Infomotions, Inc.The Book of Household Management / Beeton, Mrs. Isabella Mary, 1836-1865



Author: Beeton, Mrs. Isabella Mary, 1836-1865
Title: The Book of Household Management
Publisher: Project Gutenberg
Tag(s): ingredients; butter; sauce; pint; lemon; flour; sugar; gravy; pepper; pudding; average; dish; salt; boil; juice; boiled; cream; eggs; meat; beef; slices; soup; roast; milk; boiling; bread crumbs; seasonable; pounded mace; sufficient
Contributor(s): Johnson, Rossiter [Editor]
Versions: original; local mirror; HTML (this file); printable
Services: find in a library; evaluate using concordance
Rights: GNU General Public License
Size: 491,227 words (tome-like) Grade range: 8-11 (high school) Readability score: 64 (easy)
Identifier: etext10136
Delicious Bookmark this on Delicious

Discover what books you consider "great". Take the Great Books Survey.

The Project Gutenberg eBook, The Book of Household Management, by Mrs.
Isabella Beeton


This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net





Title: The Book of Household Management

Author: Mrs. Isabella Beeton

Release Date: November 19, 2003  [eBook #10136]
Most recently updated: September 21, 2004

Language: English

Chatacter set encoding: ISO-8859-1


***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOOK OF HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT***


E-text prepared by Jonathan Ingram, Sandra Brown, and Project Gutenberg
Distributed Proofreaders



THE BOOK OF HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT;

Comprising Information for the

MISTRESS,
HOUSEKEEPER,
COOK,
KITCHEN-MAID,
BUTLER,
FOOTMAN,
COACHMAN,
VALET,
UPPER AND UNDER HOUSE-MAIDS,
LADY'S-MAID,
MAID-OF-ALL-WORK,
LAUNDRY-MAID,
NURSE AND NURSE-MAID,
MONTHLY, WET, AND SICK NURSES,
ETC. ETC.

ALSO, SANITARY, MEDICAL, & LEGAL MEMORANDA;

WITH A HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN, PROPERTIES, AND USES OF ALL THINGS
CONNECTED WITH HOME LIFE AND COMFORT.

BY MRS. ISABELLA BEETON.







            Nothing lovelier can be found
  In Woman, than to study household good.--MILTON.




Published Originally By
S. O. Beeton in 24 Monthly Parts
1859-1861.

First Published in a Bound Edition 1861.




PREFACE.

I must frankly own, that if I had known, beforehand, that this book
would have cost me the labour which it has, I should never have been
courageous enough to commence it. What moved me, in the first instance,
to attempt a work like this, was the discomfort and suffering which I
had seen brought upon men and women by household mismanagement. I have
always thought that there is no more fruitful source of family
discontent than a housewife's badly-cooked dinners and untidy ways. Men
are now so well served out of doors,--at their clubs, well-ordered
taverns, and dining-houses, that in order to compete with the
attractions of these places, a mistress must be thoroughly acquainted
with the theory and practice of cookery, as well as be perfectly
conversant with all the other arts of making and keeping a comfortable
home.

In this book I have attempted to give, under the chapters devoted to
cookery, an intelligible arrangement to every recipe, a list of the
_ingredients_, a plain statement of the _mode_ of preparing each dish,
and a careful estimate of its _cost_, the _number of people_ for whom it
is _sufficient_, and the time when it is _seasonable_. For the matter of
the recipes, I am indebted, in some measure, to many correspondents of
the "Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine," who have obligingly placed at my
disposal their formulas for many original preparations. A large private
circle has also rendered me considerable service. A diligent study of
the works of the best modern writers on cookery was also necessary to
the faithful fulfilment of my task. Friends in England, Scotland,
Ireland, France, and Germany, have also very materially aided me. I have
paid great attention to those recipes which come under the head of "COLD
MEAT COOKERY." But in the department belonging to the Cook I have
striven, too, to make my work something more than a Cookery Book, and
have, therefore, on the best authority that I could obtain, given an
account of the natural history of the animals and vegetables which we
use as food. I have followed the animal from his birth to his appearance
on the table; have described the manner of feeding him, and of slaying
him, the position of his various joints, and, after giving the recipes,
have described the modes of carving Meat, Poultry, and Game. Skilful
artists have designed the numerous drawings which appear in this work,
and which illustrate, better than any description, many important and
interesting items. The coloured plates are a novelty not without value.

Besides the great portion of the book which has especial reference to
the cook's department, there are chapters devoted to those of the other
servants of the household, who have all, I trust, their duties clearly
assigned to them.

Towards the end of the work will be found valuable chapters on the
"Management of Children"----"The Doctor," the latter principally
referring to accidents and emergencies, some of which are certain to
occur in the experience of every one of us; and the last chapter
contains "Legal Memoranda," which will be serviceable in cases of doubt
as to the proper course to be adopted in the relations between Landlord
and Tenant, Tax-gatherer and Tax-payer, and Tradesman and Customer.

These chapters have been contributed by gentlemen fully entitled to
confidence; those on medical subjects by an experienced surgeon, and the
legal matter by a solicitor.

I wish here to acknowledge the kind letters and congratulations I have
received during the progress of this work, and have only further to add,
that I trust the result of the four years' incessant labour which I have
expended will not be altogether unacceptable to some of my countrymen
and countrywomen.

ISABELLA BEETON.




GENERAL CONTENTS


CHAP.

I.--THE MISTRESS.

2.--THE HOUSEKEEPER.

3.--ARRANGEMENT AND ECONOMY OF THE KITCHEN.

4.--INTRODUCTION TO COOKERY.

5.--GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING SOUPS.

6.--RECIPES.

7.--THE NATURAL HISTORY OF FISHES.

8.--RECIPES.

9.--SAUCES, PICKLES, GRAVIES, AND FORCEMEATS.--GENERAL REMARKS.

10.--RECIPES.

11.--VARIOUS MODES OF COOKING MEAT.

12.--GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON QUADRUPEDS.

13.--RECIPES.

14.--GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE SHEEP AND LAMB.

15.--RECIPES.

16.--GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE COMMON HOG.

17.--RECIPES.

18.--GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE CALF.

19.--RECIPES.

20.--GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON BIRDS.

21.--RECIPES.

22.--GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON GAME.

23.--RECIPES.

24.--GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON VEGETABLES.

25.--RECIPES.

26.--GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON PUDDINGS AND PASTRY.

27.--RECIPES

28.--GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON CREAMS, JELLIES, SOUFFLES, OMELETS,
    AND SWEET DISHES.

29--RECIPES.

30.--GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON PRESERVES, CONFECTIONERY, ICES,
AND DESSERT DISHES.

31.--RECIPES.

32.--GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON MILK, BUTTER, CHEESE, AND EGGS.

33.--RECIPES.

34.--GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON BREAD, BISCUITS, AND CAKES.

35.--RECIPES.

36.--GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON BEVERAGES.

37.--RECIPES.

38.--INVALID COOKERY.

39.--RECIPES.

40.--DINNERS AND DINING.

41.--DOMESTIC SERVANTS.

42.--THE REARING AND MANAGEMENT OF CHILDREN, AND DISEASES OF
    INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD.

43.--THE DOCTOR

44.--LEGAL MEMORANDA




ANALYTICAL INDEX.

NOTE.--Where a "_p_" occurs before the number for reference, the
_page_, and not the paragraph, is to be sought.

Accidents, injuries, &c. remarks on 2578
Agreements 2705-7
Alexanders 1108
Alkalis 2654
Allium, the genus 1129
Allspice 438
Almond, the 1219
  Bitter 1220
  Cake 1752
  Cheesecakes 1219
  Flowers 1316
  Icing for cakes 1735
  Paste, for second-course dishes 1220
  Pudding, baked 1221
  Puddings, small 1222
  Puffs  1223
  Soup 110
  Tree  110, 1487
  Uses of the Sweet  1221
Almonds, and raisins 1605
  Husks of 1222
Anchovy, the 226
  Butter 1637
  Butter or paste 227
  Paste 228
  Sauce  362
  Toast 228
Anchovies, fried 226
  Potted 227
Animals, period between birth and maturity 92
  Quality of the flesh of 93-5
  Saxon names of 709
  Tails of 640
  Tongues of 675
Apoplexy 2634-6
Apple, the 111
  Charlotte 1420
  Charlotte aux pommes 1418
    an easy method of making  1419
  Cheesecakes  1226
  Constituents of the 1229
  Custard, baked 1389
  Dumplings, baked  1225
    boiled 1227
  Fritters 1393
  Ginger 1424, 1516
  Jam 1517
  Jelly 1518-19
    clear 1396
    or marmalade 1395
  Pudding, baked, rich 1228
    more economical 1229
    very good 1231
    boiled 1232
    iced 1290
    rich, sweet 1230
  Sauce, brown 364
    for geese or pork 363
  Snow 1401
  Snowballs 1235
  Souffle 1402
  Soup 111
  Tart, creamed 1234
    or pie 1233
  Tourte or cake 1236
  Trifle 1404
  Universally popular 1236
  Uses of the 1225-6
Apples, a la Portugaise 1398
  And rice 1400
      a pretty dish 1397
  Buttered 1390
  Compote of 1515
  Dish of 1603
  Flanc of 1391-2
  Ginger 1424
  Ices 1394
  In red jelly 1399
  Stewed, and custard 1403
  To preserve in quarters (imitation of ginger) 1520
Apprentices  2724
Apricot, cream 1405
  Jam or marmalade 1522
  Pudding 1238
  Qualities of the 1239
  Tart 1239
Apricots, compote of  1521
  Flanc of 1406
Arrowroot, biscuits, or drops 1738
  Blancmange 1407
Arrowroot, Manufacture of 387, 1240
  Pudding, baked or boiled 1240
  Sauce for puddings 1356
  To make 1855
  What Miss Nightingale says of 1855
Arsenic  2656
Artichoke, composite or composite flowers of 1080
  Constituent properties of the 1083
  Jerusalem 1086
  Uses of the 1084
Artichokes, a French mode of cooking 1082
  A l'Italienne  1083
  Fried  1081
  Jerusalem, boiled 1084
    mashed 1085
    soup 112
    with white sauce 1086
  To boil  1080
Asparagus, ancient notion of 114
  Boiled 1087
  Island 1087
  Medicinal uses of 1088
  Peas 1088
  Pudding 1089
  Sauce 365
  Soup 113-14
Aspic, or ornamental savoury jelly 366
Attestation to wills 2750

Bachelor's omelet 1462
  Pudding 1241
Bacon, boiled 804
  Broiled rashers of 803
  Curing of 822
    and keeping it free from rust 806-9
    in the Devonshire way 821
    in the Wiltshire way 805
  Fried rashers of, and poached eggs 802
Bain-Marie  430
Bakewell pudding, very rich 1242
  Plainer 1243
Ball suppers _pp._ 957-8
Bandoline, to make 2255
Bantam, the 939
Barbel, the 229
  To dress 229
Barberries, in bunches 1523
Barberry, description of the 1245
  Tart 1245
Barley, 116
  Gruel 1856
  Soup 116
  Sugar 1524
  Water, to make 1857
Baroness pudding 1244
Basil 173
Baths and fomentations, remarks on 2599
  Cold 2603
  Heat of 2600
  Warm and hot bath 2601
Batter pudding, baked 1246
  with fruits 1247
  boiled 1248
  orange 1249
Bay or laurel, varieties of 180
  Consecrated by priests 512
Bean, haricot, the 1120
Beans, boiled, broad or Windsor 1092
    French 1090
  Broad, a la poulette 1093
  French mode of cooking 1091
  Haricots and minced onions 1121
    blancs a la maitre d'hotel 1120
    blancs, or white haricots 1119
    and lentils 1119
  Nutritive properties of 1092
  Origin and varieties of 1093
Bechamel, or French white sauce 367
  Maigre, or without meat 368
  Sauce 406
Beef, aitchbone of, boiled 607
    to carve an _p._ 316
  A la mode 601-2
  Baked 598-9
  Baron of 679
  Bones, broiled 614
  Brisket of, a la Flamande 649
    to carve a _p._ 317
    to stew 649
  Broiled, and mushroom sauce 612
    oyster sauce 613
  Cake 610
  Carving _p._ 316
  Collared 617
  Collops  18
    minced 619
  Curried 620
  Different seasons for 611
  Dripping, to clarify 621-2
  Fillet of roast, larded 623
  French 649
  Frenchman's opinion of 626
  Fricandeau of 624
  Fried, salt 625
  Fritters 627
  Hashed 628-9
  Hung, to prepare 630
  Hunter's 631
  Kidney, to dress 632-4
  Marrow-bones boiled 635
  Minced 636
  Miriton of 637
  Names of the several joints 597
  Olives 650-1
  Palates, to dress 653
  Pickle for 654
  Potted 642-3
  Qualities of 599
  Ragout of 656
  Rib bones of 644
  Ribs of, boned and rolled, roast (joint for a small family) 658
    roast 657
    to carve _p._ 317
  Rissoles 615
  Roast 658
  Rolled 646
  Rolls 647
  Round of, boiled 608
    miniature 618
    to carve a  _p._ 318
  Round of, to pickle part of a 655
  Rump of, stewed 670
    steak 666
  Sausages 662
  Seasons for 611
  Shin of, stewed 671
  Sirloin of, roast 659
      to carve a _p._ 317
  Sliced and broiled 664
  Spiced (to serve cold) 665
  Steak, a fried rump 626
    and kidney pudding 603
    oyster sauce 603
    broiled 611
    pie  604
    pudding, baked 650
    rolled, roasted, and stuffed 663
    stewed, and celery sauce 667
    with oysters 668
    with fried potatoes 606
  Tea, baked 1860
    savoury 1859
    to make 1858
  Tongue, boiled 673
    pickle for 641
    to carve a _p._ 318
     to cure a 674-5
    to pickle and dress a, to eat cold 676
  To salt 660
    Dutch way 661
Beef-tea, Dr. Christison's 1859
  Miss Nightingale's opinion of 1858
Beer, table 191
Beetroot 1094
  Boiled 1094
  Pickled 369
Benton sauce 370
Bequests, legacies, &c. 2744-9
Beverages, general observations on 1789, 1806
Bills of fare, for January _pp._ 909-13
  February 914-17
  March 918-21
  April 922-25
  May 926-29
  June 930-33
  July 934-36
  August  937-39
  September 940-42
  October 943-45
  November 946-48
  December 949-52
  ball supper for 60 persons _p._ 957
  ball supper, cold collation, for a summer entertainment for 70 or 80
      persons _p._ 958
  breakfasts 959
  game dinner for 30
  persons _p._ 953
  luncheons and suppers _p._ 959
  menu, service a la Russe _pp._ 954-5
  picnic for 40 persons 960
  suppers _p._ 956
Birds, general observations on 917-25
Biscuit powder 1737
Biscuits, arrowroot 1738
  Cocoa nut 1740
  Crisp 1741
  Dessert 1742
  Lemon 1743
  Macaroons 1744
  Ratafias 1745
  Remarks on 1712-15
  Rice 1746
  Rock 1747
  Savoy 1748
  Seed 1749
  Simple, hard 1750
  Soda 1751
Bites and stings, general remarks on 2609
  of insects 2610-11
  of snakes 2612
  Of dogs 2613
Blackcock, heathcock, &c. 1019
  Roast 1019
  To carve a 1054
Blancmange 1408
  Arrowroot. 1407
  Cheap 1409
  Lemon 1442
  Rice 1476
Bleeding, from the nose 2607
  Operation of 2605-6
Blonde, to clean 2265
Blood, spitting of 2608
Boar's head, importance of the 815
  The Westphalian 787
Bones, dislocation of 2614
  Fracture of 2615
Bonnets 2244
Books of account 2731
Boots, polish for 2240-1
  Bottled fresh fruit 1542-3
    with sugar  1544
  Boudin, a la reine  961
  Brain, concussion of, stunning 2623
  Brandy, cherry 1526
  Lemon 460
  Orange 1826
  Varieties of 1328
Bread, and bread-making 1668-1703
  And-butter fritters 1410
    pudding 1255
  Crumbs, fried 424
    Fried for borders 426
  Indian-corn-flour 1721
  Making in Spain 1776
  Origin of 117
  Properties of 1252
  Pudding, baked 1250
    boiled  1252
    brown 1253
    miniature 1254
    very plain 1254
  Rice 1720
  Sauce 371-2
  Sippets of, fried 425
    Soda 1722
Bread, soup 117
  To make a peck of good 1719
  To make good home-made 1718
  To make yeast for 1716
Breakfasts _p._ 959, _par_ 2144-6
Breath, shortness of, or difficult breathing 2670
Bride-cake, rich 1753
Bridles 2218
Brill, the 230
  To carve a _pp._ 175-6
Brilla soup 166
Brocoli, boiled 1095
Broth, calf's-foot 1862
  Chicken 1863
  Eel 1866
  Mutton to make 1872
  Mutton to quickly make 1873
Brown roux for thickening gravies 525
Browning, for sauces and gravies 373
  For stock 108
Bruises, lacerations, and cuts 2617
  Treatment of 2618
Brushes, to wash 2250
Brussels sprouts, boiled 1096
Bubble-and-squeak 616
Bullock's heart, to dress a 615
Buns, light 1731
  Plain 1729
  To make good plain 1730
  Victoria 1732
Burns and scalds 2619
  Treatment of the first class of 2620
  Treatment of the second class 2621
  Treatment of the third class 2622
Butler, care of plate and house 2162
  Duties of the, at breakfast, luncheon, dinner, and dessert 2157-9
   luncheon, in the drawing-room 2161
  Lights, attention to 2160
  Wine, bottling 2167-70
  Wine, cellar 2163-5
  Wine, fining 2166
Butter, anchovy 227,1637
  Antiquity of 1205
  Beurre noir, or brown butter (a French sauce) 374
  Clarified 375
  Colouring of 1636
  Curled 1635
  Easily digested 1255
  Fairy 1636
  General observations on 1615-19
  How to keep 1635
  How to keep fresh 1207
  In haste 1206
  Maitre d'hotel 465
  Melted 376-7
  Melted (the French sauce blanche) 378
  Melted made with milk 380
  Moulds for moulding fresh butter 1634
  Thickened 379
  To keep and choose, fresh 1632
  To preserve and to choose, salt 1633
  What to do with rancid 1208
Cabbage, the 118
  Boiled 1098
  Colewort, or wild 1099
  Green kale, or borecole 1097
  Kohl-Rabi, or turnip 1095
  Qualities of the 1169
  Red, pickled 499
  Red, stewed 1099
  Savoy, and Brussels sprouts 1096
  Savoy, description of the 140
  Soup 118
  Tribe and their origin 1098
  Turnip tops and greens 1169
Cabinet, or chancellor's pudding 1256
  Plain, or boiled bread-and-butter pudding 1257
Cafe au lait 1812
  Noir 1813
Cake, almond 1752
  Breakfast, nice 1739
  Bride or Christening 1753
  Christmas 1754
  Cocoa-nut 1740
  Economical 1756
  Good holiday 1763
  Honey 1758
  Lemon 1764
  Luncheon 1765
  Nice useful 1757
  Pavini 1771
  Plain 1766
  Plain for children 1767
  Plum, common 1768
  Plum, nice 1769
  Pound 1770
  Queen 1773
  Rice 1746, 1772
  Saucer, for tea 1774
  Savoy 1748, 1782
  Scrap 1779
  Seed, common 1775
  seed, very good 1776
  Snow 1777-8
  Soda 1781
  Sponge 1783-4
  Sponge Small, to make 1785
  Tea 1786
  Tea to toast 1787
  Tipsy 1487
  Tipsy an easy way of making 1488
  Yeast 1788
Cakes, hints on making and baking 1704-11
Calf, the 173
  Birth of the 893
  Breeding of the 858
  Fattening the 903
  Feeding a 862
  General observations on the 845-53
  In America 864
  Names of the 899
  Symbol of Divine power 890
  The golden 873
  When it should be killed 860
Calf's feet, baked or stewed 1861
Calf's feet, boiled with parsley and butter 860
Calf's feet, broth 1862
Calf's feet, fricasseed 861
  jelly 1416
      Head, a la Maitre d'hotel 864
      boiled 876-7
      collared 862
      club 867
      fricasseed 863
      hashed 878
      soup 167
    to carve a 913
    Liver and bacon 881
    aux fines herbes 880
      larded and roasted 882
    Udder, for French forcemeats 421
Calomel 2658
Camp-vinegar 381
Canary-pudding 1258
Candlesticks 2311
Cannelons, or fried puffs 1417
Caper-sauce, for boiled mutton 382
  For fish 383
  Substitute for 384
Capercalzie, the 1026
Capers 383
Capsicums, pickled 385
Carbonate of soda 1765
Carp, the 242
  Age of the 243
    Baked 242
    Stewed 243
  Carpet sweeping 2312
  Carriages 2225-9
  Carrot, the 121
    Constituents of the 1101
    Jam, to imitate apricot preserve 1525
    Nutritive properties of the 1102
    Origin of the 1100
    Pudding, boiled or baked 1259
    Seed of the 1103
  Soup 120-1
  Varieties of the 1172
Carrots, boiled 1100
  Sliced 1103
  Stewed 1102
  To dress in the German way 1101
Carving, beef _p._ 316
  aitchbone of _p._ 316
  brisket of _p._ 317
  ribs of _p._ 317
  round of _p._ 318
  sirloin of _p._ 317
  Blackcock 1054
  Brill _pp._ 175-6
    Calf's head 913
    Codfish _p._ 174
    Duck 999
      wild 1055
    Fowl 1000-1
    Goose 1002
    Grouse 1058
    Ham 843
    Hare 1056
    Lamb 764-5
    Landrail 1063
    Mutton, haunch of 759
    leg of 760
    loin of 761
    mutton, saddle of 762
      shoulder of 763
  Partridge 1057
  Pheasant 1059
  Pigeon 1063
  Plover 1066
  Pork 842
    leg of 844
  Ptarmigan 1064
  Quail 1065
  Rabbit 1004
  Salmon _p._ 175
  Snipe 1060
  Soles _p._ 175
  Sucking-pig 842
  Teal 1067
  Tongue _p._ 318
  Turbot _p._ 175
  Turkey 1005
  Veal 854
    breast of 912
    fillet of 914
    knuckle of 915
    loin of 916
  Venison, haunch of 1061
  Widgeon 1068
  Woodcock 1062
Cauliflower, description of the 1105
  Properties of the 1151
Cauliflowers, a la sauce blanche 1105
  Boiled 1104
  With Parmesan cheese 1106
Cayenne, varieties of 362
  Vinegar or essence of cayenne 386
Celery, indigenous to Britain 122
  Origin of 1109
  Sauce for boiled turkey, poultry, &c. 387
    (a more simple recipe) 388
  Soup 122
  Stewed 1110
    a la creme 1108
    with white sauce 1109-10
  To dress 1107
  Various uses of 441, 1107
  Vinegar 389
Champagne 1832
  Cup 1832
Chanticleer and his companions 947
Chantilly soup 123
Char, the 243
Charlotte apple, very simple 1420
  Aux pommes, an easy method of making 1418-19
  Russe 1421
Cheese 1638
  Cayenne 1642
  Cream 1622
  Damson 1536
  Decomposed 1638
  Fondue 1643
    Brillat Savarin's 1644
  General observations on 1620-2
  Macaroni, as usually served with 1645-7
  Mode of serving 1640
  Pork 799
  _Paragraph_
  Pounded 1648
  Raisin 1587
  Ramakins, to serve with 1649-50
  Sandwiches 1641
  Scotch rarebit 1651
  Smoking 1640
  Stilton 1639
  Toasted, or Scotch rarebit 1651
  Welsh 1652
Cheesecakes, almond 1219
  Apple 1226
  Lemon 1292
Cherokee or store sauce 528
Cherries, dried 1527
  Morello, to preserve 1561
  To preserve in syrup 1529
Cherry, brandy 1526
  Jam 1528
  Sauce for sweet puddings 1357
  Tart 1261
  Tree in Rome 1561
  Varieties of the 1261
Chervil, peculiarities of 129
Chestnut sauce, brown 391
    for fowls or turkey 390
  Spanish, soup 124
  Uses of the 124
Chicken, boiled 938
  Broth 1863
  Curried 942
  Cutlets 926
  French 927
  Fricasseed 945
  Or fowl patties 928
  pie 929
  Potted 930
  Pox, or glass-pox 2538-42
  Salad 931
Chickens, age and flavour of 931
Chili vinegar 393
China chilo 712
Chocolate, box of 1502
  Cream 1430
  History of 1430
  Souffle 1427
  To make 1807
Cholera, and autumnal complaints 2624
Christmas, cake 1754
  Plum-pudding, very good 1328
  Pudding, plain, for children 1327
Christopher North's sauce for game or meat 394
Chub, the 243
Churning 2365
Churns 2362
  Cleaning the 2368
Cinnamon-tree, the 524
Citron, uses of the 1329
  Varieties of the 1436
Claret cup 1831
  Varieties of 1831
Cleanings, periodical 2326-9
Cleanliness, advantages of 2689
Clothes, cleaning 2239
Clove, derivation of the name 436
  Tree 367
Coach-house and stables 2204
Coach-house and stables, furniture of the 2209
  Harness-room 2208
  Heat of stables 2205
  Horse, the 2203
  Stalls 2207
  Ventilation of stables 2206
Coachman, carriages 2225-9
  Choosing horses 2231
  Driving 2232
  Duties of the 2210
  Pace of driving 2230
  Whip, the 2233
Cock-a-Leekie 134
Cocoa and chocolate, various uses of 1807
  To make 1816
Cocoa-nut, the 125
  Cakes or biscuits 1740
  Soup 125
Cod, fecundity of the 241
  Food of the 237
  Habitat of the 239
  Method of preserving 233
  Season for fishing for the 240
  Sounds 234
  Tribe, the 231
Codfish, the 231
  A la Bechamel 239
    creme 233
  A l'Italienne 241
  A la maitre d'hotel 240
  Curried 237
  Head and shoulders of 232
    to carve _p._ 174
  Pie 235-6
  Preserving 233
  Salt, (commonly called salt fish) 233
  Sounds 233
    en poule 234
  To choose 232
Coffee, Cafe au lait 1812
  Cafe noir 1813
  Essence of 1808
  Miss Nightingale's opinion on 1865
  Nutritious 1864
  Plant 1811
  Simple method of making 1811
  To make 1810
  To roast 1809
Cold-meat cookery:--
  Beef, baked 598-9
    bones, broiled 614
    broiled, and mushroom sauce 612
      oyster sauce 613
    bubble-and-squeak 616
    cake 610
    curried 620
    fried salt 625
    fritters 627
    hashed 628-9
    minced 636
    miriton of 637
    olives 651
    potted 613
    ragout 656
    rissoles 615
    rolls 647
    sliced and broiled 664
    stewed, and celery sauce 667
      with oysters 668
  Calf's head, a la maitre d'hotel 864
    fricasseed 863
    hashed 878
    Chicken, cutlets 927
      or fowl patties 928
        potted 930
        salad 931
  Duck, hashed 932
    stewed and peas 935
      turnips 937
    wild, hashed 1020
      ragout of 1021
  Fish, and oyster pie 257
    cake 258
    cod, a la Bechamel 239
      a la creme 238
      curried 237
      pie 235-6
    salmon, curried 305
    scallop 350-1
    turbot, a la creme 341
      au gratin 342
      fillets of, baked 339
        a l'Italienne 340
  Fowl, a la Mayonnaise 962
    boudin, a la Reine 961
    croquettes of 953-4
    fricasseed 946
    fried 947-8
    hashed 955
      Indian fashion 957
    Indian dish of 959
    minced 956
      a la Bechamel 950
    or chicken, curried 942
    ragout 951
    scollops 658
    saute, with peas 960
  Game, hashed 1023
  Goose, hashed 967
  Hare, broiled 1029
    hashed 1030
  Lamb, hashed, and broiled bladebone 749
  Mutton, baked minced 703
    broiled and tomato sauce 710
    collops 731
    curried 713
    cutlets 714
    dormers 715
    haricot 718
    hashed 719
    hodge-podge 720
    pie 733
    ragout of neck 736
    toad in hole 743
  Pork, cheese 796
    cutlets 796
    hashed 801
  Turkey, croquettes of 987
    fricasseed 988
    hashed 989
  Veal, baked 856
    cake 859
    collops, Scotch 870-1
    curried 865
    fillet of, au Bechamel 883
    loin of, au Bechamel 887
    minced 889-92
    olive pie 895
    patties, fried 896
     ragout of 900
    rissoles 901
    rolis 902
    tete de veau en tortue 911
  Venison, hashed 1050
Cold, to cure a 2625
  On the chest 2626
College pudding 1263
Collops, cooking 871
  Scotch 870
  Scotch white 871
Combs, to clean 2251
Compote of, Apples 1515
  Apricots 1521
  Damsons 1537
  Figs, green 1541
  Gooseberries 1515
  Greengages 1551
  Oranges 1565
  Peaches 1572
Compotes, to make syrup for 1512
Confectionary, general observations on 1508
Consomme, or white stock for many sauces 395
Constructive notices 2699
Convulsions or fits 2519-22
Cook, duties of the cook, kitchen, and scullery-maids 79
  Early rising 80
  First duty of the 81
  General directions to the 75
  duties of the 82-4
Cookery, cleanliness of utensils used in 72
  Excellence in the art of 78
  Explanation of French terms used in 87
  Introduction to 76
  Measures used in 77
Copper 2659
Coriander plant, the 174
Corks, with wooden tops 446
Corrosive sublimate 2657
Cow, cheese 1652
  Heel, fried 639
    stock for jellies 1412
  Pox, or vaccination 2543-6
    or variola 906
Cows, cost of keep for 2370
Cowslip wine 1817
Crab, hot 245
  Sauce, for fish 396
  To dress 244
  Tribe, the 245
Crape, to make old look like new 2277
Crayfish, the 246
Crayfish, how preserved 193
  Potted 247
  Soup 193
Cream, a la Valois 1422
  Apricot 1405
  Chocolate 1430
  Devonshire 1630
  Ginger 1432
  Italian 1437
  Lemon 1443
    economical 1444
    or custards 1446
    very good 1445
  Noyeau 1452
  Orange, Seville 1464
    sweet 1463
  Peculiarities of 1385
  Raspberry 1475
  Sauce for fish or white dishes 397
  Stone, of tous les mois 1483
  Swiss 1485
  To make ice fruit 1555
  Vanilla 1490
  Whipped 1492
Creams, general observations on 1385
Croquettes of, fowl 953-4
  Rice 1477
Croup 2568
  Symptoms of 2569
  Treatment of 2570-3
Crumpets 1728
Crust, butter, for boiled puddings 1213
  Common, for raised pies 1217
  Dripping, for kitchen puddings and pies 1214
  For fruit tarts, very good 1210
  Lard or flead 1218
  Pate brisee, or French, for raised pies 1216
  Short, common 1212
  good 1211
  Suet, for pies and puddings 1215
Cucumber, antiquity of the 127, 402
  Chate 1114
  Geographical distribution of the 1111
  Indigestible 1152
  Properties and uses of the 1113
  Sauce 398
    white 400
  Soup 127
  Vinegar (a very nice addition to salads) 491
Cucumbers, a la poulette 1112
  Fried 1113
  For winter use 402
  Pickled 399
  Preserving (an excellent way) 403
  Stewed 1114
  with onions 1115
  To dress 1111
Curds and whey 1629
Currant, dumplings 1264
  Fritters 1429
  Jam, black 1530
    red 1532
  Jelly, black 1531
    red 1533
    white 1534
  Pudding, black or red 1266
    boiled 1265
  Red, and raspberry tart 1267
Currants, iced 1558
  Uses of 1266
    Zante, description of 1264
Curry powder 449
Custard, apple, baked 1389
  Boiled 1423
  Creams, or lemon 1446
  Pudding, baked 1268
  boiled 1269
  Sauce for sweet puddings or tarts 404
  Tartlets, or Fanchonnettes 1315
Cutlets, chicken 926
    French 927
  Invalid's 1865
  Lamb 747
  Mutton 732
    Italian 723
    of cold 714
  Pheasant 1040
  Pork 796-8
  Salmon 306
  Sauce for 513
  Veal 866
    a la Maintenon 868
  Cygnet, the 998

Dace, the 243
Dairy, the 2358
  Butter, colouring of 2366
    milk 2368
    washing 2367
  Churning 2365
  Churns 2362
  Cleaning the churn, &c. 2368
  Cows, cost of keep for 2370
  Devonshire system 2369
  Hair sieve 2360
  Maid, charge of dairy produce 2371
    duties of the 2357
  Milk, dishes 2361
    general management of 2364
    pails 2359
  Situation of the 2363
Dampfnudeln, or German puddings 1280
Damson, the 1270
  A very nice preserve 1539
  Cheese 1536
  Jam 1538
  Pudding 1271
  Tart 1270
Damsons, baked for winter use 1535
  Compote of 1537
  To preserve, or any other kind of plums 1540
Darioles, a la vanille 1428
Date, the 1605
Debts 2755
  Estate chargeable with 2748
Decanters, to clean 2198, 2336
Deer, the 1049
  Fallow 1050
  Roebuck 1051
Deer, stag 1051
Delhi pudding 1272
Dentition 2509
Dessert, biscuits 1742
  Dishes 1598
    general remarks on 1509
Devonshire, cream 1630
  Junket 1631
Diarrhoea 2574-7
Dilapidations 2718
Dinners, and dining 1879-86
  A la Russe 2137-8
    menu p. 955
  Bills of fare for, from 6 to 18  persons, from January to December
     _pp._ 909-52
  Bills of fare for game, for 30 persons _p_. 953
  Bills of fare for plain family _pp._ 913, 917, 921, 925, 929, 933,
    936, 939, 942, 945, 948, 952
Diseases of infancy and childhood 2509-77
Dishes, a hundred different 434
Domestics, general remarks on 2153-6
Dormers 715
Downs, the 725
Draught, for summer 1837
Dress and dressing of infants 2491-6
Drink for warm weather, pleasant 1836
Dripping, to clarify 621-2
Driving 2232-3
Drowning, treatment after 2676
Duck, the 932
  American mode of capturing the 936
  Aylesbury 935
  Bow-bill 936
  Buenos Ayres 933
  Eggs of the 934, 1658
  Fattening 936
  Hashed 932
  Hatching 935
  Man and dog, decoy 937
  Roast 934
    to carve a 999
  Rouen 934
  Snares in Lincolnshire 937
  Stewed, and peas 935-6
  and turnips 937
  To ragout a whole 933
  Varieties of the 933
  Wild, the 934, 937, 1022
    hashed 1020
    ragout of 1021
    roast 1022
    to carve a 1055
Ducklings, cooping and feeding 935
Dumplings, baked apple 1225
  Boiled apple 1227
  Currant 1264
  Lemon 1294
  Marrow 1306
  Sussex, or hard 1376
  Yeast 1383
Dusting 2313
Dutch flummery 1426
  Sauce, for fish 405
    Green, or Hollandaise verte 406

Eel, broth 1866
  Haunts of the 254
  Pie 253
  Productiveness of the 252
  Soup 194
  Tenacity of life of the 256
  The common 250
  Tribe, the 249
  Voracity of the 253
Eels, a la Tartare 255
  Boiled 249
  Collared 254
  En matelote 256
  Fried 252
  Stewed 250-1
Egg, balls for soups and made dishes 408
  Sauce for salt fish 409
  Soup 128
  Wine 1867
Eggs, a la maitre d'hotel 1660
  A la tripe 1667
  Boiled for breakfast, salads, &c. 1656
  Buttered 1657
  Ducks' 1658
  For hatching 927-28
  Fried 1659
  General remarks on 1623-6
  Liaison of, for thickening sauces 461
  Oeufs au plat, or au miroir 1661
  Plovers' 1662
  Poached 1663
    with cream 1664
  Primitive method of cooking 1658
  Quality of 1654-5
  Scotch 1666
  Snow, or oeufs a la neige 1482
  To choose 1654
    keep fresh for several weeks 1655
    pickle 407
  Veneration for 1659
  White of 1387
  Will crack if dropped in boiling water 1656
Elderberry wine 1818
Emetic, tartar 2660
Empress pudding 1273
Endive, a la Francaise 1118
  Genus of 1116
  Plant 169
  Stewed 1117
  To dress 1116
Entree, beef or rump steak, stewed 666
  Beef, minced collops 619
  Boudin a la reine 961
  Calf's head, fricasseed 863
    liver, larded and roasted 882
  Chicken and rice croquettes 953-4
    cutlets 926
    or fowl, fricasseed 945
  Fowl, hashed 955
    saute with peas 960
  Lamb, cutlets 747
    sweetbreads and asparagus 757
    another way
    to dress 758
  Lark pie 971
  Lobster-curry 274
Entree, lobster cutlets 275
  patties 277
  Oyster patties 289
  Sweetbreads, baked 906
    fried 907
    stewed 908
  Veal cutlets 866
    a la Maintenon 868
    broiled 867
    collops 879
    fricandeau of 874-5
    tendons de veau 909-10
    tete de veau 911
    Vol au vent 1379
Epaulettes of gold or silver 2287
Epicurean sauce 410
Espagnole, or brown Spanish sauce 411
Everton toffee 1597
Exeter pudding 1274
Eye, lime in the 2629
  Sore 2628
  Stye in the 2630
  Substances in the 2627
Eyelids, inflammation of the 2631

Fairy butter 1636
Fanchonnettes, or custard tartlets 1315
Fasting 2632
Feathers 2284
Fennel 412
  Sauce for mackerel 412
Fig pudding 1275
Figs, green, compote of 1541
Fish, addendum and anecdote of _p_. 173
  And oyster pie 257
  As an article of human food 211-18
  Average prices 226
  Cake 258
  General directions for carving _p._.174-6
    dressing 219-25
    rule in choosing 226
  In season January to December _pp_. 33-7
  Kettle 338
  Pie with tench and eels 349
  Sauce 413, 512
  Scallop 350-1
  Soup 192
  Stock 192
  Supply of, for the London market 353
  To smoke at home 820
Fishes, natural history of 199-210
Fits 2633
  Apoplexy 2634-6
    and drunkenness, distinctions between 2638
    epilepsy, distinctions between 2637
    hysterics distinctions between 2639
    poisoning by opium, distinctions between 2640
  Epilepsy 2641
  Fainting 2642
  Hysterics 2643
  The consequence of dentition 2519-22
Fixtures 2713
Fleece, the golden 715
Floorcloth, to clean 2335
Flounder, the 259
Flounders, boiled 259
  Fried 260
Flour, nutritious qualities of 1218
Flowers, to preserve cut 2289
  after packing 2290
Flummery, Dutch 1426
Fomentations 2602-3
Fondue, Brillat Savarin's 1644
  To make 1643
Food for infants, and its preparation 2499, 2508
Footgear 2245
Footman, boot-cleaning 2174
  Boot tops 2176
  Breakfast, laying cloth, &c. 2181-3
  Brushing clothes 2180
  Decanters 2198
  Dinner 2185-6
  Dinners a la Russe 2188
  Dress and livery 2172
  During dinner 2191
  Early rising 2173
  Furniture-rubbing 2179
  General duties 2171
  Glass-washing 2197-8
  Going out with the carriage 2190
  Knives 2177
  Lamp-trimming 2178
  Letters and messages 2200
  Luncheon, duties at 2184
  Management of work 2196
  Manners, modesty, &c. 2190
  Opening wine 2192
  Pantry 2195
  Patent leather boots 2175
  Politeness 2201
  Receptions and evening parties 2202
  Removal of dishes 2193
  Salt-cellars 2187
  Tea 2194
  Waiting at table 2189
  Where a valet is not kept 2182
Forcemeat, balls for fish soups 414
  Boiled calf's udder for French 421
  For baked pike 413
    cold savoury pies 415
    various kinds of fish 416
    veal, turkeys, fowls, hare, &c. 417
  French 419-20
  Or quenelles, for turtle soup, Soyer's receipt for 423
  Oyster 489
Fowl, a la Mayonnaise 962
  And rice croquettes 953
  Boiled 938
    a la Bechamel 943
    to carve 1000
    with oysters 944
    rice 940
  Boudin a la reine 961
  Broiled and mushroom sauce 939
  Croquettes 954
  Curried 941-2
  Fricasseed 945-6
  Fried 947-8
  Hashed 955
    an Indian dish 957
  House, the 944
    stocking the 945
  Indian dish of 950
  Minced 956
    a la Bechamel 950
  Pillau 963
  Poulet aux cressons 964
    a la Marengo 949
  Ragout of 951
  Roast 952
    stuffed 965
      to carve a 1001
Saute, with peas 960
  Scallops 958
  To bone for fricassees 995
Fowls, a la Marengo 949
  As food 926
  Bantam 939
    feather-legged 958
  Best to fatten 951
    way to fatten 948
  Black Spanish 962
  Characteristics of health and power 946
  Chip in 953
  Cochin China 942
  Common, or domestic 926
  Diseases of, and how to cure 952
  Dorking 940
  Eggs for hatching 927
  Feeding and cooping 930
  Game 938
  Guinea 970
  Hatching 928
  Moulting season, the 956
  Obstruction of the crop 955
  Pencilled Hamburg 965
  Poland 941
  Scour, or Dysentery in 957
  Serai Ta-ook, or fowls of the Sultan 963
  Sir John Sebright's bantams 961
  Sitting 927
  Skin disease in 955
  Space for 943
  Speckled Hamburg 959
  "Turn" in 954
  Various modes of fattening 948
  Young 929
Freezing apparatus, method of working the 1290
French terms used in cookery 87
Fritters, apple 1393
  Beef 627
  Bread-and-butter 1410
  Currant 1429
  Indian 1435
  Orange 1465
  Peach 1469
  Pineapple 1472
  Plain 1473
  Potato 1474
  Rice 1478
Fruit, dish of mixed 1601
    summer 1604
  Fresh to bottle 1542-3
  Ice creams, to make 1555
  In season, January to December _pp._ 33-7
  Spots, to remove 2270
  To bottle with sugar 1544
  Turnovers 1278
  Water ices, to make 1556
Fuel 73
Fungi, analysis of 1128
  Varieties of 1124
Furniture cleaning 2307, 2313
  Gloss, German 2339
  Polish 2308-9
Furs, feathers, and woollens 2284

Game, general observations on 1006-18
  Hashed 1023
  In season, January to December _pp._ 33-7
Garlic 392
Geneva wafers 1431
Genevese sauce 427
German pudding 1279
    or Dampfnudeln 1280
Gherkins, or young cucumbers 428
  Pickled 428
Giblet pie 965
  Soup 168
Gilt frames, to brighten 2337
Ginger, apples 1424
  Beer 1833
  Cream 1432
  Preserved 1432
  Pudding 1281
  Qualities of 407
  Wine 1819
Gingerbread, nuts, rich sweetmeat 1759
    Sunderland 1761
  Thick 1769
  White 1762
Glaize, cold joints to 430
  For covering cold hams, tongues, &c 430
  Kettle 430
Godfrey's cordial 2663

Golden fleece, order of the 708, 715
  Pudding 1282
Goose, Brent 966
  Description of the 968
  Egyptian 969
  Hashed 967
  Roast 968
    to carve a 1002
  Stuffing for (Soyer's) 505
  To dress a green 969
  Wild 967
Gooseberries, compote of 1546
Gooseberry, the 1285
  Fool 1433
  Indigenous to British isles 429
  Jam 1547-8
    white or green 1549
  Jelly 1550
  Pudding, baked 1283
Gooseberry pudding, boiled 1284
  Sauce for boiled mackerel 429
  Tart 1285
  Trifle 1434
  Vinegar 1820
  Wine, effervescing 1821
Grapes, qualities of 1601
Grates 2298, 2299, 2338
Gravy, a quickly-made 434
  Beef, for poultry or game (good) 435
  Brown 436
    without meat 437
  Cheap, for minced veal 443
    hashes 440
  For roast meat 433
    venison 444
  General stock for 432
  Jugged, excellent 441
  Kettle 432
  Made without meat, for fowls 439
  Orange 488
  Rich, for hashes and ragouts 438
  Roux, for thickening brown 525
    white 526
  Soup 169
  Veal, for white sauces, fricassees 442
Greengage jam 1552
Greengages, compote of 1551
  To preserve dry 1553
    in syrup 1554
Green sauce 431
Greens, boiled, turnip 1169
  Turnip-tops, and cabbage 1169
Groom, bridles 2218
  Cleaning fawn or yellow leather 2223
  Duties of the 2211
  Exercising the horses 2213
  Feeding the horses 2214-15
  Harness 2219
    cleaning old 2221-2
    paste 2220
  Shoeing 2217
  Watering horses 2212, 2216
  Wheel-grease 2224
Grouse, description of the 1625-26
  Pie 1024
  Roast 1025
  Salad 1026
  To carve a 1058
Gruel, barley 1836
  To make 1868
Gudgeon, the 261
  Habitat of the 261
Guinea-fowl, description of the 970
  Roast 970
Guinea-pig, the 997
Gurnet, the 262
  To dress 262

Haddock, habitat of the 263
  Finnan 266
  Weight of the 264
Haddocks, baked 263
  Boiled 264
  Dried 265-6
Hair-dressing 2248-9
Hair, pomade for 2253-4
  To promote growth of 2257
  Wash for 2252
Ham, fried and eggs 843
  Omelet 1457
  Potted 814-5
  To bake a 810
    boil a 811
    carve a 843
    give it an excellent flavour 812
    glaize 430
Hams, curing of 822
  For curing 816
  To cure in the Devonshire way 821
        sweet, in the Westmoreland way 818
    pickle 819
    salt two 817
    smoke at home 820
Hare, broiled 1029
  Extreme timidity of the 1027
  Hashed 1030
  Jugged 1031-2
  Potted 1028
  Roast 1027
  Soup 170
  To carve a 1056
  The common 170
Haricot, beans, and minced onions 1121
  Blancs a la maitre d'hotel 1120
  Mutton 716-17-18
  To boil blancs, or white haricot beans 1119
Harness, cleaning old 2221-2
  Paste 2220
  Room, the 2208
Heart, palpitation of the 2646
Henbane, hemlock, nightshade, and foxglove 2664
Herbs, to dry for winter use 445
  Powder of, for flavouring 446
  Sweet 417
Heradotus pudding 1287
Herring, the 268
  Red 267
Herrings, baked, white 268
  Red, or Yarmouth bleaters 267
  To choose 268
Hessian soup 171
Hidden mountain, the 1438
Hodge-podge 191, 720
Hog, antiquity of the 826, 834
  Fossil remains of the 829
  General observations on the common 765-95
  In England 837
  Not bacon 807
  Universality of the 833
  Wild and domestic 823
Holly leaves, to frost 1545
Honey cake 1758
Hooping cough 2468, 2564
  Symptoms of 2565
  Treatment of 2566-7
Horse, the 2203
Horses, choosing 2231
  Exercising 2213
Horses feeding 2224-15
  Watering 2212, 2216
Horseradish, the 447
  Medical properties of the 1122
  Sauce 447
  Vinegar 448
Hot spice 524
Housekeeper, daily duties of the 58-61
  General duties of the 55
  Knowledge of cookery 57
  Necessary qualifications for a 56
Housemaid, bedroom, attention to 2306, 2323-4
  Bright grates 2298
  Candlestick and lamp-cleaning 2330
  Carpet-sweeping 2312
  Chips broken off furniture 2330
  Cleanings, periodical 2326-9
  Dress of the 2319
  Dusting 2313
  Duties after dinner 2321
    evening 2322
    general 2292-4
  Fire-lighting 2296-7
  Furniture-cleaning 2307, 2313
  General directions to the 2300-5
  Hartshorn, for plate-cleaning 2316
  Laying dinner-table 2314-5
  Marble, to clean 2333-4
  Needlework 2325
  Plate, to clean 2317
    rags for daily use 2318
  Upper and under 2291
  Waiting at table 2320
  Recipe, Brunswick black, to make 2295
    cement for joining broken glass or china 2331-2
    decanters, to clean 2336
    floorcloth, to clean 2335
    furniture gloss, German 2339
      paste 2310
      polish 2308-9
    gilt frames, to brighten 2337
    grates and fire irons, to preserve from rust 2338
    polish for bright grates 2299
Hunter's pudding 1288
Husband and wife 2725-9
Hysterics 2643

Ice, fruit creams, to make 1555
  Lemon-water 1557
  To ice, or glaze pastry 1334
Iced, apple pudding 1290
  Apples, or apple hedgehog 1394
  Currants 1558
  Oranges 1564
  Pudding 1289
Ices, fruit-water, to make 1556
  General observations on 1510-11
Icing, for cakes, almond 1735
  sugar 1736
Indian, Chetney sauce 452
  Corn-flour bread 1721
  Curry powder 449
  Fritters 1435
  Mustard 450
  Pickle 451
  Trifle 1436
Infant, the 2460-2577
Ink-spots, to remove 2271
Invalid cookery, rules to be observed in 1841-54
Invalid's cutlet, the 1865
  Jelly 1869
  Lemonade 1870
Insurance 2708-10
I. O. U., the 2723
Irish stew 721-2
Ironing 2282, 2393-6
Isinglass 1413
Italian, cream 1437
  Mutton cutlets 723
  Rusks 1733
  Sauce, brown 453
  white 451

Jam, apple 1517
  Apricot, or marmalade 1522
  Carrot 1525
  Cherry 1528
  Currant, black 1530
    red 1538
  Damson 1538
  Gooseberry 1547-8
    white or green 1549
  Greengage 1552
  Omelet 1460
  Plum 1580
  Raspberry 1588
  Rhubarb 1590
    and orange 1591
  Roly pudding 1291
  Strawberry 1594
Jaunemange 1439
Jelly, apple 1518-19
    clear 1396
    thick, or marmalade 1395
  Bag, how to make 1411
  Bottled, how to mould 1414
  Calf's foot 1416
  Cow-heel, stock for 1412
  Currant, black 1531
    red 1533
    white 1534
  General observations on 1386
  Gooseberry 1550
  Invalid's 1869
  Isinglass or gelatine 1413
  Lemon 1447
  Liqueur 1449
  Moulded with fresh fruit 1440
    with slices of orange 1455
  Of two colours 1441
  Open with whipped cream 1453
  Orange 1454
  Quince 1585
  Raspberry 1589
  Savoury, for meat pies 521
  Stock for, and to clarify it 1411
  Strawberry 1484
  To clarify syrup for 1415
Jewels 2286
John dory, the 248
  To dress the 248
Joints, injuries to 2616
Julienne, soup a la 191
Junket, Devonshire 1631

Kale brose 132
Kegeree 269
Ketchup, mushroom 472
  Oyster 490
  Walnut 535-6
Kettles for fish 338
Kidney and beefsteak pudding 605
  Omelet 1458
Kidneys, broiled 724
  Fried 725
Kitchen, distribution of a 62
  Essential requirements of the 70
  Fuel for the 73
  Ranges 65-6
  Maid, duties of the 85
  Necessity for cleanliness 72
  Scullery maid, duties of the 86
  Utensils, ancient and modern 69
    list of for the 71
Kitchens of the Middle Ages 62
Knives 2177
Kohl Rabi, or turnip-cabbage 1095

Lace collars, to clean 2266
Lady's maid, arranging the dressing room 2246-7
  Attention to bonnets 2244
  Chausserie, or foot-gear 2245
  Dressing, remarks on 2258-9
  Duties of the 2213, 2260-2
    when from home 2280
    evening 2281
  Epaulettes of gold or silver 2287
  Fashions, repairs, &c 2263
  Hairdressing 2248
    lessons in 2249
  Ironing 2282
  Jewels 2286
  Linen, attention to 2278
  Packing 2279
  Rules of conduct 2288
  Recipe, bandoline, to make 2255
    Blonde, to clean 2265
    Brushes, to wash 2250
    Combs, to clean 2251
    Crape, to make old look like new 2277
    Essence of lemon, use of 2274
    Flowers, to preserve cut 2289
      to revive after packing 2290
    Fruit-spots, to remove 2270
    Furs, feathers, and woollens 2284
    Grease-spots from cotton or woollen materials, to remove 2268
     from silks or moires, to remove 2269
    Hair, a good pomade for the 2253-4
    Hair, a good wash for the 2253
      to promote the growth of 2257
  Lace collars, to clean 2266
  Moths, preservatives against the ravages of 2285
  Paint, to remove from silk cloth 2276
  Pomatum, an excellent 2256
  Ribbons or silk, to clean 2275
  Scorched linen to restore 2283
  Stains of syrup or preserved fruit, to remove 2273
  To remove ink-spots 2271
  Wax, to remove 2272
Lamb, as a sacrifice 744
  Breast of, and green peas 744
    stewed 745
  Carving 761
  Chops 746
  Cutlets and spinach 747
  Fore quarter, to carve a 764
    to roast a 750
  Fry 748
  General observations on the 698-702
  Hashed and broiled blade-bone of 749
  Leg of, boiled 751
    roast 752
  Loin of, braised 753
  Saddle of 754
  Shoulder of 755
    stuffed 756
Lamb's sweetbreads, larded 757
  another way to dress 758
Lambswool, or lamasool 1227
Lamp-cleaning 2178,2311
Lamprey, the 256
Landlord and tenant, relations of 2700
Landrail or corn-crake 1033
  Roast 1033
  To carve  1063
Lard, to melt 625
Larding 828
Lark-pie 971
Larks, roast 972
Laundry, situation of, and necessary apparatus 2373-4
  Maid, cleaning and washing utensils 2386
  General duties of the 2372
  Ironing 2393-6
  Mangling and ironing 2387-9
  Rinsing 2379
  Soaking linen 2376
  Sorting linen 2375
  Starch, to make 2391-2
  Starching 2390
  Washing 2377-8
    coloured muslins, &c 2380
    flannels 2381
    greasy cloths 2382
    satin and silk ribbons 2384
    silk handkerchiefs 2383
    silks 2385
Laurel, or bay 180
Law, general remarks on 2694
Lead, and its preparations 2661
Leamington sauce 459
Lease, breaks in the 2711
Leases, general remarks on 2702-4
Leek, badge of the Welsh 134
  Soup 133
Legacies 2751-4
  Bequests, &c 2744-9
Legal memoranda 2694-2751
Lemon, anti venomous 455
  Biscuits 1743
  Blancmange 1442
  Brandy 460
  Cake 1764
  Cheesecakes 1292
  Cream 1443
    (economical) 1444
  Creams 1445
    or custards 1446
  Dumplings 1294
  Essence of 2274
  Fruit of the 405
  Jelly 1447
  Juice of the 456
  Mincemeat 1293
  Pudding, baked 1295-7
    boiled 1298
    plain 1299
  Rind or peel 460
  Sauce for boiled fowls 457
    for sweet puddings 1358
  Sponge 1448
  Syrup 1822
  Thyme 458
  To pickle with the peel on 455
    without the peel 456
  Water ice 1557
  White sauce for fowls or fricassees 458
  Uses of the 1296
  Wine 1823
Lemonade 1834
  For invalids 1870
  Most harmless of acids 1834
  Nourishing 1871
Lentil, the 126
Lettuce, corrective properties of the 136
  Varieties of the 1123
Lettuces, to dress 1123
Leveret, to dress a 1034
Liaison 461
Lightning, treatment after a person has been struck by 2677
Linen, attention to 2278
  Scorched, to restore 2283
  Soaking 2376
  Sorting 2375
Liqueur Jelly 1449
Liver, and lemon sauce for poultry 462
  And parsley sauce for poultry 463
  Complaints and spasms 2644
Lobster, the 270
  A la mode Francaise 273
  Ancient mode of cooking the 275
  Celerity of the 273
  Curry (an entree) 274
  Cutlets (an entree) 275
  Hot 271
  How it feeds 278
  Local attachment of the 277
  Patties (an entree) 277
  Potted 278
  Salad 272
  Sauce 464
  Shell of the 272
  Soup 195
  To boil 270
  To dress 276
Lumbago 2645
Luncheon cake 1765
Luncheons and suppers 2147-48
Lungs, respiration of 2453-6

Macaroni, as usually served with cheese course 1645-7
  Manufacture of 135, 1301
  Pudding, sweet 1301
  Soup 135
  Sweet dish of 1450
Macaroons 1744
Mace 371
Macedoine de fruits 1440
Mackerel, the 281
  Baked 279
  Boiled 280
  Broiled 281
  Fillets of 282
  Garum 283
  Pickled 283
  To choose 281
  Weight of the 279
  Voracity of the 282
Maid-of-all-work, after breakfast 2344
    dinner 2350-1
  Bedrooms, attention to 2352
    daily work in 2345
  Before retiring to bed 2354
  Breakfast, preparation for 2343
  Cleaning hall 2342
  Cooking dinner 2346
  Early morning duties 2341
  General duties 2340
    routine 2353
  Knife-cleaning 2351
  Laying dinner-cloth 2347
  Needlework, time for 2356
  Waiting at table 2348-9
  Washing 2355
Maigre, soup 136
Maitre d'hotel 465
  butter 465
  sauce (hot) 466

Maize 1721
  Cobbett a cultivator of 1174
  Or Indian wheat, boiled 1174
Malt wine 1824
Manchester pudding 1300
Mangling and ironing 2387-9
Mango chetney, Bengal recipe for making 392
Manna kroup pudding 1302
  Qualities of 1302
Mansfield pudding 1303
Marble, to clean 2333-4
Marjoram, species of 173, 415
Marlborough pudding 1304
Marmalade, and vermicelli pudding 1305
  Of Apricots 1522
  Orange 1566-7
    an easy way of making 1568
    made with honey 1569
  Quince 1586
Marrow, bones 635
  Boiled 635
  Dumplings 1306
  Pudding, boiled or baked 1307
Mayonnaise 468
Measles 2547-59
Meat, action of salt on 607
  Bad 605
  Baking 665
  Good 602
  In season, January to December _pp_ 33-7
  Modes of cooking 540-84
  Pies, savoury jelly for 521
  To buy economically 726
Meats, preserved 643
Medical memoranda 2689-93
Melon, description of the 1559
  Introduced into England 1115
  Uses of the 1559
Melons 1569
Meringues 1451
Military puddings 1308
Milk, and cream, separation of 1627
    to keep in hot weather 1628
  And suckling 2472-90
  Excellence of 1627
  General observations on 1608-14
  Or cream, substitute for 1815
  Qualities of 1628
  Soup 137
Millet, Italian 1718
  Pannicled 1733
Mince pies 1311
Minced collops 619
Mincemeat, to make 1309
  Excellent 1310
  Lemon 1293
Mint 469
  Sauce 469
  Vinegar 470
Mistress, after-dinner invitations 39
  Charity and benevolence, duties of 14
  Choice of acquaintances 6
  Cleanliness indispensable to health 4
  Conversation, trifling occurrences 9
  Daily duties 22-6
  Departure of guests 45-6
  Dessert 37-8
  Dinner announced 35
  Domestics, engaging 17
    giving characters to 20
    obtaining 18
    treatment of 19
    yearly wages, table of 21
Mistress, dress and fashion 11
    of the 13
  Early rising 3
  Etiquette of evening parties 40-3
    the ball room 44
  Evenings at home 48
  Family dinner at home 47
  Friendships should not be hastily formed 7
  Good temper, cultivation of 10
  Guests at dinner-table 36
  Half-hour before dinner 34
  Home virtues 5
  Hospitality, excellence of 8
  Household duties 1-2
  House-hunting, locality, aspect, ventilation, rent 54
  Housekeeping account-book 16
  Introductions 51
  Invitations for dinner 33
  Letters of introduction 52-3
  Marketing 15
  Morning calls and visits 27-32
  Purchasing of wearing apparel 12
  Retiring for the night 49
Mock-turtle soup 172-3
Morello cherries, to preserve 1561
Moths, preservatives against 2285
Muffins 1727
Mulberries, preserved 1360
Mulberry, description of the 1360
Mullagatawny soup 174
Mullet, grey 284
  Red 285
Muriatic acid 2651
Mushroom, the cultivated 473
  Growth of the 476
  How to distinguish the 472
  Ketchup 472
  Localities of the 1126
  Nature of the 478
  Powder 477
  Sauce, brown 474
    very rich and good 479
  white 475-6
  Varieties of the 1125
Mushrooms, baked 1124
  Broiled 1125
  Pickled 478
  Stewed 1127
    in gravy 1128
  To dry 473
    preserve 1126
    procure 1127
Mustard 480
  How to mix 480
  Indian 480
  Tartar 481
Mutton, baked minced 703
  Breast of, boiled 704
     (excellent way to cook a) 709
  Broiled, and tomato sauce 710
  Broth, quickly made 1873
    to make 1872
  Carving 759-63
  China chilo 712
Mutton, chops, broiled 711
  Collops 731
  Curried 713
  Cutlets, of cold 714
    Italian 723
    with mashed potatoes 732
  Dormers 715
  Fillet of, braised 707
  Haricot 716-18
  Hashed 719
  Haunch of, roast 726
    to carve a 759
  Hodge-podge 720
  Irish stew 721-2
    Kidney, broiled 724
  fried 725
  Leg of, boiled 705
    boned and stuffed 706
    braised 708
    roast 727
    to carve a 760
  Loin of, to carve a 761
    roast 728
    rolled 729
  Neck of, boiled 730
    ragout of 736
    roast 737
  Pie 733-4
  Pudding 735
  Qualities of various 707
  Saddle of, roast 738
  to carve a 762
  Shoulder of, roast 739
    to carve a 763
  Soup, good 175

Nasturtium, uses of the 482
Nasturtiums, pickled 482
Nature and art in nursing 2445-2452
Navet, description of the 1168
Nectar, Welsh 1830
Nectarines, preserved 1562
Needlework 2325
Negus, to make 1835
Nesselrode pudding 1313
Nitric acid 2650
Normandy pippins, stewed 1563
Notice to quit 2716
Noxious trades 2712
Noyeau cream 1452
  Homemade 1825
Nurse, attention to children's dispositions 2401
  Carrying an infant 2398
  Convulsion fits 2406
  Croup 2407
  Dentition 2405
  General duties of the 2402-4
  Habits of cleanliness in children 2400
  Hooping-cough 2408
  Measles and scarlatina 2410-12
  Miss Nightingale's remarks on children 2414-5
  Worms 2409
Nursemaids, upper and under 2397
Nurse, Monthly, age of 2431
Nurse, Monthly, attention to cleanliness
  in the patient's room 2433
  Choice of a 2429
  Doctor's instructions must be observed 2430
  General duties of the 2432
  Infant must not be exposed to light or cold too early 2434
Nurse, Sick, airing the bed 2425
  Attention to food 2427
  Bad smells must be removed 2422
  Cleanliness, necessity of 2421
  Diet suitable to the patient's taste 2428
  Duties of the 2416
  Necessity for pure air in the sick-room 2417
  Night air injurious, a fallacy 2426
  Opening of windows and doors 2418-9
  Patient must not be waked 2424
  Quiet in the patient's room 2423
  Ventilation necessary in febrile cases 2402
Nurse, Wet, abstinence from improper food 2411
  Age of the 2439
  Diet of the 2442
  General remarks on the 2435-8
  Health and morality of the 2440
  Spirits, wines, and narcotics to be avoided 2443
Nutmeg, the 378
Nuts, dish of 1599
  hazel and filbert 1599

Olive and olive oil 506
Omelet, au Thon 1494
  Aux confitures, or jam omelet 1460
  Bachelor's 1462
  Ham 1457
  Kidney 1458
  Plain, sweet 1459
  Souffle 1461
  The Cure's p. 753
  To make a plain 1456
Onion before the Christian era 139
  History of the 485
  Origin of the 1131
  Properties of the 1130
  Sauce, brown 485
    or Soubise, French 483
    white 484
  Soup 138-9
Onions, burnt, for gravies 1130
  Pickled 486-7
  Spanish, baked 1129
    pickled 527
    stewed 1131
Open jam tart 1365
Opium and its preparations 2662
Orange, and cloves 1565
  Brandy 1826
  Cream 1463-4
  Fritters 1465
  Gravy 483
  In Portugal, the 1565
  Jelly 1454
Orange, jelly, moulded with slices of orange 1455
  Marmalade 1566-7
    an easy way of making 1568
    made with honey 1569
  Pudding, baked 1314
  Salad 1571
  Seville 1464
  Tree, the first in France 1564
  Uses of the 1314
  Wine 1827
Oranges, a pretty dish of 1466
  Compote of 1565
  Iced 1564
  To preserve 1570
Ox, the 176
  Cheek, soup 176
    stewed 638
  Feet, or cowheel, fried 639
  Tail, broiled 652
    soup 177
  Tails, stewed 610
Oxalic acid 2652
Oyster, and scallop 288
  Excellence of the English 291
  Fishery 289
  Forcemeat 489
  Ketchup 490
  Patties 289
  Sauce 492
  Season 197
  Soup 196-7
  The edible 286
Oysters, fried 286
    in batter 291
  Pickled 491
  Scalloped 287
  Stewed 288
  To keep 290

Paint, to remove from silk cloth 2276
Pan kail 140
Panada 420
Pancakes, French 1425
  Richer 1468
  To make 1467
Parsley, and butter 493
  Fried 494
  How used by the ancients 123, 493
  Juice (for colouring various dishes) 495
  To preserve through the winter 496
Parsnip, description of the 141, 1132
  Soup 141
Parsnips, to boil 1132
Partridge, the 178,1039
  Broiled 1035
  Hashed, or salmi de perdrix 1038
  Pie 1036
  Potted 1037
  Roast 1039
  Soup 178
  To carve a 1057
Paste, almond 1220
  Common, for family pies 1207
  French puff, or feuilletage 1208
Paste, medium puff 1206
  Soyer's recipe for puff 1209
  Very good puff 1205
Pastry, and puddings, general observations on 1175-9
  Ramakins to serve with cheese course 1650
  Sandwiches 1318
  To ice or glaze 1334-5
Patties, chicken or fowl 928
  Fried 896
  Lobster 227
  Oyster 289
Pavini cake 1771
Pea, origin of the 1133
  Soup 144
    green 142
    winter, yellow 143
  Sweet and heath or wood 1135
  Varieties of the 143, 1134
Peas, green 1133
    a la Francaise 1134
    stewed 1135
Peach, and nectarine 1572
  Description of the 1469
  Fritters 1469
Peaches, compote of 1572
  Preserved in brandy 1573
Pear 1574
  Bon Chretien 1576
Pears, a l'Allemande 1470
  Baked 1574
  Moulded 1471
  Preserved 1575
  Stewed 1576
Pepper, black 369
  Long 399
  Plant, growth of the 516
  White 366
Perch, the 292
  Boiled 292
  Fried 293
  Stewed with wine 294
Pestle and Mortar 421
Petites bouches 1319
Pheasant, the 1041
  Broiled 1043
  Cutlets 1040
  Height of excellence in the 1043
  Roast 1041
  Brillat Savarin's recipe for 1042
  Soup 179
  To carve a 1059
Pickle, an excellent 497
  Beetroot, to 369
  Capsicums, to 385
  Cucumbers, to 399
  For tongues or beef 611
  Gherkins, to 428
  Indian (very superior) 451
  Lemons, to 456
    with the peel on 455
  Mixed 471
  Mushrooms, to 478
  Nasturtiums, to 482
  Onions, to 486-7
    Spanish, to 527
  Oysters, to 491
  Red cabbage, to 493
  Universal 533
  Walnuts, to 534
Pickles of the Greeks and Romans 452
  Keeping 451
Pie, apple, or tart 1233
  Beef-steak 604
  Chicken or fowl 929
  Eel 253
  Fish and oyster 257
  Giblet 966
  Grouse 1024
  Lark 971
  Mince 1311
  Mutton 733-4
  Partridge 1036
  Pigeon 975
  Pork, raised 835
     little 836
  Poultry or game, raised 1340
  Rabbit 981
  Sole or cod 322
  Tench and eel 349
  Veal 897
    and ham 898
      raised 1341
    olive 895
Pig, Guinea 997
  How roast pig was discovered 841
    to silence a 812
  Novel way of recovering a stolen 819
  Sucking, to carve a 842
    roast 841
    to scald 840
  The learned 840
Pig's cheeks, to dry 830
  Face, collared 823
  Fry, to dress 824
  Liver 831
  Pettitocs 832
Pigs, Austrian mode of herding 796
  English mode of hunting and Indian sticking 800
  How pastured and fed formerly 805
Pigeon, the 974
  Barb 976
  Breeding 974
  Carrier 974
  Fantail 976
  House or dovecot, aspect of 974
  Jacobin 976
  Necessity of cleanliness in the 974
  Nun 975
  Owl 976
  Pie 975
  Pouter 973
  Rock 976
  Runt 975
  To carve a 1003
  Trumpeter 975
  Tumbler 975
  Turbit 976
  Wood or wild 975
Pigeons, broiled 973
  Roast 974
  Stewed 970
Pike, the 293
  Baked 296
  Boiled 295
Pineapple 1472, 1478
  Chips 1577
  Fritters 1472
  In Heathendom 1578
  Preserved 1578
    for present use 1579
Pippins, stewed, Normandy 1563
Plaice, the 298
  Fried 297
  Stewed 298
Plate-cleaning 2317-18
Plover, description of the 1044
  To carve a 1066
    dress a 1044
Plovers' eggs 1626
Plum, an excellent pudding 1325
  Cake, common 1768
    nice 1769
  Jam 1580
  Pudding, baked 1324
  Pudding sauce 499
  Tart 1331
Plums 1330
  French, box of 1600
    stewed 1583
  Cultivation of 1582
  Origin of the names of 1580
  Preserved 1581
  To preserve dry 1582
Poisonous food 2665
  Mushrooms 2666
Poisons 2647
  Calomel 2658
  Copper 2659
  Emetic tartar 2656
  Lead, and its preparations 2661
  Opium and its preparations 2662
  Symptoms of having inhaled strong fumes of smelling salts 2655
    swallowed 2618
      alkalis 2654
      arsenic 2656
      corrosive   sublimate 2657
      muriatic acid 2651
      nitric acid 2650
      oxalic acid 2652
      prussic acid 2653
      sulphuric acid 2649
  Syrup of poppies and Godfrey's cordial 2663
  Treatment after taking henbane hemlock, nightshade, or foxglove 2664
Polish tartlets 1320
Pomatum, an excellent 2256
Pork, carving 842
  Cheese 799
  Cutlets 796
  Cutlets or chops 797-8
  Griskin of, roast 827
  Hashed 801
  Leg of, boiled 826
    roast 800
    to carve a 844
  Loin of, roast 829
  Pickled, to boil 834
  Pies 835
    little, raised 836
  Sausages, to make 837
  To pickle 833
Portable soup 180
Potato, the 147
  Analysis of 1138
  As an article of food 1148
  Bread 1141
  Fritters 1474
  Patty 1332
  Properties of the 1137
  Pudding 1333
  Qualities of the 1147
  Rissoles 1147
  Salad 1154
  Snow 1148
  Soup 145-6-7
  Starch 1139
  Sugar 1136
  Uses of the 1140
  Varieties of the 1146
Potatoes, a la maitre d'hotel 1144
  Baked 1136
  Fried, French fashion 1142
  German way of cooking 1143
  How to use cold 1141
  Mashed 1145
  Preserving 1143
  Puree de pommes de terre 1146
  To boil 1137
    in their jackets 1138
    new 1139
  To steam 1140
Potted beef 642-3
  Chicken or fowl 930
  Ham 815
  Hare 1028
  Partridge 1037
  Shrimps 312
  Veal 899
Poulet, a la Marengo 949
  Aux cressons 964
Poultry, in season, January to December _pp_. 33-7
Pound cake 1770
Pounded cheese 1648
Prawn, the 198
  Soup 198
Prawns or shrimps, buttered 313
  To boil 299
  To dress 300
Prescriptions, general remarks on 2580
  Blister, an ordinary 2598
  Clyster 2582
  Draught 2581
    common black 2587
  Drugs, list of, necessary to carry out all instructions 2579
  Liniment 2583
  Lotion 2584
    Goulard 2585
    Opodeldoc 2586
  Mixtures, aperient 2588
    fever 2589
Pills 2592
    compound iron 2591
    myrrh and aloes 2590
  Poultice 2604
    Abernethy's plan for
    making a bread-and-water 2595
    linseed meal 2596
    mustard 2597
  Powders 2593
Preserved, and dried greengages 1553
  Cherries in syrup 1529
  Damsons 1539
    or any other kind of plums 1540
  Ginger 1432
  Greengages in syrup 1554
  Morello cherries 1561
  Mulberries 1560
  Nectarines 1562
  Oranges 1570
  Peaches in brandy 1573
  Pineapple 1578
  Plums 1581
  Pumpkin 1584
  Strawberries in wine 1595
    whole 1596
Preserves, general observations on 1495, 1507
Primitive ages, simplicity of the 63-4
Prince of Wales soup 148
Property law 2696-8
Prussic acid 2653
Ptarmigan, or white grouse 1045
  To carve a 1064
  To dress a 1045
Pudding, Alma 1237
  Almond, baked 1221
    small 1222
  Apple, baked, very good 1231
      economical 1229
      rich 1228
    boiled 1232
    iced 1290
    rich sweet 1230
  Apricot, baked 1238
  Arrowroot, baked or boiled 1249
  Asparagus 1089
  Aunt Nelly's 1224
  Bachelor's 1241
  Bakewell 1242-3
  Baroness 1244
  Batter, baked 1246
      with dried or fresh fruit 1247
    boiled 1248
  Beefsteak and kidney 605
    baked 600
  Bread, baked 1250
    boiled 1252
    brown 1253
  Bread, miniature 1254
    very plain 1251
  Bread-and-butter, baked 1255
  Cabinet, or chancellor's 1256
  plain, or boiled bread-and-butter 1257
  Canary 1258
  Carrot, baked or boiled 1259
  Christmas, for children, plain 1327
    plum 1328
  Cold 1262
  College 1263
  Currant, black or red 1266
    boiled 1265
  Custard, baked 1268
    boiled 1269
  Damson 1271
  Delhi 1272
  Empress 1273
  Exeter 1274
  Fig 1275
    Staffordshire recipe 1276
  Folkestone pudding pies 1277
  German 1279
    or Dampfnudeln 1280
  Ginger 1281
  Golden 1282
  Gooseberry, baked 1283
    boiled 1284
  Half-pay 1286
  Herodotus 1287
  Hunter's 1288
  Iced 1289
  Lemon, baked 1295-7
    boiled 1298
    plain 1299
  Macaroni, sweet 1301
  Manchester 1300
  Manna kroup 1302
  Mansfield 1303
  Marlborough 1304
  Marmalade and vermicelli 1305
  Marrow, boiled or baked 1307
  Military 1308
  Monday's 1312
  Mutton 735
  Nesselrode 1313
  Orange, baked 1314
  batter 1249
  Paradise 1322
  Pease 1323
  Plum, an excellent 1325
    baked 1324
    fresh fruit 1330
  Potato 1333
  Pound, plum 1329
    an unrivalled 1326
  Quickly made 1366
  Raisin, baked 1336
    boiled 1337
  Rhubarb, boiled 1338
  Rice, baked 1342
      more economical 1343
    boiled with dried and fresh fruit 1345-6
    French, or gateau de riz 1352
    ground, boiled or baked 1353
    iced 1354
    miniature 1355
    plain, boiled 1344
  Roly-poly jam 1291
  Royal Coburg 1260
  Sago 1367
  Semolina, baked 1369
  Somersetshire 1374
  Suet, to serve with roast meat 1375
  Tapioca 1370
  Treacle, rolled 1372
  Toad-in-the-hole 672
    of cold meat 743
  Vermicelli 1377
  Vicarage 1378
  West Indian 1382
  Yorkshire 1384
Puddings and pastry, directions for making 1180, 1204
  general observations on 1175-1179
Puits d'amour, or puff-paste rings 1321
Pumpkin, preserved 1584
Punch 1839
  To make hot 1839
Purchasing a house 2695-98

Quadrupeds, general observations on 585, 597
Quail, description of the 1046
  To carve a 1065
  To dress a 1046
Queen-cakes 1773
Quenelles a tortue 189
  Veal 422
Quince, the 1233
  Jelly 1585
  Marmalade 1586
  Quin's sauce 500

Rabbit, a la minute 980
  Angora 985
  Boiled 977
  Common wild 978
  Curried 978
  Fecundity of the 981
  Fried 979
  Habitat of the 977
  Hare 985
  Himalaya 985
  House 982
  Hutch 983
  Pie 981
  Ragout of, or hare 982
  Roast or baked 983
  Soup 181
  Stewed 984
    in milk 1874
    larded 985
  To carve a 1004
  Varieties of the 979
Rabbits, fancy 984
Radish, varieties of the 1152
Raised pie, of poultry or game 1340
  Pork 835-6
  Veal and ham 1841
Raisin, the 1327
Raisins, cheese 1587
  Grape 1324
  Pudding, baked 1336
    boiled 1337
Ramakins, pastry 1650
  To serve with cheese course 1649
Raspberry, and currant salad 1592
    tart 1267
  Cream 1175
  Jam 1588
  Jelly 1589
  Vinegar 1828
Raspberries, red and white 1267
Ratafias 1745
Ravigotte, a French salad sauce 501
Reading sauce 502
Rearing by hand 2497-8
Rearing, management, and diseases of infancy and childhood 2415-2577
Receipts 2730
Regency soup 182
Remoulade, or French salad dressing 503
Rent, recovery of 2719-22
Rhubarb, and orange jam 1591
  Description of 1339
  Jam 1590
  Pudding, boiled 1338
  Tart 1339
  Wine 1829
Ribbons, or silk, to clean 2275
Rice, and apples 1400
  Biscuits or cakes 1746
  Blancmange 1476
  Boiled for curries 1347
  Bread 1720
  Buttered 1349
  Cake 1772
  Casserole of, savoury 1350
    sweet 1351
  Croquettes 1477
  Esteemed by the ancients 1349
  Fritters 1478
  Ground 1746
    boiled 1353
  Iced 1354
  Indian, origin of 150
  Milk 1875
  Paddy 1347
  Pudding, baked 1342
      more economical 1343
    boiled 1345
      plain 1344
      with dried or fresh fruit 1346
    French, or gateau de riz 1352
  Miniature 1355
  Qualities of 1342
  Snowballs 1479
  Souffle 1480
  Soup 150-1
  To boil for curries 1348
  Varieties of 1345
Ringworm, cure for 2667
  Alterative powders for 2668
Rinsing 2379
Rissoles, beef 465
Roach, the 243
Roasting, age of 65
  Memoranda in 657
Rock biscuits 1747
Rolls, excellent 1723
  Fluted 1317
  Hot 1724
  Meat, or sausage 1373
Roux, brown, for thickening sauces 525
  White, 526
Rusks, Italian 1733
  To make 1734

Sage 427
  And onion stuffing 501
Sago, alimentary properties of 1367
  How procured 152
  Pudding 1367
  Sauce for sweet puddings 1368
  Soup 152
Salad, a poetic recipe for 508
  Boiled 1151
  Chicken 931
  Dressing 506-8
    French 503
  Grouse 1026
  Lobster 272
  Orange 1571
  Potato 1154
  Scarcity of, in England 505
  Summer 1152
  Winter 1153
Salads 1153
Salmi de perdrix, or hashed partridge 1038
Salmon, a la Genevese 307
  And caper sauce 302
  Aversion of the 309
  Boiled 301
  Collared 303
  Crimped 304
  Curried 305
  Cutlets 306
  Growth of the 305
  Habitat of the 303
  Migratory habits of the 302
  Pickled 308
  Potted 309
  To carve _p._ 175
    choose 301
    cure 308
  Tribe 304
Salsify, description of 1149
  To dress 1149
Salt, action of on meat 607
  Common 403
  Fish 233
  Meat, Soyer's recipe for preserving the gravy in 609
Sandwiches, of cheese 1611
  Pastry 1318
  Toast 1877
  Victoria 1491
Sauce, a l'Aurore 511
  A la matelote 512
  Allemande, or German sauce 509
  Anchovy, for fish 362

Sauce, apple, brown 364
    for geese or pork 363
  Aristocratique 510
  Arrowroot, for puddings 1356
  Asparagus 365
  Bechamel, or French white sauce 367
    maigre 368
  Benton 370
  Beurre noir, or browned butter, a French sauce 374
  Bread 371-2
  Browning for 373
  Butter, melted 376-7
      made with milk 380
      maitre d'hotel 465
    thickened 379
  Camp vinegar 381
  Caper, for boiled mutton 382
    for fish 383
    a substitute for 384
  Celery, for boiled turkey, poultry, &c. 387
    a more simple recipe 388
  Cherry, for sweet puddings 1357
  Chestnut, brown 391
    for turkey or fowls 390
  Chili vinegar 393
  Christopher North's, for game or meat 394
  Consomme, or white stock for 395
  Crab, for fish 396
  Cream, for fish or white dishes 397
  Cucumber 398
    white 400
  Custard, for sweet puddings or tart 404
  Dutch, for fish 405
    green, or Hollandaise verte 406
  Egg, for salt fish 409
  Epicurean 410
  Espagnole, or brown Spanish 411
  Fennel, for mackerel 412
  Fish 413
  For boiled puddings 514
    steaks 516
    wildfowl 519
  Genevese, for salmon, trout, &c. 427
  Gooseberry, for boiled mackerel 429
  Green, for green geese or ducklings 431
  Horseradish 447
  Hot spice 524
  Indian chetney 452
  Italian, brown 453
    white 454
  Leamington 459
  Lemon, for boiled fowls 457
    for fowls and fricassees, white 458
    for sweet puddings 1358
  Liaison of eggs for thickening 461
  Liver and lemon, for poultry 462
    parsley 463
  Lobster 464
  Maigre maitre d'hotel (hot) 467
  Maitre d'hotel (hot) 466
  Mango chetney (Bengal recipe) 392
  Mayonnaise 468
  Melted butter 376-8
  Mint 469
  Mushroom, a very rich and good 479
    brown 474
    ketchup 472
    white 475-6
  Onion, brown 485
    French, or Soubise 483
    white 484
  Oyster 492
  Parsley and butter 493
  Piquante 513
  Plum-pudding 499
  Quin's (an excellent fish-sauce) 500
  Ravigotte 501
  Reading 502
  Robert 515
  Sago, for sweet puddings 1368
  Shrimp 522
  Soyer's, for plum-puddings 1359
  Store, or Cherokee 528
  Sweet, for puddings 1360
    venison 518
  Thickening for 525-6
  Tomato 529-32
  Tournee 517
  Vanilla custard 1361
  Wine, excellent for puddings 1362
    for puddings 1364
    or brandy 1363
    white 537-9
Sauces and gravies, in the Middle Ages 433
  Manufacture of 510
  Pickles, gravies, and forcemeats, remarks on 354, 361
Saucer-cakes, for tea 1774
Sausage, meat cakes 839
  Meat stuffing 520
  Or meat rolls 1373
Sausages, beef 662
  Pork, fried 838
    to make 837
  Veal 904
Savory 446
Savoury jelly for meat pies 521
Savoy, the 140
  Biscuits or cakes 1748
  Cake 1782
Scarlatina, or scarlet fever 2560-3
Scotch, collops 870
      white 871
  Eggs 1666
  Rarebit, or toasted cheese 1651
  Shortbread 1780
  Woodcock 1653
Scrap cakes 1779
Scratches 2669
Sea-bream, the 310
  baked 310
    Mr. Yarrell's recipe 310
  Kale, description of 1150
  To boil 1150
Seed, biscuits 1749
  Cake, common 1775
    very good 1776
Semolina, pudding, baked 1369
  Qualities of 153
  Soup 153
  Uses of 1369
Shad, the 311
  To dress 311
Shalot, or Eschalot 410
Sheep, the 175
  General observations on the 678, 697
  Poets on the 730
Sheep's brains, en matelote 740
  Feet, or trotters 741
  Head, to dress 742
    singed 742
Shepherd, the Ettrick 739
  The Good 705
Shepherds and their flocks 710
Sherry 1416
  Pale 1426
Shortbread, Scotch 1780
Shrimp, the 313
  Sauce 522
Shrimps, or prawns, buttered 313
    to boil 299
  Potted 312
Sick-rooms, caution in visiting 2692
Sirloin, origin of the word 659
Skate, the 315
  Boiled 314
  Crimped 315
  Small, fried 317
  Species of 317
  To choose 315
  With caper sauce (a la Francaise) 316
Smelt, the 319
  Odour of the 318
Smelts, to bake 318
  To fry 319
Snipe, description of the 1047
Snipes, to carve 1060
  To dress 1047
Snow cake 1777-8
  Eggs, or oeufs a la neige 1482
Snowballs, apple 1235
  Rice 1479
Soda, biscuits 1751
  Bread 1722
  Cake 1781
  Carbonate of 1765
Sole, the 320
  Flavour of the 324
  Or cod pie 322
Soles, a favourite dish of the ancient Greeks 323
  Baked 320
  Boiled 321
    or fried, to carve _p._ 175
  Filleted, a l'Italienne 324
  Fricasseed 325
  Fried 327
    filleted 326
  How caught 325
  To choose 320
  With cream sauce 323
  mushrooms 328
Sorrel 131
  Qualities of 431
Souffle, apple 1402
  Chocolate 1427
  Omelette 1461
  Rice 1480
  To make a 1481
Souffles, general observations on 1388
Soup, a la cantatrice 119
    Crecy 126
    Flamande 129-30
    Julienne 131
    Reine 183-4
    Solferino 154
  Almond 110
  Apple 111
  Artichoke, Jerusalem 112
  Asparagus 113-14
  Baked 115
  Barley 116
  Bread 117
  Brilla 166
  Broth and bouillon, general remarks on 91-5
  Cabbage 118
  Calf's head 167
  Carrot 120-1
  Celery 122
  Chantilly 123
  Chemistry and economy of making 96, 103
  Chestnut, Spanish 124
  Cock-a Leekie 134
  Cocoa-nut 125
  Crayfish 193
  Cucumber 127
  Eel 194
  Egg 128
  Family, a good 190
  Fish, stock 192
  General directions for making 88
  Giblet 168
  Gravy 169
  Hare 170
  Hessian 171
  Hodge-podge 191
  In season, January to December _pp._ 57, 104
  Kale brose 132
  Leek 133
  Lobster 195
  Macaroni 135
  Maigre 136
  Making, the chemistry of 96-103
  Milk 137
  Mock-turtle 172-3
  Mutton, good 175
  Ox-cheek 176
  Ox-tail 177
  Oyster 196-7
  Pan kail 140
  Parsnip 141
  Partridge 178
  Pea, green 144
    inexpensive 142
    winter, yellow 143
  Pheasant 179
  Portable 180
  Potage printanier 149
  Potato 145-7
  Prawn 198
  Prince of Wales 148
  Rabbit 181
  Regency 182
  Rice 150-1
  Sago 152
  Seasonings for 90
  Semolina 153
  Spanish chestnut 124
  Spinach 155
  Spring 149
  Stew 186-7
   of salt meat 185
  Tapioca 156
  Turkey 188
  Turnip 157
  Turtle 189
  Useful for benevolent purposes 165
  Vegetable 159-161
   marrow 158
  Vermicelli 162-3
  White 164
Sow, Berkshire 781
  Chinese 785
  Cumberland 784
  Essex 782
  Price of, in Africa 816
  Yorkshire 783
Soy 497
Soyer's recipe for goose stuffing 505
Spanish onions pickled 527
Spiced beef 665
Spinach, description of 1156
  Dressed with cream, a la Francaise 1156
  French mode of dressing 1157
  Green, for colouring dishes 523
  Soup 155
  To boil, English mode 1155
  Varieties of 155, 1155
Sponge cake 1783
  Small, to make 1785
  Lemon 1448
Sprains 2671
Sprat, the 331
Sprats 329
  Dried 331
  Fried in batter 330
Sprouts 1096
  Boiled, Brussels 1096
  To boil young greens, or 1097
Stables and coach-house 2204
  Heat of 2205
Stains of syrup, or preserved fruits,
  to remove 2273
Stalls 2207
Stammering 2673
  Cure for 2672
Stamp duties 2742
Starch, to make 2391-2
Starching 2390
Stew soup 185-7
Stilton cheese 1639
Stock, browning for 108
Stock, cow-heel 1412
  Economical 106
  For gravies, general 432
  For jelly 1411
  Medium 105
  Rich strong 104
  To clarify 109
  White 107
Stomach, digestion 2457-9
Stone cream 1483
Store sauce, or Cherokee 528
Strawberry, jam 1594
  Jelly 1484
  Name of, among the Greeks 1381
  Origin of the name 1365
Strawberries, and cream 1593
  Dish of 1606
  To preserve whole 1596
    in wine 1595
Stuffing, for geese, ducks, pork, &c 504
  Sausage meat for turkey 520
  Soyer's recipe for 505
Sturgeon, the 332
  Baked 332
  Estimate of, by the ancients 333
  Roast 333
Stye in the eye 2630
Substitute for milk and cream 1815
Sucking-pig, to carve 842
  To roast 841
    scald 840
Suffocation, apparent 2674
  Carbonic acid gas, choke-damp of mines 2675
Sugar, and beetroot 1211
  Cane 1334
  French 1211
  Icing for cakes 1736
  Introduction of 1336
  Potato 1136
  Qualities of 1212
  To boil to caramel 1514
Sulphuric acid 2649
Sultana grape 1326
Suppers 2139-41
Sweetbreads, baked 906
  Fried 907
  Stewed 908
Sweet dishes, general observations on 1385-8
Swine, flesh of, in hot climates 835
Swineherds of antiquity 836
  Saxon 838
Swiss cream 1485
Syllabub, to make 1486
  Whipped 1493
Syrup, for compotes, to make 1512
  Lemon 1822
  Of poppies 2663
  To clarify 1513

Tails, strange 652
Tapioca pudding 1370
  Soup 156
  Wholesomeness of 156, 1370
Tart, apple creamed 1234
  Apricot 1239
  Barberry, 1245
  Cherry 1261
  Damson 1270
  Gooseberry 1285
  Plum 1331
  Raspberry and currant 1267
  Rhubarb 1339
  Strawberry, or any other kind
    of preserve, open 1365
Tartlets 1371
  Polish 1320
Tarragon 503
Taxes 2714
Tea 1814
  And coffee 1813
  Miss Nightingale's opinion on the use of 1864
  To make 1814
Teacakes 1786
  To toast 1787
Teal, to carve 1067
  To roast a 1048
Teething 2510-18
Tenancy, by sufferance 2701
  General remarks on 2717
Tench, the 334
  And eel-pie 349
  Matelote of 334
  Singular quality in the 335
  Stewed with wine 335
Terms used in cookery, French 87
Thrush and its treatment 2523-37
Thyme 166
Tipsy-cake 1487
  an easy way of making 1488
Toad-in-the-hole 672
  of cold meat 743
Toast, and water, to make 1876
  Sandwiches 1877
  Tea-cakes, to 1787
  To make dry 1725
    hot buttered 1726
Toffee, Everton, to make 1597
Tomato, analysis of the 1159
  Extended cultivation of the 1160
  Immense importance in cookery 1153
  Sauce 529
    for keeping 530-2
  Stewed 1159-60
  Uses of the 629, 528, 2690
Tomatoes, baked, excellent 1158
Tongue, boiled 673
  Pickle for 641
  To cure 674-5
  To pickle and dress to eat cold 676
Tongues of animals 675
Toothache, cure for the 2678-9
Tourte apple or cake 1236
Treacle, or molasses, description of 1224
  Pudding, rolled 1372
Trifle, apple 1404
  Gooseberry 1434
  Indian 1436
  To make a 1489
Tripe, to dress 677
Trout, the 336
  Stewed 336
Truffle, the common 1161
  Impossibility of regular culture of the 1162
  Uses of the 1164
Truffles, a l' Italienne 1164
  Au naturel 1161
  Italian mode of dressing 1163
  To dress with champagne 1162
  Where found 1163
Turbot, the 333
  A la creme 341
  Ancient Romans' estimate of the 340
  Au gratin 342
  Boiled 337
  Fillet of, baked 339
    a l'Italienne 340
  Garnish for, or other large fish 338
  To carve a _p_. 175
  To choose 338
Turkey, boiled 986
  Croquettes of 987
  Difficult to rear the 188
  Disposition of the 988
  English 990
  Feathers of the 991
  Fricasseed 988
  Habits of the 988
  Hashed 989
  Hunting 989
  Native of America 986
  Or fowl, to bone without opening 992-4
  Poults, roast 991

  Roast 990
    Stuffing for 520
  Soup 188
  To carve a roast 1005
   Wild 987
Turnip greens boiled 1169
  Or the French navet 1168
  Qualities of the 1167
  Soup 157
  Uses of the 1165
  Whence introduced 157
Turnips, boiled 1165
  German mode of cooking 1167
  In white sauce 1168
  Mashed 1166
Turnovers, fruit 1278
Turtle, mock 172-3
  Soup, cost of 189
  The green 189

Valet, cleaning clothes 2239
  Duties of the 2234-8, 2242
  Polish for boots 2240-1
Vanilla cream 1490
  Custard sauce 1361
Vanille or Vanilla 1490
Veal, a la bourgeoise 869
  And ham pie 898
  Baked 856
  Breast of, roast 857
    stewed and peas 858
    to carve 912
  Cake 859
  Collops 879
    Scotch 870
Veal, collops, Scotch, white 871
  Colour of 861
  Curried 865
  Cutlets 866
    a la Maintenon 868
    broiled 867
  Dinner, a very 897
  Fillet of, au Bechamel 883
    roast 872
    stewed 873
    to carve a 914
  Frenchman's opinion of 911
  Fricandeau of 874-5
  Knuckle of, ragout 884
    stewed 885
    to carve a 915
  Loin of au Daube 888
    au Bechamel 887
    roast 886
    to carve 916
  Manner of cutting up 854
  Minced 891-892
    and macaroni 891
  Neck of, braised 893
    roast 894
  Olive pie 895
  Patties, fried 896
  Pie 897
  Potted 899
  Quenelles 422
  Ragout of, cold 900
  Rissoles 901
  Rolls 902
  Sausages 904
  Season and choice of 908
  Shoulder of 903
  Stewed 905
    tendons de veau 909-10
  Tete de veau en tortue 911
Vegetable, a variety of the goard 158
  Fried 1171
  Marrow, a tropical plant 1171
    boiled 1170
    in white sauce 1173
  Soup 158, 159-61
Vegetables, acetarious 1151
  And herbs, various 89
  Cut for soups 1172
  General observations on 1069, 1079
  Reduced to puree 1166
  In season, January to December _pp_. 33-7
Venison 1049
  Antiquity of, as food 444
  Hashed 1050
  Haunch of, roast 1049
  Sauce for 518
  Stewed 1051
  The new 1051
  To carve 1061
Ventilation, necessity of, in rooms lighted with gas 2693
  of stables 2206
Vermicelli 162, 1377
  Pudding 1377
  Soup 162-3
Vicarage pudding 1378
Victoria sandwiches 1491
Vinegar, camp. 381
  Cayenne 385
  Celery 389
  Chili 393
  Cucumber 401
  Gooseberry 1820
  Horseradish 418
  Mint 470
  Raspberry 1828
  Use of, by the Romans 451
Vol-au-vent, an entree 1379
  Of fresh strawberries with whipped cream 1381
  Sweet, with fresh fruit 1380

Wafers, Geneva 1431
Walnut, the 536
  Ketchup 535-6
Walnuts, pickled 534
  Properties of the 1599
  To have fresh throughout the season 1607
Warts 2680
Washing 2377-8
  Coloured muslins, &c. 2380
  Flannels 2381
  Greasy cloths 2382
  Satin and silk ribbons 2384
  Silks 2385
Water, rate 2715
  Souchy 352-3
  Supply of in Rome 1216
  Warm 2691
  What the ancients thought of 1214
Wax, to remove 2272
Welsh, nectar 1830
  Rarebit, or toasted cheese 1652
West-Indian pudding 1382
Wheat, diseases of 1779
  Egyptian or mummy 1783
  Polish and Pomeranian 1722
  Red varieties of 1719
Wheatear, the 996
Wheatears, to dress 996
Whipped, cream 1492
  Syllabubs 1493
Whisky cordial 1840
Whitebait 348
  To dress 348
Whiting, the 343
  Au gratin, or baked 346
  Aux fines herbes 347
  Buckhorn 344
  Boiled 343
  Broiled 344
  Fried 345
  Pout and pollack 347
  To carve a _p_. 176
    choose 343
Whitlow, to cure a 2681
Widgeon, to carve a 1068
  Roast 1052
Will, attestation of a 2757
  Advice in making a 2756
  Witnesses to a 2746, 2758
Wills 2732-38
  Form of 2740-1
Wine, cowslip 1817
  Elder 1818
  Ginger 1819
  Gooseberry, effervescing 1821
  Lemon 1823
  Malt 1824
  Orange 1827
  Rhubarb 1829
  To mull 1838
Wire-basket 494
Witnesses 2739-51
Woodcock, description of the 1053
  Scotch 1653
  To carve a 1062
Woodcock, to roast a 1053
Woollen manufactures 737
Woollens 2284
Worms 2409
Wounds 2682
  Incised, or cuts 2683, 2686
  Lacerated or torn 2684, 2687
  Punctured or penetrating 2685, 2688

Yeast 1383
  Cake, nice 1788
  Dumplings 1383
  Kirkleatham 1717
  To make, for bread 1716
Yorkshire pudding 1384




ENGRAVINGS.

Almond and blossom 110
  Puddings 1222
Almonds and raisins 1598
Anchovy 226
Apple, and blossom 1226
  Compote of 1515
  Jelly stuck with almonds 1395
Apples, dish of 1598
Arrowroot 387
Artichoke, cardoon 1080
  Jerusalem 1084
Artichokes 1080
Asparagus 114
  On toast 1087
  Tongs 1087

Bacon, boiled 804
  For larding, and needles 828
Bain Marie 430
Bantams, black 939
  Feather-legged 958
Barbel 229
Barberry 1245
Barley 116
Basil 417
Basin, pudding 1200
Basket, wire 494
Bay, the 512
Bean, broad 1092
  French 1151
  Haricot 1120
  Scarlet runner 1090
Beef, aitchbone of 677
  Brisket of, to carve a 677
  Collared 617
  Ribs of, to carve a 677
  Round of, to carve a 677
Beef, side of, showing the several joints 595
  Sirloin of 659
    " to carve a 677
  Steak pie 604
  Tongue 675
    " to carve a 677
Beetroot 1094
Birds 917
Blackcock 1019
  Roast 1019
    " to carve a 1054
Blacking-brush box 2342
Blancmange 1409
  Mould for 1408, 1442
Boar, Westphalian 787
Bread, &c. 1658
  Loaf of, cottage 1718
  Tin 1718
Brill, the 230
Brocoli 1095
  Boiled 1095
Broom, carpet 2293
  Long hair 2306
Brush, banister 2302
  Cornice 2327
  Crumb 2321
  Dusting 2327
  Furniture 2310
  Plate 2317
  Scrubbing 2306
  Staircase 2302
  Stove 2294
Buns 1731
Butler's tray and stand 2315
Butter, dish 1632
  Dish of, rolled 1634

Cabbage, seeding 118
Cake-moulds 1756,1761,1772
Calf, side of, showing the several joints 854
Calf's-head 877
  Half a 877
  To carve a 913
Calves 845
  Sweetbreads of 906
Caper, the 383
Capercalzie, the 1026
Capsicum, the 362
Carp, the 242
Carpet brooms 2293
Carrots 1100
Cauliflower, the 1104
  Boiled 1104
Celery 441
  In glass 1107
Char, the 243
Charlotte aux pommes 1418
Cheese glass 1640
  Hot-water dish for 1651
  Stilton 1639
Cherry 1261
Chervil 1151
Chestnut 124
Chocolate, box of 1598
  Milk 1807
Christmas pudding, &c. 1175
Chub, the 243
Cinnamon 524
Citron, the 1436
Claret-cup 1831
Clove, the 367
Coal, sections of 73
Cocoa-bean 1815
  Nut and blossom 125
    " palm 125
Cod, the 231
Cod's head and shoulders, to carve 174
Coffee 1811
Colander, ancient 68
  Modern 68
Coriander 174
Cork, with wooden top 446
Cow and bull, Alderney 592
  Galloway 593
  Long-horn 591
  Short-horn 590
Crab, the 245
Crayfish 193
Cream-mould 1430
Crumpets 1728
Cucumber, the 402,1111
  Slice 1152
  Sliced 1111
Currants 1266
  Zante 1264
Custards, in glasses 1423
Cygnet 998

Dace, the 243
Damson, the 1270
Deer, the 444
  Eland, bull and cow 1051
  Fallow, buck and doe 1050
  Roebuck 1051
  The stag and hind 1051
Dessert 1495
  Dishes 1598
Dish, baking 551
  Pie 1190
  Sussex pudding 695
Dripping-pan, ancient 68
  Modern 68
  And basting-ladle 580
Duck, Aylesbury 935
  Bowbill 936
  Buenos Ayres 933
  Call 937
  Roast 934
    " to carve a 999
  Rouen 934
  Wild 1022
    " roast 1022
      " " to carve a 1055

Eel, the 249
Egg poacher, tin 1663
  Stand for breakfast-table 1656
Eggs, basket of 1667
  Comparative sizes of 1665
  Fried on bacon 1659
  Poached, on toast 1663
Elder-berries 1818
Endive 169
Ewe, heath 690
  Leicester 682
  Romney-Marsh 691
  South-Down 687

Fennel 412
Figs, compote of 1541
Fish 199
Flounders 259
Flowers and fruit 61, 103, 584, 925
Fowl, black bantams 939
  Black Spanish 962
  Boiled 938
   " to carve a 1000
  Cochin-China 942
  Dorking 940
  Feather-legged bantams 958
  Game 938
  Guinea 970
  Pencilled Hamburgs 965
  Roast 952
    " to carve a 1001
  Sebright bantams 961
  Spangled Polands 941
  Speckled Hamburgs 959
  Sultans 963
Fritter mould, star 1473
  Scroll 1474
Fruit, dish of, mixed 1598
  Dish of, mixed summer 1598

Game 1006
Garlic 392
Gherkins 428
Ginger 407
Gingerbread 1760
Glass measure, graduated 77
Goose, Emden 968
  Roast 1002
    " to carve a 1002
  Toulouse 969
Gooseberry 429
Grape, raisin 1324
  Sultana 1326
Gridiron, ancient 68
  Modern 68
  Revolving 569
Grouse, red 1025
  Roast 1025
    " to carve a 1058
Gudgeon, the 261
Gurnet, the 262

Haddock, the 263
Ham, boiled 811
  To carve 843
Hare, the common 170, 1027
  Roast 1027
    " to carve a 1056
Herring, the 268
Horseradish 447
Hotplate 568
Housemaid's box 2294

Ice-pail and spattle 1290
Ices, dish of 1556

Jack-bottle 580
Jam-pot 1532
Jar-potting 642
Jellies, &c 1385
Jelly, bag 1411
  Mould 1411, 1416
    " oval 1449
  Moulded with cherries 1440
  Of two colours 1441
  Open with whipped cream 1453
John Dory 248

Kettle, glaze 430
  Fish 225
  Gravy 432
Kidneys 724
Knife-cleaning machine 5123

Lamb, fore-quarter of 750
      " " to carve a 764
  Leg of 752
  Loin of 753
  Ribs of 754
  Saddle of 754
  Side of 701
Lamprey, the 256
Landrail, the 1033
Leaf in puff paste 1245
  Pastry 1492
Leeks 134
Lemon, the 405, 1296
  Cream mould 1443
  Dumplings 1294
Lentil, the 126
Lettuce, the 136
Lobster, the 270

Macaroni 135
Macaroons 1744
Mace 371
Mackerel, the 281
Maize, ear of 1721
  Plant 1721
Marjoram 415
Marrow-bones 635
Milking cow 1608
Millet, Italian 1718
  Panicled 1733
Mince pies 1311
Mint 469
Mould, baked pudding or cake 1329
  Blancmange 1408, 1442
  Boiled pudding 1196-8
  Cake 1756, 1764, 1772
  Cream 1430
  For Christmas plum-pudding 1328
  For an open tart 1365
  Iced pudding 1289
  Jelly 1411, 1416
    " oval 1449
  Lemon cream 1443
  Open 1454, 1463
  Raised pie, closed and open 1190
  Raspberry cream 1475
  Vanilla cream 1490
Muffins 1727
Mulberry, the 1560
Mullet, grey 284
  Striped red 285
Mushroom, the 473
Mushrooms 1125
  Broiled 1125
Mustard 450
Mutton, cutlets 732
  Haunch of 726
    " to carve a 759
  Leg of 727
    " to carve a 760
  Loin of 728
    " to carve a 761
  Neck of 737
  Saddle of 738
    " to carve a 762
  Side of, showing the several joints 695
  Shoulder of 739
    " to carve a 763

Nasturtiums 482
Nutmeg, the 378
Nuts, dish of 1598

Olive, the 506
Omelet 1456
  Pan 1458
Onion, the 139
Orange, the 1314
Oranges, compote of 1565
Oyster, edible 286

Pail, house 2327
Pancakes 1467
Parsley 493
Parsnip, the 1132
Partridge, the 1039
  Roast 1039
    " to carve a 1057
Baste, board and rolling-pin 1186
  Cutter and corner-cutter 1189
  Ornamental cutter 1189
  Pincers and jagger 1186
Patty-pans, plain and fluted 1190
Pea, the 143
Peach, the 1469
Pear, bon Chretien 1576
Pears, stewed 1576
Peas, green 1135
Pepper, black 369
  Long 399
Perch, the 292
Pestle and Mortar 421
Pheasant, the 1041
  Roast 1041
    " to carve a 1059
Pickle, Indian 551
Pie, raised 1340
Pig, Guinea 997
  Roast, sucking 841
      " " to carve a 842
Pig's face 823
Pigs 765
Pigeon, barb 976
  Blue rock 976
  Carrier 974
  Fantail 976
  Jacobin 976
  Nun 975
  Owl 976
  Pouter 973
  Roast 974
  Runt 975
  To carve a 1003
  Trumpeter 975
  Tumbler 975
  Turbit 976
  Wood 975
Pike, the 295
Pimento 438
Plaice, the 298
Plover, the 1044
Plum, the 1330
Pork, fore loin of 829
  Griskin of 827
  Hind loin of 829
  Leg of, to carve a 844
    " roast 800
  Side of, showing joints 795
  Spare rib of 827
Pot, boiling 567
Potato, the 147
  Pasty pan 1333
  Rissoles 1147
  Sweet 1146
Potatoes, baked, served in napkin 1136
Pound cake 1770
Prawn, the 198
Ptarmigan, or white grouse 1045
Pudding, boiled fruit 1284
  Cabinet 1286
Punch-bowl and ladle 1839

Quadrupeds 585
Quail, the 1046
Quern, or grinding-mill 117
Quince, the 1233

Rabbit, Angora 983
  Boiled 977
    " to carve a 1004
  Hare, the 985
  Himalaya 985
  Lop-eared 984
  Roast 983
    " to carve a 1004
  Wild 978
Radish, long 1152
  Turnip 1152
Raisin, grape 1324
Ram, heath 689
  Leicester 688
  Romney-Marsh and ewe 691
  South-down and ewe 687
Range, modern 65
Raspberry, the 1267
  Cream mould 1475
Ratafias 1745
Rhubarb 1339
Rice, casserole of 1350
  Ears of 150
Roach, the 243
Rolls 1723
Rusks 1734

Sage 427
Sago palm 152
Salad, in bowl 1152
Salmon, the 304
  To carve a _p._ 175
Salt-mine at Northwich 403
Saucepan, ancient 68
  Modern 68
Sauce tureen, boat, &c. 354
Sausages, fried 838
Saute-pan 571
  Ancient 68
  Modern 68
Scales, ancient and modern 70
Screen, meat 582
Sea-bream, the 310
Sea-kale 1150
  Boiled 1150
Shad, the 311
Shalot, the 410
Sheep 678
  Heath ram 689
    " ewe 690
  Romney-Marsh ram and ewe 691
  South-Down ram and ewe 687
Shortbread 1780
Shrimp, the 313
Skate, thornback 315
Snipe, the 1047
  Roast 1047
    " to carve a 1060
Sole, the 320
Sorrel 431
Souffle pan 1481
Sow, and pigs 765
  Berkshire 781
  Chinese 785
  Cumberland 784
  Essex 782
  Yorkshire 783
Spinach 155
  Garnished with croutons 1155
Sponge cake 1783
Sprat, the 331
Sprouts, Brussels 1098
Stewpan 567
Stock-pot, ancient 66
  Bronze 66
 Modern 66
Stove, gas 575
  Family kitchener 65
  Leamington 65, 540
  Pompeiian 65
Strawberries, dish of 1598
Sturgeon, the 332
Sugar-cane, the 1335
Sultana grape, the 1326
Swans 54

Tarragon 503
Tart, open 1365
  Open mould for a 1365
  Plum 1331
Tartlets, dish of 1371
Tazza and carrot leaves 121
Tea 1814
Teacakes 1787
Tench, the 334
Thyme, lemon 458
Tipsy cake 1487
Tomato, the 529
Tomatoes, stewed 1159
Trifle 1489
Trout, the 336
Truffles 1161
Turbot, the 338
  Kettle 338
  To carve a 176
Tureen, soup 88
Turkey, boiled 986
  Roast 990
    " to carve a 1005
Turnip 157
Turnips 1165
Turret on old Abbey kitchen 62
Turtle, the 189

Urns, Loysell's hydrostatic 1810
Utensils for cooking, ancient and modern 66-8

Vanilla cream mould 1490
Veal, breast of 857
  " to carve a 912
  Cutlets 866
  Fillet of 872
    " to carve a 914
  Knuckle of 885
    " to carve a 915
  Loin of 885
    " to carve a 916
Vegetable, cutter 1173
  Strips of 131
Vegetable marrow 158
  In white sauce 1173
  On toast 1170
Vegetables 1069
  Cellular development of 1075
  Siliceous cuticles of 1075
Venison, haunch of 1061
    " roast 1049
    " to carve a 1061
Vermicelli 162
Vessels for beverages 1789
Vol-au-vent 1379
  Small 1379

Walnut, the 536
Wheat 1779
  Egyptian, or mummy 1783
  Polish 1722
  Red winter 1719
Whitebait 348
Whiting, the 343
Window and flowers 75
Wirebasket 494
Woodcock, the 1053
  Roast 1053
  Scotch 1653
  To carve a 1062

Yorkshire pudding 1384




COLOURED PLATES.

Apples in custard

Beef, round of, boiled
      Roast sirloin of

Calf's head, boiled
Charlotte aux pommes
Cod's head and shoulders
Crab, dressed

Duck, wild
Ducks, couple of, roast

Eggs, poached, and spinach

Fowl, boiled with cauliflower
     Roast, with watercresses
Fruits, centre dish of various

Goose, roast
Grouse

Ham, cold glazed
Hare, roast

Jelly, two colours of

Lobsters, dressed

Mackerel, boiled
Mutton cutlets and mashed potatoes
   Haunch of roast
   Saddle of roast
Mutton, shoulder of roast

Oysters, scalloped

Partridge
Pheasant
Pie, raised
Pig, sucking, roast or baked
Pigeon
Plum-pudding, Christmas, in mould

Rabbit, boiled
   Or fowl, curried
Raspberry cream
Rissoles

Salmon, boiled
Snipe
Soles, dish of filleted
Spinach and poached eggs
Strawberries, au naturel, in
    ornamental flower-pot

Tongue, cold boiled
Trifle
Turbot, or brill, boiled
Turkey, roast

Veal, fricandeau of
Vol-au-vent

Whiting, dish of, fried
Woodcock








THE BOOK OF HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT.




CHAPTER I.


THE MISTRESS.

"Strength, and honour are her clothing; and she shall rejoice in time to
come. She openeth her mouth with wisdom; and in her tongue is the law of
kindness. She looketh well to the ways of her household; and eateth not
the bread of idleness. Her children arise up, and call her blessed; her
husband also, and he praiseth her."--_Proverbs_, xxxi. 25-28.

I. AS WITH THE COMMANDER OF AN ARMY, or the leader of any enterprise, so
is it with the mistress of a house. Her spirit will be seen through the
whole establishment; and just in proportion as she performs her duties
intelligently and thoroughly, so will her domestics follow in her path.
Of all those acquirements, which more particularly belong to the
feminine character, there are none which take a higher rank, in our
estimation, than such as enter into a knowledge of household duties; for
on these are perpetually dependent the happiness, comfort, and
well-being of a family. In this opinion we are borne out by the author
of "The Vicar of Wakefield," who says: "The modest virgin, the prudent
wife, and the careful matron, are much more serviceable in life than
petticoated philosophers, blustering heroines, or virago queens. She who
makes her husband and her children happy, who reclaims the one from vice
and trains up the other to virtue, is a much greater character than
ladies described in romances, whose whole occupation is to murder
mankind with shafts from their quiver, or their eyes."

2. PURSUING THIS PICTURE, we may add, that to be a good housewife does
not necessarily imply an abandonment of proper pleasures or amusing
recreation; and we think it the more necessary to express this, as the
performance of the duties of a mistress may, to some minds, perhaps seem
to be incompatible with the enjoyment of life. Let us, however, now
proceed to describe some of those home qualities and virtues which are
necessary to the proper management of a Household, and then point out
the plan which may be the most profitably pursued for the daily
regulation of its affairs.

3. EARLY RISING IS ONE OF THE MOST ESSENTIAL QUALITIES which enter into
good Household Management, as it is not only the parent of health, but
of innumerable other advantages. Indeed, when a mistress is an early
riser, it is almost certain that her house will be orderly and
well-managed. On the contrary, if she remain in bed till a late hour,
then the domestics, who, as we have before observed, invariably partake
somewhat of their mistress's character, will surely become sluggards. To
self-indulgence all are more or less disposed, and it is not to be
expected that servants are freer from this fault than the heads of
houses. The great Lord Chatham thus gave his advice in reference to this
subject:--"I would have inscribed on the curtains of your bed, and the
walls of your chamber, 'If you do not rise early, you can make progress
in nothing.'"

4. CLEANLINESS IS ALSO INDISPENSABLE TO HEALTH, and must be studied both
in regard to the person and the house, and all that it contains. Cold or
tepid baths should be employed every morning, unless, on account of
illness or other circumstances, they should be deemed objectionable. The
bathing of _children_ will be treated of under the head of "MANAGEMENT
OF CHILDREN."

5. FRUGALITY AND ECONOMY ARE HOME VIRTUES, without which no household
can prosper. Dr. Johnson says: "Frugality may be termed the daughter of
Prudence, the sister of Temperance, and the parent of Liberty. He that
is extravagant will quickly become poor, and poverty will enforce
dependence and invite corruption." The necessity of practising economy
should be evident to every one, whether in the possession of an income
no more than sufficient for a family's requirements, or of a large
fortune, which puts financial adversity out of the question. We must
always remember that it is a great merit in housekeeping to manage a
little well. "He is a good waggoner," says Bishop Hall, "that can turn
in a little room. To live well in abundance is the praise of the estate,
not of the person. I will study more how to give a good account of my
little, than how to make it more." In this there is true wisdom, and it
may be added, that those who can manage a little well, are most likely
to succeed in their management of larger matters. Economy and frugality
must never, however, be allowed to degenerate into parsimony and
meanness.

6. THE CHOICE OF ACQUAINTANCES is very important to the happiness of a
mistress and her family. A gossiping acquaintance, who indulges in the
scandal and ridicule of her neighbours, should be avoided as a
pestilence. It is likewise all-necessary to beware, as Thomson sings,

                                 "The whisper'd tale,
  That, like the fabling Nile, no fountain knows;--
  Fair-laced Deceit, whose wily, conscious aye
  Ne'er looks direct; the tongue that licks the dust
  But, when it safely dares, as prompt to sting."

If the duties of a family do not sufficiently occupy the time of a
mistress, society should be formed of such a kind as will tend to the
mutual interchange of general and interesting information.

7. FRIENDSHIPS SHOULD NOT BE HASTILY FORMED, nor the heart given, at
once, to every new-comer. There are ladies who uniformly smile at, and
approve everything and everybody, and who possess neither the courage to
reprehend vice, nor the generous warmth to defend virtue. The friendship
of such persons is without attachment, and their love without affection
or even preference. They imagine that every one who has any penetration
is ill-natured, and look coldly on a discriminating judgment. It should
be remembered, however, that this discernment does not always proceed
from an uncharitable temper, but that those who possess a long
experience and thorough knowledge of the world, scrutinize the conduct
and dispositions of people before they trust themselves to the first
fair appearances. Addison, who was not deficient in a knowledge of
mankind, observes that "a friendship, which makes the least noise, is
very often the most useful; for which reason, I should prefer a prudent
friend to a zealous one." And Joanna Baillie tells us that

  "Friendship is no plant of hasty growth,
   Though planted in esteem's deep-fixed soil,
   The gradual culture of kind intercourse
   Must bring it to perfection."

8. HOSPITALITY IS A MOST EXCELLENT VIRTUE; but care must be taken that
the love of company, for its own sake, does not become a prevailing
passion; for then the habit is no longer hospitality, but dissipation.
Reality and truthfulness in this, as in all other duties of life, are
the points to be studied; for, as Washington Irving well says, "There is
an emanation from the heart in genuine hospitality, which cannot be
described, but is immediately felt, and puts the stranger at once at his
ease." With respect to the continuance of friendships, however, it may
be found necessary, in some cases, for a mistress to relinquish, on
assuming the responsibility of a household, many of those commenced in
the earlier part of her life. This will be the more requisite, if the
number still retained be quite equal to her means and opportunities.

9. IN CONVERSATION, TRIFLING OCCURRENCES, such as small disappointments,
petty annoyances, and other every-day incidents, should never be
mentioned to your friends. The extreme injudiciousness of repeating
these will be at once apparent, when we reflect on the unsatisfactory
discussions which they too frequently occasion, and on the load of
advice which they are the cause of being tendered, and which is, too
often, of a kind neither to be useful nor agreeable. Greater events,
whether of joy or sorrow, should be communicated to friends; and, on
such occasions, their sympathy gratifies and comforts. If the mistress
be a wife, never let an account of her husband's failings pass her lips;
and in cultivating the power of conversation, she should keep the
versified advice of Cowper continually in her memory, that it

  "Should flow like water after summer showers,
   Not as if raised by mere mechanic powers."

In reference to its style, Dr. Johnson, who was himself greatly
distinguished for his colloquial abilities, says that "no style is more
extensively acceptable than the narrative, because this does not carry
an air of superiority over the rest of the company; and, therefore, is
most likely to please them. For this purpose we should store our memory
with short anecdotes and entertaining pieces of history. Almost every
one listens with eagerness to extemporary history. Vanity often
co-operates with curiosity; for he that is a hearer in one place wishes
to qualify himself to be a principal speaker in some inferior company;
and therefore more attention is given to narrations than anything else
in conversation. It is true, indeed, that sallies of wit and quick
replies are very pleasing in conversation; but they frequently tend to
raise envy in some of the company: but the narrative way neither raises
this, nor any other evil passion, but keeps all the company nearly upon
an equality, and, if judiciously managed, will at once entertain and
improve them all."

