell will
soon be entirely cut away by amateurs, as almost everyone who visits the
dungeon chops off a piece of wood from the door to keep as a relic. The
door is in consequence pieced and repaired with new wood, and in a short
time will be in the state of Sir John Cutter's worsted stockings which were
darned so often with silk that they became finally all silk.

Ferrara has a strong citadel which is still garrisoned by Austrian troops;
and they will probably not easily be induced to evacuate it. The Austrian
Eagle seldom looses his hold.


VENICE, 18th May.

On the 16th May at six o'clock in the morning I left Ferrara in a
_cabriolet_ to go to the _Ponte di Lago oscuro_, which is a large village
on the south bank of the Po, three miles distant from Ferrara. A flying
bridge wafted me across the river, which is exceedingly broad and rapid to
the north bank, where a barge was in waiting to receive passengers for
Venice. This barge is well fitted up and supplied with _comestibles_ of all
sorts and couches to recline on. The price is twelve francs for the
passage, and you pay extra for refreshments. The bark got under weigh at
seven o'clock and descended rapidly this majestic river, which however,
from its great breadth, and from the country on each side of it being
perfectly flat, did not offer any interesting points of view. Plains and
cattle grazing thereon were the only objects, for they take care to build
the farms and houses at a considerable distance from the banks, on account
of the inundations. After having descended the Po for a considerable
distance, we entered a canal which unites the Po with the Adige. We then
descended the Adige for a short distance, and entered another canal which
unites the Adige with the Brenta. Here we stopped to change barges, and it
required an hour and half to unload and reload the baggage. We then entered
the Brenta and from thence into the Lagoons, and passing by the islands of
Malamocco and Chiozzo entered Venice by the _Canale grande_ at three
o'clock in the morning. The whole night was so dark as totally to deprive
us of the view of the approach of Venice. The barge anchored near the Post
office and I hired a gondola to convey me to the inn called _Le Regina
d'Ungheria_.


VENICE, 26th May.

I was much struck, as everyone must be who sees it for the first time, at
the singular appearance of Venice. An immense city in the midst of the
Ocean, five miles distant from any land; canals instead of streets;
gondolas in lieu of carriages and horses! Yet it must not be inferred from
this that you are necessarily obliged to use a gondola in order to visit
the various parts of the city; for its structure is as follows. It is built
in compartments on piles on various mud banks, always covered indeed by
water, but very shallow and separated from each other (the mud banks I
mean) by deep water. On each of these compartments are built rows of
houses, each row giving front to a canal. The space between the backs of
the rows of houses forms a narrow street or alley paved with flag stones,
very like Cranborn Alley for instance; and these compartments are united to
each other (at the crossings as we should say) by means of stone bridges;
so that there is a series of alleys connected by a series of bridges which
form the _tout ensemble_ of this city; and you may thus go on foot thro'
every part of it. To go on horseback would be dangerous and almost
impracticable, for each bridge has a flight of steps for ascent and
descent. All this forms such a perfect labyrinth from the multiplicity and
similarity of the alleys and bridges, that it is impossible for any
stranger to find his way without a guide. I lost my way regularly every
time that I went from my inn to the _Piazza di San Marco_, which forms the
general rendezvous of the promenaders and is the fashionable lounge of
Venice; and every time I was obliged to hire a boy to reconduct me to my
inn. On this account, in order to avoid this perplexity and the expence of
hiring a gondola every time I wished to go to the _Piazza di San Marco_ I
removed to another inn, close to it, called _L'Osteria della Luna_, which
stands on the banks of the _Canale grande_ and is not twenty yards from the
_Piazza_.

I then hired a gondola for four days successively and visited every canal
and every part of the city. Almost every family of respectability keeps a
gondola, which is anchored at the steps of the front door of the house.
After the _Piazza di San Marco_, of which I shall speak presently, the
finest buildings and Palaces of the nobility are on the banks of the
_Canale grande_, which, from its winding in the shape of an S, has all the
appearance of a river. The _Rialto_ is the only bridge which connects the
opposite banks of the _Canale grande_; but there are four hundred smaller
bridges in Venice to connect the other canals.

The _Rialto_, the resort of the money changers and Jews, is a very singular
and picturesque construction, being of one arch, a very bold one. On each
side of this bridge is a range of jewellers' shops. A narrow Quai runs
along the banks of the _Canale grande_.

I have visited several of the _Palazzi_, particularly those of the families
Morosini, Cornaro, Pisani, Grimani, which are very rich in marbles of
_vert_ and _jaune antique_; but they are now nearly stripped of all their
furniture, uninhabited by their owners, or let to individuals, mostly
shopkeepers; for since the extinction of the Venetian Republic almost all
the nobility have retired to their estates on the _terra firma_, or to
their villas on the banks of the Brenta; so that Venice is now inhabited
chiefly by merchants, shopkeepers, chiefly jewellers and silk mercers,
seafaring people, the constituted authorities, and the garrison of the
place.

Tho' Venice has fallen very much into decay, since the subversion of the
Republic, as might naturally be expected, and still more so since it has
been under the Austrian domination, yet it is still a place of great
wealth, particularly in jewellery, silks and all articles of dress and
luxury. In the _Merceria_ you may see as much wealth displayed as in
Cheapside or in the Rue St Honore.

I have had the pleasure of witnessing a superb regatta or water _fete_,
given in honour of the visit of the Archduke Rainier to this city, in his
quality of Viceroy of the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom. There were about one
hundred and fifty barges, each fitted up by some department of trade and
commerce, with allegorical devices and statues richly ornamented,
emblematical of the trade or professions to which the barge belonged. Each
barge bore an appropriate ensign, and the dresses of the crew were all
tasteful, and thoroughly analogous to the profession they represented.
These barges are richly gilded, and from the variety of the costumes and
streamers, I thought it one of the most beautiful sights I ever beheld.
Here were the bankers' barge, the jewellers', the mercers', the tailors',
the shoe-makers', and, to crown all, the printers' barge, which showered
down from the masthead sonnets in honor of the _fete_, printed on board of
the barge itself. Every trade or profession, in short, had a barge and
appropriate flag and costumes. A quantity of private barges and gondolas
followed this procession. The Archduke and his staff occupied the
Government barge, which is very magnificent and made in imitation of the
Bucentaur. Musicians were on board of many of the barges, and the houses on
both banks of the _Canale Grande_ were filled with beautiful women and
other spectators waving their handkerchiefs. Guns were fired on the
embarkation of the Viceroy from the _Piazzetta di San Marco_, and on his
return. The _Piazza_ itself was splendidly illuminated, and the _cafes_
which abound there, and which constitute one half of the whole quadrangle,
were superbly and tastefully decorated.

The _Piazza di San Marco_ is certainly the most beautiful thing of the kind
in the world. It is a good deal in the style of the _Palais Royal_ at
Paris, and tho' not so large, is far more striking, from the very tasteful
and even sumptuous manner in which the _cafes_ are fitted up, both
internally and externally; they have spacious rooms with mirrors on all
sides, some in the shape of Turkish tents, others in that of Egyptian
temples. The _Piazza_, forming an oblong rectangle, is arcaded on the two
long sides, and of the two short ones, one presents a superb modern palace
built by Napoleon, and richly adorned with the statues of all the heathen
Gods on the top, which Palace was usually occupied by Eugene Napoleon; the
other presents the church of St Marco and the old palace of Government,
where in the time of the Republic the Doge used to reside. The church of St
Mark is unique as a temple in Europe, for it is neither Grecian nor Gothic,
but in a style completely Oriental, from the singularity of its structure,
its many gilded cupolas and the variety of its exterior ornaments. At
_first sight_ it appears a more striking object than either St Peter's in
Rome or St Paul's in London. On the top of the facade, which is singularly
picturesque, stand the four bronze horses which have been brought back from
Paris to their old residence.

I ascended the top of the facade in order to examine them. They are
beautifully formed, in very good cast and have not at all been damaged by
the journey. The _Piazza_ is paved with broad flagged stones. The Doge's
palace is a vast building, very picturesque withal, and seems a _melange_
of Gothic and Moorish architecture. At right angles to it and facing the
_Piazzetta_, which issues from the _Piazza_ and forms a quai to the _Canale
Grande_, stands the famous state prison and _Ponte de 'Sospiri_. On the
_Piazzetta_ and fronting the landing place stand two columns of white
marble, on one of which stands the winged Lion of St Marco and on the other
a crocodile, emblematical of the foreign commerce and possessions of the
Republic. The space between these two columns was allotted for the
execution of State criminals. Not far from the church of St Marco, and near
to that angle of the _Piazza_ which connects it with the _Piazzetta_,
stands the famous _Campanile_ or Steeple of San Marco. It is a square
building 800 feet in height, from the top of which one has the best view of
Venice and its adjacent isles, the distant Alps and the _marina dove il Po
discende_. A Quai, if Quai it may be called, which has a row of houses on
each side, one row of which is on the water's edge, leads from the
_Piazzetta_ to some gardens, which terminate on a point of land. This Quai
is very broad and well paved, and is the only thing that can be called a
street in all Venice. The _Piazza di San Marco_, therefore, this Quai and
the garden before mentioned form the only promenades in Venice. This garden
moreover has trees, and these are the only trees that are to be met with in
this city. In this garden are two _Cafes_.

The variety of costume is another very agreeable spectacle at Venice. Here
you meet with Albanians, Greeks, Turks, Moors, Sclavonians and Armenians,
all in their respective national costumes. The first Armenian I met with
here was sitting on a stone bench on the _Piazza di San Marco_, and this
brought forcibly to my recollection the Armenian in Schiller's
_Ghost-seer_.

These _Cafes_ and _Casinos_ on the _Piazza_ are open day and night. Ices
and coffee superiorly made and other refreshments of all kinds at very low
prices are to be had. Some of these _casinos_ are devoted to gaming. The
first families in Venice repair to the _Piazza_ in the evening after the
Opera, female as well as male. They promenade up and down the _Piazza_ or
sit down and converse in the _Cafes_ and _Casinos_ till a late hour. Few go
to bed in Venice in the summer time before six In the morning, so that
sleep seems for ever banished from the _Piazza_. Music and singing goes
forward in these _casinos_, and the ear is often charmed with the sound of
those delightful Venetian airs, whose simple melody ravishes the soul. The
Venetian dialect is very pleasing, and scarcely yields in harmony to the
Tuscan. It contains a great many Sclavonic words. It is the only dialect of
Italy that is at all pleasing to my ear, for I do not at all relish the
nasal twang and truncated terminations of the Piedmontese and Lombard
dialects, nor the semi-barbarous jargon of the Genoese and the Neapolitan
and, least of all, the execrable cacophony of the Bolognese.

I visited of course the Arsenal and the Doge's Palace. The apartments in
the latter are very spacious and ornamented in the Gothic taste of
grandeur. The chamber of the Council is peculiarly magnificent. There is a
good deal of tapestry and some fine paintings and statues: among the former
I particularly noticed an allegorical picture, representing the triumph of
Venice over the league of Cambray. Venice is represented by the winged
Lion, and the powers of the Coalition are pourtrayed by various other
beasts. Among the latter is a beautiful group in marble representing
Ganymede and the Eagle. The terror depicted in the countenance of the
beautiful boy, and the passion that seems to agitate the Eagle, are
surprizingly well pourtrayed.

The principal theatre at Venice, the _Teatro Fenice_, is not open; but I
have visited the other theatres, and among other things witnessed the
representation of a new opera, call'd _Il Lupo d'Ostende_. The piece itself
was rather interesting; but the music was feeble and did not seem to give
general satisfaction. The singing is in general very good at Venice, but in
scenery, dresses and decorations the theatres here are far inferior to
those of Milan and Naples.

I find the air of Venice very hot and unpleasant, arising from the
exhalation from the canals; and it appears to me as if I were on board of
an enormous ship. I begin to pant for _terra firma_ and green fields.

I have visited in a gondola some of the islands, viz., Malamocco and St
Lazare, where there is a convent of Armenian monks.

Why are the gondolas hung with black? it gives to them such a dismal
funereal appearance. They always resemble the bodies of hearses placed on
boats. I am not fond of gaudy colours in general, yet I do think a gondola
should have a somewhat livelier color than black.


PADUA, 8th June.

Padua is not above ten miles distant from Fusina. As I started from Venice
at six in the morning I had a fine receding view of the Ocean Queen, with
her steeples and turrets rising from the sea. Venice has no fortifications
and needs them not. Her insular position protects her from land attacks,
and the shoals prevent the approach of ships of war. Floating batteries
therefore and gunboats are her best defence. The road from Fusina to Padua
is on the banks of the Brenta the whole way, and is lined with trees. There
are a great number of villas on the banks of the Brenta, well built in the
best style of architecture, the most of them after the designs of Palladio,
the Prince of modern architects.

Padua is an exceedingly large city: but its arcades and the narrowness of
the streets give it a gloomy appearance. There are however some beautiful
promenades in the suburbs. There are also the remains of an ancient Arena.
Padua is famous for its Seminario or University, which is a superb edifice.
The Church of St Anthony of Padua is of vast size, having six cupolas.
There are four organs in this church. In the chapel of the Saint himself
are a great many ornaments, among which are a crucifix in bronze and
fresques representing the different actions and miracles of this patron
Saint of the Padovani. Probably as this city was founded by the Trojan
Antenor they have transformed his name into that of a Christian Saint and
called him St Anthony, just as Virgil has been transformed into a magician
at Naples. There is a fine view from the steeple of this immense edifice.
There is another magnificent church also in this city, that of St Justine,
built after the designs of Palladio, the principal ornament of which is a
painting of the martyrdom of the Saint by Paul Veronese. But one of the
greatest curiosities in this ancient city is the immense Saloon in the
_Palazzo della Giustizia_. It is, I presume, the loftiest and largest hall
in the world that is supported by nothing but its walls, it being three
hundred feet long, one hundred feet broad and one hundred feet high. In
the Saloon is the tomb of Livy, the Historian, who was a native of Padua.
The inhabitants of Padua dress much in black, seem a quiet, staid sort of
people, and are very industrious. I put up at the _Stella d'Oro_, a good
inn.


VICENZA, 10th June.

I arrived at this beautiful _bijou_ of a town on the morning of the 9th
June at eight o'clock. I call it a _bijou_ from its exceeding neatness, and
the extreme beauty of the architecture of its edifices, which are almost
all after the designs of Palladio, of white stone and in the Greek taste.
Palladio was a native of Vicenza. The _Piazza_ and _Palazzo Pubblico_
perfectly correspond with the beauty of the rest of the city, and the
promenades about it are tastefully laid out. But the two most striking
objects in point of edifices in Vicenza and both constructed by Palladio
are the covered portico and the _Teatro Olimpico_. The covered portico is
two miles in length and leads to the chapel of the _Madonna del Monte_,
situated on an eminence, at that distance from the city. A magnificent
triumphal arch stands before it, and there is an extensive view of the
surrounding country. The _Teatro Olimpico_ is a small, but beautiful
theatre, built strictly after the model of the ancient Greek theatres. It
is peculiarly precious as being the only one of the kind in Europe. How
admirably adapted both for seeing and hearing are such theatres! It has,
for scenery, the model of a Palace, curiously carved in wood, which
represents a Royal Palace, for the ancients never shifted their scenes, and
this may account for their adhering so strictly to the unities. Statues and
bas-reliefs adorn this beautiful little theatre. Many years ago, on
particular occasions, it was the custom to act plays here, either
translated from the Greek, or taken strictly from the Greek model. This
theatre is esteemed Palladio's _chef d'oeuvre_.

The _Campo di Marie_ is a vast _Place_ outside the town. The Place and its
gate are well worth inspecting, so is the famous villa with the Rotonda,
belonging to the Marchese di Capra, the original after which the villa
belonging to the Duke of Devonshire at Chiswick is built. The environs of
this interesting city are very beautiful and present an exceeding rich
soil, highly cultivated in corn, mulberry trees and vines hanging from them
in festoons.


VERONA, 12th June.

I started yesterday morning from Vicenza and arrived here in about three
hours, the distance being nearly the same as between Vicenza and Padua. We
crossed the Adige which divides the city into two unequal parts and drove
to the _Due Torri_, a large and comfortable inn with excellent rooms and
accommodations. Verona is a very handsome city, for here also Palladio was
the designer or builder of many edifices. It has a very cheerful and gay
appearance, tho' not quite so much so as Vicenza. The reason of this
difference is that in Verona the greater part of the buildings are in the
Gothic style, which always appears heavy and melancholy, whereas in Vicenza
all is Grecian. The Amphitheatre of course claimed my first notice. It
yields only to the Coliseum in size and grandeur and is in much better
preservation, the whole of the ellipse and its walls being entire, whereas
in the Coliseum part of the walls have been pulled down. Indeed the
Amphitheatre of Verona may be said to be almost perfectly entire. _Tempus
edax rerum_ has been its only enemy; whereas avarice and religious
fanaticism have contributed, much more than time, to the dilapidation of
the Coliseum. The Amphitheatre of Verona can contain 24,000 persons. In it
is constructed a temporary theatre of wood, where they perform plays and
farces in the open air. Verona is much embellished by several _Palazzi_
built by Palladio, which form a curious contrast with the other buildings
and churches which are in the Gothic style. Verona can boast among its
antiquities of three triumphal arches, the first, _Porta de' Bursari_,
erected in the year 252 in the reign of the Emperor Gallienus; the second,
called _Porta del Foro_; and the third, built by Vitruvius himself, in
honour of the family Gavia.

The churches here are richly ornamented and the _Palazzo del Consiglio_ has
many fine marble and bronze statues. In this city also are the tombs and
monuments of the Scala family, who were at one time Sovereigns of Verona.
They are in the Gothic style and of curious execution. The Cathedral has an
immense _campanile_ (steeple), from which is a fine view of the surrounding
country, and the progressive risings of the Alps, the lower parts of which
lie close upon Verona. Beautiful villas and farmhouses abound in the
neighbourhood of this city. The favourite promenades are the _Corso_ and
the _Bra_. On the _Bra_ I saw a very brilliant display of carriages, and
some very pretty women in them. The theatre is by Palladio, is exquisitely
beautiful, and very tastefully fitted up. I assisted at the representation
of _La Gazza Ladra_, one of Rossini's best operas.

I should think Verona would be a very delightful sejour; everything is very
cheap; a fine country highly cultivated; a remarkably healthy climate; a
society which unites much urbanity and a love of amusement with a taste for
the fine arts and for the graver sciences, and a general appearance of
opulence and comfort. The shops in Verona appear very splendid, and the
_Bra_, when lighted up in the evening, is a very lively and animating
scene.


MANTUA, 15 June.

