Infomotions, Inc.Training for librarianship / Mary W. Plummer. Rev. by Frank W. Walter. / Plummer, Mary Wright, 1856-1916




Author: Plummer, Mary Wright, 1856-1916
Title: Training for librarianship / Mary W. Plummer. Rev. by Frank W. Walter.
Publisher: Chicago, American Library Association Publishing Board, 1920.
Tag(s): library schools; library economy; schools; school; training; entrance requirements; new york; library school; american library; library training; york state
Contributor(s): Eric Lease Morgan (Infomotions, Inc.)
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Rights: GNU General Public License
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Identifier: trainingforlibra00plumrich
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TRAINING FOR 
LIBRARIANSHIP 



BY 
MARY W. PLUMMER 



REVISED BY 
FRANK K. WALTER 



PREPRINT OF 

MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY 
CHAPTER XIII 



EDITION 2, REVISED 



American iibtatp &60octatt0n }j)ttbUfiiI)ina 
CHICAGO 

1920 









Types of 
Libraries 

I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 
V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 



A.L.A. MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY 

Chapters and Authors 

"American Library History," MB. BOLTON. Printed. 
" Library of Congress," MR. BISHOP. Printed. 
"The State Library," MR. WYER. Printed. 
"The College and University Library," MR. WYER. 

Printed. 
"Proprietary and Subscription Libraries," MR. BOLTON. 

Printed. 

"The Free Public Library," Miss LORD. Printed. 
"The High-School Library," MR. WARD. Printed. 
"Special Libraries," MR. JOHNSTON. Printed. 



Organization 

and Administration 

IX. "Library Legislation," MR. YUST. Printed. 

X. "Library Building," MR. EASTMAN. Printed. 

XL "Furniture, Fixtures, and Equipment," Miss EASTMAN. 

Printed. 

XII. "Administration," DR. BOSTWICK. Printed. 

XIII. " Training f or Librarianship," Miss PLUMMER. Printed. 

XIV. "Library Service," Miss BALDWIN. Printed. 

XV. "Branch Libraries and Other Distributing Agencies," 

Miss EASTMAN. Printed. 

XVI. "Book Selection," Miss BASCOM. Printed. 
XVII. "Order and Accession Department," MR. HOPPER. 

Printed. 

XVIII. "Classification, "Miss BACON. Printed. 
XIX. "The Catalog." Miss HOWE. In preparation. 
XX. "Shelf Department," Miss RATHBONE. Printed. 
XXI. " Loan Work," MR. VITZ. Printed. 
XXII. "Reference Department," DR. RICHARDSON. Printed. 

XXIII. "Government Documents," MR. WYER. Printed. 

XXIV. "Bibliography," Miss MUDGE. Printed. 

XXV. "Pamphlets and Minor Library Material," MR. WYER. 

Printed. 

XXVI. "Bookbinding," MR. BAILEY. Printed. 

Special Form? . . 

of Work .;." . ". / I I : : ; 

XXVII.* '"Librarf Gcfoifrfksg'ions and State Library Extension, or 
Aid and' "State Agencies," MR. WYNKOOP. 



.. 

XXVIII. "The Library and" the School," Miss WOOD. In 

preparation. 

XXIX. "Library Work with Children," Miss OLCOTT. Printed. 
XXX. "Library Work with the Blind," Miss CHAMBERLAIN. 

Printed. 

XXXL "Publicity." In preparation. 
XXXII. "Library Printing," MR. WALTER. Printed. 