10. GOOD TEMPER SHOULD BE CULTIVATED by every mistress, as upon it the
welfare of the household may be said to turn; indeed, its influence can
hardly be over-estimated, as it has the effect of moulding the
characters of those around her, and of acting most beneficially on the
happiness of the domestic circle. Every head of a household should
strive to be cheerful, and should never fail to show a deep interest in
all that appertains to the well-being of those who claim the protection
of her roof. Gentleness, not partial and temporary, but universal and
regular, should pervade her conduct; for where such a spirit is
habitually manifested, it not only delights her children, but makes her
domestics attentive and respectful; her visitors are also pleased by it,
and their happiness is increased.

11. ON THE IMPORTANT SUBJECT OF DRESS AND FASHION we cannot do better
than quote an opinion from the eighth volume of the "Englishwoman's
Domestic Magazine." The writer there says, "Let people write, talk,
lecture, satirize, as they may, it cannot be denied that, whatever is
the prevailing mode in attire, let it intrinsically be ever so absurd,
it will never _look_ as ridiculous as another, or as any other, which,
however convenient, comfortable, or even becoming, is totally opposite
in style to that generally worn."

12. IN PURCHASING ARTICLES OF WEARING APPAREL, whether it be a silk
dress, a bonnet, shawl, or riband, it is well for the buyer to consider
three things: I. That it be not too expensive for her purse. II. That
its colour harmonize with her complexion, and its size and pattern with
her figure. III. That its tint allow of its being worn with the other
garments she possesses. The quaint Fuller observes, that the good wife
is none of our dainty dames, who love to appear in a variety of suits
every day new, as if a gown, like a stratagem in war, were to be used
but once. But our good wife sets up a sail according to the keel of her
husband's estate; and, if of high parentage, she doth not so remember
what she was by birth, that she forgets what she is by match.

    To _Brunettes_, or those ladies having dark complexions, silks
    of a grave hue are adapted. For _Blondes_, or those having fair
    complexions, lighter colours are preferable, as the richer,
    deeper hues are too overpowering for the latter. The colours
    which go best together are green with violet; gold-colour with
    dark crimson or lilac; pale blue with scarlet; pink with black
    or white; and gray with scarlet or pink. A cold colour generally
    requires a warm tint to give life to it. Gray and pale blue, for
    instance, do not combine well, both being cold colours.

13. THE DRESS OF THE MISTRESS should always be adapted to her
circumstances, and be varied with different occasions. Thus, at
breakfast she should be attired in a very neat and simple manner,
wearing no ornaments. If this dress should decidedly pertain only to the
breakfast-hour, and be specially suited for such domestic occupations as
usually follow that meal, then it would be well to exchange it before
the time for receiving visitors, if the mistress be in the habit of
doing so. It is still to be remembered, however, that, in changing the
dress, jewellery and ornaments are not to be worn until the full dress
for dinner is assumed. Further information and hints on the subject of
the toilet will appear under the department of the "LADY'S-MAID."

    The advice of Polonius to his son Laertes, in Shakspeare's
    tragedy of "Hamlet," is most excellent; and although given to
    one of the male sex, will equally apply to a "fayre ladye:"--

  "Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy,
   But not express'd in fancy; rich, not gaudy;
   For the apparel oft proclaims the man."

14. CHARITY AND BENEVOLENCE ARE DUTIES which a mistress owes to herself
as well as to her fellow-creatures; and there is scarcely any income so
small, but something may be spared from it, even if it be but "the
widow's mite." It is to be always remembered, however, that it is the
_spirit_ of charity which imparts to the gift a value far beyond its
actual amount, and is by far its better part.

  True Charity, a plant divinely nursed,
  Fed by the love from which it rose at first,
  Thrives against hope, and, in the rudest scene,
  Storms but enliven its unfading green;
  Exub'rant is the shadow it supplies,
  Its fruit on earth, its growth above the skies.

    Visiting the houses of the poor is the only practical way really
    to understand the actual state of each family; and although
    there may be difficulties in following out this plan in the
    metropolis and other large cities, yet in country towns and
    rural districts these objections do not obtain. Great advantages
    may result from visits paid to the poor; for there being,
    unfortunately, much ignorance, generally, amongst them with
    respect to all household knowledge, there will be opportunities
    for advising and instructing them, in a pleasant and unobtrusive
    manner, in cleanliness, industry, cookery, and good management.

15. IN MARKETING, THAT THE BEST ARTICLES ARE THE CHEAPEST, may be laid
down as a rule; and it is desirable, unless an experienced and
confidential housekeeper be kept, that the mistress should herself
purchase all provisions and stores needed for the house. If the mistress
be a young wife, and not accustomed to order "things for the house," a
little practice and experience will soon teach her who are the best
tradespeople to deal with, and what are the best provisions to buy.
Under each particular head of FISH, MEAT, POULTRY, GAME, &c., will be
described the proper means of ascertaining the quality of these
comestibles.

16. A HOUSEKEEPING ACCOUNT-BOOK should invariably be kept, and kept
punctually and precisely. The plan for keeping household accounts, which
we should recommend, would be to make an entry, that is, write down into
a daily diary every amount paid on that particular day, be it ever so
small; then, at the end of the month, let these various payments be
ranged under their specific heads of Butcher, Baker, &c.; and thus will
be seen the proportions paid to each tradesman, and any one month's
expenses may be contrasted with another. The housekeeping accounts
should be balanced not less than once a month; so that you may see that
the money you have in hand tallies with your account of it in your
diary. Judge Haliburton never wrote truer words than when he said, "No
man is rich whose expenditure exceeds his means, and no one is poor
whose incomings exceed his outgoings."

    When, in a large establishment, a housekeeper is kept, it will
    be advisable for the mistress to examine her accounts regularly.
    Then any increase of expenditure which may be apparent, can
    easily be explained, and the housekeeper will have the
    satisfaction of knowing whether her efforts to manage her
    department well and economically, have been successful.

17. ENGAGING DOMESTICS is one of those duties in which the judgment of
the mistress must be keenly exercised. There are some respectable
registry-offices, where good servants may sometimes be hired; but the
plan rather to be recommended is, for the mistress to make inquiry
amongst her circle of friends and acquaintances, and her tradespeople.
The latter generally know those in their neighbourhood, who are wanting
situations, and will communicate with them, when a personal interview
with some of them will enable the mistress to form some idea of the
characters of the applicants, and to suit herself accordingly.

    We would here point out an error--and a grave one it is--into
    which some mistresses fall. They do not, when engaging a
    servant, expressly tell her all the duties which she will be
    expected to perform. This is an act of omission severely to be
    reprehended. Every portion of work which the maid will have to
    do, should be plainly stated by the mistress, and understood by
    the servant. If this plan is not carefully adhered to, domestic
    contention is almost certain to ensue, and this may not be
    easily settled; so that a change of servants, which is so much
    to be deprecated, is continually occurring.

18. IN OBTAINING A SERVANT'S CHARACTER, it is not well to be guided by a
written one from some unknown quarter; but it is better to have an
interview, if at all possible, with the former mistress. By this means
you will be assisted in your decision of the suitableness of the servant
for your place, from the appearance of the lady and the state of her
house. Negligence and want of cleanliness in her and her household
generally, will naturally lead you to the conclusion, that her servant
has suffered from the influence of the bad example.

    The proper course to pursue in order to obtain a personal
    interview with the lady is this:--The servant in search of the
    situation must be desired to see her former mistress, and ask
    her to be kind enough to appoint a time, convenient to herself,
    when you may call on her; this proper observance of courtesy
    being necessary to prevent any unseasonable intrusion on the
    part of a stranger. Your first questions should be relative to
    the honesty and general morality of her former servant; and if
    no objection is stated in that respect, her other qualifications
    are then to be ascertained. Inquiries should be very minute, so
    that you may avoid disappointment and trouble, by knowing the
    weak points of your domestic.

19. THE TREATMENT OF SERVANTS is of the highest possible moment, as well
to the mistress as to the domestics themselves. On the head of the house
the latter will naturally fix their attention; and if they perceive that
the mistress's conduct is regulated by high and correct principles, they
will not fail to respect her. If, also, a benevolent desire is shown to
promote their comfort, at the same time that a steady performance of
their duty is exacted, then their respect will not be unmingled with
affection, and they will be still more solicitous to continue to deserve
her favour.

20. IN GIVING A CHARACTER, it is scarcely necessary to say that the
mistress should be guided by a sense of strict justice. It is not fair
for one lady to recommend to another, a servant she would not keep
herself. The benefit, too, to the servant herself is of small advantage;
for the failings which she possesses will increase if suffered to be
indulged with impunity. It is hardly necessary to remark, on the other
hand, that no angry feelings on the part of a mistress towards her late
servant, should ever be allowed, in the slightest degree, to influence
her, so far as to induce her to disparage her maid's character.

21. THE FOLLOWING TABLE OF THE AVERAGE YEARLY WAGES paid to domestics,
with the various members of the household placed in the order in which
they are usually ranked, will serve as a guide to regulate the
expenditure of an establishment:--

                      When not found in          When found in
                          Livery.                   Livery.

  The House Steward   From L10 to L80               --
  The Valet             "  25 to 50             From L20 to L30
  The Butler            "  25 to 50                 --
  The Cook              "  20 to 40                 --
  The Gardener          "  20 to 40                 --
  The Footman           "  20 to 40              "  15 to 25
  The Under Butler      "  15 to 30              "  15 to 25
  The Coachman              --                   "  20 to 35
  The Groom             "  15 to 30              "  12 to 20
  The Under Footman          --                  "  12 to 20
  The Page or Footboy   "  8 to 18               "  6 to  14
  The Stableboy         "  6 to 12                  --

                    When no extra             When an extra
                 allowance is made for    allowance is made for
                  Tea, Sugar, and Beer.   Tea, Sugar, and Beer.

  The Housekeeper    From L20 to L15          From L18 to L40
  The Lady's-maid        " 12 to 25           "  10 to 20
  The Head Nurse         " 15 to 30           "  13 to 26
  The Cook               " 11 to 30           "  12 to 26
  The Upper Housemaid    " 12 to 20           "  10 to 17
  The Upper Laundry-maid " 12 to 18           "  10 to 15
  The Maid-of-all-work   " 9 to 14            "  7-1/2 to 11
  The Under Housemaid    " 8 to 12            "  6-1/2 to 10
  The Still-room Maid    " 9 to 14            "  8 to 13
  The Nursemaid          " 8 to 12            "  5 to 10
  The Under Laundry-maid " 9 to 11            "  8 to 12
  The Kitchen-maid       " 9 to 14            "  8 to 12
  The Scullery-maid      " 5 to 9             "  4 to 8

    These quotations of wages are those usually given in or near the
    metropolis; but, of course, there are many circumstances
    connected with locality, and also having reference to the long
    service on the one hand, or the inexperience on the other, of
    domestics, which may render the wages still higher or lower than
    those named above. All the domestics mentioned in the above
    table would enter into the establishment of a wealthy nobleman.
    The number of servants, of course, would become smaller in
    proportion to the lesser size of the establishment; and we may
    here enumerate a scale of servants suited to various incomes,
    commencing with--

  About L1,000 a year--A cook, upper housemaid, nursemaid, under
                housemaid,
       and a man servant.
  About L750 a year--A cook, housemaid, nursemaid, and footboy.
  About L500 a year--A cook, housemaid, and nursemaid.
  About L300 a year--A maid-of-all-work and nursemaid.
  About L200 or L150 a year--A maid-of-all-work (and girl occasionally).

22. HAVING THUS INDICATED some of the more general duties of the
mistress, relative to the moral government of her household, we will now
give a few specific instructions on matters having a more practical
relation to the position which she is supposed to occupy in the eye of
the world. To do this the more clearly, we will begin with her earliest
duties, and take her completely through the occupations of a day.

23. HAVING RISEN EARLY, as we have already advised (_see_ 3), and having
given due attention to the bath, and made a careful toilet, it will be
well at once to see that the children have received their proper
ablutions, and are in every way clean and comfortable. The first meal of
the day, breakfast, will then be served, at which all the family should
be punctually present, unless illness, or other circumstances, prevent.

24. AFTER BREAKFAST IS OVER, it will be well for the mistress to make a
round of the kitchen and other offices, to see that all are in order,
and that the morning's work has been properly performed by the various
domestics. The orders for the day should then be given, and any
questions which the domestics desire to ask, respecting their several
departments, should be answered, and any special articles they may
require, handed to them from the store-closet.

    In those establishments where there is a housekeeper, it will
    not be so necessary for the mistress, personally, to perform the
    above-named duties.

25. AFTER THIS GENERAL SUPERINTENDENCE of her servants, the mistress, if
a mother of a young family, may devote herself to the instruction of
some of its younger members, or to the examination of the state of their
wardrobe, leaving the later portion of the morning for reading, or for
some amusing recreation. "Recreation," says Bishop Hall, "is intended to
the mind as whetting is to the scythe, to sharpen the edge of it, which
would otherwise grow dull and blunt. He, therefore, that spends his
whole time in recreation is ever whetting, never mowing; his grass may
grow and his steed starve; as, contrarily, he that always toils and
never recreates, is ever mowing, never whetting, labouring much to
little purpose. As good no scythe as no edge. Then only doth the work go
forward, when the scythe is so seasonably and moderately whetted that it
may cut, and so cut, that it may have the help of sharpening."

    Unless the means of the mistress be very circumscribed, and she
    be obliged to devote a great deal of her time to the making of
    her children's clothes, and other economical pursuits, it is
    right that she should give some time to the pleasures of
    literature, the innocent delights of the garden, and to the
    improvement of any special abilities for music, painting, and
    other elegant arts, which she may, happily, possess.

26. THESE DUTIES AND PLEASURES BEING PERFORMED AND ENJOYED, the hour of
luncheon will have arrived. This is a very necessary meal between an
early breakfast and a late dinner, as a healthy person, with good
exercise, should have a fresh supply of food once in four hours. It
should be a light meal; but its solidity must, of course, be, in some
degree, proportionate to the time it is intended to enable you to wait
for your dinner, and the amount of exercise you take in the mean time.
At this time, also, the servants' dinner will be served.

    In those establishments where an early dinner is served, that
    will, of course, take the place of the luncheon. In many houses,
    where a nursery dinner is provided for the children and about
    one o'clock, the mistress and the elder portion of the family
    make their luncheon at the same time from the same joint, or
    whatever may be provided. A mistress will arrange, according to
    circumstances, the serving of the meal; but the more usual plan
    is for the lady of the house to have the joint brought to her
    table, and afterwards carried to the nursery.

27. AFTER LUNCHEON, MORNING CALLS AND VISITS may be made and received.
These may be divided under three heads: those of ceremony, friendship,
and congratulation or condolence. Visits of ceremony, or courtesy, which
occasionally merge into those of friendship, are to be paid under
various circumstances. Thus, they are uniformly required after dining at
a friend's house, or after a ball, picnic, or any other party. These
visits should be short, a stay of from fifteen to twenty minutes being
quite sufficient. A lady paying a visit may remove her boa or
neckerchief; but neither her shawl nor bonnet.

    When other visitors are announced, it is well to retire as soon
    as possible, taking care to let it appear that their arrival is
    not the cause. When they are quietly seated, and the bustle of
    their entrance is over, rise from your chair, taking a kind
    leave of the hostess, and bowing politely to the guests. Should
    you call at an inconvenient time, not having ascertained the
    luncheon hour, or from any other inadvertence, retire as soon as
    possible, without, however, showing that you feel yourself an
    intruder. It is not difficult for any well-bred or even
    good-tempered person, to know what to say on such an occasion,
    and, on politely withdrawing, a promise can be made to call
    again, if the lady you have called on, appear really
    disappointed.

28. IN PAYING VISITS OF FRIENDSHIP, it will not be so necessary to be
guided by etiquette as in paying visits of ceremony; and if a lady be
pressed by her friend to remove her shawl and bonnet, it can be done if
it will not interfere with her subsequent arrangements. It is, however,
requisite to call at suitable times, and to avoid staying too long, if
your friend is engaged. The courtesies of society should ever be
maintained, even in the domestic circle, and amongst the nearest
friends. During these visits, the manners should be easy and cheerful,
and the subjects of conversation such as may be readily terminated.
Serious discussions or arguments are to be altogether avoided, and there
is much danger and impropriety in expressing opinions of those persons
and characters with whom, perhaps, there is but a slight acquaintance.
(_See_ 6, 7, and 9.)

    It is not advisable, at any time, to take favourite dogs into
    another lady's drawing-room, for many persons have an absolute
    dislike to such animals; and besides this, there is always a
    chance of a breakage of some article occurring, through their
    leaping and bounding here and there, sometimes very much to the
    fear and annoyance of the hostess. Her children, also, unless
    they are particularly well-trained and orderly, and she is on
    exceedingly friendly terms with the hostess, should not
    accompany a lady in making morning calls. Where a lady, however,
    pays her visits in a carriage, the children can be taken in the
    vehicle, and remain in it until the visit is over.

29. FOR MORNING CALLS, it is well to be neatly attired; for a costume
very different to that you generally wear, or anything approaching an
evening dress, will be very much out of place. As a general rule, it may
be said, both in reference to this and all other occasions, it is better
to be under-dressed than over-dressed.

    A strict account should be kept of ceremonial visits, and notice
    how soon your visits have been returned. An opinion may thus be
    formed as to whether your frequent visits are, or are not,
    desirable. There are, naturally, instances when the
    circumstances of old age or ill health will preclude any return
    of a call; but when this is the case, it must not interrupt the
    discharge of the duty.

30. IN PAYING VISITS OF CONDOLENCE, it is to be remembered that they
should be paid within a week after the event which occasions them. If
the acquaintance, however, is but slight, then immediately after the
family has appeared at public worship. A lady should send in her card,
and if her friends be able to receive her, the visitor's manner and
conversation should be subdued and in harmony with the character of her
visit. Courtesy would dictate that a mourning card should be used, and
that visitors, in paying condoling visits, should be dressed in black,
either silk or plain-coloured apparel. Sympathy with the affliction of
the family, is thus expressed, and these attentions are, in such cases,
pleasing and soothing.

    In all these visits, if your acquaintance or friend be not at
    home, a card should be left. If in a carriage, the servant will
    answer your inquiry and receive your card; if paying your visits
    on foot, give your card to the servant in the hall, but leave to
    go in and rest should on no account be asked. The form of words,
    "Not at home," may be understood in different senses; but the
    only courteous way is to receive them as being perfectly true.
    You may imagine that the lady of the house is really at home,
    and that she would make an exception in your favour, or you may
    think that your acquaintance is not desired; but, in either
    case, not the slightest word is to escape you, which would
    suggest, on your part, such an impression.

31. IN RECEIVING MORNING CALLS, the foregoing description of the
etiquette to be observed in paying them, will be of considerable
service. It is to be added, however, that the occupations of drawing,
music, or reading should be suspended on the entrance of morning
visitors. If a lady, however, be engaged with light needlework, and none
other is appropriate in the drawing-room, it may not be, under some
circumstances, inconsistent with good breeding to quietly continue it
during conversation, particularly if the visit be protracted, or the
visitors be gentlemen.

    Formerly the custom was to accompany all visitors quitting the
    house to the door, and there take leave of them; but modern
    society, which has thrown off a great deal of this kind of
    ceremony, now merely requires that the lady of the house should
    rise from her seat, shake hands, or courtesy, in accordance with
    the intimacy she has with her guests, and ring the bell to
    summon the servant to attend them and open the door. In making a
    first call, either upon a newly-married couple, or persons newly
    arrived in the neighbourhood, a lady should leave her husband's
    card together with her own, at the same time, stating that the
    profession or business in which he is engaged has prevented him
    from having the pleasure of paying the visit, with her. It is a
    custom with many ladies, when on the eve of an absence from
    their neighbourhood, to leave or send their own and husband's
    cards, with the letters P. P. C. in the right-hand corner. These
    letters are the initials of the French words, "_Pour prendre
    conge_," meaning, "To take leave."

32. THE MORNING CALLS BEING PAID OR RECEIVED, and their etiquette
properly attended to, the next great event of the day in most
establishments is "The Dinner;" and we only propose here to make a few
general remarks on this important topic, as, in future pages, the whole
"Art of Dining" will be thoroughly considered, with reference to its
economy, comfort, and enjoyment.

33. IN GIVING OR ACCEPTING AN INVITATION FOR DINNER, the following is
the form of words generally made use of. They, however, can be varied in
proportion to the intimacy or position of the hosts and guests:--

  Mr. and Mrs. A---- present their compliments to Mr. and Mrs. B----,
  and request the honour, [or hope to have the pleasure] of their
                company
  to dinner on Wednesday, the 6th of December next.

  A---- STREET,
  _November 13th, 1859. R. S. V. P._

The letters in the corner imply "_Repondez, s'il vous plait;_" meaning,
"an answer will oblige." The reply, accepting the invitation, is couched
in the following terms:--

  Mr. and Mrs. B---- present their compliments to Mr. and Mrs. A---, and
  will do themselves the honour of, [or will have much pleasure in]
  accepting their kind invitation to dinner on the 6th of December next.

  B---- SQUARE,
  _November 18th, 1859._

    Cards, or invitations for a dinner-party, should be issued a
    fortnight or three weeks (sometimes even a month) beforehand,
    and care should be taken by the hostess, in the selection of the
    invited guests, that they should be suited to each other. Much
    also of the pleasure of a dinner-party will depend on the
    arrangement of the guests at table, so as to form a due
    admixture of talkers and listeners, the grave and the gay. If an
    invitation to dinner is accepted, the guests should be punctual,
    and the mistress ready in her drawing-room to receive them. At
    some periods it has been considered fashionable to come late to
    dinner, but lately _nous avons change tout cela_.

34. THE HALF-HOUR BEFORE DINNER has always been considered as the great
ordeal through which the mistress, in giving a dinner-party, will either
pass with flying colours, or, lose many of her laurels. The anxiety to
receive her guests,--her hope that all will be present in due time,--her
trust in the skill of her cook, and the attention of the other
domestics, all tend to make these few minutes a trying time. The
mistress, however, must display no kind of agitation, but show her tact
in suggesting light and cheerful subjects of conversation, which will be
much aided by the introduction of any particular new book, curiosity of
art, or article of vertu, which may pleasantly engage the attention of
the company. "Waiting for Dinner," however, is a trying time, and there
are few who have not felt--

 "How sad it is to sit and pine,
  The long _half-hour_ before we dine!
  Upon our watches oft to look,
  Then wonder at the clock and cook,
         *       *       *       *       *
 "And strive to laugh in spite of Fate!
  But laughter forced soon quits the room,
  And leaves it in its former gloom.
  But lo! the dinner now appears,
  The object of our hopes and fears,
                The end of all our pain!"

    In giving an entertainment of this kind, the mistress should
    remember that it is her duty to make her guests feel happy,
    comfortable, and quite at their ease; and the guests should also
    consider that they have come to the house of their hostess to be
    happy. Thus an opportunity is given to all for innocent
    enjoyment and intellectual improvement, when also acquaintances
    may be formed that may prove invaluable through life, and
    information gained that will enlarge the mind. Many celebrated
    men and women have been great talkers; and, amongst others, the
    genial Sir Walter Scott, who spoke freely to every one, and a
    favourite remark of whom it was, that he never did so without
    learning something he didn't know before.

35. DINNER BEING ANNOUNCED, the host offers his arm to, and places on
his right hand at the dinner-table, the lady to whom he desires to pay
most respect, either on account of her age, position, or from her being
the greatest stranger in the party. If this lady be married and her
husband present, the latter takes the hostess to her place at table, and
seats himself at her right hand. The rest of the company follow in
couples, as specified by the master and mistress of the house, arranging
the party according to their rank and other circumstances which may be
known to the host and hostess.

    It will be found of great assistance to the placing of a party
    at the dinner-table, to have the names of the guests neatly (and
    correctly) written on small cards, and placed at that part of
    the table where it is desired they should sit. With respect to
    the number of guests, it has often been said, that a private
    dinner-party should consist of not less than the number of the
    Graces, or more than that of the Muses. A party of ten or twelve
    is, perhaps, in a general way, sufficient to enjoy themselves
    and be enjoyed. White kid gloves are worn by ladies at
    dinner-parties, but should be taken off before the business of
    dining commences.

36. THE GUESTS BEING SEATED AT THE DINNER-TABLE, the lady begins to help
the soup, which is handed round, commencing with the gentleman on her
right and on her left, and continuing in the same order till all are
served. It is generally established as a rule, not to ask for soup or
fish twice, as, in so doing, part of the company may be kept waiting too
long for the second course, when, perhaps, a little revenge is taken by
looking at the awkward consumer of a second portion. This rule, however,
may, under various circumstances, not be considered as binding.

    It is not usual, where taking wine is _en regle_, for a
    gentleman to ask a lady to take wine until the fish or soup is
    finished, and then the gentleman honoured by sitting on the
    right of the hostess, may politely inquire if she will do him
    the honour of taking wine with him. This will act as a signal to
    the rest of the company, the gentleman of the house most
    probably requesting the same pleasure of the ladies at his right
    and left. At many tables, however, the custom or fashion of
    drinking wine in this manner, is abolished, and the servant
    fills the glasses of the guests with the various wines suited to
    the course which is in progress.

37. WHEN DINNER IS FINISHED, THE DESSERT is placed on the table,
accompanied with finger-glasses. It is the custom of some gentlemen to
wet a corner of the napkin; but the hostess, whose behaviour will set
the tone to all the ladies present, will merely wet the tips of her
fingers, which will serve all the purposes required. The French and
other continentals have a habit of gargling the mouth; but it is a
custom which no English gentlewoman should, in the slightest degree,
imitate.

38. WHEN FRUIT HAS BEEN TAKEN, and a glass or two of wine passed round,
the time will have arrived when the hostess will rise, and thus give the
signal for the ladies to leave the gentlemen, and retire to the
drawing-room. The gentlemen of the party will rise at the same time, and
he who is nearest the door, will open it for the ladies, all remaining
courteously standing until the last lady has withdrawn. Dr. Johnson has
a curious paragraph on the effects of a dinner on men. "Before dinner,"
he says, "men meet with great inequality of understanding; and those who
are conscious of their inferiority have the modesty not to talk. When
they have drunk wine, every man feels himself happy, and loses that
modesty, and grows impudent and vociferous; but he is not improved, he
is only not sensible of his defects." This is rather severe, but there
may be truth in it.

    In former times, when the bottle circulated freely amongst the
    guests, it was necessary for the ladies to retire earlier than
    they do at present, for the gentlemen of the company soon became
    unfit to conduct themselves with that decorum which is essential
    in the presence of ladies. Thanks, however, to the improvements
    in modern society, and the high example shown to the nation by
    its most illustrious personages, temperance is, in these happy
    days, a striking feature in the character of a gentleman.
    Delicacy of conduct towards the female sex has increased with
    the esteem in which they are now universally held, and thus, the
    very early withdrawing of the ladies from the dining-room is to
    be deprecated. A lull in the conversation will seasonably
    indicate the moment for the ladies' departure.

39. AFTER-DINNER INVITATIONS MAY BE GIVEN; by which we wish to be
understood, invitations for the evening. The time of the arrival of
these visitors will vary according to their engagements, or sometimes
will be varied in obedience to the caprices of fashion. Guests invited
for the evening are, however, generally considered at liberty to arrive
whenever it will best suit themselves,--usually between nine and twelve,
unless earlier hours are specifically named. By this arrangement, many
fashionable people and others, who have numerous engagements to fulfil,
often contrive to make their appearance at two or three parties in the
course of one evening.

40. THE ETIQUETTE OF THE DINNER-PARTY TABLE being disposed of, let us
now enter slightly into that of an evening party or ball. The
invitations issued and accepted for either of these, will be written in
the same style as those already described for a dinner-party. They
should be sent out _at least_ three weeks before the day fixed for the
event, and should be replied to within a week of their receipt. By
attending to these courtesies, the guests will have time to consider
their engagements and prepare their dresses, and the hostess will, also,
know what will be the number of her party.

    If the entertainment is to be simply an evening party, this must
    be specified on the card or note of invitation. Short or verbal
    invitations, except where persons are exceedingly intimate, or
    are very near relations, are very far from proper, although, of
    course, in this respect and in many other respects, very much
    always depends on the manner in which the invitation is given.
    True politeness, however, should be studied even amongst the
    nearest friends and relations; for the mechanical forms of good
    breeding are of great consequence, and too much familiarity may
    have, for its effect, the destruction of friendship.

41. AS THE LADIES AND GENTLEMEN ARRIVE, each should be shown to a room
exclusively provided for their reception; and in that set apart for the
ladies, attendants should be in waiting to assist in uncloaking, and
helping to arrange the hair and toilet of those who require it. It will
be found convenient, in those cases where the number of guests is large,
to provide numbered tickets, so that they can be attached to the cloaks
and shawls of each lady, a duplicate of which should be handed to the
guest. Coffee is sometimes provided in this, or an ante-room, for those
who would like to partake of it.

42. AS THE VISITORS ARE ANNOUNCED BY THE SERVANT, it is not necessary
for the lady of the house to advance each time towards the door, but
merely to rise from her seat to receive their courtesies and
congratulations. If, indeed, the hostess wishes to show particular
favour to some peculiarly honoured guests, she may introduce them to
others, whose acquaintance she may imagine will be especially suitable
and agreeable. It is very often the practice of the master of the house
to introduce one gentleman to another, but occasionally the lady
performs this office; when it will, of course, be polite for the persons
thus introduced to take their seats together for the time being.

    The custom of non-introduction is very much in vogue in many
    houses, and guests are thus left to discover for themselves the
    position and qualities of the people around them. The servant,
    indeed, calls out the names of all the visitors as they arrive,
    but, in many instances, mispronounces them; so that it will not
    be well to follow this information, as if it were an unerring
    guide. In our opinion, it is a cheerless and depressing custom,
    although, in thus speaking, we do not allude to the large
    assemblies of the aristocracy, but to the smaller parties of the
    middle classes.

43. A SEPARATE ROOM OR CONVENIENT BUFFET should be appropriated for
refreshments, and to which the dancers may retire; and cakes and
biscuits, with wine negus, lemonade, and ices, handed round. A supper is
also mostly provided at the private parties of the middle classes; and
this requires, on the part of the hostess, a great deal of attention and
supervision. It usually takes place between the first and second parts
of the programme of the dances, of which there should be several
prettily written or printed copies distributed about the ball-room.

    _In private parties_, a lady is not to refuse the invitation of
    a gentleman to dance, unless she be previously engaged. The
    hostess must he supposed to have asked to her house only those
    persons whom she knows to be perfectly respectable and of
    unblemished character, as well as pretty equal in position; and
    thus, to decline the offer of any gentleman present, would be a
    tacit reflection on the master and mistress of the house. It may
    be mentioned here, more especially for the young who will read
    this book, that introductions at balls or evening parties, cease
    with the occasion that calls them forth, no introduction, at
    these times, giving a gentleman a right to address, afterwards,
    a lady. She is, consequently, free, next morning, to pass her
    partner at a ball of the previous evening without the slightest
    recognition.

44. THE BALL IS GENERALLY OPENED, that is, the first place in the first
quadrille is occupied, by the lady of the house. When anything prevents
this, the host will usually lead off the dance with the lady who is
either the highest in rank, or the greatest stranger. It will be well
for the hostess, even if she be very partial to the amusement, and a
graceful dancer, not to participate in it to any great extent, lest her
lady guests should have occasion to complain of her monopoly of the
gentlemen, and other causes of neglect. A few dances will suffice to
show her interest in the entertainment, without unduly trenching on the
attention due to her guests. In all its parts a ball should be
perfect,--

  "The music, and the banquet, and the wine;
  The garlands, the rose-odours, and the flowers."

    The hostess or host, during the progress of a ball, will
    courteously accost and chat with their friends, and take care
    that the ladies are furnished with seats, and that those who
    wish to dance are provided with partners. A gentle hint from the
    hostess, conveyed in a quiet ladylike manner, that certain
    ladies have remained unengaged during several dances, is sure
    not to be neglected by any gentleman. Thus will be studied the
    comfort and enjoyment of the guests, and no lady, in leaving the
    house, will be able to feel the chagrin and disappointment of
    not having been invited to "stand up" in a dance during the
    whole of the evening.

45. WHEN ANY OF THE CARRIAGES OF THE GUESTS ARE ANNOUNCED, or the time
for their departure arrived, they should make a slight intimation to the
hostess, without, however, exciting any observation, that they are about
to depart. If this cannot be done, however, without creating too much
bustle, it will be better for the visitors to retire quietly without
taking their leave. During the course of the week, the hostess will
expect to receive from every guest a call, where it is possible, or
cards expressing the gratification experienced from her entertainment.
This attention is due to every lady for the pains and trouble she has
been at, and tends to promote social, kindly feelings.

46. HAVING THUS DISCOURSED of parties of pleasure, it will be an
interesting change to return to the more domestic business of the house,
although all the details we have been giving of dinner-parties, balls,
and the like, appertain to the department of the mistress. Without a
knowledge of the etiquette to be observed on these occasions, a mistress
would be unable to enjoy and appreciate those friendly pleasant meetings
which give, as it were, a fillip to life, and make the quiet happy home
of an English gentlewoman appear the more delightful and enjoyable. In
their proper places, all that is necessary to be known respecting the
dishes and appearance of the breakfast, dinner, tea, and supper tables,
will be set forth in this work.

47. A FAMILY DINNER AT HOME, compared with either giving or going to a
dinner-party, is, of course, of much more frequent occurrence, and many
will say, of much greater importance. Both, however, have to be
considered with a view to their nicety and enjoyment; and the latter
more particularly with reference to economy. These points will be
especially noted in the following pages on "Household Cookery." Here we
will only say, that for both mistress and servants, as well in large as
small households, it will be found, by far, the better plan, to cook and
serve the dinner, and to lay the tablecloth and the sideboard, with the
same cleanliness, neatness, and scrupulous exactness, whether it be for
the mistress herself alone, a small family, or for "company." If this
rule be strictly adhered to, all will find themselves increase in
managing skill; whilst a knowledge of their daily duties will become
familiar, and enable them to meet difficult occasions with ease, and
overcome any amount of obstacles.

48. OF THE MANNER OF PASSING EVENINGS AT HOME, there is none pleasanter
than in such recreative enjoyments as those which relax the mind from
its severer duties, whilst they stimulate it with a gentle delight.
Where there are young people forming a part of the evening circle,
interesting and agreeable pastime should especially be promoted. It is
of incalculable benefit to them that their homes should possess all the
attractions of healthful amusement, comfort, and happiness; for if they
do not find pleasure there, they will seek it elsewhere. It ought,
therefore, to enter into the domestic policy of every parent, to make
her children feel that home is the happiest place in the world; that to
imbue them with this delicious home-feeling is one of the choicest gifts
a parent can bestow.

    Light or fancy needlework often forms a portion of the evening's
    recreation for the ladies of the household, and this may be
    varied by an occasional game at chess or backgammon. It has
    often been remarked, too, that nothing is more delightful to the
    feminine members of a family, than the reading aloud of some
    good standard work or amusing publication. A knowledge of polite
    literature may be thus obtained by the whole family, especially
    if the reader is able and willing to explain the more difficult
    passages of the book, and expatiate on the wisdom and beauties
    it may contain. This plan, in a great measure, realizes the
    advice of Lord Bacon, who says, "Read not to contradict and
    refute, nor to believe and take for granted, nor to find talk
    and discourse, but to weigh and consider."

49. IN RETIRING FOR THE NIGHT, it is well to remember that early rising
is almost impossible, if late going to bed be the order, or rather
disorder, of the house. The younger members of a family should go early
and at regular hours to their beds, and the domestics as soon as
possible after a reasonably appointed hour. Either the master or the
mistress of a house should, after all have gone to their separate rooms,
see that all is right with respect to the lights and fires below; and no
servants should, on any account, be allowed to remain up after the heads
of the house have retired.

50. HAVING THUS GONE FROM EARLY RISING TO EARLY RETIRING, there remain
only now to be considered a few special positions respecting which the
mistress of the house will be glad to receive some specific information.

51. WHEN A MISTRESS TAKES A HOUSE in a new locality, it will be
etiquette for her to wait until the older inhabitants of the
neighbourhood call upon her; thus evincing a desire, on their part, to
become acquainted with the new comer. It may be, that the mistress will
desire an intimate acquaintance with but few of her neighbours; but it
is to be specially borne in mind that all visits, whether of ceremony,
friendship, or condolence, should be punctiliously returned.

52. YOU MAY PERHAPS HAVE BEEN FAVOURED with letters of introduction from
some of your friends, to persons living in the neighbourhood to which
you have just come. In this case inclose the letter of introduction in
an envelope with your card. Then, if the person, to whom it is
addressed, calls in the course of a few days, the visit should be
returned by you within the week, if possible. Any breach of etiquette,
in this respect, will not readily be excused.

    In the event of your being invited to dinner under the above
    circumstances, nothing but necessity should prevent you from
    accepting the invitation. If, however, there is some distinct
    reason why you cannot accept, let it be stated frankly and
    plainly, for politeness and truthfulness should be ever allied.
    An opportunity should, also, be taken to call in the course of a
    day or two, in order to politely express your regret and
    disappointment at not having been able to avail yourself of
    their kindness.

53. IN GIVING A LETTER OF INTRODUCTION, it should always be handed to
your friend, unsealed. Courtesy dictates this, as the person whom you
are introducing would, perhaps, wish to know in what manner he or she
was spoken of. Should you _receive_ a letter from a friend, introducing
to you any person known to and esteemed by the writer, the letter should
be immediately acknowledged, and your willingness expressed to do all in
your power to carry out his or her wishes.

54. SUCH ARE THE ONEROUS DUTIES which enter into the position of the
mistress of a house, and such are, happily, with a slight but continued
attention, of by no means difficult performance. She ought always to
remember that she is the first and the last, the Alpha and the Omega in
the government of her establishment; and that it is by her conduct that
its whole internal policy is regulated. She is, therefore, a person of
far more importance in a community than she usually thinks she is. On
her pattern her daughters model themselves; by her counsels they are
directed; through her virtues all are honoured;--"her children rise up
and call her blessed; her husband, also, and he praiseth her."
Therefore, let each mistress always remember her responsible position,
never approving a mean action, nor speaking an unrefined word. Let her
conduct be such that her inferiors may respect her, and such as an
honourable and right-minded man may look for in his wife and the mother
of his children. Let her think of the many compliments and the sincere
homage that have been paid to her sex by the greatest philosophers and
writers, both in ancient and modern times. Let her not forget that she
has to show herself worthy of Campbell's compliment when he said,--

  "The world was sad! the garden was a wild!
   And man the hermit sigh'd, till _woman_ smiled."

Let her prove herself, then, the happy companion of man, and able to
take unto herself the praises of the pious prelate, Jeremy Taylor, who
says,--"A good wife is Heaven's last best gift to man,--his angel and
minister of graces innumerable,--his gem of many virtues,--his casket of
jewels--her voice is sweet music--her smiles his brightest day;--her
kiss, the guardian of his innocence;--her arms, the pale of his safety,
the balm of his health, the balsam of his life;--her industry, his
surest wealth;--her economy, his safest steward;--her lips, his faithful
counsellors;--her bosom, the softest pillow of his cares; and her
prayers, the ablest advocates of Heaven's blessings on his head."

Cherishing, then, in her breast the respected utterances of the good and
the great, let the mistress of every house rise to the responsibility of
its management; so that, in doing her duty to all around her, she may
receive the genuine reward of respect, love, and affection!

_Note_.--Many mistresses have experienced the horrors of house-hunting,
and it is well known that "three removes are as good (or bad, rather) as
a fire." Nevertheless, it being quite evident that we must, in these
days at least, live in houses, and are sometimes obliged to change our
residences, it is well to consider some of the conditions which will add
to, or diminish, the convenience and comfort of our homes.

Although the choice of a house must be dependent on so many different
circumstances with different people, that to give any specific
directions on this head would be impossible and useless; yet it will be
advantageous, perhaps, to many, if we point out some of those general
features as to locality, soil, aspect, &c., to which the attention of
all house-takers should be carefully directed.

Regarding the locality, we may say, speaking now more particularly of a
town house, that it is very important to the health and comfort of a
family, that the neighbourhood of all factories of any kind, producing
unwholesome effluvia or smells, should be strictly avoided. Neither is
it well to take a house in the immediate vicinity of where a noisy trade
is carried on, as it is unpleasant to the feelings, and tends to
increase any existing irritation of the system.

Referring to soils; it is held as a rule, that a gravel soil is superior
to any other, as the rain drains through it very quickly, and it is
consequently drier and less damp than clay, upon which water rests a far
longer time. A clay country, too, is not so pleasant for walking
exercise as one in which gravel predominates.

The aspect of the house should be well considered, and it should be
borne in mind that the more sunlight that comes into the house, the
healthier is the habitation. The close, fetid smell which assails one on
entering a narrow court, or street, in towns, is to be assigned to the
want of light, and, consequently, air. A house with a south or
south-west aspect, is lighter, warmer, drier, and consequently more
healthy, than one facing the north or north-east.

Great advances have been made, during the last few years, in the
principles of sanitary knowledge, and one most essential point to be
observed in reference to a house, is its "drainage," as it has been
proved in an endless number of cases, that bad or defective drainage is
as certain to destroy health as the taking of poisons. This arises from
its injuriously affecting the atmosphere; thus rendering the air we
breathe unwholesome and deleterious. Let it be borne in mind, then, that
unless a house is effectually drained, the health of its inhabitants is
sure to suffer; and they will be susceptible of ague, rheumatism,
diarrhoea, fevers, and cholera.

We now come to an all-important point,--that of the water supply. The
value of this necessary article has also been lately more and more
recognized in connection with the question of health and life; and most
houses are well supplied with every convenience connected with water.
Let it, however, be well understood, that no house, however suitable in
other respects, can be desirable, if this grand means of health and
comfort is, in the slightest degree, scarce or impure. No caution can be
too great to see that it is pure and good, as well as plentiful; for,
knowing, as we do, that not a single part of our daily food is prepared
without it, the importance of its influence on the health of the inmates
of a house cannot be over-rated.

Ventilation is another feature which must not be overlooked. In a
general way, enough of air is admitted by the cracks round the doors and
windows; but if this be not the case, the chimney will smoke; and other
plans, such as the placing of a plate of finely-perforated zinc in the
upper part of the window, must be used. Cold air should never be
admitted under the doors, or at the bottom of a room, unless it be close
to the fire or stove; for it will flow along the floor towards the
fireplace, and thus leave the foul air in the upper part of the room,
unpurified, cooling, at the same time, unpleasantly and injuriously, the
feet and legs of the inmates.

The rent of a house, it has been said, should not exceed one-eighth of
the whole income of its occupier; and, as a general rule, we are
disposed to assent to this estimate, although there may be many
circumstances which would not admit of its being considered infallible.

[Illustration]




CHAPTER II.


THE HOUSEKEEPER.

55. AS SECOND IN COMMAND IN THE HOUSE, except in large establishments,
where there is a house steward, the housekeeper must consider herself as
the immediate representative of her mistress, and bring, to the
management of the household, all those qualities of honesty, industry,
and vigilance, in the same degree as if she were at the head of her
_own_ family. Constantly on the watch to detect any wrong-doing on the
part of any of the domestics, she will overlook all that goes on in the
house, and will see that every department is thoroughly attended to, and
that the servants are comfortable, at the same time that their various
duties are properly performed.

    Cleanliness, punctuality, order, and method, are essentials in
    the character of a good housekeeper. Without the first, no
    household can be said to be well managed. The second is equally
    all-important; for those who are under the housekeeper will take
    their "cue" from her; and in the same proportion as punctuality
    governs her movements, so will it theirs. Order, again, is
    indispensable; for by it we wish to be understood that "there
    should be a place for everything, and everything in its place."
    Method, too, is most necessary; for when the work is properly
    contrived, and each part arranged in regular succession, it will
    be done more quickly and more effectually.

56. A NECESSARY QUALIFICATION FOR A HOUSEKEEPER is, that she should
thoroughly understand accounts. She will have to write in her books an
accurate registry of all sums paid for any and every purpose, all the
current expenses of the house, tradesmen's bills, and other extraneous
matter. As we have mentioned under the head of the Mistress (_see_ 16),
a housekeeper's accounts should be periodically balanced, and examined
by the head of the house. Nothing tends more to the satisfaction of both
employer and employed, than this arrangement. "Short reckonings make
long friends," stands good in this case, as in others.

    It will be found an excellent plan to take an account of every
    article which comes into the house connected with housekeeping,
    and is not paid for at the time. The book containing these
    entries can then be compared with the bills sent in by the
    various tradesmen, so that any discrepancy can be inquired into
    and set right. An intelligent housekeeper will, by this means,
    too, be better able to judge of the average consumption of each
    article by the household; and if that quantity be, at any time,
    exceeded, the cause may be discovered and rectified, if it
    proceed from waste or carelessness.

57. ALTHOUGH IN THE DEPARTMENT OF THE COOK, the housekeeper does not
generally much interfere, yet it is necessary that she should possess a
good knowledge of the culinary art, as, in many instances, it may be
requisite for her to take the superintendence of the kitchen. As a rule,
it may be stated, that the housekeeper, in those establishments where
there is no house steward or man cook, undertakes the preparation of the
confectionary, attends to the preserving and pickling of fruits and
vegetables; and, in a general way, to the more difficult branches of the
art of cookery.

    Much of these arrangements will depend, however, on the
    qualifications of the cook; for instance, if she be an able
    artiste, there will be but little necessity for the housekeeper
    to interfere, except in the already noticed articles of
    confectionary, &c. On the contrary, if the cook be not so clever
    an adept in her art, then it will be requisite for the
    housekeeper to give more of her attention to the business of the
    kitchen, than in the former case. It will be one of the duties
    of the housekeeper to attend to the marketing, in the absence of
    either a house steward or man cook.

58. THE DAILY DUTIES OF A HOUSEKEEPER are regulated, in a great measure,
by the extent of the establishment she superintends. She should,
however, rise early, and see that all the domestics are duly performing
their work, and that everything is progressing satisfactorily for the
preparation of the breakfast for the household and family. After
breakfast, which, in large establishments, she will take in the
"housekeeper's room" with the lady's-maid, butler, and valet, and where
they will be waited on by the still-room maid, she will, on various days
set apart for each purpose, carefully examine the household linen, with
a view to its being repaired, or to a further quantity being put in hand
to be made; she will also see that the furniture throughout the house is
well rubbed and polished; and will, besides, attend to all the necessary
details of marketing and ordering goods from the tradesmen.

    The housekeeper's room is generally made use of by the
    lady's-maid, butler, and valet, who take there their breakfast,
    tea, and supper. The lady's-maid will also use this apartment as
    a sitting-room, when not engaged with her lady, or with some
    other duties, which would call her elsewhere. In different
    establishments, according to their size and the rank of the
    family, different rules of course prevail. For instance, in the
    mansions of those of very high rank, and where there is a house
    steward, there are two distinct tables kept, one in the
    steward's room for the principal members of the household, the
    other in the servants' hall, for the other domestics. At the
    steward's dinner-table, the steward and housekeeper preside; and
    here, also, are present the lady's-maid, butler, valet, and head
    gardener. Should any visitors be staying with the family, their
    servants, generally the valet and lady's-maid, will be admitted
    to the steward's table.

59. AFTER DINNER, the housekeeper, having seen that all the members of
the establishment have regularly returned to their various duties, and
that all the departments of the household are in proper working order,
will have many important matters claiming her attention. She will,
possibly, have to give the finishing touch to some article of
confectionary, or be occupied with some of the more elaborate processes
of the still-room. There may also be the dessert to arrange, ice-creams
to make; and all these employments call for no ordinary degree of care,
taste, and attention.

    The still-room was formerly much more in vogue than at present;
    for in days of "auld lang syne," the still was in constant
    requisition for the supply of sweet-flavoured waters for the
    purposes of cookery, scents and aromatic substances used in the
    preparation of the toilet, and cordials in cases of accidents
    and illness. There are some establishments, however, in which
    distillation is still carried on, and in these, the still-room
    maid has her old duties to perform. In a general way, however,
    this domestic is immediately concerned with the housekeeper. For
    the latter she lights the fire, dusts her room, prepares the
    breakfast-table, and waits at the different meals taken in the
    housekeeper's room (_see_ 58). A still-room maid may learn a
    very great deal of useful knowledge from her intimate connection
    with the housekeeper, and if she be active and intelligent, may
    soon fit herself for a better position in the household.

60. IN THE EVENING, the housekeeper will often busy herself with the
necessary preparations for the next day's duties. Numberless small, but
still important arrangements, will have to be made, so that everything
may move smoothly. At times, perhaps, attention will have to be paid to
the breaking of lump-sugar, the stoning of raisins, the washing,
cleansing, and drying of currants, &c. The evening, too, is the best
time for setting right her account of the expenditure, and duly writing
a statement of moneys received and paid, and also for making memoranda
of any articles she may require for her storeroom or other departments.

    Periodically, at some convenient time,--for instance, quarterly
    or half-yearly, it is a good plan for the housekeeper to make an
    inventory of everything she has under her care, and compare this
    with the lists of a former period; she will then be able to
    furnish a statement, if necessary, of the articles which, on
    account of time, breakage, loss, or other causes, it has been
    necessary to replace or replenish.

61. IN CONCLUDING THESE REMARKS on the duties of the housekeeper, we
will briefly refer to the very great responsibility which attaches to
her position. Like "Caesar's wife," she should be "above suspicion," and
her honesty and sobriety unquestionable; for there are many temptations
to which she is exposed. In a physical point of view, a housekeeper
should be healthy and strong, and be particularly clean in her person,
and her hands, although they may show a degree of roughness, from the
nature of some of her employments, yet should have a nice inviting
appearance. In her dealings with the various tradesmen, and in her
behaviour to the domestics under her, the demeanour and conduct of the
housekeeper should be such as, in neither case, to diminish, by an undue
familiarity, her authority or influence.

_Note_.--It will be useful for the mistress and housekeeper to know the
best seasons for various occupations connected with Household
Management; and we, accordingly, subjoin a few hints which we think will
prove valuable.

As, in the winter months, servants have much more to do, in consequence
of the necessity there is to attend to the number of fires throughout
the household, not much more than the ordinary every-day work can be
attempted.

In the summer, and when the absence of fires gives the domestics more
leisure, then any extra work that is required, can be more easily
performed.

The spring is the usual period set apart for house-cleaning, and
removing all the dust and dirt, which will necessarily, with the best of
housewives, accumulate during the winter months, from the smoke of the
coal, oil, gas, &c. This season is also well adapted for washing and
bleaching linen, &c., as, the weather, not being then too hot for the
exertions necessary in washing counterpanes, blankets, and heavy things
in general, the work is better and more easily done than in the intense
heats of July, which month some recommend for these purposes. Winter
curtains should be taken down, and replaced by the summer white ones;
and furs and woollen cloths also carefully laid by. The former should be
well shaken and brushed, and then pinned upon paper or linen, with
camphor to preserve them from the moths. Furs, &c., will be preserved in
the same way. Included, under the general description of house-cleaning,
must be understood, turning out all the nooks and corners of drawers,
cupboards, lumber-rooms, lofts, &c., with a view of getting rid of all
unnecessary articles, which only create dirt and attract vermin;
sweeping of chimneys, taking up carpets, painting and whitewashing the
kitchen and offices, papering rooms, when needed, and, generally
speaking, the house putting on, with the approaching summer, a bright
appearance, and a new face, in unison with nature. Oranges now should be
preserved, and orange wine made.

The summer will be found, as we have mentioned above, in consequence of
the diminution of labour for the domestics, the best period for
examining and repairing household linen, and for "putting to rights" all
those articles which have received a large share of wear and tear during
the dark winter days. In direct reference to this matter, we may here
remark, that sheets should be turned "sides to middle" before they are
allowed to get very thin. Otherwise, patching, which is uneconomical
from the time it consumes, and is unsightly in point of appearance, will
have to be resorted to. In June and July, gooseberries, currants,
raspberries, strawberries, and other summer fruits, should be preserved,
and jams and jellies made. In July, too, the making of walnut ketchup
should be attended to, as the green walnuts will be approaching
perfection for this purpose. Mixed pickles may also be now made, and it
will be found a good plan to have ready a jar of pickle-juice (for the
making of which all information will be given in future pages), into
which to put occasionally some young French beans, cauliflowers, &c.

In the early autumn, plums of various kinds are to be bottled and
preserved, and jams and jellies made. A little later, tomato sauce, a
most useful article to have by you, may be prepared; a supply of apples
laid in, if you have a place to keep them, as also a few keeping pears
and filberts. Endeavour to keep also a large vegetable marrow,--it will
be found delicious in the winter.

In October and November, it will be necessary to prepare for the cold
weather, and get ready the winter clothing for the various members of
the family. The white summer curtains will now be carefully put away,
the fireplaces, grates, and chimneys looked to, and the House put in a
thorough state of repair, so that no "loose tile" may, at a future day,
interfere with your comfort, and extract something considerable from
your pocket.

In December, the principal household duty lies in preparing for the
creature comforts of those near and dear to us, so as to meet old
Christmas with a happy face, a contented mind, and a full larder; and in
stoning the plums, washing the currants, cutting the citron, beating the
eggs, and MIXING THE PUDDING, a housewife is not unworthily greeting the
genial season of all good things.

[Illustration]




CHAPTER III.


ARRANGEMENT AND ECONOMY OF THE KITCHEN.

62. "THE DISTRIBUTION OF A KITCHEN," says Count Rumford, the celebrated
philosopher and physician, who wrote so learnedly on all subjects
connected with domestic economy and architecture, "must always depend so
much on local circumstances, that general rules can hardly be given
respecting it; the principles, however, on which this distribution
ought, in all cases, to be made, are simple and easy to be understood,"
and, in his estimation, these resolve themselves into symmetry of
proportion in the building and convenience to the cook. The requisites
of a good kitchen, however, demand something more special than is here
pointed out. It must be remembered that it is the great laboratory of
every household, and that much of the "weal or woe," as far as regards
bodily health, depends upon the nature of the preparations concocted
within its walls. A good kitchen, therefore, should be erected with a
view to the following particulars. 1. Convenience of distribution in its
parts, with largeness of dimension. 2. Excellence of light, height of
ceiling, and good ventilation. 3. Easiness of access, without passing
through the house. 4. Sufficiently remote from the principal apartments
of the house, that the members, visitors, or guests of the family, may
not perceive the odour incident to cooking, or hear the noise of
culinary operations. 5. Plenty of fuel and water, which, with the
scullery, pantry, and storeroom, should be so near it, as to offer the
smallest possible trouble in reaching them.

[Illustration: _Fig_. 1.]

    The kitchens of the Middle Ages, in England, are said to have
    been constructed after the fashion of those of the Romans. They
    were generally octagonal, with several fireplaces, but no
    chimneys; neither was there any wood admitted into the building.
    The accompanying cut, fig. 1, represents the turret which was
    erected on the top of the conical roof of the kitchen at
    Glastonbury Abbey, and which was perforated with holes to allow
    the smoke of the fire, as well as the steam from cooking, to
    escape. Some kitchens had funnels or vents below the eaves to
    let out the steam, which was sometimes considerable, as the
    Anglo-Saxons used their meat chiefly in a boiled state. From
    this circumstance, some of their large kitchens had four ranges,
    comprising a boiling-place for small boiled meats, and a
    boiling-house for the great boiler. In private houses the
    culinary arrangements were no doubt different; for Du Cange
    mentions a little kitchen with a chamber, even in a solarium, or
    upper floor.

63. THE SIMPLICITY OF THE PRIMITIVE AGES has frequently been an object
of poetical admiration, and it delights the imagination to picture men
living upon such fruits as spring spontaneously from the earth, and
desiring no other beverages to slake their thirst, but such as fountains
and rivers supply. Thus we are told, that the ancient inhabitants of
Argos lived principally on pears; that the Arcadians revelled in acorns,
and the Athenians in figs. This, of course, was in the golden age,
before ploughing began, and when mankind enjoyed all kinds of plenty
without having to earn their bread "by the sweat of their brow." This
delightful period, however, could not last for ever, and the earth
became barren, and continued unfruitful till Ceres came and taught the
art of sowing, with several other useful inventions. The first whom she
taught to till the ground was Triptolemus, who communicated his
instructions to his countrymen the Athenians. Thence the art was carried
into Achaia, and thence into Arcadia. Barley was the first grain that
was used, and the invention of bread-making is ascribed to Pan.

    The use of fire, as an instrument of cookery, must have been
    coeval with this invention of bread, which, being the most
    necessary of all kinds of food, was frequently used in a sense
    so comprehensive as to include both meat and drink. It was, by
    the Greeks, baked under the ashes.

64. IN THE PRIMARY AGES it was deemed unlawful to eat flesh, and when
mankind began to depart from their primitive habits, the flesh of swine
was the first that was eaten. For several ages, it was pronounced
unlawful to slaughter oxen, from an estimate of their great value in
assisting men to cultivate the ground; nor was it usual to kill young
animals, from a sentiment which considered it cruel to take away the
life of those that had scarcely tasted the joys of existence.

    At this period no cooks were kept, and we know from Homer that
    his ancient heroes prepared and dressed their victuals with
    their own hands. Ulysses, for example, we are told, like a
    modern charwoman, excelled at lighting a fire, whilst Achilles
    was an adept at turning a spit. Subsequently, heralds, employed
    in civil and military affairs, filled the office of cooks, and
    managed marriage feasts; but this, no doubt, was after mankind
    had advanced in the art of living, a step further than
    _roasting_, which, in all places, was the ancient manner of
    dressing meat.

65. THE AGE OF ROASTING we may consider as that in which the use of the
metals would be introduced as adjuncts to the culinary art; and amongst
these, iron, the most useful of them all, would necessarily take a
prominent place. This metal is easily oxidized, but to bring it to a
state of fusibility, it requires a most intense heat. Of all the metals,
it is the widest diffused and most abundant; and few stones or mineral
bodies are without an admixture of it. It possesses the valuable
property of being welded by hammering; and hence its adaptation to the
numerous purposes of civilized life.

    Metallic grains of iron have been found in strawberries, and a
    twelfth of the weight of the wood of dried oak is said to
    consist of this metal. Blood owes its colour of redness to the
    quantity of iron it contains, and rain and snow are seldom
    perfectly free from it. In the arts it is employed in three
    states,--as _cast_ iron, _wrought_ iron, and _steel_. In each of
    these it largely enters into the domestic economy, and stoves,
    grates, and the general implements of cookery, are usually
    composed of it. In antiquity, its employment was, comparatively
    speaking, equally universal. The excavations made at Pompeii
    have proved this. The accompanying cuts present us with
    specimens of stoves, both ancient and modern. Fig. 2 is the
    remains of a kitchen stove found in the house of Pansa, at
    Pompeii, and would seem, in its perfect state, not to have been
    materially different from such as are in use at the present day.
    Fig. 3 is a self-acting, simple open range in modern use, and
    may be had of two qualities, ranging, according to their
    dimensions, from L3. 10s. and L3. 18s. respectively, up to L4.
    10s. and L7. 5s. They are completely fitted up with oven,
    boiler, sliding cheek, wrought-iron bars, revolving shelves, and
    brass tap. Fig. 4, is called the Improved Leamington Kitchener,
    and is said to surpass any other range in use, for easy cooking
    by one fire. It has a hot plate, which is well calculated for an
    ironing-stove, and on which as many vessels as will stand upon
    it, may be kept boiling, without being either soiled or injured.
    Besides, it has a perfectly ventilated and spacious wrought-iron
    roaster, with movable shelves, draw-out stand, double
    dripping-pan, and meat-stand. The roaster can be converted into
    an oven by closing the valves, when bread and pastry can be
    baked in it in a superior manner. It also has a large iron
    boiler with brass tap and steam-pipe, round and square gridirons
    for chops and steaks, ash-pan, open fire for roasting, and a set
    of ornamental covings with plate-warmer attached. It took a
    first-class prize and medal in the Great Exhibition of 1851, and
    was also exhibited, with all the recent improvements, at the
    Dublin Exhibition in 1853. Fig. 5 is another kitchener, adapted
    for large families. It has on the one side, a large ventilated
    oven; and on the other, the fire and roaster. The hot plate is
    over all, and there is a back boiler, made of wrought iron, with
    brass tap and steam-pipe. In other respects it resembles Fig. 4,
    with which it possesses similar advantages of construction.
    Either maybe had at varying prices, according to size, from L5.
    15s. up to L23. 10s. They are supplied by Messrs. Richard & John
    Slack 336, Strand, London.

[Illustration: _Fig_. 2.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 3.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 4.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 5.]

66. FROM KITCHEN RANGES to the implements used in cookery is but a step.
With these, every kitchen should be well supplied, otherwise the cook
must not be expected to "perform her office" in a satisfactory manner.
Of the culinary utensils of the ancients, our knowledge is very limited;
but as the art of living, in every civilized country, is pretty much the
same, the instruments for cooking must, in a great degree, bear a
striking resemblance to each other. On referring to classical
antiquities, we find mentioned, among household utensils, leather bags,
baskets constructed of twigs, reeds, and rushes; boxes, basins, and
bellows; bread-moulds, brooms, and brushes; caldrons, colanders,
cisterns, and chafing-dishes; cheese-rasps, knives, and ovens of the
Dutch kind; funnels and frying-pans; handmills, soup-ladles, milk-pails,
and oil-jars; presses, scales, and sieves; spits of different sizes, but
some of them large enough to roast an ox; spoons, fire-tongs, trays,
trenchers, and drinking-vessels; with others for carrying food,
preserving milk, and holding cheese. This enumeration, if it does
nothing else, will, to some extent, indicate the state of the simpler
kinds of mechanical arts among the ancients.

[Illustration: _Fig_. 6.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 7.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 8.]

    In so far as regards the shape and construction of many of the
    kitchen utensils enumerated above, they bore a great resemblance
    to our own. This will be seen by the accompanying cuts. Fig. 6
    is an ancient stock-pot in bronze, which seems to have been made
    to hang over the fire, and was found in the buried city of
    Pompeii. Fig. 7 is one of modern make, and may be obtained
    either of copper or wrought iron, tinned inside. Fig. 8 is
    another of antiquity, with a large ladle and colander, with
    holes attached. It is taken from the column of Trajan. The
    modern ones can be obtained at all prices, according to size,
    from 13s. 6d. up to L1. 1s.

67. IN THE MANUFACTURE OF THESE UTENSILS, bronze metal seems to have
been much in favour with the ancients. It was chosen not only for their
domestic vessels, but it was also much used for their public sculptures
and medals. It is a compound, composed of from six to twelve parts of
tin to one hundred of copper. It gives its name to figures and all
pieces of sculpture made of it. Brass was another favourite metal, which
is composed of copper and zinc. It is more fusible than copper, and not
so apt to tarnish. In a pure state it is not malleable, unless when hot,
and after it has been melted twice it will not bear the hammer. To
render it capable of being wrought, it requires 7 lb. of lead to be put
to 1 cwt. of its own material.

    The Corinthian brass of antiquity was a mixture of silver, gold,
    and copper. A fine kind of brass, supposed to be made by the
    cementation of copper plates with calamine, is, in Germany,
    hammered out into leaves, and is called Dutch metal in this
    country. It is employed in the same way as gold leaf. Brass is
    much used for watchworks, as well as for wire.

68. The braziers, ladles, stewpans, saucepans, gridirons, and colanders
of antiquity might generally pass for those of the English manufacture
of the present day, in so far as shape is concerned. In proof of this we
have placed together the following similar articles of ancient and
modern pattern, in order that the reader may, at a single view, see
wherein any difference that is between them, consists.

[Illustration: _Fig_. 9. Modern.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 10. Ancient.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 11. Modern.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 12. Ancient.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 13. Modern.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 14. Ancient.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 15. Modern.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 16. Modern.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 17. Ancient.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 18. Ancient.]

    _Figs_. 9 and 10 are flat sauce or _saute_ pans, the ancient one
    being fluted in the handle, and having at the end a ram's head.
    Figs. 11 and 12 are colanders, the handle of the ancient one
    being adorned, in the original, with carved representations of a
    cornucopia, a satyr, a goat, pigs, and other animals. Any
    display of taste in the adornment of such utensils, might seem
    to be useless; but when we remember how much more natural it is
    for us all to be careful of the beautiful and costly, than of
    the plain and cheap, it may even become a question in the
    economy of a kitchen, whether it would not, in the long run, be
    cheaper to have articles which displayed some tasteful ingenuity
    in their manufacture, than such as are so perfectly plain as to
    have no attractions whatever beyond their mere suitableness to
    the purposes for which they are made. Figs. 13 and 14 are
    saucepans, the ancient one being of bronze, originally copied
    from the cabinet of M. l'Abbe Charlet, and engraved in the
    Antiquities of Montfaucon. Figs. 15 and 17 are gridirons, and 16
    and 18 dripping-pans. In all these utensils the resemblance
    between such as were in use 2,000 years ago, and those in use at
    the present day, is strikingly manifest.

69. SOME OF THE ANCIENT UTENSILS represented in the above cuts, are
copied from those found amid the ruins of Herculaneum and Pompeii. These
Roman cities were, in the first century, buried beneath the lava of an
eruption of Vesuvius, and continued to be lost to the world till the
beginning of the last century, when a peasant, in digging for a well,
gradually discovered a small temple with some statues. Little notice,
however, was taken of this circumstance till 1736, when the king of
Naples, desiring to erect a palace at Portici, caused extensive
excavations to be made, when the city of Herculaneum was slowly unfolded
to view. Pompeii was discovered about 1750, and being easier cleared
from the lava in which it had so long been entombed, disclosed itself as
it existed immediately before the catastrophe which overwhelmed it,
nearly two thousand years ago. It presented, to the modern world, the
perfect picture of the form and structure of an ancient Roman city. The
interior of its habitations, shops, baths, theatres, and temples, were
all disclosed, with many of the implements used by the workmen in their
various trades, and the materials on which they were employed, when the
doomed city was covered with the lavian stream.

70. AMONGST THE MOST ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS of the kitchen are scales or
weighing-machines for family use. These are found to have existed among
the ancients, and must, at a very early age, have been both publicly and
privately employed for the regulation of quantities. The modern English
weights were adjusted by the 27th chapter of Magna Charta, or the great
charter forced, by the barons, from King John at Runnymede, in Surrey.
Therein it is declared that the weights, all over England, shall be the
same, although for different commodities there were two different kinds,
Troy and Avoirdupois. The origin of both is taken from a grain of wheat
gathered in the middle of an ear. The standard of measures was
originally kept at Winchester, and by a law of King Edgar was ordained
to be observed throughout the kingdom.

[Illustration: _Fig_. 19.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 20.]

    Fig. 19 is an ancient pair of common scales, with two basins and
    a movable weight, which is made in the form of a head, covered
    with the pileus, because Mercury had the weights and measures
    under his superintendence. It is engraved on a stone in the
    gallery of Florence. Fig. 20 represents a modern
    weighing-machine, of great convenience, and generally in use in
    those establishments where a great deal of cooking is carried
    on.

71. ACCOMPANYING THE SCALES, or weighing-machines, there should be
spice-boxes, and sugar and biscuit-canisters of either white or japanned
tin. The covers of these should fit tightly, in order to exclude the
air, and if necessary, be lettered in front, to distinguish them. The
white metal of which they are usually composed, loses its colour when
exposed to the air, but undergoes no further change. It enters largely
into the composition of culinary utensils, many of them being entirely
composed of tinned sheet-iron; the inside of copper and iron vessels
also, being usually what is called _tinned_. This art consists of
covering any metal with a thin coating of tin; and it requires the metal
to be covered, to be perfectly clean and free from rust, and also that
the tin, itself, be purely metallic, and entirely cleared from all ashes
or refuse. Copper boilers, saucepans, and other kitchen utensils, are
tinned after they are manufactured, by being first made hot and the tin
rubbed on with resin. In this process, nothing ought to be used but pure
grain-tin. Lead, however, is sometimes mixed with that metal, not only
to make it lie more easily, but to adulterate it--a pernicious practice,
which in every article connected with the cooking and preparation of
food, cannot be too severely reprobated.--The following list, supplied
by Messrs. Richard & John Slack, 336, Strand, will show the articles
required for the kitchen of a family in the middle class of life,
although it does not contain all the things that may be deemed necessary
for some families, and may contain more than are required for others. As
Messrs. Slack themselves, however, publish a useful illustrated
catalogue, which may be had at their establishment _gratis_, and which
it will be found advantageous to consult by those about to furnish, it
supersedes the necessity of our enlarging that which we give:--

                                 s.  d.

  1 Tea-kettle                   6   6
  1 Toasting-fork                1   0
  1 Bread-grater                 1   0
  1 Pair of Brass Candlesticks   3   6
  1 Teapot and Tray              6   6
  1 Bottle-jack                  9   6
  6 Spoons                       1   6
  2 Candlesticks                 2   6
  1 Candle-box                   1   4
  6 Knives and Forks             5   3
  2 Sets of Skewers              1   0
  1 Meat-chopper                 1   9
  1 Cinder-sifter                1   3
  1 Coffee-pot                   2   3
  1 Colander                     1   6
  3 Block-tin Saucepans          5   9
  5 Iron Saucepans              12   0
  1 Ditto and Steamer            6   6
  1 Large Boiling-pot           10   0
  4 Iron Stewpans                8   9
  1 Dripping-pan and Stand       6   6
  1 Dustpan                      1   0
  1 Fish and Egg-slice           1   9
  2 Fish-kettles                10   0
  1 Flour-box                    1   0
  3 Flat-irons                   3   6
  2 Frying-pans                  4   0
  1 Gridiron                     2   0
  1 Mustard-pot                  1   0
  1 Salt-cellar                  0   8
  1 Pepper-box                   0   6
  1 Pair of Bellows              2   0
  3 Jelly-moulds                 8   0
  1 Plate-basket                 5   6
  1 Cheese-toaster               1  10
  1 Coal-shovel                  2   6
  1 Wood Meat-screen            30   0

  The Set                  L8   11   1


72. AS NOT ONLY HEALTH BUT LIFE may be said to depend on the cleanliness
of culinary utensils, great attention must be paid to their condition
generally, but more especially to that of the saucepans, stewpans, and
boilers. Inside they should be kept perfectly clean, and where an open
fire is used, the outside as clean as possible. With a Leamington range,
saucepans, stewpans, &c., can be kept entirely free from smoke and soot
on the outside, which is an immense saving of labour to the cook or
scullery-maid. Care should be taken that the lids fit tight and close,
so that soups or gravies may not be suffered to waste by evaporation.
They should be made to keep the steam in and the smoke out, and should
always be bright on the upper rim, where they do not immediately come in
contact with the fire. Soup-pots and kettles should be washed
immediately After being used, and dried before the fire, and they should
be kept in a dry place, in order that they may escape the deteriorating
influence of rust, and, thereby, be destroyed. Copper utensils should
never be used in the kitchen unless tinned, and the utmost care should
be taken, not to let the tin be rubbed off. If by chance this should
occur, have it replaced before the vessel is again brought into use.
Neither soup nor gravy should, at any time, be suffered to remain in
them longer than is absolutely necessary, as any fat or acid that is in
them, may affect the metal, so as to impregnate with poison what is
intended to be eaten. Stone and earthenware vessels should be provided
for soups and gravies not intended for immediate use, and, also, plenty
of common dishes for the larder, that the table-set may not be used for
such purposes. It is the nature of vegetables soon to turn sour, when
they are apt to corrode glazed red-ware, and even metals, and
frequently, thereby, to become impregnated with poisonous particles. The
vinegar also in pickles, by its acidity, does the same. Consideration,
therefore, should be given to these facts, and great care also taken
that all _sieves, jelly-bags,_ and tapes for collared articles, be well
scalded and kept dry, or they will impart an unpleasant flavour when
next used. To all these directions the cook should pay great attention,
nor should they, by any means, be neglected by the _mistress of the
household_, who ought to remember that cleanliness in the kitchen gives
health and happiness to home, whilst economy will immeasurably assist in
preserving them.

73. WITHOUT FUEL, A KITCHEN might be pronounced to be of little use;
therefore, to discover and invent materials for supplying us with the
means of domestic heat and comfort, has exercised the ingenuity of man.
Those now known have been divided into five classes; the first
comprehending the fluid inflammable bodies; the second, peat or turf;
the third, charcoal of wood; the fourth, pit-coal charred; and the
fifth, wood or pit-coal in a crude state, with the capacity of yielding
a copious and bright flame. The first may be said seldom to be employed
for the purposes of cookery; but _peat_, especially amongst rural
populations, has, in all ages, been regarded as an excellent fuel. It is
one of the most important productions of an alluvial soil, and belongs
to the vegetable rather than the mineral kingdom. It may be described as
composed of wet, spongy black earth, held together by decayed
vegetables. Formerly it covered extensive tracts in England, but has
greatly disappeared before the genius of agricultural improvement.
_Charcoal_ is a kind of artificial coal, used principally where a strong
and clear fire is desired. It is a black, brittle, insoluble, inodorous,
tasteless substance, and, when newly-made, possesses the remarkable
property of absorbing certain quantities of the different gases. Its
dust, when used as a polishing powder, gives great brilliancy to metals.
It consists of wood half-burned, and is manufactured by cutting pieces
of timber into nearly the same size, then disposing them in heaps, and
covering them with earth, so as to prevent communication with the air,
except when necessary to make them burn. When they have been
sufficiently charred, the fire is extinguished by stopping the vents
through which the air is admitted. Of _coal_ there are various species;
as, pit, culm, slate, cannel, Kilkenny, sulphurous, bovey, jet, &c.
These have all their specific differences, and are employed for various
purposes; but are all, more or less, used as fuel.

    The use of coal for burning purposes was not known to the
    Romans. In Britain it was discovered about fifty years before
    the birth of Christ, in Lancashire, not tar from where
    Manchester now stands; but for ages after its discovery, so long
    as forests abounded, wood continued to be the fuel used for
    firing. The first public notice of coal is in the reign of Henry
    III., who, in 1272, granted a charter to the town of Newcastle,
    permitting the inhabitants to dig for coal. It took some
    centuries more, however, to bring it into common use, as this
    did not take place till about the first quarter of the
    seventeenth century, in the time of Charles I. A few years after
    the Restoration, we find that about 200,000 chaldrons were
    consumed in London. Although several countries possess mines of
    coal, the quality of their mineral is, in general, greatly
    inferior to that of Great Britain, where it is found mostly in
    undulating districts abounding with valleys, and interspersed
    with plains of considerable extent. It lies usually between the
    _strata_ of other substances, and rarely in an horizontal
    position, but with a _dip_ or inclination to one side. Our cut,
    Fig. 21, represents a section of coal as it is found in the
    stratum.

[Illustration: _Fig_. 21.]

74. TO BE ACQUAINTED WITH THE PERIODS when things are in season, is one
of the most essential pieces of knowledge which enter into the "Art of
Cookery." We have, therefore, compiled the following list, which will
serve to show for every month in the year the


TIMES WHEN THINGS ARE IN SEASON.


JANUARY.

FISH.--Barbel, brill, carp, cod, crabs, crayfish, dace, eels, flounders,
haddocks, herrings, lampreys, lobsters, mussels, oysters, perch, pike,
plaice, prawns, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sprats, sturgeon, tench,
thornback, turbot, whitings.

MEAT.--Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, veal, venison.

POULTRY.--Capons, fowls, tame pigeons, pullets, rabbits, turkeys.

GAME.--Grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants, snipe, wild-fowl, woodcock.

VEGETABLES.--Beetroot, broccoli, cabbages, carrots, celery, chervil,
cresses, cucumbers (forced), endive, lettuces, parsnips, potatoes,
savoys, spinach, turnips,--various herbs.

FRUIT.--Apples, grapes, medlars, nuts, oranges, pears, walnuts,
crystallized preserves (foreign), dried fruits, such as almonds and
raisins; French and Spanish plums; prunes, figs, dates.


FEBRUARY.

FISH.--Barbel, brill, carp, cod may be bought, but is not so good as in
January, crabs, crayfish, dace, eels, flounders, haddocks, herrings,
lampreys, lobsters, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, plaice, prawns,
shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sprats, sturgeon, tench, thornback,
turbot, whiting.

MEAT.--Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, veal.

POULTRY.--Capons, chickens, ducklings, tame and wild pigeons, pullets
with eggs, turkeys, wild-fowl, though now not in full season.

GAME.--Grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants, snipes, woodcock.

VEGETABLES.--Beetroot, broccoli (purple and white), Brussels sprouts,
cabbages, carrots, celery, chervil, cresses, cucumbers (forced), endive,
kidney-beans, lettuces, parsnips, potatoes, savoys, spinach,
turnips,--various herbs.

FRUIT.--Apples (golden and Dutch pippins), grapes, medlars, nuts,
oranges, pears (Bon Chretien), walnuts, dried fruits (foreign), such as
almonds and raisins; French and Spanish plums; prunes, figs, dates,
crystallized preserves.


MARCH.

FISH.--Barbel, brill, carp, crabs, crayfish, dace, eels, flounders,
haddocks, herrings, lampreys, lobsters, mussels, oysters, perch, pike,
plaice, prawns, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sprats, sturgeon, tench,
thornback, turbot, whiting.

MEAT.--Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, veal.

POULTRY.--Capons, chickens, ducklings, tame and wild pigeons, pullets
with eggs, turkeys, wild-fowl, though now not in full season.

GAME.--Grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants, snipes, woodcock.

VEGETABLES.--Beetroot, broccoli (purple and white), Brussels sprouts,
cabbages, carrots, celery, chervil, cresses, cucumbers (forced), endive,
kidney-beans, lettuces, parsnips, potatoes, savoys, sea-kale, spinach,
turnips,--various herbs.

FRUIT.--Apples (golden and Dutch pippins), grapes, medlars, nuts,
oranges, pears (Bon Chretien), walnuts, dried fruits (foreign), such as
almonds and raisins; French and Spanish plums; prunes, figs, dates,
crystallized preserves.


APRIL.

FISH.--Brill, carp, cockles, crabs, dory, flounders, ling, lobsters, red
and gray mullet, mussels, oysters, perch, prawns, salmon (but rather
scarce and expensive), shad, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, tench,
turbot, whitings.

MEAT.--Beef, lamb, mutton, veal.

POULTRY.--Chickens, ducklings, fowls, leverets, pigeons, pullets,
rabbits.

GAME.--Hares.

VEGETABLES.--Broccoli, celery, lettuces, young onions, parsnips,
radishes, small salad, sea-kale, spinach, sprouts,--various herbs.

FRUIT.--Apples, nuts, pears, forced cherries, &e. for tarts, rhubarb,
dried fruits, crystallized preserves.


MAY.

FISH.--Carp, chub, crabs, crayfish, dory, herrings, lobsters, mackerel,
red and gray mullet, prawns, salmon, shad, smelts, soles, trout, turbot.

MEAT.--Beef, lamb, mutton, veal.

POULTRY.--Chickens, ducklings, fowls, green geese, leverets, pullets,
rabbits.

VEGETABLES.--Asparagus, beans, early cabbages, carrots, cauliflowers,
creases, cucumbers, lettuces, pease, early potatoes, salads,
sea-kale,--various herbs.

FRUIT.--Apples, green apricots, cherries, currants for tarts,
gooseberries, melons, pears, rhubarb, strawberries.


JUNE.

FISH.--Carp, crayfish, herrings, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, pike,
prawns, salmon, soles, tench, trout, turbot.

MEAT.--Beef, lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison.

POULTRY.--Chickens, ducklings, fowls, green geese, leverets, plovers,
pullets, rabbits, turkey poults, wheatears.

VEGETABLES.--Artichokes, asparagus, beans, cabbages, carrots, cucumbers,
lettuces, onions, parsnips, pease, potatoes, radishes, small salads,
sea-kale, spinach,--various herbs.

FRUIT.--Apricots, cherries, currants, gooseberries, melons, nectarines,
peaches, pears, pineapples, raspberries, rhubarb, strawberries.


JULY.

FISH.--Carp, crayfish, dory, flounders, haddocks, herrings, lobsters,
mackerel, mullet, pike, plaice, prawns, salmon, shrimps, soles,
sturgeon, tench, thornback.

MEAT.--Beef, lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison.

POULTRY.--Chickens, ducklings, fowls, green geese, leverets, plovers,
pullets, rabbits, turkey poults, wheatears, wild ducks (called
flappers).

VEGETABLES.--Artichokes, asparagus, beans, cabbages, carrots,
cauliflowers, celery, cresses, endive, lettuces, mushrooms, onions,
pease, radishes, small salading, sea-kale, sprouts, turnips, vegetable
marrow,--various herbs.

FRUIT.--Apricots, cherries, currants, figs, gooseberries, melons,
nectarines, pears, pineapples, plums, raspberries, strawberries, walnuts
in high season, and pickled.


AUGUST.

FISH.--Brill, carp, chub, crayfish, crabs, dory, eels, flounders, grigs,
herrings, lobsters, mullet, pike, prawns, salmon, shrimps, skate, soles,
sturgeon, thornback, trout, turbot.

MEAT.--Beef, lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison.

POULTRY.--Chickens, ducklings, fowls, green geese, pigeons, plovers,
pullets, rabbits, turkey poults, wheatears, wild ducks.

GAME.--Leverets, grouse, blackcock.

VEGETABLES.--Artichokes, asparagus, beans, carrots, cabbages,
cauliflowers, celery, cresses, endive, lettuces, mushrooms, onions,
pease, potatoes, radishes, sea-bale, small salading, sprouts, turnips,
various kitchen herbs, vegetable marrows.

FRUIT.--Currants, figs, filberts, gooseberries, grapes, melons,
mulberries, nectarines, peaches, pears, pineapples, plums, raspberries,
walnuts.


SEPTEMBER.

FISH.--Brill, carp, cod, eels, flounders, lobsters, mullet, oysters,
plaice, prawns, skate, soles, turbot, whiting, whitebait.

MEAT.--Beef, lamb, mutton, pork, veal.

POULTRY.--Chickens, ducks, fowls, geese, larks, pigeons, pullets,
rabbits, teal, turkeys.

GAME.--Blackcock, buck venison, grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants.

VEGETABLES.--Artichokes, asparagus, beans, cabbage sprouts, carrots,
celery, lettuces, mushrooms, onions, pease, potatoes, salading,
sea-kale, sprouts, tomatoes, turnips, vegetable marrows,--various herbs.

FRUIT.--Bullaces, damsons, figs, filberts, grapes, melons,
morella-cherries, mulberries, nectarines, peaches, pears, plums,
quinces, walnuts.


OCTOBER.

FISH.--Barbel, brill, cod, crabs, eels, flounders, gudgeons, haddocks,
lobsters, mullet, oysters, plaice, prawns, skate, soles, tench, turbot,
whiting.

MEAT.--Beef, mutton, pork, veal, venison.

POULTRY.--Chickens, fowls, geese, larks, pigeons, pullets, rabbits,
teal, turkeys, widgeons, wild ducks.

GAME.--Blackcock, grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants, snipes,
woodcocks, doe venison.

VEGETABLES.--Artichokes, beets, cabbages, cauliflowers, carrots, celery,
lettuces, mushrooms, onions, potatoes, sprouts, tomatoes, turnips,
vegetable marrows,--various herbs.

FRUIT.--Apples, black and white bullaces, damsons, figs, filberts,
grapes, pears, quinces, walnuts.


NOVEMBER.

FISH.--Brill, carp, cod, crabs, eels, gudgeons, haddocks, oysters, pike,
soles, tench, turbot, whiting.

MEAT.--Beef, mutton, veal, doe venison.

POULTRY.--Chickens, fowls, geese, larks, pigeons, pullets, rabbits,
teal, turkeys, widgeons, wild duck.

GAME.--Hares, partridges, pheasants, snipes, woodcocks.

VEGETABLES.--Beetroot, cabbages, carrots, celery, lettuces, late
cucumbers, onions, potatoes, salading, spinach, sprouts,--various herbs.

FRUIT.--Apples, bullaces, chestnuts, filberts, grapes, pears, walnuts.


DECEMBER.

FISH.--Barbel, brill, carp, cod, crabs, eels, dace, gudgeons, haddocks,
herrings, lobsters, oysters, porch, pike, shrimps, skate, sprats, soles,
tench, thornback, turbot, whiting.

MEAT.--Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, venison.

POULTRY.--Capons, chickens, fowls, geese, pigeons, pullets, rabbits,
teal, turkeys, widgeons, wild ducks.

GAME.--Hares, partridges, pheasants, snipes, woodcocks.

VEGETABLES.--Broccoli, cabbages, carrots, celery, leeks, onions,
potatoes, parsnips, Scotch kale, turnips, winter spinach.

FRUIT.--Apples, chestnuts, filberts, grapes, medlars, oranges, pears,
walnuts, dried fruits, such as almonds and raisins, figs, dates,
&c.,--crystallized preserves.


75. WHEN FUEL AND FOOD ARE PROCURED, the next consideration is, how the
latter may be best preserved, with a view to its being suitably dressed.
More waste is often occasioned by the want of judgment, or of necessary
care in this particular, than by any other cause. In the absence of
proper places for keeping provisions, a hanging safe, suspended in an
airy situation, is the best substitute. A well-ventilated larder, dry
and shady, is better for meat and poultry, which require to be kept for
some time; and the utmost skill in the culinary art will not compensate
for the want of proper attention to this particular. Though it is
advisable that annual food should be hung up in the open air till its
fibres have lost some degree of their toughness, yet, if it is kept till
it loses its natural sweetness, its flavour has become deteriorated,
and, as a wholesome comestible, it has lost many of its qualities
conducive to health. As soon, therefore, as the slightest trace of
putrescence is detected, it has reached its highest degree of
tenderness, and should be dressed immediately. During the sultry summer
months, it is difficult to procure meat that is not either tough or
tainted. It should, therefore, be well examined when it comes in, and if
flies have touched it, the part must be cut off, and the remainder well
washed. In very cold weather, meat and vegetables touched by the frost,
should be brought into the kitchen early in the morning, and soaked in
cold water. In loins of meat, the long pipe that runs by the bone should
be taken out, as it is apt to taint; as also the kernels of beef. Rumps
and edgebones of beef, when bruised, should not be purchased. All these
things ought to enter into the consideration of every household manager,
and great care should be taken that nothing is thrown away, or suffered
to be wasted in the kitchen, which might, by proper management, be
turned to a good account. The shank-bones of mutton, so little esteemed
in general, give richness to soups or gravies, if well soaked and
brushed before they are added to the boiling. They are also particularly
nourishing for sick persons. Roast-beef bones, or shank-bones of ham,
make excellent stock for pea-soup.--When the whites of eggs are used for
jelly, confectionary, or other purposes, a pudding or a custard should
be made, that the yolks may be used. All things likely to be wanted
should be in readiness: sugars of different sorts; currants washed,
picked, and perfectly dry; spices pounded, and kept in very small
bottles closely corked, or in canisters, as we have already directed
(72). Not more of these should be purchased at a time than are likely to
be used in the course of a month. Much waste is always prevented by
keeping every article in the place best suited to it. Vegetables keep
best on a stone floor, if the air be excluded; meat, in a cold dry
place; as also salt, sugar, sweet-meats, candles, dried meats, and hams.
Rice, and all sorts of seed for puddings, should be closely covered to
preserve them from insects; but even this will not prevent them from
being affected by these destroyers, if they are long and carelessly
kept.

[Illustration]




CHAPTER IV.


INTRODUCTION TO COOKERY.

76. AS IN THE FINE ARTS, the progress of mankind from barbarism to
civilization is marked by a gradual succession of triumphs over the rude
materialities of nature, so in the art of cookery is the progress
gradual from the earliest and simplest modes, to those of the most
complicated and refined. Plain or rudely-carved stones, tumuli, or
mounds of earth, are the monuments by which barbarous tribes denote the
events of their history, to be succeeded, only in the long course of a
series of ages, by beautifully-proportioned columns, gracefully-sculptured
statues, triumphal arches, coins, medals, and the higher efforts of the
pencil and the pen, as man advances by culture and observation to the
perfection of his facilities. So is it with the art of cookery. Man,
in his primitive state, lives upon roots and the fruits of the earth,
until, by degrees, he is driven to seek for new means, by which his
wants may be supplied and enlarged. He then becomes a hunter and a
fisher. As his species increases, greater necessities come upon him,
when he gradually abandons the roving life of the savage for the more
stationary pursuits of the herdsman. These beget still more settled
habits, when he begins the practice of agriculture, forms ideas of the
rights of property, and has his own, both defined and secured. The
forest, the stream, and the sea are now no longer his only resources for
food. He sows and he reaps, pastures and breeds cattle, lives on the
cultivated produce of his fields, and revels in the luxuries of the
dairy; raises flocks for clothing, and assumes, to all intents and
purposes, the habits of permanent life and the comfortable condition of
a farmer. This is the fourth stage of social progress, up to which the
useful or mechanical arts have been incidentally developing themselves,
when trade and commerce begin. Through these various phases, _only to
live_ has been the great object of mankind; but, by-and-by, comforts are
multiplied, and accumulating riches create new wants. The object, then,
is not only to _live_, but to live economically, agreeably, tastefully,
and well. Accordingly, the art of cookery commences; and although the
fruits of the earth, the fowls of the air, the beasts of the field, and
the fish of the sea, are still the only food of mankind, yet these are
so prepared, improved, and dressed by skill and ingenuity, that they are
the means of immeasurably extending the boundaries of human enjoyments.
Everything that is edible, and passes under the hands of the cook, is
more or less changed, and assumes new forms. Hence the influence of that
functionary is immense upon the happiness of a household.

77. In order that the duties of the Cook may be properly performed, and
that he may be able to reproduce esteemed dishes with certainty, all
terms of indecision should be banished from his art. Accordingly, what
is known only to him, will, in these pages, be made known to others. In
them all those indecisive terms expressed by a bit of this, some of
that, a small piece of that, and a handful of the other, shall never be
made use of, but all quantities be precisely and explicitly stated. With
a desire, also, that all ignorance on this most essential part of the
culinary art should disappear, and that a uniform system of weights and
measures should be adopted, we give an account of the weights which
answer to certain measures.

A TABLE-SPOONFUL is frequently mentioned in a recipe, in the
prescriptions of medical men, and also in medical, chemical, and
gastronomical works. By it is generally meant and understood a measure
or bulk equal to that which would be produced by _half an ounce_ of
water.

A DESSERT-SPOONFUL is the half of a table-spoonful; that is to say, by
it is meant a measure or bulk equal to a _quarter of an ounce_ of water.

A TEA-SPOONFUL is equal in quantity to a _drachm_ of water.

A DROP.--This is the name of a vague kind of measure, and is so called
on account of the liquid being _dropped_ from the mouth of a bottle. Its
quantity, however, will vary, either from the consistency of the liquid
or the size and shape of the mouth of the bottle. The College of
Physicians determined the quantity of a drop to be _one grain_, 60 drops
making one fluid drachm. Their drop, or sixtieth part of a fluid drachm,
is called a _minim_.

[Illustration: _Fig_. 22.]

    Graduated class measures can be obtained at any chemist's, and
    they save much trouble. One of these, containing a wine pint, is
    divided into 16 oz., and the oz, into 8 drachms of water; by
    which, any certain weight mentioned in a recipe can be
    accurately measured out. Home-made measures of this kind can
    readily be formed by weighing the water contained in any given
    measure, and marking on any tall glass the space it occupies.
    This mark can easily be made with a file. It will be interesting
    to many readers to know the basis on which the French found
    their system of weights and measures, for it certainly possesses
    the grandeur of simplicity. The metre, which is the basis of the
    whole system of French weights and measures, is the exact
    measurement of one forty-millionth part of a meridian of the
    earth.

78. EXCELLENCE IN THE ART OF COOKERY, as in all other things, is only
attainable by practice and experience. In proportion, therefore, to the
opportunities which a cook has had of these, so will be his excellence
in the art. It is in the large establishments of princes, noblemen, and
very affluent families alone, that the man cook is found in this
country. He, also, superintends the kitchens of large hotels, clubs, and
public institutions, where he, usually, makes out the bills of fare,
which are generally submitted to the principal for approval. To be able
to do this, therefore, it is absolutely necessary that he should be a
judge of the season of every dish, as well as know perfectly the state
of every article he undertakes to prepare. He must also be a judge of
every article he buys; for no skill, however great it may be, will
enable him to, make that good which is really bad. On him rests the
responsibility of the cooking generally, whilst a speciality of his
department, is to prepare the rich soups, stews, ragouts, and such
dishes as enter into the more refined and complicated portions of his
art, and such as are not usually understood by ordinary professors. He,
therefore, holds a high position in a household, being inferior in rank,
as already shown (21), only to the house steward, the valet, and the
butler.

    In the luxurious ages of Grecian antiquity, Sicilian cooks were
    the most esteemed, and received high rewards for their services.
    Among them, one called Trimalcio was such an adept in his art,
    that he could impart to common fish both the form and flavour of
    the most esteemed of the piscatory tribes. A chief cook in the
    palmy days of Roman voluptuousness had about L800 a year, and
    Antony rewarded the one that cooked the supper which pleased
    Cleopatra, with the present of a city. With the fall of the
    empire, the culinary art sank into less consideration. In the
    middle ages, cooks laboured to acquire a reputation for their
    sauces, which they composed of strange combinations, for the
    sake of novelty, as well as singularity.

79. THE DUTIES OF THE COOK, THE KITCHEN AND THE SCULLERY MAIDS, are so
intimately associated, that they can hardly be treated of separately.
The cook, however, is at the head of the kitchen; and in proportion to
her possession of the qualities of cleanliness, neatness, order,
regularity, and celerity of action, so will her influence appear in the
conduct of those who are under her; as it is upon her that the whole
responsibility of the business of the kitchen rests, whilst the others
must lend her, both a ready and a willing assistance, and be especially
tidy in their appearance, and active, in their movements.

    In the larger establishments of the middle ages, cooks, with the
    authority of feudal chiefs, gave their orders from a high chair
    in which they ensconced themselves, and commanded a view of all
    that was going on throughout their several domains. Each held a
    long wooden spoon, with which he tasted, without leaving his
    seat, the various comestibles that were cooking on the stoves,
    and which he frequently used as a rod of punishment on the backs
    of those whose idleness and gluttony too largely predominated
    over their diligence and temperance.

80. IF, AS WE HAVE SAID (3), THE QUALITY OF EARLY RISING be of the first
importance to the mistress, what must it be to the servant! Let it,
therefore, be taken as a long-proved truism, that without it, in every
domestic, the effect of all things else, so far as _work_ is concerned,
may, in a great measure, be neutralized. In a cook, this quality is most
essential; for an hour lost in the morning, will keep her toiling,
absolutely toiling, all day, to overtake that which might otherwise have
been achieved with ease. In large establishments, six is a good hour to
rise in the summer, and seven in the winter.

81. HER FIRST DUTY, in large establishments and where it is requisite,
should be to set her dough for the breakfast rolls, provided this has
not been done on the previous night, and then to engage herself with
those numerous little preliminary occupations which may not
inappropriately be termed laying out her duties for the day. This will
bring in the breakfast hour of eight, after which, directions must be
given, and preparations made, for the different dinners of the household
and family.

82. IN THOSE NUMEROUS HOUSEHOLDS where a cook and housemaid are only
kept, the general custom is, that the cook should have the charge of the
dining-room. The hall, the lamps and the doorstep are also committed to
her care, and any other work there may be on the outside of the house.
In establishments of this kind, the cook will, after having lighted her
kitchen fire, carefully brushed the range, and cleaned the hearth,
proceed to prepare for breakfast. She will thoroughly rinse the kettle,
and, filling it with fresh water, will put it on the fire to boil. She
will then go to the breakfast-room, or parlour, and there make all
things ready for the breakfast of the family. Her attention will next be
directed to the hall, which she will sweep and wipe; the kitchen stairs,
if there be any, will now be swept; and the hall mats, which have been
removed and shaken, will be again put in their places.

    The cleaning of the kitchen, pantry, passages, and kitchen
    stairs must always be over before breakfast, so that it may not
    interfere with the other business of the day. Everything should
    be ready, and the whole house should wear a comfortable aspect
    when the heads of the house and members of the family make their
    appearance. Nothing, it may be depended on, will so please the
    mistress of an establishment, as to notice that, although she
    has not been present to see that the work was done, attention to
    smaller matters has been carefully paid, with a view to giving
    her satisfaction and increasing her comfort.

83. BY THE TIME THAT THE COOK has performed the duties mentioned above,
and well swept, brushed, and dusted her kitchen, the breakfast-bell will
most likely summon her to the parlour, to "bring in" the breakfast. It
is the cook's department, generally, in the smaller establishments, to
wait at breakfast, as the housemaid, by this time, has gone up-stairs
into the bedrooms, and has there applied herself to her various duties.
The cook usually answers the bells and single knocks at the door in the
early part of the morning, as the tradesmen, with whom it is her more
special business to speak, call at these hours.

84. IT IS IN HER PREPARATION OF THE DINNER that the cook begins to feel
the weight and responsibility of her situation, as she must take upon
herself all the dressing and the serving of the principal dishes, which
her skill and ingenuity have mostly prepared. Whilst these, however, are
cooking, she must be busy with her pastry, soups, gravies, ragouts, &c.
Stock, or what the French call _consomme_, being the basis of most made
dishes, must be always at hand, in conjunction with her sweet herbs and
spices for seasoning. "A place for everything, and everything in its
place," must be her rule, in order that time may not be wasted in
looking for things when they are wanted, and in order that the whole
apparatus of cooking may move with the regularity and precision of a
well-adjusted machine;--all must go on simultaneously. The vegetables
and sauces must be ready with the dishes they are to accompany, and in
order that they may be suitable, the smallest oversight must not be made
in their preparation. When the dinner-hour has arrived, it is the duty
of the cook to dish-up such dishes as may, without injury, stand, for
some time, covered on the hot plate or in the hot closet; but such as
are of a more important or _recherche_ kind, must be delayed until the
order "to serve" is given from the drawing-room. Then comes haste; but
there must be no hurry,--all must work with order. The cook takes charge
of the fish, soups, and poultry; and the kitchen-maid of the vegetables,
sauces, and gravies. These she puts into their appropriate dishes,
whilst the scullery-maid waits on and assists the cook. Everything must
be timed so as to prevent its getting cold, whilst great care should be
taken, that, between the first and second courses, no more time is
allowed to elapse than is necessary, for fear that the company in the
dining-room lose all relish for what has yet to come of the dinner. When
the dinner has been served, the most important feature in the daily life
of the cook is at an end. She must, however, now begin to look to the
contents of her larder, taking care to keep everything sweet and clean,
so that no disagreeable smells may arise from the gravies, milk, or meat
that may be there. These are the principal duties of a cook in a
first-rate establishment.

In smaller establishments, the housekeeper often conducts the higher
department of cooking (_see_ 58, 59, 60), and the cook, with the
assistance of a scullery-maid, performs some of the subordinate duties
of the kitchen-maid.

When circumstances render it necessary, the cook engages to perform the
whole of the work of the kitchen, and, in some places, a portion of the
house-work also.

85. WHILST THE COOK IS ENGAGED WITH HER MORNING DUTIES, the kitchen-maid
is also occupied with hers. Her first duty, after the fire is lighted,
is to sweep and clean the kitchen, and the various offices belonging to
it. This she does every morning, besides cleaning the stone steps at the
entrance of the house, the halls, the passages, and the stairs which
lead to the kitchen. Her general duties, besides these, are to wash and
scour all these places twice a week, with the tables, shelves, and
cupboards. She has also to dress the nursery and servants'-hall dinners,
to prepare all fish, poultry, and vegetables, trim meat joints and
cutlets, and do all such duties as may be considered to enter into the
cook's department in a subordinate degree.

86. THE DUTIES OF THE SCULLERY-MAID are to assist the cook; to keep the
scullery clean, and all the metallic as well as earthenware kitchen
utensils.

    The position of scullery-maid is not, of course, one of high
    rank, nor is the payment for her services large. But if she be
    fortunate enough to have over her a good kitchen-maid and clever
    cook, she may very soon learn to perform various little duties
    connected with cooking operations, which may be of considerable
    service in fitting her for a more responsible place. Now, it
    will be doubtless thought by the majority of our readers, that
    the fascinations connected with the position of the
    scullery-maid, are not so great as to induce many people to
    leave a comfortable home in order to work in a scullery. But we
    are acquainted with one instance in which the desire, on the
    part of a young girl, was so strong to become connected with the
    kitchen and cookery, that she absolutely left her parents, and
    engaged herself as a scullery-maid in a gentleman's house. Here
    she showed herself so active and intelligent, that she very
    quickly rose to the rank of kitchen-maid; and from this, so
    great was her gastronomical genius, she became, in a short space
    of time, one of the best women-cooks in England. After this, we
    think, it must be allowed, that a cook, like a poet, _nascitur,
    non fit_.

87. MODERN COOKERY stands so greatly indebted to the gastronomic
propensities of our French neighbours, that many of their terms are
adopted and applied by English artists to the same as well as similar
preparations of their own. A vocabulary of these is, therefore,
indispensable in a work of this kind. Accordingly, the following will be
found sufficiently complete for all ordinary purposes:--


EXPLANATION OF FRENCH TERMS USED IN MODERN HOUSEHOLD COOKERY.

ASPIC.--A savoury jelly, used as an exterior moulding for cold game,
poultry, fish, &c. This, being of a transparent nature, allows the bird
which it covers to be seen through it. This may also be used for
decorating or garnishing.

ASSIETTE (plate).--_Assiettes_ are the small _entrees_ and
_hors-d'oeuvres_, the quantity of which does not exceed what a plate
will hold. At dessert, fruits, cheese, chestnuts, biscuits, &c., if
served upon a plate, are termed _assiettes_.--ASSIETTE VOLANTE is a
dish which a servant hands round to the guests, but is not placed upon
the table. Small cheese souffles and different dishes, which ought to be
served very hot, are frequently made _assielles volantes_.

AU-BLEU.--Fish dressed in such a manner as to have a _bluish_
appearance.

BAIN-MARIE.--An open saucepan or kettle of nearly boiling water, in
which a smaller vessel can be set for cooking and warming. This is very
useful for keeping articles hot, without altering their quantity or
quality. If you keep sauce, broth, or soup by the fireside, the soup
reduces and becomes too strong, and the sauce thickens as well as
reduces; but this is prevented by using the _bain-marie_, in which the
water should be very hot, but not boiling.

BECHAMEL.--French white sauce, now frequently used in English cookery.

BLANCH.--To whiten poultry, vegetables, fruit, &c., by plunging them
into boiling water for a short time, and afterwards plunging them into
cold water, there to remain until they are cold.

BLANQUETTE.--A sort of fricassee.

BOUILLI.--Beef or other meat boiled; but, generally speaking, boiled
beef is understood by the term.

BOUILLIE.--A French dish resembling hasty-pudding.

BOUILLON.--A thin broth or soup.

BRAISE.--To stew meat with fat bacon until it is tender, it having
previously been blanched.

BRAISIERE.--A saucepan having a lid with ledges, to put fire on the top.

BRIDER.--To pass a packthread through poultry, game, &c., to keep
together their members.

CARAMEL (burnt sugar).--This is made with a piece of sugar, of the size
of a nut, browned in the bottom of a saucepan; upon which a cupful of
stock is gradually poured, stirring all the time a glass of broth,
little by little. It may be used with the feather of a quill, to colour
meats, such as the upper part of fricandeaux; and to impart colour to
sauces. Caramel made with water instead of stock may be used to colour
_compotes_ and other _entremets_.

CASSEROLE.--A crust of rice, which, after having been moulded into the
form of a pie, is baked, and then filled with a fricassee of white meat
or a puree of game.

COMPOTE.--A stew, as of fruit or pigeons.

CONSOMME.--Rich stock, or gravy.

CROQUETTE.--Ball of fried rice or potatoes.

CROUTONS.--Sippets of bread.

DAUBIERE.--An oval stewpan, in which _daubes_ are cooked; _daubes_ being
meat or fowl stewed in sauce.

DESOSSER.--To _bone_, or take out the bones from poultry, game, or fish.
This is an operation requiring considerable experience.

ENTREES.--Small side or corner dishes, served with the first course.

ENTREMETS.--Small side or corner dishes, served with the second course.

ESCALOPES.--Collops; small, round, thin pieces of tender meat, or of
fish, beaten with the handle of a strong knife to make them tender.

FEUILLETAGE.--Puff-paste.

FLAMBER.--To singe fowl or game, after they have been picked.

FONCER.--To put in the bottom of a saucepan slices of ham, veal, or thin
broad slices of bacon.

GALETTE.--A broad thin cake.

GATEAU.--A cake, correctly speaking; but used sometimes to denote a
pudding and a kind of tart.

GLACER.--To glaze, or spread upon hot meats, or larded fowl, a thick and
rich sauce or gravy, called _glaze_. This is laid on with a feather or
brush, and in confectionary the term means to ice fruits and pastry with
sugar, which glistens on hardening.

HORS-D'OEUVRES.--Small dishes, or _assiettes volantes_ of sardines,
anchovies, and other relishes of this kind, served to the guests during
the first course. (_See_ ASSIETTES VOLANTES.)

LIT.--A bed or layer; articles in thin slices are placed in layers,
other articles, or seasoning, being laid between them.

MAIGRE.--Broth, soup, or gravy, made without meat.

MATELOTE.--A rich fish-stew, which is generally composed of carp, eels,
trout, or barbel. It is made with wine.

MAYONNAISE.--Cold sauce, or salad dressing.

MENU.--The bill of fare.

MERINGUE.--A kind of icing, made of whites of eggs and sugar, well
beaten.

MIROTON.--Larger slices of meat than collops; such as slices of beef for
a vinaigrette, or ragout or stew of onions.

MOUILLER.--To add water, broth, or other liquid, during the cooking.

PANER.--To cover over with very fine crumbs of bread, meats, or any
other articles to be cooked on the gridiron, in the oven, or frying-pan.

PIQUER.--To lard with strips of fat bacon, poultry, game, meat, &c. This
should always be done according to the vein of the meat, so that in
carving you slice the bacon across as well as the meat.

POELEE.--Stock used instead of water for boiling turkeys, sweetbreads,
fowls, and vegetables, to render them less insipid. This is rather an
expensive preparation.

PUREE.--Vegetables, or meat reduced to a very smooth pulp, which is
afterwards mixed with enough liquid to make it of the consistency of
very thick soup.

RAGOUT.--Stew or hash.

REMOULADE.--Salad dressing.

RISSOLES.--Pastry, made of light puff-paste, and cut into various forms,
and fried. They may be filled with fish, meat, or sweets.

ROUX.--Brown and white; French thickening.

SALMI.--Ragout of game previously roasted.

SAUCE PIQUANTE.--A sharp sauce, in which somewhat of a vinegar flavour
predominates.

SAUTER.--To dress with sauce in a saucepan, repeatedly moving it about.

TAMIS.--Tammy, a sort of open cloth or sieve through which to strain
broth and sauces, so as to rid them of small bones, froth, &c.

TOURTE.--Tart. Fruit pie.

TROUSSER.--To truss a bird; to put together the body and tie the wings
and thighs, in order to round it for roasting or boiling, each being
tied then with packthread, to keep it in the required form.

VOL-AU-VENT.--A rich crust of very fine puff-paste, which may be filled
with various delicate ragouts or fricassees, of fish, flesh, or fowl.
Fruit may also be inclosed in a _vol-au-vent_.




[Illustration]

SOUPS.


CHAPTER V.


GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING SOUPS.

88. LEAN, JUICY BEEF, MUTTON, AND VEAL, form the basis of all good
soups; therefore it is advisable to procure those pieces which afford
the richest succulence, and such as are fresh-killed. Stale meat renders
them bad, and fat is not so well adapted for making them. The principal
art in composing good rich soup, is so to proportion the several
ingredients that the flavour of one shall not predominate over another,
and that all the articles of which it is composed, shall form an
agreeable whole. To accomplish this, care must be taken that the roots
and herbs are perfectly well cleaned, and that the water is proportioned
to the quantity of meat and other ingredients. Generally a quart of
water may be allowed to a pound of meat for soups, and half the quantity
for gravies. In making soups or gravies, gentle stewing or simmering is
incomparably the best. It may be remarked, however, that a really good
soup can never be made but in a well-closed vessel, although, perhaps,
greater wholesomeness is obtained by an occasional exposure to the air.
Soups will, in general, take from three to six hours doing, and are much
better prepared the day before they are wanted. When the soup is cold,
the fat may be much more easily and completely removed; and when it is
poured off, care must be taken not to disturb the settlings at the
bottom of the vessel, which are so fine that they will escape through a
sieve. A tamis is the best strainer, and if the soup is strained while
it is hot, let the tamis or cloth be previously soaked in cold water.
Clear soups must be perfectly transparent, and thickened soups about the
consistence of cream. To thicken and give body to soups and gravies,
potato-mucilage, arrow-root, bread-raspings, isinglass, flour and
butter, barley, rice, or oatmeal, in a little water rubbed well
together, are used. A piece of boiled beef pounded to a pulp, with a bit
of butter and flour, and rubbed through a sieve, and gradually
incorporated with the soup, will be found an excellent addition. When
the soup appears to be _too thin_ or _too weak_, the cover of the boiler
should be taken off, and the contents allowed to boil till some of the
watery parts have evaporated; or some of the thickening materials, above
mentioned, should be added. When soups and gravies are kept from day to
day in hot weather, they should be warmed up every day, and put into
fresh scalded pans or tureens, and placed in a cool cellar. In temperate
weather, every other day may be sufficient.

89. VARIOUS HERBS AND VEGETABLES are required for the purpose of making
soups and gravies. Of these the principal are,--Scotch barley, pearl
barley, wheat flour, oatmeal, bread-raspings, pease, beans, rice,
vermicelli, macaroni, isinglass, potato-mucilage, mushroom or mushroom
ketchup, champignons, parsnips, carrots, beetroot, turnips, garlic,
shalots, and onions. Sliced onions, fried with butter and flour till
they are browned, and then rubbed through a sieve, are excellent to
heighten the colour and flavour of brown soups and sauces, and form the
basis of many of the fine relishes furnished by the cook. The older and
drier the onion, the stronger will be its flavour. Leeks, cucumber, or
burnet vinegar; celery or celery-seed pounded. The latter, though
equally strong, does not impart the delicate sweetness of the fresh
vegetable; and when used as a substitute, its flavour should be
corrected by the addition of a bit of sugar. Cress-seed, parsley, common
thyme, lemon thyme, orange thyme, knotted marjoram, sage, mint, winter
savoury, and basil. As fresh green basil is seldom to be procured, and
its fine flavour is soon lost, the best way of preserving the extract is
by pouring wine on the fresh leaves.

90. FOR THE SEASONING OF SOUPS, bay-leaves, tomato, tarragon, chervil,
burnet, allspice, cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, clove, mace, black and white
pepper, essence of anchovy, lemon-peel, and juice, and Seville
orange-juice, are all taken. The latter imparts a finer flavour than the
lemon, and the acid is much milder. These materials, with wine, mushroom
ketchup, Harvey's sauce, tomato sauce, combined in various proportions,
are, with other ingredients, manipulated into an almost endless variety
of excellent soups and gravies. Soups, which are intended to constitute
the principal part of a meal, certainly ought not to be flavoured like
sauces, which are only designed to give a relish to some particular
dish.


SOUP, BROTH AND BOUILLON.

91. IT HAS BEEN ASSERTED, that English cookery is, nationally speaking,
far from being the best in the world. More than this, we have been
frequently told by brilliant foreign writers, half philosophers, half
_chefs_, that we are the _worst_ cooks on the face of the earth, and
that the proverb which alludes to the divine origin of food, and the
precisely opposite origin of its preparers, is peculiarly applicable to
us islanders. Not, however, to the inhabitants of the whole island; for,
it is stated in a work which treats of culinary operations, north of the
Tweed, that the "broth" of Scotland claims, for excellence and
wholesomeness, a very close second place to the _bouillon_, or common
soup of France. "_Three_ hot meals of broth and meat, for about the
price of ONE roasting joint," our Scottish brothers and sisters get,
they say; and we hasten to assent to what we think is now a very
well-ascertained fact. We are glad to note, however, that soups of
vegetables, fish, meat, and game, are now very frequently found in the
homes of the English middle classes, as well as in the mansions of the
wealthier and more aristocratic; and we take this to be one evidence,
that we are on the right road to an improvement in our system of
cookery. One great cause of many of the spoilt dishes and badly-cooked
meats which are brought to our tables, arises, we think, and most will
agree with us, from a non-acquaintance with "common, every-day things."
Entertaining this view, we intend to preface the chapters of this work
with a simple scientific _resume_ of all those causes and circumstances
which relate to the food we have to prepare, and the theory and
chemistry of the various culinary operations. Accordingly, this is the
proper place to treat of the quality of the flesh of animals, and
describe some of the circumstances which influence it for good or bad.
We will, therefore, commence with the circumstance of _age_, and examine
how far this affects the quality of meat.

92. DURING THE PERIOD BETWEEN THE BIRTH AND MATURITY OF ANIMALS, their
flesh undergoes very considerable changes. For instance, when the animal
is young, the fluids which the tissues of the muscles contain, possess a
large proportion of what is called _albumen_. This albumen, which is
also the chief component of the white of eggs, possesses the peculiarity
of coagulating or hardening at a certain temperature, like the white of
a boiled egg, into a soft, white fluid, no longer soluble, or capable of
being dissolved in water. As animals grow older, this peculiar animal
matter gradually decreases, in proportion to the other constituents of
the juice of the flesh. Thus, the reason why veal, lamb, and young pork
are _white, and without gravy_ when cooked, is, that the large quantity
of albumen they contain hardens, or becomes coagulated. On the other
hand, the reason why beef and mutton are _brown, and have gravy_, is,
that the proportion of albumen they contain, is small, in comparison
with their greater quantity of fluid which is soluble, and not
coagulable.

93. THE QUALITY OF THE FLESH OF AN ANIMAL is considerably influenced by
the nature of the _food on which it has been fed_; for the food supplies
the material which produces the flesh. If the food be not suitable and
good, the meat cannot be good either; just as the paper on which these
words are printed, could not be good, if the rags from which it is made,
were not of a fine quality. To the experienced in this matter, it is
well known that the flesh of animals fed on farinaceous produce, such as
corn, pulse, &c., is firm, well-flavoured, and also economical in the
cooking; that the flesh of those fed on succulent and pulpy substances,
such as roots, possesses these qualities in a somewhat less degree;
whilst the flesh of those whose food contains fixed oil, as linseed, is
greasy, high coloured, and gross in the fat, and if the food has been
used in large quantities, possessed of a rank flavour.

94. IT IS INDISPENSABLE TO THE GOOD QUALITY OF MEAT, that the animal
should be _perfectly healthy_ at the time of its slaughter. However
slight the disease in an animal may be, inferiority in the quality of
its flesh, as food, is certain to be produced. In most cases, indeed, as
the flesh of diseased animals has a tendency to very rapid putrefaction,
it becomes not only unwholesome, but absolutely poisonous, on account of
the absorption of the _virus_ of the unsound meat into the systems of
those who partake of it. The external indications of good and bad meat
will be described under its own particular head, but we may here premise
that the layer of all wholesome meat, when freshly killed, adheres
firmly to the bone.

95. ANOTHER CIRCUMSTANCE GREATLY AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF MEAT, is the
animal's treatment _before it is slaughtered_. This influences its value
and wholesomeness in no inconsiderable degree. It will be easy to
understand this, when we reflect on those leading principles by which
the life of an animal is supported and maintained. These are, the
digestion of its food, and the assimilation of that food into its
substance. Nature, in effecting this process, first reduces the food in
the stomach to a state of pulp, under the name of chyme, which passes
into the intestines, and is there divided into two principles, each
distinct from the other. One, a milk-white fluid,--the nutritive
portion,--is absorbed by innumerable vessels which open upon the mucous
membrane, or inner coat of the intestines. These vessels, or absorbents,
discharge the fluid into a common duct, or road, along which it is
conveyed to the large veins in the neighbourhood of the heart. Here it
is mixed with the venous blood (which is black and impure) returning
from every part of the body, and then it supplies the waste which is
occasioned in the circulating stream by the arterial (or pure) blood
having furnished matter for the substance of the animal. The blood of
the animal having completed its course through all parts, and having had
its waste recruited by the digested food, is now received into the
heart, and by the action of that organ it is urged through the lungs,
there to receive its purification from the air which the animal inhales.
Again returning to the heart, it is forced through the arteries, and
thence distributed, by innumerable ramifications, called capillaries,
bestowing to every part of the animal, life and nutriment. The other
principle--the innutritive portion--passes from the intestines, and is
thus got rid of. It will now be readily understood how flesh is affected
for bad, if an animal is slaughtered when the circulation of its blood
has been increased by over-driving, ill-usage, or other causes of
excitement, to such a degree of rapidity as to be too great for the
capillaries to perform their functions, and causing the blood to be
congealed in its minuter vessels. Where this has been the case, the meat
will be dark-coloured, and become rapidly putrid; so that self-interest
and humanity alike dictate kind and gentle treatment of all animals
destined to serve as food for man.


THE CHEMISTRY AND ECONOMY OF SOUP-MAKING.

96. STOCK BEING THE BASIS of all meat soups, and, also, of all the
principal sauces, it is essential to the success of these culinary
operations, to know the most complete and economical method of
extracting, from a certain quantity of meat, the best possible stock or
broth. The theory and philosophy of this process we will, therefore,
explain, and then proceed to show the practical course to be adopted.

97. AS ALL MEAT is principally composed of fibres, fat, gelatine,
osmazome, and albumen, it is requisite to know that the FIBRES are
inseparable, constituting almost all that remains of the meat after it
has undergone a long boiling.

98. FAT is dissolved by boiling; but as it is contained in cells covered
by a very fine membrane, which never dissolves, a portion of it always
adheres to the fibres. The other portion rises to the surface of the
stock, and is that which has escaped from the cells which were not
whole, or which have burst by boiling.

99. GELATINE is soluble: it is the basis and the nutritious portion of
the stock. When there is an abundance of it, it causes the stock, when
cold, to become a jelly.