I could not go to Milan without stepping a little out of my road to visit
this ancient and redoubtable fortress, so celebrated in the early campaigns
of Buonaparte, besides the other claims it has on the traveller's attention
as the birth place of Virgil. This place is of immense strength, as a
military post; being situated on a small isthmus of land, separating two
lakes, and communicating with the rest of the country by an exceeding
narrow causeway. This position, added to the strength of the
fortifications, render the fortress impregnable, if well garrisoned and
provisioned. The city is, however, unhealthy from the lake and marshy land
about it, and there is but a scanty population. Grass grows in the streets
and it is the dullest and indeed the only dull town in all Italy.
Everything in this city announces decay and melancholy, and I met with
several men looking full as halfstarved and deplorable as Shakespeare's
Apothecary in Romeo and Juliet. Yet the city is by no means an ugly one.
The buildings are imposing, the streets broad and well paved, and there is
a fine circular promenade in the centre of which is a Monument erected in
honor of Virgil by the French general Miollis, who had a great veneration
for all poets. The _Palazzo pubblico_ and the Cathedral are the most
striking buildings. The latter contains the tombs and monuments of the
Gonzaga family, the whilom Sovereigns of Mantua. There are also several
monuments in honor of some French officers, who were killed in the
campaigns of Italy under Buonaparte and erected to their memory by his
direction.

Outside the town, at a short distance from the causeway and _tete de pont_,
is the celebrated palace called the T, from its being in the form of that
letter, which was the usual residence of the Dukes of Mantua. It is a noble
edifice and its gardens are well laid out. These gardens have this
peculiarity, that at the entrance of each of the grand avenues is a figure
of a man on horseback caparizoned in armour, like the Knights of old. This
is all I have to say about Mantua. The Mincio beset with "osiers dank"
flows into the lake.


CREMONA, 16th June.

From Mantua I directed my course to this city, which is large and
fortified, situated on the Po which forms many little islands in the
environs. This city is of great antiquity, and has a number of Gothic
buildings. You do not find here the specimens and imitations of Grecian
architecture as at Vicenza and Verona. The _campanile_ of the Cathedral is
of immense height, but one is repaid for the fatigue of ascending by the
extensive view from its summit. There are 498 steps. I put up at the
_Colombina_, a very good inn. The Cremonese seem to be an industrious
people. There is a great deal of pasture land in the environs of this city
and much cheese is made here and in the Lodesan. Several ricefields are
also to be met with between this place and Lodi.


MILAN, 25 June.

I have been on a visit to the ancient and venerable city of Pavia, which is
about eighteen miles distant from Milan, thro' a rich highly cultivated
plain. The road lies in a right line the whole way. About three miles
distant from Pavia on the Milan side stands the celebrated _Certosa_, which
we stopped to visit. The church of the _Certosa_ contains the greatest
quantity of riches in marbles, and precious stones, of any building in the
world, probably. The architecture is Gothic, and the workmanship of the
exterior exquisite; but the ulterior is most dazzling; and at the sight of
the rich marbles and innumerable precious stones of all kinds with which it
abounds, I was reminded of Aladdin and began to fancy myself in the cavern
of the Wonderful Lamp. This church was built by Galeazzo Visconti, whose
coffin is here, and his statue also, in white marble. There are several
bas-reliefs of exquisite workmanship. There are no fewer than seventeen
altars here and of the most beautiful structure you can conceive, being
inlaid in mosaic with jasper, onyx and lapis-lazuli. Besides these precious
marbles of every colour and quantity under heaven, here are abundance of
rubies, emeralds, amethysts, aquamarines and topazes, incrusted in the
different chapels and altars. Here again is a proof of the falsehood and
injustice of the aspersions cast on the French army, as being the
plunderers of churches; for if they were so, how comes it that the
_Certosa_ the richest of all, was spared? Mr Eustace[119] in his admiration
of Church splendour, should at least have given the French no small degree
of credit for their abstinence from so rich a prize. A canal runs parallel
to the road the whole way from Milan to Pavia, where it joins the Tessino.
The banks of the Canal and each side of the road are lined with poplars.
Pavia is one of the most ancient cities in Italy and has something very
antique and solemn in its appearance. It is quite Gothic and was the
capital city of the Lombard Kings. The streets are broad and the _Piazza_
is large. I could not find any traces of the ancient palace of the Lombard
Kings, which I should like much to have done; for then I should have
endeavoured to make out the chamber into which Jocondo peeped and
discovered what cured him of his melancholy, and where the impatient Queen
received the petulant answer from her beloved Nano, conveyed by one of her
waiting maids who told her:

  E per non stare in perdita d'un soldo,
  A voi nega venire fl manigoldo.[120]

  Nor, lest he lose a doit, his paltry stake,
  Will that discourteous churl his game forsake

  --_Trans._ W.S. ROSE.


MILAN, 28th June.

I have been to the _Scala_ theatre, to see the _Ballet of the Vestal_, one
of the most interesting Ballets I ever beheld. Oh! what a mighty magician
is the ballet master Vigano, and as for the prima ballerina, Pallerini,
what praises can equal her merit? then, the delightful soul soothing music,
so harmonious, so pathetic, and the decorations so truly tasteful and
classical! I can never forget the impression this fascinating Ballet made
on me. It is called _La Vestale_. It opens with a view of the Circus in
ancient Rome, and various gymnastic exercises, combats of gladiators, of
athletes, and ends with a chariot race with real horses. The Roman Consuls
are present in all their pomp, surrounded by Lictors with axes and fasces.
The Vestal virgins assist at this spectacle, and from one of them the
victor in the games receives a garland, as the recompense of his prowess.
The victor is the son of one of the Consuls and the hero of the piece; the
heroine is the Vestal Virgin who crowns him with the garland. The young
victor becomes desperately enamored of the Vestale, and she appears also to
feel an incipient flame. After the games are over, the victor returns to
his father's house, and meeting there one of his friends, discloses to him
his love for the Vestale and his idea of entering by stealth into the
temple of Vesta, where his beloved was appointed to watch the sacred fire.
His friend endeavors, but in vain, to dissuade him from so rash an attempt,
which can only end in the destruction, both of his beloved and himself. All
the remonstrances, however, of the friend are vain; and the hero fixed in
his resolve watches for the opportunity, when it is the turn of his beloved
to officiate in the temple of Vesta, and enters therein. The Vestale is
terrified and supplicates him to retire: in vain; and after a long but
ineffectual struggle she sinks into his arms at the foot of the altar.
Suddenly the sacred flame becomes extinguished; a noise is heard; the
Vestals enter; the unfortunate fair is roused from her stupor by the noise
of footsteps and has just time to oblige her lover to retire, which he
reluctantly does, but not unperceived by the Vestals. The Matron of the
Vestals reproaches her with the crime she has committed and orders her to
be placed in a dungeon. She is brought out to be examined by the High
Priest, found guilty and condemned by him to the usual punishment of the
Vestals for a breach of their vow, viz., the being buried alive outside the
gates of Rome. The moment the sentence is pronounced a black veil is thrown
over her. The scene then changes to the place of execution; the funeral
procession takes place; the vault is dug and a man stands by with a pitcher
of water and loaf of bread, to deliver to her when she should descend. The
Consuls are present, attended by the Lictors and Aediles. All the other
vestals are present, of whom the culprit takes an affectionate leave and is
about to descend into the vault. Suddenly a noise of arms and shouts are
heard. It is her lover who having collected a few followers come rushing
forward with arms in their hands to arrest the execution. He forces his way
into the presence of the Consuls, but the sight of his father inspires him
with awe; he staggers back; at this moment a Lictor at the command of the
other Consul plunges a spear into his breast. The Vestal is hurried to the
brink of the vault, into which she is forced to descend to the
accompaniment of mournful music, while her dying lover vainly endeavours to
crawl towards her. The curtain falls.

The exquisite acting of La Pallerini drew tears from my eyes: it was indeed
too horrible a subject for a _Ballo_, which in my opinion ought to end
happily. The scenery was the finest of the kind I think I ever witnessed.
The first scene represents the _Circus maximus_; the interior of the temple
of Vesta and the place of execution outside the walls of Rome were most
classically correct and appropriate: the music was beyond all praise and
singularly affecting. This Ballet has excited such an enthusiastic
approbation that Vigano the Ballet master, Pallerini who acts the Vestal
and the young man who performs the hero of the piece were summoned every
evening after the termination of the Ballet, to appear on the stage, and
receive applauses, which seemed to increase at every representation. I have
been to see this ballet six or seven times, and always with increased
delight. I was there on the last night of its representation, when some
amateurs and people connected with the theatre put in practice what
appeared to mean ill-judged _concetto_, however well merited the compliment
it meant to convey. When the Vestal was about to descend into the vault, a
genius with wings rose from it and repeated a few lines beginning _Tu non
morrai_ and telling her that the suffrages of the Insubrian people had
decreed to her immortality, and printed sonnets were showered down on the
stage from all parts of the house. I think it would have been much better
to let the piece finish in the usual way, and then at its termination call
for La Pallerini to advance and receive the garlands and hommage so justly
her due.

I was in the _loge_ belonging to my friend Mme L-----; there were three or
four _litterati_ with her, and they were all unanimous that it was an
absurd and pedantic _concetto_.

In a day or two I shall start from Milan for Munich thro' Brescia and
Verona and the Tyrol.




CHAPTER XVI

JULY-SEPTEMBER 1818

Innspruck--Tyrol and the Tyrolese--From Innspruck to Munich--Monuments and
churches--Theatricals--Journey from Munich to Vienna on a floss--Trouble
with a passport--Complicated system of Austrian money--Description of
Vienna--The Prater--The theatres--Schiller's _Joan of Arc_--A
_Kinderballet_--The young Napoleon at Schoenbrunn--Journey from Vienna to
Prague.


INNSPRUCK, 15th July.

I had engaged with a _vetturino_ to convey me from Verona to Innspruck for
four _louis d'or_ and to be _spesato_. A Roman gentleman and his lady were
my fellow travellers; they were going to pass the summer months at a small
_campagne_ they possess in the Tyrol. We stopped the first night at
Roveredo. The road from Verona to Roveredo is on the banks of the Adige
(called in German the Etsch) in a narrow and deep valley, shut up on both
sides by mountains, almost immediately on leaving Verona. We found the
weather extremely hot in this valley. Roveredo seems to be a very neat
clean little city, and the Adige flows with astonishing rapidity along this
narrow valley. The women of Roveredo have the reputation of being very
beautiful; and I recollect having seen two Roveredo girls at Venice, who
were models of female beauty. They have a happy mixture of German and
Italian blood and manners, but Italian is the language of the country. The
second morning of our journey we arrived and stopped to dinner at the
venerable and celebrated city of Trent. The country we passed thro' is much
the same as that between Verona and Roveredo, the Adige being on our left.
Trent lies also in the valley of the Adige, shut up between the Alps. The
whole valley appears in high cultivation. The streets of Trent are broad;
the Cathedral is a remarkably fine Gothic building. In the church of Sta
Maria Maggiore was held the famous council of Trent. There are a great many
silk mills in Trent. German as well as Italian is spoken; indeed the two
languages are equally familiar to most of the inhabitants. In the evening
we arrived at Sabern after passing thro' Lavis. One description will serve
for these towns and indeed for most of the towns in the Tyrol, viz., that
of being neat, clean and solidly built. The inns are excellent and the
inhabitants very civil. The Adige runs close to the road and parallel to
it, nearly the whole way to Bolsano or Botzen, where Italian ceases to be
spoken and German is the national tongue. Botzen is a large and flourishing
place.

One general description will serve for the Tyrol, regarding the towns,
adjacent country, customs, inns, inhabitants, dress and manners.

First the towns are fully as neat, clean and well built as those in
Switzerland; the country too is very similar, tho' not quite on so grand a
scale of sublimity; but you have fully as much variety in mountain and
valley, glacier and cascade. The climate is exactly the same as that of
Switzerland, being very hot in the valleys in summer. The inns are clean
and good, the provisions excellent and well cooked, the wines much better
than those of Switzerland; there is good attendance by females and all at a
far cheaper rate than in Switzerland. The Tyroleans are much more courteous
in their manners than the Swiss; they have not that boorishness and are of
more elegant figure than their Helvetic neighbours. The women of the Tyrol
are in general remarkably beautiful, exceedingly well shaped and of fine
complexions.

In the towns the bourgeoises dress well, something in the French style, and
it is their custom to salute travellers who pass by kissing their hands to
them. The dress of the female peasantry, however, is unpleasing to the eye
and so uncouth, that it would make the most beautiful women appear homely.
In the first place I will speak of their head dress, of which there are
three different kinds, two of which are as _bizarre_ as can be imagined.
The first sort is a cap of sheepskin, the fleece of which is as white as
snow, and the cap is of conical shape, the base being exceeding large in
proportion to its height, and resembles much the sugar loaves made in
Egypt. The second is a black scull cap, with the three pieces of stiff
black _gaze_, sticking out like the vanes of a windmill; so that when put
on the head, one vane stands upright from the forehead and the other two
from each ear. The third head dress is a broad straw hat, and I wish they
would stick to this coiffure, and discard the two others. Then the waist of
their dress is as long as

 ...du pole antarctique an detroit de Davis.[121]

Their petticoats are exceedingly short, scarcely reaching the calf of the
legs, which are enveloped in a pair of flaming red stockings. Who the devil
could invent such an ungraceful dress for a female?

The costume of the men on the contrary is becoming and graceful. It
resembles very much the costume of the Andalusians. The hat is exactly the
same, the crown being small and the rim very broad.

The Tyroleans are a fine gallant race of men and are excellent marksmen.
They were formerly much attached to the House of Austria; but that
attachment is now entirely changed to dislike, from the ingratitude they
have met with, since they have been replaced under that scepter.

The only fault I find in the Tyroleans, is that they are rather too devout
and consequently too much under the influence of the clergy. Yet in their
devotion there is not the smallest tinge of hypocrisy and they are esteemed
a highly moral people.

If you arrive at an inn in the evening, while the family are at prayer,
neither master nor servants will come to wait on you, till prayers are
over; and then you will be served with sufficient alacrity; but the prayers
are rather long.

I believe the priests extort a good deal of money from these good people.
The road thro' the Tyrol was made by the Romans, in the time of Septimus
Severus. An immense number of Crucifixes on the road attest and command the
devotion of the people.

How Kotzebue can call Innspruck a dirty town I am at a loss to conceive. He
must have visited it during very rainy weather; for to me it appears one of
the cleanest and most chearful towns I have ever seen. There are several
very fine buildings, for instance the Jesuits' College, and the Franciscan
monastery; Nothing can be more picturesque than the situation of this city
in the valley of the Inn and its romantic windings. The suburbs are very
extensive and can boast several fine houses. The cupola of the Government
House is gilded, which gives it a splendid appearance. In the _Hofkirche_
or church of the court there are a number of statues, large as life, in
bronze; among which my guide pointed out to me those of Clovis, Godfrey of
Bouillon, Albert the Wise, Charles V, Philip II of Spain, Rudolph of
Hapsburgh, and to my great astonishment the British King Arthur; there were
twenty-eight statues altogether. But on my return to my inn, I found that
my guide had made a great error respecting King Arthur, and that the said
statue represented Prince Arthur, son of Henry VII, King of England, and
not the old Hero of Romance; and my hostess' book further informed me that
these statues were those of the Kings and Princes belonging to families
connected by descent and blood with Maximilian I. In the same _Hofkirche_
is a fine monument erected to Maximilian and a statue of bronze of this
Emperor is figured kneeling between four bronze figures representing four
Virtues. In the gardens of the Palace of the Archduke Ferdinand in this
city is a fine equestrian statue which rests entirely on the hind feet of
the horse. From Innspruck there is a water passage by the river Inn all the
way to Vienna, as the Inn flows into the Danube at Passau. The banks of the
Inn are so romantic and picturesque that I would willingly prolong my
_sejour_ at Innspruck, but as I mean to take the journey from Mittenwald to
Munich by the river Isar, I must take advantage of the raft which starts
from that place the day after to-morrow.


MUNICH, 20th July.

I left Innspruck in a _chaise de poste_ on the 16th, and arrived the same
evening at five o'clock at Mittenwald. At a short distance before I arrived
at Mittenwald, I entered the Bavarian territory, which announces itself by
a turnpike gate painted white and blue, the colours and _Feldzeichen_ of
Bavaria. In the Austrian territory the barriers are painted black and
yellow, these being the characteristic colors of Austria.

Mittenwald is a small neat town, offering nothing remarkable but a church
yard or _Ruhe-garten_ (garden of repose) as it is called, where there are a
number of quaint inscriptions on the tombstones. At Mittenwald I had some
trouble about my passport, as it was not _vise_ by a Bavarian authority;
but I explained to the officer that I had never fallen in with any Bavarian
authority since I left Rome, and that, while at Rome, I had no intention of
going thro' Bavaria; that at Milan the Austrian authorities had _vise_ my
passport for Vienna and that I should only pass thro' Munich, without
making a longer stay than one week. He acquiesced in my argument, but
inserted my explanation on the passport. At half a quarter of a mile beyond
Mittenwald I met the raft just about to get under weigh at eleven o'clock
a.m. This raft is about as long as the length of a thirty-six gun frigate,
and formed of spars fastened together; on this is a platform about one and
a half feet high. The Isar begins its course close to Mittenwald, and the
place on which the raft stood, previous to departure, was very shallow; but
water was quickly let in from sluices to float the raft, and off we set
with a cargo of peasants, male and female, and merchandise bound for
Munich. As the river Isar rushes between immense mountains, and forms a
continual descent until the plains of Bavaria open to view, you may
conceive with what rapidity we went. We encountered several falls of water
of two, three, four and sometimes five feet which we had to _shoot_, which
no boat could possibly do without being upset. The lower part of the raft
was frequently under water in making these _shoots_ and we were obliged to
hold on fast to our seats to prevent being jerked off. Nothing can be more
romantic and picturesque than this journey, and there is something aweful
in _shooting_ these falls; these rafts are, however, so solidly constructed
that there is no danger whatever. They can neither sink nor upset. We
arrived and halted the evening at Toelz, a large village or town on the
right bank of the Isar. What gives to Toelz a remarkably singular appearance
is, that on a height at a short distance from the town, and hanging
abruptly over the river, you perceive several figures in wood, larger than
the life, which figures form groups, representing the whole history of the
passion of Jesus Christ. At a short distance, if you are not prepared for
this, you suppose that they are real men, and that a procession or
execution is going forward. On landing I immediately ascended this hill in
order to observe this curiosity, and there I beheld the following groups,
first: Christ in the midst of his disciples preaching; secondly: the
disciples asleep in a cave, and Christ watching and praying; next was Judas
betraying Christ to the soldiery; then the judgment of Christ before
Pilate; then Christ bearing his cross to the place of execution; and lastly
the crucifixion on Mount Calvary. The ground is curiously laid out so as to
represent, as much as possible, the ground in the environs of Jerusalem.
Toelz is a pretty village, but contains nothing more remarkable than the
above groups.

The next day at twelve o'clock we perceived the spires of Munich, and at
two anchored close to one of the bridges from whence, having hired a
wheelbarrow to trundle my portmanteau, I repaired to the inn called the
Golden Cross--_Zum goldenen Kreutz_. At Toelz the Rhetian Alps recede from
the view; the landscape then presents a sloping plain which is perfectly
level within four miles of Munich. The river widens immediately on issuing
from the gorges of the Tyrol and for the last five miles we were followed
by boys on the banks of the river, begging for wood, with which our raft
was laden, and we threw to them many a faggot. Wood is the great export
from the Tyrol to Bavaria, as the latter is a flat country and has not much
wood, with which on the contrary the Tyrol abounds. A sensible difference
of climate is now felt and the air is keener than in the Tyrol. The price
of a place on the raft from Mittenwald to Munich cost only one florin, and
at Toelz an excellent supper, bed and coffee in the morning cost me only one
florin.