" 



XIII 

TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 

MARY WRIGHT PLUMMER 
Late Principal, Library School of the New York Public Library 

Revised by 

FRANK K. WALTER 1 

Former Librarian, General Motors Corporation, and Vice-director, 
New York State Library School 

Development 

Association of American Library Schools 

Library schools 

Entrance requirements 

Curricula 
Summer schools 
Apprentice classes 
Institutes and round tables 
Training in normal schools 
List of library schools 
Bibliography 

One of the earliest and perhaps the earliest suggestion 
of schools for training librarians was made by M. W. Schret- 
tinger in his Essay at a Complete Textbook of Library Science 
(Munich, 1829), in which he outlined plans for central libraries 
with distributing centers and the formation of schools (Pflanz- 
schulen) for training librarians for these libraries. As early 
as 1864 Austria began to require special training in bibliog- 
raphy from candidates for positions in government libraries 
and in 1874 courses in bibliography and classification were 

1 REVISER'S NOTE. In recognition of her influence on American library 
training Miss Plummer's original plan, and, as far as practicable, her phrase- 
ology, have been followed in this revision. It has not been possible to 
indicate all the changes in the text which recent developments in library 
training have made necessary. 



NtfM; 'OF- LIBRARY ECONOMY 



given at the University of Vienna. France had begun a similar 
course at the Ecole des Chartes in 1869. A fuller course, out- 
lined in 1874 by F. Rullman, librarian of the University of 
Freiburg, is summarized in the introduction to the well-known 
"1876 Report of the United States Bureau of Education on 
Public Libraries in the United States of America." 

The next significant mention seems to be in the Proceedings 
of the meeting of the Library Association of the United Kingdom 
in London in 1877. At this meeting C. H. Robarts, of All 
Souls College, Oxford, expressed a "hope for the rise of a school 
of highly trained students in bibliographical knowledge." 

Dr. Crestadoro of Italy also spoke of a royal decree made 
effective in Italy in 1865 requiring training for the personnel of 
the government libraries there and spoke of such training as 
desirable if not necessary. Several American librarians were 
present and hi their case the suggestion proved germinal. The 
subject was referred to in the Library Journal and at the con- 
ferences of the American Library Association from time to 
time. 

The chief credit for the founding of the first library school 
belongs to Melvil Dewey, the pioneer in many other lines of 
modern library work. Mr. Dewey first presented his plan for 
a library school to the American Library Association in 1883. 
The plan was approved by the Association in spite of the active 
opposition of several of its leading members. The school was 
opened in January, 1887, at Columbia College, chiefly through 
the personal efforts of Mr. Dewey, then librarian of the college, 
and through the active aid of Frederick A. P. Barnard, president 
of the college. Some twenty persons, experienced and inex- 
perienced in library matters, attended the first session, which 
lasted four months. The following year the course occupied 
seven months with a second year of the same length. The 
prejudice against formal library training was very strong in 
some quarters, but it gradually gave way as graduates of the 



TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 3 

school went into library service and proved the superiority of 
planned and systematic training over the former fortuitous 
ways of learning. 

Within six years three other schools were opened. The 
Columbia College school was transferred to the New York 
State Library at Albany, where it has since remained. The 
schools opened at Pratt, Drexel, and Armour institutes were all 
connected with the institute libraries, which were for circulation 
as well as reference. Pratt Institute for a number of years 
conducted the leading circulating library of Brooklyn as there 
was no public library in the city. This connection with public 
circulating libraries was the immediate reason for a differentia- 
tion in the character arid methods of these three schools, which 
had not the large and important book resources of a college or 
reference library to draw upon, but were enabled, on the other 
hand, to provide their students with actual practice in the 
methods of circulating libraries and with contact with the public 
at all the points of contact found in a free circulating library 
containing a reference department. 

Other schools followed, some of one type and some of the 
other, with individual variations, until there are at present 
thirteen library schools in the United States with a course of one 
school year or more of professional training. These, as well as 
the other types of training agencies mentioned later, are repre- 
sented in the American Library Association by the committee 
on library training which is expected to report annually to the 
association on the condition of the library schools and training 
classes and to suggest means of improving them. This com- 
mittee's first report was made at the San Francisco conference 
in 1891. 

The association at the Colorado Springs Conference in 
1920, through its council, authorized the appointment of a 
committee to promote certification and standardization of 
library work. 