100. OSMAZOME is soluble even when cold, and is that part of the meat
which gives flavour and perfume to the stock. The flesh of old animals
contains more _osmazome_ than that of young ones. Brown meats contain
more than white, and the former make the stock more fragrant. By
roasting meat, the osmazome appears to acquire higher properties; so, by
putting the remains of roast meats into your stock-pot, you obtain a
better flavour.

101. ALBUMEN is of the nature of the white of eggs; it can be dissolved
in cold or tepid water, but coagulates when it is put into water not
quite at the boiling-point. From this property in albumen, it is evident
that if the meat is put into the stock-pot when the water boils, or
after this is made to boil up quickly, the albumen, in both cases,
hardens. In the first it rises to the surface, in the second it remains
in the meat, but in both it prevents the gelatine and osmazome from
dissolving; and hence a thin and tasteless stock will be obtained. It
ought to be known, too, that the coagulation of the albumen in the meat,
always takes place, more or less, according to the size of the piece, as
the parts farthest from the surface always acquire _that degree_ of heat
which congeals it before entirely dissolving it.

102. BONES ought always to form a component part of the stock-pot. They
are composed of an earthy substance,--to which they owe their
solidity,--of gelatine, and a fatty fluid, something like marrow. _Two
ounces_ of them contain as much gelatine as _one pound_ of meat; but in
them, this is so incased in the earthy substance, that boiling water can
dissolve only the surface of whole bones. By breaking them, however, you
can dissolve more, because you multiply their surfaces; and by reducing
them to powder or paste, you can dissolve them entirely; but you must
not grind them dry. We have said (99) that gelatine forms the basis of
stock; but this, though very nourishing, is entirely without taste; and
to make the stock savoury, it must contain _osmazome_. Of this, bones do
not contain a particle; and that is the reason why stock made entirely
of them, is not liked; but when you add meat to the broken or pulverized
bones, the osmazome contained in it makes the stock sufficiently
savoury.

103. In concluding this part of our subject, the following condensed
hints and directions should be attended to in the economy of
soup-making:--

I. BEEF MAKES THE BEST STOCK; veal stock has less colour and taste;
whilst mutton sometimes gives it a tallowy smell, far from agreeable,
unless the meat has been previously roasted or broiled. Fowls add very
little to the flavour of stock, unless they be old and fat. Pigeons,
when they are old, add the most flavour to it; and a rabbit or partridge
is also a great improvement. From the freshest meat the best stock is
obtained.

II. IF THE MEAT BE BOILED solely to make stock, it must be cut up into
the smallest possible pieces; but, generally speaking, if it is desired
to have good stock and a piece of savoury meat as well, it is necessary
to put a rather large piece into the stock-pot, say sufficient for two
or three days, during which time the stock will keep well in all
weathers. Choose the freshest meat, and have it cut as thick as
possible; for if it is a thin, flat piece, it will not look well, and
will be very soon spoiled by the boiling.

III. NEVER WASH MEAT, as it deprives its surface of all its juices;
separate it from the bones, and tie it round with tape, so that its
shape may be preserved, then put it into the stock-pot, and for each
pound of meat, let there be one pint of water; press it down with the
hand, to allow the air, which it contains, to escape, and which often
raises it to the top of the water.

IV. PUT THE STOCK-POT ON A GENTLE FIRE, so that it may heat gradually.
The albumen will first dissolve, afterwards coagulate; and as it is in
this state lighter than the liquid, it will rise to the surface;
bringing with it all its impurities. It is this which makes _the scum_.
The rising of the hardened albumen has the same effect in clarifying
stock as the white of eggs; and, as a rule, it may be said that the more
scum there is, the clearer will be the stock. Always take care that the
fire is very regular.

V. REMOVE THE SCUM when it rises thickly, and do not let the stock boil,
because then one portion of the scum will be dissolved, and the other go
to the bottom of the pot; thus rendering it very difficult to obtain a
clear broth. If the fire is regular, it will not be necessary to add
cold water in order to make the scum rise; but if the fire is too large
at first, it will then be necessary to do so.

VI. WHEN THE STOCK IS WELL SKIMMED, and begins to boil, put in salt and
vegetables, which may be two or three carrots, two turnips, one parsnip,
a bunch of leeks and celery tied together. You can add, according to
taste, a piece of cabbage, two or three cloves stuck in an onion, and a
tomato. The latter gives a very agreeable flavour to the stock. If fried
onion be added, it ought, according to the advice of a famous French
_chef_, to be tied in a little bag: without this precaution, the colour
of the stock is liable to be clouded.

VII. BY THIS TIME we will now suppose that you have chopped the bones
which were separated from the meat, and those which were left from the
roast meat of the day before. Remember, as was before pointed out, that
the more these are broken, the more gelatine you will have. The best way
to break them up is to pound them roughly in an iron mortar, adding,
from time to time, a little water, to prevent them getting heated. It is
a great saving thus to make use of the bones of meat, which, in too many
English families, we fear, are entirely wasted; for it is certain, as
previously stated (No. 102), that two ounces of bone contain as much
gelatine (which is the nutritive portion of stock) as one pound of meat.
In their broken state tie them up in a bag, and put them in the
stock-pot; adding the gristly parts of cold meat, and trimmings, which
can be used for no other purpose. If, to make up the weight, you have
received from the butcher a piece of mutton or veal, broil it slightly
over a clear fire before putting it in the stock-pot, and be very
careful that it does not contract the least taste of being smoked or
burnt.

VIII. ADD NOW THE VEGETABLES, which, to a certain extent, will stop the
boiling of the stock. Wait, therefore, till it simmers well up again,
then draw it to the side of the fire, and keep it gently simmering till
it is served, preserving, as before said, your fire always the same.
Cover the stock-pot well, to prevent evaporation; do not fill it up,
even if you take out a little stock, unless the meat is exposed; in
which case a little boiling water may be added, but only enough to cover
it. After six hours' slow and gentle simmering, the stock is done; and
it should not be continued on the fire, longer than is necessary, or it
will tend to insipidity.

_Note_.--It is on a good stock, or first good broth and sauce, that
excellence in cookery depends. If the preparation of this basis of the
culinary art is intrusted to negligent or ignorant persons, and the
stock is not well skimmed, but indifferent results will be obtained. The
stock will never be clear; and when it is obliged to be clarified, it is
deteriorated both in quality and flavour. In the proper management of
the stock-pot an immense deal of trouble is saved, inasmuch as one
stock, in a small dinner, serves for all purposes. Above all things, the
greatest economy, consistent with excellence, should be practised, and
the price of everything which enters the kitchen correctly ascertained.
The _theory_ of this part of Household Management may appear trifling;
but its practice is extensive, and therefore it requires the best
attention.

[Illustration]




RECIPES.


CHAPTER VI.


FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SOUPS.

[_It will be seen, by reference to the following Recipes, that an
entirely original and most intelligible system has been pursued in
explaining the preparation of each dish. We would recommend the young
housekeeper, cook, or whoever may be engaged in the important task of
"getting ready" the dinner, or other meal, to follow precisely the order
in which the recipes are given. Thus, let them first place on their
table all the INGREDIENTS necessary; then the modus operandi, or MODE of
preparation, will be easily managed. By a careful reading, too, of the
recipes, there will not be the slightest difficulty in arranging a
repast for any number of persons, and an accurate notion will be gained
of the TIME the cooling of each dish will occupy, of the periods at
which it is SEASONABLE, as also of its_ AVERAGE COST.

_The addition of the natural history, and the description of the various
properties of the edible articles in common use in every family, will be
serviceable both in a practical and an educational point of view._

_Speaking specially of the Recipes for Soups, it may be added, that by
the employment of the_ BEST, MEDIUM, _or_ COMMON STOCK, _the quality of
the Soups and their cost may be proportionately increased or lessened._]


STOCKS FOR ALL KINDS OF SOUPS.

RICH STRONG STOCK.

104. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of shin of beef, 4 lbs. of knuckle of veal,
3/4 lb. of good lean ham; any poultry trimmings; 3 small onions, 3 small
carrots, 3 turnips (the latter should be omitted in summer, lest they
ferment), 1 head of celery, a few chopped mushrooms, when obtainable; 1
tomato, a bunch of savoury herbs, not forgetting parsley; 1-1/2 oz. of
salt, 12 white peppercorns, 6 cloves, 3 small blades of mace, 4 quarts
of water.

_Mode_.--Line a delicately clean stewpan with the ham cut in thin broad
slices, carefully trimming off all its rusty fat; cut up the beef and
veal in pieces about 3 inches square, and lay them on the ham; set it on
the stove, and draw it down, and stir frequently. When the meat is
equally browned, put in the beef and veal bones, the poultry trimmings,
and pour in the cold water. Skim well, and occasionally add a little
cold water, to stop its boiling, until it becomes quite clear; then put
in all the other ingredients, and simmer very slowly for 5 hours. Do not
let it come to a brisk boil, that the stock be not wasted, and that its
colour may be preserved. Strain through a very fine hair sieve, or
tammy, and it will be fit for use.

_Time_.--5 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 3d. per quart.


MEDIUM STOCK.

105. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of shin of beef, or 4 lbs. of knuckle of veal,
or 2 lbs. of each; any bones, trimmings of poultry, or fresh meat, 1/2 a
lb. of lean bacon or ham, 2 oz. of butter, 2 large onions, each stuck
with 3 cloves; 1 turnip, 3 carrots, 1/2 a leek, 1 head of celery, 2 oz.
of salt, 1/2 a teaspoonful of whole pepper, 1 large blade of mace, 1
small bunch of savoury herbs, 4 quarts and 1/2 pint of cold water.

_Mode_.--Cut up the meat and bacon or ham into pieces about 3 inches
square; rub the butter on the bottom of the stewpan; put in 1/2 a pint
of water, the meat, and all the other ingredients. Cover the stewpan,
and place it on a sharp fire, occasionally stirring its contents. When
the bottom of the pan becomes covered with a pale, jelly-like substance,
add 4 quarts of cold water, and simmer very gently for 5 hours. As we
have said before, do not let it boil quickly. Skim off every particle of
grease whilst it is doing, and strain it through a fine hair sieve.

This is the basis of many of the soups afterwards mentioned, and will be
found quite strong enough for ordinary purposes.

_Time_.--5-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 9d. per quart.


ECONOMICAL STOCK.

106. INGREDIENTS.--The liquor in which a joint of meat has been boiled,
say 4 quarts; trimmings of fresh meat or poultry, shank-bones, &c.,
roast-beef bones, any pieces the larder may furnish; vegetables, spices,
and the same seasoning as in the foregoing recipe.

_Mode_.--Let all the ingredients simmer gently for 6 hours, taking care
to skim carefully at first. Strain it off, and put by for use.

_Time_.--6 hours. _Average cost_, 3d. per quart.


WHITE STOCK.

(_To be Used in the Preparation of White Soups_.)

107. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of knuckle of veal, any poultry trimmings, 4
slices of lean ham, 1 carrot, 2 onions, 1 head of celery, 12 white
peppercorns, 1 oz. of salt, 1 blade of mace, 1 oz. butter, 4 quarts of
water.

_Mode_.--Cut up the veal, and put it with the bones and trimmings of
poultry, and the ham, into the stewpan, which has been rubbed with the
butter. Moisten with 1/2 a pint of water, and simmer till the gravy
begins to flow. Then add the 4 quarts of water and the remainder of the
ingredients; simmer for 5 hours. After skimming and straining it
carefully through a very fine hair sieve, it will be ready for use.

_Time_.--5-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 9d. per quart.

_Note_.--When stronger stock is desired, double the quantity of veal, or
put in an old fowl. The liquor in which a young turkey has been boiled,
is an excellent addition to all white stock or soups.


BROWNING FOR STOCK.

108. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of powdered sugar, and 1/2 a pint of water.

_Mode_.--Place the sugar in a stewpan over a slow fire until it begins
to melt, keeping it stirred with a wooden spoon until it becomes black,
then add the water, and let it dissolve. Cork closely, and use a few
drops when required.

_Note_.--In France, burnt onions are made use of for the purpose of
browning. As a general rule, the process of browning is to be
discouraged, as apt to impart a slightly unpleasant flavour to the
stock, and, consequently, all soups made from it.


TO CLARIFY STOCK.

109. INGREDIENTS.--The whites of 2 eggs, 1/2 pint of water, 2 quarts of
stock.

_Mode_.--Supposing that by some accident the soup is not quite clear,
and that its quantity is 2 quarts, take the whites of 2 eggs, carefully
separated from their yolks, whisk them well together with the water, and
add gradually the 2 quarts of boiling stock, still whisking. Place the
soup on the fire, and when boiling and well skimmed, whisk the eggs with
it till nearly boiling again; then draw it from the fire, and let it
settle, until the whites of the eggs become separated. Pass through a
fine cloth, and the soup should be clear.

_Note_.--The rule is, that all clear soups should be of a light straw
colour, and should not savour too strongly of the meat; and that all
white or brown thick soups should have no more consistency than will
enable them to adhere slightly to the spoon when hot. All _purees_
should be somewhat thicker.


ALMOND SOUP.

110. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of lean beef or veal, 1/2 a scrag of mutton, 1
oz. of vermicelli, 4 blades of mace, 6 cloves, 1/2 lb. of sweet almonds,
the yolks of 6 eggs, 1 gill of thick cream, rather more than 2 quarts of
water.

_Mode_.--Boil the beef, or veal, and the mutton, gently in water that
will cover them, till the gravy is very strong, and the meat very
tender; then strain off the gravy, and set it on the fire with the
specified quantities of vermicelli, mace, and cloves, to 2 quarts. Let
it boil till it has the flavour of the spices. Have ready the almonds,
blanched and pounded very fine; the yolks of the eggs boiled hard;
mixing the almonds, whilst pounding, with a little of the soup, lest the
latter should grow oily. Pound them till they are a mere pulp, and keep
adding to them, by degrees, a little soup until they are thoroughly
mixed together. Let the soup be cool when mixing, and do it perfectly
smooth. Strain it through a sieve, set it on the fire, stir frequently,
and serve hot. Just before taking it up, add the cream.

_Time_.--3 hours. _Average cost_ per quart, 2s. 3d.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

[Illustration: ALMOND & BLOSSOM.]

    THE ALMOND-TREE.--This tree is indigenous to the northern parts
    of Asia and Africa, but it is now cultivated in Europe,
    especially in the south of France, Italy, and Spain. It flowers
    in spring, and produces its fruit in August. Although there are
    two kinds of almonds, the _sweet_ and the _bitter,_ they are
    considered as only varieties of the same species. The best sweet
    almonds brought to England, are called the Syrian or Jordan, and
    come from Malaga; the inferior qualities are brought from
    Valentia and Italy. _Bitter_ almonds come principally from
    Magadore. Anciently, the almond was much esteemed by the nations
    of the East. Jacob included it among the presents which he
    designed for Joseph. The Greeks called it the Greek or Thasian
    nut, and the Romans believed that by eating half a dozen of
    them, they were secured against drunkenness, however deeply they
    might imbibe. Almonds, however, are considered as very
    indigestible. The _bitter_ contain, too, principles which
    produce two violent poisons,--prussic acid and a kind of
    volatile oil. It is consequently dangerous to eat them in large
    quantities. Almonds pounded together with a little sugar and
    water, however, produce a milk similar to that which is yielded
    by animals. Their oil is used for making fine soap, and their
    cake as a cosmetic.

APPLE SOUP.

111. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of good boiling apples, 3/4 teaspoonful of
white pepper, 6 cloves, cayenne or ginger to taste, 3 quarts of medium
stock.

_Mode_.--Peel and quarter the apples, taking out their cores; put them
into the stock, stew them gently till tender. Rub the whole through a
strainer, add the seasoning, give it one boil up, and serve.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_ per quart, 1s.

_Seasonable_ from September to December.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

[Illustration: APPLE AND BLOSSOM.]

    THE APPLE.--This useful fruit is mentioned in Holy Writ; and
    Homer describes it as valuable in his time. It was brought from
    the East by the Romans, who held it in the highest estimation.
    Indeed, some of the citizens of the "Eternal city" distinguished
    certain favourite apples by their names. Thus the Manlians were
    called after Manlius, the Claudians after Claudius, and the
    Appians after Appius. Others were designated after the country
    whence they were brought; as the Sidonians, the Epirotes, and
    the Greeks. The best varieties are natives of Asia, and have, by
    grafting them upon others, been introduced into Europe. The
    crab, found in our hedges, is the only variety indigenous to
    Britain; therefore, for the introduction of other kinds we are,
    no doubt, indebted to the Romans. In the time of the Saxon
    heptarchy, both Devon and Somerset were distinguished as _the
    apple country_; and there are still existing in Herefordshire
    some trees said to have been planted in the time of William the
    Conqueror. From that time to this, the varieties of this
    precious fruit have gone on increasing, and are now said to
    number upwards of 1,500. It is peculiar to the temperate zone,
    being found neither in Lapland, nor within the tropics. The best
    baking apples for early use are the Colvilles; the best for
    autumn are the rennets and pearmains; and the best for winter
    and spring are russets. The best table, or eating apples, are
    the Margarets for early use; the Kentish codlin and summer
    pearmain for summer; and for autumn, winter, or spring, the
    Dowton, golden and other pippins, as the ribstone, with small
    russets. As a food, the apple cannot be considered to rank high,
    as more than the half of it consists of water, and the rest of
    its properties are not the most nourishing. It is, however, a
    useful adjunct to other kinds of food, and, when cooked, is
    esteemed as slightly laxative.

ARTICHOKE (JERUSALEM) SOUP.

(_A White Soup_.)

112. INGREDIENTS.--3 slices of lean bacon or ham, 1/2 a head of celery,
1 turnip, 1 onion, 3 oz. of butter, 4 lbs. of artichokes, 1 pint of
boiling milk, or 1/2 pint of boiling cream, salt and cayenne to taste, 2
lumps of sugar, 2-1/2 quarts of white stock.

_Mode_.--Put the bacon and vegetables, which should be cut into thin
slices, into the stewpan with the butter. Braise these for 1/4 of an
hour, keeping them well stirred. Wash and pare the artichokes, and after
cutting them into thin slices, add them, with a pint of stock, to the
other ingredients. When these have gently stewed down to a smooth pulp,
put in the remainder of the stock. Stir it well, adding the seasoning,
and when it has simmered for five minutes, pass it through a strainer.
Now pour it back into the stewpan, let it again simmer five minutes,
taking care to skim it well, and stir it to the boiling milk or cream.
Serve with small sippets of bread fried in butter.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_ per quart, 1s. 2d.

_Seasonable_ from June to October.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


ASPARAGUS SOUP.

I.

113. INGREDIENTS.--5 lbs. of lean beef, 3 slices of bacon, 1/2 pint of
pale ale, a few leaves of white beet, spinach, 1 cabbage lettuce, a
little mint, sorrel, and marjoram, a pint of asparagus-tops cut small,
the crust of 1 French roll, seasoning to taste, 2 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Put the beef, cut in pieces and rolled in flour, into a
stewpan, with the bacon at the bottom; cover it close, and set it on a
slow fire, stirring it now and then till the gravy is drawn. Put in the
water and ale, and season to taste with pepper and salt, and let it stew
gently for 2 hours; then strain the liquor, and take off the fat, and
add the white beet, spinach, cabbage lettuce, and mint, sorrel, and
sweet marjoram, pounded. Let these boil up in the liquor, then put in
the asparagus-tops cut small, and allow them to boil till all is tender.
Serve hot, with the French roll in the dish.

_Time_.--Altogether 3 hours. _Average cost_ per quart, 1s. 9d.

_Seasonable_ from May to August.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


II.

114. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 pint of split peas, a teacupful of gravy, 4
young onions, 1 lettuce cut small, 1/2 a head of celery, 1/2 a pint of
asparagus cut small, 1/2 a pint of cream, 3 quarts of water: colour the
soup with spinach juice.

_Mode_.--Boil the peas, and rub them through a sieve; add the gravy, and
then stew by themselves the celery, onions, lettuce, and asparagus, with
the water. After this, stew altogether, and add the colouring and cream,
and serve.

_Time_.--Peas 2-1/2 hours, vegetables 1 hour; altogether 4 hours.
_Average cost_ per quart, 1s.

[Illustration: ASPARAGUS.]

    ASPARAGUS.--The ancients called all the sprouts of young
    vegetables asparagus, whence the name, which is now limited to a
    particular species, embracing artichoke, alisander, asparagus,
    cardoon, rampion, and sea-kale. They are originally mostly wild
    seacoast plants; and, in this state, asparagus may still be
    found on the northern as well as southern shores of Britain. It
    is often vulgarly called, in London, _sparrowgrass_; and, in
    it's cultivated form, hardly bears any resemblance to the
    original plant. Immense quantities of it are raised for the
    London market, at Mortlake and Deptford; but it belongs rather
    to the classes of luxurious than necessary food. It is light and
    easily digested, but is not very nutritious.

BAKED SOUP.

115. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of any kind of meat, any trimmings or odd
pieces; 2 onions, 2 carrots, 2 oz. of rice, 1 pint of split peas, pepper
and salt to taste, 4 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Cut the meat and vegetables in slices, add to them the rice and
peas, season with pepper and salt. Put the whole in a jar, fill up with
the water, cover very closely, and bake for 4 hours.

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, 2-1/2d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_ for 10 or 12 persons.

_Note_.--This will be found a very cheap and wholesome soup, and will be
convenient in those cases where baking is more easily performed than
boiling.


BARLEY SOUP.

116. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of shin of beef, 1/4 lb. of pearl barley, a
large bunch of parsley, 4 onions, 6 potatoes, salt and pepper, 4 quarts
of water.

_Mode_.--Put in all the ingredients, and simmer gently for 3 hours.

_Time_.--3 hours. _Average cost_, 2-1/2d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but more suitable for winter.

[Illustration: BARLEY.]

    BARLEY.--This, in the order of cereal grasses, is, in Britain,
    the next plant to wheat in point of value, and exhibits several
    species and varieties. From what country it comes originally, is
    not known, but it was cultivated in the earliest ages of
    antiquity, as the Egyptians were afflicted with the loss of it
    in the ear, in the time of Moses. It was a favourite grain with
    the Athenians, but it was esteemed as an ignominious food by the
    Romans. Notwithstanding this, however, it was much used by them,
    as it was in former times by the English, and still is, in the
    Border counties, in Cornwall, and also in Wales. In other parts
    of England, it is used mostly for malting purposes. It is less
    nutritive than wheat; and in 100 parts, has of starch 79, gluten
    6, saccharine matter 7, husk 8. It is, however, a lighter and
    less stimulating food than wheat, which renders a decoction of
    it well adapted for invalids whose digestion is weak.

BREAD SOUP.

(_Economical_.)

117. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of bread crusts, 2 oz. butter, 1 quart of
common stock.

_Mode_.--Boil the bread crusts in the stock with the butter; beat the
whole with a spoon, and keep it boiling till the bread and stock are
well mixed. Season with a little salt.

_Time_.--Half an hour. _Average cost_ per quart, 4d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Note_.--This is a cheap recipe, and will be found useful where extreme
economy is an object.

[Illustration: QUERN, or GRINDING-MILL.]

    BREAD.--The origin of bread is involved in the obscurity of
    distant ages. The Greeks attributed its invention to Pan; but
    before they, themselves, had an existence, it was, no doubt, in
    use among the primitive nations of mankind. The Chaldeans and
    the Egyptians were acquainted with it, and Sarah, the companion
    of Abraham, mixed flour and water together, kneaded it, and
    covered it with ashes on the hearth. The Scriptures inform us
    that leavened bread was known to the Israelites, but it is not
    known when the art of fermenting it was discovered. It is said
    that the Romans learnt it during their wars with Perseus, king
    of Macedon, and that it was introduced to the "imperial city"
    about 200 years before the birth of Christ. With them it no
    doubt found its way into Britain; but after their departure from
    the island, it probably ceased to be used. We know that King
    Alfred allowed the unfermented cakes to burn in the neatherd's
    cottage; and that, even in the sixteenth century, unfermented
    cakes, kneaded by the women, were the only kind of bread known
    to the inhabitants of Norway and Sweden. The Italians of this
    day consume the greater portion of their flour in the form of
    _polenta_, or soft pudding, vermicelli, and macaroni; and, in
    the remoter districts of Scotland, much unfermented bread is
    still used. We give a cut of the _quern_ grinding-mill, which,
    towards the end of the last century, was in use in that country,
    and which is thus described by Dr. Johnson in his "Journey to
    the Hebrides:"--"It consists of two stones about a foot and half
    in diameter; the lower is a little convex, to which the
    concavity of the upper must be fitted. In the middle of the
    upper stone is a round hole, and on one side is a long handle.
    The grinder sheds the corn gradually into the hole with one
    hand, and works the handle round with the other. The corn slides
    down the convexity of the lower stone, and by the motion of the
    upper, is ground in its passage." Such a primitive piece of
    machinery, it may safely be said, has entirely disappeared from
    this country.--In other parts of this work, we shall have
    opportunities of speaking of bread and bread-making, which, from
    its great and general use in the nourishment of mankind, has
    emphatically been called the "staff of life." The necessity,
    therefore, of having it both pure and good is of the first
    importance.

CABBAGE SOUP.

118. INGREDIENTS.--1 large cabbage, 3 carrots, 2 onions, 4 or 5 slices
of lean bacon, salt and pepper to taste, 2 quarts of medium stock No.
105.

_Mode_.--Scald the cabbage, exit it up and drain it. Line the stewpan
with the bacon, put in the cabbage, carrots, and onions; moisten with
skimmings from the stock, and simmer very gently, till the cabbage is
tender; add the stock, stew softly for half an hour, and carefully skim
off every particle of fat. Season and serve.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

[Illustration: CABBAGE SEEDING.]

    THE CABBAGE.--It is remarkable, that although there is no
    country in the world now more plentifully supplied with fruits
    and vegetables than Great Britain, yet the greater number of
    these had no existence in it before the time of Henry VIII.
    Anderson, writing under the date of 1548, says, "The English
    cultivated scarcely any vegetables before the last two
    centuries. At the commencement of the reign, of Henry VIII.
    neither salad, nor carrots, nor cabbages, nor radishes, nor any
    other comestibles of a like nature, were grown in any part of
    the kingdom; they came from Holland and Flanders." The original
    of all the cabbage tribe is the wild plant _sea-colewort_, which
    is to be found _wasting_ whatever sweetness it may have on the
    desert air, on many of the cliffs of the south coast of England.
    In this state, it scarcely weighs more than half an ounce, yet,
    in a cultivated state, to what dimensions can it be made to
    grow! However greatly the whole of the tribe is esteemed among
    the moderns, by the ancients they were held in yet higher
    estimation. The Egyptians adored and raised altars to them, and
    the Greeks and Romans ascribed many of the most exalted virtues
    to them. Cato affirmed, that the cabbage cured all diseases, and
    declared, that it was to its use that the Romans were enabled to
    live in health and without the assistance of physicians for 600
    years. It was introduced by that people into Germany, Gaul, and,
    no doubt, Britain; although, in this last, it may have been
    suffered to pass into desuetude for some centuries. The whole
    tribe is in general wholesome and nutritive, and forms a
    valuable adjunct to animal food.

SOUP A LA CANTATRICE.

(_An Excellent Soup, very Beneficial for the Voice_.)

119. INGREDIENTS.--3 oz. of sago, 1/2 pint of cream, the yolks of 3
eggs, 1 lump of sugar, and seasoning to taste, 1 bay-leaf (if liked), 2
quarts of medium stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Having washed the sago in boiling water, let it be gradually
added to the nearly boiling stock. Simmer for 1/2 an hour, when it
should be well dissolved. Beat up the yolks of the eggs, add to them the
boiling cream; stir these quickly in the soup, and serve immediately. Do
not let the soup boil, or the eggs will curdle.

_Time_.--40 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--This is a soup, the principal ingredients of which, sago and
eggs, have always been deemed very beneficial to the chest and throat.
In various quantities, and in different preparations, these have been
partaken of by the principal singers of the day, including the
celebrated Swedish Nightingale, Jenny Lind, and, as they have always
avowed, with considerable advantage to the voice, in singing.


CARROT SOUP.

I.

120. INGREDIENTS.--4 quarts of liquor in which a leg of mutton or beef
has been boiled, a few beef-bones, 6 large carrots, 2 large onions, 1
turnip; seasoning of salt and pepper to taste; cayenne.

_Mode_.--Put the liquor, bones, onions, turnip, pepper, and salt, into a
stewpan, and simmer for 3 hours. Scrape and cut the carrots thin, strain
the soup on them, and stew them till soft enough to pulp through a hair
sieve or coarse cloth; then boil the pulp with the soup, which should be
of the consistency of pea-soup. Add cayenne. Pulp only the red part of
the carrot, and make this soup the day before it is wanted.

_Time_.--4-1/2 hours. _Average cost_ per quart, 1-1/2d.

_Seasonable_ from October to March.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.


II.

121. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of carrots, 3 oz. of butter, seasoning to
taste of salt and cayenne, 2 quarts of stock or gravy soup.

_Mode_.--Scrape and cut out all specks from the carrots, wash, and wipe
them dry, and then reduce them into quarter-inch slices. Put the butter
into a large stewpan, and when it is melted, add 2 lbs. of the sliced
carrots, and let them stew gently for an hour without browning. Add to
them the soup, and allow them to simmer till tender,--say for nearly an
hour. Press them through a strainer with the soup, and add salt and
cayenne if required. Boil the whole gently for 5 minutes, skim well, and
serve as hot as possible.

_Time_.--1-1/4 hour. _Average cost_ per quart, 1s. 1d.

[Illustration: TAZZA AND CARROT LEAVES.]

    THE CARROT.--There is a wild carrot which grows in England; but
    it is white and small, and not much esteemed. The garden carrot
    in general use, was introduced in the reign of Queen Elizabeth,
    and was, at first, so highly esteemed, that the ladies wore
    leaves of it in their head-dresses. It is of great value in the
    culinary art, especially for soups and stews. It can be used
    also for beer instead of malt, and, in distillation, it yields a
    large quantity of spirit. The carrot is proportionably valuable
    as it has more of the red than the yellow part. There is a large
    red variety much used by the farmers for colouring butter. As a
    garden vegetable, it is what is called the orange-carrot that is
    usually cultivated. As a fattening food for cattle, it is
    excellent; but for man it is indigestible, on account of its
    fibrous matter. Of 1,000 parts, 95 consist of sugar, and 3 of
    starch.--The accompanying cut represents a pretty winter
    ornament, obtained by placing a cut from the top of the
    carrot-root in a shallow vessel of water, when the young leaves
    spring forth with a charming freshness and fullness.

CELERY SOUP.

122. INGREDIENTS.--9 heads of celery, 1 teaspoonful of salt, nutmeg to
taste, 1 lump of sugar, 1/2 pint of strong stock, a pint of cream, and 2
quarts of boiling water.

_Mode_.--Cut the celery into small pieces; throw it into the water,
seasoned with the nutmeg, salt, and sugar. Boil it till sufficiently
tender; pass it through a sieve, add the stock, and simmer it for half
an hour. Now put in the cream, bring it to the boiling point, and serve
immediately.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from September to March.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

_Note_.--This soup can be made brown, instead of white, by omitting the
cream, and colouring it a little. When celery cannot be procured, half a
drachm of the seed, finely pounded, will give a flavour to the soup, if
put in a quarter of an hour before it is done. A little of the essence
of celery will answer the same purpose.

    CELERY.--This plant is indigenous to Britain, and, in its wild
    state, grows by the side of ditches and along some parts of the
    seacoast. In this state it is called _smallaqe_, and, to some
    extent, is a dangerous narcotic. By cultivation, however, it has
    been brought to the fine flavour which the garden plant
    possesses. In the vicinity of Manchester it is raised to an
    enormous size. When our natural observation is assisted by the
    accurate results ascertained by the light of science, how
    infinitely does it enhance our delight in contemplating the
    products of nature! To know, for example, that the endless
    variety of colour which we see in plants is developed only by
    the rays of the sun, is to know a truism sublime by its very
    comprehensiveness. The cause of the whiteness of celery is
    nothing more than the want of light in its vegetation, and in
    order that this effect may be produced, the plant is almost
    wholly covered with earth; the tops of the leaves alone being
    suffered to appear above the ground.

CHANTILLY SOUP.

123. INGREDIENTS.--1 quart of young green peas, a small bunch of
parsley, 2 young onions, 2 quarts of medium stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Boil the peas till quite tender, with the parsley and onions;
then rub them through a sieve, and pour the stock to them. Do not let it
boil after the peas are added, or you will spoil the colour. Serve very
hot.

_Time_.--Half an hour. _Average_ cost, 1s. 6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from June to the end of August.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--Cold peas pounded in a mortar, with a little stock added to
them, make a very good soup in haste.

    Parsley.--Among the Greeks, in the classic ages, a crown of
    parsley was awarded, both in the Nemaean and Isthmian games, and
    the voluptuous Anacreon pronounces this beautiful herb the
    emblem of joy and festivity. It has an elegant leaf, and is
    extensively used in the culinary art. When it was introduced to
    Britain is not known. There are several varieties,--the
    _plain_-leaved and the _curled_-leaved, _celery_-parsley,
    _Hamburg_ parsley, and _purslane_. The curled is the best, and,
    from the form of its leaf, has a beautiful appearance on a dish
    as a garnish. Its flavour is, to many, very agreeable in soups;
    and although to rabbits, hares, and sheep it is a luxury, to
    parrots it is a poison. The celery-parsley is used as a celery,
    and the Hamburg is cultivated only for its roots, which are used
    as parsnips or carrots, to eat with meat. The purslane is a
    native of South America, and is not now much in use.

CHESTNUT (SPANISH) SOUP.

124. INGREDIENTS.--3/4 lb. of Spanish chestnuts, 1/4 pint of cream;
seasoning to taste of salt, cayenne, and mace; 1 quart of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Take the outer rind from the chestnuts, and put them into a
large pan of warm water. As soon as this becomes too hot for the fingers
to remain in it, take out the chestnuts, peel them quickly, and immerse
them in cold water, and wipe and weigh them. Now cover them with good
stock, and stew them gently for rather more than 3/4 of an hour, or
until they break when touched with a fork; then drain, pound, and rub
them through a fine sieve reversed; add sufficient stock, mace, cayenne,
and salt, and stir it often until it boils, and put in the cream. The
stock in which the chestnuts are boiled can be used for the soup, when
its sweetness is not objected to, or it may, in part, be added to it;
and the rule is, that 3/4 lb. of chestnuts should be given to each quart
of soup.

_Time_.--rather more than 1 hour. _Average cost_ per quart, 1s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ from October to February.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

[Illustration: CHESTNUT.]

    THE CHESTNUT.--This fruit is said, by some, to have originally
    come from Sardis, in Lydia; and by others, from Castanea, a city
    of Thessaly, from which it takes its name. By the ancients it
    was much used as a food, and is still common in France and
    Italy, to which countries it is, by some, considered indigenous.
    In the southern part of the European continent, it is eaten both
    raw and roasted. The tree was introduced into Britain by the
    Romans; but it only flourishes in the warmer parts of the
    island, the fruit rarely arriving at maturity in Scotland. It
    attains a great age, as well as an immense size. As a food, it
    is the least oily and most farinaceous of all the nuts, and,
    therefore, the easiest of digestion. The tree called the _horse
    chestnut_ is very different, although its fruit very much
    resembles that of the other. Its "nuts," though eaten by horses
    and some other animals, are unsuitable for human food.

COCOA-NUT SOUP.

125. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of grated cocoa-nut, 6 oz. of rice flour, 1/2 a
teaspoonful of mace; seasoning to taste of cayenne and salt; 1/4 of a
pint of boiling cream, 3 quarts of medium stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Take the dark rind from the cocoa-nut, and grate it down small
on a clean grater; weigh it, and allow, for each quart of stock, 2 oz.
of the cocoa-nut. Simmer it gently for 1 hour in the stock, which should
then be strained closely from it, and thickened for table.

_Time_.--2-1/4 hours. _Average cost_ per quart, 1s. 3d.

_Seasonable_ in Autumn.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

[Illustration: COCOA-NUT PALM.]

[Illustration: NUT & BLOSSOM.]

    THE COCOA-NUT.--This is the fruit of one of the palms, than
    which it is questionable if there is any other species of tree
    marking, in itself, so abundantly the goodness of Providence, in
    making provision for the wants of man. It grows wild in the
    Indian seas, and in the eastern parts of Asia; and thence it has
    been introduced into every part of the tropical regions. To the
    natives of those climates, its bark supplies the material for
    creating their dwellings; its leaves, the means of roofing them;
    and the leaf-stalks, a kind of gauze for covering their windows,
    or protecting the baby in the cradle. It is also made into
    lanterns, masks to screen the face from the heat of the sun,
    baskets, wicker-work, and even a kind of paper for writing on.
    Combs, brooms, torches, ropes, matting, and sailcloth are made
    of its fibers. With these, too, beds are made and cushions
    stuffed. Oars are supplied by the leaves; drinking-cups, spoons,
    and other domestic utensils by the shells of the nuts; milk by
    its juice, of which, also, a kind of honey and sugar are
    prepared. When fermented, it furnishes the means of
    intoxication; and when the fibres are burned, their ashes supply
    an alkali for making soap. The buds of the tree bear a striking
    resemblance to cabbage when boiled; but when they are cropped,
    the tree dies. In a fresh state, the kernel is eaten raw, and
    its juice is a most agreeable and refreshing beverage. When the
    nut is imported to this country, its fruit is, in general,
    comparatively dry, and is considered indigestible. The tree is
    one of the least productive of the palm tribe.

SOUP A LA CRECY.

126. INGREDIENTS.--4 carrots, 2 sliced onions, 1 cut lettuce, and
chervil; 2 oz. butter, 1 pint of lentils, the crumbs of 2 French rolls,
half a teacupful of rice, 2 quarts of medium stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Put the vegetables with the butter in the stewpan, and let them
simmer 5 minutes; then add the lentils and 1 pint of the stock, and stew
gently for half an hour. Now fill it up with the remainder of the stock,
let it boil another hour, and put in the crumb of the rolls. When well
soaked, rub all through a tammy. Have ready the rice boiled; pour the
soup over this, and serve.

_Time_.--1-3/4 hour. _Average cost_,1s. 2d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

[Illustration: THE LENTIL.]

    THE LENTIL.--This belongs to the legumious or _pulse_ kind of
    vegetables, which rank next to the corn plants in their
    nutritive properties. The lentil is a variety of the bean tribe,
    but in England is not used as human food, although considered
    the best of all kinds for pigeons. On the Continent it is
    cultivated for soups, as well as for other preparations for the
    table; and among the presents which David received from Shobi,
    as recounted in the Scriptures, were beans, lentils, and parched
    pulse. Among the Egyptians it was extensively used, and among
    the Greeks, the Stoics had a maxim, which declared, that "a wise
    man acts always with reason, and prepares his own lentils."
    Among the Romans it was not much esteemed, and from them the
    English may have inherited a prejudice against it, on account,
    it is said, of its rendering men indolent. It takes its name
    from _lentus_ 'slow,' and, according to Pliny, produces mildness
    and moderation of temper.

CUCUMBER SOUP (French Recipe).

127. INGREDIENTS.--1 large cucumber, a piece of butter the size of a
walnut, a little chervil and sorrel cut in large pieces, salt and pepper
to taste, the yolks of 2 eggs, 1 gill of cream, 1 quart of medium stock
No. 105.

_Mode_.--Pare the cucumber, quarter it, and take out the seeds; cut it
in thin slices, put these on a plate with a little salt, to draw the
water from them; drain, and put them in your stewpan, with the butter.
When they are warmed through, without being browned, pour the stock on
them. Add the sorrel, chervil, and seasoning, and boil for 40 minutes.
Mix the well-beaten yolks of the eggs with the cream, which add at the
moment of serving.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 2d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from June to September.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

    THE CUCUMBER.--The antiquity of this fruit is very great. In the
    sacred writings we find that the people of Israel regretted it,
    whilst sojourning in the desert; and at the present time, the
    cucumber, and other fruits of its class, form a large portion of
    the food of the Egyptian people. By the Eastern nations
    generally, as well as by the Greeks and Romans, it was greatly
    esteemed. Like the melon, it was originally brought from Asia by
    the Romans, and in the 14th century it was common in England,
    although, in the time of the wars of "the Roses," it seems no
    longer to have been cultivated. It is a cold food, and of
    difficult digestion when eaten raw. As a preserved sweetmeat,
    however, it is esteemed one of the most agreeable.

EGG SOUP.

128. INGREDIENTS.--A tablespoonful of flour, 4 eggs, 2 small blades of
finely-pounded mace, 2 quarts of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Beat up the flour smoothly in a teaspoonful of cold stock, and
put in the eggs; throw them into boiling stock, stirring all the time.
Simmer for 1/4 of an hour. Season and serve with a French roll in the
tureen, or fried sippets of bread.

_Time_. 1/2 an hour. _Average cost_,11d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


SOUP A LA FLAMANDE (Flemish).

I.

129. INGREDIENTS.--1 turnip, 1 small carrot, 1/2 head of celery, 6 green
onions shred very fine, 1 lettuce cut small, chervil, 1/4 pint of
asparagus cut small, 1/4 pint of peas, 2 oz. butter, the yolks of 4
eggs, 1/2 pint of cream, salt to taste, 1 lump of sugar, 2 quarts of
stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Put the vegetables in the butter to stew gently for an hour
with a teacupful of stock; then add the remainder of the stock, and
simmer for another hour. Now beat the yolks of the eggs well, mix with
the cream (previously boiled), and strain through a hair sieve. Take the
soup off the fire, put the eggs, &c. to it, and keep stirring it well.
Bring it to a boil, but do not leave off stirring, or the eggs will
curdle. Season with salt, and add the sugar.

_Time_.--24 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 9d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from May to August.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

    CHERVIL.--Although the roots of this plant are poisonous, its
    leaves are tender, and are used in salads. In antiquity it made
    a relishing dish, when prepared with oil, wine, and gravy. It is
    a native of various parts of Europe; and the species cultivated
    in the gardens of Paris, has beautifully frizzled leaves.

II.

130. INGREDIENTS.--5 onions, 5 heads of celery, 10 moderate-sized
potatoes, 3 oz. butter, 1/2 pint of water, 1/2 pint of cream, 2 quarts
of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Slice the onions, celery, and potatoes, and put them with the
butter and water into a stewpan, and simmer for an hour. Then fill up
the stewpan with stock, and boil gently till the potatoes are done,
which will be in about an hour. Rub all through a tammy, and add the
cream (previously boiled). Do not let it boil after the cream is put in.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours. __Average cost_,1s. 4d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from September to May.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--This soup can be made with water instead of stock.


SOUP A LA JULIENNE.

[Illustration: STRIPS OF VEGETABLE.]

131. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of carrots, 1/2 pint of turnips, 1/4 pint of
onions, 2 or 3 leeks, 1/2 head of celery, 1 lettuce, a little sorrel and
chervil, if liked, 2 oz. of butter, 2 quarts of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Cut the vegetables into strips of about 1-1/4 inch long, and be
particular they are all the same size, or some will be hard whilst the
others will be done to a pulp. Cut the lettuce, sorrel, and chervil into
larger pieces; fry the carrots in the butter, and pour the stock boiling
to them. When this is done, add all the other vegetables, and herbs, and
stew gently for at least an hour. Skim off all the fat, pour the soup
over thin slices of bread, cut round about the size of a shilling, and
serve.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 3d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--In summer, green peas, asparagus-tops, French beans, &c. can be
added. When the vegetables are very strong, instead of frying them in
butter at first, they should be blanched, and afterwards simmered in the
stock.

    SORREL.--This is one of the _spinaceous_ plants, which take
    their name from spinach, which is the chief among them. It is
    little used in English cookery, but a great deal in French, in
    which it is employed for soups, sauces, and salads. In English
    meadows it is usually left to grow wild; but in France, where it
    is cultivated, its flavour is greatly improved.

KALE BROSE (a Scotch Recipe).

132. INGREDIENTS.--Half an ox-head or cow-heel, a teacupful of toasted
oatmeal, salt to taste, 2 handfuls of greens, 3 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Make a broth of the ox-head or cow-heel, and boil it till oil
floats on the top of the liquor, then boil the greens, shred, in it. Put
the oatmeal, with a little salt, into a basin, and mix with it quickly a
teacupful of the fat broth: it should not run into one doughy mass, but
form knots. Stir it into the whole, give one boil, and serve very hot.

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, 8d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but more suitable in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.


LEEK SOUP.

I.

133. INGREDIENTS.--A sheep's head, 3 quarts of water, 12 leeks cut
small, pepper and salt to taste, oatmeal to thicken.

_Mode_.--Prepare the head, either by skinning or cleaning the skin very
nicely; split it in two; take out the brains, and put it into boiling
water; add the leeks and seasoning, and simmer very gently for 4 hours.
Mix smoothly, with cold water, as much oatmeal as will make the soup
tolerably thick; pour it into the soup; continue stirring till the whole
is blended and well done, and serve.

_Time_.--4-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 4d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.


II.

COMMONLY CALLED COCK-A-LEEKIE.

134. INGREDIENTS.--A capon or large fowl (sometimes an old cock, from
which the recipe takes its name, is used), which should be trussed as
for boiling; 2 or 3 bunches of fine leeks, 5 quarts of stock No. 105,
pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Well wash the leeks (and, if old, scald them in boiling water
for a few minutes), taking off the roots and part of the heads, and cut
them into lengths of about an inch. Put the fowl into the stock, with,
at first, one half of the leeks, and allow it to simmer gently. In half
an hour add the remaining leeks, and then it may simmer for 3 or 4 hours
longer. It should be carefully skimmed, and can be seasoned to taste. In
serving, take out the fowl, and carve it neatly, placing the pieces in a
tureen, and pouring over them the soup, which should be very thick of
leeks (a _puree_ of leeks the French would call it).

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d. per quart; or, with stock No.
106, 1s.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

_Note_.--Without the fowl, the above, which would then be merely called
leek soup, is very good, and also economical. Cock-a-leekie was largely
consumed at the Burns Centenary Festival at the Crystal Palace,
Sydenham, in 1859.

[Illustration: LEEKS.]

    THE LEEK.--As in the case of the cucumber, this vegetable was
    bewailed by the Israelites in their journey through the desert.
    It is one of the alliaceous tribe, which consists of the onion,
    garlic, chive, shallot, and leek. These, as articles of food,
    are perhaps more widely diffused over the face of the earth than
    any other _genus_ of edible plants. It is the national badge of
    the Welsh, and tradition ascribes to St. David its introduction
    to that part of Britain. The origin of the wearing of the leek
    on St. David's day, among that people, is thus given in
    "BEETON'S DICTIONARY of UNIVERSAL INFORMATION:"--"It probably
    originated from the custom of _Cymhortha_, or the friendly aid,
    practised among farmers. In some districts of South Wales, all
    the neighbours of a small farmer were wont to appoint a day when
    they attended to plough his land, and the like; and, at such
    time, it was the custom for each to bring his portion of leeks
    with him for making the broth or soup." (_See_ ST. DAVID.)
    Others derive the origin of the custom from the battle of
    Cressy. The plant, when grown in Wales and Scotland, is sharper
    than it is in England, and its flavour is preferred by many to
    that of the onion in broth. It is very wholesome, and, to
    prevent its tainting the breath, should be well boiled.

MACARONI SOUP.

135. INGREDIENTS.--3 oz. of macaroni, a piece of butter the size of a
walnut, salt to taste, 2 quarts of clear stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Throw the macaroni and butter into boiling water, with a pinch
of salt, and simmer for 1/2 an hour. When it is tender, drain and cut it
into thin rings or lengths, and drop it into the boiling stock. Stew
gently for 15 minutes, and serve grated Parmesan cheese with it.

_Time_.--3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

[Illustration: MACARONI.]

    MACARONI.--This is the favourite food of Italy, where,
    especially among the Neapolitans, it may be regarded as the
    staff of life. "The crowd of London," says Mr. Forsyth, "is a
    double line in quick motion; it is the crowd of business. The
    crowd of Naples consists in a general tide rolling up and down,
    and in the middle of this tide, a hundred eddies of men. You are
    stopped by a carpenter's bench, you are lost among shoemakers'
    stalls, and you dash among the _pots of a macaroni stall_." This
    article of food is nothing more than a thick paste, made of the
    best wheaten flour, with a small quantity of water. When it has
    been well worked, it is put into a hollow cylindrical vessel,
    pierced with holes of the size of tobacco-pipes at the bottom.
    Through these holes the mass is forced by a powerful screw
    bearing on a piece of wood made exactly to fit the inside of the
    cylinder. Whilst issuing from the holes, it is partially baked
    by a fire placed below the cylinder, and is, at the same time,
    drawn away and hung over rods placed about the room, in order to
    dry. In a few days it is fit for use. As it is both wholesome
    and nutritious, it ought to be much more used by all classes in
    England than it is. It generally accompanies Parmesan cheese to
    the tables of the rich, but is also used for thickening soups
    and making puddings.

SOUP MAIGRE (i.e. without Meat).

136. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. butter, 6 onions sliced, 4 heads of celery, 2
lettuces, a small bunch of parsley, 2 handfuls of spinach, 3 pieces of
bread-crust, 2 blades of mace, salt and pepper to taste, the yolks of 2
eggs, 3 teaspoonfuls of vinegar, 2 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Melt the butter in a stewpan, and put in the onions to stew
gently for 3 or 4 minutes; then add the celery, spinach, lettuces, and
parsley, cut small. Stir the ingredients well for 10 minutes. Now put in
the water, bread, seasoning, and mace. Boil gently for 1-1/2 hour, and,
at the moment of serving, beat in the yolks of the eggs and the vinegar,
but do not let it boil, or the eggs will curdle.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

[Illustration: LETTUCE.]

    THE LETTUCE.--This is one of the acetarious vegetables, which
    comprise a large class, chiefly used as pickles, salads, and
    other condiments. The lettuce has in all antiquity been
    distinguished as a kitchen-garden plant. It was, without
    preparation, eaten by the Hebrews with the Paschal lamb; the
    Greeks delighted in it, and the Romans, in the time of Domitian,
    had it prepared with eggs, and served in the first course at
    their tables, merely to excite their appetites. Its botanical
    name is _Lactuca_, so called from the milky juice it exudes when
    its stalks are cut. It possesses a narcotic virtue, noticed by
    ancient physicians; and even in our day a lettuce supper is
    deemed conducive to repose. Its proper character, however, is
    that of a cooling summer vegetable, not very nutritive, but
    serving as a corrective, or diluent of animal food.

MILK SOUP (a Nice Dish for Children).

137. INGREDIENTS.--2 quarts of milk, 1 saltspoonful of salt, 1
teaspoonful of powdered cinnamon, 3 teaspoonfuls of pounded sugar, or
more if liked, 4 thin slices of bread, the yolks of 6 eggs.

_Mode_.--Boil the milk with the salt, cinnamon, and sugar; lay the bread
in a deep dish, pour over it a little of the milk, and keep it hot over
a stove, without burning. Beat up the yolks of the eggs, add them to the
milk, and stir it over the fire till it thickens. Do not let it curdle.
Pour it upon the bread, and serve.

_Time_.--3/4 of an hour. _Average cost_, 8d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 10 children.


ONION SOUP.

138. INGREDIENTS.--6 large onions, 2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to
taste, 1/4 pint of cream, 1 quart of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Chop the onions, put them in the butter, stir them
occasionally, but do not let them brown. When tender, put the stock to
them, and season; strain the soup, and add the boiling cream.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.


CHEAP ONION SOUP.

139. INGREDIENTS.--8 middling-sized onions, 3 oz. of butter, a
tablespoonful of rice-flour, salt and pepper to taste, 1 teaspoonful of
powdered sugar, thickening of butter and flour, 2 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Cut the onions small, put them in the stewpan with the butter,
and fry them well; mix the rice-flour smoothly with the water, add the
onions, seasoning, and sugar, and simmer till tender. Thicken with
butter and flour, and serve.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_,4d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

[Illustration: ONION.]

    THE ONION.--Like the cabbage, this plant was erected into an
    object of worship by the idolatrous Egyptians 2,000 years before
    the Christian era, and it still forms a favourite food in the
    country of these people, as well as in other parts of Africa.
    When it was first introduced to England, has not been
    ascertained; but it has long been in use, and esteemed as a
    favourite seasoning plant to various dishes. In warmer climates
    it is much milder in its flavour; and such as are grown in Spain
    and Portugal, are, comparatively speaking, very large, and are
    often eaten both in a boiled and roasted state. The Strasburg is
    the most esteemed; and, although all the species have highly
    nutritive properties, they impart such a disagreeable odour to
    the breath, that they are often rejected even where they are
    liked. Chewing a little raw parsley is said to remove this
    odour.

PAN KAIL.

140. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of cabbage, or Savoy greens; 1/4 lb. of butter
or dripping, salt and pepper to taste, oatmeal for thickening, 2 quarts
of water.

_Mode_.--Chop the cabbage very fine, thicken the water with oatmeal, put
in the cabbage and butter, or dripping; season and simmer for 1-1/2
hour. It can be made sooner by blanching and mashing the greens, adding
any good liquor that a joint has been boiled in, and then further
thicken with bread or pounded biscuit.

_Time_--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1-1/2d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but more suitable in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

    THE SAVOY.--This is a close-hearted wrinkle-leaved cabbage,
    sweet and tender, especially the middle leaves, and in season
    from November to spring. The yellow species bears hard weather
    without injury, whilst the _dwarf_ kind are improved and
    rendered more tender by frost.

PARSNIP SOUP.

141. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of sliced parsnips, 2 oz. of butter, salt and
cayenne to taste, 1 quart of stock No. 106.

_Mode_.--Put the parsnips into the stewpan with the butter, which has
been previously melted, and simmer them till quite tender. Then add
nearly a pint of stock, and boil together for half an hour. Pass all
through a fine strainer, and put to it the remainder of the stock.
Season, boil, and serve immediately.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from October to April.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

    THE PARSNIP.--This is a biennial plant, with a root like a
    carrot, which, in nutritive and saccharine matter, it nearly
    equals. It is a native of Britain, and, in its wild state, may
    be found, in many parts, growing by the road-sides. It is also
    to be found, generally distributed over Europe; and, in Catholic
    countries, is mostly used with salt fish, in Lent. In Scotland
    it forms an excellent dish, when beat up with butter and
    potatoes; it is, also, excellent when fried. In Ireland it is
    found to yield, in conjunction with the hop, a pleasant
    beverage; and it contains as much spirit as the carrot, and
    makes an excellent wine. Its proportion of nutritive matter is
    99 parts in 1,000; 9 being mucilage and 90 sugar.

PEA SOUP (GREEN).

142. INGREDIENTS.--3 pints of green peas, 1/4 lb. of butter, 2 or three
thin slices of ham, 6 onions sliced, 4 shredded lettuces, the crumb of 2
French rolls, 2 handfuls of spinach, 1 lump of sugar, 2 quarts of common
stock.

_Mode_.--Put the butter, ham, 1 quart of the peas, onions, and lettuces,
to a pint of stock, and simmer for an hour; then add the remainder of
the stock, with the crumb of the French rolls, and boil for another
hour. Now boil the spinach, and squeeze it very dry. Rub the soup
through a sieve, and the spinach with it, to colour it. Have ready a
pint of _young_ peas boiled; add them to the soup, put in the sugar,
give one boil, and serve. If necessary, add salt.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 9d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from June to the end of August.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

_Note_.--It will be well to add, if the peas are not quite young, a
little sugar. Where economy is essential, water may be used instead of
stock for this soup, boiling in it likewise the pea-shells; but use a
double quantity of vegetables.


WINTER PEA SOUP (YELLOW).

143. INGREDIENTS.--1 quart of split peas, 2 lbs. of shin of beef,
trimmings of meat or poultry, a slice of bacon, 2 large carrots, 2
turnips, 5 large onions, 1 head of celery, seasoning to taste, 2 quarts
of soft water, any bones left from roast meat, 2 quarts of common stock,
or liquor in which a joint of meat has been boiled.

_Mode_.--Put the peas to soak over-night in soft water, and float off
such as rise to the top. Boil them in the water till tender enough to
pulp; then add the ingredients mentioned above, and simmer for 2 hours,
stirring it occasionally. Pass the whole through a sieve, skim well,
season, and serve with toasted bread cut in dice.

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, 6d. per quart. _Seasonable_ all the
year round, but more suitable for cold weather. _Sufficient_ for 12
persons.

[Illustration: PEA.]

    THE PEA.--It is supposed that the common gray pea, found wild in
    Greece, and other parts of the Levant, is the original of the
    common garden pea, and of all the domestic varieties belonging
    to it. The gray, or field pea, called _bisallie_ by the French,
    is less subject to run into varieties than the garden kinds, and
    is considered by some, perhaps on that account, to be the wild
    plant, retaining still a large proportion of its original habit.
    From the tendency of all other varieties "to run away" and
    become different to what they originally were, it is very
    difficult to determine the races to which they belong. The pea
    was well known to the Romans, and, probably, was introduced to
    Britain at an early period; for we find peas mentioned by
    Lydgate, a poet of the 15th century, as being hawked in London.
    They seem, however, for a considerable time, to have fallen out
    of use; for, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Fuller tells us
    they were brought from Holland, and were accounted "fit dainties
    for ladies, they came so far and cost so dear." There are some
    varieties of peas which have no lining in their pods, which are
    eaten cooked in the same way as kidney-beans. They are called
    _sugar_ peas, and the best variety is the large crooked sugar,
    which is also very good, used in the common way, as a culinary
    vegetable. There is also a white sort, which readily splits when
    subjected to the action of millstones set wide apart, so as not
    to grind them. These are used largely for soups, and especially
    for sea-stores. From the quantity of farinaceous and saccharine
    matter contained in the pea, it is highly nutritious as an
    article of food.

PEA SOUP (inexpensive).

144. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of onions, 1/4 lb. of carrots, 2 oz. of
celery, 3/4 lb. of split peas, a little mint, shred fine; 1
tablespoonful of coarse brown sugar, salt and pepper to taste, 4 quarts
of water, or liquor in which a joint of meat has been boiled.

_Mode_.--Fry the vegetables for 10 minutes in a little butter or
dripping, previously cutting them up in small pieces; pour the water on
them, and when boiling add the peas. Let them simmer for nearly 3 hours,
or until the peas are thoroughly done. Add the sugar, seasoning, and
mint; boil for 1/4 of an hour, and serve.

_Time_.--3-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 1-1/2d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 12 persons.


POTATO SOUP.

I.

145. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of mealy potatoes, boiled or steamed very dry,
pepper and salt to taste, 2 quarts of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--When the potatoes are boiled, mash them smoothly, that no lumps
remain, and gradually put them to the boiling stock; pass it through a
sieve, season, and simmer for 5 minutes. Skim well, and serve with fried
bread.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 10d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from September to March.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


II.

146. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of shin of beef, 1 lb. of potatoes, 1 onion,
1/2 a pint of peas, 2 oz. of rice, 2 heads of celery, pepper and salt to
taste, 3 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Cut the beef into thin slices, chop the potatoes and onion, and
put them in a stewpan with the water, peas, and rice. Stew gently till
the gravy is drawn from the meat; strain it off, take out the beef, and
pulp the other ingredients through a coarse sieve. Put the pulp back in
the soup, cut up the celery in it, and simmer till this is tender.
Season, and serve with fried bread cut into it.

_Time_.--3 hours. _Average cost_, 4d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from September to March.

_Sufficient_ for 12 persons.


III.

(_Very Economical_.)

147. INGREDIENTS.--4 middle-sized potatoes well pared, a thick slice of
bread, 6 leeks peeled and cut into thin slices as far as the white
extends upwards from the roots, a teacupful of rice, a teaspoonful of
salt, and half that of pepper, and 2 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--The water must be completely boiling before anything is put
into it; then add the whole of the ingredients at once, with the
exception of the rice, the salt, and the pepper. Cover, and let these
come to a brisk boil; put in the others, and let the whole boil slowly
for an hour, or till all the ingredients are thoroughly done, and their
several juices extracted and mixed.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 3d. per quart.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

[Illustration: POTATOES.]

    THE POTATO.--Humboldt doubted whether this root was a native of
    South America; but it has been found growing wild both in Chili
    and Buenos Ayres. It was first brought to Spain from the
    neighbourhood of Quito, in the early part of the sixteenth
    century, first to England from Virginia, in 1586, and first
    planted by Sir Walter Raleigh, on his estate of Youghal, near
    Cork, in Ireland. Thence it was brought and planted in
    Lancashire, in England, and was, at first, recommended to be
    eaten as a delicate dish, and not as common food. This was in
    1587. _Nutritious Properties_.--Of a thousand parts of the
    potato, Sir H. Davy found about a fourth nutritive; say, 200
    mucilage or starch, 20 sugar, and 30 gluten.

PRINCE OF WALES'S SOUP.

148. INGREDIENTS.--12 turnips, 1 lump of sugar, 2 spoonfuls of strong
veal stock, salt and white pepper to taste, 2 quarts of very bright
stock, No. 105.

_Mode_.--Peel the turnips, and with a cutter cut them in balls as round
as possible, but very small. Put them in the stock, which must be very
bright, and simmer till tender. Add the veal stock and seasoning. Have
little pieces of bread cut round, about the size of a shilling; moisten
them with stock; put them into a tureen and pour the soup over without
shaking, for fear of crumbling the bread, which would spoil the
appearance of the soup, and make it look thick.

_Time_.--2 hours.

_Seasonable_ in the winter.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

    THE PRINCE Of WALES.--This soup was invented by a philanthropic
    friend of the Editress, to be distributed among the poor of a
    considerable village, when the Prince of Wales attained his
    majority, on the 9th November, 1859. Accompanying this fact, the
    following notice, which appears in "BEETON'S DICTIONARY OF
    UNIVERSAL INFORMATION" may appropriately be introduced,
    premising that British princes attain their majority in their
    18th year, whilst mortals of ordinary rank do not arrive at that
    period till their 21st.--"ALBERT EDWARD, Prince of Wales, and
    heir to the British throne, merits a place in this work on
    account of the high responsibilities which he is, in all
    probability, destined to fulfil as sovereign of the British
    empire. On the 10th of November, 1858, he was gazetted as having
    been invested with the rank of a colonel in the army. Speaking
    of this circumstance, the _Times_ said,--'The significance of
    this event is, that it marks the period when the heir to the
    British throne is about to take rank among men, and to enter
    formally upon a career, which every loyal subject of the queen
    will pray may be a long and a happy one, for his own sake and
    for the sake of the vast empire which, in the course of nature,
    he will one day be called to govern. The best wish that we can
    offer for the young prince is, that in his own path he may ever
    keep before him the bright example of his royal mother, and show
    himself worthy of her name.' There are few in these realms who
    will not give a fervent response to these sentiments. B.
    November 9th, 1841."

POTAGE PRINTANIER, OR SPRING SOUP.

149. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 a pint of green peas, if in season, a little
chervil, 2 shredded lettuces, 2 onions, a very small bunch of parsley, 2
oz. of butter, the yolks of 3 eggs, 1 pint of water, seasoning to taste,
2 quarts of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Put in a very clean stewpan the chervil, lettuces, onions,
parsley, and butter, to 1 pint of water, and let them simmer till
tender. Season with salt and pepper; when done, strain off the
vegetables, and put two-thirds of the liquor they were boiled in to the
stock. Beat up the yolks of the eggs with the other third, give it a
toss over the fire, and at the moment of serving, add this, with the
vegetables which you strained off, to the soup.

_Time_.--3/4 of an hour. _Average cost_, 1s. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from May to October.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


RICE SOUP.

I.

150. INGREDIENTS.--4 oz. of Patna rice, salt, cayenne, and mace, 2
quarts of white stock.

_Mode_.--Throw the rice into boiling water, and let it remain 5 minutes;
then pour it into a sieve, and allow it to drain well. Now add it to the
stock boiling, and allow it to stew till it is quite tender; season to
taste. Serve quickly.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 3d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

[Illustration: EARS OF RICE.]

    RICE.--This is a plant of Indian origin, and has formed the
    principal food of the Indian and Chinese people from the most
    remote antiquity. Both Pliny and Dioscorides class it with the
    cereals, though Galen places it among the vegetables. Be this as
    it may, however, it was imported to Greece, from India, about
    286 years before Christ, and by the ancients it was esteemed
    both nutritious and fattening. There are three kinds of
    rice,--the Hill rice, the Patna, and the Carolina, of the United
    States. Of these, only the two latter are imported to this
    country, and the Carolina is considered the best, as it is the
    dearest. The nourishing properties of rice are greatly inferior
    to those of wheat; but it is both a light and a wholesome food.
    In combination with other foods, its nutritive qualities are
    greatly increased; but from its having little stimulating power,
    it is apt, when taken in large quantities alone, to lie long on
    the stomach.

II.

151. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of rice, the yolks of 4 eggs, 1/2 a pint of
cream, rather more than 2 quarts of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Boil the rice in the stock, and rub half of it through a tammy;
put the stock in the stewpan, add all the rice, and simmer gently for 5
minutes. Beat the yolks of the eggs, mix them with the cream (previously
boiled), and strain through a hair sieve; take the soup off the fire,
add the eggs and cream, stirring frequently. Heat it gradually, stirring
all the time; but do not let it boil, or the eggs will curdle.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 4d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


SAGO SOUP.

152. INGREDIENTS.--5 oz. of sago, 2 quarts of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Wash the sago in boiling water, and add it, by degrees, to the
boiling stock, and simmer till the sago is entirely dissolved, and forms
a sort of jelly.

_Time_.--Nearly an hour. _Average cost_, 10d. per quart.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Note_.--The yolks of 2 eggs, beaten up with a little cream, previously
boiled, and added at the moment of serving, much improves this soup.

[Illustration: SAGO PALM.]

    SAGO.--The farinaceous food of this name constitutes the pith of
    the SAGO tree (the _Sagus farinifera_ of Linnaeus), which grows
    spontaneously in the East Indies and in the archipelago of the
    Indian Ocean. There it forms the principal farinaceous diet of
    the inhabitants. In order to procure it, the tree is felled and
    sawn in pieces. The pith is then taken out, and put in
    receptacles of cold water, where it is stirred until the flour
    separates from the filaments, and sinks to the bottom, where it
    is suffered to remain until the water is poured off, when it is
    taken out and spread on wicker frames to dry. To give it the
    round granular form in which we find it come to this country, it
    is passed through a colander, then rubbed into little balls, and
    dried. The tree is not fit for felling until it has attained a
    growth of seven years, when a single trunk will yield 600 lbs.
    weight; and, as an acre of ground will grow 430 of these trees,
    a large return of flour is the result. The best quality has a
    slightly reddish hue, and easily dissolves to a jelly, in hot
    water. As a restorative diet, it is much used.

SEMOLINA SOUP.

153. INGREDIENTS.--5 oz. of semolina, 2 quarts of boiling stock, No.
105, or 106.

_Mode_.--Drop the semolina into the boiling stock, and keep stirring, to
prevent its burning. Simmer gently for half an hour, and serve.

_Time_.--1/2 an hour. _Average cost_, 10d. per quart, or 4d.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

    SEMOLINA.--This is the heart of the _grano duro_ wheat of Italy,
    which is imported for the purpose of making the best vermicelli.
    It has a coarse appearance, and may be purchased at the Italian
    warehouses. It is also called _soojee;_ and _semoletta_ is
    another name for a finer sort.

SOUP A LA SOLFERINO (Sardinian Recipe).

154. INGREDIENTS.--4 eggs, 1/2 pint of cream, 2 oz. of fresh butter,
salt and pepper to taste, a little flour to thicken, 2 quarts of
bouillon, No. 105.

_Mode_.--Beat the eggs, put them into a stewpan, and add the cream,
butter, and seasoning; stir in as much flour as will bring it to the
consistency of dough; make it into balls, either round or egg-shaped,
and fry them in butter; put them in the tureen, and pour the boiling
bouillon over them.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 3d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--This recipe was communicated to the Editress by an English
gentleman, who was present at the battle of Solferino, on June 24, 1859,
and who was requested by some of Victor Emmanuel's troops, on the day
before the battle, to partake of a portion of their _potage_. He
willingly enough consented, and found that these clever campaigners had
made a most palatable dish from very easily-procured materials. In
sending the recipe for insertion in this work, he has, however,
Anglicised, and somewhat, he thinks, improved it.


SPINACH SOUP (French Recipe).

155. INGREDIENTS.--As much spinach as, when boiled, will half fill a
vegetable-dish, 2 quarts of very clear medium stock, No. 105.

_Mode_.--Make the cooked spinach into balls the size of an egg, and slip
them into the soup-tureen. This is a very elegant soup, the green of the
spinach forming a pretty contrast to the brown gravy.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_,1s. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from October to June.

[Illustration: SPINACH.]

    SPINACH.--This plant was unknown by the ancients, although it
    was cultivated in the monastic gardens of the continent in the
    middle of the 14th century. Some say, that it was originally
    brought from Spain; but there is a wild species growing in
    England, and cultivated in Lincolnshire, in preference to the
    other. There are three varieties in use; the round-leaved, the
    triangular-leaved, and Flanders spinach, known by its large
    leaves. They all form a useful ingredient in soup; but the
    leaves are sometimes boiled alone, mashed, and eaten as greens.

TAPIOCA SOUP.

156. INGREDIENTS.--5 oz. of tapioca, 2 quarts of stock No. 105 or 106.

_Mode_.--Put the tapioca into cold stock, and bring it gradually to a
boil. Simmer gently till tender, and serve.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1 hour. Average cost. 1s. or 6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

    TAPIOCA.--This excellent farinaceous food is the produce of the
    pith of the cassava-tree, and is made in the East Indies, and
    also in Brazil. It is, by washing, procured as a starch from the
    tree, then dried, either in the sun or on plates of hot iron,
    and afterwards broken into grains, in which form it is imported
    into this country. Its nutritive properties are large, and as a
    food for persons of delicate digestion, or for children, it is
    in great estimation. "No amylaceous substance," says Dr.
    Christison, "is so much relished by infants about the time of
    weaning; and in them it is less apt to become sour during
    digestion than any other farinaceous food, even arrowroot not
    excepted."

TURNIP SOUP.

157. INGREDIENTS.--3 oz. of butter, 9 good-sized turnips, 4 onions, 2
quarts of stock No. 106, seasoning to taste.

_Mode_.--Melt the butter in the stewpan, but do not let it boil; wash,
drain, and slice the turnips and onions very thin; put them in the
butter, with a teacupful of stock, and stew very gently for an hour.
Then add the remainder of the stock, and simmer another hour. Rub it
through a tammy, put it back into the stewpan, but do not let it boil.
Serve very hot.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 8d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from October to March.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--By adding a little cream, this soup will be much improved.

[Illustration: TURNIP.]

    THE TURNIP.--Although turnips grow wild in England, they are not
    the original of the cultivated vegetable made use of in this
    country. In ancient times they were grown for cattle by the
    Romans, and in Germany and the Low Countries they have from time
    immemorial been raised for the same purpose. In their cultivated
    state, they are generally supposed to have been introduced to
    England from Hanover, in the time of George I.; but this has
    been doubted, as George II. caused a description of the Norfolk
    system to be sent to his Hanoverian subjects, for their
    enlightenment in the art of turnip culture. As a culinary
    vegetable, it is excellent, whether eaten alone, mashed, or
    mixed with soups und stews. Its nutritious matter, however, is
    small, being only 42 parts in 1,000.

VEGETABLE-MARROW SOUP.

158. INGREDIENTS.--4 young vegetable marrows, or more, if very small,
1/2 pint of cream, salt and white pepper to taste, 2 quarts of white
stock, No. 107.

_Mode_.--Pare and slice the marrows, and put them in the stock boiling.
When done almost to a mash, press them through a sieve, and at the
moment of serving, add the boiling cream and seasoning.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 2d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in summer.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

[Illustration: VEGETABLE MARROW.]

    THE VEGETABLE MARROW.--This is a variety of the gourd family,
    brought from Persia by an East-India ship, and only recently
    introduced to Britain. It is already cultivated to a
    considerable extent, and, by many, is highly esteemed when fried
    with butter. It is, however, dressed in different ways, either
    by stewing or boiling, and, besides, made into pies.

VEGETABLE SOUP.

I.

159. INGREDIENTS.--7 oz. of carrot, 10 oz. of parsnip, 10 oz. of potato,
cut into thin slices; 1-1/4 oz. of butter, 5 teaspoonfuls of flour, a
teaspoonful of made mustard, salt and pepper to taste, the yolks of 2
eggs, rather more than 2 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Boil the vegetables in the water 2-1/2 hours; stir them often,
and if the water boils away too quickly, add more, as there should be 2
quarts of soup when done. Mix up in a basin the butter and flour,
mustard, salt, and pepper, with a teacupful of cold water; stir in the
soup, and boil 10 minutes. Have ready the yolks of the eggs in the
tureen; pour on, stir well, and serve.

_Time_.--3 hours. _Average cost_, 4d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


II.

160. INGREDIENTS.--Equal quantities of onions, carrots, turnips; 1/4 lb.
of butter, a crust of toasted bread, 1 head of celery, a faggot of
herbs, salt and pepper to taste, 1 teaspoonful of powdered sugar, 2
quarts of common stock or boiling water. Allow 3/4 lb. of vegetables to
2 quarts of stock, No. 105.

_Mode_.--Cut up the onions, carrots, and turnips; wash and drain them
well, and put them in the stewpan with the butter and powdered sugar.
Toss the whole over a sharp fire for 10 minutes, but do not let them
brown, or you will spoil the flavour of the soup. When done, pour the
stock or boiling water on them; add the bread, celery, herbs, and
seasoning; stew for 3 hours; skim well and strain it off. When ready to
serve, add a little sliced carrot, celery, and turnip, and flavour with
a spoonful of Harvey's sauce, or a little ketchup.

_Time_.--3-1/2 hours. _Average cost_,6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year. _Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


III.

(_Good and Cheap, made without Meat_.)

161. INGREDIENTS.--6 potatoes, 4 turnips, or 2 if very large; 2 carrots,
2 onions; if obtainable, 2 mushrooms; 1 head of celery, 1 large slice of
bread, 1 small saltspoonful of salt, 1/4 saltspoonful of ground black
pepper, 2 teaspoonfuls of Harvey's sauce, 6 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Peel the vegetables, and cut them up into small pieces; toast
the bread rather brown, and put all into a stewpan with the water and
seasoning. Simmer gently for 3 hours, or until all is reduced to a pulp,
and pass it through a sieve in the same way as pea-soup, which it should
resemble in consistence; but it should be a dark brown colour. Warm it
up again when required; put in the Harvey's sauce, and, if necessary,
add to the flavouring.

_Time_.--3 hours, or rather more. _Average cost_,1d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ at any time. _Sufficient_ for 16 persons.

_Note_.--This recipe was forwarded to the Editress by a lady in the
county of Durham, by whom it was strongly recommended.


VERMICELLI SOUP.

I.

162. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 lb. of bacon, stuck with cloves; 1/2 oz. of
butter, worked up in flour; 1 small fowl, trussed for boiling; 2 oz. of
vermicelli, 2 quarts of white stock, No. 107.

_Mode_.--Put the stock, bacon, butter, and fowl into the stewpan, and
stew for 3/4 of an hour. Take the vermicelli, add it to a little of the
stock, and set it on the fire, till it is quite tender. When the soup is
ready, take out the fowl and bacon, and put the bacon on a dish. Skim
the soup as clean as possible; pour it, with the vermicelli, over the
fowl. Cut some bread thin, put in the soup, and serve.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, exclusive of the fowl and bacon, 10d.
per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

[Illustration: VERMICELLI.]

    VERMICELLI.--This is a preparation of Italian origin, and is
    made in the same way as macaroni, only the yolks of eggs, sugar,
    saffron, and cheese, are added to the paste.

II.

163. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of vermicelli, 2 quarts of clear gravy stock,
No. 169.

_Mode_.--Put the vermicelli in the soup, boiling; simmer very gently for
1/2 an hour, and stir frequently.

_Time_--1/2 an hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 3d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


WHITE SOUP.

164. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of sweet almonds, 1/4 lb. of cold veal or
poultry, a thick slice of stale bread, a piece of fresh lemon-peel, 1
blade of mace, pounded, 3/4 pint of cream, the yolks of 2 hard-boiled
eggs, 2 quarts of white stock, No. 107.

_Mode_.--Reduce the almonds in a mortar to a paste, with a spoonful of
water, and add to them the meat, which should be previously pounded with
the bread. Beat all together, and add the lemon-peel, very finely
chopped, and the mace. Pour the boiling stock on the whole, and simmer
for an hour. Rub the eggs in the cream, put in the soup, bring it to a
boil, and serve immediately.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--A more economical white soup may be made by using common veal
stock, and thickening with rice, flour, and milk. Vermicelli should be
served with it.

_Average cost_, 5d. per quart.


USEFUL SOUP FOR BENEVOLENT PURPOSES.

165. INGREDIENTS.--An ox-cheek, any pieces of trimmings of beef, which
may be bought very cheaply (say 4 lbs.), a few bones, any pot-liquor the
larder may furnish, 1/4 peck of onions, 6 leeks, a large bunch of herbs,
1/2 lb. of celery (the outside pieces, or green tops, do very well); 1/2
lb. of carrots, 1/2 lb. of turnips, 1/2 lb. of coarse brown sugar, 1/2 a
pint of beer, 4 lbs. of common rice, or pearl barley; 1/2 lb. of salt, 1
oz. of black pepper, a few raspings, 10 gallons of water.

_Mode_.--Cut up the meat in small pieces, break the bones, put them in a
copper, with the 10 gallons of water, and stew for 1/2 an hour. Cut up
the vegetables, put them in with the sugar and beer, and boil for 4
hours. Two hours before the soup is wanted, add the rice and raspings,
and keep stirring till it is well mixed in the soup, which simmer
gently. If the liquor reduces too much, fill up with water.

_Time_.--6-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 1-1/2d. per quart.

_Note_.--The above recipe was used in the winter of 1858 by the
Editress, who made, each week, in her copper, 8 or 9 gallons of this
soup, for distribution amongst about a dozen families of the village
near which she lives. The cost, as will be seen, was not great; but she
has reason to believe that the soup was very much liked, and gave to the
members of those families, a dish of warm, comforting food, in place of
the cold meat and piece of bread which form, with too many cottagers,
their usual meal, when, with a little more knowledge of the "cooking."
art, they might have, for less expense, a warm dish, every day.


MEAT, POULTRY, AND GAME SOUPS.


BRILLA SOUP.

166. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of shin of beef, 3 carrots, 2 turnips, a large
sprig of thyme, 2 onions, 1 head of celery, salt and pepper to taste, 4
quarts water.

_Mode_.--Take the beef, cut off all the meat from the bone, in nice
square pieces, and boil the bone for 4 hours. Strain the liquor, let it
cool, and take off the fat; then put the pieces of meat in the cold
liquor; cut small the carrots, turnips, and celery; chop the onions, add
them with the thyme and seasoning, and simmer till the meat is tender.
If not brown enough, colour it with browning.

_Time_.--6 hours. _Average cost_, 5d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

    THYME.--This sweet herb was known to the Romans, who made use of
    it in culinary preparations, as well as in aromatic liqueurs.
    There are two species of it growing wild in Britain, but the
    garden thyme is a native of the south of Europe, and is more
    delicate in its perfume than the others. Its young leaves give
    an agreeable flavour to soups and sauces; they are also used in
    stuffings.

CALF'S-HEAD SOUP.

167. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 a calf's head, 1 onion stuck with cloves, a very
small bunch of sweet herbs, 2 blades of mace, salt and white pepper to
taste, 6 oz. of rice-flour, 3 tablespoonfuls of ketchup, 3 quarts of
white stock, No. 107, or pot-liquor, or water.

_Mode_.--Rub the head with salt, soak it for 6 hours, and clean it
thoroughly; put it in the stewpan, and cover it with the stock, or
pot-liquor, or water, adding the onion and sweet herbs. When well
skimmed and boiled for 1-1/2 hour, take out the head, and skim and
strain the soup. Mix the rice-flour with the ketchup, thicken the soup
with it, and simmer for 5 minutes. Now cut up the head into pieces about
two inches long, and simmer them in the soup till the meat and fat are
quite tender. Season with white pepper and mace finely pounded, and
serve very hot. When the calf's head is taken out of the soup, cover it
up, or it will discolour.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours. _Average cost_,1s. 9d. per quart, with stock No.
107.

_Seasonable_ from May to October.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

_Note_.--Force-meat balls can be added, and the soup may be flavoured
with a little lemon-juice, or a glass of sherry or Madeira. The bones
from the head may be stewed down again, with a few fresh vegetables, and
it will make a very good common stock.


GIBLET SOUP.

168. INGREDIENTS.--3 sets of goose or duck giblets, 2 lbs. of shin of
beef, a few bones, 1 ox-tail, 2 mutton-shanks, 2 large onions, 2
carrots, 1 large faggot of herbs, salt and pepper to taste, 1/4 pint of
cream, 1 oz. of butter mixed with a dessert-spoonful of flour, 3 quarts
of water.

_Mode_.--Scald the giblets, cut the gizzards in 8 pieces, and put them
in a stewpan with the beef, bones, ox-tail, mutton-shanks, onions,
herbs, pepper, and salt; add the 3 quarts of water, and simmer till the
giblets are tender, taking care to skim well. When the giblets are done,
take them out, put them in your tureen, strain the soup through a sieve,
add the cream and butter, mixed with a dessert-spoonful of flour, boil
it up a few minutes, and pour it over the giblets. It can be flavoured
with port wine and a little mushroom ketchup, instead of cream. Add salt
to taste.

_Time_.--3 hours. _Average cost_,9d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.


GRAVY SOUP.

169. INGREDIENTS.--6 lbs. of shin of beef, a knuckle of veal weighing 5
lbs., a few pieces or trimmings, 2 slices of nicely-flavoured lean, ham;
1/4 lb. of butter, 2 onions, 2 carrots, 1 turnip, nearly a head of
celery, 1 blade of mace, 6 cloves, a hunch of savoury herb with endive,
seasoning of salt and pepper to taste, 3 lumps of sugar, 5 quarts of
boiling soft water. It can be flavoured with ketchup, Leamington sauce
(_see_ SAUCES), Harvey's sauce, and a little soy.

_Mode_.--Slightly brown the meat and ham in the butter, but do not let
them burn. When this is done, pour to it the water, and as the scum
rises, take it off; when no more appears, add all the other ingredients,
and let the soup simmer slowly by the fire for 6 hours without stirring
it any more from the bottom; take it off, and let it settle; skim off
all the fat you can, and pass it through a tammy. When perfectly cold,
you can remove all the fat, and leave the sediment untouched, which
serves very nicely for thick gravies, hashes, &c.

_Time_.--7 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 14 persons.

    ENDIVE.--This plant belongs to the acetarious tribe of
    vegetables, and is supposed to have originally come from China
    and Japan. It was known to the ancients; but was not introduced
    to England till about the middle of the 16th century. It is
    consumed in large quantities by the French, and in London,--in
    the neighbourhood of which it is grown in abundance;--it is
    greatly used as a winter salad, as well as in soups and stews.

HARE SOUP.

I.

170. INGREDIENTS.--A hare fresh-killed, 1 lb. of lean gravy-beef, a
slice of ham, 1 carrot, 2 onions, a faggot of savoury herbs, 1/4 oz. of
whole black pepper, a little browned flour, 1/4 pint of port wine, the
crumb of two French rolls, salt and cayenne to taste, 3 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Skin and paunch the hare, saving the liver and as much blood as
possible. Cut it in pieces, and put it in a stewpan with all the
ingredients, and simmer gently for 8 hours. This soup should be made the
day before it is wanted. Strain through a sieve, put the best parts of
the hare in the soup, and serve.

OR,


II.

Proceed as above; but, instead of putting the joints of the hare in the
soup, pick the meat from the bones, pound it in a mortar, and add it,
with the crumb of two French rolls, to the soup. Rub all through a
sieve; heat slowly, but do not let it boil. Send it to table
immediately.

_Time_.-8 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 9d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from September to February.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

[Illustration: HARE.]

    THE COMMON HARE.--This little animal is found throughout Europe,
    and, indeed, in most of the northern parts of the world; and as
    it is destitute of natural weapons of defence, Providence has
    endowed it with an extraordinary amount of the passion of fear.
    As if to awaken the vigilance of this passion, too, He has
    furnished it with long and tubular ears, in order that it may
    catch the remotest sounds; and with full, prominent eyes, which
    enable it to see, at one and the same time, both before and
    behind it. The hare feeds in the evenings, and sleeps, in its
    form, during the day; and, as it generally lies on the ground,
    its feet, both below and above, are protected with a thick
    covering of hair. Its flesh, though esteemed by the Romans, was
    forbidden by the Druids and by the earlier Britons. It is now,
    though very dark and dry, and devoid of fat, much esteemed by
    Europeans, on account of the peculiarity of its flavour. In
    purchasing this animal, it ought to be remembered that both
    hares and rabbits, when old, have their claws rugged and blunt,
    their haunches thick, and their ears dry and tough. The ears of
    a young hare easily tear, and it has a narrow cleft in the lip;
    whilst its claws are both smooth and sharp.

HESSIAN SOUP.

171. INGREDIENTS.--Half an ox's head, 1 pint of split peas, 3 carrots, 6
turnips, 6 potatoes, 6 onions, 1 head of celery, 1 bunch of savoury
herbs, pepper and salt to taste, 2 blades of mace, a little allspice, 4
cloves, the crumb of a French roll, 6 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Clean the head, rub it with salt and water, and soak it for 5
hours in warm water. Simmer it in the water till tender, put it into a
pan and let it cool; skim off all the fat; take out the head, and add
the vegetables cut up small, and the peas which have been previously
soaked; simmer them without the meat, till they are done enough to pulp
through a sieve. Add the seasoning, with pieces of the meat cut up; give
one boil, and serve.

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, 6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 16 persons.

_Note_.--An excellent hash or _ragout_ can be made by cutting up the
nicest parts of the head, thickening and seasoning more highly a little
of the soup, and adding a glass of port wine and 2 tablespoonfuls of
ketchup.


MOCK TURTLE.

I.

172. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 a calf's head, 1/4 lb. of butter, 1/4 lb. of lean
ham, 2 tablespoonfuls of minced parsley, a little minced lemon thyme,
sweet marjoram, basil, 2 onions, a few chopped mushrooms (when
obtainable), 2 shallots, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1/4 bottle of
Madeira or sherry, force-meat balls, cayenne, salt and mace to taste,
the juice of 1 lemon and 1 Seville orange, 1 dessert-spoonful of pounded
sugar, 3 quarts of best stock, No. 104.

_Mode_.--Scald the head with the skin on, remove the brain, tie the head
up in a cloth, and let it boil for 1 hour. Then take the meat from the
bones, cut it into small square pieces, and throw them into cold water.
Now take the meat, put it into a stewpan, and cover with stock; let it
boil gently for an hour, or rather more, if not quite tender, and set it
on one side. Melt the butter in another stewpan, and add the ham, cut
small, with the herbs, parsley, onions, shallots, mushrooms, and nearly
a pint of stock; let these simmer slowly for 2 hours, and then dredge in
as much flour as will dry up the butter. Fill up with the remainder of
the stock, add the wine, let it stew gently for 10 minutes, rub it
through a tammy, and put it to the calf's head; season with cayenne,
and, if required, a little salt; add the juice of the orange and lemon;
and when liked, 1/4 teaspoonful of pounded mace, and the sugar. Put in
the force-meat balls, simmer 5 minutes, and serve very hot.

_Time_.--4-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 3s. 6d. per quart, or 2s. 6d.
without wine or force-meat balls.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

_Note_.--The bones of the head should be well stewed in the liquor it
was first boiled in, and will make good white stock, flavoured with
vegetables, etc.


II.

(_More Economical_.)

173. INGREDIENTS.--A knuckle of veal weighing 5 or 6 lbs., 2 cow-heels,
2 large onions stuck with cloves, 1 bunch of sweet herbs, 3 blades of
mace, salt to taste, 12 peppercorns, 1 glass of sherry, 24 force-meat
balls, a little lemon-juice, 4 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients, except the force-meat balls and
lemon-juice, in an earthen jar, and stew for 6 hours. Do not open it
till cold. When wanted for use, skim off all the fat, and strain
carefully; place it on the fire, cut up the meat into inch-and-a-half
squares, put it, with the force-meat balls and lemon-juice, into the
soup, and serve. It can be flavoured with a tablespoonful of anchovy, or
Harvey's sauce.

_Time_.--6 hours. _Average cost_,1s. 4d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

    THE CALF--The flesh of this animal is called veal, and when
    young, that is, under two months old, yields a large quantity of
    soluble extract, and is, therefore, much employed for soups and
    broths. The Essex farmers have obtained a celebrity for
    fattening calves better than any others in England, where they
    are plentifully supplied with milk, a thing impossible to be
    done in the immediate neighbourhood of London.

    MARJORAM.--There are several species of this plant; but that
    which is preferred for cookery is a native of Portugal, and is
    called sweet or knotted marjoram. When its leaves are dried,
    they have an agreeable aromatic flavour; and hence are used for
    soups, stuffings, &c.

    BASIL.--This is a native of the East Indies, and is highly
    aromatic, having a perfume greatly resembling that of cloves. It
    is not much employed in English cookery, but is a favourite with
    French cooks, by whom its leaves are used in soups and salads.

MULLAGATAWNY SOUP.

174. INGREDIENTS.--2 tablespoonfuls of curry powder, 6 onions, 1 clove
of garlic, 1 oz. of pounded almonds, a little lemon-pickle, or
mango-juice, to taste; 1 fowl or rabbit, 4 slices of lean bacon; 2
quarts of medium stock, or, if wanted very good, best stock.

_Mode_.-=Slice and fry the onions of a nice colour; line the stewpan
with the bacon; cut up the rabbit or fowl into small joints, and
slightly brown them; put in the fried onions, the garlic, and stock, and
simmer gently till the meat is tender; skim very carefully, and when the
meat is done, rub the curry powder to a smooth batter; add it to the
soup with the almonds, which must be first pounded with a little of the
stock. Put in seasoning and lemon-pickle or mango-juice to taste, and
serve boiled rice with it.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d. per quart, with stock No. 105.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--This soup can also be made with breast of veal, or calf's head.
Vegetable Mullagatawny is made with veal stock, by boiling and pulping
chopped vegetable marrow, cucumbers, onions, and tomatoes, and seasoning
with curry powder and cayenne. Nice pieces of meat, good curry powder,
and strong stock, are necessary to make this soup good.

[Illustration: CORIANDER.]

    CORIANDER.--This plant, which largely enters into the
    composition of curry powder with turmeric, originally comes from
    the East; but it has long been cultivated in England, especially
    in Essex, where it is reared for the use of confectioners and
    druggists. In private gardens, it is cultivated for the sake of
    its tender leaves, which are highly aromatic, and are employed
    in soups and salads. Its seeds are used in large quantities for
    the purposes of distillation.

A GOOD MUTTON SOUP.

175. INGREDIENTS.--A neck of mutton about 5 or 6 lbs., 3 carrots, 3
turnips, 2 onions, a large bunch of sweet herbs, including parsley; salt
and pepper to taste; a little sherry, if liked; 3 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Lay the ingredients in a covered pan before the fire, and let
them remain there the whole day, stirring occasionally. The next day put
the whole into a stewpan, and place it on a brisk fire. When it
commences to boil, take the pan off the fire, and put it on one side to
simmer until the meat is done. When ready for use, take out the meat,
dish it up with carrots and turnips, and send it to table; strain the
soup, let it cool, skim off all the fat, season and thicken it with a
tablespoonful, or rather more, of arrowroot; flavour with a little
sherry, simmer for 5 minutes, and serve.

_Time_.--15 hours. _Average cost_, including the meat, 1s. 3d. per
quart.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

    THE SHEEP.--This animal formed the principal riches of the
    patriarchs, in the days of old, and, no doubt, multiplied, until
    its species were spread over the greater part of Western Asia;
    but at what period it was introduced to Britain is not known. It
    is now found in almost every part of the globe, although, as a
    domestic animal, it depends almost entirely upon man for its
    support. Its value, however, amply repays him for whatever care
    and kindness he may bestow upon it; for, like the ox, there is
    scarcely a part of it that he cannot convert to some useful
    purpose. The fleece, which serves it for a covering, is
    appropriated by man, to serve the same end to himself, whilst
    its skin is also applied to various purposes in civilized life.
    Its entrails are used as strings for musical instruments, and
    its bones are calcined, and employed as tests in the trade of
    the refiner. Its milk, being thicker than that of the cow,
    yields a greater quantity of butter and cheese, and its flesh is
    among the most wholesome and nutritive that can be eaten.
    Thomson has beautifully described the appearance of the sheep,
    when bound to undergo the operation of being shorn of its wool.

      "Behold, where bound, and of its robe bereft
      By needy man, that all-depending lord,
      How meek, how patient, the mild creature lies!
      What softness in his melancholy face,
      What dumb complaining innocence appears!"

OX-CHEEK SOUP.

176. INGREDIENTS.--An ox-cheek, 2 oz. of butter, 3 or 4 slices of lean
ham or bacon, 1 parsnip, 3 carrots, 2 onions, 3 heads of celery, 3
blades of mace, 4 cloves, a faggot of savoury herbs, 1 bay-leaf, a
teaspoonful of salt, half that of pepper, 1 head of celery, browning,
the crust of a French roll, 6 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Lay the ham in the bottom of the stewpan, with the butter;
break the bones of the cheek, wash it clean, and put it on the ham. Cut
the vegetables small, add them to the other ingredients, and set the
whole over a slow fire for 1/4 of an hour. Now put in the water, and
simmer gently till it is reduced to 4 quarts; take out the fleshy part
of the cheek, and strain the soup into a clean stewpan; thicken with
flour, put in a head of sliced celery, and simmer till the celery is
tender. If not a good colour, use a little browning. Cut the meat into
small square pieces, pour the soup over, and serve with the crust of a
French roll in the tureen. A glass of sherry much improves this soup.

_Time_.--3 to 4 hours. _Average cost_, 8d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 12 persons.

    THE OX.--Of the quadrupedal animals, the flesh of those that
    feed upon herbs is the most wholesome and nutritious for human
    food. In the early ages, the ox was used as a religious
    sacrifice, and, in the eyes of the Egyptians was deemed so
    sacred as to be worthy of exaltation to represent Taurus, one of
    the twelve signs of the zodiac. To this day, the Hindoos
    venerate the cow, whose flesh is forbidden to be eaten, and
    whose fat, supposed to have been employed to grease the
    cartridges of the Indian army, was one of the proximate causes
    of the great Sepoy rebellion of 1857. There are no animals of
    greater use to man than the tribe to which the ox belongs. There
    is hardly a part of them that does not enter into some of the
    arts and purposes of civilized life. Of their horns are made
    combs, knife-handles, boxes, spoons, and drinking-cups. They are
    also made into transparent plates for lanterns; an invention
    ascribed, in England, to King Alfred. Glue is made from their
    gristles, cartilages, and portions of their hides. Their bones
    often form a substitute for ivory; their skins, when calves, are
    manufactured into vellum; their blood is the basis of Prussian
    blue; their sinews furnish fine and strong threads, used by
    saddlers; their hair enters into various manufactures; their
    tallow is made into candles; their flesh is eaten, and the
    utility of the milk and cream of the cow is well known.

OX-TAIL SOUP.

177. INGREDIENTS.--2 ox-tails, 2 slices of ham, 1 oz. of butter, 2
carrots, 2 turnips, 3 onions, 1 leek, 1 head of celery, 1 bunch of
savoury herbs, 1 bay-leaf, 12 whole peppercorns, 4 cloves, a
tablespoonful of salt, 2 tablespoonfuls of ketchup, 1/2 glass of port
wine, 3 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Cut up the tails, separating them at the joints; wash them, and
put them in a stewpan, with the butter. Cut the vegetables in slices,
and add them, with the peppercorns and herbs. Put in 1/2 pint of water,
and stir it over a sharp fire till the juices are drawn. Fill up the
stewpan with the water, and, when boiling, add the salt. Skim well, and
simmer very gently for 4 hours, or until the tails are tender. Take them
out, skim and strain the soup, thicken with flour, and flavour with the
ketchup and port wine. Put back the tails, simmer for 5 minutes, and
serve.

_Time_.--4-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 3d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.


PARTRIDGE SOUP.

178. INGREDIENTS.--2 partridges, 3 slices of lean ham, 2 shred onions, 1
head of celery, 1 large carrot, and 1 turnip cut into any fanciful
shapes, 1 small lump of sugar, 2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to
taste, 2 quarts of stock No. 105, or common, No. 106.

_Mode_.--Cut the partridges into pieces, and braise them in the butter
and ham until quite tender; then take out the legs, wings, and breast,
and set them by. Keep the backs and other trimmings in the braise, and
add the onions and celery; any remains of cold game can be put in, and 3
pints of stock. Simmer slowly for 1 hour, strain it, and skim the fat
off as clean as possible; put in the pieces that were taken out, give it
one boil, and skim again to have it quite clear, and add the sugar and
seasoning. Now simmer the cut carrot and turnip in 1 pint of stock; when
quite tender, put them to the partridges, and serve.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 2s. or 1s. 6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from September to February.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--The meat of the partridges may be pounded with the crumb of a
French roll, and worked with the soup through a sieve. Serve with stewed
celery cut in slices, and put in the tureen.

    THE PARTRIDGE.--This is a timorous bird, being easily taken. It
    became known to the Greeks and Romans, whose tables it helped to
    furnish with food. Formerly, the Red was scarce in Italy, but
    its place was supplied by the White, which, at considerable
    expense, was frequently procured from the Alps. The Athenians
    trained this bird for fighting, and Severus used to lighten the
    cares of royalty by witnessing the spirit of its combats. The
    Greeks esteemed its leg most highly, and rejected the other
    portions as unfashionable to be eaten. The Romans, however,
    ventured a little further, and ate the breast, whilst we
    consider the bird as wholly palatable. It is an inhabitant of
    all the temperate countries of Europe, but, on account of the
    geniality of the climate, it abounds most in the Ukraine.

PHEASANT SOUP.

179. INGREDIENTS.--2 pheasants, 1/4 lb. of butter, 2 slices of ham, 2
large onions sliced, 1/2 head of celery, the crumb of two French rolls,
the yolks of 2 eggs boiled hard, salt and cayenne to taste, a little
pounded mace, if liked; 3 quarts of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Cut up the pheasants, flour and braise them in the butter and
ham till they are of a nice brown, but not burnt. Put them in a stewpan,
with the onions, celery, and seasoning, and simmer for 2 hours. Strain
the soup; pound the breasts with the crumb of the roll previously
soaked, and the yolks of the eggs; put it to the soup, give one boil,
and serve.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 2s. 10d. per quart, or, if made
with fragments of gold game, 1s.

_Seasonable_ from October to February.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

_Note_.--Fragments, pieces and bones of cold game, may be used to great
advantage in this soup, and then 1 pheasant will suffice.


PORTABLE SOUP.

180. INGREDIENTS.--2 knuckles of veal, 3 shins of beef, 1 large faggot
of herbs, 2 bay-leaves, 2 heads of celery, 3 onions, 3 carrots, 2 blades
of mace, 6 cloves, a teaspoonful of salt, sufficient water to cover all
the ingredients.

_Mode_.--Take the marrow from the bones; put all the ingredients in a
stock-pot, and simmer slowly for 12 hours, or more, if the meat be not
done to rags; strain it off, and put it in a very cool place; take off
all the fat, reduce the liquor in a shallow pan, by setting it over a
sharp fire, but be particular that it does not burn; boil it fast and
uncovered for 8 hours, and keep it stirred. Put it into a deep dish, and
set it by for a day. Have ready a stewpan of boiling water, place the
dish in it, and keep it boiling; stir occasionally, and when the soup is
thick and ropy, it is done. Form it into little cakes by pouring a small
quantity on to the bottom of cups or basins; when cold, turn them out on
a flannel to dry. Keep them from the air in tin canisters.

_Average cost_ of this quantity, 16s.

_Note_.--Soup can be made in 5 minutes with this, by dissolving a small
piece, about the size of a walnut, in a pint of warm water, and
simmering for 2 minutes. Vermicelli, macaroni, or other Italian pastes,
may be added.

    THE LAUREL or BAY.--The leaves of this tree frequently enter
    into the recipes of cookery; but they ought not to be used
    without the greatest caution, and not at all unless the cook is
    perfectly aware of their effects. It ought to be known, that
    there are two kinds of bay-trees,--the Classic laurel, whose
    leaves are comparatively harmless, and the Cherry-laurel, which
    is the one whose leaves are employed in cookery. They have a
    kernel-like flavour, and are used in blanc-mange, puddings,
    custards &c.; but when acted upon by water, they develop prussic
    acid, and, therefore, but a small number of the leaves should be
    used at a time.

RABBIT SOUP.

181. INGREDIENTS.--2 large rabbits, or 3 small ones; a faggot of savoury
herbs, 1/2 head of celery, 2 carrots, 1 onion, 1 blade of mace, salt and
white pepper to taste, a little pounded mace, 1/2 pint of cream, the
yolks of 2 eggs boiled hard, the crumb of a French roll, nearly 3 quarts
of water.

_Mode_.--Make the soup with the legs and shoulders of the rabbit, and
keep the nice pieces for a dish or _entree_. Put them into warm water,
and draw the blood; when quite clean, put them in a stewpan, with a
faggot of herbs, and a teacupful, or rather more, of veal stock or
water. Simmer slowly till done through, and add the 3 quarts of water,
and boil for an hour. Take out the rabbet, pick the meat from the bones,
covering it up to keep it white; put the bones back in the liquor, add
the vegetables, and simmer for 2 hours; skim and strain, and let it
cool. Now pound the meat in a mortar, with the yolks of the eggs, and
the crumb of the roll previously soaked; rub it through a tammy, and
gradually add it to the strained liquor, and simmer for 15 minutes. Mix
arrowroot or rice-flour with the cream (say 2 dessert-spoonfuls), and
stir in the soup; bring it to a boil, and serve. This soup must be very
white, and instead of thickening it with arrowroot or rice-flour,
vermicelli or pearl barley can be boiled in a little stock, and put in 5
minutes before serving.

_Time_.--Nearly 4 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from September to March.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.


REGENCY SOUP.

182. Ingredients.--Any bones and remains of any cold game, such as of
pheasants, partridges, &c.; 2 carrots, 2 small onions, 1 head of celery,
1 turnip, 1/4 lb. of pearl barley, the yolks of 3 eggs boiled hard, 1/4
pint of cream, salt to taste, 2 quarts of stock No. 105, or common
stock, No. 106.

_Mode_.--Place the bones or remains of game in the stewpan, with the
vegetables sliced; pour over the stock, and simmer for 2 hours; skim off
all the fat, and strain it. Wash the barley, and boil it in 2 or 3
waters before putting it to the soup; finish simmering in the soup, and
when the barley is done, take out half, and pound the other half with
the yolks of the eggs. When you have finished pounding, rub it through a
clean tammy, add the cream, and salt if necessary; give one boil, and
serve very hot, putting in the barley that was taken out first.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. per quart, if made with medium
stock, or 6d. per quart, with common stock.

_Seasonable_ from September to March.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


SOUP A LA REINE.

I.

183. INGREDIENTS.--1 large fowl, 1 oz. of sweet almonds, the crumb of 1
1/2 French roll, 1/2 pint of cream, salt to taste, 1 small lump of
sugar, 2 quarts of good white veal stock, No. 107.

_Mode_.--Boil the fowl gently in the stock till quite tender, which will
be in about an hour, or rather more; take out the fowl, pull the meat
from the bones, and put it into a mortar with the almonds, and pound
very fine. When beaten enough, put the meat back in the stock, with the
crumb of the rolls, and let it simmer for an hour; rub it through a
tammy, add the sugar, 1/2 pint of cream that has boiled, and, if you
prefer, cut the crust of the roll into small round pieces, and pour the
soup over it, when you serve.

_Time_.--2 hours, or rather more. _Average cost_, 2s. 7d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--All white soups should be warmed in a vessel placed in another
of boiling water. (_See_ BAIN MARIE, No. 87.)


II. (Economical.)

184. INGREDIENTS.--Any remains of roast chickens, 1/2 teacupful of rice,
salt and pepper to taste, 1 quart of stock No. 106.

_Mode_.--Take all the white meat and pound it with the rice, which has
been slightly cooked, but not much. When it is all well pounded, dilute
with the stock, and pass through a sieve. This soup should neither be
too clear nor too thick.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_, 4d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Note_.--If stock is not at hand, put the chicken-bones in water, with
an onion, carrot, a few sweet herbs, a blade of mace, pepper and salt,
and stew for 3 hours.


STEW SOUP OF SALT MEAT.

185. INGREDIENTS.--Any pieces of salt beef or pork, say 2 lbs.; 4
carrots, 4 parsnips, 4 turnips, 4 potatoes, 1 cabbage, 2 oz. of oatmeal
or ground rice, seasoning of salt and pepper, 2 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Cut up the meat small, add the water, and let it simmer for
23/4 hours. Now add the vegetables, cut in thin small slices; season,
and boil for 1 hour. Thicken with the oatmeal, and serve.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 3d. per quart without the meat.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

_Note_.--If rice is used instead of oatmeal, put it in with the
vegetables.


STEW SOUP.

I.

186. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of beef, 5 onions, 5 turnips, 3/4 lb. of
_rice_, a large bunch of parsley, a few sweet herbs, pepper and salt, 2
quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Cut the beef up in small pieces, add the other ingredients, and
boil gently for 21/2 hours. Oatmeal or potatoes would be a great
improvement.

_Time_.-21/2 hours. _Average cost_, 6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.


II.

187. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of beef, mutton, or pork; 1/2 pint of split
peas, 4 turnips, 8 potatoes, 2 onions, 2 oz. of oatmeal or 3 oz. of
rice, 2 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Cut the meat in small pieces, as also the vegetables, and add
them, with the peas, to the water. Boil gently for 3 hours; thicken with
the oatmeal, boil for another 1/4 hour, stirring all the time, and
season with pepper and salt.

_Time_.--3-1/4 hours. _Average cost_, 4d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--This soup may be made of the liquor in which tripe has been
boiled, by adding vegetables, seasoning, rice, &c.


TURKEY SOUP (a Seasonable Dish at Christmas).

188. INGREDIENTS.--2 quarts of medium stock, No. 105, the remains of a
cold roast turkey, 2 oz. of rice-flour or arrowroot, salt and pepper to
taste, 1 tablespoonful of Harvey's sauce or mushroom ketchup.

_Mode_.--Cut up the turkey in small pieces, and put it in the stock; let
it simmer slowly until the bones are quite clean. Take the bones out,
and work the soup through a sieve; when cool, skim well. Mix the
rice-flour or arrowroot to a batter with a little of the soup; add it
with the seasoning and sauce, or ketchup. Give one boil, and serve.

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, 10d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ at Christmas.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--Instead of thickening this soup, vermicelli or macaroni may be
served in it.

    THE TURKEY.--The common turkey is a native of North America, and
    was thence introduced to England, in the reign of Henry VIII.
    According to Tusser's "Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry,"
    about the year 1585 it begun to form a dish at our rural
    Christmas feasts.

      "Beef, mutton, and pork, shred pies of the best,
      Pig, veal, goose, and capon, and turkey well dress'd,
      Cheese, apples, and nuts, jolly carols to hear,
      As then in the country is counted good cheer."

    It is one of the most difficult birds to rear, of any that we
    have; yet, in its wild state, is found in great abundance in the
    forests of Canada, where, it might have been imagined that the
    severity of the climate would be unfavourable to its ever
    becoming plentiful. They are very fond of the seeds of nettles,
    and the seeds of the foxglove poison them.

TURTLE SOUP (founded on M. Ude's Recipe).

189. INGREDIENTS.--A turtle, 6 slices of ham, 2 knuckles of veal, 1
large bunch of sweet herbs, 3 bay-leaves, parsley, green onions, 1
onion, 6 cloves, 4 blades of mace, 1/4 lb. of fresh butter, 1 bottle of
Madeira, 1 lump of sugar. For the _Quenelles a Tortue_, 1 lb. of veal, 1
lb. of bread crumbs, milk, 7 eggs, cayenne, salt, spices, chopped
parsley, the juice of 2 lemons.

_Mode_.--To make this soup with less difficulty, cut off the head of the
turtle the preceding day. In the morning open the turtle by leaning
heavily with a knife on the shell of the animal's back, whilst you cut
this off all round. Turn it upright on its end, that all the water, &c.
may run out, when the flesh should be cut off along the spine, with the
knife sloping towards the bones, for fear of touching the gall, which
sometimes might escape the eye. When all the flesh about the members is
obtained, wash these clean, and let them drain. Have ready, on the fire,
a large vessel full of boiling water, into which put the shells; and
when you perceive that they come easily off, take them out of the water,
and prick them all, with those of the back, belly, fins, head, &c. Boil
the back and belly till the bones can be taken off, without, however,
allowing the softer parts to be sufficiently done, as they will be
boiled again in the soup. When these latter come off easily, lay them on
earthen dishes singly, for fear they should stick together, and put them
to cool. Keep the liquor in which you have blanched the softer parts,
and let the bones stew thoroughly in it, as this liquor must be used to
moisten all the sauces.

All the flesh of the interior parts, the four legs and head, must be
drawn down in the following manner:--Lay the slices of ham on the bottom
of a very large stewpan, over them the knuckles of veal, according to
the size of the turtle; then the inside flesh of the turtle, and over
the whole the members. Now moisten with the water in which you are
boiling the shell, and draw it down thoroughly. It may now be
ascertained if it be thoroughly done by thrusting a knife into the
fleshy part of the meat. If no blood appears, it is time to moisten it
again with the liquor in which the bones, &c. have been boiling. Put in
a large bunch of all such sweet herbs as are used in the cooking of a
turtle,--sweet basil, sweet marjoram, lemon thyme, winter savory, 2 or 3
bay-leaves, common thyme, a handful of parsley and green onions, and a
large onion stuck with 6 cloves. Let the whole be thoroughly done. With
respect to the members, probe them, to see whether they are done, and if
so, drain and send them to the larder, as they are to make their
appearance only when the soup is absolutely completed. When the flesh is
also completely done, strain it through a silk sieve, and make a very
thin white _roux;_ for turtle soup must not be much thickened. When the
flour is sufficiently done on a slow fire, and has a good colour,
moisten it with the liquor, keeping it over the fire till it boils.
Ascertain that the sauce is neither too thick nor too thin; then draw
the stewpan on the side of the stove, to skim off the white scum, and
all the fat and oil that rise to the surface of the sauce. By this time
all the softer parts will be sufficiently cold; when they must be cut to
about the size of one or two inches square, and thrown into the soup,
which must now be left to simmer gently. When done, skim off all the fat
and froth. Take all the leaves of the herbs from the stock,--sweet
basil, sweet marjoram, lemon thyme, winter savory, 2 or 3 bay-leaves,
common thyme, a handful of parsley and green onions, and a large onion
cut in four pieces, with a few blades of mace. Put these in a stewpan,
with about 1/4 lb. of fresh butter, and let it simmer on a slow fire
till quite melted, when pour in 1 bottle of good Madeira, adding a small
bit of sugar, and let it boil gently for 1 hour. When done, rub it
through a tammy, and add it to the soup. Let this boil, till no white
scum rises; then take with a skimmer all the bits of turtle out of the
sauce, and put them in a clean stewpan: when you have all out, pour the
soup over the bits of turtle, through a tammy, and proceed as follows:--

QUENELLES A TORTUE.--Make some _quenelles a tortue_, which being
substitutes for eggs, do not require to be very delicate. Take out the
fleshy part of a leg of veal, about 1 lb., scrape off all the meat,
without leaving any sinews or fat, and soak in milk about the same
quantity of crumbs of bread. When the bread is well soaked, squeeze it,
and put it into a mortar, with the veal, a small quantity of calf's
udder, a little butter, the yolks of 4 eggs, boiled hard, a little
cayenne pepper, salt, and spices, and pound the whole very fine; then
thicken the mixture with 2 whole eggs, and the yolk of another. Next try
this _farce_ or stuffing in boiling-hot water, to ascertain its
consistency: if it is too thin, add the yolk of an egg. When the _farce_
is perfected, take half of it, and put into it some chopped parsley. Let
the whole cool, in order to roll it of the size of the yolk of an egg;
poach it in salt and boiling water, and when very hard, drain on a
sieve, and put it into the turtle. Before you send up, squeeze the juice
of 2 or 3 lemons, with a little cayenne pepper, and pour that into the
soup. THE FINS may be served as a _plat d'entree_ with a little turtle
sauce; if not, on the following day you may warm the turtle _au bain
marie_, and serve the members entire, with a _matelote_ sauce, garnished
with mushrooms, cocks' combs, _quenelles_, &c. When either lemon-juice
or cayenne pepper has been introduced, no boiling must take place.

_Note_.--It is necessary to observe, that the turtle prepared a day
before it is used, is generally preferable, the flavour being more
uniform. Be particular, when you dress a very large turtle, to preserve
the green fat (be cautious not to study a very brown colour,--the
natural green of the fish is preferred by every epicure and true
connoisseur) in a separate stewpan, and likewise when the turtle is
entirely done, to have as many tureens as you mean to serve each time.
You cannot put the whole in a large vessel, for many reasons: first, it
will be long in cooling; secondly, when you take some out, it will break
all the rest into rags. If you warm in a _bain marie_, the turtle will
always retain the same taste; but if you boil it often, it becomes
strong, and loses the delicacy of its flavour.

THE COST OF TURTLE SOUP.--This is the most expensive soup brought to
table. It is sold by the quart,--one guinea being the standard price for
that quantity. The price of live turtle ranges from 8d. to 2s. per lb.,
according to supply and demand. When live turtle is dear, many cooks use
the tinned turtle, which is killed when caught, and preserved by being
put in hermetically-sealed canisters, and so sent over to England. The
cost of a tin, containing 2 quarts, or 4 lbs., is about L2, and for a
small one, containing the green fat, 7s. 6d. From these about 6 quarts
of good soup may be made.

[Illustration: THE TURTLE.]

    THE GREEN TURTLE.--This reptile is found in large numbers on the
    coasts of all the islands and continents within the tropics, in
    both the old and new worlds. Their length is often five feet and
    upwards, and they range in weight from 50 to 500 or 600 lbs. As
    turtles find a constant supply of food on the coasts which they
    frequent, they are not of a quarrelsome disposition, as the
    submarine meadows in which they pasture, yield plenty for them
    all. Like other species of amphibia, too, they have the power of
    living many months without food; so that they live harmlessly
    and peaceably together, notwithstanding that they seem to have
    no common bond of association, but merely assemble in the same
    places as if entirely by accident. England is mostly supplied
    with them from the West Indies, whence they are brought alive
    and in tolerable health. The green turtle is highly prized on
    account of the delicious quality of its flesh, the fat of the
    upper and lower shields of the animal being esteemed the richest
    and most delicate parts. The soup, however, is apt to disagree
    with weak stomachs. As an article of luxury, the turtle has only
    come into fashion within the last 100 years, and some hundreds
    of tureens of turtle soup are served annually at the lord
    mayor's dinner in Guildhall.

A GOOD FAMILY SOUP.

190. INGREDIENTS.--Remains of a cold tongue, 2 lbs. of shin of beef, any
cold pieces of meat or beef-bones, 2 turnips, 2 carrots, 2 onions, 1
parsnip, 1 head of celery, 4 quarts of water, 1/2 teacupful of rice;
salt and pepper to taste.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients in a stewpan, and simmer gently for 4
hours, or until all the goodness is drawn from the meat. Strain off the
soup, and let it stand to get cold. The kernels and soft parts of the
tongue must be saved. When the soup is wanted for use, skim off all the
fat, put in the kernels and soft parts of the tongue, slice in a small
quantity of fresh carrot, turnip, and onion; stew till the vegetables
are tender, and serve with toasted bread.

_Time_.--5 hours. __Average cost_,3d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_ for 12 persons.


HODGE-PODGE.

191. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of shin of beef, 3 quarts of water, 1 pint of
table-beer, 2 onions, 2 carrots, 2 turnips, 1 head of celery; pepper and
salt to taste; thickening of butter and flour.

_Mode_.--Put the meat, beer, and water in a stewpan; simmer for a few
minutes, and skim carefully. Add the vegetables and seasoning; stew
gently till the meat is tender. Thicken with the butter and flour, and
serve with turnips and carrots, or spinach and celery.

_Time_.--3 hours, or rather more. _Average cost_, 3d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ at any time. _Sufficient_ for 12 persons.

    TABLE BEER.--This is nothing more than a weak ale, and is not
    made so much with a view to strength, as to transparency of
    colour and an agreeable bitterness of taste. It is, or ought to
    be, manufactured by the London professional brewers, from the
    best pale malt, or amber and malt. Six barrels are usually drawn
    from one quarter of malt, with which are mixed 4 or 5 lbs. of
    hops. As a beverage, it is agreeable when fresh; but it is not
    adapted to keep long.




FISH SOUPS.


FISH STOCK.

192. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of beef or veal (these can be omitted), any
kind of white fish trimmings, of fish which are to be dressed for table,
2 onions, the rind of 1/2 a lemon, a bunch of sweet herbs, 2 carrots, 2
quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Cut up the fish, and put it, with the other ingredients, into
the water. Simmer for 2 hours; skim the liquor carefully, and strain it.
When a richer stock is wanted, fry the vegetables and fish before adding
the water.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, with meat, 10d. per quart; without,
3d.

_Note_.--Do not make fish stock long before it is wanted, as it soon
turns sour.


CRAYFISH SOUP.

193. INGREDIENTS.--50 crayfish, 1/4 lb. of butter, 6 anchovies, the
crumb of 1 French roll, a little lobster-spawn, seasoning to taste, 2
quarts of medium stock, No. 105, or fish stock, No. 192.

_Mode_.--Shell the crayfish, and put the fish between two plates until
they are wanted; pound the shells in a mortar, with the butter and
anchovies; when well beaten, add a pint of stock, and simmer for 3/4 of
an hour. Strain it through a hair sieve, put the remainder of the stock
to it, with the crumb of the rolls; give it one boil, and rub it through
a tammy, with the lobster-spawn. Put in the fish, but do not let the
soup boil, after it has been rubbed through the tammy. If necessary, add
seasoning.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 2s. 3d. or 1s. 9d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from January to July.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

[Illustration: CRAYFISH.]

    THE CRAYFISH.--This is one of those fishes that were highly
    esteemed by the ancients. The Greeks preferred it when brought
    from Alexandria, and the Romans ate it boiled with cumin, and
    seasoned with pepper and other condiments. A recipe tells us,
    that crayfish can be preserved several days in baskets with
    fresh grass, such as the nettle, or in a bucket with about
    three-eighths of an inch of water. More water would kill them,
    because the large quantity of air they require necessitates the
    water in which they are kept, to be continually renewed.