MUNICH, 23rd July.

Munich, the capital of Bavaria, is an ancient Gothic city of venerable
appearance. The houses are very solid in structure, and the streets
sufficiently broad to give to the city a cheerful appearance. There are
some suburbs added to it, built in the modern taste, which embellish it
greatly. A large Place outside the old town, called the _Carolinen-Platz,_
presents a number of villas disposed in the form of a circus. In these
suburbs the people assemble on holidays and Sundays, to smoke and drink
beer, of which a great quantity is consumed, it being the favorite and
national beverage. From the lively scene of the lower class of the
bourgeoisie, male and female, meeting here in the _Biersschanks_ and
_Tanzsaale_ I was reminded of the lines in Faust:

      Gewiss man findet hier
  Die schoensten Maedchen, und das beste Bier,

which may be thus rendered:

  Here let us halt! 'tis here we're sure to find
  Beer of the best and maidens fair and kind!

There are other very agreeable promenades outside the town, laid out as
_jardins anglais,_ the garden of Ostenwald for instance; and should you
wish to extend your walk further, there is Nymphenburg, a royal Palace and
gardens, just one league distant from the city.

The _Residenz-schloss_ or Palace of the King is a solid building. The
interior is well worth seeing. There is a superb saloon with a vast number
of valuable miniatures appended to the wainscoating. An enormously heavy
bed, groaning with gold and silver embroidery and pearls and which is said
to weigh a ton, is to be seen here. There is a very good collection of
pictures, chiefly portraits, of the Electoral, now Royal family. There is a
fine chapel too belonging to this palace; a superb staircase of marble, and
some fine old tapestry representing the actions of Otto von Wittelsbach.
There is likewise a curious miniature copy of Trajan's column in gold and
incrusted with precious stones, besides a variety of other things of value.

There are two theatres in Munich; one called the Hof or Court theatre,
where there is a company of comedians for tragedy and comedy, the expences
of which are defrayed principally by the King. The boxes are generally let
to the nobility and the _parterre_ is open to every body on payment. I
witnessed the representation of Mozart's _Nozze di Figaro._ The King was
present and was greeted with much affection. He has a very benignant
expression of countenance. He is much beloved by his subjects, for he has
governed them paternally. He has given to them a constitution _unasked;_
for they were so contented with the old Government, that they desired no
change; but he, with his usual good sense, saw the propriety of consulting
and complying with the spirit of the age. A German writer of some eminence
at the time of the French Revolution, when the aristocrats and alarmists of
all countries were crying out against it, and proposing harsh measures to
arrest its progress, said: "Sovereigns of Europe, do you wish to set bounds
to the progress of French principles? Nothing can be more simple; you have
only to govern your people like Maximilian of Bavaria and Frederick of
Saxony, and your subjects will never desire a change."

At the German (national) theatre which is a fair sized one, I saw a tragedy
performed called _Der Wald bey Herman-stadt_ (the Forest near
Hermanstadt),[122] It was an interesting piece taken from a feudal legend.
The part of Elisene was performed by Mlle Vohs, a very good actress. I
missed very much one thing in Munich, and that is the want of _cafes_ like
those in France and Italy, which have so brilliant an appearance. They make
coffee here at the inns; and there are two or three dull places up one pair
of stairs, where they play at billiards, and make as indifferent coffee as
is made in England. The hour of dining at Munich is in general one o'clock.
A slice of ham or sausage with beer form the _gouter,_ usually taken at
five or six o'clock; and at nine follows a supper as solid as the dinner.
The Germans are not loungers as the French and Italians, who, for the most
part, spend all their spare time in coffee-houses. When I mentioned to a
Bavarian that I could find no _cafes_ in Munich resembling those in France
and Italy, he said with emphasis! _Gott bewahre_ (God forbid)! I could not
help thinking he was in the right; for those splendid _cafes_ are very
seducing to young people and tend to encourage a life of idleness and to
keep them from their studies. The lower _bourgeoisie_ and _Stubenmaedchen_
(_maidservants_) wear a singular head dress. It is made of stuff worked
with silver or gold and resembles two horns sticking out one at each ear.
This head dress must be costly. This class of women wear also on _fete_
days gold crosses, collars and earrings.

The Bavarians seem a frank, honest set of people, tho' sometimes a little
rough, in their exterior deportment. The character of Otto of Wittelsbach,
in the tragedy of that name, gives the best idea of the Bavarian character.

I have made acquaintance here with a Mr F-----, an Austrian gentleman, and
two Polish gentlemen, the one an officer and the other a medical man. They
are brothers and had both served in the French army. We have agreed to
travel to Vienna together on board of the raft which starts every week from
Munich to Vienna. This raft brings to every day between twelve o'clock and
two near some town or village on the banks of the river, in order to allow
the passengers to dine, and anchors every evening at seven o'clock near
some town or village to sup and sleep. You have only to tell the
_Flossmeister_, or Master of the Raft, at what inn you mean to put up, or
if you have no preference, he will recommend you one; and at five the next
morning he goes his rounds to the different inns to collect his passengers,
and at six gets under weigh.


VIENNA, 2nd August.

I left Munich on the 25th July and arrived on the 6th day of our journey,
30th July, at Vienna, The _Floss_, or raft, on board of which we embarked,
is about as long as the main deck of an eighty-four gun ship and about
forty feet in breadth. It is constructed of strong spars lashed together.
On the spars is constructed a large platform and on the platform several
cabins, containing tables and chairs. Mr F----, the Poles and myself hired
a cabin to ourselves. On the raft was a great deal of merchandize going to
Vienna. At Vienna the _Flossmeister_, after landing his passengers and
merchandize, sells his raft and returns on horseback to Munich. A raft is
constructed weekly at Munich from wood felled in the Tyrol and floated on
the Isar down to Munich. We arrived the first evening at Freysingen, but it
was nearly dark when we arrived; it seemed however as far as we could
observe to be a neat village; at any rate, we met with a very comfortable
inn there with good fare and good beds. We met with a very pleasant family
on board the raft, bound to Landshut; M. and Mme S. were extremely
well-informed people and their two daughters very fine girls.

We arrived the following day at twelve o'clock at Landshut, which is a very
fine town. There is an immense Gothic tower or steeple to the Church of St
Martin, about 450 feet in height. At Deckendorf, where the Isar flows into
the Danube, I saluted for the first time that noble river. We stopped the
night at Pillshofen and arrived the following day at twelve o'clock at
Passau. Passau is a large, well built and handsome city, and is situated on
the confluent of three rivers, the Inn, the Illst and the Danube; for here
the two former flow into the latter, one on each side. Each of these rivers
just before the point of juncture seem to be of different colors; for
example the Danube appears blue, the Inn white, and the Illst black. At
Passau we put up at the Wild Man (_Zum Wilden Mann_), a favorite sign for
inns in these parts.

The Cathedral and _Residenz-Schloss_ are striking buildings, and the city
has a lively and grand appearance. The women appear to be in general
handsome and well dressed. We brought to the evening at Engelhardtzell,
where the barrier, painted black and yellow, announced our return to the
Austrian territory. We underwent at the Customs house a rigid search for
tobacco: they even took away the tobacco that some passengers had in their
pouches. They were likewise very rigid about our passports. The English
passports do not please them at all, on account of the features of the
bearer not being specified therein, and as I answered their questions in
German, they supposed me to be a native of that country and asked me what
business I had with a British passport. I replied: _Weil ich ein Englaender
bin.--Sie ein Englaender? Sie 'sind gewiss aus Nord Deutschland. Sie
sprechen recht gut Deutsch.--Meine Herren, ich bin ein Englaender: viele
Englaender studieren und sprechen Deutsch, und wenn Siemit mir eine
langeUnterredung gehalten haetten, so haetten Sie bald ausgefunden durch
meine Sprachfehler, dass ich kein geborner Deutscher bin.--Aber Sie haben
unsere Fragen vollkommen gut beantwortet.--Warum nicht? man hat mir die
nehmlichen Fragen so wiederholten Malen gestellt, dass ich die dazu
gehoerigen Antworte auswendig habe, wie em Katechismus_.[123] The officer
laughed, took up a pen, _vised_ and gave me back my passport.

The whole of the country on the banks of this noble river the Danube is
picturesque and presents much variety. There cannot be a more delightful
summer tour than a descent down this river. The next town of consequence
that we arrived at was Linz, a large, populous and beautifully built city
and capital of Upper Austria. The circumjacent country is in part
mountainous. The Danube is very broad here, and there is an immensely long
wooden bridge. We put up at the inn _Zum goldenen Kreutz_ (golden cross).
Here it became indispensably necessary to change our money for Austrian
paper, for that sort of it called _Wiener Waehrung_ (Vienna security), since
neither foreign coin nor another description of Austrian paper, called
_Conventions-Muenze_ (conventional currency), are current for ordinary
purposes; and it is necessary to get them changed for the current paper
_Wiener Waehrung._To explain this matter more fully and clearly: there are
two sorts of paper money in the Austrian Dominions. One is called
_Conventions-Muenze_ (conventional currency), which is fully equivalent to
gold and sliver and cannot be refused as such throughout the whole of the
Austrian dominions; the other, called _Wiener Waehrung_ (Vienna security) is
current and payable in Austria proper only, and bears a loss, out of the
Archduchy. The value of the _Wiener Waehrung_ fluctuates considerably, but
the usual par of exchange is as 2 to 1: that means, two hundred florins
_Wiener Waehrung_ are equal to one hundred _Convenzions-Muenze_ or gold and
silver money. Even the _Convenzions-Muenze_ bears a loss, tho' trifling, out
of the Imperial Dominions. The exchange has been known to have been at 400
per cent; that is, four hundred florins _Wiener Waehrung_ were only worth
one hundred florins gold and silver; but just now it may be reckoned a
little beyond par, fluctuating from 200 to 220. In fact, the value of a
florin _Wiener Waehrung_ may be calculated at a frank in French money. All
this is exceedingly troublesome to travellers, particularly to those who do
not understand the German language; for as they cannot read the
inscription, it would be difficult for them to know the difference between
one sort of paper money and the other and they might be seriously imposed
upon. I advise therefore all travellers, before they arrive at the Austrian
frontier, whether coming from Bavaria, Saxony, or Italy, to buy up the
_Wiener Waehrung_ notes they may meet with, and which may be purchased at
great profit, probably, beyond the frontier, whereas if they defer
purchasing till they arrive within the Austrian frontier, they can only
procure the _Wiener Waehrung_ at the common rate of exchange current.

At Linz we find ourselves again in a wine country. Linz is renowned for the
beauty of its women, and we had a most favorable specimen in our landlord's
daughter, one of the most beautiful girls I ever beheld. We talked to her a
great deal, and a scene ridiculous enough occurred. She has very beautiful
arms which we all seemed to admire; and all at once, by instinct as it
were, the two Poles lifted up one arm and I the other, and our respective
lips were fastened on either arm at the same moment as if by word of
command. We apologized for the liberty we took, saying that her arms were
perfectly irresistible and that we had never seen such fine ones before.
She accepted our excuse with the utmost good nature, and laughed very
heartily. Her father is a man of information and a good classical scholar,
a thing which is by no means uncommon among the inn-keepers of Germany. We
stopped here that night, and the ensuing forenoon. We had an excellent
supper, very good wine, and we drank to the health of the fair Amalia, the
host's daughter. Our host, who was a friend of Mr F----'s, gave us the
best of every thing, and our expences did not amount to more than seven
florins _Wiener Waehrung_, for supper, bed, breakfast and dinner. We passed
the forenoon in visiting the different parts of the city and we were struck
with the appearance of opulence and industry that prevails.

Before we arrived at Moelk, which is the next important place, we passed the
town of Ens and beyond that the famous _Strudel_ or Whirlpool which is
dangerous at times for boats. Our raft was completely whirled round. This
whirlpool is caused by rocks rising abruptly out of the water. The popular
tradition is that this whirlpool is the abode of a very malicious and
spiteful _Wassernixe_, Undine or Water Goblin, who delighted in drowning
passengers. The scenery hereabouts is more wild and romantic than what we
have hitherto passed and bears a great resemblance to the landscape on the
Rhine between Mayence and Coblentz. Moelk is an Abbey and a very magnificent
edifice it is, situated on an eminence which forms the angle with the river
and rises quite _a pio_ from the water's edge; it lies quite _en face_ to
those who approach it, descending the stream, so that the river seems to be
terminated by it. It commands a noble prospect. I had only time to inspect
hastily the church. Beyond Moelk is a range of rocks that bear a great
resemblance to a wall, and jut out a great deal towards the river. It is
called the _Devil's wall_ from the tradition of the Devil having
endeavoured to make a wall to dam up the river. Above this wall is the
famous castle and vineyard called _Spitz am Platz_, and further on is the
castle of Dierenstein, situated on a mountain on the left bank of the
Danube. The ascent is very steep; this castle, now in ruins, was the place
where Richard Coeur de Lion was confined. The walls only of the castle and
part of the chapel are all that remain; we did not fail to visit a place of
such celebrity. A convent lies below it.

We brought to the night at a large village where there is an excellent inn;
and the next day, the Leopoldsberg, bursting forth to view, announced to us
the approach to Vienna. We anchored at Nussdorf, where there is a Custom
house, and from whence the distance to Vienna is about one and half mile
English. After having my trunk examined, I hired a hackney coach and drove
into Vienna. The barriers beyond the suburb are called _Lines_, and between
the Suburbs and the old town is an Esplanade. We entered the Suburbs by the
_Waehringer Linie_, and the old town by the _Rothes Thor_ (Red gate); and
from thence I repaired to the inn _Zum weissen Wolf_ (white Wolf) in the
_Altem Fleischmarkt_ (old meat-market).


VIENNA, Augt. 4.

The old town of Vienna is not very large, since you can walk round its
circumference on the ramparts in two hours. It was formerly fortified, but
the French blew up the fortifications, leaving only the rampart; and by so
doing they did a thing of great utility for the Viennese, and gave to the
Austrian government an excellent opportunity of joining the old town to the
magnificent faubourgs, by filling up the esplanade which separates them
with streets and squares, which would prevent the unpleasant effects of
dust in dry, and the mud in wet weather, for this dust and mud renders the
esplanade almost at all times a disagreeable promenade, there being a sharp
wind prevalent almost the whole year at Vienna, which blows about the dust
_en tourbillons_. Here then was an excellent opportunity, afforded by the
blowing up of the fortifications, of paving the whole of the esplanade and
filling it up with streets. But no! the Austrian government seem determined
upon restoring the fortifications, and a considerable number of workmen are
employed. This is very silly, for these fortifications are not of the least
use against a foreign enemy, inasmuch as the enemy can always erect his
batteries among the faubourgs and need only make one parallel, the
protection and cover afforded to him by the faubourgs rendering the other
two superfluous. The faubourgs are by far the finest part of the city, and
the garrison of the old town, in endeavouring to defend it, would destroy
by every shot they should fire the fine buildings on the faubourgs. Of the
folly of making such a defence they were made fully sensible in 1809. One
of the Archdukes threw himself into the old town of Vienna, with an
intention of defending it to the last and refused to surrender. Napoleon
caused batteries to be erected on the _Rennweg_ or _Corso_ covered by the
church of St Charles, the Manege and Palace of the Hungarian noble guard,
all magnificent buildings in the faubourgs. He then summoned the garrison
of the old town again to surrender saying: "Every shot fired against the
besiegers destroys your own most valuable property and finest edifices."
This argument, backed by the entreaties of the citizens, had its effect and
the capitulation was signed. This shows the perfect inutility of fortifying
the old town of Vienna against a foreign enemy. Indeed a capital city
should never be fortified; it generally contains too many things of value,
ever to be exposed to the risk of a bombardment. It would seem, however,
that the object of the Austrian government in reconstructing these works
were to keep its own subjects at Vienna in check. But in this case it would
be much more advisable to construct a fortress on the heights of Kahlenberg
or of Leopoldsberg, both of which command the city and the whole expanse
below. The Turks were encamped on the Kahlenberg at the famous siege of
Vienna.

Vienna proper, the old town, is a Gothic city, but a very handsome one. The
streets are in general broad and well paved; but the _Places_ or Squares
are small. With the exception of the _Herrengasse_, where the nobility
reside, the rest of Vienna is inhabited by shopkeepers and wholesale
dealers; and the shops are brilliant and well fitted up. The _Kaernthner
Strasse_, a long and tolerably broad street, and the _Kohlmarkt_ present
the greatest display of wealth. Indeed the _Kaernthner Strasse_ may be
considered as the principal street; this street and the _Kohlmarkt_ have a
great resemblance to the finest parts of Holborn. The _Graben_ also present
a fine display of shops and may be termed the Bond Street of Vienna. The
_Sanct Stephans Platz_ where the Cathedral church of Vienna, called _St
Stephans Kirche_, stands, is the largest _Place_ in Vienna. The Cathedral
is a very ancient and curious Gothic edifice, and the steeple is nearly 450
feet high. I happened to enter the Cathedral one day on the occasion of a
solemn requiem celebrated for the soul of Prince Metternich's father. Had
it been for the son, instead of the father, many an honorable man
persecuted at the instigation of that most machiavelic of all ministers,
might exclaim in making a slight alteration in a well known epitaph:

  Cy-git M---- ah! qu'il est bien
  Pour son repos et pour le mien!

Among the other striking buildings in the old town is the _Hofburg_ or
Imperial Palace, a very extensive quadrangular building, with a large court
in its centre. A Guard mounts here every day at eleven o'clock. It was in
one of the saloons of this palace that the celebrated Congress of Vienna
was held; a Congress whose labours will be long and severely felt by Europe
and duly appreciated by posterity, who will feel any other sentiment but
that of gratitude for the arrangements entered into there. The _Hofburg_
was built by Leopold VII in 1200. This building, from its being extremely
irregular and from its having received additions at intervals in the
different styles of architecture, has been aptly enough considered as the
type of the Austrian monarchy, and of its growth from a Markgraviate to an
Empire; in _this_, by the continued acquisition of foreign territories
differing from each other in manners and hi speech; in _that_, by the
continued addition of various specimens of architecture and style of
building in its augmentation.


VIENNA, Aug. 8th.

I am very well content with my abode at the _Weisser Wolf_, tho' it is not
a first-rate hotel. They are very civil people, and I have an excellent and
spacious room for two florins _Wiener Whaerung_ per diem. Lodgings are the
only things that are dear in Vienna, every other article is, however,
cheaper than in any other city I have yet been in. All kinds of Hungarian
wine may be had at the most reasonable prices. I generally breakfast at a
neighbouring _Cafe_ in the _Fleischmarkt_ for the sake of reading the
_Allgemeine Zeitung_ which is taken in there, and which is the only journal
having a shade of liberality which is permitted in the Austrian dominions.
From the hours of twelve to three, dinners _a la carte_ are served at the
_Weisser Wolf_. For two and half florins _W.W._, I get an excellent dinner
with a bottle of Offener wine. The wine of Offen resembles much that of
Bordeaux in its quality and flavor. The tariff however of the dinners and
wines varies daily a few kreutzers, in consequence of the eternal
fluctuation of the _W.W._, so that every morning a fresh tariff is affixed
to the wainscot of the saloon where the dinners are served. Supper, served
likewise _a la carte_, is at its full tide between the hours of eight and
ten o'clock; and as Vienna is renowned for the celebrity of its beefsteaks
and cutlets, called here _Rostbraten_, these and a salad seem to be the
favourite dish for supper. My mornings I have hitherto passed in lounging
about the _Kaernthner Gasse, St Stephen's Platz, Kohlmarkt_, etc. For an
hour before dinner the fashionable promenade is on the rampart in front of
the palace of Duke Albert of Saxe-Teschen; in the evening on the _Prater_,
in a carriage, on horseback, or on foot. The _Prater_ is of immense extent
and offers a great variety of amusements and sights. I generally return
home at night pretty well fatigued from my rambles.