4 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY 

Association of American Library Schools 

The Association of American Library Schools was formed 
in 1915. Membership in the association is dependent on 
meeting specified standards, set by the association, as to equip- 
ment, faculty personnel, and curriculum. This association has 
already shown its value in the raising of standards of work but it 
cannot take the place of genuine interest and co-operation by 
the American Library Association, whose scope includes all types 
of library training and not merely one rather well-defined 
type. Without such supervision there is grave danger of the 
establishment of schools and training classes poorly equipped , 
poorly organized, and without good standing in the library 
profession. 

Library Schools 

Entrance requirements. The earliest schools began with- 
out any requirements for entrance except the furnishing of 
references as to character, general education, and personality. 
Once under way and having secured a measure of recognition 
and popularity, they began to sift the applications received 
by various requirements such as college graduation, entrance 
examinations, a high-school certificate or diploma, and to lay 
as much stress as possible on desirable personal qualifications. 
There is little doubt that these tests have helped raise the level 
of librarianship, at the same time giving to the schools student 
material on which it was worth while to expend time and labor. 
A composite application blank showing the sort of informa- 
tion sought by the schools before admitting students would 
gather information on the following points: 

Personality: name; age; health; physical defects; married or single; 

nationality of parents; names of references; name, address, 

and occupation of parents. 
Education: preparatory schools, with dates of attendance; college, 

with dates of attendance; degrees; languages known, where 



TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 5 

acquired, extent of use; special courses of study or reading; 
travel, at home or abroad. 

Experience: stenography and typewriting, speed acquired, machine 
used; library experience or training, what, where, how long, why 
terminated; experience in teaching, business, or other occupa- 
tions; name of last employer. 

Miscellaneous: character and extent of miscellaneous reading; 
periodicals read regularly; library periodicals read regularly; 
object of taking course. 

Future position: definite library position in view? minimum salary 
that would be acceptable; location preferred, if any. 

Opportunity is also given for general remarks, descriptive of tastes, 
aptitudes, experience, etc. 

The view that personality matters in a professional or 
vocational school, while not new or limited to library schools, is 
perhaps held with greater tenacity by them from the fact that 
their product is put to immediate use in quarters well known to 
the schools and that criticism at once follows any instance of 
failure on the school's part to consider personality in admitting 
students or in recommending graduates. This is a help, not a 
hindrance, to the schools and is so considered by them. 

Curricida. The curricula vary with the type of schools. 
Those connected with public or endowed circulating libraries 
supply their students with considerable practice in all the library 
routine; the library school directly connected with a college or 
reference library goes deeper into the theory, philosophy, and 
history of its subjects of study and into research work, its prac- 
tice being chiefly in the line of classification, cataloguing, book 
selection and evaluation, and reference work. Practice in other 
lines is not neglected and the students usually have a stated 
amount of practice in public libraries which co-operate with 
the school in furnishing facilities for this work. There is a 
noticeable tendency in nearly all the schools to diminish the 
amount of purely routine practice and to plan this practice so 



6 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY 

as to bring out systematically the principles and theories 
involved rather than merely to fill a stated period with service 
in various library departments. There are but two schools 
requiring a full second year for a degree. One of these is 
connected with a university library and one with a reference 
library. Even in these the Senior class is small compared with 
the Junior, owing largely to the expense of a second year and 
the ease with which positions are obtained at the end of one 
year's study. 

The leading subjects in all the schools are cataloguing, 
classification, the study of reference material and library 
economy, which includes many important phases of library 
method and practice. Nearly all the schools give instruction 
in library administration, library buildings, book selection, 
bibliography (trade and subject), school libraries, work with 
children, and government documents. Many of them include 
more or less instruction in methods for business and special 
libraries. Especial stress is laid on different subjects in cases 
where the school has specific demands upon it from the region 
or the special type of library to which it supplies assistants or as 
it has special facilities for presenting special subjects. Lectures 
and seminars (including written and oral reports on required 
reading) are the usual methods of instruction in the schools. 
Short bibliographies on subjects of general interest are usually 
required in all the schools. 