EEL SOUP.

194. INGREDIENTS.--3 lbs. of eels, 1 onion, 2 oz. of butter, 3 blades of
mace, 1 bunch of sweet herbs, 1/4 oz. of peppercorns, salt to taste, 2
tablespoonfuls of flour, 1/4 pint of cream, 2 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Wash the eels, cut them into thin slices, and put them in the
stewpan with the butter; let them simmer for a few minutes, then pour
the water to them, and add the onion, cut in thin slices, the herbs,
mace, and seasoning. Simmer till the eels are tender, but do not break
the fish. Take them out carefully, mix the flour smoothly to a batter
with the cream, bring it to a boil, pour over the eels, and serve.

_Time_.--1 hour, or rather more. _Average cost_, 10d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from June to March.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--This soup may be flavoured differently by omitting the cream,
and adding a little ketchup or Harvey's sauce.


LOBSTER SOUP.

195. INGREDIENTS.--3 large lobsters, or 6 small ones; the crumb of a
French roll, 2 anchovies, 1 onion, 1 small bunch of sweet herbs, 1 strip
of lemon-peel, 2 oz. of butter, a little nutmeg, 1 teaspoonful of flour,
1 pint of cream, 1 pint of milk; forcemeat balls, mace, salt and pepper
to taste, bread crumbs, 1 egg, 2 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Pick the meat from the lobsters, and beat the fins, chine, and
small claws in a mortar, previously taking away the brown fin and the
bag in the head. Put it in a stewpan, with the crumb of the roll,
anchovies, onions, herbs, lemon-peel, and the water; simmer gently till
all the goodness is extracted, and strain it off. Pound the spawn in a
mortar, with the butter, nutmeg, and flour, and mix with it the cream
and milk. Give one boil up, at the same time adding the tails cut in
pieces. Make the forcemeat balls with the remainder of the lobster,
seasoned with mace, pepper, and salt, adding a little flour, and a few
bread crumbs; moisten them with the egg, heat them in the soup, and
serve.

_Time_.--2 hours, or rather more. _Average cost_, 3s 6d per quart.

_Seasonable_ from April to October.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


OYSTER SOUP.

I.

196. INGREDIENTS.--6 dozen of oysters, 2 quarts of white stock, 1/2 pint
of cream, 2 oz. of butter, 1-1/2 oz. of flour; salt, cayenne, and mace
to taste.

_Mode_.--Scald the oysters in their own liquor; take them out, beard
them, and put them in a tureen. Take a pint of the stock, put in the
beards and the liquor, which must be carefully strained, and simmer for
1/2 an hour. Take it off the fire, strain it again, and add the
remainder of the stock with the seasoning and mace. Bring it to a boil,
add the thickening of butter and flour, simmer for 5 minutes, stir in
the boiling cream, pour it over the oysters, and serve.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_, 2s. 8d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--This soup can be made less rich by using milk instead of cream,
and thickening with arrowroot instead of butter and flour.


II.

197. INGREDIENTS.--2 quarts of good mutton broth, 6 dozen oysters, 2 oz.
butter, 1 oz. of flour.

_Mode_.--Beard the oysters, and scald them in their own liquor; then add
it, well strained, to the broth; thicken with the butter and flour, and
simmer for 1/4 of an hour. Put in the oysters, stir well, but do not let
it boil, and serve very hot.

_Time_.--3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 2s. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

    SEASON OF OYSTERS.--From April and May to the end of July,
    oysters are said to be sick; but by the end of August they
    become healthy, having recovered from the effects of spawning.
    When they are not in season, the males have a black, and the
    females a milky substance in the gill. From some lines of
    Oppian, it would appear that the ancients were ignorant that the
    oyster is generally found adhering to rocks. The starfish is one
    of the most deadly enemies of these bivalves. The poet says:--

      The prickly star creeps on with full deceit
      To force the oyster from his close retreat.
      When gaping lids their widen'd void display,
      The watchful star thrusts in a pointed ray,
      Of all its treasures spoils the rifled case,
      And empty shells the sandy hillock grace.

PRAWN SOUP.

198. INGREDIENTS.--2 quarts of fish stock or water, 2 pints of prawns,
the crumbs of a French roll, anchovy sauce or mushroom ketchup to taste,
1 blade of mace, 1 pint of vinegar, a little lemon-juice.

_Mode_.--Pick out the tails of the prawns, put the bodies in a stewpan
with 1 blade of mace, 1/2 pint of vinegar, and the same quantity of
water; stew them for 1/4 hour, and strain off the liquor. Put the fish
stock or water into a stewpan; add the strained liquor, pound the prawns
with the crumb of a roll moistened with a little of the soup, rub them
through a tammy, and mix them by degrees with the soup; add ketchup or
anchovy sauce to taste, with a little lemon-juice. When it is well
cooked, put in a few picked prawns; let them get thoroughly hot, and
serve. If not thick enough, put in a little butter and flour.

_Time_.--hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 1d. per quart, if made with water.

_Seasonable_ at any time. _Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--This can be thickened with tomatoes, and vermicelli served in
it, which makes it a very tasteful soup.

[Illustration: THE PRAWN.]

    THE PRAWN.--This little fish bears a striking resemblance to the
    shrimp, but is neither so common nor so small. It is to be found
    on most of the sandy shores of Europe. The Isle of Wight is
    famous for shrimps, where they are potted; but both the prawns
    and the shrimps vended in London, are too much salted for the
    excellence of their natural flavour to be preserved. They are
    extremely lively little animals, as seen in their native
    retreats.




[Illustration]

FISH.


CHAPTER VII.


THE NATURAL HISTORY OF FISHES.


199. IN NATURAL HISTORY, FISHES form the fourth class in the system of
Linnaeus, and are described as having long under-jaws, eggs without
white, organs of sense, fins for supporters, bodies covered with concave
scales, gills to supply the place of lungs for respiration, and water
for the natural element of their existence. Had mankind no other
knowledge of animals than of such as inhabit the land and breathe their
own atmosphere, they would listen with incredulous wonder, if told that
there were other kinds of beings which existed only in the waters, and
which would die almost as soon as they were taken from them. However
strongly these facts might be attested, they would hardly believe them,
without the operation of their own senses, as they would recollect the
effect produced on their own bodies when immersed in water, and the
impossibility of their sustaining life in it for any lengthened period
of time. Experience, however, has taught them, that the "great deep" is
crowded with inhabitants of various sizes, and of vastly different
constructions, with modes of life entirely distinct from those which
belong to the animals of the land, and with peculiarities of design,
equally wonderful with those of any other works which have come from the
hand of the Creator. The history of these races, however, must remain
for ever, more or less, in a state of darkness, since the depths in
which they live, are beyond the power of human exploration, and since
the illimitable expansion of their domain places them almost entirely
out of the reach of human accessibility.

200. IN STUDYING THE CONFORMATION OF FISHES, we naturally conclude that
they are, in every respect, well adapted to the element in which they
have their existence. Their shape has a striking resemblance to the
lower part of a ship; and there is no doubt that the form of the fish
originally suggested the form of the ship. The body is in general
slender, gradually diminishing towards each of its extremities, and
flattened on each of its sides. This is precisely the form of the lower
part of the hull of a ship; and it enables both the animal and the
vessel, with comparative ease, to penetrate and divide the resisting
medium for which they have been adapted. The velocity of a ship,
however, in sailing before the wind, is by no means to be compared to
that of a fish. It is well known that the largest fishes will, with the
greatest ease, overtake a ship in full sail, play round it without
effort, and shoot ahead of it at pleasure. This arises from their great
flexibility, which, to compete with mocks the labours of art, and
enables them to migrate thousands of miles in a season, without the
slightest indications of languor or fatigue.

201. THE PRINCIPAL INSTRUMENTS EMPLOYED BY FISHES to accelerate their
motion, are their air-bladder, fins, and tail. By means of the
air-bladder they enlarge or diminish the specific gravity of their
bodies. When they wish to sink, they compress the muscles of the
abdomen, and eject the air contained in it; by which, their weight,
compared with that of the water, is increased, and they consequently
descend. On the other hand, when they wish to rise, they relax the
compression of the abdominal muscles, when the air-bladder fills and
distends, and the body immediately ascends to the surface. How simply,
yet how wonderfully, has the Supreme Being adapted certain means to the
attainment of certain ends! Those fishes which are destitute of the
air-bladder are heavy in the water, and have no great "alacrity" in
rising. The larger proportion of them remain at the bottom, unless they
are so formed as to be able to strike their native element downwards
with sufficient force to enable them to ascend. When the air-bladder of
a fish is burst, its power of ascending to the surface has for ever
passed away. From a knowledge of this fact, the fishermen of cod are
enabled to preserve them alive for a considerable time in their
well-boats. The means they adopt to accomplish this, is to perforate the
sound, or air-bladder, with a needle, which disengages the air, when the
fishes immediately descend to the bottom of the well, into which they
are thrown. Without this operation, it would be impossible to keep the
cod under water whilst they had life. In swimming, the _fins_ enable
fishes to preserve their upright position, especially those of the
belly, which act like two feet. Without those, they would swim with
their bellies upward, as it is in their backs that the centre of gravity
lies. In ascending and descending, these are likewise of great
assistance, as they contract and expand accordingly. The _tail_ is an
instrument of great muscular force, and largely assists the fish in all
its motions. In some instances it acts like the rudder of a ship, and
enables it to turn sideways; and when moved from side to side with a
quick vibratory motion, fishes are made, in the same manner as the
"screw" propeller makes a steamship, to dart forward with a celerity
proportioned to the muscular force with which it is employed.

202. THE BODIES OF FISHES are mostly covered with a kind of horny
scales; but some are almost entirely without them, or have them so
minute as to be almost invisible; as is the case with the eel. The
object of these is to preserve them from injury by the pressure of the
water, or the sudden contact with pebbles, rocks, or sea-weeds. Others,
again, are enveloped in a fatty, oleaginous substance, also intended as
a defence against the friction of the water; and those in which the
scales are small, are supplied with a larger quantity of slimy matter.

203. THE RESPIRATION OF FISHES is effected by means of those comb-like
organs which are placed on each side of the neck, and which are called
gills. It is curious to watch the process of breathing as it is
performed by the finny tribes. It seems to be so continuous, that it
might almost pass for an illustration of the vexed problem which
conceals the secret of perpetual motion. In performing it, they fill
their mouths with water, which they drive backwards with a force so
great as to open the large flap, to allow it to escape behind. In this
operation all, or a great portion, of the air contained in the water, is
left among the feather-like processes of the gills, and is carried into
the body, there to perform its part in the animal economy. In proof of
this, it has been ascertained that, if the water in which fishes are
put, is, by any means, denuded of its air, they immediately seek the
surface, and begin to gasp for it. Hence, distilled water is to them
what a vacuum made by an air-pump, is to most other animals. For this
reason, when a fishpond, or other aqueous receptacle in which fishes are
kept, is entirely frozen over, it is necessary to make holes in the ice,
not so especially for the purpose of feeding them, as for that of giving
them air to breathe.

204. THE POSITIONS OF THE TEETH OF FISHES are well calculated to excite
our amazement; for, in some cases, these are situated in the jaws,
sometimes on the tongue or palate, and sometimes even in the throat.
They are in general sharp-pointed and immovable; but in the carp they
are obtuse, and in the pike so easily moved as to seem to have no deeper
hold than such as the mere skin can afford. In the herring, the tongue
is set with teeth, to enable it the better, it is supposed, to retain
its food.

205. ALTHOUGH NATURALISTS HAVE DIVIDED FISHES into two great tribes, the
_osseous_ and the _cartilaginous_, yet the distinction is not very
precise; for the first have a great deal of cartilage, and the second,
at any rate, a portion of calcareous matter in their bones. It may,
therefore, be said that the bones of fishes form a kind of intermediate
substance between true bones and cartilages. The backbone extends
through the whole length of the body, and consists of vertebrae, strong
and thick towards the head, but weaker and more slender as it approaches
the tail. Each species has a determinate number of vertebrae, which are
increased in size in proportion with the body. The ribs are attached to
the processes of the vertebrae, and inclose the breast and abdomen. Some
kinds, as the rays, have no ribs; whilst others, as the sturgeon and
eel, have very short ones. Between the pointed processes of the
vertebrae are situated the bones which support the dorsal (back) and the
anal (below the tail) fins, which are connected with the processes by a
ligament. At the breast are the sternum or breastbone, clavicles or
collar-bones, and the scapulae or shoulder-blades, on which the
pectoral or breast fins are placed. The bones which support the ventral
or belly fins are called the _ossa pelvis_. Besides these principal
bones, there are often other smaller ones, placed between the muscles to
assist their motion.

206. SOME OF THE ORGANS OF SENSE IN FISHES are supposed to be possessed
by them in a high degree, and others much more imperfectly. Of the
latter kind are the senses of touch and taste, which are believed to be
very slightly developed. On the other hand, those of hearing, seeing,
and smelling, are ascertained to be acute, but the first in a lesser
degree than both the second and third. Their possession of an auditory
organ was long doubted, and even denied by some physiologists; but it
has been found placed on the sides of the skull, or in the cavity which
contains the brain. It occupies a position entirely distinct and
detached from the skull, and, in this respect, differs in the local
disposition of the same sense in birds and quadrupeds. In some fishes,
as in those of the ray kind, the organ is wholly encompassed by those
parts which contain the cavity of the skull; whilst in the cod and
salmon kind it is in the part within the skull. Its structure is, in
every way, much more simple than that of the same sense in those animals
which live entirely in the air; but there is no doubt that they have the
adaptation suitable to their condition. In some genera, as in the rays,
the external orifice or ear is very small, and is placed in the upper
surface of the head; whilst in others there is no visible external
orifice whatever. However perfect the _sight_ of fishes may be,
experience has shown that this sense is of much less use to them than
that of smelling, in searching for their food. The optic nerves in
fishes have this peculiarity,--that they are not confounded with one
another in their middle progress between their origin and their orbit.
The one passes over the other without any communication; so that the
nerve which comes from the left side of the brain goes distinctly to the
right eye, and that which comes from the right goes distinctly to the
left. In the greater part of them, the eye is covered with the same
transparent skin that covers the rest of the head. The object of this
arrangement, perhaps, is to defend it from the action of the water, as
there are no eyelids. The globe in front is somewhat depressed, and is
furnished behind with a muscle, which serves to lengthen or flatten it,
according to the necessities of the animal. The crystalline humour,
which in quadrupeds is flattened, is, in fishes, nearly globular. The
organ of _smelling_ in fishes is large, and is endued, at its entry,
with a dilating and contracting power, which is employed as the wants of
the animal may require. It is mostly by the acuteness of their smell
that fishes are enabled to discover their food; for their tongue is not
designed for nice sensation, being of too firm a cartilaginous substance
for this purpose.

207. WITH RESPECT TO THE FOOD OF FISHES, this is almost universally
found in their own element. They are mostly carnivorous, though they
seize upon almost anything that comes in their way: they even devour
their own offspring, and manifest a particular predilection for all
living creatures. Those, to which Nature has meted out mouths of the
greatest capacity, would seem to pursue everything with life, and
frequently engage in fierce conflicts with their prey. The animal with
the largest mouth is usually the victor; and he has no sooner conquered
his foe than he devours him. Innumerable shoals of one species pursue
those of another, with a ferocity which draws them from the pole to the
equator, through all the varying temperatures and depths of their
boundless domain. In these pursuits a scene of universal violence is the
result; and many species must have become extinct, had not Nature
accurately proportioned the means of escape, the production, and the
numbers, to the extent and variety of the danger to which they are
exposed. Hence the smaller species are not only more numerous, but more
productive than the larger; whilst their instinct leads them in search
of food and safety near the shores, where, from the shallowness of the
waters, many of their foes are unable to follow them.

208. THE FECUNDITY OF FISHES has been the wonder of every natural
philosopher whose attention has been attracted to the subject. They are
in general oviparous, or egg-producing; but there are a few, such as the
eel and the blenny, which are viviparous, or produce their young alive.
The males have the _milt_ and the females the _roe_; but some
individuals, as the sturgeon and the cod tribes, are said to contain
both. The greater number deposit their spawn in the sand or gravel; but
some of those which dwell in the depths of the ocean attach their eggs
to sea-weeds. In every instance, however, their fruitfulness far
surpasses that of any other race of animals. According to Lewenhoeck,
the cod annually spawns upwards of nine millions of eggs, contained in a
single roe. The flounder produces one million; the mackerel above five
hundred thousand; a herring of a moderate size at least ten thousand; a
carp fourteen inches in length, according to Petit, contained two
hundred and sixty-two thousand two hundred and twenty-four; a perch
deposited three hundred and eighty thousand six hundred and forty; and a
female sturgeon seven millions six hundred and fifty-three thousand two
hundred. The viviparous species are by no means so prolific; yet the
blenny brings forth two or three hundred at a time, which commence
sporting together round their parent the moment they have come into
existence.

209. IN REFERENCE TO THE LONGEVITY OF FISHES, it is affirmed to surpass
that of all other created beings; and it is supposed they are, to a
great extent, exempted from the diseases to which the flesh of other
animals is heir. In place of suffering from the rigidity of age, which
is the cause of the natural decay of those that "live and move and have
their being" on the land, their bodies continue to grow with each
succeeding supply of food, and the conduits of life to perform their
functions unimpaired. The age of fishes has not been properly
ascertained, although it is believed that the most minute of the species
has a longer lease of life than man. The mode in which they die has been
noted by the Rev. Mr. White, the eminent naturalist of Selbourne. As
soon as the fish sickens, the head sinks lower and lower, till the
animal, as it were, stands upon it. After this, as it becomes weaker, it
loses its poise, till the tail turns over, when it comes to the surface,
and floats with its belly upwards. The reason for its floating in this
manner is on account of the body being no longer balanced by the fins of
the belly, and the broad muscular back preponderating, by its own
gravity, over the belly, from this latter being a cavity, and
consequently lighter.

210. FISHES ARE EITHER SOLITARY OR GREGARIOUS, and some of them migrate
to great distances, and into certain rivers, to deposit their spawn. Of
sea-fishes, the cod, herring, mackerel, and many others, assemble in
immense shoals, and migrate through different tracts of the ocean; but,
whether considered in their solitary or gregarious capacity, they are
alike wonderful to all who look through Nature up to Nature's God, and
consider, with due humility, yet exalted admiration, the sublime
variety, beauty, power, and grandeur of His productions, as manifested
in the Creation.


FISH AS AN ARTICLE OF HUMAN FOOD.

211. AS THE NUTRITIVE PROPERTIES OF FISH are deemed inferior to those of
what is called butchers' meat, it would appear, from all we can learn,
that, in all ages, it has held only a secondary place in the estimation
of those who have considered the science of gastronomy as a large
element in the happiness of mankind. Among the Jews of old it was very
little used, although it seems not to have been entirely interdicted, as
Moses prohibited only the use of such as had neither scales nor fins.
The Egyptians, however, made fish an article of diet, notwithstanding
that it was rejected by their priests. Egypt, however, is not a country
favourable to the production of fish, although we read of the people,
when hungry, eating it raw; of epicures among them having dried it in
the sun; and of its being salted and preserved, to serve as a repast on
days of great solemnity.

    The modern Egyptians are, in general, extremely temperate in
    regard to food. Even the richest among them take little pride,
    and, perhaps, experience as little delight, in the luxuries of
    the table. Their dishes mostly consist of pilaus, soups, and
    stews, prepared principally of onions, cucumbers, and other cold
    vegetables, mixed with a little meat cut into small pieces. On
    special occasions, however, a whole sheep is placed on the
    festive board; but during several of the hottest months of the
    year, the richest restrict themselves entirely to a vegetable
    diet. The poor are contented with a little oil or sour milk, in
    which they may dip their bread.

212. PASSING FROM AFRICA TO EUROPE, we come amongst a people who have,
almost from time immemorial, occupied a high place in the estimation of
every civilized country; yet the Greeks, in their earlier ages, made
very little use of fish as an article of diet. In the eyes of the heroes
of Homer it had little favour; for Menelaus complained that "hunger
pressed their digestive organs," and they had been obliged to live upon
fish. Subsequently, however, fish became one of the principal articles
of diet amongst the Hellenes; and both Aristophanes and Athenaeus allude
to it, and even satirize their countrymen for their excessive partiality
to the turbot and mullet.

    So infatuated were many of the Greek gastronomes with the love
    of fish, that some of them would have preferred death from
    indigestion to the relinquishment of the precious dainties with
    which a few of the species supplied them. Philoxenes of Cythera
    was one of these. On being informed by his physician that he was
    going to die of indigestion, on account of the quantity he was
    consuming of a delicious fish, "Be it so," he calmly observed;
    "but before I die, let me finish the remainder."

213. THE GEOGRAPHICAL SITUATION OF GREECE was highly favourable for the
development of a taste for the piscatory tribes; and the skill of the
Greek cooks was so great, that they could impart every variety of relish
to the dish they were called upon to prepare. Athenaeus has transmitted
to posterity some very important precepts upon their ingenuity in
seasoning with salt, oil, and aromatics.

    At the present day the food of the Greeks, through the combined
    influence of poverty and the long fasts which their religion
    imposes upon them, is, to a large extent, composed of fish,
    accompanied with vegetables and fruit. Caviare, prepared from
    the roes of sturgeons, is the national ragout, which, like all
    other fish dishes, they season with aromatic herbs. Snails
    dressed in garlic are also a favourite dish.

214. AS THE ROMANS, in a great measure, took their taste in the fine
arts from the Greeks, so did they, in some measure, their piscine
appetites. The eel-pout and the lotas's liver were the favourite fish
dishes of the Roman epicures; whilst the red mullet was esteemed as one
of the most delicate fishes that could be brought to the table.

    With all the elegance, taste, and refinement of Roman luxury, it
    was sometimes promoted or accompanied by acts of great
    barbarity. In proof of this, the mention of the red mullet
    suggests the mode in which it was sometimes treated for the, to
    us, _horrible_ entertainment of the _fashionable_ in Roman
    circles. It may be premised, that as England has, Rome, in her
    palmy days, had, her fops, who had, no doubt, through the medium
    of their cooks, discovered that when the scales of the red
    mullet were removed, the flesh presented a fine pink-colour.
    Having discovered this, it was further observed that at the
    death of the animal, this colour passed through a succession of
    beautiful shades, and, in order that these might be witnessed
    and enjoyed in their fullest perfection, the poor mullet was
    served alive in a glass vessel.

215. THE LOVE OF FISH among the ancient Romans rose to a real mania.
Apicius offered a prize to any one who could invent a new brine
compounded of the liver of red mullets; and Lucullus had a canal cut
through a mountain, in the neighbourhood of Naples, that fish might be
the more easily transported to the gardens of his villa. Hortensius, the
orator, wept over the death of a turbot which he had fed with his own
hands; and the daughter of Druses adorned one that she had, with rings
of gold. These were, surely, instances of misplaced affection; but there
is no accounting for tastes. It was but the other day that we read in
the "_Times_" of a wealthy _living_ English hermit, who delights in the
companionship of rats!

    The modern Romans are merged in the general name of Italians,
    who, with the exception of macaroni, have no specially
    characteristic article of food.

216. FROM ROME TO GAUL is, considering the means of modern locomotion,
no great way; but the ancient sumptuary laws of that kingdom give us
little information regarding the ichthyophagous propensities of its
inhabitants. Louis XII. engaged six fishmongers to furnish his board
with fresh-water animals, and Francis I. had twenty-two, whilst Henry
the Great extended his requirements a little further, and had
twenty-four. In the time of Louis XIV. the cooks had attained to such a
degree of perfection in their art, that they could convert the form and
flesh of the trout, pike, or carp, into the very shape and flavour of
the most delicious game.

    The French long enjoyed a European reputation for their skill
    and refinement in the preparing of food. In place of plain
    joints, French cookery delights in the marvels of what are
    called made dishes, ragouts, stews, and fricassees, in which no
    trace of the original materials of which they are compounded is
    to be found.

217. FROM GAUL WE CROSS TO BRITAIN, where it has been asserted, by, at
least, one authority, that the ancient inhabitants ate no fish. However
this may be, we know that the British shores, particularly those of the
North Sea, have always been well supplied with the best kinds of fish,
which we may reasonably infer was not unknown to the inhabitants, or
likely to be lost upon them for the lack of knowledge as to how they
tasted. By the time of Edward II., fish had, in England, become a
dainty, especially the sturgeon, which was permitted to appear on no
table but that of the king. In the fourteenth century, a decree of King
John informs us that the people ate both seals and porpoises; whilst in
the days of the Troubadours, whales were fished for and caught in the
Mediterranean Sea, for the purpose of being used as human food.

    Whatever checks the ancient British may have had upon their
    piscatory appetites, there are happily none of any great
    consequence upon the modern, who delight in wholesome food of
    every kind. Their taste is, perhaps, too much inclined to that
    which is accounted solid and substantial; but they really eat
    more moderately, even of animal food, than either the French or
    the Germans. Roast beef, or other viands cooked in the plainest
    manner, are, with them, a sufficient luxury; yet they delight in
    living _well_, whilst it is easy to prove how largely their
    affections are developed by even the prospect of a substantial
    cheer. In proof of this we will just observe, that if a great
    dinner is to be celebrated, it is not uncommon for the appointed
    stewards and committee to meet and have a preliminary dinner
    among themselves, in order to arrange the great one, and after
    that, to have another dinner to discharge the bill which the
    great one cost. This enjoyable disposition we take to form a
    very large item in the aggregate happiness of the nation.

218. THE GENERAL USE OF FISH, as an article of human food among
civilized nations, we have thus sufficiently shown, and will conclude
this portion of our subject with the following hints, which ought to be
remembered by all those who are fond of occasionally varying their
dietary with a piscine dish:--

I. Fish shortly before they spawn are, in general, best in condition.
When the spawning is just over, they are out of season, and unfit for
human food.

II. When fish is out of season, it has a transparent, bluish tinge,
however much it may be boiled; when it is in season, its muscles are
firm, and boil white and curdy.

III. As food for invalids, white fish, such as the ling, cod, haddock,
coal-fish, and whiting, are the best; flat fish, as soles, skate,
turbot, and flounders, are also good.

IV. Salmon, mackerel, herrings, and trout soon spoil or decompose after
they are killed; therefore, to be in perfection, they should be prepared
for the table on the day they are caught. With flat fish, this is not of
such consequence, as they will keep longer. The turbot, for example, is
improved by being kept a day or two.


GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR DRESSING FISH.

219. IN DRESSING FISH, of any kind, the first point to be attended to,
is to see that it be perfectly clean. It is a common error to wash it
too much; as by doing so the flavour is diminished. If the fish is to be
boiled, a little salt and vinegar should be put into the water, to give
it firmness, after it is cleaned. Cod-fish, whiting, and haddock, are
far better if a little salted, and kept a day; and if the weather be not
very hot, they will be good for two days.

220. WHEN FISH IS CHEAP AND PLENTIFUL, and a larger quantity is
purchased than is immediately wanted, the overplus of such as will bear
it should be potted, or pickled, or salted, and hung up; or it may be
fried, that it may serve for stewing the next day. Fresh-water fish,
having frequently a muddy smell and taste, should be soaked in strong
salt and water, after it has been well cleaned. If of a sufficient size,
it may be scalded in salt and water, and afterwards dried and dressed.

221. FISH SHOULD BE PUT INTO COLD WATER, and set on the fire to do very
gently, or the outside will break before the inner part is done. Unless
the fishes are small, they should never be put into warm water; nor
should water, either hot or cold, be poured _on_ to the fish, as it is
liable to break the skin: if it should be necessary to add a little
water whilst the fish is cooking, it ought to be poured in gently at the
side of the vessel. The fish-plate may be drawn up, to see if the fish
be ready, which may be known by its easily separating from the bone. It
should then be immediately taken out of the water, or it will become
woolly. The fish-plate should be set crossways over the kettle, to keep
hot for serving, and a clean cloth over the fish, to prevent its losing
its colour.

222. IN GARNISHING FISH, great attention is required, and plenty of
parsley, horseradish, and lemon should be used. If fried parsley be
used, it must be washed and picked, and thrown into fresh water. When
the lard or dripping boils, throw the parsley into it immediately from
the water, and instantly it will be green and crisp, and must be taken
up with a slice. When well done, and with very good sauce, fish is more
appreciated than almost any other dish. The liver and roe, in some
instances, should be placed on the dish, in order that they may be
distributed in the course of serving; but to each recipe will be
appended the proper mode of serving and garnishing.

223. IF FISH IS TO BE FRIED OR BROILED, it must be dried in a nice soft
cloth, after it is well cleaned and washed. If for frying, brush it over
with egg, and sprinkle it with some fine crumbs of bread. If done a
second time with the egg and bread, the fish will look so much the
better. If required to be very nice, a sheet of white blotting-paper
must be placed to receive it, that it may be free from all grease. It
must also be of a beautiful colour, and all the crumbs appear distinct.
Butter gives a bad colour; lard and clarified dripping are most
frequently used; but oil is the best, if the expense be no objection.
The fish should be put into the lard when boiling, and there should be a
sufficiency of this to cover it.

224. WHEN FISH IS BROILED, it must be seasoned, floured, and laid on a
very clean gridiron, which, when hot, should be rubbed with a bit of
suet, to prevent the fish from sticking. It must be broiled over a very
clear fire, that it may not taste smoky; and not too near, that it may
not be scorched.

225. IN CHOOSING FISH, it is well to remember that it is possible it may
be _fresh_, and yet not _good_. Under the head of each particular fish
in this work, are appended rules for its choice and the months when it
is in season. Nothing can be of greater consequence to a cook than to
have the fish good; as if this important course in a dinner does not
give satisfaction, it is rarely that the repast goes off well.




RECIPES.


CHAPTER VIII.


FISH.

[_Nothing is more difficult than to give the average prices of Fish,
inasmuch as a few hours of bad weather at sea will, in the space of one
day, cause such a difference in its supply, that the same fish--a turbot
for instance--which may be bought to-day for six or seven shillings,
will, to-morrow, be, in the London markets, worth, perhaps, almost as
many pounds. The average costs, therefore, which will be found appended
to each recipe, must be understood as about the average price for the
different kinds of fish, when the market is supplied upon an average,
and when the various sorts are of an average size and quality._

GENERAL RULE IN CHOOSING FISH.--_A proof of freshness and goodness in
most fishes, is their being covered with scales; for, if deficient in
this respect, it is a sign of their being stale, or having been
ill-used._]

FRIED ANCHOVIES.

226. INGREDIENTS.--1 tablespoonful of oil, 1/2 a glass of white wine,
sufficient flour to thicken; 12 anchovies.

_Mode_.--Mix the oil and wine together, with sufficient flour to make
them into a thickish paste; cleanse the anchovies, wipe them, dip them
in the paste, and fry of a nice brown colour.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 9d.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 2 persons.

[Illustration: THE ANCHOVY.]

    THE ANCHOVY.--In his book of "British Fishes," Mr. Yarrell
    states that "the anchovy is a common fish in the Mediterranean,
    from Greece to Gibraltar, and was well known to the Greeks and
    Romans, by whom the liquor prepared from it, called _garum_, was
    in great estimation. Its extreme range is extended into the
    Black Sea. The fishing for them is carried on during the night,
    and lights are used with the nets. The anchovy is common on the
    coasts of Portugal, Spain, and France. It occurs, I have no
    doubt, at the Channel Islands, and has been taken on the
    Hampshire coast, and in the Bristol Channel." Other fish, of
    inferior quality, but resembling the real Gorgona anchovy, are
    frequently sold for it, and passed off as genuine.

ANCHOVY BUTTER OR PASTE.

227. INGREDIENTS.--2 dozen anchovies, 1/2 lb. of fresh butter.

_Mode_.--Wash the anchovies thoroughly; bone and dry them, and pound
them in a mortar to a paste. Mix the butter gradually with them, and rub
the whole through a sieve. Put it by in small pots for use, and
carefully exclude the air with a bladder, as it soon changes the colour
of anchovies, besides spoiling them.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 2s.


POTTED ANCHOVIES.

POTTED ANCHOVIES are made in the same way, by adding pounded mace,
cayenne, and nutmeg to taste.


ANCHOVY TOAST.

228. INGREDIENTS.--Toast 2 or 3 slices of bread, or, if wanted very
savoury, fry them in clarified butter, and spread on them the paste, No.
227. Made mustard, or a few grains of cayenne, may be added to the paste
before laying it on the toast.

    ANCHOVY PASTE.--"When some delicate zest," says a work just
    issued on the adulterations of trade, "is required to make the
    plain English breakfast more palatable, many people are in the
    habit of indulging in what they imagine to be anchovies. These
    fish are preserved in a kind of pickling-bottle, carefully
    corked down, and surrounded by a red-looking liquor, resembling
    in appearance diluted clay. The price is moderate, one shilling
    only being demanded for the luxury. When these anchovies are
    what is termed potted, it implies that the fish have been
    pounded into the consistency of a paste, and then placed in flat
    pots, somewhat similar in shape to those used for pomatum. This
    paste is usually eaten spread upon toast, and is said to form an
    excellent _bonne bouche_, which enables gentlemen at
    wine-parties to enjoy their port with redoubled gusto.
    Unfortunately, in six cases out of ten, the only portion of
    these preserved delicacies, that contains anything indicative of
    anchovies, is the paper label pasted on the bottle or pot, on
    which the word itself is printed.... All the samples of anchovy
    paste, analyzed by different medical men, have been found to be
    highly and vividly coloured with very large quantities of bole
    Armenian." The anchovy itself, when imported, is of a dark dead
    colour, and it is to make it a bright "handsome-looking sauce"
    that this red earth is used.

BARBEL.

229. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of port wine, a saltspoonful of salt, 2
tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 2 sliced onions, a faggot of sweet herbs,
nutmeg and mace to taste, the juice of a lemon, 2 anchovies; 1 or 2
barbels, according to size.

_Mode_--Boil the barbels in salt and water till done; pour off some of
the water, and, to the remainder, put the ingredients mentioned above.
Simmer gently for 1/2 hour, or rather more, and strain. Put in the fish;
heat it gradually; but do not let it boil, or it will be broken.

_Time_.--Altogether 1 hour. _Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ from September to November.

[Illustration: THE BARBEL.]

    THE BARBEL,--This fish takes its name from the barbs or wattels
    at its mouth; and, in England, is esteemed as one of the worst
    of the fresh-water fish. It was, however, formerly, if not now,
    a favourite with the Jews, excellent cookers of fish. Others
    would boil with it a piece of bacon, that it might have a
    relish. It is to be met with from two to three or four feet
    long, and is said to live to a great age. From Putney upwards,
    in the Thames, some are found of large size; but they are valued
    only as affording sport to the brethren of the angle.

BRILL.

230. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of salt to each gallon of water; a little
vinegar.

_Mode_.--Clean the brill, cut off the fins, and rub it over with a
little lemon-juice, to preserve its whiteness. Set the fish in
sufficient cold water to cover it; throw in salt, in the above
proportions, and a little vinegar, and bring it gradually to boil;
simmer very gently till the fish is done, which will be in about 10
minutes; but the time for boiling, of course, depends entirely on the
size of the fish. Serve it on a hot napkin, and garnish with cut lemon,
parsley, horseradish, and a little lobster coral sprinkled over the
fish. Send lobster or shrimp sauce and plain melted butter to table with
it.

_Time_.--After the water boils, a small brill, 10 minutes; a large
brill, 15 to 20 minutes.

_Average cost_, from 4s. to 8s.

_Seasonable_ from August to April.

[Illustration: THE BRILL.]

    THE BRILL.--This fish resembles the sole, but is broader, and
    when large, is esteemed by many in a scarcely less degree than
    the turbot, whilst it is much cheaper. It is a fine fish, and is
    abundant in the London market.

TO CHOOSE BRILL.--The flesh of this fish, like that of turbot, should be
of a yellowish tint, and should be chosen on account of its thickness.
If the flesh has a bluish tint, it is not good.


CODFISH.

231. Cod may be boiled whole; but a large head and shoulders are quite
sufficient for a dish, and contain all that is usually helped, because,
when the thick part is done, the tail is insipid and overdone. The
latter, cut in slices, makes a very good dish for frying; or it may be
salted down and served with egg sauce and parsnips. Cod, when boiled
quite fresh, is watery; salting a little, renders it firmer.

[Illustration: THE COD.]

    THE COD TRIBE.--The Jugular, characterized by bony gills, and
    ventral fins before the pectoral ones, commences the second of
    the Linnaean orders of fishes, and is a numerous tribe,
    inhabiting only the depths of the ocean, and seldom visiting the
    fresh waters. They have a smooth head, and the gill membrane has
    seven rays. The body is oblong, and covered with deciduous
    scales. The fins are all inclosed in skin, whilst their rays are
    unarmed. The ventral fins are slender, and terminate in a point.
    Their habits are gregarious, and they feed on smaller fish and
    other marine animals.

COD'S HEAD AND SHOULDERS.

232. INGREDIENTS.--Sufficient water to cover the fish; 5 oz. of salt to
each gallon of water.

_Mode_.--Cleanse the fish thoroughly, and rub a little salt over the
thick part and inside of the fish, 1 or 2 hours before dressing it, as
this very much improves the flavour. Lay it in the fish-kettle, with
sufficient cold water to cover it. Be very particular not to pour the
water on the fish, as it is liable to break it, and only keep it just
simmering. If the water should boil away, add a little by pouring it in
at the side of the kettle, and not on the fish. Add salt in the above
proportion, and bring it gradually to a boil. Skim very carefully, draw
it to the side of the fire, and let it gently simmer till done. Take it
out and drain it; serve on a hot napkin, and garnish with cut lemon,
horseradish, the roe and liver. (_See_ Coloured Plate C.)

_Time_.--According to size, 1/2 an hour, more or less. _Average cost_,
from 3s. to 6s.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ from November to March.

_Note_.--Oyster sauce and plain melted butter should be served with
this.

TO CHOOSE COD.--The cod should be chosen for the table when it is plump
and round near the tail, when the hollow behind the head is deep, and
when the sides are undulated as if they were ribbed. The glutinous parts
about the head lose their delicate flavour, after the fish has been
twenty-four hours out of the water. The great point by which the cod
should be judged is the firmness of its flesh; and, although the cod is
not firm when it is alive, its quality may be arrived at by pressing the
finger into the flesh. If this rises immediately, the fish is good; if
not, it is stale. Another sign of its goodness is, if the fish, when it
is cut, exhibits a bronze appearance, like the silver side of a round of
beef. When this is the case, the flesh will be firm when cooked.
Stiffness in a cod, or in any other fish, is a sure sign of freshness,
though not always of quality. Sometimes, codfish, though exhibiting
signs of rough usage, will eat much better than those with red gills, so
strongly recommended by many cookery-books. This appearance is generally
caused by the fish having been knocked about at sea, in the well-boats,
in which they are conveyed from the fishing-grounds to market.


SALT COD, COMMONLY CALLED "SALT-FISH."

233. INGREDIENTS.--Sufficient water to cover the fish.

_Mode_.--Wash the fish, and lay it all night in water, with a 1/4 pint
of vinegar. When thoroughly soaked, take it out, see that it is
perfectly clean, and put it in the fish-kettle with sufficient cold
water to cover it. Heat it gradually, but do not let it boil much, or
the fish will be hard. Skim well, and when done, drain the fish and put
it on a napkin garnished with hard-boiled eggs cut in rings.

_Time_.--About 1 hour. _Average cost_, 6d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ in the spring.

_Sufficient_ for each person, 1/4 lb.

_Note_.--Serve with egg sauce and parsnips. This is an especial dish on
Ash Wednesday.

    PRESERVING COD.--Immediately as the cod are caught, their heads
    are cut off. They are then opened, cleaned, and salted, when
    they are stowed away in the hold of the vessel, in beds of five
    or six yards square, head to tail, with a layer of salt to each
    layer of fish. When they have lain in this state three or four
    days, in order that the water may drain from them, they are
    shifted into a different part of the vessel, and again salted.
    Here they remain till the vessel is loaded, when they are
    sometimes cut into thick pieces and packed in barrels for the
    greater convenience of carriage.

COD SOUNDS.

Should be well soaked in salt and water, and thoroughly washed before
dressing them. They are considered a great delicacy, and may either be
broiled, fried, or boiled: if they are boiled, mix a little milk with
the water.


COD SOUNDS, EN POULE.

234. INGREDIENTS.--For forcemeat, 12 chopped oysters, 3 chopped
anchovies, 1/4 lb. of bread crumbs, 1 oz. of butter, 2 eggs; seasoning
of salt, pepper, nutmeg, and mace to taste; 4 cod sounds.

_Mode_.--Make the forcemeat by mixing the ingredients well together.
Wash the sounds, and boil them in milk and water for 1/2 an hour; take
them out and let them cool. Cover each with a layer of forcemeat, roll
them up in a nice form, and skewer them. Rub over with lard, dredge with
flour, and cook them gently before the fire in a Dutch oven.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_, 6d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ from November to March. _Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

    THE SOUNDS IN CODFISH.--These are the air or swimming bladders,
    by means of which the fishes are enabled to ascend or descend in
    the water. In the Newfoundland fishery they are taken out
    previous to incipient putrefaction, washed from their slime and
    salted for exportation. The tongues are also cured and packed up
    in barrels; whilst, from the livers, considerable quantities of
    oil are extracted, this oil having been found possessed of the
    most nourishing properties, and particularly beneficial in cases
    of pulmonary affections.

COD PIE.

(_Economical_.)

I.

235. INGREDIENTS.--Any remains of cold cod, 12 oysters, sufficient
melted butter to moisten it; mashed potatoes enough to fill up the dish.

_Mode_.--Flake the fish from the bone, and carefully take away all the
skin. Lay it in a pie-dish, pour over the melted butter and oysters (or
oyster sauce, if there is any left), and cover with mashed potatoes.
Bake for 1/2 an hour, and send to table of a nice brown colour.

_Time_.--1/2 hour.

_Seasonable_ from November to March.


II.

236. INGREDIENTS.--2 slices of cod; pepper and salt to taste; 1/2 a
teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 1 large blade of pounded mace, 2 oz. of
butter, 1/2 pint of stock No. 107, a paste crust (_see_ Pastry). For
sauce, 1 tablespoonful of stock, 1/4 pint of cream or milk, thickening
of flour or butter; lemon-peel chopped very fine to taste; 12 oysters.

_Mode_.--Lay the cod in salt for 4 hours, then wash it and place it in a
dish; season, and add the butter and stock; cover with the crust, and
bake for 1 hour, or rather more. Now make the sauce, by mixing the
ingredients named above; give it one boil, and pour it into the pie by a
hole made at the top of the crust, which can easily be covered by a
small piece of pastry cut and baked in any fanciful shape--such as a
leaf, or otherwise.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, with fresh fish, 2s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ from November to March.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

_Note_.--The remains of cold fish may be used for this pie.


CURRIED COD.

237. INGREDIENTS.--2 slices of large cod, or the remains of any cold
fish; 3 oz. of butter, 1 onion sliced, a teacupful of white stock,
thickening of butter and flour, 1 small teaspoonful of curry-powder,
1/4 pint of cream, salt and cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Flake the fish, and fry it of a nice brown colour with the
butter and onions; put this in a stewpan, add the stock and thickening,
and simmer for 10 minutes. Stir the curry-powder into the cream; put it,
with the seasoning, to the other ingredients; give one boil, and serve.

_Time_.--3/4 hour. _Average cost_, with fresh fish, 3s.

_Seasonable_ from November to March.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

    THE FOOD OF THE COD.--This chiefly consists of the smaller
    species of the scaly tribes, shell-fish, crabs, and worms. Their
    voracity is very great, and they will bite at any small body
    they see moved by the water, even stones and pebbles, which are
    frequently found in their stomachs. They sometimes attain a
    great size, but their usual weight is from 14 to 40 lbs.

COD A LA CREME.

238. INGREDIENTS.--1 large slice of cod, 1 oz. of butter, 1 chopped
shalot, a little minced parsley, 1/4 teacupful of white stock, 1/4 pint
of milk or cream, flour to thicken, cayenne and lemon-juice to taste,
1/4 teaspoonful of powdered sugar.

_Mode_.--Boil the cod, and while hot, break it into flakes; put the
butter, shalot, parsley, and stock into a stewpan, and let them boil for
5 minutes. Stir in sufficient flour to thicken, and pour to it the milk
or cream. Simmer for 10 minutes, add the cayenne and sugar, and, when
liked, a little lemon-juice. Put the fish in the sauce to warm
gradually, but do not let it boil. Serve in a dish garnished with
croutons.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, with cream, 2s.

_Seasonable_ from November to March.

_Sufficient_ for 3 persons.

_Note_.--The remains of fish from the preceding day answer very well for
this dish.


COD A LA BECHAMEL.

239. INGREDIENTS.--Any remains of cold cod, 4 tablespoonfuls of bechamel
(_see_ Sauces), 2 oz. butter; seasoning to taste of pepper and salt;
fried bread, a few bread crumbs.

_Mode_.--Flake the cod carefully, leaving out all skin and bone; put the
bechamel in a stewpan with the butter, and stir it over the fire till
the latter is melted; add seasoning, put in the fish, and mix it well
with the sauce. Make a border of fried bread round the dish, lay in the
fish, sprinkle over with bread crumbs, and baste with butter. Brown
either before the fire or with a salamander, and garnish with toasted
bread cut in fanciful shapes.

_Time_.--1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the fish, 6d.

    THE HABITAT OF THE COD.--This fish is found only in the seas of
    the northern parts of the world, between the latitudes of 45 deg.
    and 66 deg.. Its great rendezvous are the sandbanks of Newfoundland,
    Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, and New England. These places are its
    favourite resorts; for there it is able to obtain great
    quantities of worms, a food peculiarly grateful to it. Another
    cause of its attachment to these places has been said to be on
    account of the vicinity to the Polar seas, where it returns to
    spawn. Few are taken north of Iceland, and the shoals never
    reach so far south as the Straits of Gibraltar. Many are taken
    on the coasts of Norway, in the Baltic, and off the Orkneys,
    which, prior to the discovery of Newfoundland, formed one of the
    principal fisheries. The London market is supplied by those
    taken between the Dogger Bank, the Well Bank, and Cromer, on the
    east coast of England.

COD A LA MAITRE D'HOTEL.

240. INGREDIENTS.--2 slices of cod, 1/4 lb. of butter, a little chopped
shalot and parsley; pepper to taste, 1/4 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg,
or rather less, when the flavour is not liked; the juice of 1/4 lemon.

_Mode_.--Boil the cod, and either leave it whole, or, what is still
better, flake it from the bone, and take off the skin. Put it into a
stewpan with the butter, parsley, shalot, pepper, and nutmeg. Melt the
butter gradually, and be very careful that it does not become like oil.
When all is well mixed and thoroughly hot, add the lemon-juice, and
serve.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 2s. 6d.; with remains of cold fish,
5d.

_Seasonable_ from November to March.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Note_.--Cod that has been left will do for this.

    THE SEASON FOR FISHING COD.--The best season for catching cod is
    from the beginning of February to the end of April; and although
    each fisherman engaged in taking them, catches no more than one
    at a time, an expert hand will sometimes take four hundred in a
    day. The employment is excessively fatiguing, from the weight of
    the fish as well as from the coldness of the climate.

COD A L'ITALIENNE.

241. INGREDIENTS.--2 slices of crimped cod, 1 shalot, 1 slice of ham
minced very fine, 1/2 pint of white stock, No. 107; when liked, 1/2
teacupful of cream; salt to taste; a few drops of garlic vinegar, a
little lemon-juice, 1/2 teaspoonful of powdered sugar.

_Mode_.--Chop the shalots, mince the ham very fine, pour on the stock,
and simmer for 15 minutes. If the colour should not be good, add cream
in the above proportion, and strain it through a fine sieve; season it,
and put in the vinegar, lemon-juice, and sugar. Now boil the cod, take
out the middle bone, and skin it; put it on the dish without breaking,
and pour the sauce over it.

_Time_.--3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 3s. 6d., with fresh fish.

_Seasonable_ from November to March.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

    THE FECUNDITY OF THE COD.--In our preceding remarks on the
    natural history of fishes, we have spoken of the amazing
    fruitfulness of this fish; but in this we see one more instance
    of the wise provision which Nature has made for supplying the
    wants of man. So extensive has been the consumption of this
    fish, that it is surprising that it has not long ago become
    extinct; which would certainly have been the case, had it not
    been for its wonderful powers of reproduction. "So early as
    1368," says Dr. Cloquet, "the inhabitants of Amsterdam had
    dispatched fishermen to the coast of Sweden; and in the first
    quarter of 1792, from the ports of France only, 210 vessels went
    out to the cod-fisheries. Every year, however, upwards of 10,000
    vessels, of all nations, are employed in this trade, and bring
    into the commercial world more than 40,000,000 of salted and
    dried cod. If we add to this immense number, the havoc made
    among the legions of cod by the larger scaly tribes of the great
    deep, and take into account the destruction to which the young
    are exposed by sea-fowls and other inhabitants of the seas,
    besides the myriads of their eggs destroyed by accident, it
    becomes a miracle to find that such mighty multitudes of them
    are still in existence, and ready to continue the exhaustless
    supply. Yet it ceases to excite our wonder when we remember that
    the female can every year give birth to more than 9,000,000 at a
    time."

BAKED CARP.

242. INGREDIENTS--1 carp, forcemeat, bread crumbs, 1 oz. butter, 1/2
pint of stock No. 105, 1/2 pint of port wine, 6 anchovies, 2 onions
sliced, 1 bay-leaf, a faggot of sweet herbs, flour to thicken, the juice
of 1 lemon; cayenne and salt to taste; 1/2 teaspoonful of powdered
sugar.

_Mode_.--Stuff the carp with a delicate forcemeat, after thoroughly
cleansing it, and sew it up to prevent the stuffing from falling out.
Rub it over with an egg, and sprinkle it with bread crumbs, lay it in a
deep earthen dish, and drop the butter, oiled, over the bread crumbs.
Add the stock, onions, bay-leaf, herbs, wine, and anchovies, and bake
for 1 hour. Put 1 oz. of butter into a stewpan, melt it, and dredge in
sufficient flour to dry it up; put in the strained liquor from the carp,
stir frequently, and when it has boiled, add the lemon-juice and
seasoning. Serve the carp on a dish garnished with parsley and cut
lemon, and the sauce in a boat.

_Time_.--1-1/4 hour. _Average cost_. Seldom bought.

_Seasonable_ from March to October.

_Sufficient_ for 1 or 2 persons.

[Illustration: THE CARP.]

    THE CARP.--This species of fish inhabit the fresh waters, where
    they feed on worms, insects, aquatic plants, small fish, clay,
    or mould. Some of them are migratory. They have very small
    mouths and no teeth, and the gill membrane has three rays. The
    body is smooth, and generally whitish. The carp both grows and
    increases very fast, and is accounted the most valuable of all
    fish for the stocking of ponds. It has been pronounced the queen
    of river-fish, and was first introduced to this country about
    three hundred years ago. Of its sound, or air-bladder, a kind of
    glue is made, and a green paint of its gall.

STEWED CARP.

243. INGREDIENTS.--1 carp, salt, stock No. 105, 2 onions, 6 cloves, 12
peppercorns, 1 blade of mace, 1/4 pint of port wine, the juice of 1/2
lemon, cayenne and salt to taste, a faggot of savoury herbs.

_Mode_.--Scale the fish, clean it nicely, and, if very large, divide it;
lay it in the stewpan, after having rubbed a little salt on it, and put
in sufficient stock to cover it; add the herbs, onions, and spices, and
stew gently for 1 hour, or rather more, should it be very large. Dish up
the fish with great care, strain the liquor, and add to it the port
wine, lemon-juice, and cayenne; give one boil, pour it over the fish,
and serve.

_Time_.--1-1/4 hour. _Average cost_. Seldom bought.

_Seasonable_ from March to October.

_Sufficient_ for 1 or 2 persons.

_Note_.--This fish can be boiled plain, and served with parsley and
butter. Chub and Char may be cooked in the same manner as the above, as
also Dace and Roach.

    THE AGE OF CARP.--This fish has been found to live 150 years.
    The pond in the garden of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, contained
    one that had lived there 70 years, and Gesner mentions an
    instance of one 100 years old. They are, besides, capable of
    being tamed. Dr. Smith, in his "Tour on the Continent," says, in
    reference to the prince of Conde's seat at Chantilly, "The most
    pleasing things about it were the immense shoals of very large
    carp, silvered over with age, like silver-fish, and perfectly
    tame; so that, when any passengers approached their watery
    habitation, they used to come to the shore in such numbers as to
    heave each other out of the water, begging for bread, of which a
    quantity was always kept at hand, on purpose to feed them. They
    would even allow themselves to be handled."

[Illustration: THE CHUB.]

[Illustration: THE CHAR.]

    THE CHUB.--This fish takes its name from its head, not only in
    England, but in other countries. It is a river-fish, and
    resembles the carp, but is somewhat longer. Its flesh is not in
    much esteem, being coarse, and, when out of season, full of
    small hairy bones. The head and throat are the best parts. The
    roe is also good.

    THE CHAR.--This is one of the most delicious of fish, being
    esteemed by some superior to the salmon. It is an inhabitant of
    the deep lakes of mountainous countries. Its flesh is rich and
    red, and full of fat. The largest and best kind is found in the
    lakes of Westmoreland, and, as it is considered a rarity, it is
    often potted and preserved.

    THE DACE, OR DARE.--This fish is gregarious, and is seldom above
    ten inches long; although, according to Linnaeus, it grows a
    foot and a half in length. Its haunts are in deep water, near
    piles of bridges, where the stream is gentle, over gravelly,
    sandy, or clayey bottoms; deep holes that are shaded, water-lily
    leaves, and under the foam caused by an eddy. In the warm months
    they are to be found in shoals on the shallows near to streams.
    They are in season about the end of April, and gradually improve
    till February, when they attain their highest condition. In that
    month, when just taken, scotched (crimped), and broiled, they
    are said to be more palatable than a fresh herring.

    THE ROACH.--This fish is found throughout Europe, and the
    western parts of Asia, in deep still rivers, of which it is an
    inhabitant. It is rarely more than a pound and a half in weight,
    and is in season from September till March. It is plentiful in
    England, and the finest are caught in the Thames. The proverb,
    "as sound as a roach," is derived from the French name of this
    fish being _roche_, which also means rock.

[Illustration: THE DACE.]

[Illustration: THE ROACH.]

TO DRESS CRAB.

244. INGREDIENTS.--1 crab, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 1 ditto of oil;
salt, white pepper, and cayenne, to taste.

_Mode_.--Empty the shells, and thoroughly mix the meat with the above
ingredients, and put it in the large shell. Garnish with slices of cut
lemon and parsley. The quantity of oil may be increased when it is much
liked. (See Coloured Plate I.)

_Average cost_, from 10d. to 2s.

_Seasonable_ all the year; but not so good in May, June, and July.

_Sufficient_ for 3 persons.

TO CHOOSE CRAB.--The middle-sized crab is the best; and the crab, like
the lobster, should be judged by its weight; for if light, it is watery.


HOT CRAB.

245. INGREDIENTS.--1 crab, nutmeg, salt and pepper to taste, 3 oz. of
butter, 1/4 lb. of bread crumbs, 3 tablespoonfuls of vinegar.

_Mode_.--After having boiled the crab, pick the meat out from the
shells, and mix with it the nutmeg and seasoning. Cut up the butter in
small pieces, and add the bread crumbs and vinegar. Mix altogether, put
the whole in the large shell, and brown before the fire or with a
salamander.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_, from 10d. to 2s.

_Seasonable_ all the year; but not so good in May, June, and July.

_Sufficient_ for 3 persons.

[Illustration: THE CRAB.]

    THE CRAB TRIBE.--The whole of this tribe of animals have the
    body covered with a hard and strong shell, and they live chiefly
    in the sea. Some, however, inhabit fresh waters, and a few live
    upon land. They feed variously, on aquatic or marine plants,
    small fish, molluscae, or dead bodies. The _black-clawed_
    species is found on the rocky coasts of both Europe and India,
    and is the same that is introduced to our tables, being much
    more highly esteemed as a food than many others of the tribe.
    The most remarkable feature in their history, is the changing of
    their shells, and the reproduction of their broken claws. The
    former occurs once a year, usually between Christmas and Easter,
    when the crabs retire to cavities in the rocks, or conceal
    themselves under great stones. Fishermen say that they will live
    confined in a pot or basket for several months together, without
    any other food than what is collected from the sea-water; and
    that, even in this situation, they will not decrease in weight.
    The _hermit_ crab is another of the species, and has the
    peculiarity of taking possession of the deserted shell of some
    other animal, as it has none of its own. This circumstance was
    known to the ancients, and is alluded to in the following lines
    from Oppian:--
      The hermit fish, unarm'd by Nature, left
      Helpless and weak, grow strong by harmless theft.
      Fearful they stroll, and look with panting wish
      For the cast crust of some new-cover'd fish;
      Or such as empty lie, and deck the shore,
      Whose first and rightful owners are no more.
      They make glad seizure of the vacant room,
      And count the borrow'd shell their native home;
      Screw their soft limbs to fit the winding case,
      And boldly herd with the crustaceous race.

CRAYFISH.

246. Crayfish should be thrown into boiling water, to which has been
added a good seasoning of salt and a little vinegar. When done, which
will be in 1/4 hour, take them out and drain them. Let them cool,
arrange them on a napkin, and garnish with plenty of double parsley.

_Note_.--This fish is frequently used for garnishing boiled turkey,
boiled fowl, calf's head, turbot, and all kinds of boiled fish.


POTTED CRAYFISH.

247. INGREDIENTS.--100 crayfish; pounded mace, pepper and salt to taste,
2 oz. butter.

_Mode_.--Boil the fish in salt and water; pick out all the meat and
pound it in a mortar to a paste. Whilst pounding, add the butter
gradually, and mix in the spice and seasoning. Put it in small pots, and
pour over it clarified butter, carefully excluding the air.

_Time_.--15 minutes to boil the crayfish. _Average cost_, 2s. 9d.

_Seasonable_ all the year.


JOHN DORY.

248. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of salt to each gallon of water.

_Mode_.--This fish, which is esteemed by most people a great delicacy,
is dressed in the same way as a turbot, which it resembles in firmness,
but not in richness. Cleanse it thoroughly and cut off the fins; lay it
in a fish-kettle, cover with cold water, and add salt in the above
proportion. Bring it gradually to a boil, and simmer gently for 1/4
hour, or rather longer, should the fish be very large. Serve on a hot
napkin, and garnish with cut lemon and parsley. Lobster, anchovy, or
shrimp sauce, and plain melted butter, should be sent to table with it.

_Time_.--After the water boils, 1/4 to 1/2 hour, according to size.

_Average cost_, 3s. to 5s. _Seasonable_ all the year, but best from
September to January.

_Note_.--Small John Dorie are very good, baked.

[Illustration: THE JOHN DORY.]

    THE DORU, or JOHN DORY.--This fish is of a yellowish golden
    colour, and is, in general, rare, although it is sometimes taken
    in abundance on the Devon and Cornish coasts. It is highly
    esteemed for the table, and its flesh, when dressed, is of a
    beautiful clear white. When fresh caught, it is tough, and,
    being a ground fish, it is not the worse for being kept two, or
    even three days before it is cooked.

BOILED EELS.


249. INGREDIENTS.--4 small eels, sufficient water to cover them; a large
bunch of parsley.

_Mode_.--Choose small eels for boiling; put them in a stewpan with the
parsley, and just sufficient water to cover them; simmer till tender.
Take them out, pour a little parsley and butter over them, and serve
some in a tureen.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 6d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ from June to March.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

[Illustration: THE EEL.]

    THE EEL TRIBE.--The Apodal, or bony-gilled and ventral-finned
    fish, of which the eel forms the first Linnaean tribe, in their
    general aspect and manners, approach, in some instances, very
    nearly to serpents. They have a smooth head and slippery skin,
    are in general naked, or covered with such small, soft, and
    distant scales, as are scarcely visible. Their bodies are long
    and slender, and they are supposed to subsist entirely on animal
    substances. There are about nine species of them, mostly found
    in the seas. One of them frequents our fresh waters, and three
    of the others occasionally pay a visit to our shores.

STEWED EELS.

I.

250. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of eels, 1 pint of rich strong stock, No. 104,
1 onion, 3 cloves, a piece of lemon-peel, 1 glass of port or Madeira, 3
tablespoonfuls of cream; thickening of flour; cayenne and lemon-juice to
taste.

_Mode_.--Wash and skin the eels, and cut them into pieces about 3 inches
long; pepper and salt them, and lay them in a stewpan; pour over the
stock, add the onion stuck with cloves, the lemon-peel, and the wine.
Stew gently for 1/2 hour, or rather more, and lift them carefully on a
dish, which keep hot. Strain the gravy, stir to the cream sufficient
flour to thicken; mix altogether, boil for 2 minutes, and add the
cayenne and lemon-juice; pour over the eels and serve.

_Time_.--3/4 hour. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 2s. 3d.

_Seasonable_ from June to March.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

    THE COMMON EEL.--This fish is known frequently to quit its
    native element, and to set off on a wandering expedition in the
    night, or just about the close of clay, over the meadows, in
    search of snails and other prey. It also, sometimes, betakes
    itself to isolated ponds, apparently for no other pleasure than
    that which may be supposed to be found in a change of
    habitation. This, of course, accounts for eels being found in
    waters which were never suspected to contain them. This rambling
    disposition in the eel has been long known to naturalists, and,
    from the following lines, it seems to have been known to the
    ancients:--

      "Thus the mail'd tortoise, and the wand'ring; eel,
      Oft to the neighbouring beach will silent steal."

II.

251. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of middling-sized eels, 1 pint of medium
stock, No. 105, 1/4 pint of port wine; salt, cayenne, and mace to taste;
1 teaspoonful of essence of anchovy, the juice of 1/2 a lemon.

_Mode_.--Skin, wash, and clean the eels thoroughly; cut them into pieces
3 inches long, and put them into strong salt and water for 1 hour; dry
them well with a cloth, and fry them brown. Put the stock on with the
heads and tails of the eels, and simmer for 1/2 hour; strain it, and add
all the other ingredients. Put in the eels, and stew gently for 1/2
hour, when serve.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 9d.

_Seasonable_ from June to March.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.


FRIED EELS.

252. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of eels, 1 egg, a few bread crumbs, hot lard.

_Mode_.--Wash the eels, cut them into pieces 3 inches long, trim and
wipe them very dry; dredge with flour, rub them over with egg, and cover
with bread crumbs; fry of a nice brown in hot lard. If the eels are
small, curl them round, instead of cutting them up. Garnish with fried
parsley.

_Time_.--20 minutes, or rather less. _Average cost_, 6d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ from June to March.

_Note_.--Garfish may be dressed like eels, and either broiled or baked.

    THE PRODUCTIVENESS OF THE EEL.--"Having occasion," says Dr.
    Anderson, in the _Bee_, "to be once on a visit to a friend's
    house on Dee-side, in Aberdeenshire, I frequently delighted to
    walk by the banks of the river. I, one day, observed something
    like a black string moving along the edge of the water where it
    was quite shallow. Upon closer inspection, I discovered that
    this was a shoal of young eels, so closely joined together as to
    appear, on a superficial view, on continued body, moving briskly
    up against the stream. To avoid the retardment they experienced
    from the force of the current, they kept close along the water's
    edge the whole of the way, following all the bendings and
    sinuosities of the river. Where they were embayed, and in still
    water, the shoal dilated in breadth, so as to be sometimes
    nearly a foot broad; but when they turned a cape, where the
    current was strong, they were forced to occupy less space and
    press close to the shore, struggling very hard till they passed
    it. This shoal continued to move on, night and day without
    interruption for several weeks. Their progress might be at the
    rate of about a mile an hour. It was easy to catch the animals,
    though they were very active and nimble. They were eels
    perfectly well formed in every respect, but not exceeding two
    inches in length. I conceive that the shoal did not contain, on
    an average, less than from twelve to twenty in breadth; so that
    the number that passed, on the whole, must have been very great.
    Whence they came or whither they went, I know not; but the place
    where I saw this, was six miles from the sea."

EEL PIE.

253. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of eels, a little chopped parsley, 1 shalot;
grated nutmeg; pepper and salt to taste; the juice of 1/2 a lemon, small
quantity of forcemeat, 1/4 pint of bechamel (see Sauces); puff paste.

_Mode_.--Skin and wash the eels, cut them into pieces 2 inches long, and
line the bottom of the pie-dish with forcemeat. Put in the eels, and
sprinkle them with the parsley, shalots, nutmeg, seasoning, and
lemon-juice, and cover with puff-paste. Bake for 1 hour, or rather more;
make the bechamel hot, and pour it into the pie.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1 hour.

_Seasonable_ from August to March.


COLLARED EEL.

254. INGREDIENTS.--1 large eel; pepper and salt to taste; 2 blades of
mace, 2 cloves, a little allspice very finely pounded, 6 leaves of sage,
and a small bunch of herbs minced very small.

_Mode_.--Bone the eel and skin it; split it, and sprinkle it over with
the ingredients, taking care that the spices are very finely pounded,
and the herbs chopped very small. Roll it up and bind with a broad piece
of tape, and boil it in water, mixed with a little salt and vinegar,
till tender. It may either be served whole or cut in slices; and when
cold, the eel should be kept in the liquor it was boiled in, but with a
little more vinegar put to it.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 6d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ from August to March.

    HAUNTS OF THE EEL.--These are usually in mud, among weeds, under
    roots or stumps of trees, or in holes in the banks or the
    bottoms of rivers. Here they often grow to an enormous size,
    sometimes weighing as much as fifteen or sixteen pounds. They
    seldom come forth from their hiding-places except in the night;
    and, in winter, bury themselves deep in the mud, on account of
    their great susceptibility of cold.

EELS A LA TARTARE.

255. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of eels, 1 carrot, 1 onion, a little flour, 1
glass of sherry; salt, pepper, and nutmeg to taste; bread crumbs, 1 egg,
2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Rub the butter on the bottom of the stewpan; cut up the carrot
and onion, and stir them over the fire for 5 minutes; dredge in a little
flour, add the wine and seasoning, and boil for 1/2 an hour. Skin and
wash the eels, cut them into pieces, put them to the other ingredients,
and simmer till tender. When they are done, take them out, let them get
cold, cover them with egg and bread crumbs, and fry them of a nice
brown. Put them on a dish, pour sauce piquante over, and serve them hot.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 8d., exclusive of the sauce
piquante.

_Seasonable_ from August to March. _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

    VORACITY OF THE EEL.--We find in a note upon Isaac Walton, by
    Sir John Hawkins, that he knew of eels, when kept in ponds,
    frequently destroying ducks. From a canal near his house at
    Twickenham he himself missed many young ducks; and on draining,
    in order to clean it, great numbers of large eels were caught in
    the mud. When some of these were opened, there were found in
    their stomachs the undigested heads of the quacking tribe which
    had become their victims.

EELS EN MATELOTE.

256. INGREDIENTS.--5 or 6 young onions, a few mushrooms, when
obtainable; salt, pepper, and nutmeg to taste; 1 laurel-leaf, 1/2 pint
of port wine, 1/2 pint of medium stock, No. 105; butter and flour to
thicken; 2 lbs. of eels.

_Mode_.--Rub the stewpan with butter, dredge in a little flour, add the
onions cut very small, slightly brown them, and put in all the other
ingredients. Wash, and cut up the eels into pieces 3 inches long; put
them in the stewpan, and simmer for 1/2 hour. Make round the dish, a
border of croutons, or pieces of toasted bread; arrange the eels in a
pyramid in the centre, and pour over the sauce. Serve very hot.

_Time_.--3/4 hour. Average cost, 1s. 9d. for this quantity.

_Seasonable_ from August to March. _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

    TENACITY OF LIFE IN THE EEL.--There is no fish so tenacious of
    life as this. After it is skinned and cut in pieces, the parts
    will continue to move for a considerable time, and no fish will
    live so long out of water.

[Illustration: THE LAMPREY.]

    THE LAMPREY.--With the Romans, this fish occupied a respectable
    rank among the piscine tribes, and in Britain it has at various
    periods stood high in public favour. It was the cause of the
    death of Henry I. of England, who ate so much of them, that it
    brought on an attack of indigestion, which carried him off. It
    is an inhabitant of the sea, ascending rivers, principally about
    the end of winter, and, after passing a few months in fresh
    water, returning again to its oceanic residence. It is most in
    season in March, April, and May, but is, by some, regarded as an
    unwholesome food, although looked on by others as a great
    delicacy. They are dressed as eels.

FISH AND OYSTER PIE.

257. INGREDIENTS.--Any remains of cold fish, such as cod or haddock; 2
dozen oysters, pepper and salt to taste, bread crumbs sufficient for the
quantity of fish; 1/2 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 1 teaspoonful of
finely-chopped parsley.

_Mode_.--Clear the fish from the bones, and put a layer of it in a
pie-dish, which sprinkle with pepper and salt; then a layer of bread
crumbs, oysters, nutmeg, and chopped parsley. Repeat this till the dish
is quite full. You may form a covering either of bread crumbs, which
should be browned, or puff-paste, which should be cut into long strips,
and laid in cross-bars over the fish, with a line of the paste first
laid round the edge. Before putting on the top, pour in some made melted
butter, or a little thin white sauce, and the oyster-liquor, and bake.

_Time_.--If made of cooked fish, 1/4 hour; if made of fresh fish and
puff-paste, 3/4 hour.

_Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.

_Note_.--A nice little dish may be made by flaking any cold fish, adding
a few oysters, seasoning with pepper and salt, and covering with mashed
potatoes; 1/4 hour will bake it.


FISH CAKE.

258. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of any cold fish, 1 onion, 1 faggot of
sweet herbs; salt and pepper to taste, 1 pint of water, equal quantities
of bread crumbs and cold potatoes, 1/2 teaspoonful of parsley, 1 egg,
bread crumbs.

_Mode_.--Pick the meat from the bones of the fish, which latter put,
with the head and fins, into a stewpan with the water; add pepper and
salt, the onion and herbs, and stew slowly for gravy about 2 hours; chop
the fish fine, and mix it well with bread crumbs and cold potatoes,
adding the parsley and seasoning; make the whole into a cake with the
white of an egg, brush it over with egg, cover with bread crumbs, and
fry of a light brown; strain the gravy, pour it over, and stew gently
for 1/4 hour, stirring it carefully once or twice. Serve hot, and
garnish with slices of lemon and parsley.

_Time_--1/2 hour, after the gravy is made.


BOILED FLOUNDERS.

259. INGREDIENTS.--Sufficient water to cover the flounders, salt in the
proportion of 6 oz. to each gallon, a little vinegar.

_Mode_.--Pat on a kettle with enough water to cover the flounders, lay
in the fish, add salt and vinegar in the above proportions, and when it
boils, simmer very gently for 5 minutes. They must not boil fast, or
they will break. Serve with plain melted butter, or parsley and butter.

_Time_.--After the water boils, 5 minutes.

_Average cost_, 3d. each.

_Seasonable_ from August to November.

[Illustration: FLOUNDERS.]

    THE FLOUNDER.--This comes under the tribe usually denominated
    Flat-fish, and is generally held in the smallest estimation of
    any among them. It is an inhabitant of both the seas and the
    rivers, while it thrives in ponds. On the English coasts it is
    very abundant, and the London market consumes it in large
    quantities. It is considered easy of digestion, and the Thames
    flounder is esteemed a delicate fish.

FRIED FLOUNDERS.

260. INGREDIENTS.--Flounders, egg, and bread crumbs; boiling lard.

_Mode_.--Cleanse the fish, and, two hours before they are wanted, rub
them inside and out with salt, to render them firm; wash and wipe them
very dry, dip them into egg, and sprinkle over with bread crumbs; fry
them in boiling lard, dish on a hot napkin, and garnish with crisped
parsley.

_Time_.--From 5 to 10 minutes, according to size.

_Average cost_, 3d. each.

_Seasonable_ from August to November.

_Sufficient_, 1 for each person.


GUDGEONS.

261. INGREDIENTS.--Egg and bread crumbs sufficient for the quantity of
fish; hot lard.

_Mode_.--Do not scrape off the scales, but take out the gills and
inside, and cleanse thoroughly; wipe them dry, flour and dip them into
egg, and sprinkle over with bread crumbs. Fry of a nice brown.

_Time_.--3 or 4 minutes.

_Average cost_. Seldom bought.

_Seasonable_ from March to July.

_Sufficient_, 3 for each person.

[Illustration: THE GUDGEON.]

    THE GUDGEON.--This is a fresh-water fish, belonging to the carp
    genus, and is found in placid streams and lakes. It was highly
    esteemed by the Greeks, and was, at the beginning of supper,
    served fried at Rome. It abounds both in France and Germany; and
    is both excellent and numerous in some of the rivers of England.
    Its flesh is firm, well-flavoured, and easily digested.

GURNET, or GURNARD.

262. INGREDIENTS.--1 gurnet, 6 oz. of salt to each gallon of water.

_Mode_.--Cleanse the fish thoroughly, and cut off the fins; have ready
some boiling water, with salt in the above proportion; put the fish in,
and simmer very gently for 1/2 hour. Parsley and butter, or anchovy
sauce, should be served with it.

_Time_.--1/2 hour.

_Average cost_. Seldom bought.

_Seasonable_ from October to March, but in perfection in October.

_Sufficient_, a middling sized one for 2 persons.

_Note_.--This fish is frequently stuffed with forcemeat and baked.

[Illustration: THE GURNET.]

    THE GURNET.-"If I be not ashamed of my soldiers, I am a souced
    gurnet," says Falstaff; which shows that this fish has been long
    known in England. It is very common on the British coasts, and
    is an excellent fish as food.

BAKED HADDOCKS.

263. INGREDIENTS.--A nice forcemeat (_see_ Forcemeats), butter to taste,
egg and bread crumbs.

_Mode_.--Scale and clean the fish, without cutting it open much; put in
a nice delicate forcemeat, and sew up the slit. Brush it over with egg,
sprinkle over bread crumbs, and baste frequently with butter. Garnish
with parsley and cut lemon, and serve with a nice brown gravy, plain
melted butter, or anchovy sauce. The egg and bread crumbs can be
omitted, and pieces of butter placed over the fish.

_Time_.--Large haddock, 3/4 hour; moderate size, 1/4 hour.

_Seasonable_ from August to February.

_Average cost_, from 9d. upwards.

_Note_.--Haddocks may be filleted, rubbed over with egg and bread
crumbs, and fried a nice brown; garnish with crisped parsley.

[Illustration: THE HADDOCK.]

    THE HADDOCK.--This fish migrates in immense shoals, and arrives
    on the Yorkshire coast about the middle of winter. It is an
    inhabitant of the northern seas of Europe, but does not enter
    the Baltic, and is not known in the Mediterranean. On each side
    of the body, just beyond the gills, it has a dark spot, which
    superstition asserts to be the impressions of the finger and
    thumb of St. Peter, when taking the tribute money out of a fish
    of this species.

BOILED HADDOCK.

264. INGREDIENTS.--Sufficient water to cover the fish; 1/4 lb. of salt
to each gallon of water.

_Mode_.--Scrape the fish, take out the inside, wash it thoroughly, and
lay it in a kettle, with enough water to cover it and salt in the above
proportion. Simmer gently from 15 to 20 minutes, or rather more, should
the fish be very large. For small haddocks, fasten the tails in their
mouths, and put them into boiling water. 10 to 15 minutes will cook
them. Serve with plain melted butter, or anchovy sauce.

_Time_.--Large haddock, 1/2 hour; small, 1/4 hour, or rather less.

_Average cost_, from 9d. upwards.

_Seasonable_ from August to February.

    WEIGHT OF THE HADDOCK.--The haddock seldom grows to any great
    size. In general, they do not weigh more than two or three
    pounds, or exceed ten or twelve inches in size. Such are
    esteemed very delicate eating; but they have been caught three
    feet long, when their flesh is coarse.

DRIED HADDOCK.

I.

265. Dried haddock should be gradually warmed through, either before or
over a nice clear fire. Hub a little piece of butter over, just before
sending it to table.


II.

266. INGREDIENTS.--1 large thick haddock, 2 bay-leaves, 1 small bunch of
savoury herbs, not forgetting parsley, a little butter and pepper;
boiling water.

_Mode_.--Cut up the haddock into square pieces, make a basin hot by
means of hot water, which pour out. Lay in the fish, with the bay-leaves
and herbs; cover with boiling water; put a plate over to keep in the
steam, and let it remain for 10 minutes. Take out the slices, put them
in a hot dish, rub over with butter and pepper, and serve.

_Time_.--10 minutes. _Seasonable_ at any time, but best in winter.

    THE FINNAN HADDOCK.--This is the common haddock cured and dried,
    and takes its name from the fishing-village of Findhorn, near
    Aberdeen, in Scotland, where the art has long attained to
    perfection. The haddocks are there hung up for a day or two in
    the smoke of peat, when they are ready for cooking, and are
    esteemed, by the Scotch, a great delicacy. In London, an
    imitation of them is made by washing the fish over with
    pyroligneous acid, and hanging it up in a dry place for a few
    days.

RED HERRINGS, or YARMOUTH BLOATERS.

267. The best way to cook these is to make incisions in the skin across
the fish, because they do not then require to be so long on the fire,
and will be far better than when cut open. The hard roe makes a nice
relish by pounding it in a mortar, with a little anchovy, and spreading
it on toast. If very dry, soak in warm water 1 hour before dressing.

    THE RED HERRING.--_Red_ herrings lie twenty-four hours in the
    brine, when they are taken out and hung up in a smoking-house
    formed to receive them. A brushwood fire is then kindled beneath
    them, and when they are sufficiently smoked and dried, they are
    put into barrels for carriage.

BAKED WHITE HERRINGS.

268. INGREDIENTS.--12 herrings, 4 bay-leaves, 12 cloves, 12 allspice, 2
small blades of mace, cayenne pepper and salt to taste, sufficient
vinegar to fill up the dish.

_Mode_.--Take the herrings, cut off the heads, and gut them. Put them in
a pie-dish, heads and tails alternately, and, between each layer,
sprinkle over the above ingredients. Cover the fish with the vinegar,
and bake for 1/2 hour, but do not use it till quite cold. The herrings
may be cut down the front, the backbone taken out, and closed again.
Sprats done in this way are very delicious.

_Time_.--1/2 an hour.

_Average cost_, 1d. each.

TO CHOOSE THE HERRING.--The more scales this fish has, the surer the
sign of its freshness. It should also have a bright and silvery look;
but if red about the head, it is a sign that it has been dead for some
time.

[Illustration: THE HERRING.]

    THE HERRING.--The herring tribe are found in the greatest
    abundance in the highest northern latitudes, where they find a
    quiet retreat, and security from their numerous enemies. Here
    they multiply beyond expression, and, in shoals, come forth from
    their icy region to visit other portions of the great deep. In
    June they are found about Shetland, whence they proceed down to
    the Orkneys, where they divide, and surround the islands of
    Great Britain and Ireland. The principal British
    herring-fisheries are off the Scotch and Norfolk coasts; and the
    fishing is always carried on by means of nets, which are usually
    laid at night; for, if stretched by day, they are supposed to
    frighten the fish away. The moment the herring is taken out of
    the water it dies. Hence the origin of the common saying, "dead
    as a herring."

KEGEREE.

269. INGREDIENTS.--Any cold fish, 1 teacupful of boiled rice, 1 oz. of
butter, 1 teaspoonful of mustard, 2 soft-boiled eggs, salt and cayenne
to taste.

_Mode_.--Pick the fish carefully from the bones, mix with the other
ingredients, and serve very hot. The quantities may be varied according
to the amount of fish used.

_Time_.--1/4 hour after the rice is boiled.

_Average cost_, 5d., exclusive of the fish.


TO BOIL LOBSTERS.

270. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of salt to each gallon of water.

_Mode_.--Buy the lobsters alive, and choose those that are heavy and
full of motion, which is an indication of their freshness. When the
shell is incrusted, it is a sign they are old: medium-sized lobsters are
the best. Have ready a stewpan of boiling water, salted in the above
proportion; put in the lobster, and keep it boiling quickly from 20
minutes to 3/4 hour, according to its size, and do not forget to skim
well. If it boils too long, the meat becomes thready, and if not done
enough, the spawn is not red: this must be obviated by great attention.
Hub the shell over with a little butter or sweet oil, which wipe off
again.

_Time_.--Small lobster, 20 minutes to 1/2 hour; large ditto, 1/2 to 1/3
hour.

_Average cost_, medium size, 1s. 6d. to 2s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but best from March to October.

TO CHOOSE LOBSTERS.--This shell-fish, if it has been cooked alive, as it
ought to have been, will have a stiffness in the tail, which, if gently
raised, will return with a spring. Care, however, must be taken in thus
proving it; for if the tail is pulled straight out, it will not return;
when the fish might be pronounced inferior, which, in reality, may not
be the case. In order to be good, lobsters should be weighty for their
bulk; if light, they will be watery; and those of the medium size, are
always the best. Small-sized lobsters are cheapest, and answer very well
for sauce. In boiling lobsters, the appearance of the shell will be much
improved by rubbing over it a little butter or salad-oil on being
immediately taken from the pot.

[Illustration: THE LOBSTER.]

    THE LOBSTER.--This is one of the crab tribe, and is found on
    most of the rocky coasts of Great Britain. Some are caught with
    the hand, but the larger number in pots, which serve all the
    purposes of a trap, being made of osiers, and baited with
    garbage. They are shaped like a wire mousetrap; so that when the
    lobsters once enter them, they cannot get out again. They are
    fastened to a cord and sunk in the sea, and their place marked
    by a buoy. The fish is very prolific, and deposits of its eggs
    in the sand, where they are soon hatched. On the coast of
    Norway, they are very abundant, and it is from there that the
    English metropolis is mostly supplied. They are rather
    indigestible, and, as a food, not so nurtritive as they are
    generally supposed to be.

HOT LOBSTER.

271. INGREDIENTS.--1 lobster, 2 oz. of butter, grated nutmeg; salt,
pepper, and pounded mace, to taste; bread crumbs, 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Pound the meat of the lobster to a smooth paste with the butter
and seasoning, and add a few bread crumbs. Beat the eggs, and make the
whole mixture into the form of a lobster; pound the spawn, and sprinkle
over it. Bake 1/4 hour, and just before serving, lay over it the tail
and body shell, with the small claws underneath, to resemble a lobster.

_Time_.--1/4 hour. _Average cost_, 2s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.


LOBSTER SALAD.

272. INGREDIENTS.--1 hen lobster, lettuces, endive, small salad
(whatever is in season), a little chopped beetroot, 2 hard-boiled eggs,
a few slices of cucumber. For dressing, equal quantities of oil and
vinegar, 1 teaspoonful of made mustard, the yolks of 2 eggs; cayenne and
salt to taste; 3 teaspoonful of anchovy sauce. These ingredients should
be mixed perfectly smooth, and form a creamy-looking sauce.

_Mode_.--Wash the salad, and thoroughly dry it by shaking it in a cloth.
Cut up the lettuces and endive, pour the dressing on them, and lightly
throw in the small salad. Mix all well together with the pickings from
the body of the lobster; pick the meat from the shell, cut it up into
nice square pieces, put half in the salad, the other half reserve for
garnishing. Separate the yolks from the whites of 2 hard-boiled eggs;
chop the whites very fine, and rub the yolks through a sieve, and
afterwards the coral from the inside. Arrange the salad lightly on a
glass dish, and garnish, first with a row of sliced cucumber, then with
the pieces of lobster, the yolks and whites of the eggs, coral, and
beetroot placed alternately, and arranged in small separate bunches, so
that the colours contrast nicely.

_Average cost_, 3s. 6d. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from April to October; may be had all the year, but salad
is scarce and expensive in winter.

_Note_.--A few crayfish make a pretty garnishing to lobster salad.

    THE SHELL OF THE LOBSTER.--Like the others of its tribe, the
    lobster annually casts its shell. Previously to its throwing off
    the old one, it appears sick, languid, and restless, but in the
    course of a few days it is entirely invested in its new coat of
    armour. Whilst it is in a defenceless state, however, it seeks
    some lonely place, where it may lie undisturbed, and escape the
    horrid fate of being devoured by some of its own species who
    have the advantage of still being encased in their mail.

LOBSTER (a la Mode Francaise).

273. INGREDIENTS.--1 lobster, 4 tablespoonfuls of white stock, 2
tablespoonfuls of cream, pounded mace, and cayenne to taste; bread
crumbs.

_Mode_.--Pick the meat from the shell, and cut it up into small square
pieces; put the stock, cream, and seasoning into a stewpan, add the
lobster, and let it simmer gently for 6 minutes. Serve it in the shell,
which must be nicely cleaned, and have a border of puff-paste; cover it
with bread crumbs, place small pieces of butter over, and brown before
the fire, or with a salamander.

_Time_.--1/4 hour. _Average cost_, 2s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

    CELERITY OF THE LOBSTER.--In its element, the lobster is able to
    run with great speed upon its legs, or small claws, and, if
    alarmed, to spring, tail foremost, to a considerable distance,
    "even," it is said, "with the swiftness of a bird flying."
    Fishermen have seen some of them pass about thirty feet with a
    wonderful degree of swiftness. When frightened, they will take
    their spring, and, like a chamois of the Alps, plant themselves
    upon the very spot upon which they designed to hold themselves.

LOBSTER CURRY (an Entree).

274. INGREDIENTS.--1 lobster, 2 onions, 1 oz. butter, 1 tablespoonful of
curry-powder, 1/2 pint of medium stock, No. 105, the juice of 1/2 lemon.

_Mode_.--Pick the meat from the shell, and cut it into nice square
pieces; fry the onions of a pale brown in the butter, stir in the
curry-powder and stock, and simmer till it thickens, when put in the
lobster; stew the whole slowly for 1/2 hour, and stir occasionally; and
just before sending to table, put in the lemon-juice. Serve boiled rice
with it, the same as for other curries.

_Time_.--Altogether, 3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 3s.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


LOBSTER CUTLETS (an Entree).

275. INGREDIENTS.--1 large hen lobster, 1 oz. fresh butter, 1/2
saltspoonful of salt, pounded mace, grated nutmeg, cayenne and white
pepper to taste, egg, and bread crumbs.

_Mode_.--Pick the meat from the shell, and pound it in a mortar with the
butter, and gradually add the mace and seasoning, well mixing the
ingredients; beat all to a smooth paste, and add a little of the spawn;
divide the mixture into pieces of an equal size, and shape them like
cutlets. They should not be very thick. Brush them over with egg, and
sprinkle with bread crumbs, and stick a short piece of the small claw in
the top of each; fry them of a nice brown in boiling lard, and drain
them before the fire, on a sieve reversed; arrange them nicely on a
dish, and pour bechamel in the middle, but not over the cutlets.

_Time_.--About 8 minutes after the cutlets are made.

_Average cost_ for this dish, 2s. 9d.

_Seasonable_ all the year. _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

    ANCIENT MODE OF COOKING THE LOBSTER.--When this fish was to be
    served for the table, among the ancients, it was opened
    lengthwise, and filled with a gravy composed of coriander and
    pepper. It was then put on the gridiron and slowly cooked,
    whilst it was being basted with the same kind of gravy with
    which the flesh had become impregnated.

TO DRESS LOBSTERS.

276. When the lobster is boiled, rub it over with a little salad-oil,
which wipe off again; separate the body from the tail, break off the
great claws, and crack them at the joints, without injuring the meat;
split the tail in halves, and arrange all neatly in a dish, with the
body upright in the middle, and garnish with parsley. (_See_ Coloured
Plate, H.)


LOBSTER PATTIES (an Entree).

277. INGREDIENTS.--Minced lobster, 4 tablespoonfuls of bechamel, 6 drops
of anchovy sauce, lemon-juice, cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Line the patty-pans with puff-paste, and put into each a small
piece of bread: cover with paste, brush over with egg, and bake of a
light colour. Take as much lobster as is required, mince the meat very
fine, and add the above ingredients; stir it over the fire for 6
minutes; remove the lids of the patty-cases, take out the bread, fill
with the mixture, and replace the covers.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

    LOCAL ATTACHMENT OF THE LOBSTER.--It is said that the attachment
    of this animal is strong to some particular parts of the sea, a
    circumstance celebrated in the following lines:--

      "Nought like their home the constant lobsters prize,
      And foreign shores and seas unknown despise.
      Though cruel hands the banish'd wretch expel,
      And force the captive from his native cell,
      He will, if freed, return with anxious care,
      Find the known rock, and to his home repair;
      No novel customs learns in different seas,
      But wonted food and home-taught manners please."

POTTED LOBSTER.

278. INGREDIENTS.--2 lobsters; seasoning to taste, of nutmeg, pounded
mace, white pepper, and salt; 1/4 lb. of butter, 3 or 4 bay-leaves.

_Mode_.--Take out the meat carefully from the shell, but do not cut it
up. Put some butter at the bottom of a dish, lay in the lobster as
evenly as possible, with the bay-leaves and seasoning between. Cover
with butter, and bake for 3/4 hour in a gentle oven. When done, drain
the whole on a sieve, and lay the pieces in potting-jars, with the
seasoning about them. When cold, pour over it clarified butter, and, if
very highly seasoned, it will keep some time.

_Time_.--3/4 hour. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 4s. 4d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Potted lobster may be used cold, or as _fricassee_ with cream
sauce.

    How the Lobster Feeds.--The pincers of the lobster's large claws
    are furnished with nobs, and those of the other, are always
    serrated. With the former, it keeps firm hold of the stalks of
    submarine plants, and with the latter, it cuts and minces its
    food with great dexterity. The knobbed, or numb claw, as it is
    called by fishermen, is sometimes on the right and sometimes on
    the left, indifferently.

BAKED MACKEREL.

279. INGREDIENTS.--4 middling-sized mackerel, a nice delicate forcemeat
(_see_ Forcemeats), 3 oz. of butter; pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Clean the fish, take out the roes, and fill up with forcemeat,
and sew up the slit. Flour, and put them in a dish, heads and tails
alternately, with the roes; and, between each layer, put some little
pieces of butter, and pepper and salt. Bake for 1/2 an hour, and either
serve with plain melted butter or a _maitre d'hotel_ sauce.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 1s. 10d.

_Seasonable_ from April to July.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

_Note_.--Baked mackerel may be dressed in the same way as baked herrings
(_see_ No. 268), and may also be stewed in wine.

    WEIGHT OF THE MACKEREL.--The greatest weight of this fish seldom
    exceeds 2 lbs., whilst their ordinary length runs between 14 and
    20 inches. They die almost immediately after they are taken from
    their element, and, for a short time, exhibit a phosphoric
    light.

BOILED MACKEREL.

280. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of salt to each gallon of water.

_Mode_.--Cleanse the inside of the fish thoroughly, and lay it in the
kettle with sufficient water to cover it with salt as above; bring it
gradually to boil, skim well, and simmer gently till done; dish them on
a hot napkin, heads and tails alternately, and garnish with fennel.
Fennel sauce and plain melted butter are the usual accompaniments to
boiled mackerel; but caper or anchovy sauce is sometimes served with it.
(_See_ Coloured Plate, F.)

_Time_.--After the water boils, 10 minutes; for large mackerel, allow
more time.

_Average cost_, from 4d.

_Seasonable_ from April to July.

_Note_.--When variety is desired, fillet the mackerel, boil it, and pour
over parsley and butter; send some of this, besides, in a tureen.


BROILED MACKEREL.

281. INGREDIENTS.--Pepper and salt to taste, a small quantity of oil.

_Mode_.--Mackerel should never be washed when intended to be broiled,
but merely wiped very clean and dry, after taking out the gills and
insides. Open the back, and put in a little pepper, salt, and oil; broil
it over a clear fire, turn it over on both sides, and also on the back.
When sufficiently cooked, the flesh can be detached from the bone, which
will be in about 15 minutes for a small mackerel. Chop a little parsley,
work it up in the butter, with pepper and salt to taste, and a squeeze
of lemon-juice, and put it in the back. Serve before the butter is quite
melted, with a _maitre d'hotel_ sauce in a tureen.

_Time_.--Small mackerel 15 minutes. _Average cost_, from 4d.

_Seasonable_ from April to July.

[Illustration: THE MACKEREL.]

    THE MACKEREL.--This is not only one of the most
    elegantly-formed, but one of the most beautifully-coloured
    fishes, when taken out of the sea, that we have. Death, in some
    degree, impairs the vivid splendour of its colours; but it does
    not entirely obliterate them. It visits the shores of Great
    Britain in countless shoals, appearing about March, off the
    Land's End; in the bays of Devonshire, about April; off Brighton
    in the beginning of May; and on the coast of Suffolk about the
    beginning of June. In the Orkneys they are seen till August; but
    the greatest fishery is on the west coasts of England.

TO CHOOSE MACKEREL.--In choosing this fish, purchasers should, to a
great extent, be regulated by the brightness of its appearance. If it
have a transparent, silvery hue, the flesh is good; but if it be red
about the head, it is stale.


FILLETS OF MACKEREL.

282. INGREDIENTS.--2 large mackerel, 1 oz. butter, 1 small bunch of
chopped herbs, 3 tablespoonfuls of medium stock, No. 105, 3
tablespoonfuls of bechamel (_see_ Sauces); salt, cayenne, and
lemon-juice to taste.

_Mode_.--Clean the fish, and fillet it; scald the herbs, chop them fine,
and put them with the butter and stock into a stewpan. Lay in the
mackerel, and simmer very gently for 10 minutes; take them out, and put
them on a hot dish. Dredge in a little flour, add the other ingredients,
give one boil, and pour it over the mackerel.

_Time_.--20 minutes. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 1s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ from April to July.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Note_.--Fillets of mackerel may be covered with egg and bread crumbs,
and fried of a nice brown. Serve with _maitre d'hotel_ sauce and plain
melted butter.

    THE VORACITY OF THE MACKEREL.--The voracity of this fish is very
    great, and, from their immense numbers, they are bold in
    attacking objects of which they might, otherwise, be expected to
    have a wholesome dread. Pontoppidan relates an anecdote of a
    sailor belonging to a ship lying in one of the harbours on the
    coast of Norway, who, having gone into the sea to bathe, was
    suddenly missed by his companions; in the course of a few
    minutes, however, he was seen on the surface, with great numbers
    of mackerel clinging to him by their mouths. His comrades
    hastened in a boat to his assistance; but when they had struck
    the fishes from him and got him up, they found he was so
    severely bitten, that he shortly afterward expired.

PICKLED MACKEREL.

283. INGREDIENTS.--12 peppercorns, 2 bay-leaves, 1/2 pint of vinegar, 4
mackerel.

_Mode_.--Boil the mackerel as in the recipe No. 282, and lay them in a
dish; take half the liquor they were boiled in; add as much vinegar,
peppercorns, and bay-leaves; boil for 10 minutes, and when cold, pour
over the fish.

_Time_.--1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

    MACKEREL GARUM.--This brine, so greatly esteemed by the
    ancients, was manufactured from various kinds of fishes. When
    mackerel was employed, a few of them were placed in a small
    vase, with a large quantity of salt, which was well stirred, and
    then left to settle for some hours. On the following day, this
    was put into an earthen pot, which was uncovered, and placed in
    a situation to get the rays of the sun. At the end of two or
    three months, it was hermetically sealed, after having had added
    to it a quantity of old wine, equal to one third of the mixture.

GREY MULLET.

284. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of salt to each gallon of water.

_Mode_.--If the fish be very large, it should be laid in cold water, and
gradually brought to a boil; if small, put it in boiling water, salted
in the above proportion. Serve with anchovy sauce and plain melted
butter.

_Time_.--According to size, 1/4 to 3/4 hour.

_Average cost_, 8d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ from July to October.

[Illustration: THE GREY MULLET.]

    THE GREY MULLET.--This is quite a different fish from the red
    mullet, is abundant on the sandy coasts of Great Britain, and
    ascends rivers for miles. On the south coast it is very
    plentiful, and is considered a fine fish. It improves more than
    any other salt-water fish when kept in ponds.

RED MULLET.

285. INGREDIENTS.--Oiled paper, thickening of butter and flour, 1/2
teaspoonful of anchovy sauce, 1 glass of sherry; cayenne and salt to
taste.

_Mode_.--Clean the fish, take out the gills, but leave the inside, fold
in oiled paper, and bake them gently. When done, take the liquor that
flows from the fish, add a thickening of butter kneaded with flour; put
in the other ingredients, and let it boil for 2 minutes. Serve the sauce
in a tureen, and the fish, either with or without the paper cases.

_Time_.--About 25 minutes.

_Average cost_, 1s. each.

_Seasonable_ at any time, but more plentiful in summer.

_Note_.--Red mullet may be broiled, and should be folded in oiled paper,
the same as in the preceding recipe, and seasoned with pepper and salt.
They may be served without sauce; but if any is required, use melted
_butter_, Italian or anchovy sauce. They should never be plain boiled.

[Illustration: THE STRIPED RED MULLET.]

    THE STRIPED RED MULLET.--This fish was very highly esteemed by
    the ancients, especially by the Romans, who gave the most
    extravagant prices for it. Those of 2 lbs. weight were valued at
    about L15 each; those of 4 lbs. at L60, and, in the reign of
    Tiberius, three of them were sold for L209. To witness the
    changing loveliness of their colour during their dying agonies,
    was one of the principal reasons that such a high price was paid
    for one of these fishes. It frequents our Cornish and Sussex
    coasts, and is in high request, the flesh being firm, white, and
    well flavoured.

FRIED OYSTERS.

286. INGREDIENTS.--3 dozen oysters, 2 oz. butter, 1 tablespoonful of
ketchup, a little chopped lemon-peel, 1/2 teaspoonful of chopped
parsley.

_Mode_.--Boil the oysters for 1 minute in their own liquor, and drain
them; fry them with the butter, ketchup, lemon-peel, and parsley; lay
them on a dish, and garnish with fried potatoes, toasted sippets, and
parsley. This is a delicious delicacy, and is a favourite Italian dish.

_Time_.--5 minutes. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 1s. 9d.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

[Illustration: THE EDIBLE OYSTER.]

    THE EDIBLE OYSTER:--This shell-fish is almost universally
    distributed near the shores of seas in all latitudes, and they
    especially abound on the coasts of France and Britain. The
    coasts most celebrated, in England, for them, are those of Essex
    and Suffolk. Here they are dredged up by means of a net with an
    iron scraper at the mouth, that is dragged by a rope from a boat
    over the beds. As soon as taken from their native beds, they are
    stored in pits, formed for the purpose, furnished with sluices,
    through which, at the spring tides, the water is suffered to
    flow. This water, being stagnant, soon becomes green in warm
    weather; and, in a few days afterwards, the oysters acquire the
    same tinge, which increases their value in the market. They do
    not, however, attain their perfection and become fit for sale
    till the end of six or eight weeks. Oysters are not considered
    proper for the table till they are about a year and a half old;
    so that the brood of one spring are not to be taken for sale,
    till, at least, the September twelvemonth afterwards.

SCALLOPED OYSTERS.

I.

287. INGREDIENTS.--Oysters, say 1 pint, 1 oz. butter, flour, 2
tablespoonfuls of white stock, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream; pepper and
salt to taste; bread crumbs, oiled butter.

_Mode_.--Scald the oysters in their own liquor, take them out, beard
them, and strain the liquor free from grit. Put 1 oz. of batter into a
stewpan; when melted, dredge in sufficient flour to dry it up; add the
stock, cream, and strained liquor, and give one boil. Put in the oysters
and seasoning; let them gradually heat through, but not boil. Have ready
the scallop-shells buttered; lay in the oysters, and as much of the
liquid as they will hold; cover them over with bread crumbs, over which
drop a little oiled butter. Brown them in the oven, or before the fire,
and serve quickly, and very hot.

_Time_.--Altogether, 1/4 hour.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 3s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.


II.

Prepare the oysters as in the preceding recipe, and put them in a
scallop-shell or saucer, and between each layer sprinkle over a few
bread crumbs, pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg; place small pieces of
butter over, and bake before the fire in a Dutch oven. Put sufficient
bread crumbs on the top to make a smooth surface, as the oysters should
not be seen.

_Time_.--About 1/4 hour.

_Average cost_, 3s. 2d.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.


STEWED OYSTERS.

288. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of oysters, 1 oz. of butter, flour, 1/3 pint
of cream; cayenne and salt to taste; 1 blade of pounded mace.

_Mode_.--Scald the oysters in their own liquor, take them out, beard
them, and strain the liquor; put the butter into a stewpan, dredge in
sufficient flour to dry it up, add the oyster-liquor and mace, and stir
it over a sharp fire with a wooden spoon; when it comes to a boil, add
the cream, oysters, and seasoning. Let all simmer for 1 or 2 minutes,
but not longer, or the oysters would harden. Serve on a hot dish, and
garnish with croutons, or toasted sippets of bread. A small piece of
lemon-peel boiled with the oyster-liquor, and taken out before the cream
is added, will be found an improvement.

_Time_.--Altogether 15 minutes.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 3s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

    THE OYSTER AND THE SCALLOP.--The oyster is described as a
    bivalve shell-fish, having the valves generally unequal. The
    hinge is without teeth, but furnished with a somewhat oval
    cavity, and mostly with lateral transverse grooves. From a
    similarity in the structure of the hinge, oysters and scallops
    hare been classified as one tribe; but they differ very
    essentially both in their external appearance and their habits.
    Oysters adhere to rocks, or, as in two or three species, to
    roots of trees on the shore; while the scallops are always
    detached, and usually lurk in the sand.

OYSTER PATTIES (an Entree).

289. INGREDIENTS.--2 dozen oysters, 2 oz. butter, 3 tablespoonfuls of
cream, a little lemon-juice, 1 blade of pounded mace; cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Scald the oysters in their own liquor, beard them, and cut each
one into 3 pieces. Put the butter into a stewpan, dredge in sufficient
flour to dry it up; add the strained oyster-liquor with the other
ingredients; put in the oysters, and let them heat gradually, but not
boil fast. Make the patty-cases as directed for lobster patties, No.
277: fill with the oyster mixture, and replace the covers.

_Time_.--2 minutes for the oysters to simmer in the mixture.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the patty-cases, 1s. 1d.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.

    THE OYSTER FISHERY.--The oyster fishery in Britain is esteemed
    of so much importance, that it is regulated by a Court of
    Admiralty. In the month of May, the fishermen are allowed to
    take the oysters, in order to separate the spawn from the
    cultch, the latter of which is thrown in again, to preserve the
    bed for the future. After this month, it is felony to carry away
    the cultch, and otherwise punishable to take any oyster, between
    the shells of which, when closed, a shilling will rattle.

TO KEEP OYSTERS.

290. Put them in a tub, and cover them with salt and water. Let them
remain for 12 hours, when they are to be taken out, and allowed to stand
for another 12 hours without water. If left without water every
alternate 12 hours, they will be much better than if constantly kept in
it. Never put the same water twice to them.


OYSTERS FRIED IN BATTER.

291. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of oysters, 2 eggs, 1/2 pint of milk,
sufficient flour to make the batter; pepper and salt to taste; when
liked, a little nutmeg; hot lard.

_Mode_.--Scald the oysters in their own liquor, beard them, and lay them
on a cloth, to drain thoroughly. Break the eggs into a basin, mix the
flour with them, add the milk gradually, with nutmeg and seasoning, and
put the oysters in the batter. Make some lard hot in a deep frying-pan,
put in the oysters, one at a time; when done, take them up with a
sharp-pointed skewer, and dish them on a napkin. Fried oysters are
frequently used for garnishing boiled fish, and then a few bread crumbs
should be added to the flour.

_Time_.--5 or 6 minutes.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 1s. 10d.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.

_Sufficient_ for 3 persons.

    EXCELLENCE OF THE ENGLISH OYSTER.--The French assert that the
    English oysters, which are esteemed the best in Europe, were
    originally procured from Cancalle Bay, near St. Malo; but they
    assign no proof for this. It is a fact, however, that the
    oysters eaten in ancient Rome were nourished in the channel
    which then parted the Isle of Thanet from England, and which has
    since been filled up, and converted into meadows.

BOILED PERCH.

292. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of salt to each gallon of water.

_Mode_.--Scale the fish, take out the gills and clean it thoroughly; lay
it in boiling water, salted as above, and simmer gently for 10 minutes.
If the fish is very large, longer time must be allowed. Garnish with
parsley, and serve with plain melted butter, or Dutch sauce. Perch do
not preserve so good a flavour when stewed as when dressed in any other
way.

_Time_.--Middling-sized perch, 1/4 hour.

_Seasonable_ from September to November.

_Note_.--Tench may be boiled the same way, and served with the same
sauces.

[Illustration: THE PERCH.]

    THE PERCH.--This is one of the best, as it is one of the most
    common, of our fresh-water fishes, and is found in nearly all
    the lakes and rivers in Britain and Ireland, as well as through
    the whole of Europe within the temperate zone. It is extremely
    voracious, and it has the peculiarity of being gregarious, which
    is contrary to the nature of all fresh-water fishes of prey. The
    best season to angle for it is from the beginning of May to the
    middle of July. Large numbers of this fish are bred in the
    Hampton Court and Bushy Park ponds, all of which are well
    supplied with running water and with plenty of food; yet they
    rarely attain a large size. In the Regent's Park they are also
    very numerous; but are seldom heavier than three quarters of a
    pound.

FRIED PERCH.

293. INGREDIENTS.--Egg and bread crumbs, hot lard.

_Mode_.--Scale and clean the fish, brush it over with egg, and cover
with bread crumbs. Have ready some boiling lard; put the fish in, and
fry a nice brown. Serve with plain melted butter or anchovy sauce.

_Time_.--10 minutes.

_Seasonable_ from September to November.

_Note_.--Fry tench in the same way.


PERCH STEWED WITH WINE.

294. INGREDIENTS.--Equal quantities of stock No. 105 and sherry, 1
bay-leaf, 1 clove of garlic, a small bunch of parsley, 2 cloves, salt to
taste; thickening of butter and flour, pepper, grated nutmeg, 1/2
teaspoonful of anchovy sauce.

_Mode_.--Scale the fish and take out the gills, and clean them
thoroughly; lay them in a stewpan with sufficient stock and sherry just
to cover them. Put in the bay-leaf, garlic, parsley, cloves, and salt,
and simmer till tender. When done, take out the fish, strain the liquor,
add a thickening of butter and flour, the pepper, nutmeg, and the
anchovy sauce, and stir it over the fire until somewhat reduced, when
pour over the fish, and serve.

_Time_.--About 20 minutes.

_Seasonable_ from September to November.


BOILED PIKE.

295. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of salt to each gallon of water; a little
vinegar.

_Mode_.--Scale and clean the pike, and fasten the tail in its mouth by
means of a skewer. Lay it in cold water, and when it boils, throw in the
salt and vinegar. The time for boiling depends, of course, on the size
of the fish; but a middling-sized pike will take about 1/2 an hour.
Serve with Dutch or anchovy sauce, and plain melted butter.

_Time_.--According to size, 1/2 to 1 hour.--_Average cost_. Seldom
bought.

_Seasonable_ from September to March.

[Illustration: THE PIKE.]

    THE PIKE.--This fish is, on account of its voracity, termed the
    freshwater shark, and is abundant in most of the European lakes,
    especially those of the northern parts. It grows to an immense
    size, some attaining to the measure of eight feet, in Lapland
    and Russia. The smaller lakes, of this country and Ireland, vary
    in the kinds of fish they produce; some affording trout, others
    pike; and so on. Where these happen to be together, however, the
    trout soon becomes extinct. "Within a short distance of
    Castlebar," says a writer on sports, "there is a small bog-lake
    called Derreens. Ten years ago it was celebrated for its
    numerous well-sized trouts. Accidentally pike effected a passage
    into the lake from the Minola river, and now the trouts are
    extinct, or, at least, none of them are caught or seen. Previous
    to the intrusion of the pikes, half a dozen trouts would be
    killed in an evening in Derreens, whose collective weight often
    amounted to twenty pounds." As an eating fish, the pike is in
    general dry.

BAKED PIKE.

296. INGREDIENTS.--1 or 2 pike, a nice delicate stuffing (_see_
Forcemeats), 1 egg, bread crumbs, 1/4 lb. butter.

_Mode_.--Scale the fish, take out the gills, wash, and wipe it
thoroughly dry; stuff it with forcemeat, sew it up, and fasten the tail
in the mouth by means of a skewer; brush it over with egg, sprinkle with
bread crumbs, and baste with butter, before putting it in the oven,
which must be well heated. When the pike is of a nice brown colour,
cover it with buttered paper, as the outside would become too dry. If 2
are dressed, a little variety may be made by making one of them green
with a little chopped parsley mixed with the bread crumbs. Serve anchovy
or Dutch sauce, and plain melted butter with it.

_Time_.--According to size, 1 hour, more or less.

_Average cost_.--Seldom bought.

_Seasonable_ from September to March.

_Note_.--Pike _a la genevese_ may be stewed in the same manner as salmon
_a la genevese_.


FRIED PLAICE.

297.--INGREDIENTS.--Hot lard, or clarified dripping; egg and bread
crumbs.

_Mode_.--This fish is fried in the same manner as soles. Wash and wipe
them thoroughly dry, and let them remain in a cloth until it is time to
dress them. Brush them over with egg, and cover with bread crumbs mixed
with a little flour. Fry of a nice brown in hot dripping or lard, and
garnish with fried parsley and cut lemon. Send them to table with
shrimp-sauce and plain melted butter.

_Time_.--About 5 minutes. _Average cost_, 3d. each.

_Seasonable_ from May to November.

_Sufficient_, 4 plaice for 4 persons.

_Note_.--Plaice may be boiled plain, and served with melted butter.
Garnish with parsley and cut lemon.


STEWED PLAICE.

298. INGREDIENTS.--4 or 5 plaice, 2 onions, 1/2 oz. ground ginger, 1
pint of lemon-juice, 1/4 pint water, 6 eggs; cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut the fish into pieces about 2 inches wide, salt them, and
let them remain 1/4 hour. Slice and fry the onions a light brown; put
them in a stewpan, on the top of which put the fish without washing, and
add the ginger, lemon-juice, and water. Cook slowly for 1/2 hour, and do
not let the fish boil, or it will break. Take it out, and when the
liquor is cool, add 6 well-beaten eggs; simmer till it thickens, when
pour over the fish, and serve.

_Time_.--3/4 hour. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 1s. 9d.

_Seasonable_ from May to November.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons; according to size.

[Illustration: THE PLAICE.]

    THE PLAICE.--This fish is found both in the Baltic and the
    Mediterranean, and is also abundant on the coast of England. It
    keeps well, and, like all ground-fish, is very tenacious of
    life. Its flesh is inferior to that of the sole, and, as it is a
    low-priced fish, it is generally bought by the poor. The best
    brought to the London market are called _Dowers plaice_, from
    their being caught in the Dowers, or flats, between Hastings and
    Folkstone.

TO BOIL PRAWNS OR SHRIMPS.

299. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. salt to each gallon of water.

_Mode_.--Prawns should be very red, and have no spawn under the tail;
much depends on their freshness and the way in which they are cooked.
Throw them into boiling water, salted as above, and keep them boiling
for about 7 or 8 minutes. Shrimps should be done in the same way; but
less time must be allowed. It may easily be known when they are done by
their changing colour. Care should be taken that they are not
over-boiled, as they then become tasteless and indigestible.

_Time_.--Prawns, about 8 minutes; shrimps, about 5 minutes.

_Average cost_, prawns, 2s. per lb.; shrimps, 6d. per pint.

_Seasonable_ all the year.


TO DRESS PRAWNS.

300. Cover a dish with a large cup reversed, and over that lay a small
white napkin. Arrange the prawns on it in the form of a pyramid, and
garnish with plenty of parsley.


BOILED SALMON.

301. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of salt to each gallon of water,--sufficient
water to cover the fish.

_Mode_.--Scale and clean the fish, and be particular that no blood is
left inside; lay it in the fish-kettle with sufficient cold water to
cover it, adding salt in the above proportion. Bring it quickly to a
boil, take off all the scum, and let it simmer gently till the fish is
done, which will be when the meat separates easily from the bone.
Experience alone can teach the cook to fix the time for boiling fish;
but it is especially to be remembered, that it should never be
underdressed, as then nothing is more unwholesome. Neither let it remain
in the kettle after it is sufficiently cooked, as that would render it
insipid, watery, and colourless. Drain it, and if not wanted for a few
minutes, keep it warm by means of warm cloths laid over it. Serve on a
hot napkin, garnish with cut lemon and parsley, and send lobster or
shrimp sauce, and plain melted butter to table with it. A dish of
dressed cucumber usually accompanies this fish.

_Time_.--8 minutes to each lb. for large thick salmon; 6 minutes for
thin fish. _Average cost_, in full season, 1s. 3d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ from April to August.

_Sufficient_, 1/2 lb., or rather less, for each person.

_Note_.--Cut lemon should be put on the table with this fish; and a
little of the juice squeezed over it is considered by many persons a
most agreeable addition. Boiled peas are also, by some connoisseurs,
considered especially adapted to be served with salmon.

TO CHOOSE SALMON.--To be good, the belly should be firm and thick, which
may readily be ascertained by feeling it with the thumb and finger. The
circumstance of this fish having red gills, though given as a standing
rule in most cookery-books, as a sign of its goodness, is not at all to
be relied on, as this quality can be easily given them by art.


SALMON AND CAPER SAUCE.

302. INGREDIENTS.--2 slices of salmon, 1/4 lb. batter, 1/2 teaspoonful
of chopped parsley, 1 shalot; salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg to taste.

_Mode_.--Lay the salmon in a baking-dish, place pieces of butter over
it, and add the other ingredients, rubbing a little of the seasoning
into the fish; baste it frequently; when done, take it out and drain for
a minute or two; lay it in a dish, pour caper sauce over it, and serve.
Salmon dressed in this way, with tomato sauce, is very delicious.

_Time_.--About 3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 3d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ from April to August.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

    THE MIGRATORY HABITS OF THE SALMON.--The instinct with which the
    salmon revisits its native river, is one of the most curious
    circumstances in its natural history. As the swallow returns
    annually to its nest, so it returns to the same spot to deposit
    its ova. This fact would seem to have been repeatedly proved. M.
    De Lande fastened a copper ring round a salmon's tail, and found
    that, for three successive seasons, it returned to the same
    place. Dr. Bloch states that gold and silver rings have been
    attached by eastern princes to salmon, to prove that a
    communication existed between the Persian Gulf and the Caspian
    and Northern Seas, and that the experiment succeeded.

COLLARED SALMON.

303. INGREDIENTS.--A piece of salmon, say 3 lbs., a high seasoning of
salt, pounded mace, and pepper; water and vinegar, 3 bay-leaves.

_Mode_.--Split the fish; scale, bone, and wash it thoroughly clean; wipe
it, and rub in the seasoning inside and out; roll it up, and bind
firmly; lay it in a kettle, cover it with vinegar and water (1/3
vinegar, in proportion to the water); add the bay-leaves and a good
seasoning of salt and whole pepper, and simmer till done. Do not remove
the lid. Serve with melted butter or anchovy sauce. For preserving the
collared fish, boil up the liquor in which it was cooked, and add a
little more vinegar. Pour over when cold.

_Time_.--3/4 hour, or rather more.

    HABITAT OF THE SALMON.--The salmon is styled by Walton the "king
    of fresh-water fish," and is found distributed over the north of
    Europe and Asia, from Britain to Kamschatka, but is never found
    in warm latitudes, nor has it ever been caught even so far south
    as the Mediterranean. It lives in fresh as well as in salt
    waters, depositing its spawn in the former, hundreds of miles
    from the mouths of some of those rivers to which it has been
    known to resort. In 1859, great efforts were made to introduce
    this fish into the Australian colonies; and it is believed that
    the attempt, after many difficulties, which were very skilfully
    overcome, has been successful.

CRIMPED SALMON.

304. Salmon is frequently dressed in this way at many fashionable
tables, but must be very fresh, and cut into slices 2 or 3 inches thick.
Lay these in cold salt and water for 1 hour; have ready some boiling
water, salted, as in recipe No. 301, and well skimmed; put in the fish,
and simmer gently for 1/4 hour, or rather more; should it be very thick,
garnish the same as boiled salmon, and serve with the same sauces.


_Time_.--1/4 hour, more or less, according to size.

_Note_.--Never use vinegar with salmon, as it spoils the taste and
colour of the fish.

[Illustration: THE SALMON.]

    THE SALMON TRIBE.--This is the Abdominal fish, forming the
    fourth of the orders of Linnaeus. They are distinguished from
    the other fishes by having two dorsal fins, of which the
    hindmost is fleshy and without rays. They have teeth both on the
    tongue and in the jaws, whilst the body is covered with round
    and minutely striated scales.

CURRIED SALMON.

305. INGREDIENTS.--Any remains of boiled salmon, 3/4 pint of strong or
medium stock (No. 105), 1 onion, 1 tablespoonful of curry-powder, 1
teaspoonful of Harvey's sauce, 1 teaspoonful of anchovy sauce, 1 oz. of
butter, the juice of 1/2 lemon, cayenne and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut up the onions into small pieces, and fry them of a pale
brown in the butter; add all the ingredients but the salmon, and simmer
gently till the onion is tender, occasionally stirring the contents; cut
the salmon into small square pieces, carefully take away all skin and
bone, lay it in the stewpan, and let it gradually heat through; but do
not allow it to boil long.

_Time_.--3/4 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the cold fish, 9d.

    GROWTH OF THE SALMON.--At the latter end of the year--some as
    soon as November--salmon begin to press up the rivers as far as
    they can reach, in order to deposit their spawn, which they do
    in the sand or gravel, about eighteen inches deep. Here it lies
    buried till the spring, when, about the latter end of March, it
    begins to exclude the young, which gradually increase to four or
    five inches in length, and are then termed smelts or smouts.
    About the beginning of May, the river seems to be alive with
    them, and there is no forming an idea of their numbers without
    having seen them. A seasonable flood, however, comes, and
    hurries them to the "great deep;" whence, about the middle of
    June, they commence their return to the river again. By this
    time they are twelve or sixteen inches long, and progressively
    increase, both in number and size, till about the end of July,
    when they have become large enough to be denominated _grilse_.
    Early in August they become fewer in numbers, but of greater
    size, haying advanced to a weight of from six to nine pounds.
    This rapidity of growth appears surprising, and realizes the
    remark of Walton, that "the salmlet becomes a salmon in as short
    a time as a gosling becomes a goose." Recent writers have,
    however, thrown considerable doubts on this quick growth of the
    salmon.

SALMON CUTLETS.