There is another great inconvenience at Vienna, resulting from the
fluctuation of the current money, and this is that a stranger, dwelling at
an inn, is sure to be disturbed five or six times in the morning, sometimes
as early as five or six o'clock, by Jews who rap at his door to enquire if
he wants to exchange gold and silver against currency or _vice versa_. I
used to lose all patience at being so disturbed in the morning, and was
obliged in self-defence to put an affiche on the door of my room to this
effect: "_Man kauft und verkauft hier nichts; kein Wechsler darf
hereintreten_." "Here there is no buying and selling; no money changer is
allowed to come in," and I hereby recommend to all strangers not to treat
with these Jews, but on their arrival, or at any time they think fit, to go
to a banking establishment in this city, where every day after eleven
o'clock you can exchange your gold and silver for paper at the just rate of
exchange, as published at the Bourse, paying only a very slight premium,
and on leaving Vienna to go to the same establishment to change your
superfluous _Wiener Waehrung_ for _Convenzions Muenze_ or gold and silver
money. For when the Jews tell you the rate of exchange is so and so, you
conclude probably your bargain with them, and on enquiring at the Bourse
you find that the Jew has made a percentage of six or eight per cent, out
of you. _Louis d'or_ are the best foreign coin to bring into the Austrian
Dominions. Next to them in utility are the Dutch ducats, or _Geharnischte
Maenner_ as they are termed, from the figure of the man in armour upon them.
All other corns suffer a loss in proportion. The bankers in Vienna pay the
foreign bill of exchange in _Convenzions Muenze_, which you must afterwards
change for _Wiener Waehrung_, the only current money in Vienna and Austria.
But what makes it additionally troublesome is that here in Vienna there are
particular payments, which must absolutely be paid in gold or silver or
_Convenzions Muenze_, and _not Wiener Waehrung_; for instance the franking of
foreign letters at the post office, where they do not take the _Wiener
Waehrung_. In vain you may intreat them to take the _Wiener Waehrung_ at any
rate they please; no! you must go elsewhere and buy from the first person
you can meet with as much gold and silver as is required for the franking
of the letters; so bigotted are they in the Austrian dominions to the
letter of the law! This happened to me: I wanted to frank three letters for
England and I went to the post office with _Wiener Waehrung_ paper, not
being aware of this regulation, and I was obliged to return to my Hotel, to
lay hold of a Jew, and to buy from him as much gold and silver as was
requisite for the franking of the letters.

At the _Wechselbank_ or Bank of Exchange I have before mentioned, the crowd
that attends daily is immense; but the business is carried on without hurry
or confusion. You hand in your paper or your gold and silver coin, the
clerk who receives it gives you an order on paper for the amount specified,
which paper you take into another room and therein receive the amount. This
establishment, however, remains open only two hours every day, between
eleven and one I believe; so if you are too late for this interval of time,
you must apply to the brokers, Christian or Israelite.


VIENNA, August 11th.

We left the old town by the _Burg-thor,_ and crossing the Esplanade,
directed our course to the _Rennweg,_ one of the suburbs, in order to view
the majestic edifice of St Charles, which is equal in the beauty of its
architecture to many of the finest churches in Rome. Its facade and cupola
render it one of the most striking buildings belonging to Vienna. We next
visited the _Manege_ and the Palace called the palace of the Hungarian
Noble Guard. They are both beautiful edifices. The faubourgs of Vienna are
built in the modern style and their buildings, both public and private,
excellent in their way and in the best state. The streets of the faubourgs
are broad but not paved. The most celebrated of these faubourgs are _Maria
Huelf_, _Leopold-stadt_, _Landstrasse_, the _Rennweg_, the _Wuehringer
Gasse_; and I am persuaded that if the old town were united to the faubourg
by means of streets and squares and the esplanade filled up with buildings,
Vienna would perhaps be the handsomest city in Europe and the fourth in
size, for the best buildings and palaces are in the faubourgs, viz., the
Military College, the Polytechnic School, St Charles' Church, the Porcelain
fabric, the Palaces of Esterhazy, Kaunitz, Stahremberg, Schwarzenberg,
Palfy, and the beautiful Palace and ground of Belvedere in which last is a
noble collection of pictures open to the public. At the Polytechnic school
one of the principal professors is a friend of Mr F------'s, and he
explained to us the nature of the establishment and the course of studies
pursued. The apparatus for every branch of science is on the grandest
scale. After dinner we repaired to the _Prater_, crossing a branch of the
Danube which here forms several islands. The _Prater_ requires and deserves
particular mention. Part of it is something in the style of the _Champs
Elysees_ at Paris, and it is fully equal to it in the variety of amusements
and enjoyments to be met with there; but it is far larger and more
beautiful on account of its landscape and the diversified manner in which
the grounds are laid out. The _Prater_, then, is an immense park, laid out
on an island of considerable extent on the Danube. The nearest faubourg to
it is the _Leopoldstadt_, which is also the most fashionable one, and a
bridge conducts you from that faubourg direct into the _Prater_. The
_Prater_ presents a mixture of garden, meadow, upland and forest; the lofty
trees arranged in avenues or in clumps give a delightful protecting shade.
On the road destined for the carriages there is every afternoon a most
brilliant display of carriages. Another avenue is destined for equestrians,
and two avenues, one on each side of these two, for pedestrians. There are
besides winding footpaths, that conduct you all over this vast extent of
ground, and circular grass plots surrounded by trees where the pedestrian
may repose and eat and drink if he will. Here are _restaurants_ in plenty,
_cafes_, Panoramas, exhibitions of wild beasts, swings, tennis courts,
places for running at the ring, do for burlesque dramatic performances,
_farceurs_, jugglers, De Bach's Equestrian Amphitheatre in the style of
Franconi, _Salles de Danse_, baths, billiard rooms, gaming tables, and even
houses appropriated to gallantry. In fact, the _Prater_ is quite the
Paradise of the bourgeoisie of Vienna, who are fond of the pleasures of the
table and take every opportunity of making dinner and supper parties. The
bourgeois of Vienna are far more sensual than spiritual and not at all
disposed to self-denial.

Excellent hams and sausages are to be had here; and the Viennese who dines
and sups heartily at his own house never fails, during his evening
promenade, to take a tolerable good portion of ham or sausage, with a
proportion of Offen wine or Maylander Beer, by way of staying his stomach
during the tedious interval between dinner and supper. I need scarce add
that smoking is universal, as indeed it is all over Germany, for I scarcely
ever see a German without a pipe either in his mouth or fastened to his
coat and a bag or pouch of tobacco either in his pocket or attached to his
button hole. In the _Prater_ dances often take place in the open air
between the grisettes of Vienna, who are in general handsome and well made,
and who dress well, and their lovers and admirers. The _Prater_ was first
opened to the public by the Emperor Joseph II. The _Au-garten_ is another
place of recreation and amusement, but on a smaller and much more tranquil
and sober scale, than the _Prater_. None of the lower classes think of
coming here, tho' it is open to every body decently dressed: there is not
that profuse eating and drinking going forward. It is more properly
speaking a promenade, and forms a garden with alleys of trees where music
is often performed and there is a superb saloon where refreshments may be
had. The _Au-garten_ is frequented chiefly by the _Noblesse_ and _Haute
Bourgeoisie_. In the morning likewise it is a fashionable resort to drink
the mineral waters. It adjoins the _Prater_, being on the same island. It
was the favourite lounge of Joseph II, who opened it to the public by
affixing this inscription on one of the gates:

  Allen Menschen gewidmete Erlustigung von ihrem Schaetzer

  "Place of recreation open to all Men by their esteemer."


VIENNA, Aug. 13th.

There are a great number of theatres at Vienna. Two are situated in the old
town, viz., the _Hof-theater_ and the _Burg-theater_. The _Hof-theater_ is
only open when the Court are at Vienna, and they are now at Baden, ten
leagues distant. The _Burg-theater_ is open all the year round, and may be
considered as the national theatre. It is much frequented by the
bourgeoisie and inhabitants of the old town, who do not chuse to take the
trouble to go to the _Wieden-theater_, which is situated in the faubourgs,
and which is more of a classical and fashionable theatre than the other,
inasmuch as it is more elegantly and classically built, better fitted up,
and has a far better company of comedians. At the _Burgtheater_ I saw
Kotzebue's _Edelsinn und Armuth_ performed. The Wieden theatre which is, as
I have said, in the faubourgs, is the handsomest theatre perhaps in Europe
for its size. It is not large, but it is fitted up with so much taste and
you see and hear so well; every ornament is so chaste and there is nothing
at all tawdry or superfluous. It is, I really think, a model of what every
theatre ought to be. There is a good deal of bronze about it which gives it
a classical appearance, and the boxes are supported by Caryatides in
bronze. There is a peculiarity in all the theatres at Vienna, which is,
that in the _parterre_ you must sit in the place the number of which is
marked on your ticket. These places are called _Gesperrte Sitze,_ and each
seat resembles an armchair. When not occupied, the seat is folded up and
locked to the back of the chair, until the person who holds the ticket
corresponding to its number comes to take it; so that no other but the
person holding the ticket corresponding to the number can take it, and you
are thus never likely to be shoved out of your place, as you are at most of
the theatres in Europe. There are men stationed at the doors who follow you
into the _parterre_ to unlock and let down a seat for you, and to them you
give your ticket with a slight gratification, which is however quite
optional; your ticket you previously pay for at the door.


VIENNA, Augt. 20th.

I have been to see Schoenbrunn, the usual residence of the young Napoleon;
but he is now at Baden with the Imperial family, where his mother, who is
lately arrived from Italy, is also on a visit. The young Napoleon is said
to be a remarkable fine boy, and a great favorite with his grandfather the
Emperor. Many are the anecdotes related of him. I shall mention one. He had
heard so often talk of his father, that shortly after the arrival of his
mother, he wished to see his father also and asked his attendants
repeatedly and not in a very patient tone: _Wo ist denn mein Vater?_[124]
This was told to his grandfather the Emperor; and he gave directions that
the child should be brought to him, the very next time he should put the
question. He then said to him: _Du moechtestwissen wo dein Vater ist? Er ist
in Verhaft. Man hat es mit ihm gut gemeint; weil er aber unruhig war, so
hat man ihn in Verhaft gestellt, und Dich wird man auch verhaften, wenn Du
unruhig bist._[125]

So much for this anecdote; but I did not hear what was the answer of the
young prince. The young Napoleon is, it appears, a great favorite of the
soldiers, who quite adore him, and he will sometimes go into the kitchen to
get bread and meat to give to the soldiers on Guard at the Palace. A
singular event happened lately to Maria Louisa. During her stay at
Schonbrunn, her _chatouille,_ with several things of value in it,
_bijouterie,_ etc., was stolen from her. She caused enquiries to be made,
and researches to be set on foot. Nobody has been able to find out who took
it; but it was put back in the precise place from whence it was taken, and
not a single article of the _bijouterie_ or things of value was missing. It
is supposed this theft was made for political purposes, in order to
discover the nature of her epistolary correspondence, if any existed. Had
it been taken by a vulgar thief, it is not probable that the articles of
value would have been restored. Such is the unhappy condition of that
Princess to be always an object of suspicion and espionnage.


_Journey to Prague_.


I left Vienna on the 28th August in a _Landkutsche_ and arrived at Prague
on the first of September.

These _Landkutsche_ are on the same plan and footing with the _vetture_ in
Italy, and travel in the same manner, with this difference, however; that
the _Landkutscher_ do not usually, as the _vetturini_ do, undertake to
provide for the supper and bed of their passengers. In a word, you are not
_spesato;_ and in Germany there is not the least necessity for it, for
there is no such thing as extortion on the part of the German innkeepers,
who are by far the most respectable of that profession. Besides, in most
places, everything is _tariffed,_ and where it is not, the landlord never
makes an unreasonable demand, or attempts to make foreigners pay more than
natives; whereas in Italy if you are not _spesato_ there are no bounds to
the rapacity of the innkeepers, witness mine host of Terracina. Both Italy
and Germany present the greatest convenience for travellers, as the
_Landkutsche_ or _vetture_ are continually passing from town to town. There
is however this difference between them, that the Italian _vetturini_ will
abate their price, if their carriage is full excepting one place, and that
they must start, whereas the German _Landkutscher_ never abate their price.

I paid for my journey from Vienna to Prague thirty-five florins _Wiener
Waehrung,_ and we made the journey in five days. Our first day's journey
brought us to Hoellabrunn, having stoppd to dinner at Stockeran. The road is
excellent and the several towns and villages we past thro' clean and well
built. The landscape was either a plain, or gently undulating and extremely
well cultivated.

Bohemia resembles Moravia, being an exceedingly rich corn country,
generally open; not many trees about the country near the road side, except
at the _Chateau_ and farm houses. The language is a dialect of the
Sclavonic, mixed with some German; but at the inns there is always one or
two servants who speak German. In Bohemia a traveller not speaking German,
and who has no interpreter with him, would find himself greatly
embarrassed. The Bohemians call themselves in their own language
_Cherschky_, and the Hungarians call themselves _Magyar_.


[117] Tasso, _Gerusalemme liberata_, canto XV, ottave 31, 32:

      Un uom della Liguria avra ardimento
      All' incognito corao esporsi in prima...
      Tu spiegherai, Colombo, a un nuovo polo
      Lontane si le fortunate antenne...--ED.


[118] Ariosto, Orlando Furioso, XL, 31, 1.--ED.

[119] See reference to Eustace p. 131.

[120] Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_, XXVIII, 38, 7.--ED.

[121] Boileau, _Satires_, XI, v. 117.

[122] The drama, _Der Wold bei Hermannstadt,_ is the work of Johanna
    Fraenul von Weissenthurn (1773-1847), a celebrated Viennese actress
    and authoress. An opera was written on the same text by W. Westmeyer,
    --ED.

[123] Because I am an Englishman--You are an Englishman? you are certainly
    a North-German; you speak very correct German.--Gentlemen, I tell you
    I am an Englishman; many English study and speak the German language
    and if you had held a long conversation with me, you would soon have
    perceived from my faults in speaking, that I am not a German.--But you
    have answered our questions so correctly.--Why not, the same questions
    have been put to me so often that I have all the necessary answers by
    heart like a catechism.

[124] Where is my father?

[125] "You wish to know where your father is? He is under arrest; people
    were well disposed to him; but he is placed under arrest, because he
    was unruly, and if you are unruly you will be placed under arrest
    likewise."




CHAPTER XVII

SEPTEMBER 1818-MARCH 1819

The splendid city of Prague--The German expression, "To give the
basket"--Journey from Prague to Dresden--Journey from Dresden to Berlin--A
description of Berlin--The Prussian Army--Theatricals--Peasants talk about
Napoleon--Prussians and French should be allies--Absurd policy of the
English Tories--Journey from Berlin to Dresden--A description of
Dresden--The battle of Dresden in 1813--Clubs at Dresden--Theatricals--
German beds--Saxon scholars--The picture gallery--Tobacco an ally of
Legitimacy--Saxon women--Meissen--Unjust policy of Europe towards the King
of Saxony.


PRAGUE, 4 Sept.

Prague is a far more striking and splendid city than Vienna, without its
faubourgs. The streets are broader; and it has a more cheerful and less
confined appearance than the old town of Vienna. The position of Prague too
is very romantic and picturesque, part of it lying on a mountain and part
on a plain; and it stands on the confluent of two rivers, the Mulda and the
Braun. The upper part of the city, called Oberburg, stands on a height
called Ratschin, and on this height stands a most magnificent palace and
other stately buildings. There is a beautiful panoramic view from this part
of Prague. In this part of the city too is the cathedral of St Wenzel or
Wenceslaus, who was its founder. His tomb and that of St John Nepomucene, a
favorite saint of the Bohemians, is in this church. The Cathedral is of
extreme solidity, but little ornamented, having been plundered by the
Swedes in 1648. The canopy over the shrine of St John Nepomucene has a
profusion of votive offerings appended to it. The lower part of Prague is
divided into two parts by the Mulda. The bridge across the Mulda is one of
the finest in Europe. It has twenty-four arches, its length is 1700 feet
and its breadth 35. Among several statues on this bridge is a very
remarkable one of Jesus Christ, made of bronze gilt, which cost a large sum
of money to its founder, a Jew! There is a Latin inscription on it which
explains the paradox. There stood on the same spot a wooden statue of
Christ in the XVI century. One day an opulent Jew, on passing by, made some
scoffing or contemptuous remark on it. He was overheard by some of the
people, accused of blasphemy and condemned to die; but on expressing great
contrition and offering to pay a fine to any amount, he was pardoned, on
the condition of his promising to erect a bronze statue gilt of Jesus
Christ on the same spot, at his own expense, with an inscription explaining
the reason of its construction; which promise he punctually performed.
Prague abounds in Jews. Two-thirds at least of its population are of that
persuasion. In the lower town the most striking edifices are the palace of
the Wallenstein family, descendants of the famous Wallenstein, so
distinguished in the Thirty Years war. Annexed to this Palace is a spacious
garden, which is open to the public as a promenade. It is well laid out.
There is a large aviary. This Palace covers a vast extent of ground. The
Colloredo family, who are descended from Wenceslaus, have a superb Palace
in this city; and there is a stable belonging to it, partly in marble and
of rich architecture, capable of containing thirty-six horses. No traveller
who comes to Prague should omit visiting these two Palaces of Wallenstein
and Colloredo. On the bridge over the Mulda before mentioned, is the statue
in bronze of St John Nepomucene, on the spot from whence he was thrown into
the river by his brother saint, King Wenceslaus, for refusing to divulge
the gallantries of his (Wenceslaus') wife, to whom he was confessor. A
favorite promenade on Sundays is on the _Faerber Insel_ or Dyers island,
which is a small island on the Mulda. Here the young men of the town come
to dance with the _grisettes_ and milliner girls of Prague, who are
renowned for their beauty and complaisance.

The Jewish burying ground is a curiosity for a person who has never visited
the Oriental countries. The tombstones are stowed thick together. Everybody
recollects the anecdote of the ingenious method adopted by Joseph II for
squeezing a large sum of money from the Jews of Prague, by giving out that
he intended to claim this cemetery, in order to build therein a Palace. The
Jews who, like all the Orientals, have the most profound veneration for the
spot where their ancestors are buried, presented a large sum of money to
the Emperor, to induce him to renounce his design.