Naturally the curricula of the schools have felt the influences 
of the changes and developments in library doctrine and prac- 
tice. As the field of librarianship has extended from the town 
to the county library, from the city circulating library to the 
library system with its branch libraries, deposit stations, and 
other extension agencies, from the pioneer library commission 
to the League of Library Commissions, as librarianship has made 
specialties of work with children, work with the blind, with 
schools, with rural communities, with state institutions, and 



TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 7 

special libraries, legislative libraries, bibliographical societies, 
and as temporary activities like the camp, transport, hospital, 
and other libraries included in the scope of the war-service com- 
mittee have entered the field, the schools have adjusted and 
extended their courses of study hi order to keep pace. This 
increase in the curricula has been followed by no marked 
increases in the total length of the courses of the schools. It has 
inevitably followed that a tendency toward specialization in 
different lines has become apparent in several of the schools. 
Some demand has also arisen for a school entirely devoted to 
instruction in library work of a more advanced character than 
that now given in any of the schools. 

Instruction in the schools may be divided into four general 
classes of subjects: bibliographical and historical, technical, 
administrative, and critical (that is, evaluation of literature 
as applied to library purposes). The technical and administra- 
tive subjects, as a rule, receive the most attention in point of 
time allotted to them, that is, if the term bibliographical is 
confined to its narrower meaning. A typical list of the subjects 
included under these heads in a library school curriculum is as 
follows: 

Administrative: Subject-headings 

Library administration Library economy 

Library buildings Bookbinding 

Library legislation Proofreading and printing 

Library accounts 

Book-buying Biographical: 

Work with children Reference w rk 

Work with schools S 0ve u documents) 

Methods in special libraries 5 8toly ^^ 

History of printing 

Technical: Trade bibliography 

Cataloguing National bibliography 

Classification Subject bibliography 



8 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY 

Critical: Survey of library field 

Book selection, appraisal, and Typewriting 

annotation Visits to libraries 

Periodicals 

Practice in assigned libraries 
Miscellaneous: 
Current topics 

These different subjects and even the four main classes over- 
lap at many points and are used with varying meanings in 
different schools. The Association of American Library 
Schools has appointed a committee to prepare a list of stand- 
ardized meanings of terms used hi the circulars and catalogues of 
the schools. 

Schools differ considerably in their schedules of hours, 
several schools devoting the morning hours to lectures and 
recitations and leaving the afternoons free for study and prac- 
tice. Others alternate study and lecture and recitation hours 
throughout the day. The average number of hours per week 
spent in class exercises is approximately from fifteen to twenty. 
Saturday is generally considered a holiday and the usual school 
holidays and vacations are generally observed. It is customary 
to call on librarians, in addition to the regular faculty, and on 
members of kindred professions or callings to give lectures, singly 
or hi courses. The visiting of libraries and of various places 
connected at some point with bookmaking or distributing is 
required by all schools. During the spring vacations, parties 
of students are conducted on visits to the libraries of nearby 
cities and towns. The inspirational and educational value of 
these visits is tested by subsequent quizzes, examinations, or 
written reports. 

Following the common tendency in the educational world, 
more and more stress is laid upon equipment. Connection with 
libraries of size and usefulness, whose resources are varied, is 
emphasized; books for working- tools are freely prescribed for 



TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 9 

the school shelves; collections for the study of administrative 
methods are formed and machines for the practice of typewriting 
and facilities for the practice of bookbinding are furnished by 
most of the schools. All schools give practice in at least some 
part of actual library work. This practice is under super- 
vision, is reported on, and must meet certain standards in order 
to insure formal recognition. The custom of requiring from 
two weeks' to two months' practice in good libraries other 
than those with which the schools are connected is spreading. 
The specific recognition for completing the school work will 
be found in the appended list under the names of individual 
schools. As a rule, the schools regard certificates and diplomas 
as statements concerning the students' work in the school and 
in practice, and not as predictions or assurances of success in 
librarianship, hence they urge libraries to refer to the schools 
for information in regard to the individual graduate who applies 
for any specific position. 

Summer Schools 

Very soon after the founding of library schools it was 
discovered that the graduates of these could not usually be 
secured as librarians of small libraries paying small salaries, 
so that it was evident that something must be done if these 
small libraries were to be raised to a higher efficiency. 