306. Cut the slices 1 inch thick, and season them with pepper and salt;
butter a sheet of white paper, lay each slice on a separate piece, with
their ends twisted; broil gently over a clear fire, and serve with
anchovy or caper sauce. When higher seasoning is required, add a few
chopped herbs and a little spice.

_Time_.--5 to 10 minutes.

SALMON A LA GENEVESE.

307. INGREDIENTS.--2 slices of salmon, 2 chopped shalots, a little
parsley, a small bunch of herbs, 2 bay-leaves, 2 carrots, pounded mace,
pepper and salt to taste, 4 tablespoonfuls of Madeira, 1/2 pint of white
stock (No. 107), thickening of butter and flour, 1 teaspoonful of
essence of anchovies, the juice of 1 lemon, cayenne and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Rub the bottom of a stewpan over with butter, and put in the
shalots, herbs, bay-leaves, carrots, mace, and seasoning; stir them for
10 minutes over a clear fire, and add the Madeira or sherry; simmer
gently for 1/2 hour, and strain through a sieve over the fish, which
stew in this gravy. As soon as the fish is sufficiently cooked, take
away all the liquor, except a little to keep the salmon moist, and put
it into another stewpan; add the stock, thicken with butter and flour,
and put in the anchovies, lemon-juice, cayenne, and salt; lay the salmon
on a hot dish, pour over it part of the sauce, and serve the remainder
in a tureen.

_Time_.--1-1/4 hour. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 3s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.


PICKLED SALMON.

308. INGREDIENTS.--Salmon, 1/2 oz. of whole pepper, 1/2 oz. of whole
allspice, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 2 bay-leaves, equal quantities of
vinegar and the liquor in which the fish was boiled.

_Mode_.--After the fish comes from table, lay it in a nice dish with a
cover to it, as it should be excluded from the air, and take away the
bone; boil the liquor and vinegar with the other ingredients for 10
minutes, and let it stand to get cold; pour it over the salmon, and in
12 hours this will be fit for the table.

_Time_.--10 minutes.

    TO CURE SALMON.--This process consists in splitting the fish,
    rubbing it with salt, and then putting it into pickle in tubs
    provided for the purpose. Here it is kept for about six weeks,
    when it is taken out, pressed and packed in casks, with layers
    of salt.

POTTED SALMON.

309. INGREDIENTS.--Salmon; pounded mace, cloves, and pepper to taste; 3
bay-leaves, 1/4 lb. butter.

_Mode_.--Skin the salmon, and clean it thoroughly by wiping with a cloth
(water would spoil it); cut it into square pieces, which rub with salt;
let them remain till thoroughly drained, then lay them in a dish with
the other ingredients, and bake. When quite done, drain them from the
gravy, press into pots for use, and, when cold, pour over it clarified
butter.

_Time_.--1/2 hour.

    AN AVERSION IN THE SALMON.--The salmon is said to have an
    aversion to anything red; hence, fishermen engaged in catching
    it do not wear jackets or caps of that colour. Pontoppidan also
    says, that it has an abhorrence of carrion, and if any happens
    to be thrown into the places it haunts, it immediately forsakes
    them. The remedy adopted for this in Norway, is to throw into
    the polluted water a lighted torch. As food, salmon, when in
    perfection, is one of the most delicious and nutritive of our
    fish.

BAKED SEA-BREAM.

310. INGREDIENTS.--1 bream. Seasoning to taste of salt, pepper, and
cayenne; 1/4 lb. of butter.

_Mode_.--Well wash the bream, but do not remove the scales, and wipe
away all moisture with a nice dry cloth. Season it inside and out with
salt, pepper, and cayenne, and lay it in a baking-dish. Place the
butter, in small pieces, upon the fish, and bake for rather more than
1/2 an hour. To stuff this fish before baking, will be found a great
improvement.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1/2 an hour.

_Seasonable_ in summer.

[Illustration: THE SEA-BREAM.]

_Note_.--This fish may be broiled over a nice clear fire, and served
with a good brown gravy or white sauce, or it may be stewed in wine.

    THE SEA-BREAM.--This is an abundant fish in Cornwall, and it is
    frequently found in the fish-market of Hastings during the
    summer months, but it is not in much esteem.

    MR. YARRELL'S RECIPE.

    "When thoroughly cleansed, the fish should be wiped dry, but
    none of the scales should be taken off. In this state it should
    be broiled, turning it often, and if the skin cracks, flour it a
    little to keep the outer case entire. When on table, the whole
    skin and scales turn off without difficulty, and the muscle
    beneath, saturated in its own natural juices, which the outside
    covering has retained, will be of good flavour."

TO DRESS SHAD.

311. INGREDIENTS.--1 shad, oil, pepper, and salt.

_Mode_.--Scale, empty and wash the fish carefully, and make two or three
incisions across the back. Season it with pepper and salt, and let it
remain in oil for 1/2 hour. Broil it on both sides over a clear fire,
and serve with caper sauce. This fish is much esteemed by the French,
and by them is considered excellent.

_Time_.--Nearly 1 hour.

_Average cost_.--Seldom bought.

_Seasonable_ from April to June.

[Illustration: THE SHAD.]

    THE SHAD.--This is a salt-water fish, but is held in little
    esteem. It enters our rivers to spawn in May, and great numbers
    of them are taken opposite the Isle of Dogs, in the Thames.

POTTED SHRIMPS.

312. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of shelled shrimps, 1/4 lb. of fresh butter, 1
blade of pounded mace, cayenne to taste; when liked, a little nutmeg.

_Mode_.--Have ready a pint of picked shrimps, and put them, with the
other ingredients, into a stewpan; let them heat gradually in the
butter, but do not let it boil. Pour into small pots, and when cold,
cover with melted butter, and carefully exclude the air.

_Time_.--1/4 hour to soak in the butter.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 1s. 3d.


BUTTERED PRAWNS OR SHRIMPS.

313. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of picked prawns or shrimps, 3/4 pint of stock
No. 104, thickening of butter and flour; salt, cayenne, and nutmeg to
taste.

_Mode_.--Pick the prawns or shrimps, and put them in a stewpan with the
stock; add a thickening of butter and flour; season, and simmer gently
for 3 minutes. Serve on a dish garnished with fried bread or toasted
sippets. Cream sauce may be substituted for the gravy.

_Time_.--3 minutes.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 1s. 4d.

[Illustration: THE SHRIMP.]

    THE SHRIMP.--This shell-fish is smaller than the prawn, and is
    greatly relished in London as a delicacy. It inhabits most of
    the sandy shores of Europe, and the Isle of Wight is especially
    famous for them.

BOILED SKATE.

314. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of salt to each gallon of water.

_Mode_.--Cleanse and skin the skate, lay it in a fish-kettle, with
sufficient water to cover it, salted in the above proportion. Let it
simmer very gently till done; then dish it on a hot napkin, and serve
with shrimp, lobster, or caper sauce.

_Time_.--According to size, from 1/2 to 1 hour. _Average cost_, 4d. per
lb.

_Seasonable_ from August to April.


CRIMPED SKATE.

315. INGREDIENTS.--1/8 lb. of salt to each gallon of water.

_Mode_.--Clean, skin, and cut the fish into slices, which roll and tie
round with string. Have ready some water highly salted, put in the fish,
and boil till it is done. Drain well, remove the string, dish on a hot
napkin, and serve with the same sauces as above. Skate should never be
eaten out of season, as it is liable to produce diarrhoea and other
diseases. It may be dished without a napkin, and the sauce poured over.

_Time_.--About 20 minutes. _Average cost_, 4d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ from August to April.

TO CHOOSE SKATE.--This fish should be chosen for its firmness, breadth,
and thickness, and should have a creamy appearance. When crimped, it
should not be kept longer than a day or two, as all kinds of crimped
fish soon become sour.

[Illustration: THORNBACK SKATE.]

    THE SKATE.--This is one of the ray tribe, and is extremely
    abundant and cheap in the fishing towns of England. The flesh is
    white, thick, and nourishing; but, we suppose, from its being so
    plentiful, it is esteemed less than it ought to be on account of
    its nutritive properties, and the ease with which it is
    digested. It is much improved by crimping; in which state it is
    usually sold in London. The THORNBACK differs from the true
    skate by having large spines in its back, of which the other is
    destitute. It is taken in great abundance during the spring and
    summer months, but its flesh is not so good as it is in
    November. It is, in regard to quality, inferior to that of the
    true skate.

SKATE WITH CAPER SAUCE (a la Francaise)

316. INGREDIENTS.--2 or 3 slices of skate, 1/2 pint of vinegar, 2 oz. of
salt, 1/2 teaspoonful of pepper, 1 sliced onion, a small bunch of
parsley, 2 bay-leaves, 2 or 3 sprigs of thyme, sufficient water to cover
the fish.

_Mode_.--Put in a fish-kettle all the above ingredients, and simmer the
skate in them till tender. When it is done, skin it neatly, and pour
over it some of the liquor in which it has been boiling. Drain it, put
it on a hot dish, pour over it caper sauce, and send some of the latter
to table in a tureen.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 4d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ from August to April.

_Note_.--Skate may also be served with onion sauce, or parsley and
butter.


SMALL SKATE FRIED.

317. INGREDIENTS.--Skate, sufficient vinegar to cover them, salt and
pepper to taste, 1 sliced onion, a small bunch of parsley, the juice of
1/2 lemon, hot dripping.

_Mode_.--Cleanse the skate, lay them in a dish, with sufficient vinegar
to cover them; add the salt, pepper, onion, parsley, and lemon-juice,
and let the fish remain in this pickle for 1-1/2 hour. Then drain them
well, flour them, and fry of a nice brown, in hot dripping. They may be
served either with or without sauce. Skate is not good if dressed too
fresh, unless it is crimped; it should, therefore, be kept for a day,
but not long enough to produce a disagreeable smell.

_Time_.--10 minutes. _Average cost_, 4d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ from August to April.

    OTHER SPECIES OF SKATE.--Besides the true skate, there are
    several other species found in our seas. These are known as the
    _white_ skate, the long-nosed skate, and the Homelyn ray, which
    are of inferior quality, though often crimped, and sold for true
    skate.

TO BAKE SMELTS.

318. INGREDIENTS.--12 smelts, bread crumbs, 1/4 lb. of fresh butter, 2
blades of pounded mace; salt and cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Wash, and dry the fish thoroughly in a cloth, and arrange them
nicely in a flat baking-dish. Cover them with fine bread crumbs, and
place little pieces of butter all over them. Season and bake for 15
minutes. Just before serving, add a squeeze of lemon-juice, and garnish
with fried parsley and cut lemon.

_Time_.--1/4 hour. _Average cost_, 2s. per dozen.

_Seasonable_ from October to May.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

TO CHOOSE SMELTS.--When good, this fish is of a fine silvery appearance,
and when alive, their backs are of a dark brown shade, which, after
death, fades to a light fawn. They ought to have a refreshing fragrance,
resembling that of a cucumber.

    THE ODOUR OF THE SMELT.--This peculiarity in the smelt has been
    compared, by some, to the fragrance of a cucumber, and by
    others, to that of a violet. It is a very elegant fish, and
    formerly abounded in the Thames. The _Atharine_, or sand smelt,
    is sometimes sold for the true one; but it is an inferior fish,
    being drier in the quality of its flesh. On the south coast of
    England, where the true smelt is rare, it is plentiful.

TO FRY SMELTS.

319. INGREDIENTS.--Egg and bread crumbs, a little flour; boiling lard.

_Mode_.--Smelts should be very fresh, and not washed more than is
necessary to clean them. Dry them in a cloth, lightly flour, dip them in
egg, and sprinkle over with very fine bread crumbs, and put them into
boiling lard. Fry of a nice pale brown, and be careful not to take off
the light roughness of the crumbs, or their beauty will be spoiled. Dry
them before the fire on a drainer, and servo with plain melted butter.
This fish is often used as a garnishing.

_Time_.--5 minutes.

_Average cost_, 2s. per dozen.

_Seasonable_ from October to May.

[Illustration: THE SMELT.]

    THE SMELT.--This is a delicate little fish, and is in high
    esteem. Mr. Yarrell asserts that the true smelt is entirety
    confined to the western and eastern coasts of Britain. It very
    rarely ventures far from the shore, and is plentiful in
    November, December, and January.

BAKED SOLES.

320. INGREDIENTS.--2 soles, 1/4 lb. of butter, egg, and bread crumbs,
minced parsley, 1 glass of sherry, lemon-juice; cayenne and salt to
taste.

_Mode_.--Clean, skin, and well wash the fish, and dry them thoroughly in
a cloth. Brush them over with egg, sprinkle with bread crumbs mixed with
a little minced parsley, lay them in a large flat baking-dish, white
side uppermost; or if it will not hold the two soles, they may each be
laid on a dish by itself; but they must not be put one on the top of the
other. Melt the butter, and pour it over the whole, and bake for 20
minutes. Take a portion of the gravy that flows from the fish, add the
wine, lemon-juice, and seasoning, give it one boil, skim, pour it
_under_ the fish, and serve.

_Time_.--20 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. to 2s. per pair.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

TO CHOOSE SOLES.--This fish should be both thick and firm. If the skin
is difficult to be taken off, and the flesh looks grey, it is good.

[Illustration: THE SOLE.]

    THE SOLE.--This ranks next to the turbot in point of excellence
    among our flat fish. It is abundant on the British coasts, but
    those of the western shores are much superior in size to those
    taken on the northern. The finest are caught in Torbay, and
    frequently weigh 8 or 10 lbs. per pair. Its flesh being firm,
    white, and delicate, is greatly esteemed.

BOILED SOLES.

321. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. salt to each gallon of water.

_Mode_.--Cleanse and wash the fish carefully, cut off the fins, but do
not skin it. Lay it in a fish-kettle, with sufficient cold water to
cover it, salted in the above proportion. Let it gradually come to a
boil, and keep it simmering for a few minutes, according to the size of
the fish. Dish it on a hot napkin after well draining it, and garnish
with parsley and cut lemon. Shrimp, or lobster sauce, and plain melted
butter, are usually sent to table with this dish.

_Time_.--After the water boils, 7 minutes for a middling-sized sole.

_Average cost_, 1s. to 2s. per pair.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_,--1 middling-sized sole for 2 persons.


SOLE OR COD PIE.

322. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold boiled sole or cod, seasoning to
taste of pepper, salt, and pounded mace, 1 dozen oysters to each lb. of
fish, 3 tablespoonfuls of white stock, 1 teacupful of cream thickened
with flour, puff paste.

_Mode_.--Clear the fish from the bones, lay it in a pie-dish, and
between each layer put a few oysters and a little seasoning; add the
stock, and, when liked, a small quantity of butter; cover with puff
paste, and bake for 1/2 hour. Boil the cream with sufficient flour to
thicken it; pour in the pie, and serve.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 10d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.


SOLES WITH CREAM SAUCE.

323. INGREDIENTS.--2 soles; salt, cayenne, and pounded mace to taste;
the juice of 1/2 lemon, salt and water, 1/2 pint of cream.

_Mode_.--Skin, wash, and fillet the soles, and divide each fillet in 2
pieces; lay them in cold salt and water, which bring gradually to a
boil. When the water boils, take out the fish, lay it in a delicately
clean stewpan, and cover with the cream. Add the seasoning, simmer very
gently for ten minutes, and, just before serving, put in the lemon-juice.
The fillets may be rolled, and secured by means of a skewer; but this is
not so economical a way of dressing them, as double the quantity of cream
is required.

_Time_.--10 minutes in the cream.

_Average cost_, from 1s. to 2s. per pair. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

This will be found a most delicate and delicious dish.

    THE SOLE A FAVOURITE WITH THE ANCIENT GREEKS.--This fish was
    much sought after by the ancient Greeks on account of its light
    and nourishing qualities. The brill, the flounder, the diamond
    and Dutch plaice, which, with the sole, were known under the
    general name of _passeres_, were all equally esteemed, and had
    generally the same qualities attributed to them.

FILLETED SOLES A L'ITALIENNE.

324. INGREDIENTS.--2 soles; salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg to taste;
egg and bread crumbs, butter, the juice of 1 lemon.

_Mode_.--Skin, and carefully wash the soles, separate the meat from the
bone, and divide each fillet in two pieces. Brush them over with white
of egg, sprinkle with bread crumbs and seasoning, and put them in a
baking-dish. Place small pieces of butter over the whole, and bake for
1/2 hour. When they are nearly done, squeeze the juice of a lemon over
them, and serve on a dish, with Italian sauce (see Sauces) poured over.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, from 1s. to 2s. per pair.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 6 persons.

WHITING may be dressed in the same manner, and will be found very
delicious.

    THE FLAVOUR OF THE SOLE.--This, as a matter of course, greatly
    depends on the nature of the ground and bait upon which the
    animal feeds. Its natural food are small crabs and shell-fish.
    Its colour also depends on the colour of the ground where it
    feeds; for if this be white, then the sole is called the white,
    or lemon sole; but if the bottom be muddy, then it is called the
    black sole. Small-sized soles, caught in shallow water on the
    coasts, are the best in flavour.

FRICASSEED SOLES.

325. INGREDIENTS.--2 middling-sized soles, 1 small one, 1/2 teaspoonful
of chopped lemon-peel, 1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley, a little grated
bread; salt, pepper, and nutmeg to taste; 1 egg, 2 oz. butter, 1/2 pint
of good gravy, 2 tablespoonfuls of port wine, cayenne and lemon-juice to
taste.

_Mode_.--Fry the soles of a nice brown, as directed in recipe No. 327,
and drain them well from fat. Take all the meat from the small sole,
chop it fine, and mix with it the lemon-peel, parsley, bread, and
seasoning; work altogether, with the yolk of an egg and the butter; make
this into small balls, and fry them. Thicken the gravy with a
dessert-spoonful of flour, add the port wine, cayenne, and lemon-juice;
lay in the 2 soles and balls; let them simmer gently for 6 minutes;
serve hot, and garnish with cut lemon.

_Time_.--10 minutes to fry the soles.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 3s.

_Seasonable_ at any time. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

    HOW SOLES ARE CAUGHT.--The instrument usually employed is a
    trawl net, which is shaped like a pocket, of from sixty to
    eighty feet long, and open at the mouth from thirty-two to forty
    feet, and three deep. This is dragged along the ground by the
    vessel, and on the art of the fisherman in its employment, in a
    great measure depends the quality of the fish he catches. If,
    for example, he drags the net too quickly, all that are caught
    are swept rapidly to the end of the net, where they are
    smothered, and sometimes destroyed. A medium has to be observed,
    in order that as few as possible escape being caught in the net,
    and as many as possible preserved alive in it.

FRIED FILLETED SOLES.

326. Soles for filleting should be large, as the flesh can be more
easily separated from the bones, and there is less waste. Skin and wash
the fish, and raise the meat carefully from the bones, and divide it
into nice handsome pieces. The more usual way is to roll the fillets,
after dividing each one in two pieces, and either bind them round with
twine, or run a small skewer through them. Brush over with egg, and
cover with bread crumbs; fry them as directed in the foregoing recipe,
and garnish with fried parsley and cut lemon. When a pretty dish is
desired, this is by far the most elegant mode of dressing soles, as they
look much better than when fried whole. (_See_ Coloured Plate A.)
Instead of rolling the fillets, they may be cut into square pieces, and
arranged in the shape of a pyramid on the dish.

_Time_.--About 10 minutes. _Average cost_, from 1s. to 2s. per pair.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_,--2 large soles for 6 persons.


FRIED SOLES.

327. INGREDIENTS.--2 middling-sized soles, hot lard or clarified
dripping, egg, and bread crumbs.

_Mode_.--Skin and carefully wash the soles, and cut off the fins, wipe
them very dry, and let them remain in the cloth until it is time to
dress them. Have ready some fine bread crumbs and beaten egg; dredge the
soles with a little flour, brush them over with egg, and cover with
bread crumbs. Put them in a deep pan, with plenty of clarified dripping
or lard (when the expense is not objected to, oil is still better)
heated, so that it may neither scorch the fish nor make them sodden.
When they are sufficiently cooked on one side, turn them carefully, and
brown them on the other: they may be considered ready when a thick smoke
rises. Lift them out carefully, and lay them before the fire on a
reversed sieve and soft paper, to absorb the fat. Particular attention
should be paid to this, as nothing is more disagreeable than greasy
fish: this may be always avoided by dressing them in good time, and
allowing a few minutes for them to get thoroughly crisp, and free from
greasy moisture. Dish them on a hot napkin, garnish with cut lemon and
fried parsley, and send them to table with shrimp sauce and plain melted
butter.

_Time_.--10 minutes for large soles; less time for small ones.

_Average cost_, from 1s. to 2s. per pair.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.


SOLES WITH MUSHROOMS.

328. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of milk, 1 pint of water, 1 oz. butter, 1 oz.
salt, a little lemon-juice, 2 middling-sized soles.

_Mode_.--Cleanse the soles, but do not skin them, and lay them in a
fish-kettle, with the milk, water, butter, salt, and lemon-juice. Bring
them gradually to boil, and let them simmer very gently till done, which
will be in about 7 minutes. Take them up, drain them well on a cloth,
put them on a hot dish, and pour over them a good mushroom sauce. (_See_
Sauces.)

_Time_.--After the water boils, 7 minutes.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.


SPRATS.

329. Sprats should be cooked very fresh, which can be ascertained by
their bright and sparkling eyes. Wipe them dry; fasten them in rows by a
skewer run through the eyes; dredge with flour, and broil them on a
gridiron over a nice clear fire. The gridiron should be rubbed with
suet. Serve very hot.

_Time_,--3 or 4 minutes. _Average cost_, 1d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ from November to March.

TO CHOOSE SPRATS.--Choose these from their silvery appearance, as the
brighter they are, so are they the fresher.


SPRATS FRIED IN BATTER.

330. INGREDIENTS.--2 eggs, flour, bread crumbs; seasoning of salt and
pepper to taste.

_Mode_.--Wipe the sprats, and dip them in a batter made of the above
ingredients. Fry of a nice brown, serve very hot, and garnish with fried
parsley.

Sprats may be baked like herrings. (_See_ No. 268.)


DRIED SPRATS.

331. Dried sprats should be put into a basin, and boiling water poured
over them; they may then be skinned and served, and this will be found a
much better way than boiling them.

[Illustration: THE SPRAT.]

    THE SPRAT.--This migratory fish, is rarely found longer than
    four or five inches, and visits the shores of Britain after the
    herring and other kinds of fish have taken their departure from
    them. On the coasts of Suffolk, Essex, and Kent, they are very
    abundant, and from 400 to 500 boats are employed in catching
    them during the winter season. Besides plentifully supplying the
    London market, they are frequently sold at sixpence a bushel to
    farmers for manuring purposes. They enter the Thames about the
    beginning of November, and leave it in March. At Yarmouth and
    Gravesend they are cured like red herrings.

BAKED STURGEON.

332. INGREDIENTS.--1 small sturgeon, salt and pepper to taste, 1 small
bunch of herbs, the juice of 1/2 lemon, 1/4 lb. of butter, 1 pint of
white wine.

_Mode_,--Cleanse the fish thoroughly, skin it, and split it along the
belly without separating it; have ready a large baking-dish, in which
lay the fish, sprinkle over the seasoning and herbs very finely minced,
and moisten it with the lemon-juice and wine. Place the butter in small
pieces over the whole of the fish, put it in the oven, and baste
frequently; brown it nicely, and serve with its own gravy.

_Time_.--Nearly 1 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. to 1s. 6d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ from August to March.

[Illustration: THE STURGEON.]

    THE STURGEON.--This fish commences the sixth of Linnaean order,
    and all the species are large, seldom measuring, when
    full-grown, less than three or four feet in length. Its flesh is
    reckoned extremely delicious, and, in the time of the emperor
    Severus, was so highly valued by the ancients, that it was
    brought to table by servants crowned with coronets, and preceded
    by a band of music. It is an inhabitant of the Baltic, the
    Mediterranean, the Caspian, and the Black Sea, and of the
    Danube, the Volga, the Don, and other large rivers. It is
    abundant in the rivers of North America, and is occasionally
    taken in the Thames, as well as in the Eske and the Eden. It is
    one of those fishes considered as royal property. It is from its
    _roe_ that _caviare_, a favourite food of the Russians, is
    prepared. Its flesh is delicate, firm, and white, but is rare in
    the London market, where it sells for 1s. or 1s. 6d. per lb.

    THE STERLET is a smaller species of sturgeon, found in the
    Caspian Sea and some Russian rivers. It also is greatly prized
    on account of the delicacy of its flesh.

ROAST STURGEON.

333. INGREDIENTS.--Veal stuffing, buttered paper, the tail-end of a
sturgeon.

_Mode_.--Cleanse the fish, bone and skin it; make a nice veal stuffing
(see Forcemeats), and fill it with the part where the bones came from;
roll it in buttered paper, bind it up firmly with tape, like a fillet of
veal, and roast it in a Dutch oven before a clear fire. Serve with good
brown gravy, or plain melted butter.

_Time_.--About 1 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. to 1s. 6d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ from August to March.

_Note_.--Sturgeon may be plain-boiled, and served with Dutch sauce. The
fish is very firm, and requires long boiling.

    ESTIMATE OF THE STURGEON BY THE ANCIENTS.--By the ancients, the
    flesh of this fish was compared to the ambrosia of the
    immortals. The poet Martial passes a high eulogium upon it, and
    assigns it a place on the luxurious tables of the Palatine
    Mount. If we may credit a modern traveller in China, the people
    of that country generally entirely abstain from it, and the
    sovereign of the Celestial Empire confines it to his own
    kitchen, or dispenses it to only a few of his greatest
    favourites.

MATELOT OF TENCH.

334. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of stock No. 105, 1/2 pint of port wine, 1
dozen button onions, a few mushrooms, a faggot of herbs, 2 blades of
mace, 1 oz. of butter, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley, thyme, 1 shalot,
2 anchovies, 1 teacupful of stock No. 105, flour, 1 dozen oysters, the
juice of 1/2 lemon; the number of tench, according to size.

_Mode_.--Scale and clean the tench, cut them into pieces, and lay them
in a stewpan; add the stock, wine, onions, mushrooms, herbs, and mace,
and simmer gently for 1/2 hour. Put into another stewpan all the
remaining ingredients but the oysters and lemon-juice, and boil slowly
for 10 minutes, when add the strained liquor from the tench, and keep
stirring it over the fire until somewhat reduced. Rub it through a
sieve, pour it over the tench with the oysters, which must be previously
scalded in their own liquor, squeeze in the lemon-juice, and serve.
Garnish with croutons.

_Time_. 3/4 hour.

_Seasonable_ from October to June.

[Illustration: THE TENCH.]

    THE TENCH.--This fish is generally found in foul and weedy
    waters, and in such places as are well supplied with rushes.
    They thrive best in standing waters, and are more numerous in
    pools and ponds than in rivers. Those taken in the latter,
    however, are preferable for the table. It does not often exceed
    four or five pounds in weight, and is in England esteemed as a
    delicious and wholesome food. As, however, they are sometimes
    found in waters where the mud is excessively fetid, their
    flavour, if cooked immediately on being caught, is often very
    unpleasant; but if they are transferred into clear water, they
    soon recover from the obnoxious taint.

TENCH STEWED WITH WINE.

335. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of stock No. 105, 1/2 pint of Madeira or
sherry, salt and pepper to taste, 1 bay-leaf, thickening of butter and
flour.

_Mode_.--Clean and crimp the tench; carefully lay it in a stewpan with
the stock, wine, salt and pepper, and bay-leaf; let it stew gently for
1/2 hour; then take it out, put it on a dish, and keep hot. Strain the
liquor, and thicken it with butter and flour kneaded together, and stew
for 5 minutes. If not perfectly smooth, squeeze it through a tammy, add
a very little cayenne, and pour over the fish. Garnish with balls of
veal forcemeat.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1/2 hour.

_Seasonable_ from October to June.

    A SINGULAR QUALITY IN THE TENCH.--It is said that the tench is
    possessed of such healing properties among the finny tribes,
    that even the voracious pike spares it on this account.

      The pike, fell tyrant of the liquid plain,
      With ravenous waste devours his fellow train;
      Yet howsoe'er with raging famine pined,
      The tench he spares, a medicinal kind;
      For when by wounds distress'd, or sore disease,
      He courts the salutary fish for ease;
      Close to his scales the kind physician glides,
      And sweats a healing balsam from his sides.

    In our estimation, however, this self-denial in the pike may be
    attributed to a less poetical cause; namely, from the mud-loving
    disposition of the tench, it is enabled to keep itself so
    completely concealed at the bottom of its aqueous haunts, that
    it remains secure from the attacks of its predatory neighbour.

STEWED TROUT.

336. INGREDIENTS.--2 middling-sized trout, 1/2 onion cut in thin slices,
a little parsley, 2 cloves, 1 blade of mace, 2 bay-leaves, a little
thyme, salt and pepper to taste, 1 pint of medium stock No. 105, 1 glass
of port wine, thickening of butter and flour.

_Mode_.--Wash the fish very clean, and wipe it quite dry. Lay it in a
stewpan, with all the ingredients but the butter and flour, and simmer
gently for 1/2 hour, or rather more, should not the fish be quite done.
Take it out, strain the gravy, add the thickening, and stir it over a
sharp fire for 5 minutes; pour it over the trout, and serve.

_Time_.--According to size, 1/2 hour or more.

_Average cost_.--Seldom bought.

_Seasonable_ from May to September, and fatter from the middle to the
end of August than at any other time.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

Trout may be served with anchovy or caper sauce, baked in buttered
paper, or fried whole like smelts. Trout dressed a la Genevese is
extremely delicate; for this proceed the same as with salmon, No. 307.

[Illustration: THE TROUT.]

    THE TROUT.--This fish, though esteemed by the moderns for its
    delicacy, was little regarded by the ancients. Although it
    abounded in the lakes of the Roman empire, it is generally
    mentioned by writers only on account of the beauty of its
    colours. About the end of September, they quit the deep water to
    which they had retired during the hot weather, for the purpose
    of spawning. This they always do on a gravelly bottom, or where
    gravel and sand are mixed among stones, towards the end or by
    the sides of streams. At this period they become black about the
    head and body, and become soft and unwholesome. They are never
    good when they are large with roe; but there are in all trout
    rivers some barren female fish, which continue good throughout
    the winter. In the common trout, the stomach is uncommonly
    strong and muscular, shell-fish forming a portion of the food of
    the animal; and it takes into its stomach gravel or small stones
    in order to assist in comminuting it.

BOILED TURBOT.

337. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of salt to each gallon of water.

_Mode_--Choose a middling-sized turbot; for they are invariably the most
valuable: if very large, the meat will be tough and thready. Three or
four hours before dressing, soak the fish in salt and water to take off
the slime; then thoroughly cleanse it, and with a knife make an incision
down the middle of the back, to prevent the skin of the belly from
cracking. Rub it over with lemon, and be particular not to cut off the
fins. Lay the fish in a very clean turbot-kettle, with sufficient cold
water to cover it, and salt in the above proportion. Let it gradually
come to a boil, and skim very carefully; keep it gently simmering, and
on no account let it boil fast, as the fish would have a very unsightly
appearance. When the meat separates easily from the bone, it is done;
then take it out, let it drain well, and dish it on a hot napkin. Rub a
little lobster spawn through a sieve, sprinkle it over the fish, and
garnish with tufts of parsley and cut lemon. Lobster or shrimp sauce,
and plain melted butter, should be sent to table with it. (See Coloured
Plate E.)

_Time_.--After the water boils, about 1/2 hour for a large turbot;
middling size, about 20 minutes.

_Average cost_,--large turbot, from 10s. to 12s.; middling size, from
12s. to 15s.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_, 1 middling-sized turbot for 8 persons.

_Note_.--An amusing anecdote is related, by Miss Edgeworth, of a bishop,
who, descending to his kitchen to superintend the dressing of a turbot,
and discovering that his cook had stupidly cut off the fins, immediately
commenced sewing them on again with his own episcopal fingers. This
dignitary knew the value of a turbot's gelatinous appendages.


GARNISH FOR TURBOT OR OTHER LARGE FISH.

338. Take the crumb of a stale loaf, cut it into small pyramids with
flat tops, and on the top of each pyramid, put rather more than a
tablespoonful of white of egg beaten to a stiff froth. Over this,
sprinkle finely-chopped parsley and fine raspings of a dark colour.
Arrange these on the napkin round the fish, one green and one brown
alternately.

TO CHOOSE TURBOT.--See that it is thick, and of a yellowish white; for
if of a bluish tint, it is not good.

[Illustration: THE TURBOT.]

    THE TURBOT.--This is the most esteemed of all our flat fish. The
    northern parts of the English coast, and some places off the
    coast of Holland, produce turbot in great abundance, and in
    greater excellence than any other parts of the world. The London
    market is chiefly supplied by Dutch fishermen, who bring to it
    nearly 90,000 a year. The flesh is firm, white, rich, and
    gelatinous, and is the better for being kept a day or two
    previous to cooking it. In many parts of the country, turbot and
    halibut are indiscriminately sold for each other. They are,
    however, perfectly distinct; the upper parts of the former being
    marked with large, unequal, and obtuse tubercles, while those of
    the other are quite smooth, and covered with oblong soft scales,
    which firmly adhere to the body.

[Illustration: TURBOT-KETTLE.]

    FISH-KETTLES are made in an oblong form, and have two handles,
    with a movable bottom, pierced full of holes, on which the fish
    is laid, and on which it may be lifted from the water, by means
    of two long handles attached to each side of the movable bottom.
    This is to prevent the liability of breaking the fish, as it
    would necessarily be if it were cooked in a common saucepan. In
    the list of Messrs. Richard and John Slack (see 71), the price
    of two of these is set down at 10s. The turbot-kettle, as will
    be seen by our cut, is made differently from ordinary
    fish-kettles, it being less deep, whilst it is wider, and more
    pointed at the sides; thus exactly answering to the shape of the
    fish which it is intended should be boiled in it. It may be
    obtained from the same manufacturers, and its price is L1.

BAKED FILLETS OF TURBOT.

339. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold turbot, lobster sauce left from
the preceding day, egg, and bread crumbs; cayenne and salt to taste;
minced parsley, nutmeg, lemon-juice.

_Mode_.--After having cleared the fish from all skin and bone, divide it
into square pieces of an equal size; brush them over with egg, sprinkle
with bread crumbs mixed with a little minced parsley and seasoning. Lay
the fillets in a baking-dish, with sufficient butter to baste with. Bake
for 1/4 hour, and do not forget to keep them well moistened with the
butter. Put a little lemon-juice and grated nutmeg to the cold lobster
sauce; make it hot, and pour over the fish, which must be well drained
from the butter. Garnish with parsley and cut lemon.

_Time_.--Altogether, 1/2 hour.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Cold turbot thus warmed in the remains of lobster sauce will be
found much nicer than putting the fish again in water.


FILLETS OF TURBOT A L'ITALIENNE.

340. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold turbot, Italian sauce. (See
Sauces.)

_Mode_.--Clear the fish carefully from the bone, and take away all skin,
which gives an unpleasant flavour to the sauce. Make the sauce hot, lay
in the fish to warm through, but do not let it boil. Garnish with
croutons.

_Time_.--5 minutes.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

    THE ANCIENT ROMANS' ESTIMATE OF TURBOT.--As this luxurious
    people compared soles to partridges, and sturgeons to peacocks,
    so they found a resemblance to the turbot in the pheasant. In
    the time of Domitian, it is said one was taken of such
    dimensions as to require, in the imperial kitchen, a new stove
    to be erected, and a new dish to be made for it, in order that
    it might be cooked and served whole: not even imperial Rome
    could furnish a stove or a dish large enough for the monstrous
    animal. Where it was caught, we are not aware; but the turbot of
    the Adriatic Sea held a high rank in the "Eternal City."

TURBOT A LA CREME.

341. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold turbot. For sauce, 2 oz. of
butter, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream; salt, cayenne, and pounded mace to
taste.

_Mode_.--Clear away all skin and bone from the flesh of the turbot,
which should be done when it comes from table, as it causes less waste
when trimmed hot. Cut the flesh into nice square pieces, as equally as
possible; put into a stewpan the butter, let it melt, and add the cream
and seasoning; let it just simmer for one minute, but not boil. Lay in
the fish to warm, and serve it garnished with croutons or a paste
border.

_Time_.--10 minutes.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--The remains of cold salmon may be dressed in this way, and the
above mixture may be served in a _vol-au-vent_.


TURBOT AU GRATIN.

342. INGREDIENTS.--Remains of cold turbot, bechamel (_see_ Sauces),
bread crumbs, butter.

_Mode_.--Cut the flesh of the turbot into small dice, carefully freeing
it from all skin and bone. Put them into a stewpan, and moisten with 4
or 5 tablespoonfuls of bechamel. Let it get thoroughly hot, but do not
allow it to boil. Spread the mixture on a dish, cover with finely-grated
bread crumbs, and place small pieces of butter over the top. Brown it in
the oven, or with a salamander.

_Time_.--Altogether, 1/2 hour. _Seasonable_ at any time.


BOILED WHITING.

343. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of salt to each gallon of water.

_Mode_.--Cleanse the fish, but do not skin them; lay them in a
fish-kettle, with sufficient cold water to cover them, and salt in the
above proportion. Bring them gradually to a boil, and simmer gently for
about 5 minutes, or rather more should the fish be very large. Dish them
on a hot napkin, and garnish with tufts of parsley. Serve with anchovy
or caper sauce, and plain melted butter.

_Time_.--After the water boils, 5 minutes.

_Average cost_ for small whitings, 4d. each.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but best from October to March.

_Sufficient_, 1 small whiting for each person.

To CHOOSE WHITING.--Choose for the firmness of its flesh and the silvery
hue of its appearance.

[Illustration: THE WHITING.]

    The Whiting.--This fish forms a light, tender, and delicate
    food, easy of digestion. It appears in our seas in the spring,
    within three miles of the shores, where it arrives in large
    shoals to deposit its spawn. It is caught by line, and is
    usually between ten and twelve inches long, and seldom exceeding
    a pound and a half in weight. On the edge of the Dogger Bank,
    however, it has been caught so heavy as to weigh from three to
    seven or eight pounds. When less than six inches long, it is not
    allowed to be caught.

BROILED WHITING.

344. INGREDIENTS.--Salt and water, flour.

_Mode_.--Wash the whiting in salt and water, wipe them thoroughly, and
let them remain in the cloth to absorb all moisture. Flour them well,
and broil over a very clear fire. Serve with _maitre d'hotel_ sauce, or
plain melted butter (_see_ Sauces). Be careful to preserve the liver, as
by some it is considered very delicate.

_Time_.--5 minutes for a small whiting. _Average cost_, 4d. each.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but best from October to March.

_Sufficient_, 1 small whiting for each person.

Buckhorn.--Whitings caught in Cornwall are salted and dried, and in
winter taken to the markets, and sold under the singular name of
"Buckhorn."


FRIED WHITING.

345. INGREDIENTS.--Egg and bread crumbs, a little flour, hot lard or
clarified dripping.

_Mode_.--Take off the skin, clean, and thoroughly wipe the fish free
from all moisture, as this is most essential, in order that the egg and
bread crumbs may properly adhere. Fasten the tail in the mouth by means
of a small skewer, brush the fish over with egg, dredge with a little
flour, and cover with bread crumbs. Fry them in hot lard or clarified
dripping of a nice colour, and serve them on a napkin, garnished with
fried parsley. (See Coloured Plate D.) Send them to table with shrimp
sauce and plain melted butter.

_Time_.--About 6 minutes. Average cost, 4d. each.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but best from October to March.

_Sufficient_, 1 small whiting for each person.

_Note_.--Large whitings may be filleted, rolled, and served as fried
filleted soles (_see_ Coloured Plato A). Small fried whitings are
frequently used for garnishing large boiled fish, such as turbot, cod,
etc.


WHITING AU GRATIN, or BAKED WHITING.

346. INGREDIENTS.--4 whiting, butter, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley,
a few chopped mushrooms when obtainable; pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg
to taste; butter, 2 glasses of sherry or Madeira, bread crumbs.

_Mode_.--Grease the bottom of a baking-dish with butter, and over it,
strew some minced parsley and mushrooms. Scale, empty, and wash the
whitings, and wipe them thoroughly dry, carefully preserving the livers.
Lay them in the dish, sprinkle them with bread crumbs and seasoning,
adding a little grated nutmeg, and also a little more minced parsley and
mushrooms. Place small pieces of butter over the whiting, moisten with
the wine, and bake for 20 minutes in a hot oven. If there should be too
much sauce, reduce it by boiling over a sharp fire for a few minutes,
and pour under the fish. Serve with a cut lemon, and no other sauce.

_Time_.---20 minutes. _Average cost_, 4d. each.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but best from October to March.

_Sufficient_.--This quantity for 4 or 5 persons.


WHITING AUX FINE HERBES.

347. INGREDIENTS.-1 bunch of sweet herbs chopped very fine; butter.

_Mode_.--Clean and skin the fish, fasten the tails in the mouths; and lay
them in a baking-dish. Mince the herbs very fine, strew them over the
fish, and place small pieces of butter over; cover with another dish,
and let them simmer in a Dutch oven for 1/4 hour or 20 minutes. Turn the
fish once or twice, and serve with the sauce poured over.

_Time_.--1/4 hour or 20 minutes. _Average cost_, 4d. each.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but best from October to March.

_Sufficient_, 1 small whiting for each person.

    THE WHITING POUT, AND POLLACK.--About the mouth of the Thames,
    and generally all round the English coasts, as well as in the
    northern seas, the pout is plentiful. It bears a striking
    resemblance to the whiting, and is esteemed as an excellent
    fish.--The _pollack_ is also taken all round our coasts, and
    likewise bears a striking resemblance to the whiting; indeed, it
    is sometimes mistaken by the inexperienced for that fish; its
    flesh being considered by many equally delicate.

TO DRESS WHITEBAIT.

348. INGREDIENTS.--A little flour, hot lard, seasoning of salt.

_Mode_.--This fish should be put into iced water as soon as bought,
unless they are cooked immediately. Drain them from the water in a
colander, and have ready a nice clean dry cloth, over which put 2 good
handfuls of flour. Toss in the whitebait, shake them lightly in the
cloth, and put them in a wicker sieve to take away the superfluous
flour. Throw them into a pan of boiling lard, very few at a time, and
let them fry till of a whitey-brown colour. Directly they are done, they
must he taken out, and laid before the fire for a minute or two on a
sieve reversed, covered with blotting-paper to absorb the fat. Dish them
on a hot napkin, arrange the fish very high in the centre, and sprinkle
a little salt over the whole.

_Time_.--3 minutes.

_Seasonable _from April to August.

[Illustration: WHITEBAIT.]

    WHITEBAIT.--This highly-esteemed little fish appears in
    innumerable multitudes in the river Thames, near Greenwich and
    Blackwall, during the month of July, when it forms, served with
    lemon and brown bread and butter, a tempting dish to vast
    numbers of Londoners, who flock to the various taverns of these
    places, in order to gratify their appetites. The fish has been
    supposed be the fry of the shad, the sprat, the smelt, or the
    bleak. Mr. Yarrell, however, maintains that it is a species in
    itself, distinct from every other fish. When fried with flour,
    it is esteemed a great delicacy. The ministers of the Crown have
    had a custom, for many years, of having a "whitebait dinner"
    just before the close of the session. It is invariably the
    precursor of the prorogation of Parliament, and the repast is
    provided by the proprietor of the "Trafalgar," Greenwich.

FISH PIE, WITH TENCH AND EELS.

349. INGREDIENTS.--2 tench, 2 eels, 2 onions, a faggot of herbs, 4
blades of mace, 3 anchovies, 1 pint of water, pepper and salt to taste,
1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley, the yolks of 6 hard-boiled eggs, puff
paste.

_Mode_.--Clean and bone the tench, skin and bone the eels, and cut them
into pieces 2 inches long, and leave the sides of the tench whole. Put
the bones into a stewpan with the onions, herbs, mace, anchovies, water,
and seasoning, and let them simmer gently for 1 hour. Strain it off, put
it to cool, and skim off all the fat. Lay the tench and eels in a
pie-dish, and between each layer put seasoning, chopped parsley, and
hard-boiled eggs; pour in part of the strained liquor, cover in with
puff paste, and bake for 1/2 hour or rather more. The oven should be
rather quick, and when done, heat the remainder of the liquor, which
pour into the pie.

_Time_.--1/2 hour to bake, or rather more if the oven is slow.


FISH SCALLOP.

I.

350. INGREDIENTS.--Remains of cold fish of any sort, 1/2 pint of cream,
1/2 tablespoonful of anchovy sauce, 1/2 teaspoonful of made mustard,
ditto of walnut ketchup, pepper and salt to taste (the above quantities
are for 1/2 lb. of fish when picked); bread crumbs.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, carefully picking the
fish from the bones; set it on the fire, let it remain till nearly hot,
occasionally stir the contents, but do not allow it to boil. When done,
put the fish into a deep dish or scallop shell, with a good quantity of
bread crumbs; place small pieces of butter on the top, set in a Dutch
oven before the fire to brown, or use a salamander.

_Time_.--1/4 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the cold fish, 10d.


II.

351. INGREDIENTS.--Any cold fish, 1 egg, milk, 1 large blade of pounded
mace, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 teaspoonful of anchovy sauce, pepper
and salt to taste, bread crumbs, butter.

_Mode_.--Pick the fish carefully from the bones, and moisten with milk
and the egg; add the other ingredients, and place in a deep dish or
scallop shells; cover with bread crumbs, butter the top, and brown
before the fire; when quite hot, serve.

_Time_.--20 minutes. _Average cost_, exclusive of the cold fish, 4d.

WATER SOUCHY.

352. Perch, tench, soles, eels, and flounders are considered the best
fish for this dish. For the souchy, put some water into a stewpan with a
bunch of chopped parsley, some roots, and sufficient salt to make it
brackish. Let these simmer for 1 hour, and then stew the fish in this
water. When they are done, take them out to drain, have ready some
finely-chopped parsley, and a few roots cut into slices of about one
inch thick and an inch in length. Put the fish in a tureen or deep dish,
strain the liquor over them, and add the minced parsley and roots. Serve
with brown bread and butter.

353. SUPPLY OF FISH TO THE LONDON MARKET.--From Mr. Mayhew's work on
"London Labour and the London Poor," and other sources, we are enabled
to give the following table of the total annual supply of fish to the
London market:--


         Description of Fish.                Number of      Weight of
                                               Fish       Fish in lbs
              WET FISH.

  Salmon and Salmon-Trout(29,000 boxes,
  14 fish per box)                            406,000       3,480,000
  Turbot, from 8 to 16 lbs.                   800,000       5,600,000
  Live Cod, averaging 10 lbs. each            400,000       4,000,000
  Soles, averaging 1/4 lbs. each           97,520,000      26,880,000
  Brill and Mullet, averaging 3 lbs. each   1,220,000       3,366,000
  Whiting, averaging 6 oz. each            17,920,000       6,720,000
  Haddock, averaging 2 lbs. each            2,470,000       4,940,000
  Plaice, averaging 1 lb. each             33,600,000      33,600,000
  Mackerel, averaging 1 lb ach             23,520,000      23,520,000
  Fresh herrings (250,000 barrels, 700
  fish per barrel)                        175,000,000      42,000,000
    Ditto in bulk                       1,050,000,000     252,000,000
  Sprats                                      --            4,000,000
  Eels (from Holland principally)
  England and Ireland                       9,797,760       1,632,960
  Flounders                                   259,200          48,200
  Dabs                                        270,000          48,750

          DRY FISH.

  Barrelled Cod(15,000 barrels, 40 fish
  per barrel)                                 750,000       4,200,000
  Dried Salt Cod, 5 lbs each                1,600,000       8,000,000
  Smoked Haddock(65,000 barrels, 300
  fish per barrel)                         19,500,000      10,920,000
  Bloaters, 265,000 baskets(150 fish
  per basket)                             147,000,000      10,600,000
  Red Herrings, 100,000 barrels(500
  fish per barrel)                         50,000,000      14,000,000
  Dried Sprats, 9,600 large bundles
  (30 fish per bundle)                        288,000           9,600

          SHELL FISH.

  Oysters                                 495,896,000
  Lobsters, averaging 1 lb each             1,200,000       1,200,000
  Crabs, averaging 1 lb each                  600,000         600,000
  Shrimps, 324 to a pint                  498,428,648
  Whelks, 227 to a half-bushel              4,943,200
  Mussels, 1000 to ditto                   50,400,000
  Cockles, 2000 to ditto                   67,392,000
  Periwinkles, 4000 to ditto              304,000,000

The whole of the above may be, in round numbers, reckoned to amount to
the enormous number of 3,000,000,000 fish, with a weight of 300,000
tons.


ADDENDUM AND ANECDOTE.

It will be seen, from the number and variety of the recipes which we
have been enabled to give under the head of FISH, that there exists in
the salt ocean, and fresh-water rivers, an abundance of aliment, which
the present state of gastronomic art enables the cook to introduce to
the table in the most agreeable forms, and oftentimes at a very moderate
cost.

Less nutritious as a food than the flesh of animals, more succulent than
vegetables, fish may be termed a middle dish, suited to all temperaments
and constitutions; and one which those who are recovering from illness
may partake of with safety and advantage.

As to which is the best fish, there has been much discussion. The old
Latin proverb, however, _de gustibus non disputandum_, and the more
modern Spanish one, _sobre los gustos no hai disputa_, declare, with
equal force, that where _taste_ is concerned, no decision can be arrived
at. Each person's palate may be differently affected--pleased or
displeased; and there is no standard by which to judge why a red mullet,
a sole, or a turbot, should be better or worse than a salmon, trout,
pike, or a tiny tench.

Fish, as we have explained, is less nourishing than meat; for it is
lighter in weight, size for size, and contains no ozmazome (_see_ No.
100). Shell-fish, oysters particularly, furnish but little nutriment;
and this is the reason why so many of the latter can be eaten without
injury to the system.

In Brillat Savarin's [Footnote: Brillat Savarin was a French lawyer and
judge of considerable eminence and great talents, and wrote, under the
above title, a book on gastronomy, full of instructive information,
enlivened with a fund of pleasantly-told anecdote.] clever and amusing
volume, "The Physiology of Taste," he says, that towards the end of the
eighteenth century it was a most common thing for a well-arranged
entertainment in Paris to commence with oysters, and that many guests
were not contented without swallowing twelve dozen. Being anxious to
know the weight of this advanced-guard, he ascertained that a dozen
oysters, fluid included, weighed 4 ounces,--thus, the twelve dozen would
weigh about 3 lbs.; and there can be no doubt, that the same persons who
made no worse a dinner on account of having partaken of the oysters,
would have been completely satisfied if they had eaten the same weight
of chicken or mutton. An anecdote, perfectly well authenticated, is
narrated of a French gentleman (M. Laperte), residing at Versailles, who
was extravagantly fond of oysters, declaring he never had enough.
Savarin resolved to procure him the satisfaction, and gave him an
invitation to dinner, which was duly accepted. The guest arrived, and
his host kept company with him in swallowing the delicious bivalves up
to the tenth dozen, when, exhausted, he gave up, and let M. Laperte go
on alone. This gentleman managed to eat thirty-two dozen within an hour,
and would doubtless have got through more, but the person who opened
them is described as not being very skilful. In the interim Savarin was
idle, and at length, tired with his painful state of inaction, he said
to Laperte, whilst the latter was still in full career, "Mon cher, you
will not eat as many oysters to-day as you meant; let us dine." They
dined, and the insatiable oyster-eater acted at the repast as if he had
fasted for a week.


FISH CARVING.


GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING FISH.

In carving fish, care should be taken to help it in perfect flakes, as,
if these are broken, the beauty of the fish is lost. The carver should
be acquainted, too, with the choicest parts and morsels; and to give
each guest an equal share of these _titbits_ should be his maxim. Steel
knives and forks should on no account be used in helping fish, as these
are liable to impart to it a very disagreeable flavour. Where silver
fish-carvers are considered too dear to be bought, good electro-plated
ones answer very well, and are inexpensive. The prices set down for them
by Messrs. Slack, of the Strand, are from a guinea upwards.


COD'S HEAD AND SHOULDERS.

(For recipe, see No. 232; and for mode of serving, Coloured Plate C.)

[Illustration]

First run the knife along the centre of the side of the fish, namely,
from _d_ to _b_, down to the bone; then carve it in unbroken slices
downwards from _d_ to _e_, or upwards from _d_ to _c_, as shown in the
engraving. The carver should ask the guests if they would like a portion
of the roe and liver.

_Note_.--Of this fish, the parts about the backbone and shoulders are
the firmest, and most esteemed by connoisseurs. The sound, which lines
the fish beneath the backbone, is considered a delicacy, as are also the
gelatinous parts about the head and neck.


SALMON.

(For recipe, see No. 301; and for mode of dressing, Coloured Plate B.)

[Illustration]

First run the knife quite down to the bone, along the side of the fish,
from _a_ to _b_, and also from _c_ to _d_. Then help the thick part
lengthwise, that is, in the direction of the lines from _a_ to _b_; and
the thin part breadthwise, that is, in the direction of the lines from
_e_ to _f_, as shown in the engraving. A slice of the thick part should
always be accompanied by a smaller piece of the thin from the belly,
where lies the fat of the fish.

_Note_.--Many persons, in carving salmon, make the mistake of slicing
the thick part of this fish in the opposite direction to that we have
stated; and thus, by the breaking of the flakes, the beauty of its
appearance is destroyed.


BOILED OR FRIED SOLE.

(For recipes, see Nos. 321 and 327.)

The usual way of helping this fish is to cut it quite through, bone and
all, distributing it in nice and not too large pieces. A
moderately-sized sole will be sufficient for three slices; namely, the
head, middle, and tail. The guests should be asked which of these they
prefer. A small one will only give two slices. If the sole is very
large, the upper side may be raised from the bone, and then divided into
pieces; and the under side afterwards served in the same way.

In helping FILLETED SOLES, one fillet is given to each person. (For mode
of serving, see Coloured Plate A.)


TURBOT.

(For recipe, see No. 337; and for mode of serving, Coloured Plate E.)

First run the fish-slice down the thickest part of the fish, quite
through to the bone, from _a_ to _b_, and then cut handsome and regular
slices in the direction of the lines downwards, from _c_ to _e_, and
upwards from _c_ to _d_, as shown in the engraving. When the carver has
removed all the meat from the upper side of the fish, the backbone
should be raised, put on one side of the dish, and the under side helped
as the upper.


A BRILL and JOHN DORY are carved in the same manner as a Turbot.

[Illustration]

_Note_.--The thick parts of the middle of the back are the best slices
in a turbot; and the rich gelatinous skin covering the fish, as well as
a little of the thick part of the fins, are dainty morsels, and should
be placed on each plate.


WHITING, &c.

Whiting, pike, haddock, and other fish, when of a sufficiently large
size, may be carved in the same manner as salmon. When small, they may
be cut through, bone and all, and helped in nice pieces, a
middling-sized whiting serving for two slices.

_Note_.--The THICK part of the EEL is reckoned the best; and this holds
good of all flat fish.

The TAIL of the LOBSTER is the prime part, and next to that the CLAWS.

[Illustration: FISH CARVERS.]




[Illustration]

SAUCES, PICKLES, GRAVIES, AND FORCEMEATS.


CHAPTER IX.


GENERAL REMARKS.

354. AN ANECDOTE IS TOLD of the prince de Soubise, who, intending to
give an entertainment, asked for the bill of fare. His _chef_ came,
presenting a list adorned with vignettes, and the first article of
which, that met the prince's eye, was "fifty hams." "Bertrand," said the
prince, "I think you must be extravagant; Fifty hams! do you intend to
feast my whole regiment?" "No, Prince, there will be but one on the
table, and the surplus I need for my Espagnole, blondes, garnitures,
&c." "Bertrand, you are robbing me: this item will not do."
"Monseigneur," said the _artiste_, "you do not appreciate me. Give me
the order, and I will put those fifty hams in a crystal flask no longer
than my thumb." The prince smiled, and the hams were passed. This was
all very well for the prince de Soubise; but as we do not write for
princes and nobles alone, but that our British sisters may make the best
dishes out of the least expensive ingredients, we will also pass the
hams, and give a few general directions concerning Sauces, &c.

355. THE PREPARATION AND APPEARANCE OF SAUCES AND GRAVIES are of the
highest consequence, and in nothing does the talent and taste of the
cook more display itself. Their special adaptability to the various
viands they are to accompany cannot be too much studied, in order that
they may harmonize and blend with them as perfectly, so to speak, as
does a pianoforte accompaniment with the voice of the singer.

356. THE GENERAL BASIS OF MOST GRAVIES and some sauces is the same stock
as that used for soups (_see_ Nos. 104, 105, 106, and 107); and, by the
employment of these, with, perhaps, an additional slice of ham, a little
spice, a few herbs, and a slight flavouring from some cold sauce or
ketchup, very nice gravies may be made for a very small expenditure. A
milt (either of a bullock or sheep), the shank-end of mutton that has
already been dressed, and the necks and feet of poultry, may all be
advantageously used for gravy, where much is not required. It may, then,
be established as a rule, that there exists no necessity for good
gravies to be expensive, and that there is no occasion, as many would
have the world believe, to buy ever so many pounds of fresh meat, in
order to furnish an ever so little quantity of gravy.

357. BROWN SAUCES, generally speaking, should scarcely be so thick as
white sauces; and it is well to bear in mind, that all those which are
intended to mask the various dishes of poultry or meat, should be of a
sufficient consistency to slightly adhere to the fowls or joints over
which they are poured. For browning and thickening sauces, &c., browned
flour may be properly employed.

358. SAUCES SHOULD POSSESS A DECIDED CHARACTER; and whether sharp or
sweet, savoury or plain, they should carry out their names in a distinct
manner, although, of course, not so much flavoured as to make them too
piquant on the one hand, or too mawkish on the other.

359. GRAVIES AND SAUCES SHOULD BE SENT TO TABLE VERY HOT; and there is
all the more necessity for the cook to see to this point, as, from their
being usually served in small quantities, they are more liable to cool
quickly than if they were in a larger body. Those sauces, of which cream
or eggs form a component part, should be well stirred, as soon as these
ingredients are added to them, and must never be allowed to boil; as, in
that case, they would instantly curdle.

360. ALTHOUGH PICKLES MAY BE PURCHASED at shops at as low a rate as they
can usually be made for at home, or perhaps even for less, yet we would
advise all housewives, who have sufficient time and convenience, to
prepare their own. The only general rules, perhaps, worth stating
here,--as in the recipes all necessary details will be explained, are,
that the vegetables and fruits used should be sound, and not over ripe,
and that the very best vinegar should be employed.

361. FOR FORCEMEATS, SPECIAL ATTENTION IS NECESSARY. The points which
cooks should, in this branch of cookery, more particularly observe, are
the thorough chopping of the suet, the complete mincing of the herbs,
the careful grating of the bread-crumbs, and the perfect mixing of the
whole. These are the three principal ingredients of forcemeats, and they
can scarcely be cut too small, as nothing like a lump or fibre should be
anywhere perceptible. To conclude, the flavour of no one spice or herb
should be permitted to predominate.




RECIPES.


CHAPTER X.


SAUCES, PICKLES, GRAVIES, AND FORCEMEATS.


ANCHOVY SAUCE FOR FISH.

362. INGREDIENTS.--4 anchovies, 1 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of melted
butter, cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Bone the anchovies, and pound them in a mortar to a paste, with
1 oz. of butter. Make the melted butter hot, stir in the pounded
anchovies and cayenne; simmer for 3 or 4 minutes; and if liked, add a
squeeze of lemon-juice. A more general and expeditious way of making
this sauce is to stir in 1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of anchovy essence to 1/2
pint of melted butter, and to add seasoning to taste. Boil the whole up
for 1 minute, and serve hot.

_Time_.--5 minutes. _Average cost_, 5d. for 1/2 pint.

_Sufficient_, this quantity, for a brill, small turbot, 3 or 4 soles,
&c.

ANCHOVY BUTTER (_see_ No. 227).

[Illustration: THE CAPISCUM.]

    CAYENNE.--This is the most acrid and stimulating spice with
    which we are acquainted. It is a powder prepared from several
    varieties of the capsicum annual East-India plants, of which
    there are three so far naturalized in this country as to be able
    to grow in the open air: these are the Guinea, the Cherry, and
    the Bell pepper. All the pods of these are extremely pungent to
    the taste, and in the green state are used by us as a pickle.
    When ripe, they are ground into cayenne pepper, and sold as a
    condiment. The best of this, however, is made in the West
    Indies, from what is called the _Bird_ pepper, on account of
    hens and turkeys being extremely partial to it. It is imported
    ready for use. Of the capiscum species of plants there are five;
    but the principal are,--1. _Capsicum annuum_, the common
    long-podded capsicum, which is cultivated in our gardens, and of
    which there are two varieties, one with red, and another with
    yellow fruit. 2. _Capsicum baccatum_, or bird pepper, which
    rises with a shrubby stalk four or five feet high, with its
    berries growing at the division of the branches: this is small,
    oval-shaped, and of a bright-red colour, from which, as we have
    said, the best cayenne is made. 3. _Capsicum grossum_, the
    bell-pepper: the fruit of this is red, and is the only kind fit
    for pickling.

APPLE SAUCE FOR GEESE, PORK, &c.

363. INGREDIENTS.--6 good-sized apples, sifted sugar to taste, a piece
of butter the size of a walnut, water.

_Mode_.--Pare, core, and quarter the apples, and throw them into cold
water to preserve their whiteness. Put them in a saucepan, with
sufficient water to moisten them, and boil till soft enough to pulp.
Beat them up, adding sugar to taste, and a small piece of butter This
quantity is sufficient for a good-sized tureen.

_Time_.--According to the apples, about 3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 4d.

_Sufficient_, this quantity, for a goose or couple of ducks.


BROWN APPLE SAUCE.

364. INGREDIENTS.--6 good-sized apples, 1/2 pint of brown gravy, cayenne
to taste.

_Mode_. Put the gravy in a stewpan, and add the apples, after having
pared, cored, and quartered them. Let them simmer gently till tender;
beat them to a pulp, and season with cayenne. This sauce is preferred by
many to the preceding.

_Time_.--According to the apples, about 3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 6d.


ASPARAGUS SAUCE.

365. INGREDIENTS.--1 bunch of green asparagus, salt, 1 oz. of fresh
butter, 1 small bunch of parsley, 3 or 4 green onions, 1 large lump of
sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of sauce tournee.

_Mode_.--Break the asparagus in the tender part, wash well, and put them
into boiling salt and water to render them green. When they are tender,
take them out, and put them into cold water; drain them on a cloth till
all moisture is absorbed from them. Put the butter in a stewpan, with
the parsley and onions; lay in the asparagus, and fry the whole over a
sharp fire for 5 minutes. Add salt, the sugar and sauce tournee, and
simmer for another 5 minutes. Rub all through a tammy, and if not a very
good colour, use a little spinach green. This sauce should be rather
sweet.

_Time_.--Altogether 40 minutes.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 1s. 4d.


ASPIC, or ORNAMENTAL SAVOURY JELLY.

366. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of knuckle of veal, 1 cow-heel, 3 or 4 slices
of ham, any poultry trimmings, 2 carrots, 1 onion, 1 faggot of savoury
herbs, 1 glass of sherry, 3 quarts of water; seasoning to taste of salt
and whole white pepper; 3 eggs.

_Mode_.--Lay the ham on the bottom of a stewpan, cut up the veal and
cow-heel into small pieces, and lay them on the ham; add the poultry
trimmings, vegetables, herbs, sherry, and water, and let the whole
simmer very gently for 4 hours, carefully taking away all scum that may
rise to the surface; strain through a fine sieve, and pour into an
earthen pan to get cold. Have ready a clean stewpan, put in the jelly,
and be particular to leave the sediment behind, or it will not be clear.
Add the whites of 3 eggs, with salt and pepper, to clarify; keep
stirring over the fire, till the whole becomes very white; then draw it
to the side, and let it stand till clear. When this is the case, strain
it through a cloth or jelly-bag, and use it for moulding poultry, etc.
(See Explanation of French Terms, page 44.) Tarragon vinegar may be
added to give an additional flavour.

_Time_.--Altogether 4-1/2 hours. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 4s.

    WHITE PEPPER.--This is the produce of the same plant as that
    which produces the black pepper, from which it is manufactured
    by steeping this in lime and water, and rubbing it between the
    hands till the coats come off. The best berries only will bear
    this operation; hence the superior qualities of white pepper
    fetch a higher price than those of the other. It is less acrid
    than the black, and is much prized among the Chinese. It is
    sometimes adulterated with rice-flour, as the black is with
    burnt bread. The berries of the pepper-plant grow in spikes of
    from twenty to thirty, and are, when ripe, of a bright-red
    colour. After being gathered, which is done when they are green,
    they are spread out in the sun, where they dry and become black
    and shrivelled, when they are ready for being prepared for the
    market.

BECHAMEL, or FRENCH WHITE SAUCE.

367. INGREDIENTS.--1 small bunch of parsley, 2 cloves, 1/2 bay-leaf, 1
small faggot of savoury herbs, salt to taste; 3 or 4 mushrooms, when
obtainable; 2 pints of white stock, 1 pint of cream, 1 tablespoonful of
arrowroot.

_Mode_.--Put the stock into a stewpan, with the parsley, cloves,
bay-leaf, herbs, and mushrooms; add a seasoning of salt, but no pepper,
as that would give the sauce a dusty appearance, and should be avoided.
When it has boiled long enough to extract the flavour of the herbs,
etc., strain it, and boil it up quickly again, until it is nearly
half-reduced. Now mix the arrowroot smoothly with the cream, and let it
simmer very gently for 5 minutes over a slow fire; pour to it the
reduced stock, and continue to simmer slowly for 10 minutes, if the
sauce be thick. If, on the contrary, it be too thin, it must be stirred
over a sharp fire till it thickens. This is the foundation of many kinds
of sauces, especially white sauces. Always make it thick, as you can
easily thin it with cream, milk, or white stock.

_Time_.--Altogether, 2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. per pint.

[Illustration: THE CLOVE.]

    THE CLOVE.--The clove-tree is a native of the Molucca Islands,
    particularly Amboyna, and attains the height of a laurel-tree,
    and no verdure is ever seen under it. From the extremities of
    the branches quantities of flowers grow, first white; then they
    become green, and next red and hard, when they have arrived at
    their clove state. When they become dry, they assume a yellowish
    hue, which subsequently changes into a dark brown. As an
    aromatic, the clove is highly stimulating, and yields an
    abundance of oil. There are several varieties of the clove; the
    best is called the _royal clove_, which is scarce, and which is
    blacker and smaller than the other kinds. It is a curious fact,
    that the flowers, when fully developed, are quite inodorous, and
    that the real fruit is not in the least aromatic. The form is
    that of a nail, having a globular head, formed of the four
    petals of the corolla, and four leaves of the calyx not
    expanded, with a nearly cylindrical germen, scarcely an inch in
    length, situate below.

BECHAMEL MAIGRE, or WITHOUT MEAT.

368. INGREDIENTS.--2 onions, 1 blade of mace, mushroom trimmings, a
small bunch of parsley, 1 oz. of butter, flour, 1/2 pint of water, 1
pint of milk, salt, the juice of 1 lemon, 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Put in a stewpan the milk, and 1/2 pint of water, with the
onions, mace, mushrooms, parsley, and salt. Let these simmer gently for
20 minutes. In the mean time, rub on a plate 1 oz. of flour and butter;
put it to the liquor, and stir it well till it boils up; then place it
by the side of the fire, and continue stirring until it is perfectly
smooth. Now strain it through a sieve into a basin, after which put it
back in the stewpan, and add the lemon-juice. Beat up the yolks of the
eggs with about 4 dessertspoonfuls of milk; strain this to the sauce,
keep stirring it over the fire, but do not let it boil, lest it curdle.

_Time_.--Altogether, 3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 5d. per pint.

This is a good sauce to pour over boiled fowls when they are a bad
colour.


PICKLED BEETROOT.

369. INGREDIENTS.--Sufficient vinegar to cover the beets, 2 oz. of whole
pepper, 2 oz. of allspice to each gallon of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Wash the beets free from dirt, and be very careful not to prick
the outside skin, or they would lose their beautiful colour. Put them
into boiling water, let them simmer gently, and when about three parts
done, which will be in 1-1/2 hour, take them out and let them cool. Boil
the vinegar with pepper and allspice, in the above proportion, for ten
minutes, and when cold, pour it on the beets, which must be peeled and
cut into slices about 1/2 inch thick. Cover with bladder to exclude the
air, and in a week they will be fit for use.

_Average cost_, 3s. per gallon.

[Illustration: BLACK PEPPER.]

    BLACK PEPPER.--This well-known aromatic spice is the fruit of a
    species of climbing vine, and is a native of the East Indies,
    and is extensively cultivated in Malabar and the eastern islands
    of Borneo, Sumatra, and Java, and others in the same latitude.
    It was formerly confined to these countries, but it has now been
    introduced to Cayenne. It is generally employed as a condiment;
    but it should never be forgotten, that, even in small
    quantities, it produces detrimental effects on inflammatory
    constitutions. Dr. Paris, in his work on Diet, says, "Foreign
    spices were not intended by Nature for the inhabitants of
    temperate climes; they are heating, and highly stimulant. I am,
    however, not anxious to give more weight to this objection than
    it deserves. Man is no longer the child of Nature, nor the
    passive inhabitant of any particular region. He ranges over
    every part of the globe, and elicits nourishment from the
    productions of every climate. Nature is very kind in favouring
    the growth of those productions which are most likely to answer
    our local wants. Those climates, for instance, which engender
    endemic diseases, are, in general, congenial to the growth of
    plants that operate as antidotes to them. But if we go to the
    East for tea, there is no reason why we should not go to the
    West for sugar. The dyspeptic invalid, however, should be
    cautious in their use; they may afford temporary benefit, at the
    expense of permanent mischief. It has been well said, that the
    best quality of spices is to stimulate the appetite, and their
    worst to destroy, by insensible degrees, the tone of the
    stomach. The intrinsic goodness of meats should always be
    suspected when they require spicy seasonings to compensate for
    their natural want of sapidity." The quality of pepper is known
    by rubbing it between the hands: that which withstands this
    operation is good, that which is reduced to powder by it is bad.
    The quantity of pepper imported into Europe is very great.

BENTON SAUCE (to serve with Hot or Cold Roast Beef).

370. INGREDIENTS.--1 tablespoonful of scraped horseradish, 1 teaspoonful
of made mustard, 1 teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of
vinegar.

_Mode_.--Grate or scrape the horseradish very fine, and mix it with the
other ingredients, which must be all well blended together; serve in a
tureen. With cold meat, this sauce is a very good substitute for
pickles.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 2d.

BREAD SAUCE (to serve with Roast Turkey, Fowl, Game, &c.).

I.

371. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of milk, 3/4 of the crumb of a stale loaf, 1
onion; pounded mace, cayenne, and salt to taste; 1 oz. of butter.

_Mode_.--Peel and quarter the onion, and simmer it in the milk till
perfectly tender. Break the bread, which should be stale, into small
pieces, carefully picking out any hard outside pieces; put it in a very
clean saucepan, strain the milk over it, cover it up, and let it remain
for an hour to soak. Now beat it up with a fork very smoothly, add a
seasoning of pounded mace, cayenne, and salt, with 1 oz. of butter; give
the whole one boil, and serve. To enrich this sauce, a small quantity of
cream may be added just before sending it to table.

_Time_.--Altogether, 1-3/4 hour.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 4d.

_Sufficient_ to serve with a turkey, pair of fowls, or brace of
partridges.

[Illustration: MACE.]

    MACE.--This is the membrane which surrounds the shell of the
    nutmeg. Its general qualities are the same as those of the
    nutmeg, producing an agreeable aromatic odour, with a hot and
    acrid taste. It is of an oleaginous nature, is yellowish in its
    hue, and is used largely as a condiment. In "Beeton's
    Dictionary" we find that the four largest of the Banda Islands
    produce 150,000 lbs. of it annually, which, with nutmegs, are
    their principal articles of export.

II.

372. INGREDIENTS.--Giblets of poultry, 3/4 lb. of the crumb of a stale
loaf, 1 onion, 12 whole peppers, 1 blade of mace, salt to taste, 2
tablespoonfuls of cream or melted butter, 1 pint of water.

_Mode_.--Put the giblets, with the head, neck, legs, &c., into a
stewpan; add the onion, pepper, mace, salt, and rather more than 1 pint
of water. Let this simmer for an hour, when strain the liquor over the
bread, which should be previously grated or broken into small pieces.
Cover up the saucepan, and leave it for an hour by the side of the fire;
then beat the sauce up with a fork until no lumps remain, and the whole
is nice and smooth. Let it boil for 3 or 4 minutes; keep stirring it
until it is rather thick; when add 3 tablespoonfuls of good melted
butter or cream, and serve very hot.

_Time_.--2-1/4 hours. _Average cost_, 6d.


BROWNING FOR GRAVIES AND SAUCES.

373. The browning for soups (_see_ No. 108) answers equally well for
sauces and gravies, when it is absolutely necessary to colour them in
this manner; but where they can be made to look brown by using ketchup,
wine, browned flour, tomatoes, or any colour sauce, it is far
preferable. As, however, in cooking, so much depends on appearance,
perhaps it would be as well for the inexperienced cook to use the
artificial means (No. 108). When no browning is at hand, and you wish to
heighten the colour of your gravy, dissolve a lump of sugar in an iron
spoon over a sharp fire; when it is in a liquid state, drop it into the
sauce or gravy quite hot. Care, however, must be taken not to put in too
much, as it would impart a very disagreeable flavour.

BEURRE NOIR, or BROWNED BUTTER (a French Sauce).

374. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of butter, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley,
3 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, salt and pepper to taste.

_Mode_.--Put the butter into a fryingpan over a nice clear fire, and
when it smokes, throw in the parsley, and add the vinegar and seasoning.
Let the whole simmer for a minute or two, when it is ready to serve.
This is a very good sauce for skate.

_Time_.--1/4 hour.


CLARIFIED BUTTER.

375. Put the butter in a basin before the fire, and when it melts, stir
it round once or twice, and let it settle. Do not strain it unless
absolutely necessary, as it causes so much waste. Pour it gently off
into a clean dry jar, carefully leaving all sediment behind. Let it
cool, and carefully exclude the air by means of a bladder, or piece of
wash-leather, tied over. If the butter is salt, it may be washed before
melting, when it is to be used for sweet dishes.


MELTED BUTTER.

I.

376. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of butter, a dessertspoonful of flour, 1
wineglassful of water, salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut the butter up into small pieces, put it in a saucepan,
dredge over the flour, and add the water and a seasoning of salt; stir
it _one way_ constantly till the whole of the ingredients are melted and
thoroughly blended. Let it just boil, when it is ready to serve. If the
butter is to be melted with cream, use the same quantity as of water,
but omit the flour; keep stirring it, but do not allow it to boil.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 4d.

II.

_(More Economical.)_

377. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of butter, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, salt to
taste, 1/2 pint of water.

_Mode_.--Mix the flour and water to a smooth batter, which put into a
saucepan. Add the butter and a seasoning of salt, keep stirring _one
way_ till all the ingredients are melted and perfectly smooth; let the
whole boil for a minute or two, and serve.

_Time_.--2 minutes to simmer.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 2d.


MELTED BUTTER (the French Sauce Blanche).

378. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of fresh butter, 1 tablespoonful of flour,
salt to taste, 1/2 gill of water, 1/2 spoonful of white vinegar, a very
little grated nutmeg.

_Mode_.--Mix the flour and water to a smooth batter, carefully rubbing
down with the back of a spoon any lumps that may appear. Put it in a
saucepan with all the other ingredients, and let it thicken on the fire,
but do not allow it to boil, lest it should taste of the flour.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer.

_Average cost_, 5d. for this quantity.

[Illustration: THE NUTMEG.]

    NUTMEG.--This is a native of the Moluccas, and was long kept
    from being spread in other places by the monopolizing spirit of
    the Dutch, who endeavoured to keep it wholly to themselves by
    eradicating it from every other island. We find it stated in
    "Beeton's Dictionary of Universal Information," under the
    article "Banda Islands," that the four largest are appropriated
    to the cultivation of nutmegs, of which about 500,000 lbs. are
    annually produced. The plant, through the enterprise of the
    British, has now found its way into Penang and Bencooleu, where
    it flourishes and produces well. It has also been tried to be
    naturalized in the West Indies, and it bears fruit all the year
    round. There are two kinds of nutmeg,--one wild, and long and
    oval-shaped, the other cultivated, and nearly round. The best is
    firm and hard, and has a strong aromatic odour, with a hot and
    acrid taste. It ought to be used with caution by those who are
    of paralytic or apoplectic habits.

THICKENED BUTTER.

379.--INGREDIENTS.--1/4 pint of melted butter, No. 376, the yolks of 2
eggs, a little lemon-juice.

_Mode_.--Make the butter quite hot, and be careful not to colour it.
Well whisk the yolks of the eggs, pour them to the butter, beating them
all the while. Make the sauce hot over the fire, but do not let it boil;
add a squeeze of lemon-juice.


MELTED BUTTER MADE WITH MILK.

380. INGREDIENTS.--1 teaspoonful of flour, 2 oz. butter, 1/3 pint of
milk, a few grains of salt.

_Mode_.--Mix the butter and flour smoothly together on a plate, put it
into a lined saucepan, and pour in the milk. Keep stirring it _one way_
over a sharp fire; let it boil quickly for a minute or two, and it is
ready to serve. This is a very good foundation for onion, lobster, or
oyster sauce: using milk instead of water makes it look so much whiter
and more delicate.

_Time_.--Altogether, 10 minutes. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 3d.


CAMP VINEGAR.

381. INGREDIENTS.--1 head of garlic, 1/2 oz. cayenne, 2 teaspoonfuls of
soy, 2 ditto walnut ketchup, 1 pint of vinegar, cochineal to colour.

_Mode_.--Slice the garlic, and put it, with all the above ingredients,
into a clean bottle. Let it stand to infuse for a month, when strain it
off quite clear, and it will be fit for use. Keep it in small bottles
well sealed, to exclude the air.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 8d.


CAPER SAUCE FOR BOILED MUTTON.

382. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter (No. 376), 3 tablespoonfuls
of capers or nasturtiums, 1 tablespoonful of their liquor.

_Mode_.--Chop the capers twice or thrice, and add them, with their
liquor, to 1/2 pint of melted butter, made very smoothly; keep stirring
well; let the sauce just simmer, and serve in a tureen. Pickled
nasturtium-pods are fine-flavoured, and by many are eaten in preference
to capers. They make an excellent sauce.

_Time_.--2 minutes to simmer. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 8d.

_Sufficient_ to serve with a leg of mutton.


CAPER SAUCE FOR FISH.

383. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter No. 376, 3 dessertspoonfuls
of capers, 1 dessertspoonful of their liquor, a small piece of glaze, if
at hand (this may be dispensed with), 1/4 teaspoonful of salt, ditto of
pepper, 1 tablespoonful of anchovy essence.

_Mode_.--Cut the capers across once or twice, but do not chop them fine;
put them in a saucepan with 1/2 pint of good melted butter, and add all
the other ingredients. Keep stirring the whole until it just simmers,
when it is ready to serve.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 5d.

_Sufficient_ to serve with a skate, or 2 or 3 slices of salmon.

[Illustration: THE CAPER.]

    CAPERS.--These are the unopened buds of a low trailing shrub,
    which grows wild among the crevices of the rocks of Greece, as
    well as in northern Africa: the plant, however, has come to be
    cultivated in the south of Europe. After being pickled in
    vinegar and salt, they are imported from Sicily, Italy, and the
    south of France. The best are from Toulon.

A SUBSTITUTE FOR CAPER SAUCE.

384. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter, No. 376, 2 tablespoonfuls
of cut parsley, 1/2 teaspoonful of salt, 1 tablespoonful of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Boil the parsley slowly to let it become a bad colour; cut, but
do not chop it fine. Add it to 1/2 pint of smoothly-made melted butter,
with salt and vinegar in the above proportions. Boil up and serve.

_Time_.--2 minutes to simmer. Average cost for this quantity, 3d.


PICKLED CAPSICUMS.

385. INGREDIENTS.--Vinegar, 1/4 oz. of pounded mace, and 1/4 oz. of
grated nutmeg, to each quart; brine.

_Mode_.--Gather the pods with the stalks on, before they turn red; slit
them down the side with a small-pointed knife, and remove the seeds
only; put them in a strong brine for 3 days, changing it every morning;
then take them out, lay them on a cloth, with another one over them,
until they are perfectly free from moisture. Boil sufficient vinegar to
cover them, with mace and nutmeg in the above proportions; put the pods
in a jar, pour over the vinegar when cold, and exclude them from the air
by means of a wet bladder tied over.


CAYENNE VINEGAR, or ESSENCE OF CAYENNE.

386. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 oz. of cayenne pepper, 1/2 pint of strong spirit,
or 1 pint of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Put the vinegar, or spirit, into a bottle, with the above
proportion of cayenne, and let it steep for a month, when strain off and
bottle for use. This is excellent seasoning for soups or sauces, but
must be used very sparingly.


CELERY SAUCE, FOR BOILED TURKEY, POULTRY, &c.

387. INGREDIENTS.--6 heads of celery, 1 pint of white stock, No. 107, 2
blades of mace, 1 small bunch of savoury herbs; thickening of butter and
flour, or arrowroot, 1/2 pint of cream, lemon-juice.

_Mode_.--Boil the celery in salt and water, until tender, and cut it
into pieces 2 inches long. Put the stock into a stewpan with the mace
and herbs, and let it simmer for 1/2 hour to extract their flavour. Then
strain the liquor, add the celery and a thickening of butter kneaded
with flour, or, what is still better, with arrowroot; just before
serving, put in the cream, boil it up and squeeze in a little
lemon-juice. If necessary, add a seasoning of salt and white pepper.

_Time_.--25 minutes to boil the celery. _Average cost_, 1s. 3d.

_Sufficient_, this quantity, for a boiled turkey.

This sauce may be made brown by using gravy instead of white stock, and
flavouring it with mushroom ketchup or Harvey's sauce.

[Illustration: ARROWROOT.]

    ARROWROOT.--This nutritious fecula is obtained from the roots of
    a plant which is cultivated in both the East and West Indies.
    When the roots are about a year old, they are dug up, and, after
    being well washed, are beaten to a pulp, which is afterwards, by
    means of water, separated from the fibrous part. After being
    passed through a sieve, once more washed, and then suffered to
    settle, the sediment is dried in the sun, when it has become
    arrowroot. The best is obtained from the West Indies, but a
    large quantity of what is sold in London is adulterated with
    potato-starch. As a means of knowing arrowroot when it is good,
    it may be as well to state, that the genuine article, when
    formed into a jelly, will remain firm for three or four days,
    whilst the adulterated will become as thin as milk in the course
    of twelve hours.

CELERY SAUCE (a More Simple Recipe).

388. INGREDIENTS.--4 heads of celery, 1/2 pint of melted butter, made
with milk (No. 380), 1 blade of pounded mace; salt and white pepper to
taste.

_Mode_.--Wash the celery, boil it in salt and water till tender, and cut
it into pieces 2 inches long; make 1/2 pint melted butter by recipe No.
380; put in the celery, pounded mace, and seasoning; simmer for three
minutes, when the sauce will be ready to serve.

_Time_.--25 minutes to boil the celery. _Average cost_, 6d.

_Sufficient_, this quantity, for a boiled fowl.


CELERY VINEGAR.

389. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 oz. of celery-seed, 1 pint of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Crush the seed by pounding it in a mortar; boil the vinegar,
and when cold, pour it to the seed; let it infuse for a fortnight, when
strain and bottle off for use. This is frequently used in salads.


CHESTNUT SAUCE FOR FOWLS OR TURKEY.

390. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of chestnuts, 1/2 pint of white stock, 2
strips of lemon-peel, cayenne to taste, 1/4 pint of cream or milk.

_Mode_.--Peel off the outside skin of the chestnuts, and put them into
boiling water for a few minutes; take off the thin inside peel, and put
them into a saucepan, with the white stock and lemon-peel, and let them
simmer for 1-1/2 hour, or until the chestnuts are quite tender. Rub the
whole through a hair-sieve with a wooden spoon; add seasoning and the
cream; let it just simmer, but not boil, and keep stirring all the time.
Serve very hot; and quickly. If milk is used instead of cream, a very
small quantity of thickening may be required: that, of course, the cook
will determine.

_Time_.--Altogether nearly two hours. _Average cost_, 8d.

_Sufficient_, this quantity, for a turkey.


BROWN CHESTNUT SAUCE.

391. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of chestnuts, 1/2 pint of stock No. 105, 2
lumps of sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of Spanish sauce (_see_ Sauces).

_Mode_.--Prepare the chestnuts as in the foregoing recipe, by scalding
and peeling them; put them in a stewpan with the stock and sugar, and
simmer them till tender. When done, add Spanish sauce in the above
proportion, and rub the whole through a tammy. Keep this sauce rather
liquid, as it is liable to thicken.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour to simmer the chestnuts. _Average cost_, 8d.


BENGAL RECIPE FOR MAKING MANGO CHETNEY.

392. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 lbs. of moist sugar, 3/4 lb. of salt, 1/4 lb.
of garlic, 1/4 lb. of onions, 3/4 lb. of powdered ginger, 1/4 lb. of
dried chilies, 3/4 lb. of mustard-seed, 3/4 lb. of stoned raisins, 2
bottles of best vinegar, 30 large unripe sour apples.

_Mode_.--The sugar must be made into syrup; the garlic, onions, and
ginger be finely pounded in a mortar; the mustard-seed be washed in cold
vinegar, and dried in the sun; the apples be peeled, cored, and sliced,
and boiled in a bottle and a half of the vinegar. When all this is done,
and the apples are quite cold, put them into a large pan, and gradually
mix the whole of the rest of the ingredients, including the remaining
half-bottle of vinegar. It must be well stirred until the whole is
thoroughly blended, and then put into bottles for use. Tie a piece of
wet bladder over the mouths of the bottles, after they are well corked.
This chetney is very superior to any which can be bought, and one trial
will prove it to be delicious.

_Note_.--This recipe was given by a native to an English lady, who had
long been a resident in India, and who, since her return to her native
country, has become quite celebrated amongst her friends for the
excellence of this Eastern relish.

[Illustration: GARLIC.]

    GARLIC.--The smell of this plant is generally considered
    offensive, and it is the most acrimonious in its taste of the
    whole of the alliaceous tribe. In 1548 it was introduced to
    England from the shores of the Mediterranean, where it is
    abundant, and in Sicily it grows naturally. It was in greater
    repute with our ancestors than it is with ourselves, although it
    is still used as a seasoning herb. On the continent, especially
    in Italy, it is much used, and the French consider it an
    essential in many made dishes.

CHILI VINEGAR.

393. INGREDIENTS.--50 fresh red English chilies, 1 pint of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Pound or cut the chilies in half, and infuse them in the
vinegar for a fortnight, when it will be fit for use. This will be found
an agreeable relish to fish, as many people cannot eat it without the
addition of an acid and cayenne pepper.


CHRISTOPHER NORTH'S SAUCE FOR MEAT OR GAME.

394. INGREDIENTS.-1 glass of port wine, 2 tablespoonfuls of Harvey's
sauce, 1 dessertspoonful of mushroom ketchup, ditto of pounded white
sugar, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1/4 teaspoonful of cayenne
pepper, ditto of salt.

_Mode_.--Mix all the ingredients thoroughly together, and heat the sauce
gradually, by placing the vessel in which it is made in a saucepan of
boiling water. Do not allow it to boil, and serve directly it is ready.
This sauce, if bottled immediately, will keep good for a fortnight, and
will be found excellent.


CONSOMME, or WHITE STOCK FOR MANY SAUCES.

395. Consomme is made precisely in the same manner as stock No. 107,
and, for ordinary purposes, will be found quite good enough. When,
however, a stronger stock is desired, either put in half the quantity of
water, or double that of the meat. This is a very good foundation for
all white sauces.


CRAB SAUCE FOR FISH (equal to Lobster Sauce).

396. INGREDIENTS.--1 crab; salt, pounded mace, and cayenne to taste; 1/2
pint of melted butter made with milk (_see_ No. 380).

_Mode_.--Choose a nice fresh crab, pick all the meat away from the
shell, and cut it into small square pieces. Make 1/2 pint of melted
butter by recipe No. 380, put in the fish and seasoning; let it
gradually warm through, and simmer for 2 minutes. It should not boil.

_Average cost_, 1s. 2d.


CREAM SAUCE FOR FISH OR WHITE DISHES.

397. INGREDIENTS.--1/3 pint of cream, 2 oz. of butter, 1 teaspoonful of
flour, salt and cayenne to taste; when liked, a small quantity of
pounded mace or lemon-juice.

_Mode_.--Put the butter in a very clean saucepan, dredge in the flour,
and keep shaking round till the butter is melted. Add the seasoning and
cream, and stir the whole till it boils; let it just simmer for 5
minutes, when add either pounded mace or lemon-juice to taste, to give
it a flavour.

_Time_.--5 minutes to simmer. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 7d.

This sauce may be flavoured with very finely-shredded shalot.


CUCUMBER SAUCE.

398. INGREDIENTS.--3 or 4 cucumbers, 2 oz. of butter, 6 tablespoonfuls
of brown gravy.

_Mode_.--Peel the cucumbers, quarter them, and take out the seeds; cut
them into small pieces; put them in a cloth, and rub them well, to take
out the water which hangs about them. Put the butter in a saucepan, add
the cucumbers, and shake them over a sharp fire until they are of a good
colour. Then pour over it the gravy, mix this with the cucumbers, and
simmer gently for 10 minutes, when it will be ready to serve.

_Time_.--Altogether, 1/2 hour.


PICKLED CUCUMBERS.

399. INGREDIENTS.--1 oz. of whole pepper, 1 oz. of bruised ginger;
sufficient vinegar to cover the cucumbers.

_Mode_.--Cut the cucumbers in thick slices, sprinkle salt over them, and
let them remain for 24 hours. The next day, drain them well for 6 hours,
put them into a jar, pour boiling vinegar over them, and keep them in a
warm place. In a short time, boil up the vinegar again, add pepper and
ginger in the above proportion, and instantly cover them up. Tie them
down with bladder, and in a few days they will be fit for use.

[Illustration: LONG PEPPER.]

    LONG PEPPER.--This is the produce of a different plant from that
    which produces the black, it consisting of the half-ripe
    flower-heads of what naturalists call _Piper longum_ and
    _chaba_. It is the growth, however, of the same countries;
    indeed, all the spices are the produce of tropical climates
    only. Originally, the most valuable of these were found in the
    Spice Islands, or Moluccas, of the Indian Ocean, and were highly
    prized by the nations of antiquity. The Romans indulged in them
    to a most extravagant degree. The long pepper is less aromatic
    than the black, but its oil is more pungent.

CUCUMBER SAUCE, WHITE.

400. INGREDIENTS.--3 or four cucumbers, 1/2 pint of white stock, No.
107, cayenne and salt to taste, the yolks of 3 eggs.

_Mode_.--Cut the cucumbers into small pieces, after peeling them and
taking out the seeds. Put them in a stewpan with the white stock and
seasoning; simmer gently till the cucumbers are tender, which will be in
about 1/4 hour. Then add the yolks of the eggs well beaten; stir them to
the sauce, but do not allow it to boil, and serve very hot.

_Time_.--Altogether, 1/2 hour.


CUCUMBER VINEGAR (a very nice Addition to Salads).

401. INGREDIENTS.--10 large cucumbers, or 12 smaller ones, 1 quart of
vinegar, 2 onions, 2 shalots, 1 tablespoonful of salt, 2 tablespoonfuls
of pepper, 1/4 teaspoonful of cayenne.

_Mode_.--Pare and slice the cucumbers, put them in a stone jar or
wide-mouthed bottle, with the vinegar; slice the onions and shalots, and
add them, with all the other ingredients, to the cucumbers. Let it stand
4 or 5 days, boil it all up, and when cold, strain the liquor through a
piece of muslin, and store it away in small bottles well sealed. This
vinegar is a very nice addition to gravies, hashes, &e., as well as a
great improvement to salads, or to eat with cold meat.


GERMAN METHOD OF KEEPING CUCUMBERS FOR WINTER USE.

402. INGREDIENTS.--Cucumbers, salt.

_Mode_.--Pare and slice the cucumbers (as for the table), sprinkle well
with salt, and let them remain for 24 hours; strain off the liquor, pack
in jars, a thick layer of cucumbers and salt alternately; tie down
closely, and, when wanted for use, take out the quantity required. Now
wash them well in fresh water, and dress as usual with pepper, vinegar,
and oil.

[Illustration: THE CUCUMBER.]

    THE CUCUMBER.--Though the melon is far superior in point of
    flavour to this fruit, yet it is allied to the cucumber, which
    is known to naturalists as _Cucumia sativus_. The modern
    Egyptians, as did their forefathers, still eat it, and others of
    its class. Cucumbers were observed, too, by Bishop Heber,
    beyond the Ganges, in India; and Burckhardt noticed them in
    Palestine. (See No. 127.)

AN EXCELLENT WAY OF PRESERVING CUCUMBERS.

403. INGREDIENTS.--Salt and water; 1 lb. of lump sugar, the rind of 1
lemon, 1 oz. of ginger, cucumbers.

_Mode_.--Choose the greenest cucumbers, and those that are most free
from seeds; put them in strong salt and water, with a cabbage-leaf to
keep them down; tie a paper over them, and put them in a warm place till
they are yellow; then wash them and set them over the fire in fresh
water, with a very little salt, and another cabbage-leaf over them;
cover very closely, but take care they do not boil. If they are not a
fine green, change the water again, cover them as before, and make them
hot. When they are a good colour, take them off the fire and let them
cool; cut them in quarters, take out the seeds and pulp, and put them
into cold water. Let them remain for 2 days, changing the water twice
each day, to draw out the salt. Put the sugar, with 1/4 pint of water,
in a saucepan over the fire; remove the scum as it rises, and add the
lemon-peel and ginger with the outside scraped off; when the syrup is
tolerably thick, take it off the fire, and when _cold_, wipe the
cucumbers _dry_, and put them in. Boil the syrup once in 2 or 3 days for
3 weeks; strengthen it if required, and let it be quite cold before the
cucumbers are put in. Great attention must be paid to the directions in
the commencement of this recipe, as, if these are not properly carried
out, the result will be far from satisfactory.

_Seasonable_.--This recipe should be used in June, July, or August.

[Illustration: SALT-MINE AT NORTHWICH.]

    COMMON SALT.--By this we mean salt used for cooking purposes,
    which is found in great abundance both on land and in the waters
    of the ocean. Sea or salt water, as it is often called,
    contains, it has been discovered, about three per cent, of salt
    on an average. Solid rocks of salt are also found in various
    parts of the world, and the county of Chester contains many of
    these mines, and it is from there that much of our salt comes.
    Some springs are so highly impregnated with salt, as to have
    received the name of "brine" springs, and are supposed to have
    become so by passing through the salt rocks below ground, and
    thus dissolving a portion of this mineral substance. We here
    give an engraving of a salt-mine at Northwich, Cheshire, where
    both salt-mines and brine-springs are exceedingly productive,
    and are believed to have been wrought so far back as during the
    occupation of Britain by the Romans.

CUSTARD SAUCE FOR SWEET PUDDINGS OR TARTS.

404. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of milk, 2 eggs, 3 oz. of pounded sugar, 1
tablespoonful of brandy.

_Mode_.--Put the milk in a very clean saucepan, and let it boil. Beat
the eggs, stir to them the milk and pounded sugar, and put the mixture
into a jug. Place the jug in a saucepan of boiling water; keep stirring
well until it thickens, but do not allow it to boil, or it will curdle.
Serve the sauce in a tureen, stir in the brandy, and grate a little
nutmeg over the top. This sauce may be made very much nicer by using
cream instead of milk; but the above recipe will be found quite good
enough for ordinary purposes.

_Average cost_, 6d. per pint.

_Sufficient_, this quantity, for 2 fruit tarts, or 1 pudding.


DUTCH SAUCE FOR FISH.

405. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 teaspoonful of flour, 2 oz. of butter, 4
tablespoonfuls of vinegar, the yolks of 2 eggs, the juice of 1/2 lemon;
salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients, except the lemon-juice, into a
stew-pan; set it over the fire, and keep continually stirring. When it
is sufficiently thick, take it off, as it should not boil. If, however,
it happens to curdle, strain the sauce through a tammy, add the
lemon-juice, and serve. Tarragon vinegar may be used instead of plain,
and, by many, is considered far preferable.

_Average cost_, 6d.

Note.--This sauce may be poured hot over salad, and left to get quite
cold, when it should be thick, smooth, and somewhat stiff. Excellent
salads may be made of hard eggs, or the remains of salt fish flaked
nicely from the bone, by pouring over a little of the above mixture when
hot, and allowing it to cool.

[Illustration: THE LEMON.]

    THE LEMON.--This fruit is a native of Asia, and is mentioned by
    Virgil as an antidote to poison. It is hardier than the orange,
    and, as one of the citron tribe, was brought into Europe by the
    Arabians. The lemon was first cultivated in England in the
    beginning of the 17th century, and is now often to be found in
    our green-houses. The kind commonly sold, however, is imported
    from Portugal, Spain, and the Azores. Some also come from St.
    Helena; but those from Spain are esteemed the best. Its juice is
    now an essential for culinary purposes; but as an antiscorbutic
    its value is still greater. This juice, which is called _citric
    acid_, may be preserved in bottles for a considerable time, by
    covering it with a thin stratum of oil. _Shrub_ is made from it
    with rum and sugar.

GREEN DUTCH SAUCE, or HOLLANDAISE VERTE.

406. INGREDIENTS.--6 tablespoonfuls of Bechamel, No. 367, seasoning to
taste of salt and cayenne, a little parsley-green to colour, the juice
of 1/2 a lemon.

_Mode_.--Put the Bechamel into a saucepan with the seasoning, and bring
it to a boil. Make a green colouring by pounding some parsley in a
mortar, and squeezing all the juice from it. Let this just simmer, when
add it to the sauce. A moment before serving, put in the lemon-juice,
but not before; for otherwise the sauce would turn yellow, and its
appearance be thus spoiled.

_Average cost_, 4d.

    BECHAMEL SAUCE--This sauce takes its name from a Monsieur
    Bechamel, a rich French financier, who, according to Borne
    authorities, invented it; whilst others affirm he only
    patronized it. Be this as it may, it is one of the most pleasant
    sauces which come to table, and should be most carefully and
    intelligently prepared. It is frequently used, as in the above
    recipe, as a principal ingredient and basis for other sauces.

TO PICKLE EGGS.

407. INGREDIENTS.--16 eggs, 1 quart of vinegar, 1/2 oz. of Black pepper,
1/2 oz. of Jamaica pepper, 1/2 oz. of ginger.

_Mode_.--Boil the eggs for 12 minutes, then dip them into cold water,
and take off the shells. Put the vinegar, with the pepper and ginger,
into a stewpan, and let it simmer for 10 minutes. Now place the eggs in
a jar, pour over them the vinegar, &c., boiling hot, and, when cold, tie
them down with bladder to exclude the air. This pickle will be ready for
use in a month.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 1s. 9d.

_Seasonable_.--This should be made about Easter, as at this time eggs
are plentiful and cheap. A store of pickled eggs will be found very
useful and ornamental in serving with many first and second course
dishes.

[Illustration: GINGER.]

    The ginger-plant, known to naturalists as _Zingiber officinale_,
    is a native, of the East and West Indies. It grows somewhat like
    the lily of the valley, but its height is about three feet. In
    Jamaica it flowers about August or September, fading about the
    end of the year. The fleshy creeping roots, which form the
    ginger of commerce, are in a proper state to be dug when the
    stalks are entirely withered. This operation is usually
    performed in January and February; and when the roots are taken
    out of the earth, each one is picked, scraped, separately
    washed, and afterwards very carefully dried. Ginger is generally
    considered as less pungent and heating to the system than might
    he expected from its effects on the organs of taste, and it is
    frequently used, with considerable effect, as an anti-spasmodic
    and carminative.

EGG BALLS FOR SOUPS AND MADE DISHES.

408. INGREDIENTS.--8 eggs, a little flour; seasoning to taste of salt.

_Mode_.--Boil 6 eggs for 20 minutes, strip off the shells, take the
yolks and pound them in a mortar. Beat the yolks of the other 2 eggs;
add them, with a little flour and salt, to those pounded; mix all well
together, and roll into balls. Boil them before they are put into the
soup or other dish they may be intended for.

_Time_.--20 minutes to boil the eggs. _Average cost_, for this quantity,
8d.

_Sufficient_, 2 dozen balls for 1 tureen of soup.


EGG SAUCE FOR SALT FISH.

409. INGREDIENTS.--4 eggs, 1/2 pint of melted butter, No. 376; when
liked, a very little lemon-juice.

_Mode_.--Boil the eggs until quite hard, which will be in about 20
minutes, and put them into cold water for 1/2 hour. Strip off the
shells, chop the eggs into small pieces, not, however, too fine. Make
the melted butter very smoothly, by recipe No. 376, and, when boiling,
stir in the eggs, and serve very hot. Lemon-juice may be added at
pleasure.

_Time_.--20 minutes to boil the eggs. _Average cost_, 8d.

_Sufficient_.--This quantity for 3 or 4 lbs. of fish.

_Note_.--When a thicker sauce is required, use one or two more eggs to
the same quantity of melted butter.


EPICUREAN SAUCE FOR STEAKS, CHOPS, GRAVIES, OR FISH.

410. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 pint of walnut ketchup, 1/4 pint of mushroom
ditto, 2 tablespoonfuls of Indian soy, 2 tablespoonfuls of port wine;
1/4 oz. of white pepper, 2 oz. of shalots, 1/4 oz. of cayenne, 1/4 oz.
of cloves, 3/4 pint of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Put the whole of the ingredients into a bottle, and let it
remain for a fortnight in a warm place, occasionally shaking up the
contents. Strain, and bottle off for use. This sauce will be found an
agreeable addition to gravies, hashes, stews, &c.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 1s. 6d.

[Illustration: SHALOT.]

    SHALOT, OR ESCHALOT.--This plant is supposed to have been
    introduced to England by the Crusaders, who found it growing
    wild in the vicinity of Ascalon. It is a bulbous root, and when
    full grown, its leaves wither in July. They ought to be taken up
    in the autumn, and when dried in the house, will keep till
    spring. It is called by old authors the "barren onion," and is
    used in sauces and pickles, soups and made dishes, and as an
    accompaniment to chops and steaks.

ESPAGNOLE, OR BROWN SPANISH SAUCE.

411. INGREDIENTS.--2 slices of lean ham, 1 lb. of veal, 1-1/2 pint of
white stock, No. 107; 2 or 3 sprigs of parsley, 1/2 a bay-leaf, 2 or 3
sprigs of savoury herbs, 6 green onions, 3 shalots, 2 cloves, 1 blade of
mace, 2 glasses of sherry or Madeira, thickening of butter and flour.

_Mode_.--Cut up the ham and veal into small square pieces, and put them
into a stewpan. Moisten these with 1/2 pint of the stock No. 107, and
simmer till the bottom of the stewpan is covered with a nicely-coloured
glaze, when put in a few more spoonfuls to detach it. Add the remainder
of the stock, with the spices, herbs, shalots, and onions, and simmer
very gently for 1 hour. Strain and skim off every particle of fat, and
when required for use, thicken with butter and flour, or with a little
roux. Add the wine, and, if necessary, a seasoning of cayenne; when it
will be ready to serve.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, 2s. per pint.

_Note_.--The wine in this sauce may be omitted, and an onion sliced and
fried of a nice brown substituted for it. This sauce or gravy is used
for many dishes, and with most people is a general favourite.


FENNEL SAUCE FOR MACKEREL.

412. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter, No. 376, rather more than
1 tablespoonful of chopped fennel.

_Mode_.--Make the melted butter very smoothly, by recipe No. 376; chop
the fennel rather small, carefully cleansing it from any grit or dirt,
and put it to the butter when this is on the point of boiling. Simmer
for a minute or two, and serve in a tureen.

_Time_.--2 minutes.

_Average cost_, 4d.

_Sufficient_ to serve with 5 or 6 mackerel.

[Illustration: FENNEL.]

    FENNEL.--This elegantly-growing plant, of which the Latin name
    is _Anethum foeniculum_, grows best in chalky soils, where,
    indeed, it is often found wild. It is very generally cultivated
    in gardens, and has much improved on its original form. Various
    dishes are frequently ornamented and garnished with its graceful
    leaves, and these are sometimes boiled in soups, although it is
    more usually confined, in English cookery, to the mackerel sauce
    as here given.

FISH SAUCE.

413. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 oz. of cayenne, 2 tablespoonfuls of walnut
ketchup, 2 tablespoonfuls of soy, a few shreds of garlic and shalot, 1
quart of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients into a large bottle, and shake well
every day for a fortnight. Keep it in small bottles well sealed, and in
a few days it will be fit for use.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 1s.


FORCEMEAT BALLS FOR FISH SOUPS.

414. INGREDIENTS.--1 middling-sized lobster, 1/2 an anchovy, 1 head of
boiled celery, the yolk of a hard-boiled egg; salt, cayenne, and mace to
taste; 4 tablespoonfuls of bread crumbs, 2 oz. of butter, 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Pick the meat from the shell of the lobster, and pound it, with
the soft parts, in a mortar; add the celery, the yolk of the hard-boiled
egg, seasoning, and bread crumbs. Continue pounding till the whole is
nicely amalgamated. Warm the butter till it is in a liquid state; well
whisk the eggs, and work these up with the pounded lobster-meat. Make
into balls of about an inch in diameter, and fry of a nice pale brown.

_Sufficient_, from 18 to 20 balls for 1 tureen of soup.


FORCEMEAT FOR COLD SAVOURY PIES.

415. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of veal, 1 lb. of fat bacon; salt, cayenne,
pepper, and pounded mace to taste; a very little nutmeg, the same of
chopped lemon-peel, 1/2 teaspoonful of chopped parsley, 1/2 teaspoonful
of minced savoury herbs, 1 or 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Chop the veal and bacon together, and put them in a mortar with
the other ingredients mentioned above. Pound well, and bind with 1 or 2
eggs which have been previously beaten and strained. Work the whole well
together, and the forcemeat will be ready for use. If the pie is not to
be eaten immediately, omit the herbs and parsley, as these would prevent
it from keeping. Mushrooms or truffles may be added.

_Sufficient_ for 2 small pies.

[Illustration: MARJORAM.]

    MARJORAM.--Although there are several species of marjoram, that
    which is known as the sweet or knotted marjoram, is the one
    usually preferred in cookery. It is a native of Portugal, and
    when its leaves are used as a seasoning herb, they have an
    agreeable aromatic flavour. The winter sweet marjoram used for
    the same purposes, is a native of Greece, and the pot-marjoram
    is another variety brought from Sicily. All of them are
    favourite ingredients in soups, stuffings, &c.

FORCEMEAT FOR PIKE, CARP, HADDOCK, AND VARIOUS KINDS OF FISH.

416. INGREDIENTS.--1 oz. of fresh butter, 1 oz. of suet, 1 oz. of fat
bacon, 1 small teaspoonful of minced savoury herbs, including parsley; a
little onion, when liked, shredded very fine; salt, nutmeg, and cayenne
to taste; 4 oz. of bread crumbs, 1 egg.

_Mode_.--Mix all the ingredients well together, carefully mincing them
very finely; beat up the egg, moisten with it, and work the whole very
smoothly together. Oysters or anchovies may be added to this forcemeat,
and will be found a great improvement.

_Average cost_, 6d.

_Sufficient_ for a moderate-sized haddock or pike.


FORCEMEAT FOR VEAL, TURKEYS, FOWLS, HARE, &c.

417. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of ham or lean bacon, 1/4 lb. of suet, the rind
of half a lemon, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley, 1 teaspoonful of
minced sweet herbs; salt, cayenne, and pounded mace to taste; 6 oz. of
bread crumbs, 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Shred the ham or bacon, chop the suet, lemon-peel, and herbs,
taking particular care that all be very finely minced; add a seasoning
to taste, of salt, cayenne, and mace, and blend all thoroughly together
with the bread crumbs, before wetting. Now beat and strain the eggs,
work these up with the other ingredients, and the forcemeat will be
ready for use. When it is made into balls, fry of a nice brown, in
boiling lard, or put them on a tin and bake for 1/2 hour in a moderate
oven. As we have stated before, no one flavour should predominate
greatly, and the forcemeat should be of sufficient body to cut with a
knife, and yet not dry and heavy. For very delicate forcemeat, it is
advisable to pound the ingredients together before binding with the egg;
but for ordinary cooking, mincing very finely answers the purpose.

_Average cost_, 8d.

_Sufficient_ for a turkey, a moderate-sized fillet of veal, or a hare.

_Note_.--In forcemeat for HARE, the liver of the animal is sometimes
added. Boil for 5 minutes, mince it very small, and mix it with the
other ingredients. If it should be in an unsound state, it must be on no
account made use of.

[Illustration: BASIL.]

    SWEET HERBS.--Those most usually employed for purposes of
    cooking, such as the flavouring of soups, sauces, forcemeats,
    &c., are thyme, sage, mint, marjoram, savory, and basil. Other
    sweet herbs are cultivated for purposes of medicine and
    perfumery: they are most grateful both to the organs of taste
    and smelling; and to the aroma derived from them is due, in a
    great measure, the sweet and exhilarating fragrance of our
    "flowery meads." In town, sweet herbs have to be procured at the
    greengrocers' or herbalists', whilst, in the country, the garden
    should furnish all that are wanted, the cook taking great care
    to have some dried in the autumn for her use throughout the
    winter months.

FORCEMEAT FOR BAKED PIKE.

418. INGREDIENTS.--3 oz. of bread crumbs, 1 teaspoonful of minced
savoury herbs, 8 oysters, 2 anchovies (these may be dispensed with), 2
oz. of suet; salt, pepper, and pounded mace to taste; 6 tablespoonfuls
of cream or milk, the yolks of 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Beard and mince the oysters, prepare and mix the other
ingredients by recipe No. 416, and blend the whole thoroughly together.
Moisten with the cream and eggs, put all into a stewpan, and stir it
over the fire till it thickens, when put it into the fish, which should
have previously been cut open, and sew it up.

_Time_.--4 or 6 minutes to thicken.

_Average cost_, 10d.

_Sufficient_ for a moderate-sized pike.


FRENCH FORCEMEAT.

419. It will be well to state, in the beginning of this recipe, that
French forcemeat, or quenelles, consist of the blending of three
separate processes; namely, panada, udder, and whatever meat you intend
using.


PANADA.

420. INGREDIENTS.--The crumb of 2 penny rolls, 4 tablespoonfuls of white
stock, No. 107, 1 oz. of butter, 1 slice of ham, 1 bay-leaf, a little
minced parsley, 2 shalots, 1 clove, 2 blades of mace, a few mushrooms
(when obtainable), butter, the yolks of 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Soak the crumb of the rolls in milk for about 1/2 hour, then
take it out, and squeeze so as to press the milk from it; put the soaked
bread into a stewpan with the above quantity of white stock, and set it
on one side; then put into a separate stewpan 1 oz. of butter, a slice
of lean ham cut small, with a bay-leaf, herbs, mushrooms, spices, &c.,
in the above proportions, and fry them gently over a slow fire. When
done, moisten with 2 teacupfuls of white stock, boil for 20 minutes, and
strain the whole through a sieve over the panada in the other stewpan.
Place it over the fire, keep constantly stirring, to prevent its
burning, and when quite dry, put in a small piece of butter. Let this
again dry up by stirring over the fire; then add the yolks of 2 eggs,
mix well, put the panada to cool on a clean plate, and use it when
required. Panada should always be well flavoured, as the forcemeat
receives no taste from any of the other ingredients used in its
preparation.


Boiled Calf's Udder for French Forcemeats.

421. Put the udder into a stewpan with sufficient water to cover it; let
it stew gently till quite done, when take it out to cool. Trim all the
upper parts, cut it into small pieces, and pound well in a mortar, till
it can be rubbed through a sieve. That portion which passes through the
strainer is one of the three ingredients of which French forcemeats are
generally composed; but many cooks substitute butter for this, being a
less troublesome and more expeditious mode of preparation.

[Illustration: PESTLE AND MORTAR.]

    PESTLE AND MORTAR.--No cookery can be perfectly performed
    without the aid of the useful instruments shown in the
    engraving. For pounding things sufficiently fine, they are
    invaluable, and the use of them will save a good deal of time,
    besides increasing the excellence of the preparations. They are
    made of iron, and, in that material, can be bought cheap; but as
    these are not available, for all purposes, we should recommend,
    as more economical in the end, those made of Wedgwood, although
    these are considerably more expensive than the former.

Veal Quenelles.

422. INGREDIENTS.--Equal quantities of veal, panada (No. 420), and
calf's udder (No. 421), 2 eggs; seasoning to taste of pepper, salt, and
pounded mace, or grated nutmeg; a little flour.

_Mode_.--Take the fleshy part of veal, scrape it with a knife, till all
the meat is separated from the sinews, and allow about 1/2 lb. for an
entree. Chop the meat, and pound it in a mortar till reduced to a paste;
then roll it into a ball; make another of panada (No. 420), the same
size, and another of udder (No. 421), taking care that these three balls
be of the same _size_. It is to be remembered, that equality of _size_,
and not of weight, is here necessary. When the three ingredients are
properly prepared, pound them altogether in a mortar for some time; for
the more quenelles are pounded, the more delicate they are. Now moisten
with the eggs, whites and yolks, and continue pounding, adding a
seasoning of pepper, spices, &c. When the whole is well blended
together, mould it into balls, or whatever shape is intended, roll them
in flour, and poach in boiling water, to which a little salt should have
been added. If the quenelles are not firm enough, add the yolk of
another egg, but omit the white, which only makes them hollow and puffy
inside. In the preparation of this recipe, it would be well to bear in
mind that the ingredients are to be well pounded and seasoned, and must
be made hard or soft according to the dishes they are intended for. For
brown or white ragouts they should be firm, and when the quenelles are
used very small, extreme delicacy will be necessary in their
preparation. Their flavour may be varied by using the flesh of rabbit,
fowl, hare, pheasant, grouse, or an extra quantity of mushroom, parsley,
&c.

_Time_,--About 1/4 hour to poach in boiling water.

_Sufficient_, 1/2 lb. of veal or other meat, with other ingredients in
proportion, for 1 entree.

_Note_.--The French are noted for their skill in making forcemeats; one
of the principal causes of their superiority in this respect being, that
they pound all the ingredients so diligently and thoroughly. Any one
with the slightest pretensions to refined cookery, must, in this
particular, implicitly follow the example of our friends across the
Channel.


FORCEMEAT, or QUENELLES, FOR TURTLE SOUP.

(_See No_. 189.)

423. SOYER'S RECIPE FOR FORCEMEATS.--Take a pound and a half of lean
veal from the fillet, and cut it in long thin slices; scrape with a
knife till nothing but the fibre remains; put it in a mortar, pound it
10 minutes, or until in a puree; pass it through a wire sieve (use the
remainder in stock); then take 1 pound of good fresh beef suet, which
skin, shred, and chop very fine; put it in a mortar and pound it; then
add 6 oz. of panada (that is, bread soaked in milk and boiled till
nearly dry) with the suet; pound them well together, and add the veal;
season with a teaspoonful of salt, a quarter one of pepper, half that of
nutmeg; work all well together; then add four eggs by degrees,
continually pounding the contents of the mortar. When well mixed, take a
small piece in a spoon, and poach it in some boiling water; and if it is
delicate, firm, and of a good flavour, it is ready for use.


FRIED BREAD CRUMBS.

424. Cut the bread into thin slices, place them in a cool oven
overnight, and when thoroughly dry and crisp, roll them down into fine
crumbs. Put some lard, or clarified dripping, into a frying-pan; bring
it to the boiling-point, throw in the crumbs, and fry them very quickly.
Directly they are done, lift them out with a slice, and drain them
before the fire from all greasy moisture. When quite crisp, they are
ready for use. The fat they are fried in should be clear, and the crumbs
should not have the slightest appearance or taste of having been, in the
least degree, burnt.


FRIED SIPPETS OF BREAD (for Garnishing many Dishes).

425. Cut the bread into thin slices, and stamp them out in whatever
shape you like,--rings, crosses, diamonds, &c. &c. Fry them in the same
manner as the bread crumbs, in clear boiling lard, or clarified
dripping, and drain them until thoroughly crisp before the fire. When
variety is desired, fry some of a pale colour, and others of a darker
hue.


FRIED BREAD FOR BORDERS.

426. Proceed as above, by frying some slices of bread cut in any
fanciful shape. When quite crisp, dip one side of the sippet into the
beaten white of an egg mixed with a little flour, and place it on the
edge of the dish. Continue in this manner till the border is completed,
arranging the sippets a pale and a dark one alternately.

GENEVESE SAUCE FOR SALMON, TROUT, &c.

427. INGREDIENTS.--1 small carrot, a small faggot of sweet herbs,
including parsley, 1 onion, 5 or 6 mushrooms (when obtainable), 1
bay-leaf, 6 cloves, 1 blade of mace, 2 oz. of butter, 1 glass of sherry,
1-1/2 pint of white stock, No. 107, thickening of butter and flour, the
juice of half a lemon.

_Mode_.--Cut up the onion and carrot into small rings, and put them into
a stewpan with the herbs, mushrooms, bay-leaf, cloves, and mace; add the
butter, and simmer the whole very gently over a slow fire until the
onion is quite tender. Pour in the stock and sherry, and stew slowly for
1 hour, when strain it off into a clean saucepan. Now make a thickening
of butter and flour, put it to the sauce, stir it over the fire until
perfectly smooth and mellow, add the lemon-juice, give one boil, when it
will be ready for table.

_Time_.--Altogether 2 hours.

_Average cost_, 1s. 3d per pint.

_Sufficient_, half this quantity for two slices of salmon.

[Illustration: SAGE.]

    SAGE.--This was originally a native of the south of Europe, but
    it has long been cultivated in the English garden. There are
    several kinds of it, known as the green, the red, the
    small-leaved, and the broad-leaved balsamic. In cookery, its
    principal use is for stuffings and sauces, for which purpose the
    red is the most agreeable, and the green the next. The others
    are used for medical purposes.

PICKLED GHERKINS.