The _Stadt-Haus_ (Hotel de Ville) is a fine building; and the _Marktplatz_
(market square) is very spacious, and contributes much to the beauty of the
town. In the centre of it stands an ancient fountain of a dodecagonal form.
The basin is of red marble, and near it stands a large stone column, with a
statue of the Virgin, bronze gilt, on its summit. A well supplied market,
or rather fair, is carried on here every day in the week. The Theatre is a
fine building and is of immense size. I witnessd the representation of a
burlesque tragedy called _Die Belagerung von Ypsilon_ (the siege of
Ypsilon), but I could not at all comprehend the cream of the jest. Madame
Catalani, who is here, sang at this theatre one night. The theatre was
completely filled and the price of admission to the boxes and _parterre_ a
ducat. The street adjoining to the theatre was crowded by people
endeavoring to catch the sweet sounds. Immense hommage has been paid to
Catalani by the authorities here.

The balls of the _bourgeoisie_ of Prague are splendid and well attended.
The _bourgeoisie_ is very opulent in this city. There are but few residents
_Noblesse_. The expences at the inns here are rather greater than those at
Vienna, wine being a foreign commodity and beer the national beverage. My
daily expences here for lodging, dinner, supper and breakfast amounted to
four florins _Convenzions Muenze_, about nine franks nearly, French money.
The country environing Prague is rich and abounding in corn; there are
likewise hops. The walls of Prague still bear the marks made by Frederic's
shot when he blockaded Prague.


PRAGUE, 7th Sept.

To-morrow I shall start for Dresden, The diligence goes off only once a
week, but I have engaged a car or rather light basket waggon drawn by two
horses (a vehicle very common in Germany) to convey me to Dresden in two
days and half. I am to pay for half of the waggon, and another traveller
will pay for the remaining half.

Before I leave Prague I must tell you that I have found out the origin of
the German phrases _Jemand den Korb zu geben (to give the basket)_, which
means a refusal of marriage. Thus when a young lady refuses an offer of
marriage on the part of her admirer, the phrase is: _Sie hat ihm den Korb
gegeben_ (_She has given him the basket_). Hitherto I have not met with any
one who could explain to me satisfactorily the origin of so singular a
phrase; but on reading lately a volume of the _Volksmaehrchen_ (_Popular
tales_) I found not only the derivation of this phrase, but also that of
the name of the city of Prague. Both are connected in the same story, and
both concern the history of Prague. The story is as follows.

Libussa, Duchess of Bohemia, had three lovers, two of whom were not
remarkably intelligent, but the third possessed a great deal of talent and
was her favorite. She was much importuned by the rival suitors. She
appeared before them one day with a basket filled with plums in her hand;
and said she would give her hand in marriage to whoever of them should
guess the following arithmetical riddle. She said: "One of you shall take
half the plums that are in this basket, and one over: another shall take
half of what remains, and one over: the third shall take half of what still
remains and three over, and then all the plums will have been taken. Now
tell me how many plums there are in the basket." Her favorite was the only
one who could guess the number of plums which was _thirty_. To him
therefore she gave her hand and the plums, and to the other suitors the
empty basket. Hence the phrase. The solution of the question is as follows:

    A takes half of the plums in the basket (30) and one
      over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 + 1 = 16
    B half of what remained (14) and one over  . . . . .  7 + 1 =  8
    C half of what remained (6) and three over . . . . .  3 + 3 =  6
                                                           ---
                                                         Total    30

Now with regard to the origin of the city of Prague. The former residence
was much too small, and Libussa directed her workmen to build a town on the
spot, where they should find at midday a man making the _best use of his
teeth_. They began their research and one day at that hour discovered a
carpenter sawing a block of wood. It struck them that this laborious man
was making a better use of his teeth (viz., teeth of his saw) than the mere
feeder and they judged that this ought to be the place where the town
should be built. They therefore proceeded to trace with a plough the
circumference of the town. On asking the carpenter what he was about to
make with the block he was sawing, he said " A threshold for a door," which
is called _Prah_ or _Praha_ in the Bohemian language and Libussa gave to
the city the name of _Praha_ or _Prag_.


BERLIN, 24th Sept.

Berlin has a splendid and cheerful appearance, with fine broad streets,
superb white buildings and Palaces, for the most part in the Grecian taste;
it has quite the appearance in short of an Italian city. Nearly all the
streets are at right angles; they are kept very clean and the shops make a
brilliant display. I felt so much pain in my legs, from the effect of my
pedestrian journey, that I was obliged to remain in my chamber one entire
day. There is a very good _table d'hote_ at my bin for twelve _Groschen_.
Wine is paid for extra, and at the rate of from 12 to 18 _Groschen_ the
bottle. The sort usually drunk here is the Medoc. The prices of articles of
prune necessity are dearer in Berlin than either at Dresden or Vienna;
particularly the article of washing, which is dearer than in any country I
have yet visited.

The next morning I began my rambles, and directed my course to the favorite
and fashionable promenade of the _beau monde_, at all hours of the day, I
mean in the fine street or alley _Unter den Linden_, so called from it
being planted with lime trees. There is a range of elegant buildings on
each side, and at the end, near the _Thier Garten_ (Park), is a superb gate
called the _Brandenburger Thor_ in the shape of a triumphal arch ornamented
with a statue of Peace, with an olive branch in her hand, standing on a car
drawn by four horses abreast, the whole groupe being of bronze and of
exquisite workmanship. The four horses are imitated from the Corinthian
horses at Venice and yield to them in nothing but antiquity. Indeed they
have a much more pleasing and striking effect, in being thus attached to a
car, than standing by themselves, as the Venetian ones do, on the top of
the facade of a church. This _Brandenburger Thor_ is constructed after the
model of the Propylaeum of Athens.

The Opera House, a building in the Grecian taste erected by Frederic the
Great with the inscription _Apollini et Musis_, and after that the Academy
of the Fine Arts engaged my attention. Both these buildings are remarkable,
and they are near the _Linden_. The old town is much intersected by canals
communicating with the Spree which divides it. I call it the old town, to
distinguish it from the quarter composed of streets of recent construction
between the former _enceinte_ of the town and the Brandenburger Thor. The
Hotel of the Invalides, a ponderous building, bears the following
inscription: _Laesis non victis_. The Bank and the Arsenal next engaged my
attention, as also a Guard House of recent construction in the shape of a
Doric temple. The Royal Palace is an immense building, partly in the Gothic
and partly in the Grecian style. It is very heavy but imposing. The
interior of this Palace is royally fitted up, except the little room
occupied by the great Frederic, which is left in the same state as when he
occupied it; and you know he was not fond of superfluous ornament. In the
green before the Palace stands the statue of the Prince of Anhalt Dessau,
the founder of the Prussian Infantry system, and at a short distance from
this, on the _Lange Bruecke,_ stands the colossal equestrian statue in
bronze of the Great Elector.

The _Koenigstrasse_ is the principal street and a very fine one it is; next
to it in point of beauty is the _Franzoesische_ _Strasse_. The _Wilhelm
Platz_ is adorned with the statues in marble of Schwerin, Seidlitz, Keith,
Winterfeld, and Ziethen. But I cannot enumerate all the splendid public
establishments and fine things to be seen in this beautiful city. The most
striking church is that of St Hedwig. I call it the most striking from its
resemblance to the Pantheon at Rome. The Cathedral is perhaps a finer
building. 'Tis in this last that the Electoral and Royal remains are
deposited.

The streets 'here swarm with military, and indeed the profession of arms
seems to have too much sway in the Prussian dominions. The subalterns and
young men of the Prussian Army are said to have republican sentiments, and
they, in common with all the burghers, desire a constitution. It galls them
to see one enjoyed by the Bavarians, whom they affect to look upon as
inferior to them in intelligence, and that it should be refused to them.
Most of the nobility and the greater part of the General and field officers
are however inveterate aristocrats.

You have heard, I dare say, of the attempt made by some officers among the
nobility to exclude from the service, after the peace, those officers who
were not noble. When it is considered that their best and most zealous
officers sprung from the burghers, and that Prussia, when abandoned by her
King and nobles, was saved from permanent subjection only by the
unparalleled exertions of her burghers and peasantry, one is shocked at
such ingratitude and absurdity. But the officers of the Royal Guard went so
far as to draw up a petition to the King, requesting him to dismiss all the
officers of the corps who were not noble, and Blucher was applied to to
present this petition to the King. Blucher read the paper and ordered all
the officers to assemble on the parade and thus addressed them: "Gentlemen,
I have received your paper and read its contents with the utmost
astonishment. All the remarks that I shall permit myself to make on the
subject of this petition, are, that it makes me ashamed of being myself a
noble." He then tore the petition in pieces and dismissed them.

I have been once at the theatre. _Lodoiska_ was performed. I saw a number
of fine women in the boxes. Formerly gallantry and pleasure were the order
of the day at Berlin; but now, the Court assuming the exterior of rigid
morality and strictly exercised religious devotion, mystic cant and
dullness is the order of the day. The death of the Queen of Prussia threw a
great damp over the amusements of the Court. At Charlottenburg, which is a
short distance from Berlin, in the grounds there, they point out to you her
favourite spots. She was a most amiable Princess, and united to great
personal beauty so much grace and fascination and so many good qualities
that she was beloved by all, and the breath of calumny never ventured to
assail her.

The alley _Unter den Linden_ in the evening presents a great assemblage of
Cyprian nymphs, who promenade up and down; they dress well and are
perfectly well behaved. There is a superb establishment of this kind at
Berlin, which all strangers should visit out of curiosity. It is not
indispensably necessary to sacrifice to the Goddess whose worship is
carried on there; but you may limit yourself to admire the temple, call for
refreshments and contemplate the priestesses.

There is the utmost moral and political freedom at Berlin, and tho' the
Government is despotic in form, freedom of speech is allowed. An army of
200,000 men admirably disciplined and armed, of these a garrison of 15,000
men in Berlin and as many at Potsdam, are quite sufficient to keep in check
all attempts to put political theories and speculations into practice.
Indeed, it would be very difficult to excite a revolt; the various German
governments are carried on very paternally and the government is scarcely
felt; habits of obedience have taken deep root among the people, and a
German peasant as long as he gets enough to eat and drink, does not
conceive himself unhappy, or thinks of a change. I could not help laughing
the other day, at a little village near Berlin, when I heard some peasants
talking of Napoleon; one of them, who seemed to have some partiality for
him, exclaimed, meaning to blame him for leaving Elba: _Aber warum verliess
er seine Insel? Er hatte doch zu essen und trinken so viel er wolte_ (Why
did he leave Elba? He had surely plenty to eat and drink). This good
peasant could not conceive that a man blessed with these comforts should
like to change his situation or run any risks to do so.

French as well as German is commonly spoken in Berlin, and I am glad to see
that the prejudice against the French is wearing off. If the French and
Prussians could understand one another, and knew their own interests, or if
the French had a liberal national Government, I mean, one more identified
with the interests of the people than the present one is, what advantage
might not rise therefrom? They are natural allies, and united they might be
able effectually to humble the overbearing insolence and political
coxcombry of the Czar, shake to its centre the systematic despotism and
light-fearing leader of Austria, and keep in check the commercial
greediness, monopolizing spirit and Tory arrogance of England. The German
political writers duly appreciate the illiberal policy of England towards
the continental nations, by which she invariably helps to crush liberty on
the Continent in the hopes of paralysing their energies and industry, in
order to compel them to buy English manufactures, and in fine to make them
dependent on England for every article of consumption. England, ever since
the beginning of the reign of George III to the present day, has been
always ready to lend a hand to crush liberty, to perpetuate abuses and to
rivet the fetters of monarchial, feudal and ecclesiastical tyranny.

These are facts and cannot be denied. The English people have been taxed to
the last farthing to support a war of privileges against Freedom; and
Europe is in consequence prostrate at the feet of an unprincipled
coalition, thro' England's arms and England's gold; and then an English
minister, and his vile hireling journals, tell you that the continental
nations are not ripe for and do not deserve liberty. Even the Pope and
Grand Turk, both so much dreaded by our pious ancestors, have been
supported, caressed and subsidized, in order to help to put down all
efforts made to obtain rational liberty, which the courtiers always affect
to stigmatize with the name of "Jacobinism," while a number of needy
individual have enriched themselves by the public plunder and byaiding and
abetting the system, all _novi homines_, men who, had there been more to
gain on the other side than by espousing Toryism, would not have been
backward; men who are Jacobins in the real sense of the word, however they
cloak themselves under the specious names of Church and King men; upholders
of Pitt and his system, for which they affect a veneration they are far
from really feeling; men, in fact, whose political scruples of whatever
nature they be, would soon melt away.


DRESDEN, 5th October.

I have been fortunate in getting into very comfortable lodgings, having two
rooms and as much firing as I chuse for eight _Reichsthalers_ per month.
Coffee is made for me at home in the morning, and I generally dine and sup
at a _restaurant_ close by near the bridge. The _Platz_ in the Neustadt is
close to my lodgings, and being very large and well paved and lined with
trees, it affords a very agreeable promenade. Rows of elegant houses line
the sides of this Plata, among which the _Stadthaus_ is particularly
remarkable. The famous _Japan Palace_, as it is called, is also in the
_Neustadt_, and but a short distance from the _Platz_. The gardens of Count
Marcolini afford also a pleasant promenade; but by far the most agreeable
walk, in my opinion, is on the _Zwinger_, a sort of terrace on the left
bank of the Elbe in the old town, adjoining the palace and gardens of Count
Bruhl. From this place you have a noble view of a long reach of the Elbe.
It is besides the favorite promenade of the ladies. On the _Zwinger_ too is
a building containing a fine collection of paintings. Here are _cafes_
likewise and a _restaurant_. The evening promenades are in the gardens of
the _Linkischer Bad_ (Bath of Link) on the banks of the Elbe, where there
is a summer theatre. This is the favourite resort of the _bourgeoisie_ on
Sundays and _jours de fete; gouters_ and supper parties are formed here and
very good music is heard. The Elbe bridge is of beautiful structure, and
there is a good regulation with respect to those who pass over this bridge;
which is that one side of the bridge is reserved for those going from the
new to the old town, and the other side for those going from the old to the
new town, and if you attempt to go on the wrong side you are stopped by a
sentry, so that there is no jostling nor lounging on this bridge. An arch
of this bridge was blown up by Marshal Davoust in order to arrest the
progress of the Russians, and a great deal of management was necessary to
effectuate it, for the worthy Saxons have a great veneration for this
bridge, and in order to inforce the execution of this resolution on the
part of the Marshal, the personal order of the King and the employment of
Saxon troops were necessary. It has been rebuilt since, and no one would
know that the arch had ever been blown up, but from the extreme whiteness
of the new arch, contrasting with the darker color of the old ones.

In the old town or Dresden proper, the finest buildings are: the Catholic
church, standing near the bridge, an edifice yielding in beauty but to few
in Italy and to none in other countries. Here you hear excellent music
during the church service; and the King and Royal family, all of whom are
Catholics, attend constantly. The Royal Palace is very near the church and
not far from it is the theatre. Saxony being a Lutheran country, the public
exercise of the Catholic religion was not permitted until Napoleon's time,
when he proposed an arrangement to permit to the King and all other
Catholics the public celebration of their religion, which proposition was
acceded to with universal approbation on the part of the Protestants, and
now the Host is frequently displayed in the streets. There are however but
few Catholics in Dresden among the natives. So great is the respect for
usages and customs in Germany, that the Electors of Saxony, on going over
to Catholicism, never thought even of requesting the indulgence of
exercising their religion publicly, and the granting it has produced no
evil consequence, liberalism and the most unreserved toleration in matters
of religion being the order of the day.

The Royal Palace is a very fine and extensive building and the interior is
well worth seeing, particularly the superb _Riesen-Saal_ where Augustus II
used to give his magnificent _fetes_. One of the last and most brilliant
_fetes_ given here was that given by the King of Saxony to the Emperor
Napoleon just before the Russian campaign, at which the Emperor and Empress
of Austria and most of the Sovereigns of Germany assisted, to do hommage to
the great Conqueror.

The _Schloss-gasse_ or Castle Street leads from the Palace into the _Markt
Platz_ where the markets and fairs are held. In this place, in the
_Schloss-gasse_ and in another street parallel to it, that leads from the
porcelain Manufactory to the _Grosser Platz_ (_Grande Place_), are the
finest shops and greatest display of wealth. On the _Grosser Platz_ stands
the _Frauen-Kirche_, a superb Protestant church, and which may be
considered as the cathedral church of Dresden. The _Platz_ is large. There
is great cleanliness in all the streets of Dresden, and the houses are well
built and uniform; but there are few other very prominent edifices except
those I have mentioned. On going outside the town by the gate of Pirna
stands, almost immediately on the right, on turning down a road, the
Gardens and Palace of Prince Anthony. Leaving this on your right and
proceeding along the _chaussee_ or high road which is nearly parallel to
the river, at the distance of three-quarters mile from the Gate, stands the
Palace and Gardens called _Der Grosse Garten_ (grand garden), which you
leave on your right, if you continue your route on the _chaussee_ towards
Pirna. I have not yet visited the _Grosse Garten_. There is likewise a fine
promenade on the banks of the Elbe, but quite in an opposite direction to
the Pirna gate, for to arrive at it from this gate, you must traverse the
Pirna street and _Grosser Platz_; and on arrival near the bridge direct
your course to the left, which will lead you out of one of the gates into
an immensely long avenue of elm trees parallel to the river which forms the
promenade.


DRESDEN, Oct. 10th.

I have been to see the Palace and grounds of the _Grosser Garten_. The
garden and park, for it unites both, is of great extent, and beautifully
laid out; but a number of fine trees have been knocked down and mutilated
by cannon shot during the battle of Dresden in 1818, when this garden was
occupied by the Allied troops and exposed to a heavy fire of fifty pieces
of cannon, from a battery erected by Napoleon on the opposite side of the
river, which completely commanded and enfiladed the whole range of the
garden. How the Palace itself escaped being knocked to pieces is wonderful;
but I suppose Napoleon must have given orders to spare it as much as
possible. This Palace is of beautiful structure and in the style of an
Italian villa; statues of the twelve Caesars and bas-reliefs adorn the
exterior. The columns and pilasters are of the Corinthian order. As for the
interior, it is unfurnished, and has been so since the Seven Years' war,
when it was plundered by the enemy, and has never since been inhabited by
the Electoral family. There is a superb rectangular basin of water in this
garden. These gardens are delightfully laid out; why they are not more
frequented I cannot conceive, but I have hitherto met with very few people
there, tho' they are open to all the world. They will form my morning's
promenade, for I prefer solitude to a crowd in a morning walk. But one of
the gardeners here tells me that on Sunday evening there is generally a
good deal of company, who come to listen to the music which is played in a
building fitted up for the purpose at one side of the garden. Wine, coffee,
beer and other refreshments are to be had; but beer is the favorite
beverage. Smoking is universal among the young men; the most ardent
admirers of the fair sex never forget their pipe. During the courtship the
surest sign that the fair one does not intend to _give_ her lover _the
basket_ is when she presents him with a bag to hold his tobacco. Her
consent is implied thereby.

During the battle of Dresden, the slaughter in this garden was immense, and
the Allies were finally driven out of it. The gardener related to me an
affecting story of a young lady of Dresden, whose lover was killed in this
battle and buried in the _Grosser Garten_. She has taken it so much to
heart that she comes here three or four times in the week to visit this
grave and strew flowers over it. She remains for some time absorbed in
silent meditation and then withdraws. She has a settled melancholy, but it
has not yet affected her understanding.