428. INGREDIENTS.--Salt and water, 1 oz. of bruised ginger, 1/2 oz. of
whole black pepper, 1/4 oz. of whole allspice, 4 cloves, 2 blades of
mace, a little horseradish. This proportion of pepper, spices, &c., for
1 quart of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Let the gherkins remain in salt and water for 3 or 4 days, when
take them out, wipe perfectly dry, and put them into a stone jar. Boil
sufficient vinegar to cover them, with spices and pepper, &c., in the
above proportion, for 10 minutes; pour it, quite boiling, over the
gherkins, cover the jar with vine-leaves, and put over them a plate,
setting them near the fire, where they must remain all night. Next day
drain off the vinegar, boil it up again, and pour it hot over them.
Cover up with fresh leaves, and let the whole remain till quite cold.
Now tie down closely with bladder to exclude the air, and in a month or
two, they will be fit for use.

_Time_.--4 days.

_Seasonable_ from the middle of July to the end of August.

[Illustration: GHERKINS.]

    GHERKINS.--Gherkins are young cucumbers; and the only way in
    which they are used for cooking purposes is pickling them, as by
    the recipe here given. Not having arrived at maturity, they have
    not, of course, so strongly a developed flavour as cucumbers,
    and, as a pickle, they are very general favourites.

GOOSEBERRY SAUCE FOR BOILED MACKEREL.

429. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of green gooseberries, 3 tablespoonfuls of
Bechamel, No. 367 (veal gravy may be substituted for this), 2 oz. of
fresh butter; seasoning to taste of salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg.

_Mode_.--Boil the gooseberries in water until quite tender; strain them,
and rub them through a sieve. Put into a saucepan the Bechamel or gravy,
with the butter and seasoning; add the pulp from the gooseberries, mix
all well together, and heat gradually through. A little pounded sugar
added to this sauce is by many persons considered an improvement, as the
saccharine matter takes off the extreme acidity of the unripe fruit.

_Time_.--Boil the gooseberries from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour.

_Sufficient_, this quantity, for a large dish of mackerel.

_Seasonable_ from May to July.

[Illustration: THE GOOSEBERRY.]

    THE GOOSEBERRY.--This useful and wholesome fruit (_Ribes
    grossularia_) is thought to be indigenous to the British Isles,
    and may be occasionally found in a wild state in some of the
    eastern counties, although, when uncultivated, it is but a very
    small and inferior berry. The high state of perfection to which
    it has been here brought, is due to the skill of the English
    gardeners; for in no other country does it attain the same size
    and flavour. The humidity of the British climate, however, has
    doubtless something to do with the result; and it is said that
    gooseberries produced in Scotland as far north as Inverness, are
    of a very superior character. Malic and citric acid blended with
    sugar, produce the pleasant flavour of the gooseberry; and upon
    the proper development of these properties depends the success
    of all cooking operations with which they are connected.

GLAZE FOR COVERING COLD HAMS, TONGUES, &c.

430. INGREDIENTS.--Stock No. 104 or 107, doubling the quantity of meat
in each.

_Mode_.--We may remark at the outset, that unless glaze is wanted in
very large quantities, it is seldom made expressly. Either of the stocks
mentioned above, boiled down and reduced very considerably, will be
found to produce a very good glaze. Put the stock into a stewpan, over a
nice clear fire; let it boil till it becomes somewhat stiff, when keep
stirring, to prevent its burning. The moment it is sufficiently reduced,
and comes to a glaze, turn it out into the glaze-pot, of which we have
here given an engraving. As, however, this is not to be found in every
establishment, a white earthenware jar would answer the purpose; and
this may be placed in a vessel of boiling water, to melt the glaze when
required. It should never be warmed in a saucepan, except on the
principle of the bain marie, lest it should reduce too much, and become
black and bitter. If the glaze is wanted of a pale colour, more veal
than beef should be used in making the stock; and it is as well to omit
turnips and celery, as these impart a disagreeable bitter flavour.

TO GLAZE COLD JOINTS, &c.--Melt the glaze by placing the vessel which
contains it, into the bain marie or saucepan of boiling water; brush it
over the meat with a paste-brush, and if in places it is not quite
covered, repeat the operation. The glaze should not be too dark a
colour. (_See_ Coloured Cut of Glazed Ham, P.)

[Illustration: GLAZE-KETTLE.]

[Illustration: THE BAIN MARIE.]

    GLAZE-KETTLE.--This is a kettle used for keeping the strong
    stock boiled down to a jelly, which is known by the name of
    glaze. It is composed of two tin vessels, as shown in the cut,
    one of which, the upper,--containing the glaze, is inserted into
    one of larger diameter and containing boiling water. A brush is
    put in the small hole at the top of the lid, and is employed for
    putting the glaze on anything that may require it.

    THE BAIN MARIE.--So long ago as the time when emperors ruled in
    Rome, and the yellow Tiber passed through a populous and wealthy
    city, this utensil was extensively employed; and it is
    frequently mentioned by that profound culinary chemist of the
    ancients, Apicius. It is an open kind of vessel (as shown in the
    engraving and explained in our paragraph No. 87, on the French
    terms used in modern cookery), filled with boiling or nearly
    boiling water; and into this water should be put all the
    stewpans containing those ingredients which it is desired to
    keep hot. The quantity and quality of the contents of these
    vessels are not at all affected; and if the hour of dinner is
    uncertain in any establishment, by reason of the nature of the
    master's business, nothing is so certain a means of preserving
    the flavour of all dishes as the employment of the bain marie.

GREEN SAUCE FOR GREEN GEESE OR DUCKLINGS.

431. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 pint of sorrel-juice, 1 glass of sherry, 1/2 pint
of green gooseberries, 1 teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 1 oz. of fresh
butter.

_Mode_.--Boil the gooseberries in water until they are quite tender;
mash them and press them through a sieve; put the pulp into a saucepan
with the above ingredients; simmer for 3 or 4 minutes, and serve very
hot.

_Time_.--3 or 4 minutes.

_Note_.--We have given this recipe as a sauce for green geese, thinking
that some of our readers might sometimes require it; but, at the
generality of fashionable tables, it is now seldom or never served.

[Illustration: SORREL.]

    SORREL.--We gather from the pages of Pliny and Apicius, that
    sorrel was cultivated by the Romans in order to give it more
    strength and flavour, and that they also partook of it sometimes
    stewed with mustard, being seasoned with a little oil and
    vinegar. At the present day, English cookery is not much
    indebted to this plant (_Rumex Acetosa_), although the French
    make use of it to a considerable extent. It is found in most
    parts of Great Britain, and also on the continent, growing wild
    in the grass meadows, and, in a few gardens, it is cultivated.
    The acid of sorrel is very _prononce_, and is what chemists term
    a binoxalate of potash; that is, a combination of oxalic acid
    with potash.

GENERAL STOCK FOR GRAVIES.

432. Either of the stocks, Nos. 104, 105, or 107, will be found to
answer very well for the basis of many gravies, unless these are wanted
very rich indeed. By the addition of various store sauces, thickening
and flavouring, the stocks here referred to may be converted into very
good gravies. It should be borne in mind, however, that the goodness and
strength of spices, wines, flavourings, &c., evaporate, and that they
lose a great deal of their fragrance, if added to the gravy a long time
before they are wanted. If this point is attended to, a saving of one
half the quantity of these ingredients will be effected, as, with long
boiling, the flavour almost entirely passes away. The shank-bones of
mutton, previously well soaked, will be found a great assistance in
enriching gravies; a kidney or melt, beef skirt, trimmings of meat, &c.
&c., answer very well when only a small quantity is wanted, and, as we
have before observed, a good gravy need not necessarily be so very
expensive; for economically-prepared dishes are oftentimes found as
savoury and wholesome as dearer ones. The cook should also remember that
the fragrance of gravies should not be overpowered by too much spice, or
any strong essences, and that they should always be warmed in a _bain
marie_, after they are flavoured, or else in a jar or jug placed in a
saucepan full of boiling water. The remains of roast-meat gravy should
always be saved; as, when no meat is at hand, a very nice gravy in haste
may be made from it, and when added to hashes, ragouts, &c., is a great
improvement.

[Illustration: GRAVY-KETTLE.]

    GRAVY-KETTLE.--This is a utensil which will not be found in
    every kitchen; but it is a useful one where it is necessary to
    keep gravies hot for the purpose of pouring over various dishes
    as they are cooking. It is made of copper, and should,
    consequently, be heated over the hot plate, if there be one, or
    a charcoal stove. The price at which it can be purchased is set
    down by Messrs. Slack at 14s.

GRAVY FOR ROAST MEAT.

433. INGREDIENTS.--Gravy, salt.

_Mode_.--Put a common dish with a small quantity of salt in it under the
meat, about a quarter of an hour before it is removed from the fire.
When the dish is full, take it away, baste the meat, and pour the gravy
into the dish on which the joint is to be served.

    SAUCES AND GRAVIES IN THE MIDDLE AGES.--Neither poultry,
    butcher's meat, nor roast game were eaten dry in the middle
    ages, any more than fried fish is now. Different sauces, each
    having its own peculiar flavour, were served with all these
    dishes, and even with the various _parts_ of each animal.
    Strange and grotesque sauces, as, for example, "eggs cooked on
    the spit," "butter fried and roasted," were invented by the
    cooks of those days; but these preparations had hardly any other
    merit than that of being surprising and difficult to make.

A QUICKLY-MADE GRAVY.

434. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of shin of beef, 1/2 onion, 1/4 carrot, 2 or
3 sprigs of parsley and savoury herbs, a piece of butter about the size
of a walnut; cayenne and mace to taste, 3/4 pint of water.

_Mode_.--Cut up the meat into very small pieces, slice the onion and
carrot, and put them into a small saucepan with the butter. Keep
stirring over a sharp fire until they have taken a little colour, when
add the water and the remaining ingredients. Simmer for 1/2 hour, skim
well, strain, and flavour, when it will be ready for use.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 5d.

    A HUNDRED DIFFERENT DISHES.--Modern housewives know pretty well
    how much care, and attention, and foresight are necessary in
    order to serve well a little dinner for six or eight persons,--a
    dinner which will give credit to the _menage_, and satisfaction
    and pleasure to the guests. A quickly-made gravy, under some
    circumstances that we have known occur, will be useful to many
    housekeepers when they have not much time for preparation. But,
    talking of speed, and time, and preparation, what a combination
    of all these must have been necessary for the feast at the
    wedding of Charles VI. of France. On that occasion, as Froissart
    the chronicler tells us, the art of cooking, with its
    innumerable paraphernalia of sauces, with gravy, pepper,
    cinnamon, garlic, scallion, brains, gravy soups, milk _potage_,
    and ragouts, had a signal triumph. The skilful _chef-de-cuisine_
    of the royal household covered the great marble table of the
    regal palace with no less than a hundred different dishes,
    prepared in a hundred different ways.

A GOOD BEEF GRAVY FOR POULTRY, GAME, &c.

435. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of lean beef, 1/2 pint of cold water, 1
shalot or small onion, 1/2 a teaspoonful of salt, a little pepper, 1
tablespoonful of Harvey's sauce or mushroom ketchup, 1/2 a teaspoonful
of arrowroot.

_Mode_.--Cut up the beef into small pieces, and put it, with the water,
into a stewpan. Add the shalot and seasoning, and simmer gently for 3
hours, taking care that it does not boil fast. A short time before it is
required, take the arrowroot, and having mixed it with a little cold
water, pour it into the gravy, which keep stirring, adding the Harvey's
sauce, and just letting it boil. Strain off the gravy in a tureen, and
serve very hot.

_Time_.--3 hours. _Average cost_, 8d. per pint.


BROWN GRAVY.

436. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of butter, 2 large onions, 2 lbs. of shin of
beef, 2 small slices of lean bacon (if at hand), salt and whole pepper
to taste, 3 cloves, 2 quarts of water. For thickening, 2 oz. of butter,
3 oz. of flour.

_Mode_.--Put the butter into a stewpan; set this on the fire, throw in
the onions cut in rings, and fry them a light brown; then add the beef
and bacon, which should be cut into small square pieces; season, and
pour in a teacupful of water; let it boil for about ten minutes, or
until it is of a nice brown colour, occasionally stirring the contents.
Now fill up with water in the above proportion; let it boil up, when
draw it to the side of the fire to simmer very gently for 1-1/2 hour;
strain, and when cold, take off all the fat. In thickening this gravy,
melt 3 oz. of butter in a stewpan, add 2 oz. of flour, and stir till of
a light-brown colour; when cold, add it to the strained gravy, and boil
it up quickly. This thickening may be made in larger quantities, and
kept in a stone jar for use when wanted.

_Time_.--Altogether, 2 hours. _Average cost_, 4d. per pint.

    CLOVES.--This very agreeable spice is the unexpanded flower-buds
    of the _Caryophyllus aromaticus_, a handsome, branching tree, a
    native of the Malacca Islands. They take their name from the
    Latin word _clavus_, or the French _clou_, both meaning a nail,
    and to which the clove has a considerable resemblance. Cloves
    were but little known to the ancients, and Pliny appears to be
    the only writer who mentions them; and he says, vaguely enough,
    that some were brought to Rome, very similar to grains of
    pepper, but somewhat longer; that they were only to be found in
    India, in a wood consecrated to the gods; and that they served
    in the manufacture of perfumes. The Dutch, as in the case of the
    nutmeg (_see_ 378), endeavoured, when they gained possession of
    the Spice Islands, to secure a monopoly of cloves, and, so that
    the cultivation of the tree might be confined to Amboyna, their
    chief island, bribed the surrounding chiefs to cut down all
    trees found elsewhere. The Amboyna, or royal clove, is said to
    be the best, and is rare; but other kinds, nearly equally good,
    are produced in other parts of the world, and they come to
    Europe from Mauritius, Bourbon, Cayenne, and Martinique, as also
    from St. Kitts, St. Vincent's, and Trinidad. The clove contains
    about 20 per cent. of volatile aromatic oil, to which it owes
    its peculiar pungent flavour, its other parts being composed of
    woody fibre, water, gum, and resin.

BROWN GRAVY WITHOUT MEAT.

437. INGREDIENTS.--2 large onions, 1 large carrot, 2 oz. of butter, 3
pints of boiling water, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, a wineglassful of good
beer; salt and pepper to taste.

_Mode_.--Slice, flour, and fry the onions and carrots in the butter
until of a nice light-brown colour; then add the boiling water and the
remaining ingredients; let the whole stew gently for about an hour; then
strain, and when cold, skim off all the fat. Thicken it in the same
manner as recipe No. 436, and, if thought necessary, add a few drops of
colouring No. 108.

_Time_.--1 hour. Average cost, 2d. per pint.

_Note_.--The addition of a small quantity of mushroom ketchup or
Harvey's sauce very much improves the flavour of this gravy.


RICH GRAVY FOR HASHES, RAGOUTS, &c.

438. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of shin of beef, 1 large onion or a few
shalots, a little flour, a bunch of savoury herbs, 2 blades of mace, 2
or 3 cloves, 4 whole allspice, 1/4 teaspoonful of whole pepper, 1 slice
of lean ham or bacon, 1/2 a head of celery (when at hand), 2 pints of
boiling water; salt and cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut the beef into thin slices, as also the onions, dredge them
with flour, and fry of a pale brown, but do not allow them to get black;
pour in the boiling water, let it boil up; and skim. Add the remaining
ingredients, and simmer the whole very gently for 2 hours, or until all
the juices are extracted from the meat; put it by to get cold, when take
off all the fat. This gravy may be flavoured with ketchup, store sauces,
wine, or, in fact, anything that may give additional and suitable relish
to the dish it is intended for.

_Time_.--Rather more than 2 hours.

_Average cost_, 8d. per pint.

[Illustration: PIMENTO.]

    ALLSPICE.--This is the popular name given to pimento, or Jamaica
    pepper, known to naturalists as _Eugenia pimenta_, and belonging
    to the order of Myrtaceae. It is the berry of a fine tree in the
    West Indies and South America, which attains a height of from
    fifteen to twenty feet: the berries are not allowed to ripen,
    but, being gathered green, are then dried in the sun, and then
    become black. It is an inexpensive spice, and is considered more
    mild and innocent than most other spices; consequently, it is
    much used for domestic purposes, combining a very agreeable
    variety of flavours.

GRAVY MADE WITHOUT MEAT FOR FOWLS.

439. INGREDIENTS.--The necks, feet, livers, and gizzards of the fowls, 1
slice of toasted bread, 1/2 onion, 1 faggot of savoury herbs, salt and
pepper to taste, 1/2 pint of water, thickening of butter and flour, 1
dessertspoonful of ketchup.

_Mode_.--Wash the feet of the fowls thoroughly clean, and cut them and
the neck into small pieces. Put these into a stewpan with the bread,
onion, herbs, seasoning, livers, and gizzards; pour the water over them
and simmer gently for 1 hour. Now take out the liver, pound it, and
strain the liquor to it. Add a thickening of butter and flour, and a
flavouring of mushroom ketchup; boil it up and serve.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_, 4d. per pint.


A CHEAP GRAVY FOR HASHES, &c.

440. INGREDIENTS.--Bones and trimmings of the cooked joint intended for
hashing, 1/4 teaspoonful of salt, 1/4 teaspoonful of whole pepper, 1/4
teaspoonful of whole allspice, a small faggot of savoury herbs, 1/2 head
of celery, 1 onion, 1 oz. of butter, thickening, sufficient boiling
water to cover the bones.

_Mode_.--Chop the bones in small pieces, and put them in a stewpan, with
the trimmings, salt, pepper, spice, herbs, and celery. Cover with
boiling water, and let the whole simmer gently for 1-1/2 or 2 hours.
Slice and fry the onion in the butter till it is of a pale brown, and
mix it gradually with the gravy made from the bones; boil for  1/4 hour,
and strain into a basin; now put it back into the stewpan; flavour with
walnut pickle or ketchup, pickled-onion liquor, or any store sauce that
may be preferred. Thicken with a little butter and flour, kneaded
together on a plate, and the gravy will be ready for use. After the
thickening is added, the gravy should just boil, to take off the rawness
of the flour.

_Time_.--2 hours, or rather more.

_Average cost_, 4d., exclusive of the bones and trimmings.


JUGGED GRAVY (Excellent).

441. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of shin of beef, 1/4 lb. of lean ham, 1 onion
or a few shalots, 2 pints of water, salt and whole pepper to taste, 1
blade of mace, a faggot of savoury herbs, 1/2 a large carrot, 1/2 a
head of celery.

_Mode_.--Cut up the beef and ham into small pieces, and slice the
vegetables; take a jar, capable of holding two pints of water, and
arrange therein, in layers, the ham, meat, vegetables, and seasoning,
alternately, filling up with the above quantity of water; tie down the
jar, or put a plate over the top, so that the steam may not escape;
place it in the oven, and let it remain there from 6 to 8 hours; should,
however, the oven be very hot, less time will be required. When
sufficiently cooked, strain the gravy, and when cold, remove the fat. It
may be flavoured with ketchup, wines, or any other store sauce that may
be preferred.

It is a good plan to put the jar in a cool oven over-night, to draw the
gravy; and then it will not require so long baking the following day.

_Time_.--From 6 to 8 hours, according to the oven.

_Average cost_, 7d. per pint.

[Illustration: CELERY.]

    CELERY.--As in the above recipe, the roots of celery are
    principally used in England for flavouring soups, sauces, and
    gravies, and for serving with cheese at the termination of a
    dinner, and as an ingredient for salad. In Italy, however, the
    green leaves and stems are also employed for stews and soups,
    and the seeds are also more frequently made use of on the
    continent than in our own islands. In Germany, celery is very
    highly esteemed; and it is there boiled and served up as a dish
    by itself, as well as used in the composition of mixed dishes.
    We ourselves think that this mild aromatic plant might oftener
    be cooked than it is; for there are very few nicer vegetable
    preparations brought to table than a well-dressed plate of
    stewed celery.

VEAL GRAVY FOR WHITE SAUCES, FRICASSEES, &c.

442. INGREDIENTS.--2 slices of nicely flavoured lean ham, any poultry
trimmings, 3 lbs. of lean veal, a faggot of savoury herbs, including
parsley, a few green onions (or 1 large onion may be substituted for
these), a few mushrooms, when obtainable; 1 blade of mace, salt to
taste, 3 pints of water.

_Mode_.--Cut up the ham and veal into small square pieces, put these in
a stewpan, moistening them with a small quantity of water; place them
over the fire to draw down. When the bottom of the stewpan becomes
covered with a white glaze, fill up with water in the above proportion;
add the remaining ingredients, stew very slowly for 3 or 4 hours, and do
not forget to skim well the moment it boils. Put it by, and, when cold,
take off all the fat. This may be used for Bechamel, sauce tournee, and
many other white sauces.

_Time_.--3 or 4 hours. _Average cost_, 9d. per pint.


CHEAP GRAVY FOR MINCED VEAL.

443. INGREDIENTS.--Bones and trimmings of cold roast or boiled veal,
1-1/2 pint of water, 1 onion, 1/4 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, 1/4
teaspoonful of salt, 1 blade of pounded mace, the juice of 1/4 lemon;
thickening of butter and flour.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, except the thickening
and lemon-juice, and let them simmer very gently for rather more than 1
hour, or until the liquor is reduced to a pint, when strain through a
hair-sieve. Add a thickening of butter and flour, and the lemon-juice;
set it on the fire, and let it just boil up, when it will be ready for
use. It may be flavoured with a little tomato sauce, and, where a rather
dark-coloured gravy is not objected to, ketchup, or Harvey's sauce, may
be added at pleasure.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1 hour. _Average cost_, 3d.


GRAVY FOR VENISON.

444. INGREDIENTS.--Trimmings of venison, 3 or 4 mutton shank-bones, salt
to taste, 1 pint of water, 2 teaspoonfuls of walnut ketchup.

_Mode_.--Brown the trimmings over a nice clear fire, and put them in a
stewpan with the shank-bones and water; simmer gently for 2 hours,
strain and skim, and add the walnut ketchup and a seasoning of salt. Let
it just boil, when it is ready to serve.

_Time_.--2 hours.

[Illustration: THE DEER.]

    VENISON.--Far, far away in ages past, our fathers loved the
    chase, and what it brought; and it is usually imagined that when
    Isaac ordered his son Esau to go out with his weapons, his
    quiver and his bow, and to prepare for him savoury meat, such as
    he loved, that it was venison he desired. The wise Solomon, too,
    delighted in this kind of fare; for we learn that, at his table,
    every day were served the wild ox, the roebuck, and the stag.
    Xenophon informs us, in his History, that Cyrus, king of Persia,
    ordered that venison should never be wanting at his repasts; and
    of the effeminate Greeks it was the delight. The Romans, also,
    were devoted admirers of the flesh of the deer; and our own
    kings and princes, from the Great Alfred down to the Prince
    Consort, have hunted, although, it must be confessed, under
    vastly different circumstances, the swift buck, and relished
    their "haunch" all the more keenly, that they had borne
    themselves bravely in the pursuit of the animal.

TO DRY HERBS FOR WINTER USE.

445. On a very dry day, gather the herbs, just before they begin to
flower. If this is done when the weather is damp, the herbs will not be
so good a colour. (It is very necessary to be particular in little
matters like this, for trifles constitute perfection, and herbs nicely
dried will be found very acceptable when frost and snow are on the
ground. It is hardly necessary, however, to state that the flavour and
fragrance of fresh herbs are incomparably finer.) They should be
perfectly freed from dirt and dust, and be divided into small bunches,
with their roots cut off. Dry them quickly in a very hot oven, or before
the fire, as by this means most of their flavour will be preserved, and
be careful not to burn them; tie them up in paper bags, and keep in a
dry place. This is a very general way of preserving dried herbs; but we
would recommend the plan described in a former recipe.

_Seasonable_.--From the month of July to the end of September is the
proper time for storing herbs for winter use.

HERB POWDER FOR FLAVOURING, when Fresh Herbs are not obtainable.

446. INGREDIENTS.--1 oz. of dried lemon-thyme, 1 oz. of dried winter
savory, 1 oz. of dried sweet marjoram and basil, 2 oz. of dried parsley,
1 oz. of dried lemon-peel.

_Mode_.--Prepare and dry the herbs by recipe No. 445; pick the leaves
from the stalks, pound them, and sift them through a hair-sieve; mix in
the above proportions, and keep in glass bottles, carefully excluding
the air. This, we think, a far better method of keeping herbs, as the
flavour and fragrance do not evaporate so much as when they are merely
put in paper bags. Preparing them in this way, you have them ready for
use at a moment's notice.

Mint, sage, parsley, &c., dried, pounded, and each put into separate
bottles, will be found very useful in winter.

[Illustration: CORK WITH WOODEN TOP.]

    CORKS WITH WOODEN TOPS.--These are the best corks to use when it
    is indispensable that the air should not be admitted to the
    ingredients contained in bottles which are in constant use. The
    top, which, as will be seen by the accompanying little cut, is
    larger than the cork, is made of wood; and, besides effectually
    covering the whole top of the bottle, can be easily removed and
    again used, as no corkscrew is necessary to pull it out.

    SAVORY.--This we find described by Columella, a voluminous Roman
    writer on agriculture, as an odoriferous herb, which, "in the
    brave days of old," entered into the seasoning of nearly every
    dish. Verily, there are but few new things under the sun, and we
    don't find that we have made many discoveries in gastronomy, at
    least beyond what was known to the ancient inhabitants of Italy.
    We possess two varieties of this aromatic herb, known to
    naturalists as _Satureja_. They are called summer and winter
    savory, according to the time of the year when they are fit for
    gathering. Both sorts are in general cultivation throughout
    England.

HORSERADISH SAUCE, to serve with Roast Beef.

447. INGREDIENTS.--4 tablespoonfuls of grated horseradish, 1 teaspoonful
of pounded sugar, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1/2 teaspoonful of pepper, 2
teaspoonfuls of made mustard; vinegar.

_Mode_.--Grate the horseradish, and mix it well with the sugar, salt,
pepper, and mustard; moisten it with sufficient vinegar to give it the
consistency of cream, and serve in a tureen: 3 or 4 tablespoonfuls of
cream added to the above, very much improve the appearance and flavour
of this sauce. To heat it to serve with hot roast beef, put it in a bain
marie or a jar, which place in a saucepan of boiling water; make it hot,
but do not allow it to boil, or it will curdle.

_Note_.--This sauce is a great improvement on the old-fashioned way of
serving cold-scraped horseradish with hot roast beef. The mixing of the
cold vinegar with the warm gravy cools and spoils everything on the
plate. Of course, with cold meat, the sauce should be served cold.

[Illustration: THE HORSERADISH.]

    THE HORSERADISH.--This has been, for many years, a favourite
    accompaniment of roast beef, and is a native of England. It
    grows wild in wet ground, but has long been cultivated in the
    garden, and is, occasionally, used in winter salads and in
    sauces. On account of the great volatility of its oil, it should
    never be preserved by drying, but should be kept moist by being
    buried in sand. So rapidly does its volatile oil evaporate, that
    even when scraped for the table, it almost immediately spoils by
    exposure to the air.

HORSERADISH VINEGAR.

448. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of scraped horseradish, 1 oz. of minced
shalot, 1 drachm of cayenne, 1 quart of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients into a bottle, which shake well every
day for a fortnight. When it is thoroughly steeped, strain and bottle,
and it will be fit for use immediately. This will be found an agreeable
relish to cold beef, &c.

_Seasonable_.--This vinegar should be made either in October or
November, as horseradish is then in its highest perfection.

INDIAN CURRY-POWDER, founded on Dr. Kitchener's Recipe.

449. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of coriander-seed, 1/4 lb. of turmeric, 2 oz.
of cinnamon-seed, 1/2 oz. of cayenne, 1 oz. of mustard, 1 oz. of ground
ginger, 1/2 ounce of allspice, 2 oz. of fenugreek-seed.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients in a cool oven, where they should
remain one night; then pound them in a mortar, rub them through a sieve,
and mix thoroughly together; keep the powder in a bottle, from which the
air should be completely excluded.

_Note_.--We have given this recipe for curry-powder, as some persons
prefer to make it at home; but that purchased at any respectable shop
is, generally speaking, far superior, and, taking all things into
consideration, very frequently more economical.


INDIAN MUSTARD, an excellent Relish to Bread and Butter, or any cold
Meat.

450. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of the best mustard, 1/4 lb. of flour, 1/2
oz. of salt, 4 shalots, 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 4 tablespoonfuls of
ketchup, 1/4 bottle of anchovy sauce.

_Mode_.--Put the mustard, flour, and salt into a basin, and make them
into a stiff paste with boiling water. Boil the shalots with the
vinegar, ketchup, and anchovy sauce, for 10 minutes, and pour the whole,
_boiling_, over the mixture in the basin; stir well, and reduce it to a
proper thickness; put it into a bottle, with a bruised shalot at the
bottom, and store away for use. This makes an excellent relish, and if
properly prepared will keep for years.

[Illustration: MUSTARD.]

    MUSTARD.--Before the year 1729, mustard was not known at English
    tables. About that time an old woman, of the name of Clements,
    residing in Durham, began to grind the seed in a mill, and to
    pass the flour through several processes necessary to free the
    seed from its husks. She kept her secret for many years to
    herself, during which she sold large quantities of mustard
    throughout the country, but especially in London. Here it was
    introduced to the royal table, when it received the approval of
    George I. From the circumstance of Mrs. Clements being a
    resident at Durham, it obtained the name of Durham mustard. In
    the county of that name it is still principally cultivated, and
    the plant is remarkable for the rapidity of its growth. It is
    the best stimulant employed to impart strength to the digestive
    organs, and even in its previously coarsely-pounded state, had a
    high reputation with our ancestors.

INDIAN PICKLE (very Superior).

451. INGREDIENTS.--To each gallon of vinegar allow 6 cloves of garlic,
12 shalots, 2 sticks of sliced horseradish, 1/4 lb. of bruised ginger, 2
oz. of whole black pepper, 1 oz. of long pepper, 1 oz. of allspice, 12
cloves, 1/4 oz. of cayenne, 2 oz. of mustard-seed, 1/4 lb. of mustard, 1
oz. of turmeric; a white cabbage, cauliflowers, radish-pods, French
beans, gherkins, small round pickling-onions, nasturtiums, capsicums,
chilies, &c.

_Mode_.--Cut the cabbage, which must be hard and white, into slices, and
the cauliflowers into small branches; sprinkle salt over them in a large
dish, and let them remain two days; then dry them, and put them into a
very large jar, with garlic, shalots, horseradish, ginger, pepper,
allspice, and cloves, in the above proportions. Boil sufficient vinegar
to cover them, which pour over, and, when cold, cover up to keep them
free from dust. As the other things for the pickle ripen at different
times, they may be added as they are ready: these will be radish-pods,
French beans, gherkins, small onions, nasturtiums, capsicums, chilies,
&c. &c. As these are procured, they must, first of all, be washed in a
little cold vinegar, wiped, and then simply added to the other
ingredients in the large jar, only taking care that they are _covered_
by the vinegar. If more vinegar should be wanted to add to the pickle,
do not omit first to boil it before adding it to the rest. When you have
collected all the things you require, turn all out in a large pan, and
thoroughly mix them. Now put the mixed vegetables into smaller jars,
without any of the vinegar; then boil the vinegar again, adding as much
more as will be required to fill the different jars, and also cayenne,
mustard-seed, turmeric, and mustard, which must be well mixed with a
little cold vinegar, allowing the quantities named above to each gallon
of vinegar. Pour the vinegar, boiling hot, over the pickle, and when
cold, tie down with a bladder. If the pickle is wanted for immediate
use, the vinegar should be boiled twice more, but the better way is to
make it during one season for use during the next. It will keep for
years, if care is taken that the vegetables are quite covered by the
vinegar.

This recipe was taken from the directions of a lady whose pickle was
always pronounced excellent by all who tasted it, and who has, for many
years, exactly followed the recipe given above.

__Note_.--For small families, perhaps the above quantity of pickle will
be considered too large; but this may be decreased at pleasure, taking
care to properly proportion the various ingredients.

[Illustration: INDIA PICKLE.]

    KEEPING PICKLES.--Nothing shows more, perhaps, the difference
    between a tidy thrifty housewife and a lady to whom these
    desirable epithets may not honestly be applied, than the
    appearance of their respective store-closets. The former is
    able, the moment anything; is wanted, to put her hand on it at
    once; no time is lost, no vexation incurred, no dish spoilt for
    the want of "just little something,"--the latter, on the
    contrary, hunts all over her cupboard for the ketchup the cook
    requires, or the pickle the husband thinks he should like a
    little of with his cold roast beef or mutton-chop, and vainly
    seeks for the Embden groats, or arrowroot, to make one of her
    little boys some gruel. One plan, then, we strenuously advise
    all who do not follow, to begin at once, and that is, to label
    all their various pickles and store sauces, in the same way as
    the cut here shows. It will occupy a little time at first, but
    there will be economy of it in the long run.

    VINEGAR.--This term is derived from the two French words _vin
    aigre_, 'sour wine,' and should, therefore, be strictly applied
    to that which is made only from wine. As the acid is the same,
    however it is procured, that made from ale also takes the same
    name. Nearly all ancient nations were acquainted with the use of
    vinegar. We learn in _Ruth_, that the reapers in the East soaked
    their bread in it to freshen it. The Romans kept large
    quantities of it in their cellars, using it, to a great extent,
    in their seasonings and sauces. This people attributed very
    beneficial qualities to it, as it was supposed to be digestive,
    antibilious, and antiscorbutic, as well as refreshing.
    Spartianus, a Latin historian, tells us that, mixed with water,
    it was the drink of the soldiers, and that, thanks to this
    beverage, the veterans of the Roman army braved, by its use, the
    inclemency and variety of all the different seasons and climates
    of Europe, Asia, and Africa. It is said, the Spanish peasantry,
    and other inhabitants of the southern parts of Europe, still
    follow this practice, and add to a gallon of water about a gill
    of wine vinegar, with a little salt; and that this drink, with a
    little bread, enables them, under the heat of their burning sun,
    to sustain the labours of the field.

INDIAN CHETNEY SAUCE.

452. INGREDIENTS.--8 oz. of sharp, sour apples, pared and cored; 8 oz.
of tomatoes, 8 oz. of salt, 8 oz. of brown, sugar, 8 oz. of stoned
raisins, 4 oz. of cayenne, 4 oz. of powdered ginger, 2 oz. of garlic, 2
oz. of shalots, 3 quarts of vinegar, 1 quart of lemon-juice.

_Mode_.--Chop the apples in small square pieces, and add to them the
other ingredients. Mix the whole well together, and put in a
well-covered jar. Keep this in a warm place, and stir every day for a
month, taking care to put on the lid after this operation; strain, but
do not squeeze it dry; store it away in clean jars or bottles for use,
and the liquor will serve as an excellent sauce for meat or fish.

_Seasonable_.--Make this sauce when tomatoes are in full season, that
is, from the beginning of September to the end of October.

    PICKLES.--The ancient Greeks and Romans held their pickles in
    high estimation. They consisted of flowers, herbs, roots, and
    vegetables, preserved in vinegar, and which were kept, for a
    long time, in cylindrical vases with wide mouths. Their cooks
    prepared pickles with the greatest care, and the various
    ingredients were macerated in oil, brine, and vinegar, with
    which they were often impregnated drop by drop. Meat, also,
    after having been cut into very small pieces, was treated in the
    same manner.

ITALIAN SAUCE (Brown).

453. INGREDIENTS.--A few chopped mushrooms and shalots, 1/2 pint of
stock, No. 105, 1/2 glass of Madeira, the juice of 1/2 lemon, 1/2
teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley.

_Mode_.--Put the stock into a stewpan with the mushrooms, shalots, and
Madeira, and stew gently for 1/4 hour, then add the remaining
ingredients, and let them just boil. When the sauce is done enough, put
it in another stewpan, and warm it in a _bain marie_. (_See_ No. 430.)
The mushrooms should not be chopped long before they are wanted, as they
will then become black.

_Time_.--1/4 hour. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 7d.

_Sufficient_ for a small dish.


ITALIAN SAUCE (White).

454. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of white stock, No. 107; 2 tablespoonfuls of
chopped mushrooms, 1 dessertspoonful of chopped shalots, 1 slice of ham,
minced very fine; 1/4 pint of Bechamel, No. 367; salt to taste, a few
drops of garlic vinegar, 1/2 teaspoonful of pounded sugar, a squeeze of
lemon-juice.

_Mode_.--Put the shalots and mushrooms into a stewpan with the stock and
ham, and simmer very gently for 1/2 hour, when add the Bechamel. Let it
just boil up, and then strain it through a tammy; season with the above
ingredients, and serve very hot. If this sauce should not have retained
a nice white colour, a little cream may be added.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 10d.

_Sufficient_ for a moderate-sized dish.

_Note_.--To preserve the colour of the mushrooms after pickling, throw
them into water to which a little lemon-juice has been added.


TO PICKLE LEMONS WITH THE PEEL ON.

455. INGREDIENTS.--6 lemons, 2 quarts of boiling water; to each quart of
vinegar allow 1/2 oz. of cloves, 1/2 oz. of white pepper, 1 oz. of
bruised ginger, 1/4 oz. of mace and chilies, 1 oz. of mustard-seed, 1/2
stick of sliced horseradish, a few cloves of garlic.

_Mode_.--Put the lemons into a brine that will bear an egg; let them
remain in it 6 days, stirring them every day; have ready 2 quarts of
boiling water, put in the lemons, and allow them to boil for 1/4 hour;
take them out, and let them lie in a cloth until perfectly dry and cold.
Boil up sufficient vinegar to cover the lemons, with all the above
ingredients, allowing the same proportion as stated to each quart of
vinegar. Pack the lemons in a jar, pour over the vinegar, &c. boiling
hot, and tie down with a bladder. They will be fit for use in about 12
months, or rather sooner.

_Seasonable_.--This should be made from November to April.

    THE LEMON.--In the earlier ages of the world, the lemon does not
    appear to have been at all known, and the Romans only became
    acquainted with it at a very late period, and then only used it
    to keep moths from their garments. Its acidity would seem to
    have been unpleasant to them; and in Pliny's time, at the
    commencement of the Christian era, this fruit was hardly
    accepted, otherwise than as an excellent antidote against the
    effects of poison. Many anecdotes have been related concerning
    the anti-venomous properties of the lemon; Athenaeus, a Latin
    writer, telling us, that on one occasion, two men felt no
    effects from the bites of dangerous serpents, because they had
    previously eaten of this fruit.

TO PICKLE LEMONS WITHOUT THE PEEL.

456. INGREDIENTS.--6 lemons, 1 lb. of fine salt; to each quart of
vinegar, the same ingredients as No. 455.

_Mode_.--Peel the lemons, slit each one down 3 times, so as not to
divide them, and rub the salt well into the divisions; place them in a
pan, where they must remain for a week, turning them every other day;
then put them in a Dutch oven before a clear fire until the salt has
become perfectly dry; then arrange them in a jar. Pour over sufficient
boiling vinegar to cover them, to which have been added the ingredients
mentioned in the foregoing recipe; tie down closely, and in about 9
months they will be fit for use.

_Seasonable_.--The best time to make this is from November to April.

_Note_.--After this pickle has been made from 4 to 5 months, the liquor
may be strained and bottled, and will be found an excellent lemon
ketchup.


    LEMON-JUICE.--Citric acid is the principal component part of
    lemon-juice, which, in addition to the agreeableness of its
    flavour, is also particularly cooling and grateful. It is
    likewise an antiscorbutic; and this quality enhances its value.
    In order to combat the fatal effects of scurvy amongst the crews
    of ships at sea, a regular allowance of lemon-juice is served
    out to the men; and by this practice, the disease has almost
    entirely disappeared. By putting the juice into bottles, and
    pouring on the top sufficient oil to cover it, it may be
    preserved for a considerable time. Italy and Turkey export great
    quantities of it in this manner.

LEMON SAUCE FOR BOILED FOWLS.

457. INGREDIENTS.--1 small lemon, 3/4 pint of melted butter, No. 380.

_Mode_.--Cut the lemon into very thin slices, and these again into very
small dice. Have ready 3/4 pint of melted butter, made by recipe No.
380; put in the lemon; let it just simmer, but not boil, and pour it
over the fowls.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer. _Average cost_, 6d.

_Sufficient_ for a pair of large fowls.


LEMON WHITE SAUCE, FOR FOWLS, FRICASSEES, &c.

458. INGREDIENTS.--3/4 pint of cream, the rind and juice of 1 lemon, 1/2
teaspoonful of whole white pepper, 1 sprig of lemon thyme, 3 oz. of
butter, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, 1 teacupful of white stock; salt to
taste.

_Mode_.--Put the cream into a very clean saucepan (a lined one is best),
with the lemon-peel, pepper, and thyme, and let these infuse for 1/2
hour, when simmer gently for a few minutes, or until there is a nice
flavour of lemon. Strain it, and add a thickening of butter and flour in
the above proportions; stir this well in, and put in the lemon-juice at
the moment of serving; mix the stock with the cream, and add a little
salt. This sauce should not boil after the cream and stock are mixed
together.

_Time_.--Altogether, 3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_, this quantity, for a pair of large boiled fowls.

_Note_.--Where the expense of the cream is objected to, milk may be
substituted for it. In this case, an additional dessertspoonful, or
rather more, of flour must be added.

[Illustration: LEMON THYME.]

    LEMON THYME.--Two or three tufts of this species of thyme,
    _Thymus citriodorus_, usually find a place in the herb
    compartment of the kitchen-garden. It is a trailing evergreen,
    is of smaller growth than the common kind (_see_ No. 166), and
    is remarkable for its smell, which closely resembles that of the
    rind of a lemon. Hence its distinctive name. It is used for some
    particular dishes, in which the fragrance of the lemon is
    desired to slightly predominate.

LEAMINGTON SAUCE (an Excellent Sauce for Flavouring Gravies, Hashes,
Soups, &c.).

_(Author's Recipe.)_

459. INGREDIENTS.--Walnuts. To each quart of walnut-juice allow 3 quarts
of vinegar, 1 pint of Indian soy, 1 oz. of cayenne, 2 oz. of shalots,
3/4 oz. of garlic, 1/2 pint of port wine.

_Mode_.--Be very particular in choosing the walnuts as soon as they
appear in the market; for they are more easily bruised before they
become hard and shelled. Pound them in a mortar to a pulp, strew some
salt over them, and let them remain thus for two or three days,
occasionally stirring and moving them about. Press out the juice, and to
_each quart_ of walnut-liquor allow the above proportion of vinegar,
soy, cayenne, shalots, garlic, and port wine. Pound each ingredient
separately in a mortar, then mix them well together, and store away for
use in small bottles. The corks should be well sealed.

_Seasonable_.--This sauce should be made as soon as walnuts are
obtainable, from the beginning to the middle of July.


LEMON BRANDY.

460. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of brandy, the rind of two small lemons, 2 oz.
of loaf-sugar, 1/4 pint of water.

_Mode_.--Peel the lemons rather thin, taking care to have none of the
white pith. Put the rinds into a bottle with the brandy, and let them
infuse for 24 hours, when they should be strained. Now boil the sugar
with the water for a few minutes, skim it, and, when cold, add it to the
brandy. A dessertspoonful of this will be found an excellent flavouring
for boiled custards.

    LEMON RIND OR PEEL.--This contains an essential oil of a very
    high flavour and fragrance, and is consequently esteemed both a
    wholesome and agreeable stomachic. It is used, as will be seen
    by many recipes in this book, as an ingredient for flavouring a
    number of various dishes. Under the name of CANDIED LEMON-PEEL,
    it is cleared of the pulp and preserved by sugar, when it
    becomes an excellent sweetmeat. By the ancient medical
    philosopher Galen, and others, it may be added, that dried
    lemon-peel was considered as one of the best digestives, and
    recommended to weak and delicate persons.

LIAISON OF EGGS FOR THICKENING SAUCES.

461. INGREDIENTS.--The yolks of 3 eggs, 8 tablespoonfuls of milk or
cream.

_Mode_.--Beat up the yolks of the eggs, to which add the milk, and
strain the whole through a hair-sieve. When the liaison is being added
to the sauce it is intended to thicken, care must be exercised to keep
stirring it during the whole time, or, otherwise, the eggs will curdle.
It should only just simmer, but not boil.


LIVER AND LEMON SAUCE FOR POULTRY.

462. INGREDIENTS.--The liver of a fowl, one lemon, salt to taste, 1/2
pint of melted butter. No. 376.

_Mode_.--Wash the liver, and let it boil for a few minutes; peel the
lemon very thin, remove the white part and pips, and cut it into very
small dice; mince the liver and a small quantity of the lemon rind very
fine; add these ingredients to 1/2 pint of smoothly-made melted butter;
season with a little salt, put in the cut lemon, heat it gradually, but
do not allow it to boil, lest the butter should oil.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer.

_Sufficient_ to serve with a pair of small fowls.


LIVER AND PARSLEY SAUCE FOR POULTRY.

463. INGREDIENTS.--The liver of a fowl, one tablespoonful of minced
parsley, 1/2 pint of melted butter, No. 376.

_Mode_.--Wash and score the liver, boil it for a few minutes, and mince
it very fine; blanch or scald a small bunch of parsley, of which there
should be sufficient when chopped to fill a tablespoon; add this, with
the minced liver, to 1/2 pint of smoothly-made melted butter; let it
just boil; when serve.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer.

_Sufficient_ for a pair of small fowls.


LOBSTER SAUCE, to serve with Turbot, Salmon, Brill, &c.

(_Very Good_.)

464. INGREDIENTS.--1 middling-sized hen lobster, 3/4 pint of melted
butter, No. 376; 1 tablespoonful of anchovy sauce, 1/2 oz. of butter,
salt and cayenne to taste, a little pounded mace when liked, 2 or 3
tablespoonfuls of cream.

_Mode_.--Choose a hen lobster, as this is indispensable, in order to
render this sauce as good as it ought to be. Pick the meat from the
shells, and cut it into small square pieces; put the spawn, which will
be found under the tail of the lobster, into a mortar with 1/2 oz. of
butter, and pound it quite smooth; rub it through a hair-sieve, and
cover up till wanted. Make 3/4 pint of melted butter by recipe No. 376;
put in all the ingredients except the lobster-meat, and well mix the
sauce before the lobster is added to it, as it should retain its square
form, and not come to table shredded and ragged. Put in the meat, let it
get thoroughly hot, but do not allow it to boil, as the colour would
immediately be spoiled; for it should be remembered that this sauce
should always have a bright red appearance. If it is intended to be
served with turbot or brill, a little of the spawn (dried and rubbed
through a sieve without butter) should be saved to garnish with; but as
the goodness, flavour, and appearance of the sauce so much depend on
having a proper quantity of spawn, the less used for garnishing the
better.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 2s.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_ to serve with a small turbot, a brill, or salmon for 6
persons.

_Note_.--Melted butter made with milk, No. 380, will be found to answer
very well for lobster sauce, as by employing it a nice white colour will
be obtained. Less quantity than the above may be made by using a very
small lobster, to which add only 1/2 pint of melted butter, and season
as above. Where economy is desired, the cream may be dispensed with, and
the remains of a cold lobster left from table, may, with a little care,
be converted into a very good sauce.


MAITRE D'HOTEL BUTTER, for putting into Broiled Fish just before it is
sent to Table.

465. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of butter, 2 dessertspoonfuls of minced
parsley, salt and pepper to taste, the juice of 1 large lemon.

_Mode_.--Work the above ingredients well together, and let them be
thoroughly mixed with a wooden spoon. If this is used as a sauce, it may
be poured either under or over the meat or fish it is intended to be
served with.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 5d.

Note.--4 tablespoonfuls of Bechamel, No. 367, 2 do. of white stock, No.
107, with 2 oz. of the above maitre d'hotel butter stirred into it, and
just allowed to simmer for 1 minute, will be found an excellent hot
maitre d'hotel sauce.

    THE MAITRE D'HOTEL.--The house-steward of England is synonymous
    with the maitre d'hotel of France; and, in ancient times,
    amongst the Latins, he was called procurator, or major-domo. In
    Rome, the slaves, after they had procured the various articles
    necessary for the repasts of the day, would return to the
    spacious kitchen laden with meat, game, sea-fish, vegetables,
    fruit, &c. Each one would then lay his basket at the feet of the
    major-domo, who would examine its contents and register them on
    his tablets, placing in the pantry contiguous to the
    dining-room, those of the provisions which need no preparation,
    and consigning the others to the more immediate care of the
    cooks.

MAITRE D'HOTEL SAUCE (HOT), to serve with Calf's Head, Boiled Eels, and
different Fish.

466. INGREDIENTS.--1 slice of minced ham, a few poultry-trimmings, 2
shalots, 1 clove of garlic, 1 bay-leaf, 3/4 pint of water, 2 oz. of
butter, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, 1 heaped tablespoonful of chopped
parsley; salt, pepper, and cayenne to taste; the juice of 1/2 large
lemon, 1/4 teaspoonful of pounded sugar.

_Mode_.--Put at the bottom of a stewpan the minced ham, and over it the
poultry-trimmings (if these are not at hand, veal should be
substituted), with the shalots, garlic, and bay-leaf. Pour in the water,
and let the whole simmer gently for 1 hour, or until the liquor is
reduced to a full 1/2 pint. Then strain this gravy, put it in another
saucepan, make a thickening of butter and flour in the above
proportions, and stir it to the gravy over a nice clear fire, until it
is perfectly smooth and rather thick, care being taken that the butter
does not float on the surface. Skim well, add the remaining ingredients,
let the sauce gradually heat, but do not allow it to boil. If this sauce
is intended for an entree, it is necessary to make it of a sufficient
thickness, so that it may adhere to what it is meant to cover.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 2d. per pint.

_Sufficient_ for re-warming the remains of 1/2 calf's head, or a small
dish of cold flaked turbot, cod, &c.


MAIGRE MAITRE D'HOTEL SAUCE (HOT).

(Made without Meat.)

467. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter, No. 376; 1 heaped
tablespoonful of chopped parsley, salt and pepper to taste, the juice of
1/2 large lemon; when liked, 2 minced shalots.

_Mode_.--Make 1/2 pint of melted butter, by recipe No. 376; stir in the
above ingredients, and let them just boil; when it is ready to serve.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer. _Average cost_, 9d. per pint.


MAYONNAISE, a Sauce or Salad-Dressing for cold Chicken, Meat, and other
cold Dishes.

468. INGREDIENTS.--The yolks of 2 eggs, 6 tablespoonfuls of salad-oil, 4
tablespoonfuls of vinegar, salt and white pepper to taste, 1
tablespoonful of white stock, No. 107, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream.

_Mode_.--Put the yolks of the eggs into a basin, with a seasoning of
pepper and salt; have ready the above quantities of oil and vinegar, in
separate vessels; add them _very gradually_ to the eggs; continue
stirring and rubbing the mixture with a wooden spoon, as herein consists
the secret of having a nice smooth sauce. It cannot be stirred too
frequently, and it should be made in a very cool place, or, if ice is at
hand, it should be mixed over it. When the vinegar and oil are well
incorporated with the eggs, add the stock and cream, stirring all the
time, and it will then be ready for use.

For a fish Mayonnaise, this sauce may be coloured with lobster-spawn,
pounded; and for poultry or meat, where variety is desired, a little
parsley-juice may be used to add to its appearance. Cucumber, Tarragon,
or any other flavoured vinegar, may be substituted for plain, where they
are liked.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 7d.

_Sufficient_ for a small salad.

_Note_.--In mixing the oil and vinegar with the eggs, put in first a few
drops of oil, and then a few drops of vinegar, never adding a large
quantity of either at one time. By this means, you can be more certain
of the sauce not curdling. Patience and practice, let us add, are two
essentials for making this sauce good.


MINT SAUCE, to serve with Roast Lamb.

469. INGREDIENTS.--4 dessertspoonfuls of chopped mint, 2
dessertspoonfuls of pounded white sugar, 1/4 pint of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Wash the mint, which should be young and fresh-gathered, free
from grit; pick the leaves from the stalks, mince them very fine, and
put them into a tureen; add the sugar and vinegar, and stir till the
former is dissolved. This sauce is better by being made 2 or 3 hours
before wanted for table, as the vinegar then becomes impregnated with
the flavour of the mint. By many persons, the above proportion of sugar
would not be considered sufficient; but as tastes vary, we have given
the quantity which we have found to suit the general palate.

_Average cost_, 3d.

_Sufficient_ to serve with a middling-sized joint of lamb.

_Note_.--Where green mint is scarce and not obtainable, mint vinegar may
be substituted for it, and will be found very acceptable in early
spring.

[Illustration: MINT.]

    MINT.--The common mint cultivated in our gardens is known as the
    _Mentha viridis_, and is employed in different culinary
    processes, being sometimes boiled with certain dishes, and
    afterwards withdrawn. It has an agreeable aromatic flavour, and
    forms an ingredient in soups, and sometimes is used in spring
    salads. It is valuable as a stomachic and antispasmodic; on
    which account it is generally served at table with pea-soup.
    Several of its species grow wild in low situations in the
    country.

MINT VINEGAR.

470. INGREDIENTS.--Vinegar, mint.

_Mode_.--Procure some nice fresh mint, pick the leaves from the stalks,
and fill a bottle or jar with them. Add vinegar to them until the bottle
is full; _cover closely_ to exclude the air, and let it infuse for a
fortnight. Then strain the liquor, and put it into small bottles for
use, of which the corks should be sealed.

_Seasonable_.--This should be made in June, July, or August.


MIXED PICKLE.

(_Very Good_.)

471. INGREDIENTS.--To each gallon of vinegar allow 1/4 lb. of bruised
ginger, 1/4 lb. of mustard, 1/4 lb. of salt, 2 oz. of mustard-seed,
1-1/2 oz. of turmeric, 1 oz. of ground black pepper, 1/4 oz. of cayenne,
cauliflowers, onions, celery, sliced cucumbers, gherkins, French beans,
nasturtiums, capsicums.

_Mode_.--Have a large jar, with a tightly-fitting lid, in which put as
much vinegar as required, reserving a little to mix the various powders
to a smooth paste. Put into a basin the mustard, turmeric, pepper, and
cayenne; mix them with vinegar, and stir well until no lumps remain; add
all the ingredients to the vinegar, and mix well. Keep this liquor in a
warm place, and thoroughly stir every morning for a month with a wooden
spoon, when it will be ready for the different vegetables to be added to
it. As these come into season, have them gathered on a dry day, and,
after merely wiping them with a cloth, to free them from moisture, put
them into the pickle. The cauliflowers, it may be said, must be divided
into small bunches. Put all these into the pickle raw, and at the end of
the season, when there have been added as many of the vegetables as
could be procured, store it away in jars, and tie over with bladder. As
none of the ingredients are boiled, this pickle will not be fit to eat
till 12 months have elapsed. Whilst the pickle is being made, keep a
wooden spoon tied to the jar; and its contents, it may be repeated, must
be stirred every morning.

_Seasonable_.--Make the pickle-liquor in May or June, as the season
arrives for the various vegetables to be picked.


MUSHROOM KETCHUP.

472. INGREDIENTS.--To each peck of mushrooms 1/2 lb. of salt; to each
quart of mushroom-liquor 1/4 oz. of cayenne, 1/2 oz. of allspice, 1/2
oz. of ginger, 2 blades of pounded mace.

_Mode_.--Choose full-grown mushroom-flaps, and take care they are
perfectly _fresh-gathered_ when the weather is tolerably dry; for, if
they are picked during very heavy rain, the ketchup from which they are
made is liable to get musty, and will not keep long. Put a layer of them
in a deep pan, sprinkle salt over them, and then another layer of
mushrooms, and so on alternately. Let them remain for a few hours, when
break them up with the hand; put them in a nice cool place for 3 days,
occasionally stirring and mashing them well, to extract from them as
much juice as possible. Now measure the quantity of liquor without
straining, and to each quart allow the above proportion of spices, &c.
Put all into a stone jar, cover it up very closely, put it in a saucepan
of boiling water, set it over the fire, and let it boil for 3 hours.
Have ready a nice clean stewpan; turn into it the contents of the jar,
and let the whole simmer very gently for 1/2 hour; pour it into a jug,
where it should stand in a cool place till the next day; then pour it
off into another jug, and strain it into very dry clean bottles, and do
not squeeze the mushrooms. To each pint of ketchup add a few drops of
brandy. Be careful not to shake the contents, but leave all the sediment
behind in the jug; cork well, and either seal or rosin the cork, so as
perfectly to exclude the air. When a very clear bright ketchup is
wanted, the liquor must be strained through a very fine hair-sieve, or
flannel bag, _after_ it has been very gently poured off; if the
operation is not successful, it must be repeated until you have quite a
clear liquor. It should be examined occasionally, and if it is spoiling,
should be reboiled with a few peppercorns.

_Seasonable_ from the beginning of September to the middle of October,
when this ketchup should be made.

_Note_.--This flavouring ingredient, if genuine and well prepared, is
one of the most useful store sauces to the experienced cook, and no
trouble should be spared in its preparation. Double ketchup is made by
reducing the liquor to half the quantity; for example, 1 quart must be
boiled down to 1 pint. This goes farther than ordinary ketchup, as so
little is required to flavour a good quantity of gravy. The sediment may
also be bottled for immediate use, and will be found to answer for
flavouring thick soups or gravies.

    HOW TO DISTINGUISH MUSHROOMS FROM TOADSTOOLS.--The cultivated
    mushroom, known as _Agaricus campestris_, may be distinguished
    from other poisonous kinds of fungi by its having pink or
    flesh-coloured gills, or under-side, and by its invariably
    having an agreeable smell, which the toadstool has not. When
    young, mushrooms are like a small round button, both the stalk
    and head being white. As they grow larger, they expand their
    heads by degrees into a flat form, the gills underneath being at
    first of a pale flesh-colour, but becoming, as they stand
    longer, dark brown or blackish. Nearly all the poisonous kinds
    are brown, and have in general a rank and putrid smell. Edible
    mushrooms are found in closely-fed pastures, but seldom grow in
    woods, where most of the poisonous sorts are to be found.

TO DRY MUSHROOMS.

473. _Mode_.--Wipe them clean, take away the brown part, and peel off
the skin; lay them on sheets of paper to dry, in a cool oven, when they
will shrivel considerably. Keep them in paper bags, which hang in a dry
place. When wanted for use, put them into cold gravy, bring them
gradually to simmer, and it will be found that they will regain nearly
their usual size.

[Illustration: THE MUSHROOM.]

    THE MUSHROOM.--The cultivated or garden mushroom is a species of
    fungus, which, in England, is considered the best, and is there
    usually eaten. The tribe, however, is numerous, and a large
    proportion of them are poisonous; hence it is always dangerous
    to make use of mushrooms gathered in their wild state. In some
    parts of Europe, as in Germany, Russia, and Poland, many species
    grow wild, and are used as food; but in Britain, two only are
    generally eaten. These are mostly employed for the flavouring of
    dishes, and are also dried and pickled. CATSUP, or KETCHUP, is
    made from them by mixing spices and salt with their juice. The
    young, called buttons, are the best for pickling when in the
    globular form.

BROWN MUSHROOM SAUCE, to serve with Roast Meat, &c.

474. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of button mushrooms, 1/2 pint of good beef
gravy, No. 435, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup (if at hand),
thickening of butter and flour.

_Mode_.--Put the gravy into a saucepan, thicken it, and stir over the
fire until it boils. Prepare the mushrooms by cutting off the stalks and
wiping them free from grit and dirt; the large flap mushrooms cut into
small pieces will answer for a brown sauce, when the buttons are not
obtainable; put them into the gravy, and let them simmer very gently for
about 10 minutes; then add the ketchup, and serve.

_Time_.--Rather more than 10 minutes.

_Seasonable_ from August to October.

_Note_.--When fresh mushrooms are not obtainable, the powder No. 477 may
be used as a substitute for brown sauce.


WHITE MUSHROOM SAUCE, to serve with Boiled Fowls, Cutlets, &c.

I.

475. INGREDIENTS.--Rather more than 1/2 pint of button mushrooms,
lemon-juice and water, 1 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of Bechamel, No. 367,
1/4 teaspoonful of pounded sugar.

_Mode_.--Turn the mushrooms white by putting them into lemon-juice and
water, having previously cut off the stalks and wiped them perfectly
free from grit. Chop them, and put them in a stewpan with the butter.
When the mushrooms are softened, add the Bechamel, and simmer for about
5 minutes; should they, however, not be done enough, allow rather more
time. They should not boil longer than necessary, as they would then
lose their colour and flavour. Rub the whole through a tammy, and serve
very hot. After this, it should be warmed in a bain marie.

_Time_.--Altogether, 1/4 hour. _Average cost_, 1s.

_Seasonable_ from August to October.


II.

_A More Simple Method_.

476. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter, made with milk, No. 380;
1/2 pint of button mushrooms, 1 dessertspoonful of mushroom ketchup, if
at hand; cayenne and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Make the melted butter by recipe No. 380, and add to it the
mushrooms, which must be nicely cleaned, and free from grit, and the
stalks cut off. Let them simmer gently for about 10 minutes, or until
they are quite tender. Put in the seasoning and ketchup; let it just
boil, when serve.

_Time_.--Rather more than 10 minutes. _Average cost_, 8d.

_Seasonable_ from August to October.

    GROWTH OF THE MUSHROOM AND OTHER FUNGI.--The quick growth of the
    mushroom and other fungi is no less wonderful than the length of
    time they live, and the numerous dangers they resist while they
    continue in the dormant state. To spring up "like a mushroom in
    a night" is a scriptural mode of expressing celerity; and this
    completely accords with all the observations which have been
    made concerning this curious class of plants. Mr. Sowerby
    remarks--"I have often placed specimens of the _Phallus caninus_
    by a window over-night, while in the egg-form, and they have
    been fully grown by the morning."

MUSHROOM POWDER (a valuable addition to Sauces and Gravies, when fresh
Mushrooms are not obtainable).

477. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 peck of large mushrooms, 2 onions, 12 cloves, 1/4
oz. of pounded mace, 2 teaspoonfuls of white pepper.

_Mode_.--Peel the mushrooms, wipe them perfectly free from grit and
dirt, remove the black fur, and reject all those that are at all
worm-eaten; put them into a stewpan with the above ingredients, but
without water; shake them over a clear fire, till all the liquor is
dried up, and be careful not to let them burn; arrange them on tins, and
dry them in a slow oven; pound them to a fine powder, which put into
small _dry_ bottles; cork well, seal the corks, and keep it in a dry
place. In using this powder, add it to the gravy just before serving,
when it will merely require one boil-up. The flavour imparted by this
means to the gravy, ought to be exceedingly good.

_Seasonable_.--This should be made in September, or at the beginning of
October.

_Note_.--If the bottles in which it is stored away are not perfectly
dry, as, also the mushroom powder, it will keep good but a very short
time.


PICKLED MUSHROOMS.

478. INGREDIENTS.--Sufficient vinegar to cover the mushrooms; to each
quart of mushrooms, 2 blades of pounded mace, 1 oz. of ground pepper,
salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Choose some nice young button mushrooms for pickling, and rub
off the skin with a piece of flannel and salt, and cut off the stalks;
if very large, take out the red inside, and reject the black ones, as
they are too old. Put them in a stewpan, sprinkle salt over them, with
pounded mace and pepper in the above proportion; shake them well over a
clear fire until the liquor flows, and keep them there until it is all
dried up again; then add as much vinegar as will cover them; just let it
simmer for 1 minute, and store it away in stone jars for use. When cold,
tie down with bladder and keep in a dry place; they will remain good for
a length of time, and are generally considered delicious.

_Seasonable_.--Make this the same time as ketchup, from the beginning of
September to the middle of October.

    NATURE OF THE MUSHROOM.--Locality has evidently a considerable
    influence on the nature of the juices of the mushroom; for it
    has been discovered, after fatal experience, that some species,
    which are perfectly harmless when raised in open meadows and
    pasturelands, become virulently poisonous when they happen to
    grow in contact with stagnant water or putrescent animal and
    vegetable substances. What the precise nature of the poison in
    fungi may be, has not been accurately ascertained.

A VERY RICH AND GOOD MUSHROOM SAUCE, to serve with Fowls or Rabbits.

479. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of mushroom-buttons, salt to taste, a little
grated nutmeg, 1 blade of pounded mace, 1 pint of cream, 2 oz. of
butter, flour to thicken.

_Mode_.--Rub the buttons with a piece of flannel and salt, to take off
the skin; cut off the stalks, and put them in a stewpan with the above
ingredients, previously kneading together the butter and flour; boil the
whole for about ten minutes, stirring all the time. Pour some of the
sauce over the fowls, and the remainder serve in a tureen.

_Time_.--10 minutes. _Average cost_, 2s.

_Sufficient_ to serve with a pair of fowls.

_Seasonable_ from August to October.


HOW TO MIX MUSTARD.

480. INGREDIENTS.--Mustard, salt, and water.

_Mode_.--Mustard should be mixed with water that has been boiled and
allowed to cool; hot water destroys its essential properties, and raw
cold water might cause it to ferment. Put the mustard in a cup, with a
small pinch of salt, and mix with it very gradually sufficient boiled
water to make it drop from the spoon without being watery. Stir and mix
well, and rub the lumps well down with the back of a spoon, as
well-mixed mustard should be perfectly free from these. The mustard-pot
should not be more than half full, or rather less if it will not be used
in a day or two, as it is so much better when freshly mixed.


TARTAR MUSTARD.

481. INGREDIENTS.--Horseradish vinegar, cayenne, 1/2 a teacupful of
mustard.

_Mode_.--Have ready sufficient horseradish vinegar to mix with the above
proportion of mustard; put the mustard in a cup, with a slight seasoning
of cayenne; mix it perfectly smooth with the vinegar, adding this a
little at a time; rub down with the back of a spoon any lumps that may
appear, and do not let it be too thin. Mustard may be flavoured in
various ways, with Tarragon, shalot, celery, and many other vinegars,
herbs, spices, &c.; but this is more customary in France than in
England, as there it is merely considered a "vehicle of flavours," as it
has been termed.


PICKLED NASTURTIUMS (a very good Substitute for Capers)

482. INGREDIENTS.--To each pint of vinegar, 1 oz. of salt, 6
peppercorns, nasturtiums.

_Mode_.--Gather the nasturtium-pods on a dry day, and wipe them clean
with a cloth; put them in a dry glass bottle, with vinegar, salt, and
pepper in the above proportion. If you cannot find enough ripe to fill a
bottle, cork up what you have got until you have some more fit: they may
be added from day to day. Bung up the bottles, and seal or rosin the
tops. They will be fit for use in 10 or 12 months; and the best way is
to make them one season for the next.

_Seasonable_.--Look for nasturtium-pods from the end of July to the end
of August.

[Illustration: NASTURTIUMS.]

    NASTURTIUMS.--The elegant nasturtium-plant, called by
    naturalists _Tropoeolum_, and which sometimes goes by the name
    of Indian cress, came originally from Peru, but was easily made
    to grow in these islands. Its young leaves and flowers are of a
    slightly hot nature, and many consider them a good adjunct to
    salads, to which they certainly add a pretty appearance. When
    the beautiful blossoms, which may be employed with great effect
    in garnishing dishes, are off, then the fruit is used as
    described in the above recipe.

FRENCH ONION SAUCE, or SOUBISE.

483. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of Bechamel, No. 367, 1 bay-leaf, seasoning
to taste of pounded mace and cayenne, 6 onions, a small piece of ham.

_Mode_.--Peel the onions and cut them in halves; put them in a stewpan,
with just sufficient water to cover them, and add the bay-leaf, ham,
cayenne, and mace; be careful to keep the lid closely shut, and simmer
them until tender. Take them out and drain thoroughly; rub them through
a tammy or sieve (an old one does for the purpose) with a wooden spoon,
and put them to 1/2 pint of Bechamel; keep stirring over the fire until
it boils, when serve. If it should require any more seasoning, add it to
taste.

_Time_.--3/4 hour to boil the onions.

_Average cost_, 10d. for this quantity.

_Sufficient_ for a moderate-sized dish.


WHITE ONION SAUCE, for Boiled Rabbits, Roast Shoulder of Mutton, &c.

484. INGREDIENTS.--9 large onions, or 12 middling-sized ones, 1 pint of
melted butter made with milk (No. 380), 1/2 teaspoonful of salt, or
rather more.

_Mode_.--Peel the onions and put them into water to which a little salt
has been added, to preserve their whiteness, and let them remain for 1/4
hour. Then put them in a stewpan, cover them with water, and let them
boil until tender, and, if the onions should be very strong, change the
water after they have been boiling for 1/4 hour. Drain them thoroughly,
chop them, and rub them through a tammy or sieve. Make 1 pint of melted
butter, by recipe No. 380, and when that boils, put in the onions, with
a seasoning of salt; stir it till it simmers, when it will be ready to
serve. If these directions are carefully attended to, this onion sauce
will be delicious.

_Time_.--From 3/4 to 1 hour, to boil the onions.

_Average cost_, 9d. per pint.

_Sufficient_ to serve with a roast shoulder of mutton, or boiled rabbit.

_Seasonable_ from August to March.

_Note_.--To make this sauce very mild and delicate, use Spanish onions,
which can be procured from the beginning of September to Christmas. 2 or
3 tablespoonfuls of cream added just before serving, will be found to
improve its appearance very much. Small onions, when very young, may be
cooked whole, and served in melted butter. A sieve or tammy should be
kept expressly for onions: an old one answers the purpose, as it is
liable to retain the flavour and smell, which of course would be
excessively disagreeable in delicate preparations.


BROWN ONION SAUCE.

485. INGREDIENTS.--6 large onions, rather more than 1/2 pint of good
gravy, 2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to taste.

_Mode_.--Slice and fry the onions of a pale brown in a stewpan, with the
above quantity of butter, keeping them well stirred, that they do not
get black. When a nice colour, pour over the gravy, and let them simmer
gently until tender. Now skim off every particle of fat, add the
seasoning, and rub the whole through a tammy or sieve; put it back in
the saucepan to warm, and when it boils, serve.

_Time_.--Altogether 1 hour.

_Seasonable_ from August to March.

_Note_.--Where a very high flavouring is liked, add 1 tablespoonful of
mushroom ketchup, or a small quantity of port wine.

    HISTORY OF THE ONION.--It is not supposed that any variety of
    the onion is indigenous to Britain, as when the large and mild
    roots imported from warmer climates, have been cultivated in
    these islands a few years, they deteriorate both in size and
    sweetness. It is therefore most likely that this plant was first
    introduced into England from continental Europe, and that it
    originally was produced in a southern climate, and has gradually
    become acclimatized to a colder atmosphere. (_See_ No. 139.)

PICKLED ONIONS (a very Simple Method, and exceedingly Good).

486. INGREDIENTS.--Pickling onions; to each quart of vinegar, 2
teaspoonfuls of allspice, 2 teaspoonfuls of whole black pepper.

_Mode_.--Have the onions gathered when quite dry and ripe, and, with the
fingers, take off the thin outside skin; then, with a silver knife
(steel should not be used, as it spoils the colour of the onions),
remove one more skin, when the onion will look quite clear. Have ready
some very dry bottles or jars, and as fast as they are peeled, put them
in. Pour over sufficient cold vinegar to cover them, with pepper and
allspice in the above proportions, taking care that each jar has its
share of the latter ingredients. Tie down with bladder, and put them in
a dry place, and in a fortnight they will be fit for use. This is a most
simple recipe and very delicious, the onions being nice and crisp. They
should be eaten within 6 or 8 months after being done, as the onions are
liable to become soft.

_Seasonable_ from the middle of July to the end of August.


PICKLED ONIONS.

487. INGREDIENTS.--1 gallon of pickling onions, salt and water, milk; to
each 1/2 gallon of vinegar, 1 oz. of bruised ginger, 1/4 teaspoonful of
cayenne, 1 oz. of allspice, 1 oz. of whole black pepper, 1/4 oz. of
whole nutmeg bruised, 8 cloves, 1/4 oz. of mace.

_Mode_.--Gather the onions, which should not be too small, when they are
quite dry and ripe; wipe off the dirt, but do not pare them; make a
strong solution of salt and water, into which put the onions, and change
this, morning and night, for 3 days, and save the _last_ brine they were
put in. Then take the outside skin off, and put them into a tin saucepan
capable of holding them all, as they are always better done together.
Now take equal quantities of milk and the last salt and water the onions
were in, and pour this to them; to this add 2 large spoonfuls of salt,
put them over the fire, and watch them very attentively. Keep constantly
turning the onions about with a wooden skimmer, those at the bottom to
the top, and _vice versa_; and let the milk and water run through the
holes of the skimmer. Remember, the onions must never boil, or, if they
do, they will be good for nothing; and they should be quite transparent.
Keep the onions stirred for a few minutes, and, in stirring them, be
particular not to break them. Then have ready a pan with a colander,
into which turn the onions to drain, covering them with a cloth to keep
in the steam. Place on a table an old cloth, 2 or 3 times double; put
the onions on it when quite hot, and over them an old piece of blanket;
cover this closely over them, to keep in the steam. Let them remain till
the next day, when they will be quite cold, and look yellow and
shrivelled; take off the shrivelled skins, when they should be as white
as snow. Put them in a pan, make a pickle of vinegar and the remaining
ingredients, boil all these up, and pour hot over the onions in the pan.
Cover very closely to keep in all the steam, and let them stand till the
following day, when they will be quite cold. Put them into jars or
bottles well bunged, and a tablespoonful of the best olive-oil on the
top of each jar or bottle. Tie them down with bladder, and let them
stand in a cool place for a month or six weeks, when they will be fit
for use. They should be beautifully white, and eat crisp, without the
least softness, and will keep good many months.

_Seasonable_ from the middle of July to the end of August.


ORANGE GRAVY, for Wildfowl, Widgeon, Teal, &c.

488. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of white stock, No. 107, 1 small onion, 3 or
4 strips of lemon or orange peel, a few leaves of basil, if at hand, the
juice of a Seville orange or lemon, salt and pepper to taste, 1 glass of
port wine.

_Mode_.--Put the onion, cut in slices, into a stewpan with the stock,
orange-peel, and basil, and let them simmer very gently for 1/4 hour or
rather longer, should the gravy not taste sufficiently of the peel.
Strain it off, and add to the gravy the remaining ingredients; let the
whole heat through, and, when on the point of boiling, serve very hot in
a tureen which should have a cover to it.

_Time_.--Altogether 1/2 hour.

_Sufficient_ for a small tureen.


OYSTER FORCEMEAT, for Roast or Boiled Turkey.

489. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of bread crumbs, 1-1/2 oz. of chopped suet
or butter, 1 faggot of savoury herbs, 1/4 saltspoonful of grated nutmeg,
salt and pepper to taste, 2 eggs, 18 oysters.

_Mode_.--Grate the bread very fine, and be careful that no large lumps
remain; put it into a basin with the suet, which must be very finely
minced, or, when butter is used, that must be cut up into small pieces.
Add the herbs, also chopped as small as possible, and seasoning; mix all
these well together, until the ingredients are thoroughly mingled. Open
and beard the oysters, chop them, but not too small, and add them to the
other ingredients. Beat up the eggs, and, with the hand, work
altogether, until it is smoothly mixed. The turkey should not be stuffed
too full: if there should be too much forcemeat, roll it into balls, fry
them, and use them as a garnish.

_Sufficient_ for 1 turkey.


OYSTER KETCHUP.

490. INGREDIENTS.--Sufficient oysters to fill a pint measure, 1 pint of
sherry, 3 oz. of salt, 1 drachm of cayenne, 2 drachms of pounded mace.

_Mode_.--Procure the oysters very fresh, and open sufficient to fill a
pint measure; save the liquor, and scald the oysters in it with the
sherry; strain the oysters, and put them in a mortar with the salt,
cayenne, and mace; pound the whole until reduced to a pulp, then add it
to the liquor in which they were scalded; boil it again five minutes,
and skim well; rub the whole through a sieve, and, when cold, bottle and
cork closely. The corks should be sealed.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.

_Note_.--Cider may be substituted for the sherry.


PICKLED OYSTERS.

491. INGREDIENTS.--100 oysters; to each 1/2 pint of vinegar, 1 blade of
pounded mace, 1 strip of lemon-peel, 12 black peppercorns.

_Mode_.--Get the oysters in good condition, open them, place them in a
saucepan, and let them simmer in their own liquor for about 10 minutes,
very gently; then take them out, one by one, and place them in a jar,
and cover them, when cold, with a pickle made as follows:--Measure the
oyster-liquor; add to it the same quantity of vinegar, with mace,
lemon-peel, and pepper in the above proportion, and boil it for 5
minutes; when cold, pour over the oysters, and tie them down very
closely, as contact with the air spoils them.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.

_Note_.--Put this pickle away in small jars; because directly one is
opened, its contents should immediately be eaten, as they soon spoil.
The pickle should not be kept more than 2 or 3 months.


OYSTER SAUCE, to serve with Fish, Boiled Poultry, &c.

492. INGREDIENTS.--3 dozen oysters, 1/2 pint of melted butter, made with
milk, No. 380.

_Mode_.--Open the oysters carefully, and save their liquor; strain it
into a clean saucepan (a lined one is best), put in the oysters, and let
them just come to the boiling-point, when they should look plump. Take
them off the fire immediately, and put the whole into a basin. Strain
the liquor from them, mix with it sufficient milk to make 1/2 pint
altogether, and follow the directions of No. 380. When the melted butter
is ready and very smooth, put in the oysters, which should be previously
bearded, if you wish the sauce to be really nice. Set it by the side of
the fire to get thoroughly hot, _but do not allow it to boil_, or the
oysters will immediately harden. Using cream instead of milk makes this
sauce extremely delicious. When liked, add a seasoning of cayenne, or
anchovy sauce; but, as we have before stated, a plain sauce _should_ be
plain, and not be overpowered by highly-flavoured essences; therefore we
recommend that the above directions be implicitly followed, and no
seasoning added.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 2s.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons. Never allow fewer than 6 oysters to 1
person, unless the party is very large.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.

A more economical sauce may be made by using a smaller quantity of
oysters, and not bearding them before they are added to the sauce: this
may answer the purpose, but we cannot undertake to recommend it as a
mode of making this delicious adjunct to fish, &c.


PARSLEY AND BUTTER, to serve with Calf's Head. Boiled Fowls, &c.

493. INGREDIENTS.--2 tablespoonfuls of minced parsley, 1/2 pint of
melted butter, No. 376.

_Mode_.--Put into a saucepan a small quantity of water, slightly salted,
and when it boils, throw in a good bunch of parsley which has been
previously washed and tied together in a bunch; let it boil for 5
minutes, drain it, mince the leaves very fine, and put the above
quantity in a tureen; pour over it 1/2 pint of smoothly-made melted
butter; stir once, that the ingredients may be thoroughly mixed, and
serve.

_Time_.--5 minutes to boil the parsley. _Average cost_, 4d.

_Sufficient_ for 1 large fowl; allow rather more for a pair.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Sometimes, in the middle of winter, parsley-leaves are not to
be had, when the following will be found an excellent substitute:--Tie
up a little parsley-seed in a small piece of muslin, and boil it for 10
minutes in a small quantity of water; use this water to make the melted
butter with, and throw into it a little boiled spinach, minced rather
fine, which will have an appearance similar to that of parsley.

[Illustration: PARSLEY.]

    PARSLEY.--If there be nothing new under the sun, there are, at
    any rate, different uses found for the same thing; for this
    pretty aromatic herb was used in ancient times, as we learn from
    mythological narrative, to adorn the head of a hero, no less
    than Hercules; and now--was ever fall so great?--we moderns use
    it in connection with the head of--a calf. According to Homer's
    "Iliad," warriors fed their chariot-steeds on parsley; and Pliny
    acquaints us with the fact that, as a symbol of mourning, it was
    admitted to furnish the funeral tables of the Romans. Egypt,
    some say, first produced this herb; thence it was introduced, by
    some unknown voyager, into Sardinia, where the Carthaginians
    found it, and made it known to the inhabitants of Marseilles.
    (See No. 123.)

FRIED PARSLEY, for Garnishing.

494. INGREDIENTS.--Parsley, hot lard or clarified dripping.

_Mode_.--Gather some young parsley; wash, pick, and dry it thoroughly in
a cloth; put it into the wire basket of which we have given an
engraving, and hold it in boiling lard or dripping for a minute or two.
Directly it is done, lift out the basket, and let it stand before the
fire, that the parsley may become thoroughly crisp; and the quicker it
is fried the better. Should the kitchen not be furnished with the above
article, throw the parsley into the frying-pan, and when crisp, lift it
out with a slice, dry it before the fire, and when thoroughly crisp, it
will be ready for use.

[Illustration: WIRE BASKET.]

    WIRE BASKET.--For this recipe, a wire basket, as shown in the
    annexed engraving, will be found very useful. It is very light
    and handy, and may be used for other similar purposes besides
    that described above.

PARSLEY JUICE, for Colouring various Dishes.

495. Procure some nice young parsley; wash it and dry it thoroughly in a
cloth; pound the leaves in a mortar till all the juice is extracted, and
put the juice in a teacup or small jar; place this in a saucepan of
boiling water, and warm it on the _bain marie_ principle just long
enough to take off its rawness; let it drain, and it will be ready for
colouring.


TO PRESERVE PARSLEY THROUGH THE WINTER.

496. Use freshly-gathered parsley for keeping, and wash it perfectly
free from grit and dirt; put it into boiling water which has been
slightly salted and well skimmed, and then let it boil for 2 or 3
minutes; take it out, let it drain, and lay it on a sieve in front of
the fire, when it should be dried as expeditiously as possible. Store it
away in a very dry place in bottles, and when wanted for use, pour over
it a little warm water, and let it stand for about 5 minutes.

_Seasonable_.--This may be done at any time between June and October.


AN EXCELLENT PICKLE.

497. INGREDIENTS.--Equal quantities of medium-sized onions, cucumbers,
and sauce-apples; 1-1/2 teaspoonful of salt, 3/4 teaspoonful of cayenne,
1 wineglassful of soy, 1 wineglassful of sherry; vinegar.

_Mode_.--Slice sufficient cucumbers, onions, and apples to fill a pint
stone jar, taking care to cut the slices very thin; arrange them in
alternate layers, shaking in as you proceed salt and cayenne in the
above proportion; pour in the soy and wine, and fill up with vinegar. It
will be fit for use the day it is made.

_Seasonable_ in August and September.

[This recipe was forwarded to the editress of this work by a subscriber
to the "Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine." Mrs. Beeton, not having
tested it, cannot vouch for its excellence; but the contributor spoke
very highly in its favour.]

    SOY.--This is a sauce frequently made use of for fish, and comes
    from Japan, where it is prepared from the seeds of a plant
    called _Dolichos Soja_. The Chinese also manufacture it; but
    that made by the Japanese is said to be the best. All sorts of
    statements have been made respecting the very general
    adulteration of this article in England, and we fear that many
    of them are too true. When genuine, it is of an agreeable
    flavour, thick, and of a clear brown colour.

PICKLED RED CABBAGE.

498. INGREDIENTS.--Red cabbages, salt and water; to each quart of
vinegar, 1/2 oz. of ginger well bruised, 1 oz. of whole black pepper,
and, when liked, a little cayenne.

_Mode_.--Take off the outside decayed leaves of a nice red cabbage, cut
it in quarters, remove the stalks, and cut it across in very thin
slices. Lay these on a dish, and strew them plentifully with salt,
covering them with another dish. Let them remain for 24 hours, turn into
a colander to drain, and, if necessary, wipe lightly with a clean soft
cloth. Put them in a jar; boil up the vinegar with spices in the above
proportion, and, when cold, pour it over the cabbage. It will be fit for
use in a week or two, and, if kept for a very long time, the cabbage is
liable get soft and to discolour. To be really nice and crisp, and of a
good red colour, it should be eaten almost immediately after it is made.
A little bruised cochineal boiled with the vinegar adds much to the
appearance of this pickle. Tie down with bladder, and keep in a dry
place.

_Seasonable_ in July and August, but the pickle will be much more crisp
if the frost has just touched the leaves.

    RED CABBAGE.--This plant, in its growth, is similar in form to
    that of the white, but is of a bluish-purple colour, which,
    however, turns red on the application of acid, as is the case
    with all vegetable blues. It is principally from the white
    vegetable that the Germans make their _sauer kraut_; a dish held
    in such high estimation with the inhabitants of Vaderland, but
    which requires, generally speaking, with strangers, a long
    acquaintance in order to become sufficiently impressed with its
    numerous merits. The large red Dutch is the kind generally
    recommended for pickling.

PLUM-PUDDING SAUCE.

499. INGREDIENTS.--1 wineglassful of brandy, 2 oz. of very fresh butter,
1 glass of Madeira, pounded sugar to taste.

_Mode_.--Put the pounded sugar in a basin, with part of the brandy and
the butter; let it stand by the side of the fire until it is warm and
the sugar and butter are dissolved; then add the rest of the brandy,
with the Madeira. Either pour it over the pudding, or serve in a tureen.
This is a very rich and excellent sauce.

_Average cost_, 1s. 3d. for this quantity.

_Sufficient_ for a pudding made for 6 persons.


QUIN'S SAUCE, an excellent Fish Sauce.

500. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of walnut pickle, 1/2 pint of port wine, 1
pint of mushroom ketchup, 1 dozen anchovies, 1 dozen shalots, 1/4 pint
of soy, 1/2 teaspoonful of cayenne.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients into a saucepan, having previously
chopped the shalots and anchovies very small; simmer for 15 minutes,
strain, and, when cold, bottle off for use: the corks should be well
sealed to exclude the air.

_Time_.--1/4 hour.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


RAVIGOTTE, a French Salad Sauce.

_Mons. Ude's Recipe_.

501. INGREDIENTS.--1 teaspoonful of mushroom ketchup, 1 teaspoonful of
cavice, 1 teaspoonful of Chili vinegar, 1 teaspoonful of Reading sauce,
a piece of butter the size of an egg, 3 tablespoonfuls of thick
Bechamel, No. 367, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, 3 tablespoonfuls
of cream; salt and pepper to taste.

_Mode_.--Scald the parsley, mince the leaves very fine, and add it to
all the other ingredients; after mixing the whole together thoroughly,
the sauce will be ready for use.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 10d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


READING SAUCE.

502. INGREDIENTS.--2-1/2 pints of walnut pickle, 1-1/2 oz. of shalots, 1
quart of spring water, 3/4 pint of Indian soy, 1/2 oz. of bruised
ginger, 1/2 oz. of long pepper, 1 oz. of mustard-seed, 1 anchovy, 1/2
oz. of cayenne, 1/4 oz. of dried sweet bay-leaves.

_Mode_.--Bruise the shalots in a mortar, and put them in a stone jar
with the walnut-liquor; place it before the fire, and let it boil until
reduced to 2 pints. Then, into another jar, put all the ingredients
except the bay-leaves, taking care that they are well bruised, so that
the flavour may be thoroughly extracted; put this also before the fire,
and let it boil for 1 hour, or rather more. When the contents of both
jars are sufficiently cooked, mix them together, stirring them well as
you mix them, and submit them to a slow boiling for 1/2 hour; cover
closely, and let them stand 24 hours in a cool place; then open the jar
and add the bay-leaves; let it stand a week longer closed down, when
strain through a flannel bag, and it will be ready for use. The above
quantities will make 1/2 gallon.

_Time_.--Altogether, 3 hours.

_Seasonable_.--This sauce may be made at any time.


REMOULADE, or FRENCH SALAD-DRESSING.

503. INGREDIENTS.--4 eggs, 1/2 tablespoonful of made mustard, salt and
cayenne to taste, 3 tablespoonfuls of olive-oil, 1 tablespoonful of
tarragon or plain vinegar.

_Mode_.--Boil 3 eggs quite hard for about 1/4 hour, put them into cold
water, and let them remain in it for a few minutes; strip off the
shells, put the yolks in a mortar, and pound them very smoothly; add to
them, very gradually, the mustard, seasoning, and vinegar, keeping all
well stirred and rubbed down with the back of a wooden spoon. Put in the
oil drop by drop, and when this is thoroughly mixed with the other
ingredients, add the yolk of a raw egg, and stir well, when it will be
ready for use. This sauce should not be curdled; and to prevent this,
the only way is to mix a little of everything at a time, and not to
cease stirring. The quantities of oil and vinegar may be increased or
diminished according to taste, as many persons would prefer a smaller
proportion of the former ingredient.

GREEN REMOULADE is made by using tarragon vinegar instead of plain, and
colouring with a little parsley-juice, No. 495. Harvey's sauce, or Chili
vinegar, may be added at pleasure.

_Time_.--1/4 hour to boil the eggs.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 7d.

_Sufficient_ for a salad made for 4 or 6 persons.

[Illustration: TARRAGON.]

    TARRAGON.--The leaves of this plant, known to naturalists as
    _Artemisia dracunculus_, are much used in France as a flavouring
    ingredient for salads. From it also is made the vinegar known as
    tarragon vinegar, which is employed by the French in mixing
    their mustard. It originally comes from Tartary, and does not
    seed in France.

SAGE-AND-ONION STUFFING, for Geese, Ducks, and Pork.

504. INGREDIENTS.--4 large onions, 10 sage-leaves, 1/4 lb. of bread
crumbs, 1-1/2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to taste, 1 egg.

_Mode_.--Peel the onions, put them into boiling water, let them simmer
for 5 minutes or rather longer, and, just before they are taken out, put
in the sage-leaves for a minute or two to take off their rawness. Chop
both these very fine, add the bread, seasoning, and butter, and work the
whole together with the yolk of an egg, when the stuffing will be ready
for use. It should be rather highly seasoned, and the sage-leaves should
be very finely chopped. Many cooks do not parboil the onions in the
manner just stated, but merely use them raw. The stuffing then, however,
is not nearly so mild, and, to many tastes, its strong flavour would be
very objectionable. When made for goose, a portion of the liver of the
bird, simmered for a few minutes and very finely minced, is frequently
added to this stuffing; and where economy is studied, the egg may be
dispensed with.

_Time_.--Rather more than 5 minutes to simmer the onions.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 4d.

_Sufficient_ for 1 goose, or a pair of ducks.


505. SOYER'S RECIPE FOR GOOSE STUFFING.--Take 4 apples, peeled and
cored, 4 onions, 4 leaves of sage, and 4 leaves of lemon thyme not
broken, and boil them in a stewpan with sufficient water to cover them;
when done, pulp them through a sieve, removing the sage and thyme; then
add sufficient pulp of mealy potatoes to cause it to be sufficiently dry
without sticking to the hand; add pepper and salt, and stuff the bird.


SALAD DRESSING (Excellent).

I.

506. INGREDIENTS.--1 teaspoonful of mixed mustard, 1 teaspoonful of
pounded sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of salad oil, 4 tablespoonfuls of milk,
2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, cayenne and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Put the mixed mustard into a salad-bowl with the sugar, and add
the oil drop by drop, carefully stirring and mixing all these
ingredients well together. Proceed in this manner with the milk and
vinegar, which must be added very _gradually_, or the sauce will curdle.
Put in the seasoning, when the mixture will be ready for use. If this
dressing is properly made, it will have a soft creamy appearance, and
will be found very delicious with crab, or cold fried fish (the latter
cut into dice), as well as with salads. In mixing salad dressings, the
ingredients cannot be added _too gradually_, or _stirred too much_.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 3d.

_Sufficient_ for a small salad.

This recipe can be confidently recommended by the editress, to whom it
was given by an intimate friend noted for her salads.

    SCARCITY OF SALADS IN ENGLAND.--Three centuries ago, very few
    vegetables were cultivated in England, and an author writing of
    the period of Henry VIII.'s reign, tells us that neither salad,
    nor carrots, nor cabbages, nor radishes, nor any other
    comestibles of a like nature, were grown in any part of the
    kingdom: they came from Holland and Flanders. We further learn,
    that Queen Catharine herself, with all her royalty, could not
    procure a salad of English growth for her dinner. The king was
    obliged to mend this sad state of affairs, and send to Holland
    for a gardener in order to cultivate those pot-herbs, in the
    growth of which England is now, perhaps, not behind any other
    country in Europe.

[Illustration: THE OLIVE.]

    THE OLIVE AND OLIVE OIL.--This tree assumes a high degree of
    interest from the historical circumstances with which it is
    connected. A leaf of it was brought into the ark by the dove,
    when that vessel was still floating on the waters of the great
    deep, and gave the first token that the deluge was subsiding.
    Among the Greeks, the prize of the victor in the Olympic games
    was a wreath of wild olive; and the "Mount of Olives" is
    rendered familiar to our ears by its being mentioned in the
    Scriptures as near to Jerusalem. The tree is indigenous in the
    north of Africa, Syria, and Greece; and the Romans introduced it
    to Italy. In Spain and the south of France it is now cultivated;
    and although it grows in England, its fruit does not ripen in
    the open air. Both in Greece and Portugal the fruit is eaten in
    its ripe state; but its taste is not agreeable to many palates.
    To the Italian shepherd, bread and olives, with a little wine,
    form a nourishing diet; but in England, olives are usually only
    introduced by way of dessert, to destroy the taste of the viands
    which have been previously eaten, that the flavour of the wine
    may be the better enjoyed. There are three kinds of olives
    imported to London,--the French, Spanish, and Italian: the first
    are from Provence, and are generally accounted excellent; the
    second are larger, but more bitter; and the last are from Lucca,
    and are esteemed the best. The oil extracted from olives, called
    olive oil, or salad oil, is, with the continentals, in continual
    request, more dishes being prepared with than without it, we
    should imagine. With us, it is principally used in mixing a
    salad, and when thus employed, it tends to prevent fermentation,
    and is an antidote against flatulency.

II.

507. INGREDIENTS.--4 eggs, 1 teaspoonful of mixed mustard, 1/4
teaspoonful of white pepper, half that quantity of cayenne, salt to
taste, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream, vinegar.

_Mode_.--Boil the eggs until hard, which will be in about 1/4 hour or 20
minutes; put them into cold water, take off the shells, and pound the
yolks in a mortar to a smooth paste. Then add all the other ingredients,
except the vinegar, and stir them well until the whole are thoroughly
incorporated one with the other. Pour in sufficient vinegar to make it
of the consistency of cream, taking care to add but little at a time.
The mixture will then be ready for use.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 7d.

_Sufficient_ for a moderate-sized salad.

_Note_.--The whites of the eggs, cut into rings, will serve very well as
a garnishing to the salad.


III.

508. INGREDIENTS.--1 egg, 1 teaspoonful of salad oil, 1 teaspoonful of
mixed mustard, 1/4 teaspoonful of salt, 1/2 teaspoonful of pounded
sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 6 tablespoonfuls of cream.

_Mode_.--Prepare and mix the ingredients by the preceding recipe, and be
very particular that the whole is well stirred.

_Note_.--In making salads, the vegetables, &c., should never be added to
the sauce very long before they are wanted for table; the dressing,
however, may always be prepared some hours before required. Where salads
are much in request, it is a good plan to bottle off sufficient dressing
for a few days' consumption, as, thereby, much time and trouble are
saved. If kept in a cool place, it will remain good for 4 or 5 days.

    POETIC RECIPE FOR SALAD.--The Rev. Sydney Smith, the witty canon
    of St. Paul's, who thought that an enjoyment of the good things
    of this earth was compatible with aspirations for things higher,
    wrote the following excellent recipe for salad, which we should
    advise our readers not to pass by without a trial, when the hot
    weather invites to a dish of cold lamb. May they find the
    flavour equal to the rhyme.--

      "Two large potatoes, pass'd through kitchen sieve,
      Smoothness and softness to the salad give:
      Of mordent mustard add a single spoon,
      Distrust the condiment that bites too soon;
      But deem it not, thou man of herbs, a fault.
      To add a double quantity of salt:
      Four times the spoon with oil of Lucca crown,
      And twice with vinegar procured from 'town;
      True flavour needs it, and your poet begs,
      The pounded yellow of two well-boil'd eggs.
      Let onion's atoms lurk within the bowl,
      And, scarce suspected, animate the whole;
      And, lastly, in the flavour'd compound toss
      A magic spoonful of anchovy sauce.
      Oh! great and glorious, and herbaceous treat,
      'Twould tempt the dying anchorite to eat.
      Back to the world he'd turn his weary soul,
      And plunge his fingers in the salad-bowl."

SAUCE ALLEMANDE, or GERMAN SAUCE.

509. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of sauce tournee (No. 517), the yolks of 2
eggs.

_Mode_.--Put the sauce into a stewpan, heat it, and stir to it the
beaten yolks of 2 eggs, which have been previously strained. Let it just
simmer, but not boil, or the eggs will curdle; and after they are added
to the sauce, it must be stirred without ceasing. This sauce is a
general favourite, and is used for many made dishes.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer.

_Average cost_, 6d.


SAUCE ARISTOCRATIQUE (a Store Sauce).

510. INGREDIENTS.--Green walnuts. To every pint of juice, 1 lb. of
anchovies, 1 drachm of cloves, 1 drachm of mace, 1 drachm of Jamaica
ginger bruised, 8 shalots. To every pint of the boiled liquor, 1/2 pint
of vinegar, 1/4 pint of port wine, 2 tablespoonfuls of soy.

_Mode_.--Pound the walnuts in a mortar, squeeze out the juice through a
strainer, and let it stand to settle. Pour off the clear juice, and to
every pint of it, add anchovies, spices, and cloves in the above
proportion. Boil all these together till the anchovies are dissolved,
then strain the juice again, put in the shalots (8 to every pint), and
boil again. To every pint of the boiled liquor add vinegar, wine, and
soy, in the above quantities, and bottle off for use. Cork well, and
seal the corks.

_Seasonable_.--Make this sauce from the beginning to the middle of July,
when walnuts are in perfection for sauces and pickling.

_Average cost_, 3s. 6d. for a quart.

    MANUFACTURE OF SAUCES.--In France, during the reign of Louis
    XII., at the latter end of the 14th century, there was formed a
    company of sauce-manufacturers, who obtained, in those days of
    monopolies, the exclusive privilege of making sauces. The
    statutes drawn up by this company inform us that the famous
    sauce a la cameline, sold by them, was to be composed or "good
    cinnamon, good ginger, good cloves, good grains of paradise,
    good bread, and good vinegar." The sauce Tence, was to be made
    of "good sound almonds, good ginger, good wine, and good
    verjuice." May we respectfully express a hope--not that we
    desire to doubt it in the least--that the English
    sauce-manufacturers of the 19th century are equally considerate
    and careful in choosing their ingredients for their various
    well-known preparations.

SAUCE A L'AURORE, for Trout, Soles, &c.

511. INGREDIENTS.--The spawn of 1 lobster, 1 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of
Bechamel (No. 367), the juice of 1/2 lemon, a high seasoning of salt and
cayenne.

_Mode_.--Take the spawn and pound it in a mortar with the butter, until
quite smooth, and work it through a hair sieve. Put the Bechamel into a
stewpan, add the pounded spawn, the lemon-juice, which must be strained,
and a plentiful seasoning of cayenne and salt; let it just simmer, but
do not allow it to boil, or the beautiful red colour of the sauce will
be spoiled. A small spoonful of anchovy essence may be added at
pleasure.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for a pair of large soles.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


SAUCE A LA MATELOTE, for Fish.

512. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of Espagnole (No. 411), 3 onions, 2
tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, 1/2 glass of port wine, a bunch of
sweet herbs, 1/2 bay-leaf, salt and pepper to taste, 1 clove, 2 berries
of allspice, a little liquor in which the fish has been boiled,
lemon-juice, and anchovy sauce.

_Mode_.--Slice and fry the onions of a nice brown colour, and put them
into a stewpan with the Espagnole, ketchup, wine, and a little liquor in
which the fish has been boiled. Add the seasoning, herbs, and spices,
and simmer gently for 10 minutes, stirring well the whole time; strain
it through a fine hair sieve, put in the lemon-juice and anchovy sauce,
and pour it over the fish. This sauce may be very much enriched by
adding a few small quenelles, or forcemeat balls made of fish, and also
glazed onions or mushrooms. These, however, should not be added to the
matelote till it is dished.

_Time_.--10 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--This sauce originally took its name as being similar to that
which the French sailor (_matelot_) employed as a relish to the fish he
caught and ate. In some cases, cider and perry were substituted for the
wine. The Norman _matelotes_ were very celebrated.

[Illustration: THE BAY.]

    THE BAY.--We have already described (see No. 180) the difference
    between the cherry-laurel (_Prunus Laurus cerasus_) and the
    classic laurel (_Laurus nobilis_), the former only being used
    for culinary purposes. The latter beautiful evergreen was
    consecrated by the ancients to priests and heroes, and used in
    their sacrifices. "A crown of bay" was the earnestly-desired
    reward for great enterprises, and for the display of uncommon
    genius in oratory or writing. It was more particularly sacred to
    Apollo, because, according to the fable, the nymph Daphne was
    changed into a laurel-tree. The ancients believed, too, that the
    laurel had the power of communicating the gift of prophecy, as
    well as poetic genius; and, when they wished to procure pleasant
    dreams, would place a sprig under the pillow of their bed. It
    was the symbol, too, of victory, and it was thought that the
    laurel could never be struck by lightning. From this word comes
    that of "laureate;" Alfred Tennyson being the present poet
    laureate, crowned with laurel as the first of living bards.

SAUCE PIQUANTE, for Cutlets, Roast Meat, &c.

513. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of butter, 1 small carrot, 6 shalots, 1 small
bunch of savoury herbs, including parsley, 1/2 a bay-leaf, 2 slices of
lean ham, 2 cloves, 6 peppercorns, 1 blade of mace, 3 whole allspice, 4
tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 1/2 pint of stock (No. 104 or 105), 1 small
lump of sugar, 1/4 saltspoonful of cayenne, salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Put into a stewpan the butter, with the carrot and shalots,
both of which must be cut into small slices; add the herbs, bay-leaf,
spices, and ham (which must be minced rather finely), and let these
ingredients simmer over a slow fire, until the bottom of the stewpan is
covered with a brown glaze. Keep stirring with a wooden spoon, and put
in the remaining ingredients. Simmer very gently for 1/4 hour, skim off
every particle of fat, strain the sauce through a sieve, and serve very
hot. Care must be taken that this sauce be not made too acid, although
it should possess a sharpness indicated by its name. Of course the above
quantity of vinegar may be increased or diminished at pleasure,
according to taste.

_Time_.--Altogether 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 10d.

_Sufficient_ for a medium-sized dish of cutlets.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


A GOOD SAUCE FOR VARIOUS BOILED PUDDINGS.

514. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of butter, 1/4 lb. of pounded sugar, a
wineglassful of brandy or rum.

_Mode_.--Beat the butter to a cream, until no lumps remain; add the
pounded sugar, and brandy or rum; stir once or twice until the whole is
thoroughly mixed, and serve. This sauce may either be poured round the
pudding or served in a tureen, according to the taste or fancy of the
cook or mistress.

_Average cost_, 8d. for this quantity.

_Sufficient_ for a pudding.


SAUCE ROBERT, for Steaks, &c.

515. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of butter, 3 onions, 1 teaspoonful of flour, 4
tablespoonfuls of gravy, or stock No. 105, salt and pepper to taste, 1
teaspoonful of made mustard, 1 teaspoonful of vinegar, the juice of 1/2
lemon.

_Mode_.--Put the butter into a stewpan, set it on the fire, and, when
browning, throw in the onions, which must be cut into small slices. Fry
them brown, but do not burn them; add the flour, shake the onions in it,
and give the whole another fry. Put in the gravy and seasoning, and boil
it gently for 10 minutes; skim off the fat, add the mustard, vinegar,
and lemon-juice; give it one boil, and pour round the steaks, or
whatever dish the sauce has been prepared for.

_Time_.---Altogether 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_ for about 2 lbs. of steak.

_Note_.--This sauce will be found an excellent accompaniment to roast
goose, pork, mutton cutlets, and various other dishes.


A GOOD SAUCE FOR STEAKS.

516. INGREDIENTS.--1 oz. of whole black pepper, 1/2 oz. of allspice, 1
oz. of salt, 1/2 oz. grated horseradish, 1/2 oz. of pickled shalots, 1
pint of mushroom ketchup or walnut pickle.

_Mode_.--Pound all the ingredients finely in a mortar, and put them into
the ketchup or walnut-liquor. Let them stand for a fortnight, when
strain off the liquor and bottle for use. Either pour a little of the
sauce over the steaks or mix it in the gravy.

_Seasonable_.--This can be made at any time.

_Note_.--In using a jar of pickled walnuts, there is frequently left a
large quantity of liquor; this should be converted into a sauce like the
above, and will be found a very useful relish.

    THE GROWTH OF THE PEPPER-PLANT.--Our readers will see at Nos.
    369 and 399, a description, with engravings, of the qualities of
    black and long pepper, and an account of where these spices are
    found. We will here say something of the manner of the growth of
    the pepper-plant. Like the vine, it requires support, and it is
    usual to plant a thorny tree by its side, to which it may cling.
    In Malabar, the chief pepper district of India, the jacca-tree
    (_Artocarpus integrifolia_) is made thus to yield its
    assistance, the same soil being adapted to the growth of both
    plants. The stem of the pepper-plant entwines round its support
    to a considerable height; the flexile branches then droop
    downwards, bearing at their extremities, as well as at other
    parts, spikes of green flowers, which are followed by the
    pungent berries. These hang in large bunches, resembling in
    shape those of grapes; but the fruit grows distinct, each on a
    little stalk, like currants. Each berry contains a single seed,
    of a globular form and brownish colour, but which changes to a
    nearly black when dried; and this is the pepper of commerce. The
    leaves are not unlike those of the ivy, but are larger and of
    rather lighter colour; they partake strongly of the peculiar
    smell and pungent taste of the berry.

SAUCE TOURNEE.

517. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of white stock (No. 107), thickening of flour
and butter, or white roux (No. 526), a faggot of savoury herbs,
including parsley, 6 chopped mushrooms, 6 green onions.

_Mode_.--Put the stock into a stewpan with the herbs, onions, and
mushrooms, and let it simmer very gently for about 1/2 hour; stir in
sufficient thickening to make it of a proper consistency; let it boil
for a few minutes, then skim off all the fat, strain and serve. This
sauce, with the addition of a little cream, is now frequently called
veloute.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 6d.

_Note_.--If poultry trimmings are at hand, the stock should be made of
these; and the above sauce should not be made too thick, as it does not
then admit of the fat being nicely removed.


SWEET SAUCE, for Venison.

518. INGREDIENTS.--A small jar of red-currant jelly, 1 glass of port
wine.

_Mode_.--Put the above ingredients into a stewpan, set them over the
fire, and, when melted, pour in a tureen and serve. It should not be
allowed to boil.

_Time_.--5 minutes to melt the jelly.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 1s.


SAUCE FOR WILDFOWL.

519. INGREDIENTS.--1 glass of port wine, 1 tablespoonful of Leamington
sauce (No. 459), 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, 1 tablespoonful of
lemon-juice, 1 slice of lemon-peel, 1 large shalot cut in slices, 1
blade of mace, cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, set it over the fire,
and let it simmer for about 5 minutes; then strain and serve the sauce
in a tureen.

_Time_.--5 minutes. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 8d.


SAUSAGE-MEAT STUFFING, for Turkey.

520. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of lean pork, 6 oz. of fat pork, both weighed
after being chopped (beef suet may be substituted for the latter), 2 oz.
of bread crumbs, 1 small tablespoonful of minced sage, 1 blade of
pounded mace, salt and pepper to taste, 1 egg.

_Mode_.--Chop the meat and fat very finely, mix with them the other
ingredients, taking care that the whole is thoroughly incorporated.
Moisten with the egg, and the stuffing will be ready for use. Equal
quantities of this stuffing and forcemeat, No. 417, will be found to
answer very well, as the herbs, lemon-peel, &c. in the latter, impart a
very delicious flavour to the sausage-meat. As preparations, however,
like stuffings and forcemeats, are matters to be decided by individual
tastes, they must be left, to a great extent, to the discrimination of
the cook, who should study her employer's taste in this, as in every
other respect.

_Average cost_, 9d.

_Sufficient_ for a small turkey.


SAVOURY JELLY FOR MEAT PIES.

521. INGREDIENTS.--3 lbs. of shin of beef, 1 calf's-foot, 3 lbs. of
knuckle of veal, poultry trimmings (if for game pies, any game
trimmings), 2 onions stuck with cloves, 2 carrots, 4 shalots, a bunch of
savoury herbs, 2 bay-leaves; when liked, 2 blades of mace and a little
spice; 2 slices of lean ham, rather more than 2 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Cut up the meat and put it into a stewpan with all the
ingredients except the water; set it over a slow fire to draw down, and,
when the gravy ceases to flow from the meat, pour in the water. Let it
boil up, then carefully take away all scum from the top. Cover the
stewpan closely, and let the stock simmer very gently for 4 hours: if
rapidly boiled, the jelly will not be clear. When done, strain it
through a fine sieve or flannel bag; and when cold, the jelly should be
quite transparent. If this is not the case, clarify it with the whites
of eggs, as described in recipe No. 109.

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 5s.


SHRIMP SAUCE, for Various Kinds of Fish.

522. INGREDIENTS.--1/3 pint of melted butter (No. 376), 1/4 pint of
picked shrimps, cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Make the melted butter very smoothly by recipe No. 376, shell
the shrimps (sufficient to make 1/4 pint when picked), and put them into
the butter; season with cayenne, and let the sauce just simmer, but do
not allow it to boil. When liked, a teaspoonful of anchovy sauce may be
added.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer. _Average cost_, 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons.


SPINACH GREEN FOR COLOURING VARIOUS DISHES.

523. INGREDIENTS.--2 handfuls of spinach.

_Mode_.--Pick and wash the spinach free from dirt, and pound the leaves
in a mortar to extract the juice; then press it through a hair sieve,
and put the juice into a small stewpan or jar. Place this in a bain
marie, or saucepan of boiling water, and let it set. Watch it closely,
as it should not boil; and, as soon as it is done, lay it in a sieve, so
that all the water may drain from it, and the green will then be ready
for colouring. If made according to this recipe, the spinach-green will
be found far superior to that boiled in the ordinary way.


HOT SPICE, a Delicious Adjunct to Chops, Steaks, Gravies, &c.

524. INGREDIENTS.--3 drachms each of ginger, black pepper, and cinnamon,
7 cloves, 1/2 oz. mace, 1/4 oz. of cayenne, 1 oz. grated nutmeg, 1-1/2
oz. white pepper.

_Mode_.--Pound the ingredients, and mix them thoroughly together, taking
care that everything is well blended. Put the spice in a very dry glass
bottle for use. The quantity of cayenne may be increased, should the
above not be enough to suit the palate.

[Illustration: CINNAMON.]

    CINNAMON.--The cinnamon-tree (_Laurus Cinnamomum_) is a valuable
    and beautiful species of the laurel family, and grows to the
    height of 20 or 30 feet. The trunk is short and straight, with
    wide-spreading branches, and it has a smooth ash-like bark. The
    leaves are upon short stalks, and are of an oval shape, and 3 to
    5 inches long. The flowers are in panicles, with six small
    petals, and the fruit is about the size of an olive, soft,
    insipid, and of a deep blue. This incloses a nut, the kernel of
    which germinates soon after it falls. The wood of the tree is
    white and not very solid, and its root is thick and branching,
    exuding a great quantity of camphor. The inner bark of the tree
    forms the cinnamon of commerce. Ceylon was thought to be its
    native island; but it has been found in Malabar, Cochin-China,
    Sumatra, and the Eastern Islands; also in the Brazils, the
    Mauritius, Jamaica, and other tropical localities.

BROWN ROUX, a French Thickening for Gravies and Sauces.

525. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of butter, 9 oz. of flour.

_Mode_.--Melt the butter in a stewpan over a slow fire, and dredge in,
very gradually, the flour; stir it till of a light-brown colour--to
obtain this do it very slowly, otherwise the flour will burn and impart
a bitter taste to the sauce it is mixed with. Pour it in a jar, and keep
it for use: it will remain good some time.

_Time_.--About 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 7d.


WHITE ROUX, for thickening White Sauces.

526. Allow the same proportions of butter and flour as in the preceding
recipe, and proceed in the same manner as for brown roux, but do not
keep it on the fire too long, and take care not to let it colour. This
is used for thickening white sauce. Pour it into a jar to use when
wanted.

_Time_.--1/4 hour. _Average cost_, 7d.

_Sufficient_,--A dessertspoonful will thicken a pint of gravy.

_Note_.--Besides the above, sauces may be thickened with potato flour,
ground rice, baked flour, arrowroot, &c.: the latter will be found far
preferable to the ordinary flour for white sauces. A slice of bread,
toasted and added to gravies, answers the two purposes of thickening and
colouring them.


SPANISH ONIONS--PICKLED.

527. INGREDIENTS.--Onions, vinegar; salt and cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut the onions in thin slices; put a layer of them in the
bottom of a jar; sprinkle with salt and cayenne; then add another layer
of onions, and season as before. Proceeding in this manner till the jar
is full, pour in sufficient vinegar to cover the whole, and the pickle
will be fit for use in a month.

_Seasonable_.--May be had in England from September to February.


STORE SAUCE, or CHEROKEE.

528. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 oz. of cayenne pepper, 5 cloves of garlic, 2
tablespoonfuls of soy, 1 tablespoonful of walnut ketchup, 1 pint of
vinegar.

_Mode_.--Boil all the ingredients _gently_ for about 1/2 hour; strain
the liquor, and bottle off for use.

_Time_.--1/2 hour.

_Seasonable_.--This sauce can be made at any time.


TOMATO SAUCE--HOT, to serve with Cutlets, Roast Meats, &c.

529. INGREDIENTS.--6 tomatoes, 2 shalots, 1 clove, 1 blade of mace, salt
and cayenne to taste, 1/4 pint of gravy, No. 436, or stock No. 104.

_Mode_.--Cut the tomatoes in two, and squeeze the juice and seeds out;
put them in a stewpan with all the ingredients, and let them simmer
_gently_ until the tomatoes are tender enough to pulp; rub the whole
through a sieve, boil it for a few minutes, and serve. The shalots and
spices may be omitted when their flavour is objected to.

_Time_.--1 hour, or rather more, to simmer the tomatoes.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 1s.

_In full season_ in September and October.

[Illustration: THE TOMATO.]

    TOMATO, OR LOVE-APPLE.--The plant which bears this fruit is a
    native of South America, and takes its name from a Portuguese
    word. The tomato fruit is about the size of a small potato, and
    is chiefly used in soups, sauces, and gravies. It is sometimes
    served to table roasted or boiled, and when green, makes a good
    ketchup or pickle. In its unripe state, it is esteemed as
    excellent sauce for roast goose or pork, and when quite ripe, a
    good store sauce may be prepared from it.

TOMATO SAUCE FOR KEEPING (Excellent).

I.

530. INGREDIENTS.--To every quart of tomato-pulp allow 1 pint of cayenne
vinegar (No. 386), 3/4 oz. of shalots, 3/4 oz. of garlic, peeled and cut
in slices; salt to taste. To every six quarts of liquor, 1 pint of soy,
1 pint of anchovy sauce.

_Mode_.--Gather the tomatoes quite ripe; bake them in a slow oven till
tender; rub them through a sieve, and to every quart of pulp add cayenne
vinegar, shalots, garlic, and salt, in the above proportion; boil the
whole together till the garlic and shalots are quite soft; then rub it
through a sieve, put it again into a saucepan, and, to every six quarts
of the liquor, add 1 pint of soy and the same quantity of anchovy sauce,
and boil altogether for about 20 minutes; bottle off for use, and
carefully seal or rosin the corks. This will keep good for 2 or 3 years,
but will be fit for use in a week. A useful and less expensive sauce may
be made by omitting the anchovy and soy.

_Time_.--Altogether 1 hour.

_Seasonable_.--Make this from the middle of September to the end of
October.


II.

531. INGREDIENTS.--1 dozen tomatoes, 2 teaspoonfuls of the best powdered
ginger, 1 dessertspoonful of salt, 1 head of garlic chopped fine, 2
tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 1 dessertspoonful of Chili vinegar (a small
quantity of cayenne may be substituted for this).

_Mode_.--Choose ripe tomatoes, put them into a stone jar, and stand them
in a cool oven until quite tender; when cold, take the skins and stalks
from them, mix the pulp with the liquor which is in the jar, but do not
strain it; add all the other ingredients, mix well together, and put it
into well-sealed bottles. Stored away in a cool dry place, it will keep
good for years. It is ready for use as soon as made, but the flavour is
better after a week or two. Should it not appear to keep, turn it out,
and boil it up with a little additional ginger and cayenne. For
immediate use, the skins should be put into a wide-mouthed bottle with a
little of the different ingredients, and they will be found very nice
for hashes or stews.

_Time_.--4 or 5 hours in a cool oven.

_Seasonable_ from the middle of September to the end of October.


III.

532. INGREDIENTS.--3 dozen tomatoes; to every pound of tomato-pulp allow
1 pint of Chili vinegar, 1 oz. of garlic, 1 oz. of shalot, 2 oz. of
salt, 1 large green capsicum, 1/2 teaspoonful of cayenne, 2 pickled
gherkins, 6 pickled onions, 1 pint of common vinegar, and the juice of 6
lemons.

_Mode_.--Choose the tomatoes when quite ripe and red; put them in a jar
with a cover to it, and bake them till tender. The better way is to put
them in the oven overnight, when it will not be too hot, and examine
them in the morning to see if they are tender. Do not allow them to
remain in the oven long enough to break them; but they should be
sufficiently soft to skin nicely and rub through the sieve. Measure the
pulp, and to each pound of pulp, add the above proportion of vinegar and
other ingredients, taking care to chop very fine the garlic, shalot,
capsicum, onion, and gherkins. Boil the whole together till everything
is tender; then again rub it through a sieve, and add the lemon-juice.
Now boil the whole again till it becomes as thick as cream, and keep
continually stirring; bottle it when quite cold, cork well, and seal the
corks. If the flavour of garlic and shalot is very much disliked,
diminish the quantities.

_Time_.--Bake the tomatoes in a cool oven all night.

_Seasonable_ from the middle of September to the end of October.

_Note_.--A quantity of liquor will flow from the tomatoes, which must be
put through the sieve with the rest. Keep it well stirred while on the
fire, and use a wooden spoon.


UNIVERSAL PICKLE.

533. INGREDIENTS.--To 6 quarts of vinegar allow 1 lb. of salt, 1/4 lb.
of ginger, 1 oz. of mace, 1/2 lb. of shalots, 1 tablespoonful of
cayenne, 2 oz. of mustard-seed, 1-1/2 oz. of turmeric.

_Mode_.--Boil all the ingredients together for about 20 minutes; when
cold, put them into a jar with whatever vegetables you choose, such as
radish-pods, French beans, cauliflowers, gherkins, &c. &c., as these
come into season; put them in fresh as you gather them, having
previously wiped them perfectly free from moisture and grit. This pickle
will be fit for use in about 8 or 9 months.