DRESDEN, Oct. 15th.

I met with my old friend, Sir W.I., who was travelling to Berlin, with the
idea of passing the winter there and of proceeding in the summer to Moscow.
Thro' the interests of my friends, Col. D------ and Baron de F------ I have
been ballotted for and admitted a member of a club or society here called
the _Ressource_. It is held in a large house on the _Markt Platz_, and is
indeed a most agreeable resource to all foreigners; for 'tis in this
society that they are likely to meet and form acquaintance with the
_noblesse_, principal _bourgeoisie_ and _litterati_. It is conducted on the
most liberal scale and not confined to those of birth and fortune. Good
character, polite behaviour and litterary requirements will ensure
admittance to a candidate. This society consists of members and honorary
members; among the honorary members are foreigners and others whose stay in
Dresden is short; but whoever remains for more than one year must cease to
be an honorary member and must be ballotted for in order to become a
permanent member, and should he be blackballed he ceases to belong to the
society altogether. This is a very good regulation. A year is a sufficient
time of proof for the character and conduct of a person, and should he
during this interval prove himself obnoxious to the members of the society,
they can at its expiration exclude him for ever afterwards.

No enquiry is made as to the character and conduct of a person who is
admitted as an honorary member: it is sufficient that he be recommended by
a permanent member, which is deemed a sufficient guarantee for his
respectability. In this society there are dining rooms, billiard rooms,
card rooms, a large reading room. Here too is a small but well chosen
library and three or four newspapers in every European language; all the
German newspapers and reviews and the principal periodical works in the
German, French, English and Italian languages. The English papers taken in
here are the _Times, Courier_ and _Chronicle_. Of the French, the
_Moniteur, Journal des Debats, Constitutionel, Journal du Commerce, Gazette
de France_ and _Gazette de Lausanne_, and of the Italian the _Gazette di
Milano, di Venezia, di Firenze_ and _di Lugano_. Every German newspaper is,
I believe, to be found here. The Society lay in their stock of wine, which
is of the best quality; good cooks and servants are kept. Dinners go
forward from one to three. You dine _a la carte_ and pay the amount of what
you call for to the waiters. Coffee, liqueurs and all sorts of refreshments
are likewise to be had. Supper, likewise _a la carte_, goes forward between
nine and eleven. The evening before supper may be employed, if you chuse,
in cards, billiards, or reading. Very pleasant and useful acquaintances are
made at the _Ressource_, since if a foreigner renders himself agreeable to
the gentlemen who frequent this society, they generally propose taking him
to their houses and introducing him to their families. After an
introduction, you may go at any hour of the evening you please: but morning
visits are not much in fashion, since the _toilette_ is seldom made till
after dinner, which is always early in Germany. There is no getting dinner
after three o'clock in any part of Dresden. Besides the _Ressource_ there
are several other Clubs here, such as the _Harmonic_ and others. The public
balls are given at the _Hotel de Pologne_ twice a week, viz., one for the
_Noblesse_ and one for the _Bourgeoisie_. None of the female _Bourgeoisie_
are admitted to the balls and societies of the _Noblesse_, and only such of
the males as occupy posts or employments at Court or under Government such
as _Koenigs-rath_, _Hof-rath_, or officers of the Army. It is therefore
usual, when the Sovereign wishes to introduce a person of merit among the
_Bourgeoisie_ into the upper circles, that he gives him the title of _Rath_
or Counsellor; but this priviledge of being presentable at Court does not
extend to their wives and daughters. All the Military officers, from
whatever class of life they spring, have introduction _de jure_ into the
balls and societies of the _Noblesse_, and are always in uniform. But when
they attend the balls of the _Bourgeoisie_, it is the etiquette for them to
wear plain clothes: at the balls of the _Bourgeoisie_, therefore, not an
uniform is to be seen. I observed by far the prettiest women at the balls
of the _Bourgeoisie_, and very many are to be found there who in education
and accomplishments fully equal those of the _Noblesse_, and this is no
small merit, for the women in Saxony of the higher classes are extremely
well educated; most of them are proficient in music and are versed in
French and Italian litterature. They seem amiable and goodnatured and by no
means _minaudieres_, as Lady Mary Wortley Montague has rather unjustly
termed them; for they appear to me to be the most frank, artless creatures
I ever beheld, and to have no sort of _minauderie_ or _coquetterie_ about
them. Beauty is the appanage of the Saxon women, hence the proverb in
rhyme:

  Darauf bin ich gegangen nach Sachsen,
  Wo die schoenen Maedchen auf den Bauemen wachsen.

In English:

  Behold me landed now on Saxon ground,
  Where lovely damsels on the trees are found.

A taste for litterature is indeed general throughout the whole nation; and
this city is considered as the Athens of Germany.


DRESDEN, Nov. 8th.

I have been at the theatre and witnessed the representation of a tragedy
called _Die Schuld_, written by Adolphus Muellner. It is a most interesting
piece, and the novelty of it has made a striking impression on me. It is
written in the eight-footed trochaic metre, similar to that in which the
Spanish tragedies are written. It hinges on a prophecy made by a Gipsey, in
which the person to whom the prophecy is made, in endeavoring to avert it,
hastens its accomplishment. The piece is full of interest and the
versification harmonious. I have been twice at the Italian opera, where I
saw the _Gazza Ladra_ and _Il Matrimonio secreto_. I came here with the
idea of giving myself up entirely to the study of the German language; but
such is the beauty of the country environing Dresden that, though winter
has commenced I employ the greatest part of the day in long walks. For
instance I have been to Pillnitz, which is on the right bank of the Elbe
about seven miles from Dresden, ascending the river. The road is on the
bank of the river the whole way. The Palace at Pillnitz is vast and well
built. During a part of the year the Royal family reside there. Pillnitz
will remain "damn'd to everlasting fame" as the place where the famous
treaty was signed, the object of which was to put down the French
Revolution, which Mr Pitt and the British ministry knew of and sanctioned,
tho' they pretended ignorance of it and professed to have no desire to
interfere with the affairs of France.

Every thing pleases me at Dresden except the beds. I wish it were the
fashion to use blankets and _edredons_ for the upper covering instead of
the _lits de plumes_; for they are too heavy and promote rather too intense
a perspiration, and if you become impatient of the heat, and throw them off
you catch an intense cold. You know how partial I am to the Germans, and
can even put up with their eternal smoking, tho' no smoker myself, but to
their beds I shall never be reconciled. A German bed is as follows: a
_paillasse_, over that a mattress, then a featherbed with a sheet fastened
to it, and over that again another featherbed with a sheet fastened to it;
and thus you lie between two featherbeds; but these are not always of
sufficient length, and you are often obliged to coil up your legs or be
exposed to have them frozen by their extending beyond the featherbeds; for
the cold is very great during the winter.

The more I see of the people here, the more I like them. The national
character of the Germans is integrity, tho' sometimes cloaked under a rough
exterior as in Bavaria and Austria; but here in Saxony it is combined with
a suavity of manners that is very striking, for the Saxons are the Tuscans
of Germany in point of politeness, and they are far more accomplished
because they take more pains in cultivating their minds.

A savant in Italy is a man who writes a volume about a coin, filled with
hypotheses, when, with all his learning forced into the service, he proves
nothing; and this very man is probably ignorant in the extreme of modern
political history, and that of his own times, and has more pedantry than
taste. Such a man is often however in Italy termed a _Portento_, but in
Dresden and in most of the capitals of Germany where there are so many of
science and deep research, a man must not only be well read in antiquities,
but also well versed in political economy and in analysis before he can
venture to give a work to the public. Latin quotations, unsupported by
reason and philosophical argument will avail him nothing, for the German is
a terrible _Erforscher_ and wishes to know the _what_, the _how_ and the
_when_ of every thing; besides an Italian _savant_ is seldom versed in any
other tongue than his own and the Latin, with perhaps a slight knowledge of
French; whereas in Germany it is not only very common to find a knowledge
of French, English, Italian, Latin and Greek united in the same person, but
very many add Hebrew, Arabic and even Sanscrit to their stock of Philology.
As a specimen for instance of German industry, I have seen, at the club of
the _Ressource_, odes on the Peace in thirty-six different languages, and
all of them written by native Saxons. This shows to what an extent
philology is cultivated in Germany; indeed, it is quite a passion and a
very useful one it is. I know that many people regard it as a loss of time,
and say that you acquire only new words, and no new ideas; but I deny this.
I maintain that every new language learned gives you new ideas, as it puts
you at once more _au fait_ of the manners and customs of the people, which
can only be thoroughly learned by reading popular authors in their original
language: for there are several authors of the merit of whose style it is
impossible to form an adequate idea in a translation, however correct and
excellent it be. Indeed I wonder that the study of the German language is
not more attended to in England, France, and Italy; but to the English,
methinks, it is indispensable. All the customs and manners of Europe are
taken from the German; all modern Europe bears the Teutonic stamp. We are
all the descendants of the Teutonic hordes who subjugated the Roman Empire
and changed the face of Europe; 'tis they who have given and laid down the
grand and distinguishing feature between modern Europe and ancient Europe
and Asia: I mean the respect paid to women. To what nation, I say, is due
the chivalrous respect to women which is the surest sign of civilization,
and which was unknown to the ancient Greeks and Romans, except to the
Germans, who even in their most uncivilized state paid such veneration to
their women as to consult them as oracles on all occasions and to admit
them to their councils? Tacitus particularly mentions this; and speaking of
the Germans of his time, he says, "They have an idea that there is
something divine about a woman."[126] It is this feeling, handed down to us
from our Teutonic ancestors, that contributes mainly to make the European
so superior to all the Asiatic nations, where woman still remains a
degraded being, and 'tis this feeling that gives to us the palm above all
Greek and Roman glory. What are the modern European nations, the English,
French, Italians, Switzers, even Spanish and Portuguese, but the
descendants of these warlike Teutonic tribes who swept away the effeminate
Romans from the face of the earth? and do we not see the Teutonic policy
and usages, defective and degenerated as they sometimes are, the best
safeguard of liberty against the insidious interpretation of the Roman law,
which is founded on the pretended superiority of one nation, the inferred
inferiority of all the rest?

With regard to theatricals, I have witnessed the representation of a
tragedy, lately published, called _Sappho_, by a young poet of the name of
Grillparzer. This tragedy is strictly on the Greek model. Its versification
in iambics is so beautiful that it is regarded as the triumph of the
_Classics_ over the _Romantics_; and by this piece Grillparzer has proved
the universality of his genius; for he wrote a short time ago a dramatic
piece in the _romantic_ style and in the eight rhymed trochaic metre called
_die Anhfrau_ (the ancestress) where supernatural agency is introduced.
This I have read; it is a piece full of interest; still it was thought too
_outre_ by the _Classiker_. It was supposed that this was the peculiar
style of the author, and that he adopted it from inability to compose in
the classic taste, when behold! by way of proving the contrary, he has
given us a drama simple in its plot, where all the unities are preserved,
and where the subject one would think was too well known to produce much
interest; he has given, I say, to this piece (Sappho), from the extreme
harmony of its versification and the pathos of the sentiments expressed
therein, an effect which I doubt any tragedy of Euripides or Sophocles
surpasses. The character of Sappho and her passion for Phaon; his
indifference to her and attachment to the young Melitta, an attendant and
slave of Sappho's, and Sappho throwing herself into the sea after uniting
Phaon and Melitta, constitute the plot of the drama. But simple as the
plot, and old as the story is, it excites the greatest interest, and never
fails to draw tears from the audience. What can be more artless and
pathetic, for instance, than these lines of the young Melitta when she
regrets her expatriatioa:

  Kein Busen schlaegt mlr bier in diesem Lande,
  Und meine Freunden wohnen weit von hier.

In English:

  No bosom beats for me in this strange land,
  And far from here my friends and parents dwell.

I have no doubt that some of these days _Sappho_ will be translated into
the idiom of modern Greece and acted in that country. The actress, who did
the part of Sappho, gave it full effect, and the part of the young Melitta
was fairly performed; but I did not approve of the acting of the performer
who played Phaon. He overstepped the modesty of nature and the intention of
the author; for he was in his gesture and manner grossly rude and insolent
to poor Sappho, whereas, tho' his love to Melitta was paramount, he ought
to have shown no ordinary struggle in stifling his gratitude to his
benefactress Sappho.

I admire the German word _Gebieterinn_ (mistress). It is majestic and
harmonious, and the only word, in any modern language that I know of,
poetic enough to render aptly the Greek word [Greek: Despoina].


DRESDEN, Decr. 1st.

I have been to visit the famous Gallery of paintings here; but you must not
expect from me a description. I shall send you a catalogue. It would be
endless to describe the various _chefs-d'oeuvre_ which are contained in
this valuable collection. Dresden has always been considered as the
Florence of Germany and has always been renowned for its Gallery of
paintings; hence the almost innate taste of the Saxons for the _Beaux Arts_
and the great encouragement given to them at all tunes by this Government.
It is here and at Meissen that the best German is thought to be spoken,
tho' Hanover disputes this prerogative with Dresden.

I have been to see the antiquities and curiosities of the _Japanischer
Palast_ (Palace of Japan), as it is called. In this Palace is a quantity of
ancient armour and the most superb collection of porcelain I believe in
Europe. The collection of precious stones is also immense; and I never in
my life saw such a profusion of diamonds, emeralds, turquoises, sapphirs,
amethysts and topazes. In this Museum are three statues found in
Herculaneum on its first discovery or excavation, viz., an Athlete, an
Esculapius, and a Venus. Here too, and from this circumstance, the Palace
takes its name, is a collection of Japanese antiquities and ornaments,
lacker work in gold and silver, which is unique in the world. From the
Royal Library, a foreigner, on being recommended, may have at his own house
all such books to read as can be replaced if lost or spoiled; but the
manuscripts and scarce and valuable editions are not permitted to be taken
out of the Library. Any person once admitted on recommendation may go to
read in this Library at stated hours and may consult any book or manuscript
he pleases on applying to the librarian.

A person fond of music will be in a continual state of enjoyment at
Dresden. Besides the fine music in the Royal Chapel, the band of the King's
Guard is composed of first rate musicians, who attend regularly at Guard
mounting and play for an hour together. There is also a band of music every
evening during the summer months that plays in the gardens of the
_Linkischer Bad_. Then there are various other places of recreation and
amusement, at all of which musicians are in attendance; for a Saxon cannot
enjoy his repast or his pipe without music and good music too to facilitate
his digestion. There is a custom in Dresden that on the occasion of the
death of a person the young choristers of the Cathedral are sent for to
sing hymns, standing in a semi-circle round the door of the house of the
defunct. These choristers are all dressed in black and their style of
singing is melodious, solemn and impressive.

Smoking is so prevalent here and in all parts of Germany that if you wish
to denote one of the male sex, _smoker_ would be quite a synonymous word.
Such is the passion for this enjoyment that even at the balls the young
men, the moment they have finished the waltz, quit the hands of their
partners and rush into another room in order to smoke; nor would the beauty
of Venus nor the wit of Minerva be powerful enough to restrain the young
German from giving way to his darling practise. Smoking tobacco has I think
this visible effect, that it serves to calm all tumultuous passions, and
what confirms me in this idea is, that most young Germans, in commencing
life as adults, are full of enthusiastic and even exaggerated notions of
liberty and equality. They are romantic to a degree that is difficult to be
conceived, and seem to be restrained by no selfish or worldly ideas. This
you would suppose would tend to render them rather turbulent subjects,
under an autocratical government; but all this _Schwaermerey_ evaporates
literally in smoke: they take to their pipe, and by degrees the fumes of
tobacco cause all these lofty ideas to dissipate: the pipe becomes more and
more necessary to their existence, and consoles them for their wrongs real
or imaginary; and in three or four years they sit down contentedly to their
several occupations, as strait-forward, painstaking, plodding men, quite
satisfied to follow the routine chalked out for them, and either totally
forget all ambitious views, or become too indolent to make any sacrifice to
obtain them, and this _virtue comes from tobacco_!! The German Hippogriff
becomes an Ox, dull and domestic, and treads out the corn placed before
him, content to have his share thereof in peace and quietness.

The German Governments, which are mild and paternal, are fully aware of
this and allow the utmost liberty of speech; well knowing that, thanks to
that friend and ally of Legitimacy, tobacco, the romantic visionary and
somewhat refractory youth will subside into a tranquil _ganz alltaeglicher
Mann_ and become totally averse to any innovation which demands the
sacrifice of repose.

The pipe which has this sedative effect on political effervescence, has a
still stronger similar effect, it is said, on the passion of love; hence
the German husbands are proverbially sluggish. But the ladies, none of whom
smoke, preserve their romanticity during their whole lives, and would, if
they had their choice, give their hands to foreigners, who are more
attentive to them than their own countrymen.

The young ladies here are, 'tis said, extremely romantic in their ideas of
love and capable of the strongest attachment. They think that any thing
should be pardoned to sincere passion. It has been related to me that some
time ago a young man, who was devotedly attached to a girl, on the father
refusing his consent to the marriage, stabbed the girl and then himself. An
immense number of young ladies attended their funeral, to throw flowers
over the grave of the two lovers. Assuredly the young man was only a
noviciate in smoking.

Everybody must, I think, admire the Saxon women. They are in general
handsome and have fine shapes; they are warm hearted and affectionate; and
they are almost universally well educated. Indeed the whole Saxon people
are so amiable that foreigners find themselves so happy here that they are
unwilling to quit the country. Very many form matrimonial attachments. In
short, this people fully merit the epithet a celebrated English traveller
(Sherlock)[127] has bestowed on them when he called them a _herrliches
Volk_.


DRESDEN, Jan. 8d, 1819.

I have made an excursion to Meissen which lies on the same bank of the
river with the old town of Dresden at a distance of twelve miles. As there
is no road on the left bank of the river to Meissen, you must cross the
river twice to arrive at it, viz., once at Neustadt and once at Meissen,
the road being on the right bank. I put up at the _Hirsch_ (Stag), a very
comfortable inn. I went to Meissen with a view of seeing the Russian
contingent pass the Elbe on their return from France, which has been
evacuated in consequence of the arrangement at Aix-la-Chapelle. They
appeared a fine body of men, clothed _a la francaise_ and seemed in high
spirits. They seem to have imbibed liberal ideas during their residence in
France, for some of the officers who dined at the inn at Meissen spoke very
freely on passing events.

The return of the Saxon contingent is expected in Dresden in a day or two,
and there will no doubt be a great deal of rejoicing among the military and
their relations to meet their old comrades and friends; and potent
libations of _Doppel Bier_ will no doubt be made. Meissen is said to be
famous for the beauty of its women and the few that I saw in the streets
did not contradict this reputation.


DRESDEN, Jany. 5th, 1819.

We have had several balls here. Waltzing is the only sort of dance in
fashion at Dresden, excepting now and then a Polonaise.

I have witnessed an interesting spectacle in the _Grosser Garten_. The pond
or basin is completely frozen over, and a Russian Prince, Gallitzin, who is
here, has fitted up a sort of _Montagnes Russes_ as they are called. Blocks
of ice are placed on an inclined plane to the top of which you mount by
means of a staircase; and then, seating yourself in a sort of sledge, you
slide down the inclined plane with immense velocity. The Prince often
persuades a lady to sit on this sleigh on his lap and descend together; and
this no doubt serves to _break the ice_ of many an amorous intrigue. This
construction of the Prince Gallitzin has contributed to fill the _Grosser
Garten_ with the _beau monde_, every day from twelve to two o'clock; so
that you see we are in no want of amusements at Dresden.

The King frequently attends the theatre; he is a tall, fine looking man,
and is usually dressed in the uniform of his Foot-Guards, which is scarlet
faced with yellow. The poor King has taken much to heart the injustice with
which he has been treated by the coalition, and no doubt will not easily
forget the ill-bred and insolent letter of Castlereagh to the Congress,
wherein he said that the King of Saxony deserved to lose his dominions for
adhering to Napoleon. But how the King of Saxony could act otherwise I am
at a loss to find: so little could he possibly deserve this treatment for
adhering to Napoleon, that had his advice been taken in the year 1805, the
French would never have been able to extend their conquests so far, nor to
dictate laws to Germany. But Lord Castlereagh seems to have either never
known or wilfully forgotten the anterior political conduct of Saxony. Had
he been more versed in German affairs, or had studied with more accuracy
the events passing before his eyes, it would have been a check upon his
arrogance; but here was a genuine disciple of the Pitt school (that school
of ignorance and insolence), who sets himself up as the moral regenerator
of nations and as a distributor of provinces, while he is grossly ignorant
of the political system of the country on whose destinies he pretends to
decide so peremptorily. Had Castlereagh paid attention to what was going
forward in Germany in 1805, he would have seen too that of all powers
Prussia was the very _last_ who with any _shadow of justice_ could pretend
to an indemnification at the expense of Saxony. In the year 1805, the King,
then Elector of Saxony, strongly advised the Prussian Cabinet to forget its
ancient rivalry and jealousy of Austria and to coalesce with the latter
power, in resisting the encroachments of Napoleon, in order to prevent the
latter from attempting the overthrow of the whole fabric of the
constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, with the intricacy and fragility of
which no prince in Germany was better acquainted than the Elector of
Saxony. Prussia however was still reluctant to engage in the contest and
gave no support whatever to Austria. Napoleon defeats the Austrians at
Austerlitz and dictates peace. Six months after the Prussian Cabinet,
excited by a patriotic but rash and ill-calculating party, has recourse to
arms, not from any generous policy, but because she sees herself outwitted
by Napoleon, who refuses to cede to her Hanover in perpetuity. Prussia
begins the war and calls on Saxony, who always moved in her orbit, to join
her. To the Elector of Saxony this war (in 1806) appeared then ill-timed
and too late; but with that good faith, nevertheless, which invariably
characterized him, he remained faithful to his engagement and furnished his
quota of troops to Prussia. The Saxon troops fought nobly at the battle of
Jena. This battle annihilates all the power of Prussia, and lays Saxony
entirely at the mercy of the Conqueror; but Napoleon not only treats Saxony
with moderation, but with rare generosity; he does not take from her a
single village, but aggrandizes her and gives to her the Duchy of Warsaw
and to her Sovereign the title of King. Saxony becomes in consequence a
member of the confederation of the Rhine and is bound to support the
Protector in all his wars offensive and defensive. The Russian war in 1812
begins: every German state, Austria and Prussia in the number, furnishes
its contingent of troops. The campaign is unsuccessful, the climate of
Russia having annihilated the French Army, and Napoleon returns to Paris.
Saxony is now exposed to invasion and harassed by the incursions of the
Cossacks. The King of Saxony is perplexed in what manner to act, so as to
ensure to his subjects that protection which was ever uppermost in his
thoughts; feeling however with his usual sagacity that every thing would
ultimately depend on the dispositions of Austria, he repairs himself to
Prague, in order to have an interview with one of the Austrian ministers,
and to sound that Cabinet. Austria however still vacillates and declines
stating what her intentions are. Napoleon returns from Paris, defeats the
Prussians and Russians at Bautzen and re-occupies all Saxony. He then
writes to the King of Saxony to desire him to return immediately to his
dominions and to fulfil his engagements. What was the King to do? Austria
still refusing to declare herself, was he to sacrifice his crown and
dominions uselessly to the vengeance of Napoleon, to please the Emperor of
Russia and King of Prussia, who for aught he knew might patch up a peace
the next day? and this was the more probable from their having been beaten
at Bautzen, which circumstance also might with equal probability induce
Austria to coalesce with, instead of against France. All the other members
of the Confederation of the Rhine remained staunch to Napoleon and poured
their contingents into Saxony; was he to be the only unfaithful ally and
towards a Monarch who had always treated him with the strongest marks of
attachment and regard? and when neither Russia nor Prussia were likely to
give him the least assistance? He therefore returned to Dresden; and
Napoleon took up his grand position the whole length of the Elbe, from the
mountains of Bohemia to Hamburgh, thus covering the whole of Saxony with
his army. Austria however at last comes forward to join the coalition.
Fortune changes; the Saxon troops, tired of beholding their country the
perpetual theatre of war and trusting to the generosity of the Allies, go
over to them in the middle of a battle, and decide, thereby, the fate of
the day at Leipzig. The King of Saxony is made a prisoner, and then he is
punished for what he could not help. Why was he to be punished more than
any other member of the Confederation of the Rhine? One would think that
the seasonable defection of his troops at Leipzig should have induced the
Allies to treat him with moderation. The other States of the Confederation
did not abandon Napoleon until after he was completely beaten at Leipzig;
and Austria refused to accede to the coalition until a _carte blanche_ was
given her to help herself in Italy.

Let every impartial man therefore review the whole of this proceeding and
then say whether the King of Saxony, so proverbial for his probity, so
adored by his subjects, deserved to be insulted by such an unfeeling letter
as that of Castlereagh. No! the King of Saxony better deserves to reign
than any King of them all. Would they had even a small share of his
virtues! Another proof and a still stronger one of the great integrity and
honor of this excellent Prince, is, that when Napoleon offered to mediatize
in his favor the various ducal Houses in Saxony, such as Weimar, Gotha,
Cobourg, etc., and to annex these countries to his dominions, he declined
the offer. Would Prussia, Austria, or Hanover have been so scrupulous?

The young ladies here, tho' well versed and delighting in various branches
of litterature, cannot overcome that strong national propensity to tales
and romances wherein the _terrific and supernatural_ abounds; in all their
romances accordingly this taste prevails strongly; nay, even in some of the
romances, where the scene is laid in later times, there is some such
anachronism as the story of a spectre.

I recollect reading a novel, the scene of which is laid in Italy about the
time of the battle of Marengo, wherein a ghost is introduced who
contributes mainly to the unravelling of the piece. A young lady here of
considerable talent and of general information confessed to me, when I
asked her, what subjects pleased her most in the way of reading, that
nothing gave her so much delight as "_Geistergeschichten_." Lewis' romance
of "_The Monk_" is a great favorite in Germany.[128] By the bye, his
poetical tale of _Alonzo and Imogen_ is evidently taken from a similar
subject in the _Volks-maehrchen_.

The weather has set in very cold and the Elbe is nearly frozen over. It is
impossible to go out of the house without a _Pelz_ or cloak lined with fur;
for otherwise, on leaving a room heated by a stove, the effect of the cold
is almost instantaneous and brings on an ague fit. This I attribute to the
excessive heat kept up in the rooms and houses by the stoves. As smoking is
so prevalent here, this contributes much also to keeping the body in a
praeternatural heat and rendering it still more obnoxious to cold on
removal from a room to the open air. It has been remarked by a medical
author, in the Russian campaign in 1812, that the soldiers of the southern
nations and provinces, viz., Provencaux, Gascons, Italians, Spaniards, and
Portuguese, endured the cold much better and suffered less from it than the
Germans and Hollanders. The reason is sufficiently obvious: the former live
in the open air even in the middle of winter and seldom make use of a fire
to warm themselves; whereas the Germans and Dutch live in an atmosphere of
stove-heat and smoke and seldom like to stir abroad in the open air during
winter, unless necessity obliges them. Hence they become half-baked, as it
were; their nerves are unstrung, their flesh flabby and they become so
chilly, as to suffer from the smallest exposure to the atmosphere. In the
houses in Germany, on account of the stoves, the cold is never felt,
whereas it is very severely in Italy and Spain where many of the houses
have no fireplaces. On this account I prefer Germany as a winter residence,
for I think there is no sensation so disagreeable as to feel cold in the
house. In the open air I do not care a fig for it, for my cloak lined with
bearskin protects me amply. The climate here in winter is a dry cold, which
is much more salubrious and agreeable to me than the changeable, humid
climate of Great Britain, where, though the cold is not so great, it is
much more severely felt.


[126] Tacitus, _Germania_, C, VIII.--ED.

[127] Martin Sherlock (d. 1797), author of _Lettres d'un voyageur anglais_,
     which were published in Paris 1779 and, the year after, in London.

[128] Matthew Gregory Lewis, 1775-1818, published _Ambrosio or the Monk_ in
    1795.--ED.




CHAPTER XVIII

MARCH-APRIL 1819

Journey from Dresden to Leipzig--The University of Leipzig--Liberal
spirit--The English disliked in Saxony--The English Government hostile to
liberty--Journey to Frankfort--From Frankfort to Metz and Paris--A.F.
Lemaitre--_Bon voyage_ to the Allies--Return to England.

I left Dresden on the 2nd March, 1819. A _Landkutsche_ conveyed me as far
as Leipzig in a day and half, stopping the first night at Oschaly, where
there is a good inn. At Leipzig I put up at the _Hotel de Baviere_ and
remained five days. Leipzig is a fine old Gothic city. It is, as everybody
knows, famous for its University and its Fair, which is held twice a year,
in spring and in autumn, and which is the greatest mart for books perhaps
in the world. The University of Leipzig and indeed all the Universities of
Germany are in bad repute among the _Obscuranten_ and _eteignoirs_ of the
day, on account of the liberal ideas professed by the teachers and
scholars. In the University of Leipzig every thing may be learned by those
who chuse to apply, but those who prefer remaining idle may do so, as there
is less compulsion than at the English Universities. There is however such
a national enthusiasm for learning, in all parts of Germany, that the most
careless and ill-disposed youth would never be about to support the
ridicule of his fellow students were he backward in obtaining prizes, but
after all I have heard of the dissipation, lawlessness, and want of
discipline at Leipzig, I can safely affirm that all these stories are
grossly exaggerated: and I fancy there is little other dissipation going
forward than amours with _Stubenmaedchen_. I do not hear of any drunkenness,
gaming or horse racing; nor do the professors themselves, who ought to be
the best judges of what is going on, complain of the insubordination of
their pupils. But what I principally admire in this, and indeed in other
German Universities, is that there are no distinctions of rank, such as
gold tassels, etc., no servile attention paid to sprigs of nobility, as in
the Universities in England, where the Heads of Colleges and Fellows are
singularly condescending to the son of a Peer, a Minister, or a Bishop.
Perfect equality prevails in Leipzig and the son of the proudest
_Reichsgraf_ is allowed no more priviledges than the son of a barber; nor
do the professors make the least difference between them. In fact, in spite
of the vulgar belief in England respecting the _hauteur_ of the German
_noblesse_ and the vassalage of the other classes, I must say, from
experience, that the German nobility show far less _hauteur_ and have in
general more really liberal ideas than most part of our English
aristocracy, and a German burgher or shop-keeper would disdain to cringe
before a nobleman as many shopkeepers, aye, and even gentry, are sometimes
known to do in England. Another circumstance too proves on how much more
liberal a footing Leipzig and other German Universities are than our
English ones, which is, that in England none but those who profess the
religion of the Church of England, or conform to its ritual, are admitted;
but here all sects are tolerated and admitted, and all live in perfect
harmony with each other. The students are at liberty to chuse their place
of worship and the sermons that are preached in the Catholic as well as the
Protestant churches are such as sensible men of whatever opinion might
listen to with profit, and without being shocked by absurdities or
intolerant ideas.

Mysteries, theologic sophistry and politics are carefully avoided, and a
pure morality, a simple theosophy, comprehensible to the meanest
understanding, pervades these simple discourses. The consequence of this
toleration and liberal spirit is that an union between the Lutheran and
Calvinistic churches has been effected.

I met a number of mercantile people at the _table d'hote_ at Leipzig in the
_Hotel de Baviere_, and I entered a good deal into conversation with them;
but when they discovered I was an Englishman, I could see a sudden coldness
and restraint in their demeanour, for we are very unpopular in Germany,
owing to the conduct of our Cabinet, and they have a great distrust of us.
The Saxons complain terribly of our Government for sanctioning the
dismemberment of their country and of the insolent letter of Castlereagh.
It is singular enough that Saxony is the only country where English goods
are allowed to be imported free of duty; but our great and good ally the
King of Prussia (as these goods must pass thro' his territory) has imposed
a tolerably heavy transit duty. I am glad of it; this is as it should be. I
rejoice at any obstacles that are put to British commerce; I rejoice when I
hear of our merchants suffering and I quite delight to hear of a
bankruptcy. They, the English merchants, contributed with their gold to
uphold the corrupt system of Pitt and to carry on unjust, unreasonable and
liberticide wars. Yes! it is perfectly fit and proper that the despotic
governments they have contributed to restore should make them feel their
gratitude. If the French since their Revolution have not always fought for
liberty, they have done so invariably for science; and wherever they
carried their victorious arms, abuses were abolished, ameliorations of all
kinds followed, and the arts of life were improved. Our Government since
the accession of George III has never raised its arm except in favor of old
abuses, to uphold despotism and unfair privileges, or to establish
commercial monopoly. Our victories so far from being of beneficial effect
to the countries wherein we gained them, have been their curse. We can
interfere and be prodigal of money and blood to crush any attempt of the
continental nations towards obtaining their liberty; but when it is
necessary to intercede in favour of oppressed patriots, then we are told
that we have no right to interfere with the domestic policy of other
nations. We can send ships to protect and carry off in safety a worthless
Royal family, as at Naples in 1799, but we can view with heartless
indifference, and even complacency, the murders committed in Spain by the
infamous Ferdinand and his severities against those to whom he owes his
crown, all of whom had the strongest daim to our protection as having
fought with us in the same cause and contributed to our success.

The _Platz_ at Leipzig is large and here it is that the fair is held. The
theatre is an elegant building and lies just outside one of the gates of
the city. Innumerable shops of booksellers are here and it is astonishing
at how cheap a rate printing in all languages is carried forward.

There are some pleasant promenades in the environs of Leipzig; but this is
not a time of the year to judge of the beauty of the country. I went,
however, to view the house occupied by Napoleon on the eve of the battle of
Leipzig. A monument is to be erected to the memory of Poniatowsky in the
spot where he perished.

I started from Leipzig on 7th March at eleven o'clock. I was five days en
route from Leipzig to Frankfort, tho' the distance does not exceed
forty-five German miles. I travelled in the diligence, but had I known that
the arrangements were so uncomfortable, I should have preferred going in a
_Landkutsche_, which would have made the journey in seven days and afforded
me an opportunity of stopping every night to repose; whereas in the
diligence, tho' they go _en poste_, they travel exceedingly slow and it is
impossible to persuade the postillion to accelerate his usual pace. He is
far more careful of his horses than of his passengers. This I however
excuse; but it is of the frequent stoppages and bad arrangement of them
that I complain. Instead of stopping at some town for one whole night or
two whole nights out of the five, they stop almost at every town for three,
four and five hours; so that these short stoppages do not give you time
enough to go to bed and they are besides generally made in the day time or
early in the morning and evening. We passed thro' the following cities and
places of eminence, viz., Lutzen; the spot where Gustavus Adolphus was
killed is close to the road on the left hand with a plain stone and the
initials G.A. inscribed on it. Weimar is a very neat city and where I
should like much to have staid; but I had only time to view the outside of
the Palace and the _Stadthaus_. Erfurt and Gotha are both fine looking
cities. In Gotha I had only time to see the outside of the _Residenz
Schloss_ or Ducal Palace, which is agreeably situated on an eminence, and
to remark in the _Neumarkt Kirche_ the portrait of Duke Bernard of Saxe
Weimar and the monuments of the princes of that family. At Erfurt there is
the tomb of a Count Gleichen who was made prisoner in the Holy Land, in the
time of the Crusades, and was released by a Mahometan Princess on condition
of his espousing her. The Count was already married in Germany and there he
had left his wife; but such was his gratitude to the fair Musulmane, that
he married her with the full consent of his German wife and they all three
lived happily together. Fulda, where we stopped four hours, appears a fine
city, and is situated on an eminence commanding a noble view of a very
fertile and extensive plain. The Episcopal Palace and the churches are
magnificent, and the general appearance of the town is striking. The
Bishopric of Fulda was formerly an independent ecclesiastical state, but
was secularised at the treaty of Luneville and now forms part of the
territory of Hesse-Cassel.

The _Feld-zeichen_ of Hesse-Cassel is green and red. After passing thro'
Hanau, where we halted three hours, which gave me an opportunity of viewing
the field of battle there, we proceeded to Frankfort and arrived there at
twelve o'clock the 12th of March. I put up at the _Swan_ inn. In summer
time the country about Fulda and in general between Fulda and Frankfort
must be very pleasing from the variety of the features of the ground. We
lived very well and very cheap on the road. The price of the diligence from
Leipzig to Frankfort was eleven _Reichsthaler_.

After remaining three days to repose at Frankfort I took my place to
Mayence and from thence to Metz and Paris. In the diligence from Mayence
and indeed all the way to Paris I found a very amusing society. There were
two physicians and M. L[emaitre], a most entertaining man and of
inexhaustible colloquial talent; for, except when he slept, he never ceased
to talk. His conversation was however always interesting and entertaining,
for he had figured in the early part of the French Revolution and was well
known in the political and litterary world as the editor of a famous
journal called _Le Bonhomme Richard_.[129]

Metz is a large, well built and strongly fortified city. Verdun, thro'
which we passed, became quite an English colony during the war from the
number of _detenus_ of that nation who were compelled to reside there. At
Epernay we drank a few bottles of Champagne and a toast was given by one of
the company, which met with general applause. It was _Bon voyage_ to the
Allies who have now finally evacuated France to the great joy of the whole
nation, except of the towns where they were cantoned, where they
contributed much towards enriching the shopkeepers and inhabitants.

I remained in Paris six days and then proceeded to England.


[129] _Le bonhomme Richard aux bonnes gens_ was not a "famous journal," as
    only two numbers appeared in 1790 (M. Tourneux, _Bibliographie de
    l'histoire de Paris pendant la Revolution_, vol. 11, p. 585, n. 10,
    511). The publisher, Antoine-Francois Lemaitre, whom Major Erye
    mentions in this passage, was the author of some other revolutionary
    pamphlets, e.g., _Lettres bougrement patriotiques_, etc.--ED.