_Time_.--20 minutes.

_Seasonable_.--Make the pickle in May or June, to be ready for the
various vegetables.

_Note_.--As this pickle takes 2 or 3 months to make,--that is to say,
nearly that time will elapse before all the different vegetables are
added,--care must be taken to keep the jar which contains the pickle
well covered, either with a closely-fitting lid, or a piece of bladder
securely tied over, so as perfectly to exclude the air.


PICKLED WALNUTS (Very Good).

534. INGREDIENTS.--100 walnuts, salt and water. To each quart of vinegar
allow 2 oz. of whole black pepper, 1 oz. of allspice, 1 oz. of bruised
ginger.

_Mode_.--Procure the walnuts while young; be careful they are not woody,
and prick them well with a fork; prepare a strong brine of salt and
water (4 lbs. of salt to each gallon of water), into which put the
walnuts, letting them remain 9 days, and changing the brine every third
day; drain them off, put them on a dish, place it in the sun until they
become perfectly black, which will be in 2 or 3 days; have ready dry
jars, into which place the walnuts, and do not quite fill the jars. Boil
sufficient vinegar to cover them, for 10 minutes, with spices in the
above proportion, and pour it hot over the walnuts, which must be quite
covered with the pickle; tie down with bladder, and keep in a dry place.
They will be fit for use in a month, and will keep good 2 or 3 years.

_Time_.--10 minutes.

_Seasonable_.--Make this from the beginning to the middle of July,
before the walnuts harden.

_Note_.--When liked, a few shalots may be added to the vinegar, and
boiled with it.


WALNUT KETCHUP.

I.

535. INGREDIENTS.--100 walnuts, 1 handful of salt, 1 quart of vinegar,
1/4 oz. of mace, 1/4 oz. of nutmeg, 1/4 oz. of cloves, 1/4 oz. of
ginger, 1/4 oz. of whole black pepper, a small piece of horseradish, 20
shalots, 1/4 lb. of anchovies, 1 pint of port wine.

_Mode_.--Procure the walnuts at the time you can run a pin through them,
slightly bruise, and put them into a jar with the salt and vinegar, let
them stand 8 days, stirring every day; then drain the liquor from them,
and boil it, with the above ingredients, for about 1/2 hour. It may be
strained or not, as preferred, and, if required, a little more vinegar
or wine can be added, according to taste. When bottled well, seal the
corks.

_Time_.--1/2 hour.

_Seasonable_.--Make this from the beginning to the middle of July, when
walnuts are in perfection for pickling purposes.


II.

536. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 sieve of walnut-shells, 2 quarts of water, salt,
1/2 lb. of shalots, 1 oz. of cloves, 1 oz. of mace, 1 oz. of whole
pepper, 1 oz. of garlic.

_Mode_.--Put the walnut-shells into a pan, with the water, and a large
quantity of salt; let them stand for 10 days, then break the shells up
in the water, and let it drain through a sieve, putting a heavy weight
on the top to express the juice; place it on the fire, and remove all
scum that may arise. Now boil the liquor with the shalots, cloves, mace,
pepper, and garlic, and let all simmer till the shalots sink; then put
the liquor into a pan, and, when cold, bottle, and cork closely. It
should stand 6 months before using: should it ferment during that time,
it must be again boiled and skimmed.

_Time_.--About 3/4 hour.

_Seasonable_ in September, when the walnut-shells are obtainable.

[Illustration: THE WALNUT.]

    THE WALNUT.--This nut is a native of Persia, and was introduced
    into England from France. As a pickle, it is much used in the
    green state; and grated walnuts in Spain are much employed, both
    in tarts and other dishes. On the continent it is occasionally
    employed as a substitute for olive oil in cooking; but it is
    apt, under such circumstances, to become rancid. The matter
    which remains after the oil is extracted is considered highly
    nutritious for poultry. It is called _mare_, and in Switzerland
    is eaten under the name of _pain amer_ by the poor. The oil is
    frequently manufactured into a kind of soap, and the leaves and
    green husks yield an extract, which, as a brown dye, is used to
    stain hair, wool, and wood.

WHITE SAUCE (Good).

537. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of white stock (No. 107), 1/2 pint of cream,
1 dessertspoonful of flour, salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Have ready a delicately-clean saucepan, into which put the
stock, which should be well flavoured with vegetables, and rather
savoury; mix the flour smoothly with the cream, add it to the stock,
season with a little salt, and boil all these ingredients very gently
for about 10 minutes, keeping them well stirred the whole time, as this
sauce is very liable to burn.

_Time_.--10 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for a pair of fowls.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


WHITE SAUCE, made without Meat.

538. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of butter, 2 small onions, 1 carrot, 1/2 a
small teacupful of flour, 1 pint of new milk, salt and cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut up the onions and carrot very small, and put them into a
stewpan with the butter; simmer them till the butter is nearly dried up;
then stir in the flour, and add the milk; boil the whole gently until it
thickens, strain it, season with salt and cayenne, and it will be ready
to serve.

_Time_.--1/4 hour. _Average cost_, 5d.

_Sufficient_ for a pair of fowls.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


WHITE SAUCE (a very Simple and Inexpensive Method).

539. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 pint of milk, 1-1/2 oz. of rice, 1 strip of
lemon-peel, 1 small blade of pounded mace, salt and cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Boil the milk with the lemon-peel and rice until the latter is
perfectly tender, then take out the lemon-peel and pound the milk and
rice together; put it back into the stewpan to warm, add the mace and
seasoning, give it one boil, and serve. This sauce should be of the
consistency of thick cream.

_Time_.--About 1-1/2 hour to boil the rice.

_Average cost_, 4d.

_Sufficient_ for a pair of fowls.

_Seasonable_ at any time.




[Illustration: THE LEAMINGTON STOVE, OR KITCHENER.]

VARIOUS MODES OF COOKING MEAT.


CHAPTER XI.


GENERAL REMARKS.

540. In Our "INTRODUCTION TO COOKERY" (_see_ No. 76) we have described
the gradual progress of mankind in the art of cookery, the probability
being, that the human race, for a long period, lived wholly on fruits.
Man's means of attacking animals, even if he had the desire of
slaughtering them, were very limited, until he acquired the use of arms.
He, however, made weapons for himself, and, impelled by a carnivorous
instinct, made prey of the animals that surrounded him. It is natural
that man should seek to feed on flesh; he has too small a stomach to be
supported alone by fruit, which has not sufficient nourishment to
renovate him. It is possible he might subsist on vegetables; but their
preparation needs the knowledge of art, only to be obtained after the
lapse of many centuries. Man's first weapons were the branches of trees,
which were succeeded by bows and arrows, and it is worthy of remark,
that these latter weapons have been found with the natives of all
climates and latitudes. It is singular how this idea presented itself to
individuals so differently placed.

541. BRILLAT SAVARIN says, that raw flesh has but one
inconvenience,--from its viscousness it attaches itself to the teeth. He
goes on to say, that it is not, however, disagreeable; but, when
seasoned with salt, that it is easily digested. He tells a story of a
Croat captain, whom he invited to dinner in 1815, during the occupation
of Paris by the allied troops. This officer was amazed at his host's
preparations, and said, "When we are campaigning, and get hungry, we
knock over the first animal we find, cut off a steak, powder it with
salt, which we always have in the sabretasche, put it under the saddle,
gallop over it for half a mile, and then dine like princes." Again, of
the huntsmen of Dauphiny it is said, that when they are out shooting in
September, they take with them both pepper and salt. If they kill a very
fat bird, they pluck and season it, and, after carrying it some time in
their caps, eat it. This, they declare, is the best way of serving it
up.

542. SUBSEQUENTLY TO THE CROAT MODE, which, doubtless, was in fashion in
the earlier ages of the world, fire was discovered. This was an
accident; for fire is not, although we are accustomed to call it so, an
element, or spontaneous. Many savage nations have been found utterly
ignorant of it, and many races had no other way of dressing their food
than by exposing it to the rays of the sun.

543. THE INHABITANTS OF THE MARIAN ISLANDS, which were discovered in
1521, had no idea of fire. Never was astonishment greater than theirs
when they first saw it, on the descent of Magellan, the navigator, on
one of their isles. At first they thought it a kind of animal, that
fixed itself to and fed upon wood. Some of them, who approached too
near, being burnt, the rest were terrified, and durst only look upon it
at a distance. They were afraid, they said, of being bit, or lest that
dreadful animal should wound with his violent respiration and dreadful
breath; for these were the first notions they formed of the heat and
flame. Such, too, probably, were the notions the Greeks originally
formed of them.

544. FIRE HAVING BEEN DISCOVERED, mankind endeavoured to make use of it
for drying, and afterwards for cooking their meat; but they were a
considerable time before they hit upon proper and commodious methods of
employing it in the preparation of their food.

545. MEAT, THEN, PLACED ON BURNING FUEL was found better than when raw:
it had more firmness, was eaten with less difficulty, and the ozmazome
being condensed by the carbonization, gave it a pleasing perfume and
flavour. Still, however, the meat cooked on the coal would become
somewhat befouled, certain portions of the fuel adhering to it. This
disadvantage was remedied by passing spits through it, and placing it at
a suitable height above the burning fuel. Thus grilling was invented;
and it is well known that, simple as is this mode of cookery, yet all
meat cooked in this way is richly and pleasantly flavoured. In Homer's
time, the, art of cookery had not advanced much beyond this; for we read
in the "Iliad," how the great Achilles and his friend Patroclus regaled
the three Grecian leaders on bread, wine, and broiled meat. It is
noticeable, too, that Homer does not speak of boiled meat anywhere in
his poems. Later, however, the Jews, coming out of their captivity in
Egypt, had made much greater progress. They undoubtedly possessed
kettles; and in one of these, Esau's mess of pottage, for which he sold
his birthright, must have been prepared.

546. HAVING THUS BRIEFLY TRACED A HISTORY OF GASTRONOMICAL PROGRESSES,
we will now proceed to describe the various methods of cooking meat, and
make a few observations on the chemical changes which occur in each of
the operations.

547. IN THIS COUNTRY, plain boiling, roasting, and baking are the usual
methods of cooking animal food. To explain the philosophy of these
simple culinary operations, we must advert to the effects that are
produced by heat on the principal constituents of flesh. When
finely-chopped mutton or beef is steeped for some time in a small
quantity of clean water, and then subjected to slight pressure, the
juice of the meat is extracted, and there is left a white tasteless
residue, consisting chiefly of muscular fibres. When this residue is
heated to between 158 deg. and 177 deg. Fahrenheit, the fibres shrink together,
and become hard and horny. The influence of an elevated temperature on
the soluble extract of flesh is not less remarkable. When the watery
infusion, which contains all the savoury constituents of the meat, is
gradually heated, it soon becomes turbid; and, when the temperature
reaches 133 deg., flakes of whitish matter separate. These flakes are
_albumen_, a substance precisely similar, in all its properties, to the
white of egg (see No. 101). When the temperature of the watery extract
is raised to 158 deg., the colouring matter of the blood coagulates, and the
liquid, which was originally tinged red by this substance, is left
perfectly clear, and almost colourless. When evaporated, even at a
gentle heat, this residual liquid gradually becomes brown, and acquires
the flavour of roast meat.

548. THESE INTERESTING FACTS, discovered in the laboratory, throw a
flood of light upon the mysteries of the kitchen. The fibres of meat are
surrounded by a liquid which contains albumen in its soluble state, just
as it exists in the unboiled egg. During the operation of boiling or
roasting, this substance coagulates, and thereby prevents the
contraction and hardening of the fibres. The tenderness of well-cooked
meat is consequently proportioned to the amount of albumen deposited in
its substance. Meat is underdone when it has been heated throughout only
to the temperature of coagulating albumen: it is thoroughly done when it
has been heated through its whole mass to the temperature at which the
colouring matter of the blood coagulates: it is overdone when the heat
has been continued long enough to harden the fibres.

549. THE JUICE OF FLESH IS WATER, holding in solution many substances
besides albumen, which are of the highest possible value as articles of
food. In preparing meat for the table, great care should be taken to
prevent the escape of this precious juice, as the succulence and
sapidity of the meat depend on its retention. The meat to be cooked
should be exposed at first to a quick heat, which immediately coagulates
the albumen on and near the surface. A kind of shell is thus formed,
which effectually retains the whole of the juice within the meat.

550. DURING THE OPERATIONS OF BOILING, BOASTING, AND BAKING, fresh beef
and mutton, when moderately fat, lose, according to Johnston, on an
average about--

                      In boiling.  In baking.    In roasting.

  4 lbs. of beef lose    1 lb.     1 lb. 3 oz.   1 lb. 5 oz.

  4 lbs. of mutton lose  14 oz.    1 lb. 4 oz.   1 lb. 6 oz.


BAKING.

[Illustration: BAKING DISH.]

551. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ROASTING MEAT AND BAKING IT, may be
generally described as consisting in the fact, that, in baking it, the
fumes caused by the operation are not carried off in the same way as
occurs in roasting. Much, however, of this disadvantage is obviated by
the improved construction of modern ovens, and of especially those in
connection with the Leamington kitchener, of which we give an engraving
here, and a full description of which will be seen at paragraph No. 65,
with the prices at which they can be purchased of Messrs. R. and J.
Slack, of the Strand. With meat baked in the generality of ovens,
however, which do not possess ventilators on the principle of this
kitchener, there is undoubtedly a peculiar taste, which does not at all
equal the flavour developed by roasting meat. The chemistry of baking
may be said to be the same as that described in roasting.

552. SHOULD THE OVEN BE VERY BRISK, it will be found necessary to cover
the joint with a piece of white paper, to prevent the meat from being
scorched and blackened outside, before the heat can penetrate into the
inside. This paper should be removed half an hour before the time of
serving dinner, so that the joint may take a good colour.

553. BY MEANS OF A JAR, many dishes, which will be enumerated under
their special heads, may be economically prepared in the oven. The
principal of these are soup, gravies, jugged hare, beef tea; and this
mode of cooking may be advantageously adopted with a ham, which has
previously been covered with a common crust of flour and water.

554. ALL DISHES PREPARED FOR BAKING should be more highly seasoned than
when intended to be roasted. There are some dishes which, it may be
said, are at least equally well cooked in the oven as by the roaster;
thus, a shoulder of mutton and baked potatoes, a fillet or breast of
veal, a sucking pig, a hare, well basted, will be received by
connoisseurs as well, when baked, as if they had been roasted. Indeed,
the baker's oven, or the family oven, may often, as has been said, be
substituted for the cook and the spit with greater economy and
convenience.

555. A BAKING-DISH, of which we give an engraving, should not be less
than 6 or 7 inches deep; so that the meat, which of course cannot be
basted, can stew in its own juices. In the recipe for each dish, full
explanations concerning any special points in relation to it will be
given.


BOILING.

556. BOILING, or the preparation of meat by hot water, though one of the
easiest processes in cookery, requires skilful management. Boiled meat
should be tender, savoury, and full of its own juice, or natural gravy;
but, through the carelessness and ignorance of cooks, it is too often
sent to table hard, tasteless, and innutritious. To insure a successful
result in boiling flesh, the heat of the fire must be judiciously
regulated, the proper quantity of water must be kept up in the pot, and
the scum which rises to the surface must be carefully removed.

557. MANY WRITERS ON COOKERY assert that the meat to be boiled should be
put into cold water, and that the pot should be heated gradually; but
Liebig, the highest authority on all matters connected with the
chemistry of food, has shown that meat so treated loses some of its most
nutritious constituents. "If the flesh," says the great chemist, "be
introduced into the boiler when the water is in a state of brisk
ebullition, and if the boiling be kept up for a few minutes, and the pot
then placed in a warm place, so that the temperature of the water is
kept at 158 deg. to 165 deg., we have the united conditions for giving to the
flesh the qualities which best fit it for being eaten." When a piece of
meat is plunged into boiling water, the albumen which is near the
surface immediately coagulates, forming an envelope, which prevents the
escape of the internal juice, and most effectually excludes the water,
which, by mixing with this juice, would render the meat insipid. Meat
treated thus is juicy and well-flavoured, when cooked, as it retains
most of its savoury constituents. On the other hand, if the piece of
meat be set on the fire with cold water, and this slowly heated to
boiling, the flesh undergoes a loss of soluble and nutritious
substances, while, as a matter of course, the soup becomes richer in
these matters. The albumen is gradually dissolved from the surface to
the centre; the fibre loses, more or less, its quality of shortness or
tenderness, and becomes hard and tough: the thinner the piece of meat
is, the greater is its loss of savoury constituents. In order to obtain
well-flavoured and eatable meat, we must relinquish the idea of making
good soup from it, as that mode of boiling which yields the best soup
gives the driest, toughest, and most vapid meat. Slow boiling whitens
the meat; and, we suspect, that it is on this account that it is in such
favour with the cooks. The wholesomeness of food is, however, a matter
of much greater moment than the appearance it presents on the table. It
should be borne in mind, that the whiteness of meat that has been boiled
slowly, is produced by the loss of some important alimentary properties.

558. THE OBJECTIONS WE HAVE RAISED to the practice of putting meat on
the fire in cold water, apply with equal force to the practice of
soaking meat before cooking it, which is so strongly recommended by some
cooks. Fresh meat ought never to be soaked, as all its most nutritive
constituents are soluble in water. Soaking, however, is an operation
that cannot be entirely dispensed with in the preparation of animal
food. Salted and dried meats require to be soaked for some time in water
before they are cooked.

559. FOR BOILING MEAT, the softer the water is, the better. When spring
water is boiled, the chalk which gives to it the quality of hardness, is
precipitated. This chalk stains the meat, and communicates to it an
unpleasant earthy taste. When nothing but hard water can be procured, it
should be softened by boiling it for an hour or two before it is used
for culinary purposes.

560. THE FIRE MUST BE WATCHED with great attention during the operation
of boiling, so that its heat may be properly regulated. As a rule, the
pot should be kept in a simmering state; a result which cannot be
attained without vigilance.

561. THE TEMPERATURE AT WHICH WATER BOILS, under usual circumstances, is
212 deg. Fahr. Water does not become hotter after it has begun to boil,
however long or with whatever violence the boiling is continued. This
fact is of great importance in cookery, and attention to it will save
much fuel. Water made to boil in a gentle way by the application of a
moderate heat is just as hot as when it is made to boil on a strong fire
with the greatest possible violence. When once water has been brought to
the boiling point, the fire may be considerably reduced, as a very
gentle heat will suffice to keep the water at its highest temperature.

562. THE SCUM WHICH RISES to the surface of the pot during the operation
of boiling must be carefully removed, otherwise it will attach itself to
the meat, and thereby spoil its appearance. The cook must not neglect to
skim during the whole process, though by far the greater part of the
scum rises at first. The practice of wrapping meat in a cloth may be
dispensed with if the skimming be skillfully managed. If the scum be
removed as fast as it rises, the meat will be cooked clean and pure, and
come out of the vessel in which it was boiled, much more delicate and
firm than when cooked in a cloth.

563. WHEN TAKEN FROM THE POT, the meat must be wiped with a clean cloth,
or, what will be found more convenient, a sponge previously dipped in
water and wrung dry. The meat should not be allowed to stand a moment
longer than necessary, as boiled meat, as well as roasted, cannot be
eaten too hot.

564. THE TIME ALLOWED FOR THE OPERATION OF BOILING must be regulated
according to the size and quality of the meat. As a general rule, twenty
minutes, reckoning from the moment when the boiling commences, may be
allowed for every pound of meat. All the best authorities, however,
agree in this, that the longer the boiling the more perfect the
operation.

565. A FEW OBSERVATIONS ON THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF SALTED MEAT may be
properly introduced in this place. Every housewife knows that dry salt
in contact with fresh meat gradually becomes fluid brine. The
application of salt causes the fibres of the meat to contract, and the
juice to flow out from its pores: as much as one-third of the juice of
the meat is often forced out in this manner. Now, as this juice is pure
extract of meat, containing albumen, osmazome, and other valuable
principles, it follows that meat which has been preserved by the action
of salt can never have the nutritive properties of fresh meat.

566. THE VESSELS USED FOR BOILING should be made of cast-iron, well
tinned within, and provided with closely-fitting lids. They must be kept
scrupulously clean, otherwise they will render the meat cooked in them
unsightly and unwholesome. Copper pans, if used at all, should be
reserved for operations that are performed with rapidity; as, by long
contact with copper, food may become dangerously contaminated. The
kettle in which a joint is dressed should be large enough to allow room
for a good supply of water; if the meat be cramped and be surrounded
with but little water, it will be stewed, not boiled.

567. IN STEWING, IT IS NOT REQUISITE to have so great a heat as in
boiling. A gentle simmering in a small quantity of water, so that the
meat is stewed almost in its own juices, is all that is necessary. It is
a method much used on the continent, and is wholesome and economical.

[Illustration: BOILING-POT.]

[Illustration: STEWPAN.]

    Two useful culinary vessels are represented above. One is a
    boiling-pot, in which large joints may be boiled; the other is a
    stewpan, with a closely-fitting lid, to which is attached a long
    handle; so that the cover can be removed without scalding the
    fingers.

[Illustration: HOT-PLATE.]

568. THE HOT-PLATE is a modern improvement on the old kitchen ranges,
being used for boiling and stewing. It is a plate of cast iron, having a
closed fire burning beneath it, by which it is thoroughly well heated.
On this plate are set the various saucepans, stewpans, &c.; and, by this
convenient and economical method, a number of dishes may be prepared at
one time. The culinary processes of braising and stewing are, in this
manner, rendered more gradual, and consequently the substance acted on
becomes more tender, and the gravy is not so much reduced.


BROILING.

[Illustration: REVOLVING GRIDIRON.]

569. GENERALLY SPEAKING, small dishes only are prepared by this mode of
cooking; amongst these, the beef-steak and mutton chop of the solitary
English diner may be mentioned as celebrated all the world over. Our
beef-steak, indeed, has long crossed the Channel; and, with a view of
pleasing the Britons, there is in every _carte_ at every French
restaurant, by the side of _a la Marengo_, and _a la Mayonnaise,--bifteck
d'Angleterre_. In order to succeed in a broil, the cook must have a
bright, clear fire; so that the surface of the meat may be quickly heated.
The result of this is the same as that obtained in roasting; namely, that
a crust, so to speak, is formed outside, and thus the juices of the meat
are retained. The appetite of an invalid, so difficult to minister to, is
often pleased with a broiled dish, as the flavour and sapidity of the meat
are so well preserved.

570. THE UTENSILS USED FOR BROILING need but little description. The
common gridiron, for which see engraving at No. 68, is the same as it
has been for ages past, although some little variety has been introduced
into its manufacture, by the addition of grooves to the bars, by means
of which the liquid fat is carried into a small trough. One point it is
well to bear in mind, viz., that the gridiron should be kept in a
direction slanting towards the cook, so that as little fat as possible
may fall into the fire. It has been observed, that broiling is the most
difficult manual office the general cook has to perform, and one that
requires the most unremitting attention; for she may turn her back upon
the stewpan or the spit, but the gridiron can never be left with
impunity. The revolving gridiron, shown in the engraving, possesses some
advantages of convenience, which will be at once apparent.


FRYING.

[Illustration: SAUTE PAN.]

571. THIS VERY FAVOURITE MODE OF COOKING may be accurately described as
boiling in fat or oil. Substances dressed in this way are generally well
received, for they introduce an agreeable variety, possessing, as they
do, a peculiar flavour. By means of frying, cooks can soon satisfy many
requisitions made on them, it being a very expeditious mode of preparing
dishes for the table, and one which can be employed when the fire is not
sufficiently large for the purposes of roasting and boiling. The great
point to be borne in mind in frying, is that the liquid must be hot
enough to act instantaneously, as all the merit of this culinary
operation lies in the invasion of the boiling liquid, which carbonizes
or burns, at the very instant of the immersion of the body placed in it.
It may be ascertained if the fat is heated to the proper degree, by
cutting a piece of bread and dipping it in the frying-pan for five or
six seconds; and if it be firm and of a dark brown when taken out, put
in immediately what you wish to prepare; if it be not, let the fat be
heated until of the right temperature. This having been effected,
moderate the fire, so that the action may not be too hurried, and that
by a continuous heat the juices of the substance may be preserved, and
its flavour enhanced.

572. THE PHILOSOPHY OF FRYING consists in this, that liquids subjected
to the action of fire do not all receive the same quantity of heat.
Being differently constituted in their nature, they possess different
"capacities for caloric." Thus, you may, with impunity, dip your finger
in boiling spirits of wine; you would take it very quickly from boiling
brandy, yet more rapidly from water; whilst the effects of the most
rapid immersion in boiling oil need not be told. As a consequence of
this, heated fluids act differently on the sapid bodies presented to
them. Those put in water, dissolve, and are reduced to a soft mass; the
result being _bouillon_, stock, &c. (_see_ No. 103). Those substances,
on the contrary, treated with oil, harden, assume a more or less deep
colour, and are finally carbonized. The reason of these different
results is, that, in the first instance, water dissolves and extracts
the interior juices of the alimentary substances placed in it; whilst,
in the second, the juices are preserved; for they are insoluble in oil.

573. IT IS TO BE ESPECIALLY REMEMBERED, in connection with frying, that
all dishes fried in fat should be placed before the fire on a piece of
blotting-paper, or sieve reversed, and there left for a few minutes, so
that any superfluous greasy moisture may be removed.

574. THE UTENSILS USED FOR THE PURPOSES OF FRYING are confined to
frying-pans, although these are of various sizes; and, for small and
delicate dishes, such as collops, fritters, pancakes, &c., the _saute_
pan, of which we give an engraving, is used.


COOKING BY GAS.

[Illustration: GAS STOVE.]

575. GAS-COOKING can scarcely now be considered a novelty,--many
establishments, both small and large, have been fitted with apparatus
for cooking by this mode, which undoubtedly exhibits some advantages.
Thus the heat may be more regularly supplied to the substance cooking,
and the operation is essentially a clean one, because there can be no
cinders or other dirt to be provided for. Some labour and attention
necessary, too, with a coal fire or close stove, may be saved; and,
besides this, it may, perhaps, be said that culinary operations are
reduced, by this means, to something like a certainty.

576. THERE ARE, HOWEVER, WE THINK, MANY OBJECTIONS to this mode of
cooking, more especially when applied to small domestic establishments.
For instance, the ingenious machinery necessary for carrying it out,
requires cooks perfectly conversant with its use; and if the gas, when
the cooking operations are finished, be not turned off, there will be a
large increase in the cost of cooking, instead of the economy which it
has been supposed to bring. For large establishments, such as some of
the immense London warehouses, where a large number of young men have to
be catered for daily, it may be well adapted, as it is just possible
that a slight increase in the supply of gas necessary for a couple of
joints, may serve equally to cook a dozen dishes.


ROASTING.

577. OF THE VARIOUS METHODS OF PREPARING MEAT, ROASTING is that which
most effectually preserves its nutritive qualities. Meat is roasted by
being exposed to the direct influence of the fire. This is done by
placing the meat before an open grate, and keeping it in motion to
prevent the scorching on any particular part. When meat is properly
roasted, the outer layer of its albumen is coagulated, and thus presents
a barrier to the exit of the juice. In roasting meat, the heat must be
strongest at first, and it should then be much reduced. To have a good
juicy roast, therefore, the fire must be red and vigorous at the very
commencement of the operation. In the most careful roasting, some of the
juice is squeezed out of the meat: this evaporates on the surface of the
meat, and gives it a dark brown colour, a rich lustre, and a strong
aromatic taste. Besides these effects on the albumen and the expelled
juice, roasting converts the cellular tissue of the meat into gelatine,
and melts the fat out of the fat-cells.

578. IF A SPIT is used to support the meat before the fire, it should be
kept quite bright. Sand and water ought to be used to scour it with, for
brickdust and oil may give a disagreeable taste to the meat. When well
scoured, it must be wiped quite dry with a clean cloth; and, in spitting
the meat, the prime parts should be left untouched, so as to avoid any
great escape of its juices.

579. KITCHENS IN LARGE ESTABLISHMENTS are usually fitted with what are
termed "smoke-jacks." By means of these, several spits, if required, may
be turned at the same time. This not being, of course, necessary in
smaller establishments, a roasting apparatus, more economical in its
consumption of coal, is more frequently in use.

[Illustration: BOTTLE-JACK, WITH WHEEL AND HOOK.]

580. THE BOTTLE-JACK, of which we here give an illustration, with the
wheel and hook, and showing the precise manner of using it, is now
commonly used in many kitchens. This consists of a spring inclosed in a
brass cylinder, and requires winding up before it is used, and
sometimes, also, during the operation of roasting. The joint is fixed to
an iron hook, which is suspended by a chain connected with a wheel, and
which, in its turn, is connected with the bottle-jack. Beneath it stands
the dripping-pan, which we have also engraved, together with the
basting-ladle, the use of which latter should not be spared; as there
can be no good roast without good basting. "Spare the rod, and spoil the
child," might easily be paraphrased into "Spare the basting, and spoil
the meat." If the joint is small and light, and so turns unsteadily,
this may be remedied by fixing to the wheel one of the kitchen weights.
Sometimes this jack is fixed inside a screen; but there is this
objection to this apparatus,--that the meat cooked in it resembles the
flavour of baked meat. This is derived from its being so completely
surrounded with the tin, that no sufficient current of air gets to it.
It will be found preferable to make use of a common meat-screen, such as
is shown in the woodcut. This contains shelves for warming plates and
dishes; and with this, the reflection not being so powerful, and more
air being admitted to the joint, the roast may be very excellently
cooked.

[Illustration: DRIPPING-PAN AND BASTING-LADLE.]

581. IN STIRRING THE FIRE, or putting fresh coals on it, the
dripping-pan should always be drawn back, so that there may be no danger
of the coal, cinders, or ashes falling down into it.

582. UNDER EACH PARTICULAR RECIPE there is stated the time required for
roasting each joint; but, as a general rule, it may be here given, that
for every pound of meat, in ordinary-sized joints, a quarter of an hour
may be allotted.

[Illustration: HEAT-SCREEN.]

583. WHITE MEATS, AND THE MEAT OF YOUNG ANIMALS, require to be very well
roasted, both to be pleasant to the palate and easy of digestion. Thus
veal, pork, and lamb, should be thoroughly done to the centre.

584. MUTTON AND BEEF, on the other hand, do not, generally speaking,
require to be so thoroughly done, and they should be dressed to the
point, that, in carving them, the gravy should just run, but not too
freely. Of course in this, as in most other dishes, the tastes of
individuals vary; and there are many who cannot partake, with
satisfaction, of any joint unless it is what others would call
overdressed.

[Illustration]




[Illustration]

QUADRUPEDS.


CHAPTER XII.


GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON QUADRUPEDS.

585. BY THE GENERAL ASSENT OF MANKIND, THE EMPIRE OF NATURE has been
divided into three kingdoms; the first consisting of minerals, the
second of vegetables, and the third of animals. The Mineral Kingdom
comprises all substances which are without those organs necessary to
locomotion, and the due performance of the functions of life. They are
composed of the accidental aggregation of particles, which, under
certain circumstances, take a constant and regular figure, but which are
more frequently found without any definite conformation. They also
occupy the interior parts of the earth, as well as compose those huge
masses by which we see the land in some parts guarded against the
encroachments of the sea. The Vegetable Kingdom covers and beautifies
the earth with an endless variety of form and colour. It consists of
organized bodies, but destitute of the power of locomotion. They are
nourished by means of roots; they breathe by means of leaves; and
propagate by means of seed, dispersed within certain limits. The Animal
Kingdom consists of sentient beings, that enliven the external parts of
the earth. They possess the powers of voluntary motion, respire air, and
are forced into action by the cravings of hunger or the parching of
thirst, by the instincts of animal passion, or by pain. Like the
vegetable kingdom, they are limited within the boundaries of certain
countries by the conditions of climate and soil; and some of the species
prey upon each other. Linnaeus has divided them into six
classes;--Mammalia, Birds, Fishes, Amphibious Animals, Insects, and
Worms. The three latter do not come within the limits of our domain; of
fishes we have already treated, of birds we shall treat, and of mammalia
we will now treat.

586. THIS CLASS OF ANIMALS embraces all those that nourish their young
by means of lacteal glands, or teats, and are so constituted as to have
a warm or red blood. In it the whale is placed,--an order which, from
external habits, has usually been classed with the fishes; but, although
this animal exclusively inhabits the water, and is supplied with fins,
it nevertheless exhibits a striking alliance to quadrupeds. It has warm
blood, and produces its young alive; it nourishes them with milk, and,
for that purpose, is furnished with teats. It is also supplied with
lungs, and two auricles and two ventricles to the heart; all of which
bring it still closer into an alliance with the quadrupedal species of
the animal kingdom.

587. THE GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MAMMALIA have been frequently
noticed. The bodies of nearly the whole species are covered with hair, a
kind of clothing which is both soft and warm, little liable to injury,
and bestowed in proportion to the necessities of the animal and the
nature of the climate it inhabits. In all the higher orders of animals,
the head is the principal seat of the organs of sense. It is there that
the eyes, the ears, the nose, and the mouth are placed. Through the last
they receive their nourishment. In it are the _teeth_, which, in most of
the mammalia, are used not only for the mastication of food, but as
weapons of offence. They are inserted into two movable bones called
jaws, and the front teeth are so placed that their sharp edges may
easily be brought in contact with their food, in order that its fibres
may readily be separated. Next to these, on each side, are situated the
canine teeth, or tusks, which are longer than the other teeth, and,
being pointed, are used to tear the food. In the back jaws are placed
another form of teeth, called grinders. These are for masticating the
food; and in those animals that live on vegetables, they are flattened
at the top; but, in carnivora, their upper surfaces are furnished with
sharp-pointed protuberances. From the numbers, form, and disposition of
the teeth, the various genera of quadrupeds have been arranged. The
_nose_ is a cartilaginous body, pierced with two holes, which are called
nostrils. Through these the animal is affected by the sense of smell;
and in some it is prominent, whilst in others it is flat, compressed,
turned upwards, or bent downwards. In beasts of prey, it is frequently
longer than the lips; and in some other animals it is elongated into a
movable trunk or proboscis, whilst, in the rhinoceros tribe, it is armed
with a horn. The _eyes_ of quadrupeds are generally defended by movable
lids, on the outer margins of which are fringes of hair, called
eyelashes. The opening of the pupil is in general circular; but to some
species, as in those of the Cat and Hare, it is contracted into a
perpendicular line, whilst in the Horse, the Ox, and a few others, it
forms a transverse bar. The _ears_ are openings, generally accompanied
with a cartilage which defends and covers them, called the external
ears. In water-animals the latter are wanting; sound, in them, being
transmitted merely through orifices in the head, which have the name of
auditory-holes. The most defenceless animals are extremely delicate in
the sense of hearing, as are likewise most beasts of prey. Most of the
mammiferous animals _walk_ on four feet, which, at the extremities, are
usually divided into toes or fingers. In some, however, the feet end in
a single corneous substance called a hoof. The toes of a few end in
broad, flat nails, and of most others, in pointed claws. Some, again,
have the toes connected by a membrane, which is adapted to those that
are destined to pass a considerable portion of their lives in water.
Others, again, as in the Bat, have the digitations of the anterior feet
greatly elongated, the intervening space being filled by a membrane,
which extends round the hinder legs and tail, and by means of which they
are enabled to rise into the air. In Man, the hand alone comprises
fingers, separate, free, and flexible; but Apes, and some other kinds of
animals, have fingers both to the hands and feet. These, therefore, are
the only animals that can hold movable objects in a single hand. Others,
such as Rats and Squirrels, have the fingers sufficiently small and
flexible to enable them to pick up objects; but they are compelled to
hold them in both hands. Others, again, have the toes shorter, and must
rest on the fore-feet, as is the case with dogs and cats when they wish
to hold a substance firmly on the ground with their paws. There are
still others that have their toes united and drawn under the skin, or
enveloped in corneous hoofs, and are thereby enabled to exercise no
prehensile power whatever.

588. ACCORDING TO THE DESIGN AND END OF NATURE, mammiferous animals are
calculated, when arrived at maturity, to subsist on various kinds of
food,--some to live wholly upon flesh, others upon grain, herbs, or
fruits; but in their infant state, milk is the appropriate food of the
whole. That this food may never fail them, it is universally ordained,
that the young should no sooner come into the world, than the milk
should flow in abundance into the members with which the mother is
supplied for the secretion of that nutritious fluid. By a wonderful
instinct of Nature, too, the young animal, almost as soon as it has come
into life, searches for the teat, and knows perfectly, at the first,
how, by the process of suction, it will be able to extract the fluid
necessary to its existence.

589. IN THE GENERAL ECONOMY OF NATURE, this class of animals seems
destined to preserve a constant equilibrium in the number of animated
beings that hold their existence on the surface of the earth. To man
they are immediately useful in various ways. Some of their bodies afford
him food, their skin shoes, and their fleece clothes. Some of them unite
with him in participating the dangers of combat with an enemy, and
others assist him in the chase, in exterminating wilder sorts, or
banishing them from the haunts of civilization. Many, indeed, are
injurious to him; but most of them, in some shape or other, he turns to
his service. Of these there is none he has made more subservient to his
purposes than the common ox, of which there is scarcely a part that he
has not been able to convert into some useful purpose. Of the horns he
makes drinking-vessels, knife-handles, combs, and boxes; and when they
are softened by means of boiling water, he fashions them into
transparent plates for lanterns. This invention is ascribed to King
Alfred, who is said to have been the first to use them to preserve his
candle time-measures from the wind. Glue is made of the cartilages,
gristles, and the finer pieces of the parings and cuttings of the hides.
Their bone is a cheap substitute for ivory. The thinnest of the
calf-skins are manufactured into vellum. Their blood is made the basis
of Prussian blue, and saddlers use a fine sort of thread prepared from
their sinews. The hair is used in various valuable manufactures; the
suet, fat, and tallow, are moulded into candles; and the milk and cream
of the cow yield butter and cheese. Thus is every part of this animal
valuable to man, who has spared no pains to bring it to the highest
state of perfection.

[Illustration: SHORT-HORN COW.]

[Illustration: SHORT-HORN BULL.]

590. AMONG THE VARIOUS BREEDS OF THE OX, upon which man has bestowed his
highest powers of culture, there is now none takes a higher place than
that known by the name of Short-Horns. From the earliest ages, Great
Britain has been distinguished for the excellence of her native breeds
of cattle, and there are none in England that have obtained greater
celebrity than those which have this name, and which originated, about
seventy years ago, on the banks of the Tees. Thence they have spread
into the valleys of the Tweed; thence to the Lothians, in Scotland; and
southward, into the fine pastures of England. They are now esteemed the
most profitable breed of cattle, as there is no animal which attains
sooner to maturity, and none that supplies meat of a superior quality.
The value of some of the improved breeds is something enormous. At the
sale of Mr. Charles Colling, a breeder in Yorkshire, in 1810, his bull
"Comet" sold for 1,000 guineas. At the sale of Earl Spencer's herd in
1846, 104 cows, heifers, and calves, with nineteen bulls, fetched
L8,468. 5s.; being an average of L68. 17s. apiece. The value of such
animals is scarcely to be estimated by those who are unacquainted with
the care with which they are tended, and with the anxious attention
which is paid to the purity of their breed. A modern writer, well
acquainted with this subject, says, "There are now, at least, five
hundred herds, large and small, in this kingdom, and from six to seven
thousand head registered every alternate year in the herd-book." The
necessity for thus recording the breeds is greater than might, at first
sight, be imagined, as it tends directly to preserve the character of
the cattle, while it sometimes adds to the value and reputation of the
animal thus entered. Besides, many of the Americans, and large
purchasers for the foreign market, will not look at an animal without
the breeder has taken care to qualify him for such reference. Of
short-horned stock, there is annually sold from L40,000 to L50,000 worth
by public auction, independent of the vast numbers disposed of by
private contract. The brood is highly prized in Belgium, Prussia,
France, Italy, and Russia; it is imported into most of the British
colonies, and is greatly esteemed both for its meat and its dairy
produce, wherever it is known. The quickness with which it takes on
flesh, and the weight which it frequently makes, are well known; but we
may mention that it is not uncommon to tee steers of from four to five
years old realize a weight of from 800 to 1,000 lbs. Such animals
command from the butcher from L30 to L40 per head, according to the
quality; whilst others, of two or three years old, and, of course, of
less Weight, bring as much as L20 apiece.

[Illustration: LONG-HORN BULL.]

[Illustration: LONG-HORN COW.]

591. LONG-HORNS.--This is the prevailing breed in our midland counties
and in Ireland; but they are greatly inferior to the short-horns, and
are fast being supplanted by them. Even where they have been cultivated
with the nicest care and brought to the greatest perfection, they are
inferior to the others, and must ultimately be driven from the farm.

[Illustration: ALDERNEY COW.]

[Illustration: ALDERNEY BULL.]

592. THE ALDERNEY.--Among the dairy breeds of England, the Alderney
takes a prominent place, not on account of the quantity of milk which it
yields, but on account of the excellent quality of the cream and butter
which are produced from it. Its docility is marvellous, and in
appearance it greatly resembles the Ayrshire breed of Scotland, the
excellence of which is supposed to be, in some degree, derived from a
mixture of the Alderney blood with that breed. The distinction between
them, however, lies both in the quantity and quality of the milk which
they severally produce; that of the Alderney being rich in quality, and
that of the Ayrshire abundant in quantity. The merit of the former,
however, ends with its milk, for as a grazer it is worthless.

[Illustration: GALLOWAY BULL.]

[Illustration: GALLOWAY COW.]

593. SCOTTISH BREEDS.--Of these the Kyloe, which belongs to the
Highlands of Scotland; the Galloway, which has been called the Kyloe
without horns; and the Ayrshire, are the breeds most celebrated. The
first has kept his place, and on account of the compactness of his form,
and the excellent quality of his flesh, he is a great favourite with
butchers who have a select family trade. It is alike unsuitable for the
dairy and the arable farm; but in its native Highlands it attains to
great perfection, thriving upon the scanty and coarse herbage which it
gathers on the sides of the mountains. The Galloway has a larger frame,
and when fattened makes excellent beef. But it has given place to the
short-horns in its native district, where turnip-husbandry is pursued
with advantage. The Ayrshire is peculiarly adapted for the dairy, and
for the abundance of its milk cannot be surpassed in its native
district. In this it stands unrivalled, and there is no other breed
capable of converting the produce of a poor soil into such fine butter
and cheese. It is difficult to fatten, however, and its beef is of a
coarse quality. We have chosen these as among the principal
representative breeds of the ox species; but there are other breeds
which, at all events, have a local if not a general celebrity.

[Illustration: SIDE OF BEEF, SHOWING THE SEVERAL JOINTS.]

594. The general Mode of Slaughtering Oxen in this country is by
striking them a smart blow with a hammer or poleaxe on the head, a
little above the eyes. By this means, when the blow is skilfully given,
the beast is brought down at one blow, and, to prevent recovery, a cane
is generally inserted, by which the spinal cord is perforated, which
instantly deprives the ox of all sensation of pain. In Spain, and some
other countries on the continent, it is also usual to deprive oxen of
life by the operation of pithing or dividing the spinal cord in the
neck, close to the back part of the head. This is, in effect, the same
mode as is practised in the celebrated Spanish bull-fights by the
matador, and it is instantaneous in depriving the animal of sensation,
if the operator be skilful. We hope and believe that those men whose
disagreeable duty it is to slaughter the "beasts of the field" to
provide meat for mankind, inflict as little punishment and cause as
little suffering as possible.

595. THE MANNER IN WHICH A SIDE OF BEEF is cut up in London, is shown in
the engraving on this page. In the metropolis, on account of the large
number of its population possessing the means to indulge in the "best of
everything," the demand for the most delicate joints of meat is great,
the price, at the same time, being much higher for these than for the
other parts. The consequence is, that in London the carcass is there
divided so as to obtain the greatest quantity of meat on the most
esteemed joints. In many places, however, where, from a greater equality
in the social condition and habits of the inhabitants, the demand and
prices for the different parts of the carcasses are more equalized,
there is not the same reason for the butcher to cut the best joints so
large.

596. THE MEAT ON THOSE PARTS OF THE ANIMAL in which the muscles are
least called into action, is most tender and succulent; as, for
instance, along the back, from the rump to the hinder part of the
shoulder; whilst the limbs, shoulder, and neck, are the toughest,
driest, and least-esteemed.

597. THE NAMES OF THE SEVERAL JOINTS in the hind and fore quarters of a
side of beef, and the purposes for which they are used, are as
follows:--

HIND QUARTER.

1. Sirloin.--The two sirloins, cut together in one joint, form a baron;
this, when roasted, is the famous national dish of Englishmen, at
entertainments, on occasion of rejoicing.

2. Rump,--the finest part for steaks.

3. Aitch-bone,--boiling piece.

4. Buttock,--prime boiling piece.

5. Mouse-round,--boiling or stewing.

6. Hock,--stewing.

7. Thick flank, cut with the udder-fat,--primest boiling piece.

8. Thin flank,--boiling.


FORE QUARTER.

9. Five ribs, called the fore-rib.--This is considered the primest
roasting piece.

10. Four ribs, called the middle-rib,--greatly esteemed by housekeepers
as the most economical joint for roasting.

11. Two ribs, called the chuck-rib,--used for second quality of steaks.

12. Leg-of-mutton piece,--the muscles of the shoulder dissected from the
breast.

13. Brisket, or breast,--used for boiling, after being salted.

14. Neck, clod, and sticking-piece,--used for soups, gravies, stocks,
pies, and mincing for sausages.

15. Shin,--stewing.

The following is a classification of the qualities of meat, according to
the several joints of beef, when cut up in the London manner.

_First class_.--includes the sirloin, with the kidney suet (1), the
rump-steak piece (2), the fore-rib (9).

_Second class_.--The buttock (4), the thick flank (7), the middle-rib
(10).

_Third class_.--The aitch-bone (3), the mouse-round (5), the thin flank
(8), the chuck (11), the leg-of-mutton piece (12), the brisket (13).

_Fourth class_.--The neck, clod, and sticking-piece (14).

_Fifth class_.--The hock (6), the shin (15).




RECIPES.


CHAPTER XIII.


BAKED BEEF (Cold Meat Cookery).

I.

598. INGREDIENTS.--About 2 lbs. of cold roast beef, 2 small onions, 1
large carrot or two small ones, 1 turnip, a small bunch of savoury
herbs, salt and pepper to taste, 4 tablespoonfuls of gravy, 3
tablespoonfuls of ale, crust or mashed potatoes.

_Mode_.--Cut the beef in slices, allowing a small amount of fat to each
slice; place a layer of this in the bottom of a pie-dish, with a portion
of the onions, carrots, and turnips, which must be sliced; mince the
herbs, strew them over the meat, and season with pepper and salt. Then
put another layer of meat, vegetables, and seasoning; and proceed in
this manner until all the ingredients are used. Pour in the gravy and
ale (water may be substituted for the former, but it is not so nice),
cover with a crust or mashed potatoes, and bake for 1/2 hour, or rather
longer.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--It is as well to parboil the carrots and turnips before adding
them to the meat, and to use some of the liquor in which they were
boiled as a substitute for gravy; that is to say, when there is no gravy
at hand. Be particular to cut the onions in very _thin_ slices.


II.

599. INGREDIENTS.--Slices of cold roast beef, salt and pepper to taste,
1 sliced onion, 1 teaspoonful of minced savoury herbs, 5 or 6
tablespoonfuls of gravy or sauce of any kind, mashed potatoes.

_Mode_.--Butter the sides of a deep dish, and spread mashed potatoes
over the bottom of it; on this place layers of beef in thin slices (this
may be minced if there is not sufficient beef to cut into slices), well
seasoned with pepper and salt, and a very little onion end herbs, which
should be previously fried of a nice brown; then put another layer of
mashed potatoes, and beef, and other ingredients, as before; pour in the
gravy or sauce, cover the whole with another layer of potatoes, and bake
for 1/2 hour. This may be served in the dish, or turned out.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the cold beef, 6d.

_Sufficient_.--A large pie-dish full for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

    BEEF.--The quality of beef depends on various circumstances;
    such as the age, the sex, the breed of the animal, and also on
    the food upon which it has been raised. Bull beef is, in
    general, dry and tough, and by no means possessed of an
    agreeable flavour; whilst the flesh of the ox is not only highly
    nourishing and digestible, but, if not too old, extremely
    agreeable. The flesh of the cow is, also, nourishing, but it is
    not so agreeable as that of the ox, although that of a heifer is
    held in high estimation. The flesh of the smaller breeds is much
    sweeter than that of the larger, which is best when the animal
    is about seven years old. That of the smaller breeds is best at
    about five years, and that of the cow can hardly be eaten too
    young.

BAKED BEEF-STEAK PUDDING.

600. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of flour, 2 eggs, not quite 1 pint of milk,
salt to taste, 1-1/2 lb. of rump-steaks, 1 kidney, pepper and salt.

_Mode_.--Cut the steaks into nice square pieces, with a small quantity
of fat, and the kidney divide into small pieces. Make a batter of flour,
eggs, and milk in the above proportion; lay a little of it at the bottom
of a pie-dish; then put in the steaks and kidney, which should be well
seasoned with pepper and salt, and pour over the remainder of the
batter, and bake for 1-1/2 hour in a brisk but not fierce oven.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 2s.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF A LA MODE.

(_Economical_.)

601. INGREDIENTS.--About 3 lbs. of clod or sticking of beef, 2 oz. of
clarified dripping, 1 large onion, flour, 2 quarts of water, 12 berries
of allspice, 2 bay-leaves, 1/2 teaspoonful of whole black pepper, salt
to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut the beef into small pieces, and roll them in flour; put the
dripping into a stewpan with the onion, which should be sliced thin. Let
it get quite hot; lay in the pieces of beef, and stir them well about.
When nicely browned all over, add _by degrees_ boiling water in the
above proportion, and, as the water is added, keep the whole well
stirred. Put in the spice, bay-leaves, and seasoning, cover the stewpan
closely, and set it by the side of the fire to stew very _gently_, till
the meat becomes quite tender, which will be in about 3 hours, when it
will be ready to serve. Remove the bay-leaves before it is sent to
table.

_Time_.--3 hours.

_Average cost_, 1s. 3d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF A LA MODE.

602. INGREDIENTS.--6 or 7 lbs. of the thick flank of beef, a few slices
of fat bacon, 1 teacupful of vinegar, black pepper, allspice, 2 cloves
well mixed and finely pounded, making altogether 1 heaped teaspoonful;
salt to taste, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, including parsley, all finely
minced and well mixed; 3 onions, 2 large carrots, 1 turnip, 1 head of
celery, 1-1/2 pint of water, 1 glass of port wine.

_Mode_.--Slice and fry the onions of a pale brown, and cut up the other
vegetables in small pieces, and prepare the beef for stewing in the
following manner:--Choose a fine piece of beef, cut the bacon into long
slices, about an inch in thickness, dip them into vinegar, and then into
a little of the above seasoning of spice, &c., mixed with the same
quantity of minced herbs. With a sharp knife make holes deep enough to
let in the bacon; then rub the beef over with the remainder of the
seasoning and herbs, and bind it up in a nice shape with tape. Have
ready a well-tinned stewpan (it should not be much larger than the piece
of meat you are cooking), into which put the beef, with the vegetables,
vinegar, and water. Let it simmer _very gently_ for 5 hours, or rather
longer, should the meat not be extremely tender, and turn it once or
twice. When ready to serve, take out the beef, remove the tape, and put
it on a hot dish. Skim off every particle of fat from the gravy, add the
port wine, just let it boil, pour it over the beef, and it is ready to
serve. Great care must be taken that this does not boil fast, or the
meat will be tough and tasteless; it should only just bubble. When
convenient, all kinds of stews, &c., should be cooked on a hot-plate, as
the process is so much more gradual than on an open fire.

_Time_.--5 hours, or rather more.

_Average cost_, 7d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but more suitable for a winter dish.

    GOOD MEAT.--The lyer of meat when freshly killed, and the
    animal, when slaughtered, being in a state of perfect health,
    adheres firmly to the bones. Beef of the best quality is of a
    deep-red colour; and when the animal has approached maturity,
    and been well fed, the lean is intermixed with fat, giving it
    the mottled appearance which is so much esteemed. It is also
    full of juice, which resembles in colour claret wine. The fat of
    the best beef is of a firm and waxy consistency, of a colour
    resembling that of the finest grass butter; bright in
    appearance, neither greasy nor friable to the touch, but
    moderately unctuous, in a medium degree between the
    last-mentioned properties.

BEEF-STEAKS AND OYSTER SAUCE.

603. INGREDIENTS.--3 dozen oysters, ingredients for oyster sauce (see
No. 492), 2 lbs. of rump-steak, seasoning to taste of pepper and salt.

_Mode_.--Make the oyster sauce by recipe No. 492, and when that is
ready, put it by the side of the fire, but do not let it keep boiling.
Have the steaks cut of an equal thickness, broil them over a very clear
fire, turning them often, that the gravy may not escape. In about 8
minutes they will be done, then put them on a very hot dish; smother
with the oyster sauce, and the remainder send to table in a tureen.
Serve quickly.

_Time_.--About 8 to 10 minutes, according to the thickness of the steak.

_Average cost_, 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.


BEEF-STEAK PIE.

604. INGREDIENTS.--3 lbs. of rump-steak, seasoning to taste of salt,
cayenne, and black pepper, crust, water, the yolk of an egg.

_Mode_.--Have the steaks cut from a rump that has hung a few days, that
they may be tender, and be particular that every portion is perfectly
sweet. Cut the steaks into pieces about 3 inches long and 2 wide,
allowing a _small_ piece of fat to each piece of lean, and arrange the
meat in layers in a pie-dish. Between each layer sprinkle a seasoning of
salt, pepper, and, when liked, a few grains of cayenne. Fill the dish
sufficiently with meat to support the crust, and to give it a nice
raised appearance when baked, and not to look flat and hollow. Pour in
sufficient water to half fill the dish, and border it with paste (see
Pastry); brush it over with a little water, and put on the cover;
slightly press down the edges with the thumb, and trim off close to the
dish. Ornament the pie with leaves, or pieces of paste cut in any shape
that fancy may direct, brush it over with the beaten yolk of an egg;
make a hole in the top of the crust, and bake in a hot oven for about
1-1/2 hour.


_Time_.--In a hot oven, 1-1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, for this size, 3s 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

Note.--Beef-steak pies may be flavoured in various ways, with oysters
and their liquor, mushrooms, minced onions, &c. For family pies, suet
may be used instead of butter or lard for the crust, and clarified
beef-dripping answers very well where economy is an object. Pieces of
underdone roast or boiled meat may in pies be used very advantageously;
but always remove the bone from pie-meat, unless it be chicken or game.
We have directed that the meat shall be cut smaller than is usually the
case; for on trial we have found it much more tender, more easily
helped, and with more gravy, than when put into the dish in one or two
large steaks.

[Illustration: SHERRY PUDDING DISH.]

BEEF-STEAK AND KIDNEY PUDDING.

605. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of rump-steak, 2 kidneys, seasoning to taste
of salt and black pepper, suet crust made with milk (see Pastry), in the
proportion of 6 oz. of suet to each 1 lb. of flour.

_Mode_.--Procure some tender rump steak (that which has been hung a
little time), and divide it into pieces about an inch square, and cut
each kidney into 8 pieces. Line the dish (of which we have given an
engraving) with crust made with suet and flour in the above proportion,
leaving a small piece of crust to overlap the edge. Then cover the
bottom with a portion of the steak and a few pieces of kidney; season
with salt and pepper (some add a little flour to thicken the gravy, but
it is not necessary), and then add another layer of steak, kidney, and
seasoning. Proceed in this manner till the dish is full, when pour in
sufficient water to come within 2 inches of the top of the basin.
Moisten the edges of the crust, cover the pudding over, press the two
crusts together, that the gravy may not escape, and turn up the
overhanging paste. Wring out a cloth in hot water, flour it, and tie up
the pudding; put it into boiling water, and let it boil for at least 4
hours. If the water diminishes, always replenish with some, hot in a
jug, as the pudding should be kept covered all the time, and not allowed
to stop boiling. When the cloth is removed, cut out a round piece in the
top of the crust, to prevent the pudding bursting, and send it to table
in the basin, either in an ornamental dish, or with a napkin pinned
round it. Serve quickly.

_Time_.--For a pudding with 2 lbs. of steak and 2 kidneys allow 4 hours.

_Average cost_, 2s. 8d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but more suitable in winter.

Note.--Beef-steak pudding may be very much enriched by adding a few
oysters or mushrooms. The above recipe was contributed to this work by a
Sussex lady, in which county the inhabitants are noted for their savoury
puddings. It differs from the general way of making them, as the meat is
cut up into very small pieces and the basin is differently shaped: on
trial, this pudding will be found far nicer, and more full of gravy,
than when laid in large pieces in the dish.

    BAD MEAT. In the flesh of animals slaughtered whilst suffering
    acute inflammation or fever, the hollow fibres, or capillaries,
    as they are called, which form the substance of the lyer, are
    filled with congested and unassimilated animal fluid, which,
    from its impurity, gives the lyer a dark colour, and produces a
    tendency to rapid putrefaction. In a more advanced stage of such
    disease, serous, and sometimes purulent matter, is formed in the
    cellular tissues between the muscles of the flesh; and when such
    is the case, nothing can be more poisonous than such abominable
    carrion. In the flesh of animals killed whilst under the
    influence of any disease of an emaciating effect, the lyer
    adheres but slightly to the bones, with its fibres contracted
    and dry; and the little fat that there may be is friable, and
    shrunk within its integuments. The flesh of animals slaughtered
    whilst under considerable depression of vital energy (as from
    previous bleeding) has a diminished tendency to stiffen after
    death, the feebleness of this tendency being in proportion to
    the degree of depression. It presents, also, an unnatural blue
    or pallid appearance, has a faint and slightly sour smell, and
    soon becomes putrid. When an animal has died otherwise than by
    slaughtering, its flesh is flaccid and clammy, emits a peculiar
    faint and disagreeable smell, and, it need scarcely be added,
    spontaneous decomposition proceeds very rapidly.

BEEF-STEAKS WITH FRIED POTATOES, or BIFTEK AUX POMMES-DE-TERRE (a la
mode Francaise).

606. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of steak, 8 potatoes, 1/4 lb. of butter, salt
and pepper to taste, 1 teaspoonful of minced herbs.

_Mode_.--Put the butter into a frying or _saute_ pan, set it over the
fire, and let it get very hot; peel, and cut the potatoes into long thin
slices; put them into the hot butter, and fry them till of a nice brown
colour. Now broil the steaks over a bright clear fire, turning them
frequently, that every part may be equally done: as they should not be
thick, 5 minutes will broil them. Put the herbs and seasoning in the
butter the potatoes were fried in, pour it under the steak, and place
the fried potatoes round, as a garnish. To have this dish in perfection,
a portion of the fillet of the sirloin should be used, as the meat is
generally so much more tender than that of the rump, and the steaks
should be cut about 1/3 of an inch in thickness.

_Time_.--5 minutes to broil the steaks, and about the same time to fry
the potatoes. _Average cost_, 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year; but not so good in warm weather, as the meat
cannot hang to get tender.

[Illustration: AITCH-BONE OF BEEF.]

BOILED AITCH-BONE OF BEEF.

607. INGREDIENTS.--Beef, water.

_Mode_.--After this joint has been in salt 5 or 6 days, it will be ready
for use, and will not take so long boiling: as a round, for it is not so
solid. Wash the meat, and, if too salt, soak it for a few hours,
changing the water once or twice, till the required freshness is
obtained. Put into a saucepan, or boiling-pot, sufficient water to cover
the meat; set it over the fire, and when it boils, plunge in the joint
(see No. 557), and let it boil up quickly. Now draw the pot to the side
of the fire, and let the process be very gradual, as the water must only
simmer, or the meat will be hard and tough. Carefully remove the scum
from the surface of the water, and continue doing this for a few minutes
after it first boils. Carrots and turnips are served with this dish, and
sometimes suet dumplings, which may be boiled with the beef. Garnish
with a few of the carrots and turnips, and serve the remainder in a
vegetable-dish.

_Time_.--An aitch-bone of 10 lbs., 2-1/2 hours after the water boils;
one of 20 lbs., 4 hours. _Average cost_, 6d. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--10 lbs. for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but best from September to March.

_Note_.--The liquor in which the meat has been boiled may be easily
converted into a very excellent pea-soup. It will require very few
vegetables, as it will be impregnated with the flavour of those boiled
with the meat.

    THE ACTION OF SALT ON MEAT.--The manner in which salt acts in
    preserving meat is not difficult to understand. By its strong
    affinity, it, in the first place, extracts the juices from the
    substance of meat in sufficient quantity to form a saturated
    solution with the water contained in the juice, and the meat
    then absorbs the saturated brine in place of the juice extracted
    by the salt. In this way, matter incapable of putrefaction takes
    the places of that portion in the meat which is most perishable.
    Such, however, is not the only office of salt as a means of
    preserving meat; it acts also by its astringency in contracting
    the fibres of the muscles, and so excludes the action of air on
    the interior of the substance of the meat. The last-mentioned
    operation of salt as an antiseptic is evinced by the diminution
    of the volume of meat to which it is applied. The astringent
    action of _saltpetre_ on meat is much greater than that of salt,
    and thereby renders meat to which it is applied very hard; but,
    in small quantities, it considerably assists the antiseptic
    action of salt, and also prevents the destruction of the florid
    colour of meat, which is caused by the application of salt.
    Thus, it will be perceived, from the foregoing statement, that
    the application of salt and saltpetre diminishes, in a
    considerable degree, the nutritive, and, to some extent, the
    wholesome qualities of meat; and, therefore, in their use, the
    quantity applied should be as small as possible, consistent with
    the perfect preservation of the meat.

BOILED ROUND OF BEEF.

608. INGREDIENTS.--Beef, water.

_Mode_.--As a whole round of beef, generally speaking, is too large for
small families, and very seldom required, we here give the recipe for
dressing a portion of the silver side of the round. Take from 12 to 16
lbs., after it has been in salt about 10 days; just wash off the salt,
skewer it up in a nice round-looking form, and bind it with tape to keep
the skewers in their places. Put it in a saucepan of boiling water, as
in the preceding recipe, set it upon a good fire, and when it begins to
boil, carefully remove all scum from the surface, as, if this is not
attended to, it sinks on to the meat, and when brought to table,
presents a very unsightly appearance. When it is well skimmed, draw the
pot to the corner of the fire, and let it simmer very gently until done.
Remove the tape and skewers, which should be replaced by a silver one;
pour over a little of the pot-liquor, and garnish with carrots. (_See_
coloured plate 2.) Carrots, turnips, parsnips, and sometimes suet
dumplings, accompany this dish; and these may all be boiled with the
beef. The pot-liquor should be saved, and converted into pea-soup; and
the outside slices, which are generally hard, and of an uninviting
appearance, may be out off before being sent to table, and potted. These
make an excellent relish for the breakfast or luncheon table.

_Time_.--Part of a round of beef weighing 12 lbs., about 3 hours after
the water boils. _Average cost_, 8d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but more suitable for winter.


609. SOYER'S RECIPE FOR PRESERVING THE GRAVY IN SALT MEAT, WHEN IT IS TO
BE SERVED COLD.--Fill two tubs with cold water, into which throw a few
pounds of rough ice; and when the meat is done, put it into one of the
tubs of ice-water; let it remain 1 minute, when take out, and put it
into the other tub. Fill the first tub again with water, and continue
this process for about 20 minutes; then set it upon a dish, and let it
remain until quite cold. When cut, the fat will be as white as possible,
besides having saved the whole, of the gravy. If there is no ice, spring
water will answer the same purpose, but will require to be more
frequently changed.

_Note_.--The BRISKET and RUMP may be boiled by the above recipe; of
course allowing more or less time, according to the size of the joint.


BEEF CAKE.

610. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold roast beef; to each pound of cold
meat allow 1/4 lb. of bacon or ham; seasoning to taste of pepper and
salt, 1 small bunch of minced savoury herbs, 1 or 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Mince the beef very finely (if underdone it will be better),
add to it the bacon, which must also be chopped very small, and mix well
together. Season, stir in the herbs, and bind with an egg, or 2 should 1
not be sufficient. Make it into small square cakes, about 1/2 inch
thick, fry them in hot dripping, and serve in a dish with good gravy
poured round them.

_Time_.--10 minutes.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the cold meat, 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


BROILED BEEF-STEAKS or RUMP-STEAKS.

611. INGREDIENTS.--Steaks, a piece of butter the size of a walnut, salt
to taste, 1 tablespoonful of good mushroom ketchup or Harvey's sauce.

_Mode_.--As the success of a good broil so much depends on the state of
the fire, see that it is bright and clear, and perfectly free from
smoke, and do not add any fresh fuel just before you require to use the
gridiron. Sprinkle a little salt over the fire, put on the gridiron for
a few minutes, to get thoroughly hot through; rub it with a piece of
fresh, suet, to prevent the meat from sticking, and lay on the steaks,
which should be cut of an equal thickness, about 3/4 of an inch, or
rather thinner, and level them by beating them as _little_ as possible
with a rolling-pin. Turn them frequently with steak-tongs (if these are
not at hand, stick a fork in the edge of the fat, that no gravy
escapes), and in from 8 to 10 minutes they will be done. Have ready a
very hot dish, into which put the ketchup, and, when liked, a little
minced shalot; dish up the steaks, rub them over with butter, and season
with pepper and salt. The exact time for broiling steaks must be
determined by taste, whether they are liked underdone or well done; more
than from 8 to 10 minutes for a steak 3/4 inch in thickness, we think,
would spoil and dry up the juices of the meat. Great expedition is
necessary in sending broiled steaks to table; and, to have them in
perfection, they should not be cooked till everything else prepared for
dinner has been dished up, as their excellence entirely depends on their
being served very hot. Garnish with scraped horseradish, or slices of
cucumber. Oyster, tomato, onion, and many other sauces, are frequent
accompaniments to rump-steak, but true lovers of this English dish
generally reject all additions but pepper and salt.

_Time_.--8 to 10 minutes.

_Average cost_, 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 1/2 lb. to each person; if the party consist
entirely of gentlemen, 3/4 lb. will not be too much.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but not good in the height of summer, as the
meat cannot hang long enough to be tender.

    DIFFERENT SEASONS FOR BEEF.--We have already stated (see No.
    593) that the Scots breed of oxen, like the South-down in
    mutton, stands first in excellence. It should be borne in mind,
    however, that each county has its particular season, and that
    the London and other large markets are always supplied by those
    counties whose meat, from local circumstances, is in the best
    condition at the time. Thus, the season in Norfolk, from which
    the Scots come (these being the principal oxen bred by the
    Norfolk and Suffolk graziers), commences about Christmas and
    terminates about June, when this breed begins to fall off, their
    place being taken by grass-fed oxen. A large quantity of most
    excellent meat is sent to the "dead markets" from Scotland, and
    some of the best London butchers are supplied from this source.

BROILED BEEF AND MUSHROOM SAUCE.

(Cold Meat Cookery).

612. INGREDIENTS.--2 or 3 dozen small button mushrooms, 1 oz. of butter,
salt and cayenne to taste, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, mashed
potatoes, slices of cold roast beef.

_Mode_.--Wipe the mushrooms free from grit with a piece of flannel, and
salt; put them in a stewpan with the butter, seasoning, and ketchup;
stir over the fire until the mushrooms are quite done, when pour it in
the middle of mashed potatoes, browned. Then place round the potatoes
slices of cold roast beef, nicely broiled, over a clear fire. In making
the mushroom sauce, the ketchup may be dispensed with, if there is
sufficient gravy.

_Time_.--1/4 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 8d.

_Seasonable_ from August to October.


BROILED BEEF AND OYSTER SAUCE (Cold Meat Cookery).

613. INGREDIENTS.--2 dozen oysters, 3 cloves, 1 blade of mace, 2 oz. of
butter, 1/2 teaspoonful of flour, cayenne and salt to taste, mashed
potatoes, a few slices of cold roast beef.

_Mode_.--Put the oysters in a stewpan, with their liquor strained; add
the cloves, mace, butter, flour, and seasoning, and let them simmer
gently for 5 minutes. Have ready in the centre of a dish round walls of
mashed potatoes, browned; into the middle pour the oyster sauce, quite
hot, and round the potatoes place, in layers, slices of the beef, which
should be previously broiled over a nice clear fire.

_Time_.--5 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s, 6d., exclusive of the cold meat.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.


BROILED BEEF-BONES.

614. INGREDIENTS.--The bones of ribs or sirloin; salt, pepper, and
cayenne.

_Mode_.--Separate the bones, taking care that the meat on them is not
too thick in any part; sprinkle them well with the above seasoning, and
broil over a very clear fire. When nicely browned they are done; but do
not allow them to blacken.


TO DRESS A BULLOCK'S HEART.

615. INGREDIENTS.--1 heart, stuffing of veal forcemeat, No. 417.

_Mode_.--Put the heart into warm water to soak for 2 hours; then wipe it
well with a cloth, and, after cutting off the lobes, stuff the inside
with a highly-seasoned forcemeat (No. 417). Fasten it in, by means of a
needle and coarse thread; tie the heart up in paper, and set it before a
good fire, being very particular to keep it well basted, or it will eat
dry, there being very little of its own fat. Two or three minutes before
serving, remove the paper, baste well, and serve with good gravy and
red-currant jelly or melted butter. If the heart is very large, it will
require 2 hours, and, covered with a caul, may be baked as well as
roasted.

_Time_.--Large heart, 2 hours. _Average cost_, 2s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Note_.--This is an excellent family dish, is very savoury, and, though
not seen at many good tables, may be recommended for its cheapness and
economy.


BUBBLE-AND-SQUEAK (Cold Meat Cookery).

616. INGREDIENTS.--A few thin slices of cold boiled beef; butter,
cabbage, 1 sliced onion, pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Fry the slices of beef gently in a little butter, taking care
not to dry them up. Lay them on a flat dish, and cover with fried
greens. The greens may be prepared from cabbage sprouts or green savoys.
They should be boiled till tender, well drained, minced, and placed,
till quite hot, in a frying-pan, with butter, a sliced onion, and
seasoning of pepper and salt. When the onion is done, it is ready to
serve.

_Time_.--Altogether, 1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the cold beef, 3d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: COLLARED BEEF.]

COLLARED BEEF.

617. INGREDIENTS.--7 lbs. of the thin end of the flank of beef, 2 oz. of
coarse sugar, 6 oz. of salt, 1 oz, of saltpetre, 1 large handful of
parsley minced, 1 dessertspoonful of minced sage, a bunch of savoury
herbs, 1/2 teaspoonful of pounded allspice; salt and pepper to taste.

_Mode_.--Choose fine tender beef, but not too fat; lay it in a dish; rub
in the sugar, salt, and saltpetre, and let it remain in the pickle for a
week or ten days, turning and rubbing it every day. Then bone it, remove
all the gristle and the coarse skin of the inside part, and sprinkle it
thickly with parsley, herbs, spice, and seasoning in the above
proportion, taking care that the former are finely minced, and the
latter well pounded. Roll the meat up in a cloth as tightly as possible,
in the same shape as shown in the engraving; bind it firmly with broad
tape, and boil it gently for 6 hours. Immediately on taking it out of
the pot, put it under a good weight, without undoing it, and let it
remain until cold. This dish is a very nice addition to the
breakfast-table.

_Time_.--6 hours. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 4s.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--During the time the beef is in pickle, it should be kept cool,
and regularly rubbed and turned every day.


BEEF-COLLOPS.

618. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of rump-steak, 1/4 lb. of butter, 1 pint of
gravy (water may be substituted for this), salt and pepper to taste, 1
shalot finely minced, 1/2 pickled walnut, 1 teaspoonful of capers.

_Mode_.--Have the steak cut thin, and divide it in pieces about 3 inches
long; beat these with the blade of a knife, and dredge with flour. Put
them in a frying-pan with the butter, and let them fry for about 3
minutes; then lay them in a small stewpan, and pour over them the gravy.
Add a piece of butter, kneaded with a little flour, put in the seasoning
and all the other ingredients, and let the whole simmer, but not boil,
for 10 minutes. Serve in a hot covered dish.

_Time_.--10 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


MINCED COLLOPS (an Entree).

619. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of rump-steak, salt and pepper to taste, 2 oz.
of butter, 1 onion minced, 1/4 pint of water, 1 tablespoonful of
Harvey's sauce, or lemon-juice, or mushroom ketchup; 1 small bunch of
savoury herbs.

_Mode_.--Mince the beef and onion very small, and fry the latter in
butter until of a pale brown. Put all the ingredients together in a
stewpan, and boil gently for about 10 minutes; garnish with sippets of
toasted bread, and serve very hot.

_Time_.--10 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 2 or 3 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


CURRIED BEEF (Cold Meat Cookery).

620. INGREDIENTS.--A few slices of tolerably lean cold roast or boiled
beef, 3 oz. of butter, 2 onions, 1 wineglassful of beer, 1
dessertspoonful of curry powder.

_Mode_.--Cut up the beef into pieces about 1 inch square, put the butter
into a stewpan with the onions sliced, and fry them of a lightly-brown
colour. Add all the other ingredients, and stir gently over a brisk fire
for about 10 minutes. Should this be thought too dry, more beer, or a
spoonful or two of gravy or water, may be added; but a good curry should
not be very thin. Place it in a deep dish, with an edging of dry boiled
rice, in the same manner as for other curries.

_Time_.--10 minutes. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 4d.

_Seasonable_ in winter.


TO CLARIFY BEEF DRIPPING.

I.

621. Good and fresh dripping answers very well for basting everything
except game and poultry, and, when well clarified, serves for frying
nearly as well as lard; it should be kept in a cool place, and will
remain good some time. To clarify it, put the dripping into a basin,
pour over it boiling water, and keep stirring the whole to wash away the
impurities. Let it stand to cool, when the water and dirty sediment will
settle at the bottom of the basin. Remove the dripping, and put it away
in jars or basins for use.


ANOTHER WAY.

622. Put the dripping into a clean saucepan, and let it boil for a few
minutes over a slow fire, and be careful to skim it well. Let it stand
to cool a little, then strain it through a piece of muslin into jars for
use. Beef dripping is preferable to any other for cooking purposes, as,
with mutton dripping, there is liable to be a tallowy taste and smell.


ROAST FILLET OF BEEF (Larded).

623. INGREDIENTS.--About 4 lbs. of the inside fillet of the sirloin, 1
onion, a small bunch of parsley, salt and pepper to taste, sufficient
vinegar to cover the meat, glaze, Spanish sauce, No. 411.

_Mode_.--Lard the beef with bacon, and put it into a pan with sufficient
vinegar to cover it, with an onion sliced, parsley, and seasoning, and
let it remain in this pickle for 12 hours. Roast it before a nice clear
fire for about 1-1/4 hour, and, when done, glaze it. Pour some Spanish
sauce round the beef, and the remainder serve in a tureen. It may be
garnished with Spanish onions boiled and glazed.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. Average cost, exclusive of the sauce, 4s.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


FRICANDEAU OF BEEF.

624. INGREDIENTS.--About 3 lbs. of the inside fillet of the sirloin (a
piece of the rump may be substituted for this), pepper and salt to
taste, 3 cloves, 2 blades of mace, 6 whole allspice, 1 pint of stock No.
105, or water, 1 glass of sherry, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, 2 shalots,
bacon.

_Mode_.--Cut some bacon into thin strips, and sprinkle over them a
seasoning of pepper and salt, mixed with cloves, mace, and allspice,
well pounded. Lard the beef with these, put it into a stewpan with the
stock or water, sherry, herbs, shalots, 2 cloves, and more pepper and
salt. Stew the meat gently until tender, when take it out, cover it
closely, skim off all the fat from the gravy, and strain it. Set it on
the fire, and boil, till it becomes a glaze. Glaze the larded side of
the beef with this, and serve on sorrel sauce, which is made as
follows:--Wash and pick some sorrel, and put it into a stewpan with only
the water that hangs about it. Keep stirring, to prevent its burning,
and when done, lay it in a sieve to drain. Chop it, and stew it with a
small piece of butter and 4 or 6 tablespoonfuls of good gravy, for an
hour, and rub it through a tammy. If too acid, add a little sugar; and a
little cabbage-lettuce boiled with the sorrel will be found an
improvement.

_Time_.--2 hours to gently stew the meat.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 4s.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


FRIED SALT BEEF (Cold Meat Cookery).

625. INGREDIENTS.--A few slices of cold salt beef, pepper to taste, 1/4
lb. of butter, mashed potatoes.

_Mode_.--Cut any part of cold salt beef into thin slices, fry them
gently in butter, and season with a little pepper. Have ready some very
hot mashed potatoes, lay the slices of beef on them, and garnish with 3
or 4 pickled gherkins. Cold salt beef, warmed in a little liquor from
mixed pickle, drained, and served as above, will be found good.

_Time_.--About 5 minutes. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 4d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


FRIED RUMP-STEAK.

626. INGREDIENTS.--Steaks, butter or clarified dripping.

_Mode_. Although broiling is a far superior method of cooking steaks to
frying them, yet, when the cook is not very expert, the latter mode may
be adopted; and, when properly done, the dish may really look very
inviting, and the flavour be good. The steaks should be cut rather
thinner than for broiling, and with a small quantity of fat to each. Put
some butter or clarified dripping into a frying-pan; let it get quite
hot, then lay in the steaks. Turn them frequently until done, which will
be in about 8 minutes, or rather more, should the steaks be very thick.
Serve on a very hot dish, in which put a small piece of butter and a
tablespoonful of ketchup, and season with pepper and salt. They should
be sent to table quickly, as, when cold, the steaks are entirely
spoiled.

_Time_.--8 minutes for a medium-sized steak, rather longer for a very
thick one.

_Average cost_, 1s. per lb.

_Seasonable all the year, but not good in summer, as the meat cannot
hang to get tender._

_Note_.--Where much gravy is liked, make it in the following manner:--As
soon as the steaks are done, dish them, pour a little boiling water into
the frying-pan, add a seasoning of pepper and salt, a small piece of
butter, and a tablespoonful of Harvey's sauce or mushroom ketchup. Hold
the pan over the fire for a minute or two, just let the gravy simmer,
then pour on the steak, and serve.

    A FRENCHMAN'S OPINION OF BEEF. The following is translated from
    a celebrated modern French work, the production of one who in
    Paris enjoys a great reputation as cook and chemist:--The flesh
    of the ox, to be in the best condition, should be taken from an
    animal of from four to six years old, and neither too fat nor
    too lean. This meat, which possesses in the highest degree the
    most nutritive qualities, is generally easily digested; stock is
    made from it, and it is eaten boiled, broiled, roasted, stewed,
    braised, and in a hundred other different ways. Beef is the
    foundation of stock, gravies, braises, &c.; its nutritious and
    succulent gravy gives body and flavour to numberless ragouts. It
    is an exhaustless mine in the hands of a skilful artist, and is
    truly the king of the kitchen. Without it, no soup, no gravy;
    and its absence would produce almost a famine in the civilized
    world!

BEEF FRITTERS (Cold Meat Cookery).

627. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold roast beef, pepper and salt to
taste, 3/4 lb. of flour, 1/2 pint of water, 2 oz. of butter, the whites
of 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Mix very smoothly, and by degrees, the flour with the above
proportion of water; stir in 2 oz. of butter, which must be melted, but
not oiled, and, just before it is to be used, add the whites of two
well-whisked eggs. Should the batter be too thick, more water must be
added. Pare down the cold beef into thin shreds, season with pepper and
salt, and mix it with the batter. Drop a small quantity at a time into a
pan of boiling lard, and fry from 7 to 10 minutes, according to the
size. When done on one side, turn and brown them on the other. Let them
dry for a minute or two before the fire, and serve on a folded napkin. A
small quantity of finely-minced onions, mixed with the batter, is an
improvement.

_Time_.--From 7 to 10 minutes.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 6d. _Seasonable_ at any time.


HASHED BEEF (Cold Meat Cookery).

I.

628. INGREDIENTS.--Gravy saved from the meat, 1 teaspoonful of tomato
sauce, 1 teaspoonful of Harvey's sauce, 1 teaspoonful of good mushroom
ketchup, 1/2 glass of port wine or strong ale, pepper and salt to taste,
a little flour to thicken, 1 onion finely minced, a few slices of cold
roast beef.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients but the beef into a stewpan with
whatever gravy may have been saved from the meat the day it was roasted;
let these simmer gently for 10 minutes, then take the stewpan off the
fire; let the gravy cool, and skim off the fat. Cut the beef into thin
slices, dredge them with flour, and lay them in the gravy; let the whole
simmer gently for 5 minutes, but not boil, or the meat will be tough and
hard. Serve very hot, and garnish with sippets of toasted bread.

_Time_.--20 minutes. _Average cost_, exclusive of the cold meat, 4d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


II.

629. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of ribs or sirloin of beef, 2 onions, 1
carrot, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, pepper and salt to taste, 1/2 blade of
pounded mace, thickening of flour, rather more than 1 pint of water.

_Mode_.--Take off all the meat from the bones of ribs or sirloin of
beef; remove the outside brown and gristle; place the meat on one side,
and well stew the bones and pieces, with the above ingredients, for
about 2 hours, till it becomes a strong gravy, and is reduced to rather
more than 1/2 pint; strain this, thicken with a teaspoonful of flour,
and let the gravy cool; skim off all the fat; lay in the meat, let it
get hot through, but do not allow it to boil, and garnish with sippets
of toasted bread. The gravy may be flavoured as in the preceding recipe.

_Time_.--Rather more than 2 hours.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the cold meat, 2d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Either of the above recipes may be served in walls of mashed
potatoes browned; in which case the sippets should be omitted. Be
careful that hashed meat does not boil, or it will become tough.


TO PREPARE HUNG BEEF.

630. This is preserved by salting and drying, either with or without
smoke. Hang up the beef 3 or 4 days, till it becomes tender, but take
care it does not begin to spoil; then salt it in the usual way, either
by dry-salting or by brine, with bay-salt, brown sugar, saltpetre, and a
little pepper and allspice; afterwards roll it tight in a cloth, and
hang it up in a warm, but not hot place, for a fortnight or more, till
it is sufficiently hard. If required to have a little of the smoky
flavour, it may be hung for some time in a chimney-corner, or smoked in
any other way: it will keep a long time.


HUNTER'S BEEF.

631. INGREDIENTS.--For a round of beef weighing 25 lbs. allow 3 oz. of
saltpetre, 3 oz. of coarse sugar, 1 oz. of cloves, 1 grated nutmeg, 1/2
oz. of allspice, 1 lb. of salt, 1/2 lb. bay-salt.

_Mode_.--Let the beef hang for 2 or 3 days, and remove the bone. Pound
spices, salt, &c. in the above proportion, and let them be reduced to
the finest powder. Put the beef into a pan, rub all the ingredients well
into it, and turn and rub it every day for rather more than a fortnight.
When it has been sufficiently long in pickle, wash the meat, bind it up
securely with tape, and put it into a pan with 1/2 pint of water at the
bottom; mince some suet, cover the top of the meat with it, and over the
pan put a common crust of flour and water; bake for 6 hours, and, when
cold, remove the paste. Save the gravy that flows from it, as it adds
greatly to the flavour of hashes, stews, &c. The beef may be glazed and
garnished with meat jelly.

_Time_.--6 hours.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Note_.--In salting or pickling beef or pork for family consumption, it
not being generally required to be kept for a great length of time, a
less quantity of salt and a larger quantity of other matters more
adapted to retain mellowness in meat, may be employed, which could not
be adopted by the curer of the immense quantities of meat required to be
preserved for victualling the shipping of this maritime country. Sugar,
which is well known to possess the preserving principle in a very great
degree, without the pungency and astringency of salt, may be, and is,
very generally used in the preserving of meat for family consumption.
Although it acts without corrugating or contracting the fibres of meat,
as is the case in the action of salt, and, therefore, does not impair
its mellowness, yet its use in sufficient quantities for preservative
effect, without the addition of other antiseptics, would impart a
flavour not agreeable to the taste of many persons. It may be used,
however, together with salt, with the greatest advantage in imparting
mildness and mellowness to cured meat, in a proportion of about one part
by weight to four of the mixture; and, perhaps, now that sugar is so
much lower in price than it was in former years, one of the obstructions
to its more frequent use is removed.


TO DRESS BEEF KIDNEY.

I.

632. INGREDIENTS.--1 kidney, clarified butter, pepper and salt to taste,
a small quantity of highly-seasoned gravy, 1 tablespoonful of
lemon-juice, 1/4 teaspoonful of powdered sugar.

_Mode_.--Cut the kidneys into neat slices, put them into warm water to
soak for 2 hours, and change the water 2 or 3 times; then put them on a
clean cloth to dry the water from them, and lay them in a frying-pan
with some clarified butter, and fry them of a nice brown; season each
side with pepper and salt, put them round the dish, and the gravy in the
middle. Before pouring the gravy in the dish, add the lemon-juice and
sugar.

_Time_.--From 5 to 10 minutes. _Average cost_, 9d. each.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


II.

633. INGREDIENTS.--1 kidney, 1 dessertspoonful of minced parsley, 1
teaspoonful of minced shalot, salt and pepper to taste, 1/4 pint of
gravy, No. 438, 3 tablespoonfuls of sherry.

_Mode_.--Take off a little of the kidney fat, mince it very fine, and
put it in a frying-pan; slice the kidney, sprinkle over it parsley and
shalots in the above proportion, add a seasoning of pepper and salt, and
fry it of a nice brown. When it is done enough, dredge over a little
flour, and pour in the gravy and sherry. Let it just simmer, but not
boil any more, or the kidney would harden; serve very hot, and garnish
with croutons. Where the flavour of the shalot is disliked, it may be
omitted, and a small quantity of savoury herbs substituted for it.
_Time_.--From 5 to 10 minutes, according to the thickness of the slices.

_Average cost_, 9d. each. _Sufficient_ for 3 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


III.

_A more Simple Method_.

634. Cut the kidney into thin slices, flour them, and fry of a nice
brown. When done, make a gravy in the pan by pouring away the fat,
putting in a small piece of butter, 1/4 pint of boiling water, pepper
and salt, and a tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup. Let the gravy just
boil up, pour over the kidney, and serve.

BOILED MARROW-BONES.

635. INGREDIENTS.--Bones, a small piece of common paste, a floured
cloth.

_Mode_.--Have the bones neatly sawed into convenient sizes, and cover
the ends with a small piece of common crust, made with flour and water.
Over this tie a floured cloth, and place them upright in a saucepan of
boiling water, taking care there is sufficient to cover the bones. Boil
them for 2 hours, remove the cloth and paste, and serve them upright on
a napkin with dry toast. Many persons clear the marrow from the bones
after they are cooked, spread it over a slice of toast and add a
seasoning of pepper; when served in this manner, it must be very
expeditiously sent to table, as it so soon gets cold.

_Time_.--2 hours.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Marrow-bones may be baked after preparing them as in the
preceding recipe; they should be laid in a deep dish, and baked for 2
hours.

[Illustration: MARROW-BONES.]

    MARROW-BONES.--Bones are formed of a dense cellular tissue of
    membranous matter, made stiff and rigid by insoluble earthy
    salts; of which, phosphate of lime is the most abundant. In a
    large bone, the insoluble matter is generally deposited in such
    a manner as to leave a cavity, into which a fatty substance,
    distinguished by the name of marrow, is thrown. Hollow
    cylindrical bones possess the qualities of strength and
    lightness in a remarkable degree. If bones were entirely solid,
    they would be unnecessarily heavy; and if their materials were
    brought into smaller compass, they would be weaker, because the
    strength of a bone is in proportion to the distance at which its
    fibres are from the centre. Some animals, it must, however, be
    observed, have no cavities in the centre of their bones; such as
    the whale tribe, skate, and turtles.

MINCED BEEF (Cold Meat Cookery).

636. INGREDIENTS.--1 oz. of butter, 1 small onion, 2 tablespoonfuls of
gravy left from the meat, 1 tablespoonful of strong ale, 1/2 a
teaspoonful of flour, salt and pepper to taste, a few slices of lean
roast beef.

_Mode_.--Put into a stewpan the butter with an onion chopped fine; add
the gravy, ale, and 1/2 a teaspoonful of flour to thicken; season with
pepper and salt, and stir these ingredients over the fire until the
onion is a rich brown. Cut, but do not chop the meat _very fine_, add it
to the gravy, stir till quite hot, and serve. Garnish with sippets of
toasted bread. Be careful in not allowing the gravy to boil after the
meat is added, as it would render it hard and tough.

_Time_.--About 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 3d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


MIROTON OF BEEF.

637. INGREDIENTS.--A few slices of cold roast beef, 3 oz. of butter,
salt and pepper to taste, 3 onions, 1/2 pint of gravy.

_Mode_.--Slice the onions and put them into a frying-pan with the cold
beef and butter; place it over the fire, and keep turning and stirring
the ingredients to prevent them burning. When of a pale brown, add the
gravy and seasoning; let it simmer for a few minutes, and serve very
hot. This dish is excellent and economical.

_Time_.--5 minutes. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


STEWED OX-CHEEK.

638. INGREDIENTS.--1 cheek, salt and water, 4 or 5 onions, butter and
flour, 6 cloves, 3 turnips, 2 carrots, 1 bay-leaf, 1 head of celery, 1
bunch of savoury herbs, cayenne, black pepper and salt to taste, 1 oz.
of butter, 2 dessertspoonfuls of flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of Chili
vinegar, 2 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, 2 tablespoonfuls of port
wine, 2 tablespoonfuls of Harvey's sauce.

_Mode_.--Have the cheek boned, and prepare it the day before it is to be
eaten, by cleaning and putting it to soak all night in salt and water.
The next day, wipe it dry and clean, and put it into a stewpan. Just
cover it with water, skim well when it boils, and let it gently simmer
till the meat is quite tender. Slice and fry 3 onions in a little butter
and flour, and put them into the gravy; add 2 whole onions, each stuck
with 3 cloves, 3 turnips quartered, 2 carrots sliced, a bay-leaf, 1 head
of celery, a bunch of herbs, and seasoning to taste of cayenne, black
pepper, and salt. Let these stew till perfectly tender; then take out
the cheek, divide into pieces fit to help at table, skim and strain the
gravy, and thicken 1-1/2 pint of it with butter and flour in the above
proportions. Add the vinegar, ketchup, and port wine; put in the pieces
of cheek; let the whole boil up, and serve quite hot. Send it to table
in a ragout-dish. If the colour of the gravy should not be very good,
add a tablespoonful of the browning, No. 108.

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, 3d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


FRIED OX-FEET, or COW-HEEL.

639. INGREDIENTS.--Ox-feet, the yolk of 1 egg, bread crumbs, parsley,
salt and cayenne to taste, boiling butter.

_Mode_.--Wash, scald, and thoroughly clean the feet, and cut them into
pieces about 2 inches long; have ready some fine bread crumbs mixed with
a little minced parsley, cayenne, and salt; dip the pieces of heel into
the yolk of egg, sprinkle them with the bread crumbs, and fry them until
of a nice brown in boiling butter.

_Time_.-1 hour. _Average cost_, 6d. each.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

Note.--Ox-feet may be dressed in various ways, stowed in gravy or
plainly boiled and served with melted butter. When plainly boiled, the
liquor will answer for making sweet or relishing jellies, and also to
give richness to soups or gravies.


STEWED OX-TAILS.

640. INGREDIENTS.--2 ox-tails, 1 onion, 3 cloves, 1 blade of mace, 1
teaspoonful of whole black pepper, 1 teaspoonful of allspice, 1/2 a
teaspoonful of salt, a small bunch of savoury herbs, thickening of
butter and flour, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1 tablespoonful of
mushroom ketchup.

_Mode_.--Divide the tails at the joints, wash, and put them into a
stewpan with sufficient water to cover them, and set them on the fire;
when the water boils, remove the scum, and add the onion cut into rings,
the spice, seasoning, and herbs. Cover the stewpan closely, and let the
tails simmer very gently until tender, which will be in about 2-1/2
hours. Take them out, make a thickening of butter and flour, add it to
the gravy, and let it boil for 1/4 hour. Strain it through a sieve into
a saucepan, put back the tails, add the lemon-juice and ketchup; let the
whole just boil up, and serve. Garnish with croutons or sippets of
toasted bread.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours to stew the tails.

_Average cost_, 9d. to 1s. 6d., according to the season.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

    THE TAILS OF ANIMALS.--In the class Mammalia, the vertebral
    column or backbone presents only slight modifications, and
    everywhere shows the same characteristics as in man, who stands
    at the head of this division of the animal kingdom. The length
    of this column, however, varies much, and the number of
    vertebrae of which it is composed is far from being uniform.
    These numerical differences principally depend on the unequal
    development of the caudal portion, or tail-end, of the column.
    Thus, the tail-forming vertebrae sometimes do not exist at
    all,--amongst certain bats for example; in other instances we
    reckon forty, fifty, and even upwards of sixty of these bones.
    Among the greater number of mammals, the tail is of little use
    for locomotion, except that it acts in many cases as does the
    rudder of a ship, steadying the animal in his rapid movements,
    and enabling him to turn more easily and quickly. Among some
    animals, it becomes a very powerful instrument of progression.
    Thus, in the kangaroos and jerboas, the tail forms, with the
    hind feet, a kind of tripod from which the animal makes its
    spring. With most of the American monkeys it is prehensile, and
    serves the animal as a fifth hand to suspend itself from the
    branches of trees; and, lastly, among the whales, it grows to an
    enormous size, and becomes the principal instrument for
    swimming.

A PICKLE FOR TONGUES OR BEEF (Newmarket Recipe).

641. INGREDIENTS.--1 gallon of soft water, 3 lbs. of coarse salt, 6 oz.
of coarse brown sugar, 1/2 oz. of saltpetre.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients into a saucepan, and let them boil for
1/2 hour, clear off the scum as it rises, and when done pour the pickle
into a pickling-pan. Let it get cold, then put in the meat, and allow it
to remain in the pickle from 8 to 14 days, according to the size. It
will keep good for 6 months if well boiled once a fortnight. Tongues
will take 1 month or 6 weeks to be properly cured; and, in salting meat,
beef and tongues should always be put in separate vessels.

_Time_.--A moderate-sized tongue should remain in the pickle about a
month, and be turned every day.

[Illustration: POTTING-JAR.]

POTTED BEEF.

I.

642. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of lean beef, 1 tablespoonful of water, 1/4
lb. of butter, a seasoning to taste of salt, cayenne, pounded mace, and
black pepper.


_Mode_.--Procure a nice piece of lean beef, as free as possible from
gristle, skin, &c., and put it into a jar (if at hand, one with a lid)
with 1 tablespoonful of water. Cover it _closely_, and put the jar into
a saucepan of boiling water, letting the water come within 2 inches of
the top of the jar. Boil gently for 3-1/2 hours, then take the beef,
chop it very small with a chopping-knife, and pound it thoroughly in a
mortar. Mix with it by degrees all, or a portion, of the gravy that will
have run from it, and a little clarified butter; add the seasoning, put
it in small pots for use, and cover with a little butter just warmed and
poured over. If much gravy is added to it, it will keep but a short
time; on the contrary, if a large proportion of butter is used, it may
be preserved for some time.

_Time_.--3-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 1s. 8d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


POTTED BEEF (Cold Meat Cookery).

II.

643. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold roast or boiled beef, 1/4 lb. of
butter, cayenne to taste, 2 blades of pounded mace.

_Mode_.--As we have stated in recipe No. 608, the outside slices of
boiled beef may, with a little trouble, be converted into a very nice
addition to the breakfast-table. Cut up the meat into small pieces and
pound it well, with a little butter, in a mortar; add a seasoning of
cayenne and mace, and be very particular that the latter ingredient is
reduced to the finest powder. When all the ingredients are thoroughly
mixed, put it into glass or earthen potting-pots, and pour on the top a
coating of clarified butter.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--If cold roast beef is used, remove all pieces of gristle and
dry outside pieces, as these do not pound well.

    PRESERVED MEATS.--When an organic substance, like the flesh of
    animals, is heated to the boiling-point, it loses the property
    of passing into a state of fermentation and decay. Fresh animal
    milk, as is well known, coagulates, after having been kept for
    two or three days, into a gelatinous mass; but it may be
    preserved for an indefinite period, as a perfectly sweet liquid,
    if it be heated daily to the boiling-point. The knowledge of
    this effect of an elevated temperature has given rise to a most
    important branch of industry,--namely, the preparation of
    preserved meats for the use of the navy and merchant service. At
    Leith, in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, at Aberdeen, at
    Bordeaux, at Marseilles, and in many parts of Germany,
    establishments of enormous magnitude exist, in which soup,
    vegetables, and viands of every description are prepared, in
    such a manner that they retain their freshness for years. The
    prepared aliments are inclosed in canisters of tinned iron
    plate, the covers are soldered air-tight, and the canisters
    exposed to the temperature of boiling water for three or four
    hours. The aliments thus acquire a stability, which one may
    almost say is eternal; and when a canister is opened, after the
    lapse of several years, its contents are found to be unaltered
    in taste, colour, and smell. We are indebted to the French
    philosopher Gay-Lussac for this beautiful practical application
    of the discovery that boiling checks fermentation. An exclusive
    salt-meat diet is extremely injurious to the health; and, in
    former times, thousands of mariners lost their lives for the
    want of fresh aliments during long voyages. We are sorry to say
    that the preserved meats are sometimes carelessly prepared, and,
    though the statement seems incredible, sometimes adulterated.
    Dr. Lankester, who has done so much to expose the frauds of
    trade, that he ought to be regarded as a public benefactor, says
    that he has seen things which were utterly unfit for food,
    shipped as preserved meats. Surely, as he observes, there ought
    to be some superintendent to examine the so-called articles of
    food that are taken on board ship, so that the poor men who have
    been fighting our battles abroad may run no risk of being
    starved or poisoned on their way home.

RIB OF BEEF BONES.

(_A Pretty Dish_.)

644. INGREDIENTS.--Rib of beef bones, 1 onion chopped fine, a few slices
of carrot and turnip, 1/4 pint of gravy.

_Mode_.--The bones for this dish should have left on them a slight
covering of meat; saw them into pieces 3 inches long; season them with
pepper and salt, and put them into a stewpan with the remaining
ingredients. Stew gently, until the vegetables are tender, and serve on
a flat dish within walls of mashed potatoes.

_Time_.--3/4 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the bones, 2d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF RISSOLES (Cold Meat Cookery).

645. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold roast beef; to each pound of meat
allow 3/4 lb. of bread crumbs, salt and pepper to taste, a few chopped
savoury herbs, 1/2 a teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, 1 or 2 eggs,
according to the quantity of meat.

_Mode_.--Mince the beef very fine, which should be rather lean, and mix
with this bread crumbs, herbs, seasoning, and lemon-peel, in the above
proportion, to each pound of meat. Make all into a thick paste with 1 or
2 eggs; divide into balls or cones, and fry a rich brown. Garnish the
dish with fried parsley, and send with them to table some good brown
gravy in a tureen. Instead of garnishing with fried parsley, gravy may
be poured in the dish, round the rissoles: in this case, it will not be
necessary to send any in a tureen.

_Time_.--From 5 to 10 minutes, according to size.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 5d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


ROLLED BEEF, to eat like Hare.

646. INGREDIENTS.--About 5 lbs. of the inside of the sirloin, 2 glasses
of port wine, 2 glasses of vinegar, a small quantity of forcemeat (No.
417), 1 teaspoonful of pounded allspice.

_Mode_.--Take the inside of a large sirloin, soak it in 1 glass of port
wine and 1 glass of vinegar, mixed, and let it remain for 2 days. Make a
forcemeat by recipe No. 417, lay it on the meat, and bind it up
securely. Roast it before a nice clear fire, and baste it with 1 glass
each of port wine and vinegar, with which mix a teaspoonful of pounded
allspice. Serve, with a good gravy in the dish, and send red-currant
jelly to table with it.

_Time_.--A piece of 5 lbs. about 1-1/2 hour before a brisk fire.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 5s. 4d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF ROLLS (Cold Meat Cookery).

647. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold roast or boiled beef, seasoning
to taste of salt, pepper, and minced herbs; puff paste.

_Mode_.--Mince the beef tolerably fine with a small amount of its own
fat; add a seasoning of pepper, salt, and chopped herbs; put the whole
into a roll of puff paste, and bake for 1/2 hour, or rather longer,
should the roll be very large. Beef patties may be made of cold meat, by
mincing and seasoning beef as directed above, and baking in a rich puff
paste in patty-tins.

_Time_,--1/2 hour.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


MINIATURE ROUND OF BEEF. (_An Excellent Dish for a Small Family_.)

648. INGREDIENTS.--From 5 to 10 lbs. of rib of beef, sufficient brine to
cover the meat.

_Mode_.--Choose a fine rib, have the bone removed, rub some salt over
the inside, and skewer the meat up into a nice round form, and bind it
with tape. Put it into sufficient brine to cover it (the brine should be
made by recipe No. 654), and let it remain for 6 days, turning the meat
every day. When required to be dressed, drain from the pickle, and put
the meat into very hot water; let it boil rapidly for a few minutes,
when draw the pot to the side of the fire, and let it simmer very gently
until done. Remove the skewer, and replace it by a plated or silver one.
Carrots and turnips should be served with this dish, and may be boiled
with the meat.

_Time_.--A small round of 8 lbs., about 2 hours after the water boils;
one of 12 lbs., about 3 hours.

_Average cost_, 9d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Should the joint be very small, 4 or 5 days will be sufficient
time to salt it.


BRISKET OF BEEF, a la Flamande.

649. INGREDIENTS.--About 6 or 8 lbs. of the brisket of beef, 4 or 5
slices of bacon, 2 carrots, 1 onion, a bunch of savoury herbs, salt and
pepper to taste, 4 cloves, 4 whole allspice, 2 blades of mace.

_Mode_.--Choose that portion of the brisket which contains the gristle,
trim it, and put it into a stewpan with the slices of bacon, which
should be put under and over the meat. Add the vegetables, herbs,
spices, and seasoning, and cover with a little weak stock or water;
close the stewpan as hermetically as possible, and simmer very gently
for 4 hours. Strain the liquor, reserve a portion of it for sauce, and
the remainder boil quickly over a sharp fire until reduced to a glaze,
with which glaze the meat. Garnish the dish with scooped carrots and
turnips, and when liked, a little cabbage; all of which must be cooked
separately. Thicken and flavour the liquor that was saved for sauce,
pour it round the meat, and serve. The beef may also be garnished with
glazed onions, artichoke-bottoms, &c.

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, 7d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

    FRENCH BEEF.--It has been all but universally admitted, that the
    beef of France is greatly inferior in quality to that of
    England, owing to inferiority of pasturage. M. Curmer, however,
    one of the latest writers on the culinary art, tells us that
    this is a vulgar error, and that French beef is far superior to
    that of England. This is mere vaunting on the part of our
    neighbours, who seem to want _la gloire_ in everything; and we
    should not deign to notice it, if it had occurred in a work of
    small pretensions; but M. Curmer's book professes to be a
    complete exposition of the scientific principles of cookery, and
    holds a high rank in the didactic literature of France. We half
    suspect that M. Curmer obtained his knowledge of English beef in
    the same way as did the poor Frenchman, whom the late Mr.
    Mathews, the comedian, so humorously described. Mr. Lewis, in
    his "Physiology of Common Life," has thus revived the story of
    the beef-eating son of France:--"A Frenchman was one day blandly
    remonstrating against the supercilious scorn expressed by
    Englishmen for the beef of France, which he, for his part, did
    not find so inferior to that of England. 'I have been two times
    in England,' he remarked, but I nevere find the bif so superieur
    to ours. I find it vary conveenient that they bring it you on
    leetle pieces of stick, for one penny: but I do not find the bif
    superieur.' On hearing this, the Englishman, red with
    astonishment, exclaimed, 'Good heavens, sir! you have been
    eating cat's meat.'" No, M. Curmer, we are ready to acknowledge
    the superiority of your cookery, but we have long since made up
    our minds as to the inferiority of your raw material.

BEEF OLIVES.

I.

650. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of rump-steak, 1 egg, 1 tablespoonful of
minced savoury herbs, pepper and salt to taste, 1 pint of stock, No.
105, 2 or 3 slices of bacon, 2 tablespoonfuls of any store sauce, a
slight thickening of butter and flour.

_Mode_.--Have the steaks cut rather thin, slightly beat them to make
them level, cut them into 6 or 7 pieces, brush over with egg, and
sprinkle with herbs, which should be very finely minced; season with
pepper and salt, and roll up the pieces tightly, and fasten with a small
skewer. Put the stock in a stewpan that will exactly hold them, for by
being pressed together, they will keep their shape better; lay in the
rolls of meat, cover them with the bacon, cut in thin slices, and over
that put a piece of paper. Stew them very _gently_ for full 2 hours; for
the slower they are done the better. Take them out, remove the skewers,
thicken the gravy with butter and flour, and flavour with any store
sauce that may be preferred. Give one boil, pour over the meat, and
serve.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. per pound.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


II.

(_Economical_.)

651. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of underdone cold roast beef, bread
crumbs, 1 shalot finely minced, pepper and salt to taste, gravy made
from the beef bones, thickening of butter and flour, 1 tablespoonful of
mushroom ketchup.

_Mode_.--Cut some slices of underdone roast beef about half an inch
thick; sprinkle over them some bread crumbs, minced shalot, and a little
of the fat and seasoning; roll them, and fasten with a small skewer.
Have ready some gravy made from the beef bones; put in the pieces of
meat, and stew them till tender, which will be in about 1-1/4 hour, or
rather longer. Arrange the meat in a dish, thicken and flavour the
gravy, and pour it over the meat, when it is ready to serve.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the beef, 2d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


BROILED OX-TAIL (an Entree).

652. INGREDIENTS.--2 tails, 1-1/2 pint of stock, No. 105, salt and
cayenne to taste, bread crumbs, 1 egg.

_Mode_.--Joint and cut up the tails into convenient-sized pieces, and
put them into a stewpan, with the stock, cayenne, and salt, and, if
liked very savoury, a bunch of sweet herbs. Let them simmer gently for
about 2-1/2 hours; then take them out, drain them, and let them cool.
Beat an egg upon a plate; dip in each piece of tail, and, afterwards,
throw them into a dish of bread crumbs; broil them over a clear fire,
until of a brownish colour on both sides, and serve with a good gravy,
or any sauce that may be preferred.

_Time_.--About 2-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, from 9d. to 1s. 6d.,
according to the season.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--These may be more easily prepared by putting the tails in a
brisk oven, after they have been dipped in egg and bread-crumb; and,
when brown, they are done. They must be boiled the same time as for
broiling.

    STRANGE TAILS.--Naturalists cannot explain the uses of some of
    the strange tails borne by animals. In the Egyptian and Syrian
    sheep, for instance, the tail grows so large, that it is not
    infrequently supported upon a sort of little cart, in order to
    prevent inconvenience to the animal. Thin monstrous appendage
    sometimes attains a weight of seventy, eighty, or even a hundred
    pounds.

TO DRESS BEEF PALATES (an Entree).

653. INGREDIENTS.--4 palates, sufficient gravy to cover them (No. 438),
cayenne to taste, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, 1 tablespoonful
of pickled-onion liquor, thickening of butter and flour.

_Mode_.--Wash the palates, and put them into a stewpan, with sufficient
water to cover them, and let them boil until perfectly tender, or until
the upper skin may be easily peeled off. Have ready sufficient gravy
(No. 438) to cover them; add a good seasoning of cayenne, and thicken
with roux, No. 625, or a little butter kneaded with flour; let it boil
up, and skim. Cut the palates into square pieces, put them in the gravy,
and let them simmer gently for 1/2 hour; add ketchup and onion-liquor,
give one boil, and serve.

_Time_.--From 3 to 5 hours to boil the palates.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Palates may be dressed in various ways with sauce tournee, good
onion sauce, tomato sauce, and also served in a vol-au-vent; but the
above will be found a more simple method of dressing them.


BEEF PICKLE, which may also be used for any kind of Meat, Tongues, or
Hams.

654. INGREDIENTS.--6 lbs. of salt, 2 lbs. of fine sugar, 3 oz. of
powdered saltpetre, 3 gallons of spring water.

_Mode_.--Boil all the ingredients gently together, so long as any scum
or impurity arises, which carefully remove; when quite cold, pour it
over the meat, every part of which must be covered with the brine. This
may be used for pickling any kind of meat, and may be kept for some
time, if boiled up occasionally with an addition of the ingredients.

_Time_.--A ham should be kept in the pickle for a fortnight; a piece of
beef weighing 14 lbs., 12 or 15 days; a tongue, 10 days or a fortnight.

_Note_.--For salting and pickling meat, it is a good plan to rub in only
half the quantity of salt directed, and to let it remain for a day or
two to disgorge and effectually to get rid of the blood and slime; then
rub in the remainder of the salt and other ingredients, and proceed as
above. This rule may be applied to all the recipes we have given for
salting and pickling meat.


TO PICKLE PART OF A ROUND OF BEEF FOR HANGING.

655. INGREDIENTS.--For 14 lbs. of a round of beef allow 1-1/2 lb. of
salt, 1/2 oz. of powdered saltpetre; or, 1 lb. of salt, 1/2 lb. of
sugar, 4 oz. of powdered saltpetre.

_Mode_.--Rub in, and sprinkle either of the above mixtures on 14 lbs. of
meat. Keep it in an earthenware pan, or a deep wooden tray, and turn
twice a week during 3 weeks; then bind up the beef tightly with coarse
linen tape, and hang it in a kitchen in which a fire is constantly kept,
for 3 weeks. Pork, hams, and bacon may be cured in a similar way, but
will require double the quantity of the salting mixture; and, if not
smoke-dried, they should be taken down from hanging after 3 or 4 weeks,
and afterwards kept in boxes or tubs, amongst dry oat-husks.

_Time_.--2 or 3 weeks to remain in the brine; to be hung 3 weeks.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--The meat may be boiled fresh from this pickle, instead of
smoking it.


BEEP RAGOUT (Cold Meat Cookery).

656. INGREDIENTS.--About 2 lbs. of cold roast beef, 6 onions, pepper,
salt, and mixed spices to taste; 1/2 pint of boiling water, 3
tablespoonfuls of gravy.

_Mode_.--Cut the beef into rather large pieces, and put them into a
stewpan with the onions, which must be sliced. Season well with pepper,
salt, and mixed spices, and pour over about 1/2 pint of boiling water,
and gravy in the above proportion (gravy saved from the meat answers the
purpose); let the whole stew very gently for about 2 hours, and serve
with pickled walnuts, gherkins, or capers, just warmed in the gravy.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 4d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


ROAST RIBS OF BEEF.

657. INGREDIENTS.--Beef, a little salt.

_Mode_.---The fore-rib is considered the primest roasting piece, but the
middle-rib is considered the most economical. Let the meat be well hung
(should the weather permit), and cut off the thin ends of the bones,
which should be salted for a few days, and then boiled. Put the meat
down to a nice clear fire, put some clean dripping into the pan, dredge
the joint with a little flour, and keep continually basting the whole
time. Sprinkle some fine salt over it (this must never be done until the
joint is dished, as it draws the juices from the meat); pour the
dripping from the pan, put in a little boiling: water slightly salted,
and _strain_ the gravy over the meat. Garnish with tufts of scraped
horseradish, and send horseradish sauce to table with it (_see_ No.
447). A Yorkshire pudding (_see_ Puddings) sometimes accompanies this
dish, and, if lightly made and well cooked, will be found a very
agreeable addition.

_Time_.--10 lbs. of beef, 2-1/2 hours; 14 to 16 lbs., from 3-1/2 to 4
hours.

_Average cost_, 8-1/2d. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--A joint of 10 lbs. sufficient for 8 or 9 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

    MEMORANDA IN ROASTING.--The management of the fire is a point of
    primary importance in roasting. A radiant fire throughout the
    operation is absolutely necessary to insure a good result. When
    the article to be dressed is thin and delicate, the fire may be
    small; but when the joint is large, the fire must fill the
    grate. Meat must never be put down before a hollow or exhausted
    fire, which may soon want recruiting; on the other hand, if the
    heat of the fire becomes too fierce, the meat must be removed to
    a considerable distance till it is somewhat abated. Some cooks
    always fail in their roasts, though they succeed in nearly
    everything else. A French writer on the culinary art says that
    anybody can learn how to cook, but one must be born a roaster.
    According to Liebig, beef or mutton cannot be said to be
    sufficiently roasted until it has acquired, throughout the whole
    mass, a temperature of 158 deg.; but poultry may be well cooked when
    the inner parts hare attained a temperature of from 130 deg. to
    140 deg.. This depends on the greater amount of blood which beef and
    mutton contain, the colouring matter of blood not being
    coagulable under 158 deg..

ROAST RIBS OF BEEF, Boned and Rolled (a very Convenient Joint for a
Small Family).

658. INGREDIENTS.--1 or 2 ribs of beef.

_Mode_.--Choose a fine rib of beef, and have it cut according to the
weight you require, either wide or narrow. Bone and roll the meat round,
secure it with wooden skewers, and, if necessary, bind it round with a
piece of tape. Spit the beef firmly, or, if a bottle-jack is used, put
the joint on the hook, and place it _near_ a nice clear fire. Let it
remain so till the outside of the meat is set, when draw it to a
distance, and keep continually basting until the meat is done, which can
be ascertained by the steam from it drawing towards the fire. As this
joint is solid, rather more than 1/4 hour must be allowed for each lb.
Remove the skewers, put in a plated or silver one, and send the joint to
table with gravy in the dish, and garnish with tufts of horseradish.
Horseradish sauce, No. 447, is a great improvement to roast beef.

_Time_.--For 10 lbs. of the rolled ribs, 3 hours (as the joint is very
solid, we have allowed an extra 1/2 hour); for 6 lbs., 1-1/2 hour.

Average cost, 8-1/2d. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--A joint of 10 lbs. for 6 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Note_.--When the weight exceeds 10 lbs., we would not advise the above
method of boning and rolling; only in the case of 1 or 2 ribs, when the
joint cannot stand upright in the dish, and would look awkward. The
bones should be put in with a few vegetables and herbs, and made into
stock.

    ROAST BEEF has long been a national dish in England. In most of
    our patriotic songs it is contrasted with the fricasseed frogs,
    popularly supposed to be the exclusive diet of Frenchmen.

      "O the roast beef of old England,
      And O the old English roast beef."

    This national chorus is appealed to whenever a song-writer
    wishes to account for the valour displayed by Englishmen at sea
    or on land.

ROAST SIRLOIN OF BEEF.

659. INGREDIENTS.--Beef, a little salt.

_Mode_.--As a joint cannot be well roasted without a good fire, see that
it is well made up about 3/4 hour before it is required, so that when
the joint is put down, it is clear and bright. Choose a nice sirloin,
the weight of which should not exceed 16 lbs., as the outside would be
too much done, whilst the inside would not be done enough. Spit it or
hook it on to the jack firmly, dredge it slightly with flour, and place
it near the fire at first, as directed in the preceding recipe. Then
draw it to a distance, and keep continually basting until the meat is
done. Sprinkle a small quantity of salt over it, empty the dripping-pan
of all the dripping, pour in some boiling water slightly salted, stir it
about, and _strain_ over the meat. Garnish with tufts of horseradish,
and send horseradish sauce and Yorkshire pudding to table with it. For
carving, _see_ p. 317.

_Time_.--A sirloin of 10 lbs., 2-1/2 hours; 14 to 16 lbs., about 4 or
4-1/2 hours.

_Average cost_, 8-1/2d. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--A joint of 10 lbs. for 8 or 9 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

The rump, round, and other pieces of beef are roasted in the same
manner, allowing for solid joints; 1/4 hour to every lb.

_Note_.---The above is the usual method of roasting moat; but to have it
in perfection and the juices kept in, the meat should at first be laid
close to the fire, and when the outside is set and firm, drawn away to a
good distance, and then left to roast very slowly; where economy is
studied, this plan would not answer, as the meat requires to be at the
fire double the time of the ordinary way of cooking; consequently,
double the quantity of fuel would be consumed.

    ORIGIN OF THE WORD "SIRLOIN."--The loin of beef is said to have
    been knighted by King Charles II., at Friday Hall, Chingford.
    The "Merry Monarch" returned to this hospitable mansion for
    Epping Forest literally "as hungry as a hunter," and beheld,
    with delight, a huge loin of beef steaming upon the table. "A
    noble joint!" exclaimed the king. "By St. George, it shall have
    a title!" Then drawing his sword, he raised it above the meat,
    and cried, with mock dignity, "Loin, we dub thee knight;
    henceforward be Sir Loin!" This anecdote is doubtless
    apocryphal, although the oak table upon which the joint was
    supposed to hare received its knighthood, might have been seen
    by any one who visited Friday-Hill House, a few years ago. It
    is, perhaps, a pity to spoil so noble a story; but the interests
    of truth demand that we declare that _sirloin_ is probably a
    corruption of _surloin_, which signifies the upper part of a
    loin, the prefix _sur_ being equivalent to _over_ or _above_. In
    French we find this joint called _surlonge_, which so closely
    resembles our _sirloin_, that we may safely refer the two words
    to a common origin.

TO SALT BEEF.

660. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 round of beef, 4 oz. of sugar, 1 oz. of powdered
saltpetre, 2 oz. of black pepper, 1/4 lb. of bay-salt, 1/2 lb. of common
salt. _Mode_.--Rub the meat well with salt, and let it remain for a day,
to disgorge and clear it from slime. The next day, rub it well with the
above ingredients on every side, and let it remain in the pickle for
about a fortnight, turning it every day. It may be boiled fresh from the
pickle, or smoked.

_Time_.--1/2 round of beef to remain in pickle about a fortnight.
_Average cost_, 7d. per lb. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--The aitch-bone, flank, or brisket may be salted and pickled by
any of the recipes we have given for salting beef, allowing less time
for small joints to remain in the pickle; for instance, a joint of 8 or
9 lbs. will be sufficiently salt in about a week.

THE DUTCH WAY TO SALT BEEF.

661. INGREDIENTS.--10 lbs. of lean beef, 1 lb. of treacle, 1 oz. of
saltpetre, 1 lb. of common salt.

_Mode_.--Rub the beef well with the treacle, and let it remain for 3
days, turning and rubbing it often; then wipe it, pound the salt and
saltpetre very fine, rub these well in, and turn it every day for 10
days. Roll it up tightly in a coarse cloth, and press it under a large
weight; have it smoked, and turn it upside down every day. Boil it, and,
on taking it out of the pot, put a heavy weight on it to press it.

_Time_.--17 days.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF SAUSAGES.

662. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of suet allow 2 lbs. of lean beef;
seasoning to taste of salt, pepper, and mixed spices.