INDEX

Acheron, Lake.
Adam, Major-General commands Light Brigade of General
      Sir H. Clinton's division.
Aix-la-Chapelle:
 Hotel-de-Ville;
 Cathedral;
 relics of Charlemagne;
 Napoleon's benefactions;
 overbearing demeanour of Prussian soldiers;
 Faro bank;
 interesting Tyrolese girl;
 baths.
Albanot Villa Doria,
 ancient monument.
Albany, Countess of,
 her claim to be the legitimate Queen of England;
 Alfieri's attachment to.
Alexandria: Austrian Government destroys fortifications of
Alfieri: compared with Shakespeare, Schiller, and Voltaire,
 monument erected to, by Canova;
 his sonnet to Countess of Albany.
Alsace-Lorraine: severance of, from France anticipated by Prussian
      officers.
Andernach: ruins of palace of Kings of Austrasia,
 church containing embalmed body of Emperor Valentinian;
 crossing of Rhine by Julius Caesar at.
Angouleme, Duchesse d': temperament and religious fanaticism of.
Antwerp: English families fly from Brussels to.
Archenholz: historian of the Seven Years' War.
Army of the Loire: exemplary conduct of, when disbanded.
Arona: colossal statue of St Charles Borromeus at.
Austria: fluctuations in the value of the paper currency of
      Napoleon's policy as regarded.
Avernus, Lake.

Baciocchi, Princess Elise: sister of Napoleon and Sovereign of Lucca.
Baffo, Venetian poet.
Baiae: baths of Nero,
 ruins of temples;
 the Styx;
 Elysian Fields.
Belgium:
 dislike to severance from France;
 feeling towards Holland;
 attachment to Napoleon;
 preparations for the Campaign;
 all inhabitants requisitioned for the repair of fortifications.
Berlin: occupation of, after Jena,
 excellent conduct of French troops of occupation;
 excesses committed by troops of Rhenish Confederation;
 insolent conduct of troops raised by Prince of Isenburg;
 art treasures of, respected by French Republican Armies;
 Unter den Linden;
 Brandenburger Thor;
 public buildings;
 streets;
 statues of great men in the Wilhelm Platz;
 Churches;
 the officers of the Army;
 anecdote of Blucher.
Bern: attempts in 1815 to regain possession of the Canton de Vaud.
Bigottini: fine performance at the Grand Opera, Paris.
Bingen: Mausethurm,
 Bishop Hatto.
Blacas, Vicomte de: at Court of Louis XVIII at Ghent.
Blucher: popularity of, in London,
 encourages the excesses of his soldiery;
 nicknames of;
 narrowly escapes capture at Ligny;
 saves English at Hougoumont;
 anecdote related of.
Bohemia: dialect of.
Bologna: arcades,
 remarkable picture in gallery of Count Marescalchi;
 leaning tower;
 lady-professor of Greek;
 Carbonari;
 theatre;
 women;
 barbarous dialect.
Bonn:
 Electoral palace;
 Roman antiquity;
 legends of the Sieben Gebirge;
 Das Heimliche Gericht.
Bordas, M, politics of.
Borgo San Donino, remarkable highway robbery at.
Borromean Islands, splendid villa in Isola Bella.
Bourbons, the: want of patriotism of the Duc de Berri,
 their injudicious conduct;
 Louis XVIII and Monsieur at Ghent;
 amusing nickname of Louis XVIII;
 dislike of the French people to;
 their atrocious policy;
 send emissaries to South of France from Coblentz;
 unpopularity of;
 fulsome adulation of;
 cause removal of Sismondi from Geneva;
 character of royal families of France, Spain, and Naples.
Brussels: description of,
 historical associations;
 Place du Sablon, celebrated fountain;
 theatres;
 humanity of inhabitants of, to the wounded after Waterloo.

Caffarelli, Statue of, in Palais du Luxembourg.
Canova, works of, in St Peter's,
 master-pieces in his atelier in Rome;
 character of his genius.
Capellen, Baron de,
 proclamation of, to the inhabitants of Brussels.
Capua,
 thievishness of lower classes of.
Carbonari, degrees and initiation,
 object;
 meaning of name.
Castlereagh, Lord: insolent letter of, respecting King of Saxony.
Catalani: singing of.
Ceylon: Frye's travels in.
Chalon: affection felt for Napoleon in,
 Austrian officers in.
Charleroy: defeat of Prussian army at.
Chateaubriand: at the Court of Louis XVIII at Ghent.
Chatham, Earl of: indignation of, at employment of Indians in the War
      of Independence.
Clermont: Peter the Hermit preaches First Crusade in,
 petrifying well;
 Swiss regiment;
 anonymous denunciations;
 method of cleansing town.
Coblentz: monument to Marceau,
 Bourbon intrigues with Jacobins and Brissotins.
Code Napoleon: simplicity and advantages of, as compared with
      English criminal law.
Cologne: Cathedral,
 the three kings;
 the eleven thousand virgins;
 etymology of the name;
 Jean-Marie Farina.
Cremona: Gothic buildings,
 Campanile of Cathedral.
Consalvi, Cardinal: character and abilities of.
Campagna: limbs of quartered malefactors hung up on roadsides,
 armed peasants;
 the malaria.

David: pictures by, in Palais du Luxembourg.
De l'Epee, Abbe: founder of the Institution of the _Sourds-Muets_.
Dessaix: Statue of, in Palais du Luxembourg.
De Watteville: disbands his army.
Delille, Abbe, his poetry.
De Boigne, General: his great services to Scindiah,
 unjustly accused of treachery towards Tippoo Sahb.
Didier: handed over by the Sardinian Government to the French,
 his execution at Grenoble.
Dijon: the town,
 manufactories of.
Dionigi, Mme: literary and artistic attainments of.
D'Orfei, Mme.
Dresden: The Japanischer Palast,
 music in;
 Prince Galhitzin;
 the King;
 bridge over the Elbe;
 Marshal Davoust;
 Grosser Garten;
 Ressource Club;
 etiquette;
 title of "Rath";
 theatres;
 beds;
 scholars.
Duchesnois, Mlle: fine acting of.

Egypt: striking testimony to the good done by the French in.
Ehrenbreitstein: flying bridge,
 great natural strength;
 beauty of women of.
Ellis, Col. Sir H.: perishes at Waterloo.
Emigres, the:
 incorrigibility of;
 ingratitude to Napoleon;
 their foolish expectations;
 efforts to cause restoration of lands formerly theirs.
Ens:
 whirlpool;
 the Waternixie.
Erfurt: legend of Count Gleichen.
Espinassy, General: republican principles of.
Eton: principles instilled into boys at.
Eustace, Mr: examples of his credulity and bigotry.

Ferrara:
 Hugo and Parisina;
 the Po;
 relics of Ariosto;
 MSS of Ariosto, Tasso, Guarini;
 Hospital of St Anna.
Firmin: acting of.
Fleurus: Prussian army defeated at.
Florence:
 the Duomo;
 Battisterio;
 il Sasso di Dante;
 theatres;
 public buildings;
 statues;
 Gallery;
 Venus;
 de Medici;
 paintings and sculpture;
 portraits of sovereigns;
 Roman antiquities;
 remarkable imitations in wax of human anatomy;
 Ponte Vecchio;
 street paving;
 thickness of walls of houses;
 Palazzo Pitti;
 Canova's Venus;
 Boboli Gardens;
 Cascino;
 beauty of the women;
 Pegasus;
 Italian fondness for gaudy colours;
 Canova's monument to Alfieri;
 Church of Santa Croce;
 the Florentine Westminster Abbey;
 academies;
 La Crusca;
 English travellers;
 Lord Dillon;
 story illustrating Florentine life.
Fouche: complains of the conduct of the Allies.
Frankfort:
 Venus Vulgivaga;
 Jews;
 cathedral;
 inauguration of Roman Caesars in the Roemer;
 the Golden Bull;
 portraits of the Emperors;
 theatre;
 adaptation of German language to music;
 political opinion in;
 dislike to Austria.
French Revolution: worst excesses of, surpassed.

Galileo: monument erected to, in church of Santa Croce.
Gauthier, M.: exiled to Lausanne.
Geneva: scenery,
 Fort de l'Ecluse;
 arcades;
 J.J. Rousseau;
 Calvin;
 Servetus;
 sentiments of Genevese towards Napoleon and the Revolution;
 literary aptitude of Genevese;
 attachment to their country;
 the women;
 French refugees refused an asylum in;
 admitted into Helvetic Confederation.
Genoa: the women of,
 peculiarities of the streets;
 ducal palace;
 Columbus;
 bridge of Carignano;
 churches.
Georges, Mlle: fine acting of,
 her rendering of "Agrippina";
 plays the part of "Clytemnestra," supported by her sister as "Iphigenie".
Ghent: Court of Louis XVIII at.
Girolamo, Signor: anecdote of.
Godesberg: interesting ruins near.
Granet: remarkable pictures by.
Grassini: singing of.
Grillparzer, author of the tragedy "Sappho".
Grotto of Pausilippo.
Grotto del Cane.
Guerin: pictures by, in Palais du Luxembourg.
Guillotine, the.

Helvetic Confederation: guaranteed by the Allied Powers in 1814,
 Geneva admitted into.
Herculaneum.
Hockheim; Rhenish wines.
Holland: feeling towards the House of Orange,
 regret at loss of Cape of Good Hope and Ceylon.
Hougoumont: Bulow and Blucher march to the assistance of the English at
      devastation of.
Hulin, General: cashiers a Prussian officer in the French service.

India: Frye's travels in.
Innspruck: the Hofkirche,
 statues of kings and princes connected with Maximilian I.

Kleber: statue of, in Palais du Luxembourg.
Klingmann, Philipp: plot of his tragedy "Faust".

Labedoyere: execution of.
Lacoste: acts as Napoleon's guide at Waterloo.
Lafayette: rebukes British Commissioner at the Conference.
Lafond: acting of.
Lafontaine, Augustus: comparison of works of, with the "Nouvelle Heloise"
      of Rousseau.
La Harpe, General: influences Emperor of Russia in favour of the Vaudois.
Lamarque: sent by the Convention to arrest Dumouriez,
 delivered over to the Austrians;
 votes for Napoleon.
Landshut: Church of St Martin at.
Language: influence of, upon the poetry and plays of Italy, France,
      England and Germany.
Lausanne: steep ascents,
 beauty of environs;
 Republican principles of;
 intolerant discourse of minister.
Leipzig: Saxon troops go over to the Mies during the battle of,
 the University;
 unpopularity of the English in.
Leghorn: Hebrew families in,
 Don Felipe III;
 Smollett's tomb.
Liege: situation of,
 coal-pits near;
 commerce with Holland;
 fortifications;
 destroyed by Joseph II.
Linz: beauty of the women,
 curious incident;
 learned innkeepers.
Lodi: interesting model in the Hotel des Invalides of battle of.
Louvre: works of art in,
 stripping of, by the Allies.
Lucca: female servants,
 the amoroso;
 Dante's mountain.
Lyons: buildings,
 scenery;
 feelings towards Napoleon;
 character of inhabitants;
 manufactures.

Maastricht: situation,
 Montagne de St Pierre.
Machiavelli: entombed in church of Santa Croce.
Macon: quai,
 wine;
 grisettes.
Maffei: his "Polyphonte" compared with that of Voltaire.
Maitland, Captain: Napolean surrenders to.
Mantua: situation,
 Cathedral;
 monuments of the Gonzagas;
 the T palace and gardens.
Marengo: the Battle of,
 Commemoration column thrown down.
Maria Louisa: ordered to quit papal territory,
 enthusiastic reception of, at Bologna;
 victim of a strange theft.
Mars, Mlle: graceful acting of.
Massieu: pupil of the Abbe Sicard.
Mayence: Cathedral,
 Citadel.
Michel Angelo: anecdote of.
Milan: _Teatro della Scala_,
 the _Duomo_;
 the women of;
 dialect;
 the _Zecca_;
 palace;
 Ambrosian Library;
 hospital;
 _Teatro Olimpico_;
 Porta del Sempione;
 Italian comedy and audiences;
 Teatro Girolamo;
 Milanese twang;
 ballet;
 acting of La Pallerini.
Mittenwald: great raft,
 interesting journey.
Moelk: tradition of the Devil's Wall,
 ruins of Castle of Dierenstein;
 Richard Coeur de Lion.
Mont Cenis: description of the Chaussee.
Mont St. Jean: dreadful sight on plateau of.
Montefiascone: story of the _Vino d'Est_.
Morice, Colonel: death at Waterloo.
Munich: the King,
 national theatre;
 social life in;
 female head-dress.
Murat: Italian opinion of.

Namur: situation of,
 Citadel demolished by Joseph II;
 complaints against.
Prussian soldiery.
Napoleon: takes tribute of works of art from vanquished Governments,
 calumniated by the _emigres_;
 unjust aspersions on;
 narrow escape from capture;
 confident of success before Waterloo;
 constructs Chaussee of Mont Cenis.
Naples:
 life of a man of fashion in;
 Etruscan vases and papyri in museum;
 theatres;
 _Pulcinello_;
 social advantages;
 lazzaroni;
 dialect;
 effect of general ignorance.
Nelson, Lord: conduct towards Caraccioli,
Neuwied: University of.
Ney, Marshall: Wellington and Emperor of Russia refuse to interfere
      in favour of

Padua:
 University;
 Church of St Anthony;
 Palazzo della Giustizia;
 tomb of Livy.
Paris: Louis XVIII in,
 Kotzebue on the _Palais Royal_;
 Cafe Montausier;
 the Louvre;
 statues and paintings collected by the French Government;
 productions at the Grand Opera;
 Column of the _Place Vendome_;
 Gardens of the Tuileries;
 Chamber of Deputies;
 the _Invalides_;
 models of the fortresses of France;
 Picture Gallery of the Palais du Luxembourg;
 frequency of quarrels between French and Prussian officers in the;
 _Palais Royal_;
 behaviour of English officers in;
 masterpieces performed in the _Theatre francais_;
 Ney shot in the Gardens of the Luxembourg.
Parma: "L'Amfiteatro Farnese",
  paintings;
  birthplace of Cassius.
Passau: junction of the Danube, Inn and Illst.
Perugia.
Pescia,
 advantages of living in.
Picton, Lieut-Genl Sir T.: perishes at Waterloo.
Piedmont: character of the lower classes of.
Pillnitz:
 the palace;
 Treaty of.
Pisa.
Pitt: credited with the invention of the sinking fund.
Pius VII: character and virtues of.
Pompeii:
 amphitheatre;
 houses;
 Temple of Isis;
 Praetorium;
 antiquities removed to Museum of Portici.
Pontine Marshes.
Prague: situation,
 bridge over the Mulda;
 remarkable statue;
 Jews;
 palaces of the Wallensteins and Colloredos;
 St John Nepomucene;
 Joseph II's ingenious method of extorting money from the Jews;
 Catalani;
 story of the Duchess Libussa.

Rafaelli: mosaic work of.
Rho: ancient tree.
Rome: censorship of books at the Dogana,
 Coliseum;
 Arch of Constantine;
 _Via Sacra_--excavations;
 Tarpeian Rock;
 Capitol;
 St Peter's;
 anecdote of Michel Angelo;
 statue of St Peter;
 masterpieces of sculpture in Capitoline Museum;
 Transteverini;
 effect of the settling of foreign artists in;
 Santa Maria Maggiore;
 Church of St John Lateran;
 Egyptian obelisk;
 La Scala Santa;
 Quirinal;
 fountains;
 Column of Trajan;
 baths of Diocletian;
 theatres;
 masterpieces of art in the Vatican Museum;
 statue of Jupiter Capitolinus;
 stanze di Rafaello;
 Appian Road;
 social life in;
 the _Avvocati_;
 Papal Government;
 post office defalcations;
 the Carnival;
 races in the Corso;
 masquerades;
 Sovereigns and persons of distinction living in Rome in 1818;
 Easter in;
 Swiss Guard;
 Noble Guard;
 papal benediction;
 illumination of St Peter's;
 fireworks from Castle of St Angelo;
 the brigand Barbone;
 his wife.

Savoy: character of inhabitants of.
Schoenbrunn: anecdote of Napoleon's son.
Schuyler, General: his reproof of General Burgoyne.
Scindiah: career of.
Sgricci, Signor: his genius for improvisation.
Sicard, Abbee; director of the Institution of the _Sourds-Muets_,
eulogises Sir Sidney Smith.
Sienna: cathedral,
 Piccolomini monument;
 dialect.
Simplon: road over the,
 Chaussee;
 _maisons de refuge_.
Sismondi,
 the historian banished from Geneva.
Smith, Lucius F.: friend of De Boigne.
Smith, Sir Sidney: his eulogy of the Abbe Sicard.
Spoleto: ruins of ancient buildings.
St Cloud: favourite residence of Napoleon.
St Eustatius: pillaged by Admiral Rodney.
St Germain: depot for articles plundered by Prussian officers.
St Helena: injustice of Napoleon's banishment to.
Stewart, Lord: conduct of, at Conference of French Commissioners
      with the Allies.

Taddei, Rosa: her talent for improvisation.
Talma, his ailing at the Theatre Francais.
Thorwaldsen: character of his genius.
Tivoli: the Villa d'Este,
 Adrian's Villa.
Toelz: remarkable groups of figures in wood, representing
      history of Christ.
Tournay,
 citadel of.
Trevoux: scenery on the road between Macon and,
 hotel-keeper's beautiful daughter.
Turin: Chapelle du Saint Suaire,
 remarkable works of art in;
 the King of Sardinia.
Tuscany: contrast with papal dominions,
 pronunciation;
 peasantry;
 fondness of Tuscan women for dress;
 feeling towards Napoleon in;
 character of the people;
 house of Americo Vespucci.
Tyrol, the: general description of,
 dress of the peasant women.

Valais: cretins of.
Vaud, Canton de: character of inhabitants of,
 gratitude to France;
 democratic spirit;
 La Harpe;
 defends its independence;
 hatred of French Royalists to.
Velino: remarkable cascade.
Venice: Canale Grande,
 Rialto;
 palaces of great families;
 the Merceria;
 water-fete;
 Piazza di San Marco;
 Church of St Mark;
 Campanile;
 variety of costumes in;
 dialect;
 social life in;
 Doge's palace;
 theatres;
 gondolas.
Verbruggen, H.: work of, in church of St Gudule, Brussels.
Verona: amphitheatre,
 Palladio;
 Scala family;
 social advantages in.
Versailles: magnificence of.
"Vertraute Briefe" the.
Vesuvius: eruptions,
 lava.
Vicenza.
Vienna: Art treasures of, respected by French Republican armies,
 great raft;
 streets;
 Cathedral;
 Hofburg;
 Congress of;
 Wechselbank;
 Belvedere Palace;
 Prater;
 theatres.
Visconte, Galeazzo: builds church of the Certosa.
Volnais, Mlle: Acting of.
Voltaire: his play, "Merope",
 his benefactions to Ferney;
 relics of;
 portraits of contemporaries in his chateau.

Walker, Adam: his lectures to Etonians stopped.
Wardle, Col.: republican principles of,
 anonymous denunciation of.
Waterloo: French officer's remarks on.
Wellington: his confidence in the result of the campaign,
 gallantry of;
 checks frequency of corporal punishment in the army.
Wilson, Maj.-Genl: accompanies Frye on a tour through the theatre of War.
Wilson, Sir R.: his charges against Napoleon.
Wirion: removed from office by Napoleon.

York, Duke of,
 opposes frequent corporal punishment in the Army.

Zedera, Chevalier: political dispute with Genevese,
 his journey with Frye to Italy;
 his parting with Frye.





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