_Mode_.--Clear the suet from skin, and chop that and the beef as finely
as possible; season with pepper, salt, and spices, and mix the whole
well together. Make it into flat cakes, and fry of a nice brown. Many
persons pound the meat in a mortar after it is chopped ( but this is not
necessary when the meat is minced finely.)

_Time_.--10 minutes. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 1s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF-STEAK, Rolled, Roasted, and Stuffed.

663. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of rump-steak, forcemeat No. 417, pepper and
salt to taste, clarified butter.

_Mode_.--Have the steaks cut rather thick from a well-hung rump of beef,
and sprinkle over them a seasoning of pepper and salt. Make a forcemeat
by recipe No. 417; spread it over _half_ of the steak; roll it up, bind
and skewer it firmly, that the forcemeat may not escape, and roast it
before a nice clear fire for about 1-1/2 hour, or rather longer, should
the roll be very large and thick. Keep it constantly basted with butter,
and serve with brown gravy, some of which must be poured round the
steak, and the remainder sent to table in a tureen.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but best in winter.


SLICED AND BROILED BEEF--a Pretty Dish (Cold Meat Cookery).

664. INGREDIENTS.--A few slices of cold roast beef, 4 or 5 potatoes, a
thin batter, pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Pare the potatoes as you would peel an apple; fry the parings
in a thin batter seasoned with salt and pepper, until they are of a
light brown colour, and place them on a dish over some slices of beef,
which should be nicely seasoned and broiled.

_Time_.--5 minutes to broil the meat.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


SPICED BEEF (to Serve Cold).

665. INGREDIENTS.--14 lbs. of the thick flank or rump of beef, 1/2 lb.
of coarse sugar, 1 oz. of saltpetre, 1/4 lb. of pounded allspice, 1 lb.
of common salt.

_Mode_.--Rub the sugar well into the beef, and let it lay for 12 hours;
then rub the saltpetre and allspice, both of which should be pounded,
over the meat, and let it remain for another 12 hours; then rub in the
salt. Turn daily in the liquor for a fortnight, soak it for a few hours
in water, dry with a cloth, cover with a coarse paste, put a little
water at the bottom of the pan, and bake in a moderate oven for 4 hours.
If it is not covered with a paste, be careful to put the beef into a
deep vessel, and cover with a plate, or it will be too crisp. During the
time the meat is in the oven it should be turned once or twice.

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, 7d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

    BAKING MEAT.--Baking exerts some unexplained influence on meat,
    rendering it less savoury and less agreeable than meat which has
    been roasted. "Those who have travelled in Germany and France,"
    writes Mr. Lewis, one of our most popular scientific authors,
    "must have repeatedly marvelled at the singular uniformity in
    the flavour, or want of flavour, of the various 'roasts' served
    up at the _table-d'hote_." The general explanation is, that the
    German and French meat is greatly inferior in quality to that of
    England and Holland, owing to the inferiority of pasturage; and
    doubtless this is one cause, but it is not the chief cause. The
    meat is inferior, but the cooking is mainly at fault. The meat
    is scarcely ever _roasted_, because there is no coal, and
    firewood is expensive. The meat is therefore _baked;_ and the
    consequence of this baking is, that no meat is eatable or eaten,
    with its own gravy, but is always accompanied by some sauce more
    or less piquant. The Germans generally believe that in England
    we eat our beef and mutton almost raw; they shudder at our
    gravy, as if it were so much blood.

STEWED BEEF or RUMP STEAK (an Entree).

666. INGREDIENTS.--About 2 lbs. of beef or rump steak, 3 onions, 2
turnips, 3 carrots, 2 or 3 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of water, 1
teaspoonful of salt, 1/2 do. of pepper, 1 tablespoonful of ketchup, 1
tablespoonful of flour.

_Mode_.--Have the steaks cut tolerably thick and rather lean; divide
them into convenient-sized pieces, and fry them in the butter a nice
brown on both sides. Cleanse and pare the vegetables, cut the onions and
carrots into thin slices, and the turnips into dice, and fry these in
the same fat that the steaks were done in. Put all into a saucepan, add
1/2 pint of water, or rather more should it be necessary, and simmer
very gently for 2-1/2 or 3 hours; when nearly done, skim well, add salt,
pepper, and ketchup in the above proportions, and thicken with a
tablespoonful of flour mixed with 2 of cold water. Let it boil up for a
minute or two after the thickening is added, and serve. When a
vegetable-scoop is at hand, use it to cut the vegetables in fanciful
shapes, and tomato, Harvey's sauce, or walnut-liquor may be used to
flavour the gravy. It is less rich if stewed the previous day, so that
the fat may be taken off when cold; when wanted for table, it will
merely require warming through.

_Time_.--3 hours. Average cost, 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


STEWED BEEF AND CELERY SAUCE (Cold Meat Cookery).

667. INGREDIENTS.--3 roots of celery, 1 pint of gravy, No. 436, 2 onions
sliced, 2 lbs. of cold roast or boiled beef.

_Mode_.--Cut the celery into 2-inch pieces, put them in a stew-pan, with
the gravy and onions, simmer gently until the celery is tender, when add
the beef cut into rather thick pieces; stew gently for 10 minutes, and
serve with fried potatoes.

_Time_.--From 20 to 25 minutes to stew the celery.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 6d.

_Seasonable_ from September to January.


STEWED BEEF WITH OYSTERS (Cold Meat Cookery).

668. INGREDIENTS.--A few thick steaks of cold ribs or sirloin of beef, 2
oz. of butter, 1 onion sliced, pepper and salt to taste, 1/2 glass of
port wine, a little flour to thicken, 1 or 2 dozen oysters, rather more
than 1/2 pint of water.

_Mode_.--Cut the steaks rather thick, from cold sirloin or ribs of beef;
brown them lightly in a stewpan, with the butter and a little water; add
1/2 pint of water, the onion, pepper, and salt, and cover the stewpan
closely, and let it simmer very gently for 1/2 hour; then mix about a
teaspoonful of flour smoothly with a little of the liquor; add the port
wine and oysters, their liquor having been previously strained and put
into the stewpan; stir till the oysters plump, and serve. It should not
boil after the oysters are added, or they will harden.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 1s. 4d.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.


STEWED BRISKET OF BEEF.

669. INGREDIENTS.--7 lbs. of a brisket of beef, vinegar and salt, 6
carrots, 6 turnips, 6 small onions, 1 blade of pounded mace, 2 whole
allspice pounded, thickening of butter and flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of
ketchup; stock, or water.

_Mode_.--About an hour before dressing it, rub the meat over with
vinegar and salt; put it into a stewpan, with sufficient stock to cover
it (when this is not at hand, water may be substituted for it), and be
particular that the stewpan is not much larger than the meat. Skim well,
and when it has simmered very gently for 1 hour, put in the vegetables,
and continue simmering till the meat is perfectly tender. Draw out the
bones, dish the meat, and garnish either with tufts of cauliflower or
braised cabbage cut in quarters. Thicken as much gravy as required, with
a little butter and flour; add spices and ketchup in the above
proportion, give one boil, pour some of it over the meat, and the
remainder send in a tureen.

_Time_.--rather more than 3 hours. _Average cost_, 7d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--The remainder of the liquor in which the beef was boiled may be
served as a soup, or it may be sent to table with the meat in a tureen.


STEWED RUMP OF BEEF.

670. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 rump of beef, sufficient stock to cover it (No.
105), 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 2 tablespoonfuls of ketchup, 1 large
bunch of savoury herbs, 2 onions, 12 cloves, pepper and salt to taste,
thickening of butter and flour, 1 glass of port wine.

_Mode_.--Cut out the bone, sprinkle the meat with a little cayenne (this
must be sparingly used), and bind and tie it firmly up with tape; put it
into a stewpan with sufficient stock to cover it, and add vinegar,
ketchup, herbs, onions, cloves, and seasoning in the above proportion,
and simmer very gently for 4 or 5 hours, or until the meat is perfectly
tender, which may be ascertained by piercing it with a thin skewer. When
done, remove the tape, lay it into a deep dish, which keep hot; strain
and skim the gravy, thicken it with butter and flour, add a glass of
port wine and any flavouring to make the gravy rich and palatable; let
it boil up, pour over the meat, and serve. This dish may be very much
enriched by garnishing with forcemeat balls, or filling up the space
whence the bone is taken with a good forcemeat; sliced carrots, turnips,
and onions boiled with the meat, are also a great improvement, and,
where expense is not objected to, it may be glazed. This, however, is
not necessary where a good gravy is poured round and over the meat.

_Time_.--1/2 rump stewed gently from 4 to 5 hours.

_Average cost_, 10d. per lb. _Sufficient_ for 8 or 10 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--A stock or gravy in which to boil the meat, may be made of the
bone and trimmings, by boiling them with water, and adding carrots,
onions, turnips, and a bunch of sweet herbs. To make this dish richer
and more savoury, half-roast the rump, and afterwards stew it in strong
stock and a little Madeira. This is an expensive method, and is not,
after all, much better than a plainer-dressed joint.

    THE BARON OF BEEF.--This noble joint, which consisted of two
    sirloins not cut asunder, was a favourite dish of our ancestors.
    It is rarely seen nowadays; indeed, it seems out of place on a
    modern table, as it requires the grim boar's head and Christmas
    pie as supporters. Sir Walter Scott has described a feast at
    which the baron of beef would have appeared to great advantage.
    We will quote a few lines to remind us of those days when
    "England was merry England," and when hospitality was thought to
    be the highest virtue.

      "The fire, with well-dried logs supplied,
      Went roaring up the chimney wide;
      The huge hall-table's oaken face,
      Scrubb'd till it shone, the day to grace,
      Bore then, upon its massive board,
      No mark to part the squire and lord.
      Then was brought in the lusty brawn,
      By old blue-coated serving-man;
      Then the grim boar's head frown'd on high,
      Crested with bays and rosemary.
      Well can the green-garb'd ranger tell
      How, when, and where the monster fell;
      What dogs before his death he tore,
      And all the baiting of the boar;
      While round the merry wassel bowl,
      Garnish'd with ribbons, blithe did trowl.
      There the huge sirloin reek'd; hard by
      Plum-porridge stood, and Christmas pie;
      Nor fail'd old Scotland to produce,
      At such high tide, her savoury goose."

    When a lord's son came of age, in the olden time, the baron of
    beef was too small a joint, by many degrees, to satisfy the
    retainers who would flock to the hall; a whole ox was therefore
    generally roasted over a fire built up of huge logs. We may here
    mention, that an ox was roasted entire on the frozen Thames, in
    the early part of the present century.

STEWED SHIN OF BEEF.

671. INGREDIENTS.--A shin of beef, 1 head of celery, 1 onion, a faggot
of savoury herbs, 1/2 teaspoonful of allspice, 1/2 teaspoonful of whole
black pepper, 4 carrots, 12 button onions, 2 turnips, thickening of
butter and flour, 3 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, 2 tablespoonfuls
of port wine; pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Have the bone sawn into 4 or 5 pieces, cover with hot water,
bring it to a boil, and remove any scum that may rise to the surface.
Put in the celery, onion, herbs, spice, and seasoning, and simmer very
gently until the meat is tender. Peel the vegetables, cut them into any
shape fancy may dictate, and boil them with the onions until tender;
lift out the beef, put it on a dish, which keep hot, and thicken with
butter and flour as much of the liquor as will be wanted for gravy; keep
stirring till it boils, then strain and skim. Put the gravy back in the
stewpan, add the seasoning, port wine, and ketchup, give one boil, and
pour it over the beef; garnish with the boiled carrots, turnips, and
onions.

_Time_.--The meat to be stewed about 4 hours. _Average cost_, 4d. per
lb. with bone.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


TOAD-IN-THE-HOLE (a Homely but Savoury Dish).

672. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 lb. of rump-steak, 1 sheep's kidney, pepper and
salt to taste. For the batter, 3 eggs, 1 pint of milk, 4 tablespoonfuls
of flour, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt.

_Mode_.--Cut up the steak and kidney into convenient-sized pieces, and
put them into a pie-dish, with a good seasoning of salt and pepper; mix
the flour with a small quantity of milk at first, to prevent its being
lumpy; add the remainder, and the 3 eggs, which should be well beaten;
put in the salt, stir the batter for about 5 minutes, and pour it over
the steak. Place it in a tolerably brisk oven immediately, and bake for
1-1/2 hour.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--The remains of cold beef, rather underdone, may be substituted
for the steak, and, when liked, the smallest possible quantity of minced
onion or shalot may be added.


BOILED TONGUE.

673. INGREDIENTS.--1 tongue, a bunch of savoury herbs, water.

_Mode_.--In choosing a tongue, ascertain how long it has been dried or
pickled, and select one with a smooth skin, which denotes its being
young and tender. If a dried one, and rather hard, soak it at least for
12 hours previous to cooking it; if, however, it is fresh from the
pickle, 2 or 3 hours will be sufficient for it to remain in sock. Put
the tongue in a stewpan with plenty of cold water and a bunch of savoury
herbs; let it gradually come to a boil, skim well and simmer very gently
until tender. Peel off the skin, garnish with tufts of cauliflowers or
Brussels sprouts, and serve. Boiled tongue is frequently sent to table
with boiled poultry, instead of ham, and is, by many persons, preferred.
If to serve cold, peel it, fasten it down to a piece of board by
sticking a fork through the root, and another through the top, to
straighten it. When cold, glaze it, and put a paper ruche round the
root, and garnish with tufts of parsley.

_Time_.--A large smoked tongue, 4 to 4-1/2 hours; a small one, 2-1/2 to
3 hours. A large unsmoked tongue, 3 to 3-1/2 hours; a small one, 2 to
2-1/2 hours.

_Average cost_, for a moderate sized tongue, 3s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


TO CURE TONGUES.

I.

674. INGREDIENTS.--For a tongue of 7 lbs., 1 oz. of saltpetre, 1/2 oz.
of black pepper, 4 oz. of sugar, 3 oz. of juniper berries, 6 oz. of
salt.

_Mode_.--Rub the above ingredients well into the tongue, and let it
remain in the pickle for 10 days or a fortnight; then drain it, tie it
up in brown paper, and have it smoked for about 20 days over a wood
fire; or it may be boiled out of this pickle.

_Time_.--From 10 to 14 days to remain in the pickle; to be smoked 24
days.

_Average cost_, for a medium-sized uncured tongue, 2s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--If not wanted immediately, the tongue will keep 3 or 4 weeks
without being too salt; then it must not be rubbed, but only turned in
the pickle.


II.

675. INGREDIENTS.--9 lbs. of salt, 8 oz. of sugar, 9 oz. of powdered
saltpetre.

_Mode_.--Rub the above ingredients well into the tongues, and keep them
in this curing mixture for 2 months, turning them every day. Drain them
from the pickle, cover with brown paper, and have them smoked for about
3 weeks.

_Time_.--The tongues to remain in pickle 2 months; to be smoked 3 weeks.

_Sufficient_.--The above quantity of brine sufficient for 12 tongues, of
5 lbs. each.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: BEEF TONGUE.]

    THE TONGUES OF ANIMALS.--The tongue, whether in the ox or in
    man, is the seat of the sense of taste. This sense warns the
    animal against swallowing deleterious substances. Dr. Carpenter
    says, that, among the lower animals, the instinctive perceptions
    connected with this sense, are much more remarkable than our
    own; thus, an omnivorous monkey will seldom touch fruits of a
    poisonous character, although their taste may be agreeable.
    However this may be, man's instinct has decided that ox-tongue
    is better than horse-tongue; nevertheless, the latter is
    frequently substituted by dishonest dealers for the former. The
    horse's tongue may be readily distinguished by a spoon-like
    expansion at its end.

TO PICKLE AND DRESS A TONGUE TO EAT COLD.

676. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of salt, 2 oz. of bay-salt, 1 oz. of saltpetre,
3 oz. of coarse sugar; cloves, mace, and allspice to taste; butter,
common crust of flour and water.

_Mode_.--Lay the tongue for a fortnight in the above pickle, turn it
every day, and be particular that the spices are well pounded; put it
into a small pan just large enough to hold it, place some pieces of
butter on it, and cover with a common crust. Bake in a slow oven until
so tender that a straw would penetrate it; take off the skin, fasten it
down to a piece of board by running a fork through the root and another
through the tip, at the same time straightening it and putting it into
shape. When cold, glaze it, put a paper ruche round the root, which is
generally very unsightly, and garnish with tufts of parsley.

_Time_.--From 3 or 4 hours in a slow oven, according to size.

_Average cost_, for a medium-sized uncured tongue, 2s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


TO DRESS TRIPE.

677. INGREDIENTS.--Tripe, onion sauce, No. 484, milk and water.

_Mode_.--Ascertain that the tripe is quite fresh, and have it cleaned
and dressed. Cut away the coarsest fat, and boil it in equal proportions
of milk and water for 3/4 hour. Should the tripe be entirely undressed,
more than double that time should be allowed for it. Have ready some
onion sauce made by recipe No. 4S4, dish the tripe, smother it with the
sauce, and the remainder send to table in a tureen.

_Time_.--1 hour: for undressed tripe, from 2-1/2 to 3 hours.

_Average cost_, 7d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Tripe may be dressed in a variety of ways: it may be cut in
pieces and fried in batter, stewed in gravy with mushrooms, or cut into
collops, sprinkled with minced onion and savoury herbs, and fried a nice
brown in clarified butter.


BEEF CARVING.

AITCHBONE OF BEEF.

A boiled aitch-bone of beef is not a difficult joint to carve, as will
be seen on reference to the accompanying engraving. By following with
the knife the direction of the line from 1 to 2, nice slices will be
easily cut. It may be necessary, as in a round of beef, to cut a thick
slice off the outside before commencing to serve.

[Illustration]

BRISKET OF BEEF.

There is but little description necessary to add, to show the carving of
a boiled brisket of beef, beyond the engraving here inserted. The only
point to be observed is, that the joint should be cut evenly and firmly
quite across the bones, so that, on its reappearance at table, it should
not have a jagged and untidy look.

[Illustration]

RIBS OF BEEF.

This dish resembles the sirloin, except that it has no fillet or
undercut. As explained in the recipes, the end piece is often cut off,
salted and boiled. The mode of carving is similar to that of the
sirloin, viz., in the direction of the dotted line from 1 to 2. This
joint will be the more easily cut if the plan be pursued which is
suggested in carving the sirloin; namely, the inserting of the knife
immediately between the bone and the moat, before commencing to cut it
into slices. All joints of roast beef should be cut in even and thin
slices. Horseradish, finely scraped, may be served as a garnish; but
horseradish sauce is preferable for eating with the beef.

[Illustration]

SIRLOIN OF BEEF.

This dish is served differently at various tables, some preferring it to
come to table with the fillet, or, as it is usually called, the
undercut, uppermost. The reverse way, as shown in the cut, is that most
usually adopted. Still the undercut is best eaten when hot;
consequently, the carver himself may raise the joint, and cut some
slices from the under side, in the direction of from 1 to 2, as the
fillet is very much preferred by some eaters. The upper part of the
sirloin should be cut in the direction of the line from 5 to 6, and care
should be taken to carve it evenly and in thin slices. It will be found
a great assistance, in carving this joint well, if the knife be first
inserted just above the bone at the bottom, and run sharply along
between the bone and meat, and also to divide the meat from the bone in
the same way at the side of the joint. The slices will then come away
more readily.

[Illustration]

Some carvers cut the upper side of the sirloin across, as shown by the
line from 3 to 4; but this is a wasteful plan, and one not to be
recommended. With the sirloin, very finely-scraped horseradish is
usually served, and a little given, when liked, to each guest.
Horseradish sauce is preferable, however, for serving on the plate,
although the scraped horseradish may still be used as a garnish.

[Illustration]

A ROUND OF BEEF.

A round of beef is not so easily carved as many other joints of beef,
and to manage it properly, a thin-bladed and very sharp knife is
necessary. Off the outside of the joint, at its top, a thick slice
should first be cut, so as to leave the surface smooth; then thin and
even slices should be cleverly carved in the direction of the line 1 to
2; and with each slice of the lean a delicate morsel of the fat should
be served.

[Illustration]

BEEF TONGUE.

Passing the knife down in the direction of from 1 to 2, a not too thin
slice should be helped; and the carving of a tongue may be continued in
this way until the best portions of the upper side are served. The fat
which lies about the root of the tongue can be served by turning the
tongue, and cutting in the direction of from 3 to 4.

[Illustration]




[Illustration]

CHAPTER XIV.


GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE SHEEP AND LAMB.

678. OF ALL WILD or DOMESTICATED ANIMALS, the sheep is, without
exception, the most useful to man as a food, and the most necessary to
his health and comfort; for it not only supplies him with the lightest
and most nutritious of meats, but, in the absence of the cow, its udder
yields him milk, cream, and a sound though inferior cheese; while from
its fat he obtains light, and from its fleece broadcloth, kerseymere,
blankets, gloves, and hose. Its bones when burnt make an animal
charcoal--ivory black--to polish his boots, and when powdered, a manure
for the cultivation of his wheat; the skin, either split or whole, is
made into a mat for his carriage, a housing for his horse, or a lining
for his hat, and many other useful purposes besides, being extensively
employed in the manufacture of parchment; and finally, when oppressed by
care and sorrow, the harmonious strains that carry such soothing
contentment to the heart, are elicited from the musical strings,
prepared almost exclusively from the intestines of the sheep.

679. THIS VALUABLE ANIMAL, of which England is estimated to maintain an
average stock of 32,000,000, belongs to the class already indicated
under the ox,--the _Mammalia_; to the order of _Rumenantia_, or
cud-chewing animal; to the tribe of _Capridae_, or horned quadrupeds;
and the genus _Ovis_, or the "sheep." The sheep may be either with or
without horns; when present, however, they have always this peculiarity,
that they spring from a triangular base, are spiral in form, and
lateral, at the side of the head, in situation. The fleece of the sheep
is of two sorts, either short and harsh, or soft and woolly; the wool
always preponderating in an exact ratio to the care, attention, and
amount of domestication bestowed on the animal. The generic
peculiarities of the sheep are the triangular and spiral form of the
horns, always larger in the male when present, but absent in the most
cultivated species; having sinuses at the base of all the toes of the
four feet, with two rudimentary hoofs on the fore legs, two inguinal
teats to the udder, with a short tail in the wild breed, but of varying
length in the domesticated; have no incisor teeth in the upper jaw, but
in their place a hard elastic cushion along the margin of the gum, on
which the animal nips and breaks the herbage on which it feeds; in the
lower jaw there are eight incisor teeth and six molars on each side of
both jaws, making in all 32 teeth. The fleece consists of two coats, one
to keep the animal warm, the other to carry off the water without
wetting the skin. The first is of wool, the weight and fineness of which
depend on the quality of the pasture and the care bestowed on the flock;
the other of hair, that pierces the wool and overlaps it, and is in
excess in exact proportion to the badness of the keep and inattention
with which the animal is treated.

680. THE GREAT OBJECT OF THE GRAZIER is to procure an animal that will
yield the greatest pecuniary return in the shortest time; or, in other
words, soonest convert grass and turnips into good mutton and fine
fleece. All sheep will not do this alike; some, like men, are so
restless and irritable, that no system of feeding, however good, will
develop their frames or make them fat. The system adopted by the breeder
to obtain a valuable animal for the butcher, is to enlarge the capacity
and functions of the digestive organs, and reduce those of the head and
chest, or the mental and respiratory organs. In the first place, the
mind should be tranquillized, and those spaces that can never produce
animal fibre curtailed, and greater room afforded, as in the abdomen,
for those that can. And as nothing militates against the fattening
process so much as restlessness, the chief wish of the grazier is to
find a dull, indolent sheep, one who, instead of frisking himself,
leaping his wattles, or even condescending to notice the butting gambols
of his silly companions, silently fills his paunch with pasture, and
then seeking a shady nook, indolently and luxuriously chows his cud with
closed eyes and blissful satisfaction, only rising when his delicious
repast is ended, to proceed silently and without emotion to repeat the
pleasing process of laying in more provender, and then returning to his
dreamy siesta to renew the delightful task of rumination. Such animals
are said to have a _lymphatic_ temperament, and are of so kindly a
nature, that on good pasturage they may be said to grow daily. The
Leicestershire breed is the best example of this lymphatic and contented
animal, and the active Orkney, who is half goat in his habits, of the
restless and unprofitable. The rich pasture of our midland counties
would take years in making the wiry Orkney fat and profitable, while one
day's fatigue in climbing rocks after a coarse and scanty herbage would
probably cause the actual death of the pampered and short-winded
Leicester.

681. THE MORE REMOVED FROM THE NATURE of the animal is the food on which
it lives, the more difficult is the process of assimilation, and the
more complex the chain of digestive organs; for it must be evident to
all, that the same apparatus that converts _flesh_ into _flesh_, is
hardly calculated to transmute _grass_ into flesh. As the process of
digestion in carnivorous animals is extremely simple, these organs are
found to be remarkably short, seldom exceeding the length of the
animal's body; while, where digestion is more difficult, from the
unassimilating nature of the aliment, as in the ruminant order, the
alimentary canal, as is the case with the sheep, is _twenty-seven times
the length of the body._ The digestive organ in all ruminant animals
consists of _four stomachs_, or, rather, a capacious pouch, divided by
doorways and valves into four compartments, called, in their order of
position, the Paunch, the Reticulum, the Omasum, and the Abomasum. When
the sheep nibbles the grass, and is ignorantly supposed to be eating, he
is, in fact, only preparing the raw material of his meal, in reality
only mowing the pasture, which, as he collects, is swallowed instantly,
passing into the first receptacle, the _paunch_, where it is surrounded
by a quantity of warm saliva, in which the herbage undergoes a process
of maceration or softening, till the animal having filled this
compartment, the contents pass through a valve into the second or
smaller bag,--the _reticulum_, where, having again filled the paunch
with a reserve, the sheep lies down and commences that singular process
of chewing the cud, or, in other words, masticating the food he has
collected. By the operation of a certain set of muscles, a small
quantity of this softened food from the _reticulum_, or second bag, is
passed into the mouth, which it now becomes the pleasure of the sheep to
grind under his molar teeth into a soft smooth pulp, the operation being
further assisted by a flow of saliva, answering the double purpose of
increasing the flavour of the aliment and promoting the solvency of the
mass. Having completely comminuted and blended this mouthful, it is
swallowed a second time; but instead of returning to the paunch or
reticulum, it passes through another valve into a side cavity,--the
_omasum_, where, after a maceration in more saliva for some hours, it
glides by the same contrivance into the fourth pouch,--the _abomasum_,
an apartment in all respects analogous to the ordinary stomach of
animals, and where the process of digestion, begun and carried on in the
previous three, is here consummated, and the nutrient principle, by
means of the bile, eliminated from the digested aliment. Such is the
process of digestion in sheep and oxen.

682. NO OTHER ANIMAL, even of the same order, possesses in so remarkable
a degree the power of converting pasture into flesh as the
Leicestershire sheep; the South Down and Cheviot, the two next breeds in
quality, are, in consequence of the greater vivacity of the animal's
nature, not equal to it in that respect, though in both the brain and
chest are kept subservient to the greater capacity of the organs of
digestion. Besides the advantage of increased bulk and finer fleeces,
the breeder seeks to obtain an augmented deposit of tissue in those
parts of the carcase most esteemed as food, or, what are called in the
trade "prime joints;" and so far has this been effected, that the
comparative weight of the hind quarters over the fore has become a test
of quality in the breed, the butchers in some markets charging twopence
a pound more for that portion of the sheep. Indeed, so superior are the
hind quarters of mutton now regarded, that very many of the West-end
butchers never deal in any other part of the sheep.

683. THE DIFFERENCE IN THE QUALITY OF THE FLESH in various breeds is a
well-established fact, not alone in flavour, but also in tenderness; and
that the nature of the pasture on which the sheep is fed influences the
flavour of the meat, is equally certain, and shown in the estimation in
which those flocks are held which have grazed on the thymy heath of
Bamstead in Sussex. It is also a well-established truth, that the
_larger_ the frame of the animal, the _coarser_ is the meat, and that
_small bones_ are both guarantees for the fineness of the breed and the
delicacy of the flesh. The sex too has much to do in determining the
quality of the meat; in the males, the lean is closer in fibre, deeper
in colour, harder in texture, less juicy, and freer from fat, than in
the female, and is consequently tougher and more difficult of digestion;
but probably age, and the character of the pasturage on which they are
reared, has, more than any other cause, an influence on the quality and
tenderness of the meat.

684. THE NUMEROUS VARIETIES of sheep inhabiting the different regions of
the earth have been reduced by Cuvier to three, or at most four,
species: the _Ovis Amman_, or the Argali, the presumed parent stock of
all the rest; the _Ovis Tragelaphus_, the bearded sheep of Africa; the
_Ovis Musmon_, the Musmon of Southern Europe; and the _Ovis Montana_,
the Mouflon of America; though it is believed by many naturalists that
this last is so nearly identical with the Indian Argali as to be
undeserving a separate place. It is still a controversy to which of
these three we are indebted for the many breeds of modern domestication;
the Argali, however, by general belief, has been considered as the most
_probable_ progenitor of the present varieties.

685. THE EFFECTS PRODUCED BY CHANGE OF CLIMATE, accident, and other
causes, must have been great to accomplish so complete a physical
alteration as the primitive Argali must have undergone before the
Musmon, or Mouflon of Corsica, the _immediate_ progenitor of all our
European breeds, assumed his present appearance. The Argali is about a
fifth larger in size than the ordinary English sheep, and being a native
of a tropical clime, his fleece is of hair instead of wool, and of a
warm reddish brown, approaching to yellow; a thick mane of darker hair,
about seven inches long, commences from two long tufts at the angle of
the jaws, and, running _under_ the throat and neck, descends down the
chest, dividing, at the fore fork, into two parts, one running down the
front of each leg, as low as the shank. The horns, unlike the character
of the order generally, have a quadrangular base, and, sweeping inwards,
terminate in a sharp point. The tail, about seven inches long, ends in a
tuft of stiff hairs. From this remarkable muffler-looking beard, the
French have given the species the name of _Mouflon a manchettes_. From
the primitive stock _eleven_ varieties have been reared in this country,
of the domesticated sheep, each supposed by their advocates to possess
some one or more special qualities. These eleven, embracing the Shetland
or Orkney; the Dun-woolled; Black-faced, or heath-bred; the Moorland, or
Devonshire; the Cheviot; the Horned, of Norfolk the Ryeland; South-Down;
the Merino; the Old Leicester, and the Teeswater, or New Leicester, have
of late years been epitomized; and, for all useful and practical
purposes, reduced to the following four orders:--

686. THE SOUTH-DOWN, the LEICESTER, the BLACK-FACED, and the CHEVIOT.

[Illustration: SOUTH-DOWN RAM.]

[Illustration: SOUTH-DOWN EWE.]

687. SOUTH-DOWNS.--It appears, as far as our investigation can trace the
fact, that from the very earliest epoch of agricultural history in
England, the breezy range of light chalky hills running through the
south-west and south of Sussex and Hampshire, and known as the
South-Downs, has been famous for a superior race of sheep; and we find
the Romans early established mills and a cloth-factory at Winchester,
where they may be said to terminate, which rose to such estimation, from
the fineness of the wool and texture of the cloth, that the produce was
kept as only worthy to clothe emperors. From this, it may be inferred
that sheep have always been indigenous to this hilly tract. Though
boasting so remote a reputation, it is comparatively within late years
that the improvement and present state of perfection of this breed has
been effected, the South-Down new ranking, for symmetry of shape,
constitution, and early maturity, with any stock in the kingdom. The
South-Down has no horns, is covered with a fine wool from two to three
inches long, has a small head, and legs and face of a grey colour. It
is, however, considered deficient in depth and breadth of chest. A
marked peculiarity of this breed is that its hind quarters stand higher
than the fore, the quarters weighing from fifteen to eighteen pounds.

[Illustration: LEICESTER RAM.]

[Illustration: LEICESTER EWE.]

688. THE LEICESTER.--It was not till the year 1755 that Mr. Robert
Bakewell directed his attention to the improvement of his stock of
sheep, and ultimately effected that change in the character of his flock
which has brought the breed to hold so prominent a place. The Leicester
is regarded as the largest example of the improved breeds, very
productive, and yielding a good fleece. He has a small head, covered
with short white hairs, a clean muzzle, an open countenance, full eye,
long thin ear, tapering neck, well-arched ribs, and straight back. The
meat is indifferent, its flavour not being so good as that of the
South-Down, and there is a very large proportion of fat. Average weight
of carcase from 90 to 100 lbs.

[Illustration: HEATH RAM.]

[Illustration: HEATH EWE.]

689. BLACK-FACED, on HEATH-BRED SHEEP.--This is the most hardy of all
our native breeds, and originally came from Ettrick Forest. The face and
legs are black, or sometimes mottled, the horns spiral, and on the top
of the forehead it has a small round tuft of lighter-coloured wool than
on the face; has the muzzle and lips of the same light hue, and what
shepherds call a mealy mouth; the eye is full of vivacity and fire, and
well open; the body long, round, and firm, and the limbs robust. The
wool is thin, coarse, and light. Weight of the quarter, from 10 to 16
lbs.

690. THE CHEVIOT.--From the earliest traditions, these hills in the
North, like the chalk-ridges in the South, have possessed a race of
large-carcased sheep, producing a valuable fleece. To these physical
advantages, they added a sound constitution, remarkable vigour, and
capability to endure great privation. Both sexes are destitute of horns,
face white, legs long and clean, carries the head erect, has the throat
and neck well covered, the cars long and open, and the face animated.
The Cheviot is a small-boned sheep, and well covered with wool to the
hough; the only defect in this breed, is in a want of depth in the
chest. Weight of the quarter, from 12 to 18 lbs.

[Illustration: ROMNEY-MARSH RAM.]

[Illustration: ROMNEY-MARSH EWE.]

691. THOUGH THE ROMNEY MARSHES, that wide tract of morass and lowland
moor extending from the Weald (or ancient forest) of Kent into Sussex,
has rather been regarded as a general feeding-ground for any kind of
sheep to be pastured on, it has yet, from the earliest date, been famous
for a breed of animals almost peculiar to the locality, and especially
for size, length, thickness, and quantity of wool, and what is called
thickness of stocking; and on this account for ages held pre-eminence
over every other breed in the kingdom. So satisfied were the Kentish men
with the superiority of their sheep, that they long resisted any
crossing in the breed. At length, however, this was effected, and from
the Old Romney and New Leicester a stock was produced that proved, in an
eminent degree, the advantage of the cross; and though the breed was
actually smaller than the original, it was found that the new stock did
not consume so much food, the stocking was increased, they were ready
for the market a _year_ sooner; that the fat formed more on the exterior
of the carcase, where it was of most advantage to the grazier, rather
than as formerly in the interior, where it went to the butcher as offal;
and though the wool was shorter and lighter, it was of a better colour,
finer, and possessed of superior felting properties.

692. THE ROMNEY MARSH BREED is a large animal, deep, close, and compact,
with white face and legs, and yields a heavy fleece of a good staple
quality. The general structure is, however, considered defective, the
chest being narrow and the extremities coarse; nevertheless its tendency
to fatten, and its early maturity, are universally admitted. The Romney
Marsh, therefore, though not ranking as a first class in respect of
perfection and symmetry of breed, is a highly useful, profitable, and
generally advantageous variety of the English domestic sheep.

693. DIFFERENT NAMES HAVE BEEN GIVEN to sheep by their breeders,
according to their age and sex. The male is called a ram, or tup; after
weaning, he is said to be a hog, or hogget, or a lamb-hog, tup-hog, or
teg; later he is a wether, or wether-hog; after the first shearing, a
shearing, or dinmont; and after each succeeding shearing, a two, three,
or four-shear ram, tup, or wether, according to circumstances. The
female is called a ewe, or gimmer-lamb, till weaned, when she becomes,
according to the shepherd's nomenclature, a gimmer-ewe, hog, or teg;
after shearing, a gimmer or shearing-ewe, or theave; and in future a
two, three, or four-shear ewe, or theave.

694. THE MODE OF SLAUGHTERING SHEEP is perhaps as humane and expeditious
a process as could be adopted to attain the objects sought: the animal
being laid on its side in a sort of concave stool, the butcher, while
pressing the body with his knee, transfixes the throat near the angle of
the jaw, passing his knife between the windpipe and bones of the neck;
thus dividing the jugulars, carotids, and large vessels, the death being
very rapid from such a hemorrhage.

[Illustration: SIDE OF MUTTON, SHOWING THE SEVERAL JOINTS.]

695. ALMOST EVERY LARGE CITY has a particular manner of cutting up, or,
as it is called, dressing the carcase. In London this process is very
simple, and as our butchers have found that much skewering back,
doubling one part over another, or scoring the inner cuticle or fell,
tends to spoil the meat and shorten the time it would otherwise keep,
they avoid all such treatment entirely. The carcase when flayed (which
operation is performed while yet warm), the sheep when hung up and the
head removed, presents the profile shown in our cut; the small numerals
indicating the parts or joints into which one half of the animal is cut.
After separating the hind from the fore quarters, with eleven ribs to
the latter, the quarters are usually subdivided in the manner shown in
the sketch, in which the several joins are defined by the intervening
lines and figures. _Hind quarter_: No. 1, the leg; 2, the loin--the two,
when cut in one piece, being called the saddle. _Fore quarter_: No. 3,
the shoulder; 4 and 5 the neck; No. 5 being called, for distinction, the
scrag, which is generally afterwards separated from 4, the lower and
better joint; No. 6, the breast. The haunch of mutton, so often served
at public dinners and special entertainments, comprises all the leg and
so much of the loin, short of the ribs or lap, as is indicated on the
upper part of the carcase by a dotted line.

696. THE GENTLE AND TIMID DISPOSITION of the sheep, and its defenceless
condition, must very early have attached it to man for motives less
selfish than either its fleece or its flesh; for it has been proved
beyond a doubt that, obtuse as we generally regard it, it is susceptible
of a high degree of domesticity, obedience, and affection. In many parts
of Europe, where the flocks are guided by the shepherd's voice alone, it
is no unusual thing for a sheep to quit the herd when called by its
name, and follow the keeper like a dog. In the mountains of Scotland,
when a flock is invaded by a savage dog, the rams have been known to
form the herd into a circle, and placing themselves on the outside line,
keep the enemy at bay, or charging on him in a troop, have despatched
him with their horns.

697. THE VALUE OF THE SHEEP seems to have been early understood by Adam
in his fallen state; his skin not only affording him protection for his
body, but a covering for his tent; and accordingly, we find Abel
intrusted with this portion of his father's stock; for the Bible tells
us that "Abel was a keeper of sheep." What other animals were
domesticated at that time we can only conjecture, or at what exact
period the flesh of the sheep was first eaten for food by man, is
equally, if not uncertain, open to controversy. For though some
authorities maintain the contrary, it is but natural to suppose that
when Abel brought firstlings of his flock, "and the fat thereof," as a
sacrifice, the less dainty portions, not being oblations, were hardly
likely to have been flung away as refuse. Indeed, without supposing Adam
and his descendants to have eaten animal food, we cannot reconcile the
fact of Jubal Cain, Cain's son, and his family, living in tents, as they
are reported to have done, knowing that both their own garments and the
coverings of the tents, were made from the hides and skins of the
animals they bred; for the number of sheep and oxen slain for oblations
only, would not have supplied sufficient material for two such necessary
purposes. The opposite opinion is, that animal food was not eaten till
after the Flood, when the Lord renewed his covenant with Noah. From
Scriptural authority we learn many interesting facts as regards the
sheep: the first, that mutton fat was considered the most delicious
portion of any meat, and the tail and adjacent part the most exquisite
morsel in the whole body; consequently, such were regarded as especially
fit for the offer of sacrifice. From this fact we may reasonably infer
that the animal still so often met with in Palestine and Syria, and
known as the Fat-tailed sheep, was in use in the days of the patriarchs,
though probably not then of the size and weight it now attains to; a
supposition that gains greater strength, when it is remembered that the
ram Abraham found in the bush, when he went to offer up Isaac, was a
horned animal, being entangled in the brake by his curved horns; so far
proving that it belonged to the tribe of the Capridae, the fat-tailed
sheep appertaining to the same family.


LAMBS.

698. THOUGH THE LAMBING SEASON IN THIS COUNTRY usually commences in
March, under the artificial system, so much pursued now to please the
appetite of luxury, lambs can be procured at all seasons. When, however,
the sheep lambs in mid-winter, or the inclemency of the weather would
endanger the lives of mother and young, if exposed to its influence, it
is customary to rear the lambs within-doors, and under the shelter of
stables or barns, where, foddered on soft hay, and part fed on cow's
milk, the little creatures thrive rapidly: to such it is customary to
give the name of House Lamb, to distinguish it from that reared in the
open air, or grass-fed. The ewe goes five months with her young, about
152 days, or close on 22 weeks. The weaning season commences on poor
lands, about the end of the third month, but on rich pasture not till
the close of the fourth--sometimes longer.

699. FROM THE LARGE PROPORTION OF MOISTURE OR FLUIDS contained in the
tissues of all young animals, the flesh of lamb and veal is much more
prone, in close, damp weather, to become tainted and spoil than the
flesh of the more mature, drier, and closer-textured beef and mutton.
Among epicures, the most delicious sorts of lamb are those of the
South-Down breed, known by their black feet; and of these, those which
have been exclusively suckled on the milk of the parent ewe, are
considered the finest. Next to these in estimation are those fed on the
milk of several dams, and last of all, though the fattest, the grass-fed
lamb; this, however, implies an age much greater than either of the
others.

[Illustration: SIDE OF LAMB.]

700. LAMB, in the early part of the season, however reared, is in
London, and indeed generally, sold in quarters, divided with eleven ribs
to the forequarter; but, as the season advances, these are subdivided
into two, and the hind-quarter in the same manner; the first consisting
of the shoulder, and the neck and breast; the latter, of the leg and the
loin,--as shown in the cut illustrative of mutton. As lamb, from the
juicy nature of its flesh, is especially liable to spoil in unfavourable
weather, it should be frequently wiped, so as to remove any moisture
that may form on it.

701. IN THE PURCHASING OF LAMB FOR THE TABLE, there are certain signs by
which the experienced judgment is able to form an accurate opinion
whether the animal has been lately slaughtered, and whether the joints
possess that condition of fibre indicative of good and wholesome meat.
The first of these doubts may be solved satisfactorily by the bright and
dilated appearance of the eye; the quality of the fore-quarter can
always be guaranteed by the blue or healthy ruddiness of the jugular, or
vein of the neck; while the rigidity of the knuckle, and the firm,
compact feel of the kidney, will answer in an equally positive manner
for the integrity of the hind-quarter.

702. MODE OF CUTTING UP A SIDE OF LAMB IN LONDON.--1, 1. Ribs; 2.
Breast; 3. Shoulder; 4. Loin; 5. Leg; 1,2,3. Fore Quarter.




RECIPES.


CHAPTER XV.


BAKED MINCED MUTTON (Cold Meat Cookery).

703. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of any joint of cold roast mutton, 1 or 2
onions, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, pepper and salt to taste, 2 blades of
pounded mace or nutmeg, 2 tablespoonfuls of gravy, mashed potatoes.

_Mode_.--Mince an onion rather fine, and fry it a light-brown colour;
add the herbs and mutton, both of which should be also finely minced and
well mixed; season with pepper and salt, and a little pounded mace or
nutmeg, and moisten with the above proportion of gravy. Put a layer of
mashed potatoes at the bottom of a dish, then the mutton, and then
another layer of potatoes, and bake for about 1/2 hour.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 4d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--If there should be a large quantity of meat, use 2 onions
instead of 1.


BOILED BREAST OF MUTTON AND CAPER SAUCE.

704. INGREDIENTS.--Breast of mutton, bread crumbs, 2 tablespoonfuls of
minced savoury herbs (put a large proportion of parsley), pepper and
salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut off the superfluous fat; bone it; sprinkle over a layer of
bread crumbs, minced herbs, and seasoning; roll, and bind it up firmly.
Boil _gently_ for 2 hours, remove the tape, and serve with caper sauce,
No. 382, a little of which should be poured over the meat.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 6d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year.


BOILED LEG OF MUTTON.

705. INGREDIENTS.--Mutton, water, salt.

_Mode_.--A. leg of mutton for boiling should not hang too long, as it
will not look a good colour when dressed. Cut off the shank-bone, trim
the knuckle, and wash and wipe it very clean; plunge it into sufficient
boiling water to cover it; let it boil up, then draw the saucepan to the
side of the fire, where it should remain till the finger can be borne in
the water. Then place it sufficiently near the fire, that the water may
gently simmer, and be very careful that it does not boil fast, or the
meat will be hard. Skim well, add a little salt, and in about 2-1/4
hours after the water begins to simmer, a moderate-sized leg of mutton
will be done. Serve with carrots and mashed turnips, which may be boiled
with the meat, and send caper sauce (No. 382) to table with it in a
tureen.

_Time_.--A moderate-sized leg of mutton of 9 lbs., 2-1/4 hours after the
water boils; one of 12 lbs., 3 hours.

_Average cost_, 8-1/2d. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--A moderate-sized leg of mutton for 6 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ nearly all the year, but not so good in June, July, and
August.

_Note_.--When meat is liked very _thoroughly_ cooked, allow more time
than stated above. The liquor this joint was boiled in should be
converted into soup.

    THE GOOD SHEPHERD.--The sheep's complete dependence upon the
    shepherd for protection from its numerous enemies is frequently
    referred to in the Bible; thus the Psalmist likens himself to a
    lost sheep, and prays the Almighty to seek his servant; and our
    Saviour, when despatching his twelve chosen disciples to preach
    the Gospel amongst their unbelieving brethren, compares them to
    lambs going amongst wolves. The shepherd of the East, by kind
    treatment, calls forth from his sheep unmistakable signs of
    affection. The sheep obey his voice and recognize the names by
    which he calls them, and they follow him in and out of the fold.
    The beautiful figure of the "good shepherd," which so often
    occurs in the New Testament, expresses the tenderness of the
    Saviour for mankind. "The good shepherd giveth his life for the
    sheep."--_John_, x. 11. "I am the good shepherd, and know my
    sheep, and am known by mine."--_John_, x. 14. "And other sheep I
    have which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and
    they shall hear my voice: and there shall be one fold and one
    shepherd."--_John_, x. 16.

BONED LEG OF MUTTON STUFFED.

706. INGREDIENTS.--A small leg of mutton, weighing 6 or 7 lbs.,
forcemeat, No. 417, 2 shalots finely minced.

_Mode_.--Make a forcemeat by recipe No. 417, to which add 2
finely-minced shalots. Bone the leg of mutton, without spoiling the
skin, and cut off a great deal of the fat. Fill the hole up whence the
bone was taken, with the forcemeat, and sew it up underneath, to prevent
its falling out. Bind and tie it up compactly, and roast it before a
nice clear fire for about 2-1/2 hours or rather longer; remove the tape
and send it to table with a good gravy. It may be glazed or not, as
preferred.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours, or rather longer. _Average cost_, 4s. 8d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


BRAISED FILLET OF MUTTON, with French Beans.

707. INGREDIENTS.--The chump end of a loin of mutton, buttered paper,
French beans, a little glaze, 1 pint of gravy.

_Mode_.--Roll up the mutton in a piece of buttered paper, roast it for 2
hours, and do not allow it to acquire the least colour. Have ready some
French beans, boiled, and drained on a sieve; remove the paper from the
mutton, glaze it; just heat up the beans in the gravy, and lay them on
the dish with the meat over them. The remainder of the gravy may be
strained, and sent to table in a tureen.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 8-1/2d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

    VARIOUS QUALITIES OF MUTTON--Mutton is, undoubtedly, the meat
    most generally used in families; and, both by connoisseurs and
    medical men, it stands first in favour, whether its the favour,
    digestible qualifications, or general wholesomeness, be
    considered. Of all mutton, that furnished by South-Down sheep is
    the most highly esteemed; it is also the dearest, on account of
    its scarcity, and the great demand of it. Therefore, if the
    housekeeper is told by the butcher that he has not any in his
    shop, it should not occasion disappointment to the purchaser.
    The London and other markets are chiefly supplied with sheep
    called half-breeds, which are a cross between the Down and
    Lincoln or Leicester. These half-breeds make a greater weight of
    mutton than the true South-Downs, and, for this very desirable
    qualification, they are preferred by the great sheep-masters.
    The legs of this mutton range from 7 to 11 lbs. in weight; the
    shoulders, necks, or loins, about 6 to 9 lbs.; and if care is
    taken not to purchase it; the shoulders, necks, or loins, about
    8 to 9 lbs.; and it cure is taken not to purchase it too fat, it
    will be found the most satisfactory and economical mutton that
    can be bought.

BRAISED LEG OF MUTTON.

708. INGREDIENTS.--1 small leg of mutton, 4 carrots, 3 onions, 1 faggot
of savoury herbs, a bunch of parsley, seasoning to taste of pepper and
salt, a few slices of bacon, a few veal trimmings, 1/2 pint of gravy or
water.

_Mode_.--Line the bottom of a braising-pan with a few slices of bacon,
put in the carrots, onions, herbs, parsley, and seasoning, and over
these place the mutton. Cover the whole with a few more slices of bacon
and the veal trimmings, pour in the gravy or water, and stew very gently
for 4 hours. Strain the gravy, reduce it to a glaze over a sharp fire,
glaze the mutton with it, and send it to table, placed on a dish of
white haricot beans boiled tender, or garnished with glazed onions.

_Time_.--4 hours. Average cost, 5s.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

    THE ORDER OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE.--This order of knighthood was
    founded by Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, in 1429, on the
    day of his marriage with the Princess Isabella of Portugal. The
    number of the members was originally fixed at thirty-one,
    including the sovereign, as the head and chief of the
    institution. In 1516, Pope Leo X. consented to increase the
    number to fifty-two, including the head. In 1700 the German
    emperor Charles VI. and King Philip of Spain both laid claim to
    the order. The former, however, on leaving Spain, which he could
    not maintain by force of arms, took with him, to Vienna, the
    archives of the order, the inauguration of which he solemnized
    there in 1713, with great magnificence; but Philip V. of Spain
    declared himself Grand Master, and formally protested, at the
    congress of Cambrai (1721), against the pretensions of the
    emperor. The dispute, though subsequently settled by the
    intercession of France, England, and Holland, was frequently
    renewed, until the order was tacitly introduced into both
    countries, and it now passes by the respective names of the
    Spanish or Austrian "Order of the Golden Fleece," according to
    the country where it is issued.

AN EXCELLENT WAY TO COOK A BREAST OF MUTTON.

709. INGREDIENTS.--Breast of mutton, 2 onions, salt and pepper to taste,
flour, a bunch of savoury herbs, green peas.

_Mode_.--Cut the mutton into pieces about 2 inches square, and let it be
tolerably lean; put it into a stewpan, with a little fat or butter, and
fry it of a nice brown; then dredge in a little flour, slice the onions,
and put it with the herbs in the stewpan; pour in sufficient water
_just_ to cover the meat, and simmer the whole gently until the mutton
is tender. Take out the meat, strain, and skim off all the fat from the
gravy, and put both the meat and gravy back into the stewpan; add about
a quart of young green peas, and let them boil gently until done. 2 or 3
slices of bacon added and stewed with the mutton give additional
flavour; and, to insure the peas being a beautiful green colour, they
may be boiled in water separately, and added to the stew at the moment
of serving.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours.

_Average cost_, 6d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from June to August.

    NAMES OF ANIMALS SAXON, AND OF THEIR FLESH NORMAN.--The names of
    all our domestic animals are of Saxon origin; but it is curious
    to observe that Norman names have been given to the different
    sorts of flesh which these animals yield. How beautifully this
    illustrates the relative position of Saxon and Norman after the
    Conquest. The Saxon hind had the charge of tending and feeding
    the domestic animals, but only that they might appear on the
    table of his Norman lord. Thus 'ox,' 'steer,' 'cow,' are Saxon,
    but 'beef' is Norman; 'calf' is Saxon, but 'veal' Norman;
    'sheep' is Saxon, but 'mutton' Norman; so it is severally with
    'deer' and 'venison,' 'swine' and 'pork,' 'fowl' and 'pullet.'
    'Bacon,' the only flesh which, perhaps, ever came within his
    reach, is the single exception.

BROILED MUTTON AND TOMATO SAUCE (Cold Meat Cookery).

710. INGREDIENTS.--A few slices of cold mutton, tomato sauce, No. 529.

_Mode_.--Cut some nice slices from a cold leg or shoulder of mutton;
season them with pepper and salt, and broil over a clear fire. Make some
tomato sauce by recipe No. 529, pour it over the mutton, and serve. This
makes an excellent dish, and must be served very hot.

_Time_.--About 5 minutes to broil the mutton.

_Seasonable_ in September and October, when tomatoes are plentiful and
seasonable.

    SHEPHERDS AND THEIR FLOCKS.--The shepherd's crook is older than
    either the husbandman's plough or the warrior's sword. We are
    told that Abel was a keeper of sheep. Many passages in holy writ
    enable us to appreciate the pastoral riches of the first eastern
    nations; and we can form an idea of the number of their flocks,
    when we read that Jacob gave the children of Hamor a hundred
    sheep for the price of a field, and that the king of Israel
    received a hundred thousand every year from the king of Moab,
    his tributary, and a like number of rams covered with their
    fleece. The tendency which most sheep have to ramble, renders it
    necessary for them to be attended by a shepherd. To keep a flock
    within bounds, is no easy task; but the watchful shepherd
    manages to accomplish it without harassing the sheep. In the
    Highlands of Scotland, where the herbage is scanty, the
    sheep-farm requires to be very large, and to be watched over by
    many shepherds. The farms of some of the great Scottish
    landowners are of enormous extent. "How many sheep have you on
    your estate?" asked Prince Esterhazy of the duke of Argyll. "I
    have not the most remote idea," replied the duke; "but I know
    the shepherds number several thousands."

BROILED MUTTON CHOPS.

711. INGREDIENTS.--Loin of mutton, pepper and salt, a small piece of
butter.

_Mode_.--Cut the chops from a well-hung tender loin of mutton, remove a
portion of the fat, and trim them into a nice shape; slightly beat and
level them; place the gridiron over a bright clear fire, rub the bars
with a little fat, and lay on the chops. Whilst broiling, frequently
turn them, and in about 8 minutes they will be done. Season with pepper
and salt, dish them on a very hot dish, rub a small piece of butter on
each chop, and serve very hot and expeditiously.

_Time_.--About 8 minutes. _Average cost_, 10d. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 1 chop to each person.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


CHINA CHILO.

712. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 lb. of leg, loin, or neck of mutton, 2 onions,
2 lettuces, 1 pint of green peas, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1 teaspoonful
of pepper, 1/4 pint of water, 1/4 lb. of clarified butter; when liked, a
little cayenne.

_Mode_.--Mince the above quantity of undressed leg, loin, or neck of
mutton, adding a little of the fat, also minced; put it into a stewpan
with the remaining ingredients, previously shredding the lettuce and
onion rather fine; closely cover the stewpan, after the ingredients have
been well stirred, and simmer gently for rather more than 2 hours. Serve
in a dish, with a border of rice round, the same as for curry.

_Time_.--Rather more than 2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ from June to August.


CURRIED MUTTON (Cold Meat Cookery).

713. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of any joint of cold mutton, 2 onions,
1/4 lb. of butter, 1 dessertspoonful of curry powder, 1 dessertspoonful
of flour, salt to taste, 1/4 pint of stock or water.

_Mode_.--Slice the onions in thin rings, and put them into a stewpan
with the butter, and fry of a light brown; stir in the curry powder,
flour, and salt, and mix all well together. Cut the meat into nice thin
slices (if there is not sufficient to do this, it may be minced), and
add it to the other ingredients; when well browned, add the stock or
gravy, and stew gently for about 1/2 hour. Serve in a dish with a border
of boiled rice, the same as for other curries.

_Time_.--1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 6d.

_Seasonable_ in winter.


CUTLETS OF COLD MUTTON (Cold Meat Cookery).

714. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold loin or neck of mutton, 1 egg,
bread crumbs, brown gravy (No. 436), or tomato sauce (No. 529).

_Mode_.--Cut the remains of cold loin or neck of mutton into cutlets,
trim them, and take away a portion of the fat, should there be too much;
dip them in beaten egg, and sprinkle with bread crumbs, and fry them a
nice brown in hot dripping. Arrange them on a dish, and pour round them
either a good gravy or hot tomato sauce.

_Time_.--About 7 minutes.

_Seasonable_.--Tomatoes to be had most reasonably in September and
October.


DORMERS.

715. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of cold mutton, 2 oz. of beef suet, pepper
and salt to taste, 3 oz. of boiled rice, 1 egg, bread crumbs, made
gravy.

_Mode_.--Chop the meat, suet, and rice finely; mix well together, and
add a high seasoning of pepper and salt, and roll into sausages; cover
them with egg and bread crumbs, and fry in hot dripping of a nice brown.
Serve in a dish with made gravy poured round them, and a little in a
tureen.

_Time_.--1/2 hour to fry the sausages.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

    THE GOLDEN FLEECE.--The ancient fable of the Golden Fleece may
    be thus briefly told:--Phryxus, a son of Athamus, king of
    Thebes, to escape the persecutions of his stepmother Ino, paid a
    visit to his friend Aeetes, king of Colchis. A ram, whose fleece
    was of pure gold, carried the youth through the air in a most
    obliging manner to the court of his friend. When safe At
    Colchis, Phryxus offered the ram on the altars of Mars, and
    pocketed the fleece. The king received him with great kindness,
    and gave him his daughter Chalciope in marriage; but, some time
    after, he murdered him in order to obtain possession of the
    precious fleece. The murder of Phryxus was amply revenged by the
    Greeks. It gave rise to the famous Argonautic expedition,
    undertaken by Jason and fifty of the most celebrated heroes of
    Greece. The Argonauts recovered the fleece by the help of the
    celebrated sorceress Medea, daughter of Aeetes, who fell
    desperately in love with the gallant but faithless Jason. In the
    story of the voyage of the Argo, a substratum of truth probably
    exists, though overlaid by a mass of fiction. The ram which
    carried Phryxus to Colchis is by some supposed to have been the
    name of the ship in which he embarked. The fleece of gold is
    thought to represent the immense treasures he bore away from
    Thebes. The alchemists of the fifteenth century were firmly
    convinced that the Golden Fleece was a treatise on the
    transmutation of metals, written on sheepskin.

HARICOT MUTTON.

I.

716. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of the middle or best end of the neck of
mutton, 3 carrots, 3 turnips, 3 onions, popper and salt to taste, 1
tablespoonful of ketchup or Harvey's sauce.

_Mode_.--Trim off some of the fat, cut the mutton into rather thin
chops, and put them into a frying-pan with the fat trimmings. Fry of a
pale brown, but do not cook them enough for eating. Cut the carrots and
turnips into dice, and the onions into slices, and slightly fry them in
the same fat that the mutton was browned in, but do not allow them to
take any colour. Now lay the mutton at the bottom of a stewpan, then the
vegetables, and pour over them just sufficient boiling water to cover
the whole. Give one boil, skim well, and then set the pan on the side of
the fire to simmer gently until the meat is tender. Skim off every
particle of fat, add a seasoning of pepper and salt, and a little
ketchup, and serve. This dish is very much better if made the day before
it is wanted for table, as the fat can be so much more easily removed
when the gravy is cold. This should be particularly attended to, as it
is apt to be rather rich and greasy if eaten the same day it is made. It
should be served in rather a deep dish.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours to simmer gently.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 3s.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


II.

717. INGREDIENTS.--Breast or scrag of mutton, flour, pepper and salt to
taste, 1 large onion, 3 cloves, a bunch of savoury herbs, 1 blade of
mace, carrots and turnips, sugar.

_Mode_.--Cut the mutton into square pieces, and fry them a nice colour;
then dredge over them a little flour and a seasoning of pepper and salt.
Put all into a stewpan, and moisten with boiling water, adding the
onion, stuck with 3 cloves, the mace, and herbs. Simmer gently till the
meat is nearly done, skim off all the fat, and then add the carrots and
turnips, which should previously be cut in dice and fried in a little
sugar to colour them. Let the whole simmer again for 10 minutes; take
out the onion and bunch of herbs, and serve.

_Time_.--About 3 hours to simmer.

_Average cost_, 6d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


HARICOT MUTTON (Cold Meat Cookery).

718. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold neck or loin of mutton, 2 oz. of
butter, 3 onions, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, 1/2 pint of good gravy,
pepper and salt to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of port wine, 1 tablespoonful
of mushroom ketchup, 2 carrots, 2 turnips, 1 head of celery.

_Mode_.--Cut the cold mutton into moderate-sized chops, and take off the
fat; slice the onions, and fry them with the chops, in a little butter,
of a nice brown colour; stir in the flour, add the gravy, and let it
stew gently nearly an hour. In the mean time boil the vegetables until
_nearly_ tender, slice them, and add them to the mutton about 1/4 hour
before it is to be served. Season with pepper and salt, add the ketchup
and port wine, give one boil, and serve.

_Time_.--1 hour.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the cold meat, 9d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


HASHED MUTTON.

719. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold roast shoulder or leg of mutton,
6 whole peppers, 6 whole allspice, a faggot of savoury herbs, 1/2 head
of celery, 1 onion, 2 oz. of butter, flour.

_Mode_.--Cut the meat in nice even slices from the bones, trimming off
all superfluous fat and gristle; chop the bones and fragments of the
joint, put them into a stewpan with the pepper, spice, herbs, and
celery; cover with water, and simmer for 1 hour. Slice and fry the onion
of a nice pale-brown colour, dredge in a little flour to make it thick,
and add this to the bones, &c. Stew for 1/4 hour, strain the gravy, and
let it cool; then skim off every particle of fat, and put it, with the
meat, into a stewpan. Flavour with ketchup, Harvey's sauce; tomato
sauce, or any flavouring that may be preferred, and let the meat
gradually warm through, but not boil, or it will harden. To hash meat
properly, it should be laid in cold gravy, and only left on the fire
just long enough to warm through.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour to simmer the gravy.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 4d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

    HASHED MUTTON.--Many persons express a decided aversion to
    hashed mutton; and, doubtless, this dislike has arisen from the
    fact that they have unfortunately never been properly served
    with this dish. If properly done, however, the meat tender (it
    ought to be as tender as when first roasted), the gravy abundant
    and well flavoured, and the sippets nicely toasted, and the
    whole served neatly; then, hashed mutton is by no means to be
    despised, and is infinitely more wholesome and appetizing than
    the cold leg or shoulder, of which fathers and husbands, and
    their bachelor friends, stand in such natural awe.

HODGE-PODGE (Cold Meat Cookery).

720. INGREDIENTS.--About 1 lb. of underdone cold mutton, 2 lettuces, 1
pint of green peas, 5 or 6 green onions, 2 oz. of butter, pepper and
salt to taste, 1/2 teacupful of water.

_Mode_.--Mince the mutton, and cut up the lettuces and onions in slices.
Put these in a stewpan, with all the ingredients except the peas, and
let these simmer very gently for 3/4 hour, keeping them well stirred.
Boil the peas separately, mix these with the mutton, and serve very hot.

_Time_.--3/4 hour.

_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ from the end of May to August.


IRISH STEW.

I.

721. INGREDIENTS.--3 lbs. of the loin or neck of mutton, 5 lbs. of
potatoes, 5 large onions, pepper and salt to taste, rather more than 1
pint of water.

_Mode_.--Trim off some of the fat of the above quantity of loin or neck
of mutton, and cut it into chops of a moderate thickness. Pare and halve
the potatoes, and cut the onions into thick slices. Put a layer of
potatoes at the bottom of a stewpan, then a layer of mutton and onions,
and season with pepper and salt; proceed in this manner until the
stewpan is full, taking care to have plenty of vegetables at the top.
Pour in the water, and let it stew very gently for 2-1/2 hours, keeping
the lid of the stewpan closely shut the _whole_ time, and occasionally
shaking it to prevent its burning.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 2s. 8d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_.--More suitable for a winter dish.


II.

722. INGREDIENTS.--2 or 3 lbs. of the breast of mutton, 1-1/2 pint of
water, salt and pepper to taste, 4 lbs. of potatoes, 4 large onions.

_Mode_.--Put the mutton into a stewpan with the water and a little salt,
and let it stew gently for an hour; cut the meat into small pieces, skim
the fat from the gravy, and pare and slice the potatoes and onions. Put
all the ingredients into the stewpan in layers, first a layer of
vegetables, then one of meat, and sprinkle seasoning of pepper and salt
between each layer; cover closely, and let the whole stew very gently
for 1 hour of rather more, shaking it frequently to prevent its burning.

_Time_.--Rather more than 2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s, 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_.--Suitable for a winter dish.

_Note_.--Irish stew may be prepared in the same manner as above, but
baked in a jar instead of boiled. About 2 hours or rather more in a
moderate oven will be sufficient time to bake it.


ITALIAN MUTTON CUTLETS.

723. INGREDIENTS.--About 3 lbs. of the neck of mutton, clarified butter,
the yolk of 1 egg, 4 tablespoonfuls of bread crumbs, 1 tablespoonful of
minced savoury herbs, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, 1 teaspoonful
of minced shalot, 1 saltspoonful of finely-chopped lemon-peel; pepper,
salt, and pounded mace to taste; flour, 1/2 pint of hot broth or water,
2 teaspoonfuls of Harvey's sauce, 1 teaspoonful of soy, 2 teaspoonfuls
of tarragon vinegar, 1 tablespoonful of port wine.

_Mode_.--Cut the mutton into nicely-shaped cutlets, flatten them, and
trim off some of the fat, dip them in clarified butter, and then, into
the beaten yolk of an egg. Mix well together bread crumbs, herbs,
parsley, shalot, lemon-peel, and seasoning in the above proportion, and
cover the cutlets with these ingredients. Melt some butter in a
frying-pan, lay in the cutlets, and fry them a nice brown; take them,
out, and keep them hot before the fire. Dredge some flour into the pan,
and if there is not sufficient butter, add a little more; stir till it
looks brown, then pour in the hot broth or water, and the remaining
ingredients; give one boil, and pour round the cutlets. If the gravy
should not be thick enough, add a little more flour. Mushrooms, when
obtainable, are a great improvement to this dish, and when not in
season, mushroom-powder may be substituted for them.

_Time_.--10 minutes;--rather longer, should the cutlets be very thick.

_Average cost_, 2s. 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

    THE DOWNS.--The well-known substance chalk, which the chemist
    regards as a nearly pure carbonate of lime, and the microscopist
    as an aggregation of inconceivably minute shells and corals,
    forms the sub-soil of the hilly districts of the south-east of
    England. The chalk-hills known as the South Downs start from the
    bold promontory of Beachy Head, traverse the county of Sussex
    from east to west, and pass through Hampshire into Surrey. The
    North Downs extend from Godalming, by Godstone, into Kent, and
    terminate in the line of cliffs which stretches from Dover to
    Ramsgate. The Downs are clothed with short verdant turf; but the
    layer of soil which rests upon the chalk is too thin to support
    trees and shrubs. The hills have rounded summits, and their
    smooth, undulated outlines are unbroken save by the sepulchral
    monuments of the early inhabitants of the country. The coombes
    and furrows, which ramify and extend into deep valleys, appear
    like dried-up channels of streams and rivulets. From time
    immemorial, immense flocks of sheep have been reared on these
    downs. The herbage of these hills is remarkably nutritious; and
    whilst the natural healthiness of the climate, consequent on the
    dryness of the air and the moderate elevation of the land, is
    eminently favourable to rearing a superior race of sheep, the
    arable land in the immediate neighbourhood of the Downs affords
    the means of a supply of other food, when the natural produce of
    the hills fails. The mutton of the South-Down breed of sheep is
    highly valued for its delicate flavour, and the wool for its
    fineness; but the best specimens of this breed, when imported
    from England into the West Indies, become miserably lean in the
    course of a year or two, and their woolly fleece gives place to
    a covering of short, crisp, brownish hair.

BROILED KIDNEYS (a Breakfast or Supper Dish).

724. INGREDIENTS.--Sheep kidneys, pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Ascertain that the kidneys are fresh, and cut them open very
evenly, lengthwise, down to the root, for should one half be thicker
than the other, one would be underdone whilst the other would be dried,
but do not separate them; skin them, and pass a skewer under the white
part of each half to keep them flat, and broil over a nice clear fire,
placing the inside downwards; turn them when done enough on one side,
and cook them on the other. Remove the skewers, place the kidneys on a
very hot dish, season with pepper and salt, and put a tiny piece of
butter in the middle of each; serve very hot and quickly, and send very
hot plates to table.

_Time_.--6 to 8 minutes.

_Average cost_, 1-1/2d. each.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 1 for each person.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--A prettier dish than the above may be made by serving the
kidneys each on a piece of buttered toast out in any fanciful shape. In
this case a little lemon-juice will be found an improvement.

[Illustration: KIDNEYS.]

FRIED KIDNEYS.

725. INGREDIENTS.--Kidneys, butter, pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut the kidneys open without quite dividing them, remove the
skin, and put a small piece of butter in the frying-pan. When the butter
is melted, lay in the kidneys the flat side downwards, and fry them for
7 or 8 minutes, turning them when they are half-done. Serve on a piece
of dry toast, season with pepper and salt, and put a small piece of
butter in each kidney; pour the gravy from the pan over them, and serve
very hot.

_Time_.--7 or 8 minutes.

_Average cost_, 1-1/2d. each.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 1 kidney to each person.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


ROAST HAUNCH OF MUTTON.

[Illustration: HAUNCH OF MUTTON.]

726. INGREDIENTS.--Haunch of mutton, a little salt, flour.

_Mode_.--Let this joint hang as long as possible without becoming
tainted, and while hanging dust flour over it, which keeps off the
flies, and prevents the air from getting to it. If not well hung, the
joint, when it comes to table, will neither do credit to the butcher or
the cook, as it will not be tender. Wash the outside well, lest it
should have a bad flavour from keeping; then flour it and put it down to
a nice brisk fire, at some distance, so that it may gradually warm
through. Keep continually basting, and about 1/2 hour before it is
served, draw it nearer to the fire to get nicely brown. Sprinkle a
little fine salt over the meat, pour off the dripping, add a little
boiling water slightly salted, and strain this over the joint. Place a
paper ruche on the bone, and send red-currant jelly and gravy in a
tureen to table with it.

_Time_.--About 4 hours.

_Average cost_, 10d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 8 to 10 persons.

_Seasonable_.--In best season from September to March.

    HOW TO BUY MEAT ECONOMICALLY.--If the housekeeper is not very
    particular as to the precise joints to cook for dinner, there is
    oftentimes an opportunity for her to save as much money in her
    purchases of meat as will pay for the bread to eat with it. It
    often occurs, for instance, that the butcher may have a
    superfluity of certain joints, and these he would be glad to get
    rid of at a reduction of sometimes as much as 1d. or 1-1/2d. per
    lb., and thus, in a joint of 8 or 9 lbs., will be saved enough
    to buy 2 quartern loaves. It frequently happens with many
    butchers, that, in consequence of a demand for legs and loins of
    mutton, they have only shoulders left, and these they will be
    glad to sell at a reduction.

ROAST LEG OF MUTTON.

[Illustration: LEG OF MUTTON.]

727. INGREDIENTS.--Leg of mutton, a little salt.

_Mode_.--As mutton, when freshly killed, is never tender, hang it almost
as long as it will keep; flour it, and put it in a cool airy place for a
few days, if the weather will permit. Wash off the flour, wipe it very
dry, and cut off the shank-bone; put it down to a brisk clear fire,
dredge with flour, and keep continually basting the whole time it is
cooking. About 20 minutes before serving, draw it near the fire to get
nicely brown; sprinkle over it a little salt, dish the meat, pour off
the dripping, add some boiling water slightly salted, strain it over the
joint, and serve.

_Time_.--A leg of mutton weighing 10 lbs., about 2-1/4 or 2-1/2 hours;
one of 7 lbs., about 2 hours, or rather less.

_Average cost_, 8-1/2d. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--A moderate-sized leg of mutton sufficient for 6 or 8
persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time, but not so good in June, July, and August.


ROAST LOIN OF MUTTON.

728. INGREDIENTS.--Loin of mutton, a little salt.

_Mode_.--Cut and trim off the superfluous fat, and see that the butcher
joints the meat properly, as thereby much annoyance is saved to the
carver, when it comes to table. Have ready a nice clear fire (it need
not be a very wide large one), put down the meat, dredge with flour, and
baste well until it is done. Make the gravy as for roast leg of mutton,
and serve very hot.

[Illustration: LOIN OF MUTTON.]

_Time_.--A loin of mutton weighing 6 lbs., 1-1/2 hour, or rather longer.

_Average cost_, 8-1/2d. per lb. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

ROLLED LOIN OF MUTTON (Very Excellent).

729. INGREDIENTS.--About 6 lbs. of a loin of mutton, 1/2 teaspoonful of
pepper, 1/4 teaspoonful of pounded allspice, 1/4 teaspoonful of mace,
1/4 teaspoonful of nutmeg, 6 cloves, forcemeat No. 417, 1 glass of port
wine, 2 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup.

_Mode_.--Hang the mutton till tender, bone it, and sprinkle over it
pepper, mace, cloves, allspice, and nutmeg in the above proportion, all
of which must be pounded very fine. Let it remain for a day, then make a
forcemeat by recipe No. 417, cover the meat with it, and roll and bind
it up firmly. Half bake it in a slow oven, let it grow cold, take off
the fat, and put the gravy into a stewpan; flour the meat, put it in the
gravy, and stew it till perfectly tender. Now take out the meat, unbind
it, add to the gravy wine and ketchup as above, give one boil, and pour
over the meat. Serve with red-currant jelly; and, if obtainable, a few
mushrooms stewed for a few minutes in the gravy, will be found a great
improvement.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour to bake the meat, 1-1/2 hour to stew gently.

_Average cost_, 4s. 9d. _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--This joint will be found very nice if rolled and stuffed, as
here directed, and plainly roasted. It should be well basted, and served
with a good gravy and currant jelly.


BOILED NECK OF MUTTON.

730. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of the middle, or best end of the neck of
mutton; a little salt.

_Mode_.--Trim off a portion of the fat, should there be too much, and if
it is to look particularly nice, the chine-bone should be sawn down, the
ribs stripped halfway down, and the ends of the bones chopped off; this
is, however, not necessary. Put the meat into sufficient _boiling_ water
to cover it; when it boils, add a little salt and remove all the scum.
Draw the saucepan to the side of the fire, and let the water get so cool
that the finger may be borne in it; then simmer very _slowly_ and gently
until the meat is done, which will be in about 1-1/2 hour, or rather
more, reckoning from the time that it begins to simmer.

Serve with turnips and caper sauce, No. 382, and pour a little of it
over the meat. The turnips should be boiled with the mutton; and, when
at hand, a few carrots will also be found an improvement. These,
however, if very large and thick, must be cut into long thinnish pieces,
or they will not be sufficiently done by the time the mutton is ready.
Garnish the dish with carrots and turnips placed alternately round the
mutton.

_Time_.--4 lbs. of the neck of mutton, about 1-1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, 8-1/2 d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

    THE POETS ON SHEEP.--The keeping of flocks seems to have been
    the first employment of mankind; and the most ancient sort of
    poetry was probably pastoral. The poem known as the Pastoral
    gives a picture of the life of the simple shepherds of the
    golden age, who are supposed to have beguiled their time in
    singing. In all pastorals, repeated allusions are made to the
    "fleecy flocks," the "milk-white lambs," and "the tender ewes;"
    indeed, the sheep occupy a position in these poems inferior only
    to that of the shepherds who tend them. The "nibbling sheep" has
    ever been a favourite of the poets, and has supplied them with
    figures and similes without end. Shakspere frequently compares
    men to sheep. When Gloster rudely drives the lieutenant from the
    side of Henry VI., the poor king thus touchingly speaks of his
    helplessness;--

      "So flies the reckless shepherd from the wolf:
       So first the harmless sheep doth yield his fleece,
       And next his throat, unto the butcher's knife."

    In the "Two Gentlemen of Verona," we meet with the following
    humorous comparison:--

    "_Proteus_. The sheep for fodder follow the shepherd, the
    shepherd for food follows not the sheep: thou for wages
    followest thy master, thy master for wages follows not thee;
    therefore, thou art a sheep.

    "_Speed_. Such another proof will make me cry _baa_."

    The descriptive poets give us some charming pictures of sheep.
    Every one is familiar with the sheep-shearing scene in Thomson's
    "Seasons:"--

      "Heavy and dripping, to the breezy brow
      Slow move the harmless race; where, as they spread
      Their dwelling treasures to the sunny ray,
      Inly disturb'd, and wond'ring what this wild
      Outrageous tumult means, their loud complaints
      The country fill; and, toss'd from rock to rock,
      Incessant bleatings run around the hills."

    What an exquisite idea of stillness is conveyed in the
    oft-quoted line from Gray's "Elegy:"--

      "And drowsy tinklings lull the distant fold."

    From Dyer's quaint poem of "The Fleece" we could cull a hundred
    passages relating to sheep; but we have already exceeded our
    space. We cannot, however, close this brief notice of the
    allusions that have been made to sheep by our poets, without
    quoting a couple of verses from Robert Burns's "Elegy on Poor
    Mailie," his only "pet _yowe_:"--

      "Thro' a' the town she troll'd by him;
      A lang half-mile she could descry him;
      Wi' kindly bleat, when she did spy him.
                  She ran wi' speed;
      A friend mair faithfu' ne'er cam' nigh him
                  Than Mailie dead.

      "I wat she was a sheep o' sense.
      An' could behave hersel' wi' mense;
      I'll say't, she never brak a fence,
                  Thro' thievish greed.
      Our bardie, lanely, keeps the spence,
                  Sin' Mailie's dead."

MUTTON COLLOPS (Cold Meat Cookery).

731. INGREDIENTS.--A few slices of a cold leg or loin of mutton, salt
and pepper to taste, 1 blade of pounded mace, 1 small bunch of savoury
herbs minced very fine, 2 or 3 shalots, 2 or 3 oz. of butter, 1
dessertspoonful of flour, 1/2 pint of gravy, 1 tablespoonful of
lemon-juice.

_Mode_.--Cut some very thin slices from a leg or the chump end of a loin
of mutton; sprinkle them with pepper, salt, pounded mace, minced savoury
herbs, and minced shalot; fry them in butter, stir in a dessertspoonful
of flour, add the gravy and lemon-juice, simmer very gently about 5 or 7
minutes, and serve immediately.

_Time_.--5 to 7 minutes.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: MUTTON CUTLETS.]

MUTTON CUTLETS WITH MASHED POTATOES.

732. INGREDIENTS.--About 3 lbs. of the best end of the neck of mutton,
salt and pepper to taste, mashed potatoes.

_Mode_.--Procure a well-hung neck of mutton, saw off about 3 inches of
the top of the bones, and cut the cutlets of a moderate thickness. Shape
them by chopping off the thick part of the chine-bone; beat them flat
with a cutlet-chopper, and scrape quite clean, a portion of the top of
the bone. Broil them over a nice clear fire for about 7 or 8 minutes,
and turn them frequently. Have ready some smoothly-mashed white
potatoes; place these in the middle of the dish; when the cutlets are
done, season with pepper and salt; arrange them round the potatoes, with
the thick end of the cutlets downwards, and serve very hot and quickly.
(See Coloured Plate.)

_Time_.--7 or 8 minutes. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 2s. 4d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Cutlets may be served in various ways; with peas, tomatoes,
onions, sauce piquante, &c.


MUTTON PIE (Cold Meat Cookery).

733. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of a cold leg, loin, or neck of mutton,
pepper and salt to taste, 2 blades of pounded mace, 1 dessertspoonful of
chopped parsley, 1 teaspoonful of minced savoury herbs; when liked, a
little minced onion or shalot; 3 or 4 potatoes, 1 teacupful of gravy;
crust.

_Mode_.--Cold mutton may be made into very good pies if well seasoned
and mixed with a few herbs; if the leg is used, cut it into very thin
slices; if the loin or neck, into thin cutlets. Place some at the bottom
of the dish; season well with pepper, salt, mace, parsley, and herbs;
then put a layer of potatoes sliced, then more mutton, and so on till
the dish is full; add the gravy, cover with a crust, and bake for 1
hour.

_Time_.--1 hour.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--The remains of an underdone leg of mutton may be converted into
a very good family pudding, by cutting the meat into slices, and putting
them into a basin lined with a suet crust. It should be seasoned well
with pepper, salt, and minced shalot, covered with a crust, and boiled
for about 3 hours.


MUTTON PIE.

734. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of the neck or loin of mutton, weighed after
being boned; 2 kidneys, pepper and salt to taste, 2 teacupfuls of gravy
or water, 2 tablespoonfuls of minced parsley; when liked, a little
minced onion or shalot; puff crust.

_Mode_.--Bone the mutton, and cut the meat into steaks all of the same
thickness, and leave but very little fat. Cut up the kidneys, and
arrange these with the meat neatly in a pie-dish; sprinkle over them the
minced parsley and a seasoning of pepper and salt; pour in the gravy,
and cover with a tolerably good puff crust. Bake for 1-1/2 hour, or
rather longer, should the pie be very large, and let the oven be rather
brisk. A well-made suet crust may be used instead of puff crust, and
will be found exceedingly good.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour, or rather longer. _Average cost_, 2s.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


MUTTON PUDDING.

735. INGREDIENTS.--About 2 lbs. of the chump end of the loin of mutton,
weighed after being boned; pepper and salt to taste, suet crust made
with milk (see Pastry), in the proportion of 6 oz. of suet to each pound
of flour; a very small quantity of minced onion (this may be omitted
when the flavour is not liked).

_Mode_.--Cut the meat into rather thin slices, and season them with
pepper and salt; line the pudding-dish with crust; lay in the meat, and
nearly, but do not quite, fill it up with water; when the flavour is
liked, add a small quantity of minced onion; cover with crust, and
proceed in the same manner as directed in recipe No. 605, using the same
kind of pudding-dish as there mentioned.

_Time_.--About 3 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but more suitable in winter.


RAGOUT OF COLD NECK OF MUTTON (Cold Meat Cookery).

736. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of a cold neck or loin of mutton, 2 oz.
of butter, a little flour, 2 onions sliced, 1/4 pint of water, 2 small
carrots, 2 turnips, pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut the mutton into small chops, and trim off the greater
portion of the fat; put the butter into a stewpan, dredge in a little
flour, add the sliced onions, and keep stirring till brown; then put in
the meat. When this is quite brown, add the water, and the carrots and
turnips, which should be cut into very thin slices; season with pepper
and salt, and stew till quite tender, which will be in about 3/4 hour.
When in season, green peas may be substituted for the carrots and
turnips: they should be piled in the centre of the dish, and the chops
laid round.

_Time_.--3/4 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 4d.

_Seasonable_, with peas, from June to August.


ROAST NECK OF MUTTON.

[Illustration: NECK OF MUTTON 1-2. _Best end_. 2-3. _Scrag_.]

737. INGREDIENTS.--Neck of mutton; a little salt.

_Mode_.--For roasting, choose the middle, or the best end, of the neck
of mutton, and if there is a very large proportion of fat, trim off some
of it, and save it for making into suet puddings, which will be found
exceedingly good. Let the bones be cut short and see that it is properly
jointed before it is laid down to the fire, as they will be more easily
separated when they come to table. Place the joint at a nice brisk
fire, dredge it with flour, and keep continually basting until done. A
few minutes before serving, draw it nearer the the fire to acquire a
nice colour, sprinkle over it a little salt, pour off the dripping, add
a little boiling water slightly salted, strain this over the meat and
serve. Red-currant jelly may be sent to table with it.

_Time_.--4 lbs. of the neck of mutton, rather more than 1 hour.

_Average cost_, 8-1/2d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

    WOOLLEN MANUFACTURES.--The distinction between hair and wool is
    rather arbitrary than natural, consisting in the greater or less
    degrees of fineness, softness and pliability of the fibres.
    When the fibres possess these properties so far as to admit of
    their being spun and woven into a texture sufficiently pliable
    to be used as an article of dress, they are called wool. The
    sheep, llama, Angora goat, and the goat of Thibet, are the
    animals from which most of the wool used in manufactures is
    obtained. The finest of all wools is that from the goat of
    Thibet, of which the Cashmere shawls are made. Of European
    wools, the finest is that yielded by the Merino sheep, the
    Spanish and Saxon breeds taking the precedence. The Merino
    sheep, as now naturalized in Australia, furnishes an excellent
    fleece; but all varieties of sheep-wool, reared either in Europe
    or Australia are inferior in softness of feel to that grown in
    India, and to that of the llama of the Andes. The best of our
    British wools are inferior in fineness to any of the
    above-mentioned, being nearly twelve times the thickness of the
    finest Spanish merino; but for the ordinary purposes of the
    manufacturer, they are unrivalled.

ROAST SADDLE OF MUTTON.

[Illustration: SADDLE OF MUTTON.]

738. INGREDIENTS.--Saddle of mutton; a little salt.

_Mode_.--To insure this joint being tender, let it hang for ten days or
a fortnight, if the weather permits. Cut off the tail and flaps and trim
away every part that has not indisputable pretensions to be eaten, and
have the skin taken off and skewered on again. Put it down to a bright,
clear fire, and, when the joint has been cooking for an hour, remove the
skin and dredge it with flour. It should not be placed too near the
fire, as the fat should not be in the slightest degree burnt. Keep
constantly basting, both before and after the skin is removed; sprinkle
some salt over the joint. Make a little gravy in the dripping-pan; pour
it over the meat, which send to table with a tureen of made gravy and
red-currant jelly.

_Time_.--A saddle of mutton weighing 10 lbs., 2-1/2 hours; 14 lbs.,
3-1/4 hours. When liked underdone, allow rather less time.

_Average cost_, 10d. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--A moderate-sized saddle of 10 lbs. for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year; not so good when lamb is in full season.


ROAST SHOULDER OF MUTTON.

739. INGREDIENTS.--Shoulder of mutton; a little salt.

_Mode_.--Put the joint down to a bright, clear fire; flour it well, and
keep continually basting. About 1/4 hour before serving, draw it near
the fire, that the outside may acquire a nice brown colour, but not
sufficiently near to blacken the fat. Sprinkle a little fine salt over
the meat, empty the dripping-pan of its contents, pour in a little
boiling water slightly salted, and strain this over the joint. Onion
sauce, or stewed Spanish onions, are usually sent to table with this
dish, and sometimes baked potatoes.

_Time_.--A shoulder of mutton weighing 6 or 7 lbs., 1-1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, 8d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Shoulder of mutton may be dressed in a variety of ways; boiled,
and served with onion sauce; boned, and stuffed with a good veal
forcemeat; or baked, with sliced potatoes in the dripping-pan.

    THE ETTRICK SHEPHERD.--James Hogg was perhaps the most
    remarkable man that ever wore the _maud_ of a shepherd. Under
    the garb, aspect, and bearing of a rude peasant (and rude enough
    he was in most of these things, even after no inconsiderable
    experience of society), the world soon discovered a true poet.
    He taught himself to write, by copying the letters of a printed
    book as he lay watching his flock on the hillside, and believed
    that he had reached the utmost pitch of his ambition when he
    first found that his artless rhymes could touch the heart of the
    ewe-milker who partook the shelter of his mantle during the
    passing storm. If "the shepherd" of Professor Wilson's "Noctes
    Ambrosianae" may be taken as a true portrait of James Hogg, we
    must admit that, for quaintness of humour, the poet of Ettrick
    Forest had few rivals. Sir Walter Scott said that Hogg's
    thousand little touches of absurdity afforded him more
    entertainment than the best comedy that ever set the pit in a
    roar. Among the written productions of the shepherd-poet, is an
    account of his own experiences in sheep-tending, called "The
    Shepherd's Calender." This work contains a vast amount of useful
    information upon sheep, their diseases, habits, and management.
    The Ettrick Shepherd died in 1835.

SHEEP'S BRAINS, EN MATELOTE (an Entree).

740. INGREDIENTS.--6 sheep's brains, vinegar, salt, a few slices of
bacon, 1 small onion, 2 cloves, a small bunch of parsley, sufficient
stock or weak broth to cover the brains, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice,
matelote sauce, No. 512.

_Mode_.--Detach the brains from the heads without breaking them, and put
them into a pan of warm water; remove the skin, and let them remain for
two hours. Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, add a little vinegar
and salt, and put in the brains. When they are quite firm, take them out
and put them into very cold water. Place 2 or 3 slices of bacon in a
stewpan, put in the brains, the onion stuck with 2 cloves, the parsley,
and a good seasoning of pepper and salt; cover with stock, or weak
broth, and boil them gently for about 25 minutes. Have ready some
croutons; arrange these in the dish alternately with the brains, and
cover with a matelote sauce, No. 512, to which has been added the above
proportion of lemon-juice.

_Time_.--25 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

SHEEP'S FEET or TROTTERS (Soyer's Recipe).

741. INGREDIENTS.--12 feet, 1/4 lb. of beef or mutton suet, 2 onions, 1
carrot, 2 bay-leaves, 2 sprigs of thyme, 1 oz. of salt, 1/4 oz. of
pepper, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 2-1/2 quarts of water, 1/4 lb. of
fresh butter, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1 teaspoonful of flour, 3/4
teaspoonful of pepper, a little grated nutmeg, the juice of 1 lemon, 1
gill of milk, the yolks of 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Have the feet cleaned, and the long bone extracted from them.
Put the suet into a stewpan, with the onions and carrot sliced, the
bay-leaves, thyme, salt, and pepper, and let these simmer for 5 minutes.
Add 2 tablespoonfuls of flour and the water, and keep stirring till it
boils; then put in the feet. Let these simmer for 3 hours, or until
perfectly tender, and take them and lay them on a sieve. Mix together,
on a plate, with the back of a spoon, butter, salt, flour (1
teaspoonful), pepper, nutmeg, and lemon-juice as above, and put the
feet, with a gill of milk, into a stewpan. When very hot, add the
butter, &c., and stir continually till melted. Now mix the yolks of 2
eggs with 5 tablespoonfuls of milk; stir this to the other ingredients,
keep moving the pan over the fire continually for a minute or two, but
do not allow it to boil after the eggs are added. Serve in a very hot
dish, and garnish with croutons, or sippets of toasted bread.

_Time_.--3 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


TO DRESS A SHEEP'S HEAD.

742. INGREDIENTS.--1 sheep's head, sufficient water to cover it, 3
carrots, 3 turnips, 2 or 3 parsnips, 3 onions, a small bunch of parsley,
1 teaspoonful of pepper, 3 teaspoonfuls of salt, 1/4 lb. of Scotch
oatmeal.

_Mode_.--Clean the head well, and let it soak in warm water for 2 hours,
to get rid of the blood; put it into a saucepan, with sufficient cold
water to cover it, and when it boils, add the vegetables, peeled and
sliced, and the remaining ingredients; before adding the oatmeal, mix it
to a smooth batter with a little of the liquor. Keep stirring till it
boils up; then shut the saucepan closely, and let it stew gently for
1-1/2 or 2 hours. It may be thickened with rice or barley, but oatmeal
is preferable.

_Time_.--1-1/2 or 2 hours. _Average cost_, 8d. each.

_Sufficient_ for 3 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

    SINGED SHEEP'S HEAD.--The village of Dudingston, which stands
    "within a mile of Edinburgh town," was formerly celebrated for
    this ancient and homely Scottish dish. In the summer months,
    many opulent citizens used to resort to this place to solace
    themselves over singed sheep's heads, boiled or baked. The sheep
    fed upon the neighbouring hills were slaughtered at this
    village, and the carcases were sent to town; but the heads were
    left to be consumed in the place. We are not aware whether the
    custom of eating sheep's heads at Dudingston is still kept up by
    the good folks of Edinburgh.

TOAD-IN-THE-HOLE (Cold Meat Cookery).

743. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of flour, 1 pint of milk, 3 eggs, butter, a few
slices of cold mutton, pepper and salt to taste, 2 kidneys.

_Mode_.--Make a smooth batter of flour, milk, and eggs in the above
proportion; butter a baking-dish, and pour in the batter. Into this
place a few slices of cold mutton, previously well seasoned, and the
kidneys, which should be cut into rather small pieces; bake about 1
hour, or rather longer, and send it to table in the dish it was baked
in. Oysters or mushrooms may be substituted for the kidneys, and will be
found exceedingly good.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1 hour.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the cold meat, 8d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.


BREAST OF LAMB AND GREEN PEAS.

744. INGREDIENTS.--1 breast of lamb, a few slices of bacon, 1/4 pint of
stock No. 105, 1 lemon, 1 onion, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, green peas.

_Mode_.--Remove the skin from a breast of lamb, put it into a saucepan
of boiling water, and let it simmer for 5 minutes. Take it out and lay
it in cold water. Line the bottom of a stewpan with a few thin slices of
bacon; lay the lamb on these; peel the lemon, cut it into slices, and
put these on the meat, to keep it white and make it tender; cover with 1
or 2 more slices of bacon; add the stock, onion, and herbs, and set it
on a slow fire to simmer very gently until tender. Have ready some green
peas, put these on a dish, and place the lamb on the top of these. The
appearance of this dish may be much improved by glazing the lamb, and
spinach may be substituted for the peas when variety is desired.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 10d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 3 persons.

_Seasonable_,--grass lamb, from Easter to Michaelmas.

    THE LAMB AS A SACRIFICE.--The number of lambs consumed in
    sacrifices by the Hebrews must have been very considerable. Two
    lambs "of the first year" were appointed to be sacrificed daily
    for the morning and evening sacrifice; and a lamb served as a
    substitute for the first-born of unclean animals, such as the
    ass, which could not be accepted as an offering to the Lord.
    Every year, also, on the anniversary of the deliverance of the
    children of Israel from the bondage of Egypt, every family was
    ordered to sacrifice a lamb or kid, and to sprinkle some of its
    blood upon the door-posts, in commemoration of the judgment of
    God upon the Egyptians. It was to be eaten roasted, with
    unleavened bread and bitter herbs, in haste, with the loins
    girded, the shoes on the feet, and the staff in the hand; and
    whatever remained until the morning was to be burnt. The sheep
    was also used in the numerous special, individual, and national
    sacrifices ordered by the Jewish law. On extraordinary
    occasions, vast quantities of sheep were sacrificed at once;
    thus Solomon, on the completion of the temple, offered "sheep
    and oxen that could not be told nor numbered for multitude."

STEWED BREAST OF LAMB.

745. INGREDIENTS.--1 breast of lamb, pepper and salt to taste,
sufficient stock, No. 105, to cover it, 1 glass of sherry, thickening of
butter and flour.

_Mode_.--Skin the lamb, cut it into pieces, and season them with pepper
and salt; lay these in a stewpan, pour in sufficient stock or gravy to
cover them, and stew very gently until tender, which will be in about
1-1/2 hour. Just before serving, thicken the sauce with a little butter
and flour; add the sherry, give one boil, and pour it over the meat.
Green peas, or stewed mushrooms, may be strewed over the meat, and will
be found a very great improvement.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 10d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 3 persons.

_Seasonable_,--grass lamb, from Easter to Michaelmas.


LAMB CHOPS.

746. INGREDIENTS.--Loin of lamb, pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Trim off the flap from a fine loin of lamb, aid cut it into
chops about 3/4 inch in thickness. Have ready a bright clear fire; lay
the chops on a gridiron, and broil them of a nice pale brown, turning
them when required. Season them with pepper and salt; serve very hot and
quickly, and garnish with crisped parsley, or place them on mashed
potatoes. Asparagus, spinach, or peas are the favourite accompaniments
to lamb chops.

_Time_.--About 8 or 10 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 2 chops to each person.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.


LAMB CUTLETS AND SPINACH (an Entree).

747. INGREDIENTS.--8 cutlets, egg and bread crumbs, salt and pepper to
taste, a little clarified butter.

_Mode_.--Cut the cutlets from a neck of lamb, and shape them by cutting
off the thick part of the chine-bone. Trim off most of the fat and all
the skin, and scrape the top part of the bones quite clean. Brush the
cutlets over with egg, sprinkle them with bread crumbs, and season with
pepper and salt. Now dip them into clarified butter, sprinkle over a few
more bread crumbs, and fry them over a sharp fire, turning them when
required. Lay them before the fire to drain, and arrange them on a dish
with spinach in the centre, which should be previously well boiled,
drained, chopped, and seasoned.

_Time_.--About 7 or 8 minutes. _Average cost_, 10d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.

_Note_.--Peas, asparagus, or French beans, may be substituted for the
spinach; or lamb cutlets may be served with stewed cucumbers, Soubise
sauce, &c. &c.


LAMB'S FRY.

748. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of lamb's fry, 3 pints of water, egg and bread
crumbs, 1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley, salt and pepper to taste.

_Mode_.--Boil the fry for 1/4 hour in the above proportion of water,
take it out and dry it in a cloth; grate some bread down finely, mix
with it a teaspoonful of chopped parsley and a high seasoning of pepper
and salt. Brush the fry lightly over with the yolk of an egg, sprinkle
over the bread crumbs, and fry for 5 minutes. Serve very hot on a napkin
in a dish, and garnish with plenty of crisped parsley.

_Time_.-1 hour to simmer the fry, 5 minutes to fry it.

_Average cost_, 10d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 2 or 3 persons.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.


HASHED LAMB AND BROILED BLADE-BONE.

749. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of a cold shoulder of lamb, pepper and
salt to taste, 2 oz. of butter, about 1/2 pint of stock or gravy, 1
tablespoonful of shalot vinegar, 3 or 4 pickled gherkins.

_Mode_.--Take the blade-bone from the shoulder, and cut the meat into
collops as neatly as possible. Season the bone with pepper and salt,
pour a little oiled butter over it, and place it in the oven to warm
through. Put the stock into a stewpan, add the ketchup and shalot
vinegar, and lay in the pieces of lamb. Let these heat gradually
through, but do not allow them to boil. Take the blade-bone out of the
oven, and place it on a gridiron over a sharp fire to brown. Slice the
gherkins, put them into the hash, and dish it with the blade-bone in the
centre. It may be garnished with croutons or sippets of toasted bread.

_Time_.--Altogether 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 4d.

_Seasonable_,--house lamb, from Christmas to March; grass lamb, from
Easter to Michaelmas.

[Illustration: FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB.]

ROAST FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB.

750. INGREDIENTS.--Lamb, a little salt.

_Mode_.--To obtain the flavour of lamb in perfection, it should not be
long kept; time to cool is all that it requires; and though the meat may
be somewhat thready, the juices and flavour will be infinitely superior
to that of lamb that has been killed 2 or 3 days. Make up the fire in
good time, that it may be clear and brisk when the joint is put down.
Place it at a sufficient distance to prevent the fat from burning, and
baste it constantly till the moment of serving. Lamb should be very
_thoroughly_ done without being dried up, and not the slightest
appearance of red gravy should be visible, as in roast mutton: this rule
is applicable to all young white meats. Serve with a little gravy made
in the dripping-pan, the same as for other roasts, and send to table
with it a tureen of mint sauce, No. 469, and a fresh salad. A cut lemon,
a small piece of fresh butter, and a little cayenne, should also be
placed on the table, so that when the carver separates the shoulder from
the ribs, they may be ready for his use; if, however, he should not be
very expert, we would recommend that the cook should divide these joints
nicely before coming to table.

_Time_.--Fore-quarter of lamb weighing 10 lbs., 1-3/4 to 2 hours.

_Average cost_, 10d. to 1s. per lb. _Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_,--grass lamb, from Easter to Michaelmas.


BOILED LEG OF LAMB A LA BECHAMEL.

751. INGREDIENTS.--Leg of lamb, Bechamel sauce, No. 367.

_Mode_.--Do not choose a very large joint, but one weighing about 5 lbs.
Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, into which plunge the lamb, and
when it boils up again, draw it to the side of the fire, and let the
water cool a little. Then stew very gently for about 1-1/4 hour,
reckoning from the time that the water begins to simmer. Make some
Bechamel by recipe No. 367, dish the lamb, pour the sauce over it, and
garnish with tufts of boiled cauliflower or carrots. When liked, melted
butter may be substituted for the Bechamel: this is a more simple
method, but not nearly so nice. Send to table with it some of the sauce
in a tureen, and boiled cauliflowers or spinach, with whichever
vegetable the dish is garnished.

_Time_.--1-1/4 hour after the water simmers.

_Average cost_, 10d. to 1s. per lb. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.


ROAST LEG OF LAMB.

752. INGREDIENTS.--Lamb, a little salt.

[Illustration: LEG OF LAMB.]

_Mode_.--Place the joint at a good distance from the fire at first, and
baste well the whole time it is cooking. When nearly done, draw it
nearer the fire to acquire a nice brown colour. Sprinkle a little fine
salt over the meat, empty the dripping-pan of its contents; pour in a
little boiling water, and strain this over the meat. Serve with mint
sauce and a fresh salad, and for vegetables send peas, spinach, or
cauliflowers to table with it.

_Time_.--A leg of lamb weighing 5 lbs., 1-1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, 10d. to 1s. per lb. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.


BRAISED LOIN OF LAMB.

[Illustration: LOIN OF LAMB.]

753. INGREDIENTS.--1 loin of lamb, a few slices of bacon, 1 bunch of
green onions, 5 or 6 young carrots, a bunch of savoury herbs, 2 blades
of pounded mace, 1 pint of stock, salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Bone a loin of lamb, and line the bottom of a stewpan just
capable of holding it, with a few thin slices of fat bacon; add the
remaining ingredients, cover the meat with a few more slices of bacon,
pour in the stock, and simmer very _gently_ for 2 hours; take it up, dry
it, strain and reduce the gravy to a glaze, with which glaze the meat,
and serve it either on stewed peas, spinach, or stewed cucumbers.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 11d. per lb.

_Sufficient for_ 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.

[Illustration: SADDLE OF LAMB. RIBS OF LAMB.]

ROAST SADDLE OF LAMB.

754. INGREDIENTS.--Lamb; a little salt.

_Mode_.--This joint is now very much in vogue, and is generally
considered a nice one for a small party. Have ready a clear brisk fire;
put down the joint at a little distance, to prevent the fat from
scorching, and keep it well basted all the time it is cooking. Serve
with mint sauce and a fresh salad, and send to table with it, either
peas, cauliflowers, or spinach.

_Time_.--A small saddle, 1-1/2 hour; a large one, 2 hours.

_Average cost_, 10d. to 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.

_Note_.--Loin and ribs of lamb are roasted in the same manner, and
served with the same sauces as the above. A loin will take about 1-1/4
hour; ribs, from 1 to 1-1/4 hour.


ROAST SHOULDER OF LAMB.

755. INGREDIENTS.--Lamb; a little salt.

_Mode_.--Have ready a clear brisk fire, and put down the joint at a
sufficient distance from it, that the fat may not burn. Keep constantly
basting until done, and serve with a little gravy made in the
dripping-pan, and send mint sauce to table with it. Peas, spinach, or
cauliflowers are the usual vegetables served with lamb, and also a fresh
salad.

_Time_.--A shoulder of lamb rather more than 1 hour.

_Average cost_, 10s. to 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.


SHOULDER OF LAMB STUFFED.

756. INGREDIENTS.--Shoulder of lamb, forcemeat No. 417, trimmings of
veal or beef, 2 onions, 1/2 head of celery, 1 faggot of savoury herbs, a
few slices of fat bacon, 1 quart of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Take the blade-bone out of a shoulder of lamb, fill up its
place with forcemeat, and sew it up with coarse thread. Put it into a
stewpan with a few slices of bacon under and over the lamb, and add the
remaining ingredients. Stew very gently for rather more than 2 hours.
Reduce the gravy, with which glaze the meat, and serve with peas, stewed
cucumbers, or sorrel sauce.

_Time_.--Rather more than 2 hours. _Average cost_, 10d. to 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.


LAMB'S SWEETBREADS, LARDED, AND ASPARAGUS (an Entree).

757. INGREDIENTS.--2 or 3 sweetbreads, 1/2 pint of veal stock, white
pepper and salt to taste, a small bunch of green onions, 1 blade of
pounded mace, thickening of butter and flour, 2 eggs, nearly 1/2 pint of
cream, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley, a very little grated nutmeg.

_Mode_.--Soak the sweetbreads in lukewarm water, and put them into a
saucepan with sufficient boiling water to cover them, and let them
simmer for 10 minutes; then take them out and put them into cold water.
Now lard them, lay them in a stewpan, add the stock, seasoning, onions,
mace, and a thickening of butter and flour, and stew gently for 1/4 hour
or 20 minutes. Beat up the egg with the cream, to which add the minced
parsley and a very little grated nutmeg. Put this to the other
ingredients; stir it well till quite hot, but do not let it boil after
the cream is added, or it will curdle. Have ready some asparagus-tops,
boiled; add these to the sweetbreads, and serve.

_Time_.--Altogether 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 2s. 6d. to 3s. 6d. each.

_Sufficient_--3 sweetbreads for 1 entree.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.


ANOTHER WAY TO DRESS SWEETBREADS (an Entree).

758. INGREDIENTS.--Sweetbreads, egg and bread crumbs, 1/2 pint of gravy,
No. 442, 1/2 glass of sherry.

_Mode_.--Soak the sweetbreads in water for an hour, and throw them into
boiling water to render them firm. Let them stew gently for about 1/4
hour, take them out and put them into a cloth to drain all the water
from them. Brush them over with egg, sprinkle them with bread crumbs,
and either brown them in the oven or before the fire. Have ready the
above quantity of gravy, to which add 1/2 glass of sherry; dish the
sweetbreads, pour the gravy under them, and garnish with water-cresses.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 2s. 6d. to 3s. 6d.
each.

_Sufficient_--3 sweetbreads for 1 entree.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.


MUTTON AND LAMB CARVING.

HAUNCH OF MUTTON.

[Illustration: HAUNCH OF MUTTON.]

759. A deep cut should, in the first place, be made quite down to the
bone, across the knuckle-end of the joint, along the line 1 to 2. This
will let the gravy escape; and then it should be carved, in not too of
the haunch, in the direction of the line from 4 to 3.

[Illustration: LEG OF MUTTON.]

LEG OF MUTTON.

760. This homely, but capital English joint, is almost invariably served
at table as shown in the engraving. The carving of it is not very
difficult: the knife should be carried sharply down in the direction of
the line from 1 to 2, and slices taken from either side, as the guests
may desire, some liking the knuckle-end, as well done, and others
preferring the more underdone part. The fat should be sought near the
line 3 to 4. Some connoisseurs are fond of having this joint dished with
the under-side uppermost, so as to get at the finely-grained meat lying
under that part of the meat, known as the Pope's eye; but this is an
extravagant fashion, and one that will hardly find favour in the eyes of
many economical British housewives and housekeepers.


LOIN OF MUTTON.

[Illustration: LOIN OF MUTTON.]

761. There is one point in connection with carving a loin of mutton
which includes every other; that is, that the joint should be thoroughly
well jointed by the butcher before it is cooked. This knack of jointing
requires practice and the proper tools; and no one but the butcher is
supposed to have these. If the bones be not well jointed, the carving of
a loin of mutton is not a gracious business; whereas, if that has been
attended to, it is an easy and untroublesome task. The knife should be
inserted at fig. 1, and after feeling your way between the bones, it
should be carried sharply in the direction of the line 1 to 2. As there
are some people who prefer the outside cut, while others do not like it,
the question as to their choice of this should be asked.


SADDLE OF MUTTON.

[Illustration: SADDLE OF MUTTON.]

762. Although we have heard, at various intervals, growlings expressed
at the inevitable "saddle of mutton" at the dinner-parties of our middle
classes, yet we doubt whether any other joint is better liked, when it
has been well hung and artistically cooked. There is a diversity of
opinion respecting the mode of sending this joint to table; but it has
only reference to whether or no there shall be any portion of the tail,
or, if so, how many joints of the tail. We ourselves prefer the mode as
shown in our coloured illustration "O;" but others may, upon equally
good grounds, like the way shown in the engraving on this page. Some
trim the tail with a paper frill. The carving is not difficult: it is
usually cut in the direction of the line from 2 to 1, quite down to the
bones, in evenly-sliced pieces. A fashion, however, patronized by some,
is to carve it obliquely, in the direction of the line from 4 to 3; in
which case the joint would be turned round the other way, having the
tail end on the right of the carver.


SHOULDER OF MUTTON.

[Illustration: SHOULDER OF MUTTON.]

763. This is a joint not difficult to carve. The knife should be drawn
from the outer edge of the shoulder in the direction of the line from 1
to 2, until the bone of the shoulder is reached. As many slices as can
be carved in this manner should be taken, and afterwards the meat lying
on either side of the blade-bone should be served, by carving in the
direction of 3 to 4 and 3 to 4. The uppermost side of the shoulder being
now finished, the joint should be turned, and slices taken off along its
whole length. There are some who prefer this under-side of the shoulder
for its juicy flesh, although the grain of the meat is not so fine as
that on the other side.


FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB.

[Illustration: FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB.]

764. We always think that a good and practised carver delights in the
manipulation of this joint, for there is a little field for his judgment
and dexterity which does not always occur. The separation of the
shoulder from the breast is the first point to be attended to; this is
done by passing the knife lightly round the dotted line, as shown by the
figures 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, so as to cut through the skin, and then, by
raising with a little force the shoulder, into which the fork should be
firmly fixed, it will come away with just a little more exercise of the
knife. In dividing the shoulder and breast, the carver should take care
not to cut away too much of the meat from the latter, as that would
rather spoil its appearance when the shoulder is removed. The breast and
shoulder being separated, it is usual to lay a small piece of butter,
and sprinkle a little cayenne, lemon-juice, and salt between them; and
when this is melted and incorporated with the meat and gravy, the
shoulder may, as more convenient, be removed into another dish. The,
next operation is to separate the ribs from the brisket, by cutting
through the meat on the line 5 to 6. The joint is then ready to be
served to the guests; the ribs being carved in the direction of the
lines from 9 to 10, and the brisket from 7 to 8. The carver should ask
those at the table what parts they prefer-ribs, brisket, or a piece of
the shoulder.


LEG OF LAMB, LOIN OF LAMB, SADDLE OF LAMB, SHOULDER OF LAMB,

are carved in the same manner as the corresponding joints of mutton.
(_See_ Nos. 760, 761, 762, 763.)




[Illustration]

CHAPTER XVI.


GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE COMMON HOG.

765. THE HOG belongs to the order _Mammalia_, the genus _Sus scrofa_,
and the species _Pachydermata_, or thick-skinned; and its generic
characters are, a small head, with long flexible snout truncated; 42
teeth, divided into 4 upper incisors, converging, 6 lower incisors,
projecting, 2 upper and 2 lower canine, or tusks,--the former short, the
latter projecting, formidable, and sharp, and 14 molars in each jaw;
cloven feet furnished with 4 toes, and tail, small, short, and twisted;
while, in some varieties, this appendage is altogether wanting.

766. FROM THE NUMBER AND POSITION OF THE TEETH, physiologists are
enabled to define the nature and functions of the animal; and from those
of the _Sus_, or hog, it is evident that he is as much a _grinder_ as a
_biter_, or can live as well on vegetable as on animal food; though a
mixture of both is plainly indicated as the character of food most
conducive to the integrity and health of its physical system.

767. THUS THE PIG TRIBE, though not a ruminating mammal, as might be
inferred from the number of its molar teeth, is yet a link between the
_herbivorous_ and the _carnivorous_ tribes, and is consequently what is
known as an _omnivorous_ quadruped; or, in other words, capable of
converting any kind of aliment into nutriment.

768. THOUGH THE HOOF IN THE HOG is, as a general rule, cloven, there are
several remarkable exceptions, as in the species native to Norway,
Illyria, Sardinia, and _formerly_ to the Berkshire variety of the
British domesticated pig, in which the hoof is entire and _un_cleft.

769. WHATEVER DIFFERENCE IN ITS PHYSICAL NATURE, climate and soil may
produce in this animal, his functional characteristics are the same in
whatever part of the world he may be found; and whether in the trackless
forests of South America, the coral isles of Polynesia, the jungles of
India, or the spicy brakes of Sumatra, he is everywhere known for his
gluttony, laziness, and indifference to the character and quality of his
food. And though he occasionally shows an epicure's relish for a
succulent plant or a luscious carrot, which he will discuss with all his
salivary organs keenly excited, he will, the next moment, turn with
equal gusto to some carrion offal that might excite the forbearance of
the unscrupulous cormorant. It is this coarse and repulsive mode of
feeding that has, in every country and language, obtained for him the
opprobrium of being "an unclean animal."

770. IN THE MOSAICAL LAW, the pig is condemned as an unclean beast, and
consequently interdicted to the Israelites, as unfit for human food.
"And the swine, though he divideth the hoof and be cloven-footed, yet he
cheweth not the cud. He is unclean to you."--Lev. xi. 7. Strict,
however, as the law was respecting the cud-chewing and hoof-divided
animals, the Jews, with their usual perversity and violation of the
divine commands, seem afterwards to have ignored the prohibition; for,
unless they ate pork, it is difficult to conceive for what purpose they
kept troves of swine, as from the circumstance recorded in Matthew
xviii. 32, when Jesus was in Galilee, and the devils, cast out of the
two men, were permitted to enter the herd of swine that were feeding on
the hills in the neighbourhood of the Sea of Tiberias, it is very
evident they did. There is only one interpretation by which we can
account for a prohibition that debarred the Jews from so many foods
which we regard as nutritious luxuries, that, being fat and the texture
more hard of digestion than other meats, they were likely, in a hot dry
climate, where vigorous exercise could seldom be taken, to produce
disease, and especially cutaneous affections; indeed, in this light, as
a code of sanitary ethics, the book of Leviticus is the most admirable
system of moral government ever conceived for man's benefit.

771. SETTING HIS COARSE FEEDING AND SLOVENLY HABITS OUT OF THE QUESTION,
there is no domestic animal so profitable or so useful to man as the
much-maligned pig, or any that yields him a more varied or more
luxurious repast. The prolific powers of the pig are extraordinary, even
under the restraint of domestication; but when left to run wild in
favourable situations, as in the islands of the South Pacific, the
result, in a few years, from two animals put on shore and left
undisturbed, is truly surprising; for they breed so fast, and have such
numerous litters, that unless killed off in vast numbers both for the
use of the inhabitants and as fresh provisions for ships' crews, they
would degenerate into vermin. In this country the pig has usually two
litters, or farrows, in a year, the breeding seasons being April and
October; and the period the female goes with her young is about four
months,--16 weeks or 122 days. The number produced at each litter
depends upon the character of the breed; 12 being the average number in
the small variety, and 10 in the large; in the mixed breeds, however,
the average is between 10 and 15, and in some instances has reached as
many as 20. But however few, or however many, young pigs there may be to
the farrow, there is always one who is the dwarf of the family circle, a
poor, little, shrivelled, half-starved anatomy, with a small melancholy
voice, a staggering gait, a woe-begone countenance, and a thread of a
tail, whose existence the complacent mother ignores, his plethoric
brothers and sisters repudiate, and for whose emaciated jaws there is
never a spare or supplemental teat, till one of the favoured
gormandizers, overtaken by momentary oblivion, drops the lacteal
fountain, and gives the little squeaking straggler the chance of a
momentary mouthful. This miserable little object, which may be seen
bringing up the rear of every litter, is called the Tony pig, or the
_Anthony_; so named, it is presumed, from being the one always assigned
to the Church, when tithe was taken in kind; and as St. Anthony was the
patron of husbandry, his name was given in a sort of bitter derision to
the starveling that constituted his dues; for whether there are ten or
fifteen farrows to the litter, the Anthony is always the last of the
family to come into the world.

772. FROM THE GROSSNESS OF HIS FEEDING, the large amount of aliment he
consumes, his gluttonous way of eating it, from his slothful habits,
laziness, and indulgence in sleep, the pig is particularly liable to
disease, and especially indigestion, heartburn, and affections of the
skin.

773. TO COUNTERACT THE CONSEQUENCE OF A VIOLATION OF THE PHYSICAL LAWS,
a powerful monitor in the brain of the pig teaches him to seek for
relief and medicine. To open the pores of his skin, blocked up with mud,
and excite perspiration, he resorts to a tree, a stump, or his
trough--anything rough and angular, and using it as a curry-comb to his
body, obtains the luxury of a scratch and the benefit of cuticular
evaporation; he next proceeds with his long supple snout to grub up
antiscorbutic roots, cooling salads of mallow and dandelion, and,
greatest treat of all, he stumbles on a piece of chalk or a mouthful of
delicious cinder, which, he knows by instinct, is the most sovereign
remedy in the world for that hot, unpleasant sensation he has had all
the morning at his stomach.


774. IT IS A REMARKABLE FACT that, though every one who keeps a pig
knows how prone he is to disease, how that disease injures the quality
of the meat, and how eagerly he pounces on a bit of coal or cinder, or
any coarse dry substance that will adulterate the rich food on which he
lives, and by affording soda to his system, correct the vitiated fluids
of his body,--yet very few have the judgment to act on what they see,
and by supplying the pig with a few shovelfuls of cinders in his sty,
save the necessity of his rooting for what is so needful to his health.
Instead of this, however, and without supplying the animal with what its
instinct craves for, his nostril is bored with a red-hot iron, and a
ring clinched in his nose to prevent rooting for what he feels to be
absolutely necessary for his health; and ignoring the fact that, in a
domestic state at least, the pig lives on the richest of all
food,--scraps of cooked animal substances, boiled vegetables, bread, and
other items, given in that concentrated essence of aliment for a
quadruped called wash, and that he eats to repletion, takes no exercise,
and finally sleeps all the twenty-four hours he is not eating, and then,
when the animal at last seeks for those medicinal aids which would
obviate the evil of such a forcing diet, his keeper, instead of meeting
his animal instinct by human reason, and giving him what he seeks, has
the inhumanity to torture him by a ring, that, keeping up a perpetual
"raw" in the pig's snout, prevents his digging for those corrective
drugs which would remove the evils of his artificial existence.

775. THOUGH SUBJECT TO SO MANY DISEASES, no domestic animal is more
easily kept in health, cleanliness, and comfort, and this without the
necessity of "ringing," or any excessive desire of the hog to roam,
break through his sty, or plough up his _pound_. Whatever the kind of
food may be on which the pig is being fed or fattened, a teaspoonful or
more of salt should always be given in his mess of food, and a little
heap of well-burnt cinders, with occasional bits of chalk, should always
be kept by the side of his trough, as well as a vessel of clean water:
his pound, or the front part of his sty, should be totally free from
straw, the brick flooring being every day swept out and sprinkled with a
layer of sand. His lair, or sleeping apartment, should be well sheltered
by roof and sides from cold, wet, and all changes of weather, and the
bed made up of a good supply of clean straw, sufficiently deep to