The summer library school, with a term ranging from six 
to eight weeks, conducted by a library commission, a library 
school, a university, or some other authoritative body, was 
the immediate solution. These schools give elementary 
courses. In some cases special courses in one subject or 
related subjects, as cataloguing, classification, and subject- 
headings, are given either for the entire course or in separate 
courses of three or more weeks each. Pass cards are issued 
for the completion of separate subjects and a certificate or 



10 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY 

diploma is given for the completion of all the subjects included 
in the course. 

Where the summer school restricts its attendance to persons 
already in the work and holding paid positions, it is raising the 
level of efficiency, and the majority of summer schools now 
appreciate the fact that such restriction is necessary. Other- 
wise the summer courses would provide a short cut into the 
service for persons who might otherwise obtain a more complete 
training or who might be unable to pass the educational and 
personal tests thought necessary by the regular schools for 
the protection of the profession. 

It is difficult to say how many summer schools are being 
conducted, since in some states they are held more or less 
irregularly. The leading ones meeting the standards of the 
report of 1905 are those carried on annually by the library 
commissions of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Indiana, and Iowa, 
those conducted by the New York State, University of Illinois, 
and Simmons College library schools, and one at Chautauqua, 
which is affiliated with the Chautauqua Assembly. The New 
Jersey Library Commission holds a biennial summer school. 
Several are conducted at colleges and universities, as at the 
University of Michigan and Columbia University. Ontario 
holds a three months' winter course at the Toronto Public 
Library, which is an extension of an earlier short course. " Open 
courses" for experienced librarians who wish to review and 
extend their professional knowledge are offered by the New 
York Public Library, Western Reserve University, and Los 
Angeles Public Library schools. In several instances, as in 
New York, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, short summer courses 
for school librarians are held. The small library has been 
improved not only by the greater efficiency of those librarians 
or assistants who had taken summer courses but by the general 
arousing of ambition and renewal of interest among librarians 



TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP n 

generally by the new opportunity and new knowledge offered 
by these short courses. 

The comparative ease with which a summer course can be 
established has led to great diversity in the character and quality 
of work done in these schools. A report on standards of entrance, 
standards of teaching, and the recognition given to students of 
summer courses was presented by the Committee on Library 
Training to the American Library Association conference of 
1905. The League of Library Commissions, including all the 
commissions at that time conducting library schools or summer 
schools, approved the recommendations of the committee by 
reprinting the report. The later suggestions of the committee, 
as in 1917, have not superseded this earlier report. 

Apprentice Classes 

The large library, with a large and fast increasing staff and 
frequent resignations and promotions, found very little help 
in the library schools for the supplying of its lowest grades of 
service, since, like the small library, it was unable to pay salaries 
large enough to attract the trained worker to the subordinate 
positions. The solution (if it may be called a solution) found 
for this difficulty was the apprentice class. Even before the 
establishment of these classes, some libraries had given more or 
less systematic training to individual apprentices. The report of 
the Committee on Training for 1905 dealt with one form only of 
apprentice class, that assembled by a library for its own use, the 
apprentices receiving training in that library's methods in 
return for assistance given, and at the end of a given period 
being appointed to positions in the library or furnished with 
a letter of recommendation to other libraries. Since this 
procedure would affect the library field in general, it was 
considered by the committee and recommendations were 
made in regard to this kind of apprentice class. Concerning 
those classes formed by libraries strictly for their own use, 



12 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY 

members of which were given no credentials or formal recog- 
nition, the committee of 1905 had nothing to say. Whether 
the report had any effect upon classes of the type dealt with, 
it is hard to say; but from the papers and discussions before 
the section on professional training at the conference of 1910, 
it was evident that there was still a wide difference of opinion 
among libraries as to the object, value, and influence of the 
apprentice system, and from the papers and discussions before 
the same section in 1911, 1916, 1917, and 1919, it is clear that 
the matter is being considered much more seriously than before 
and in all its bearings. 

There is no doubt, in view of the large library systems 
developing in our cities of the first and second rank, that the 
question is urgent and needs the combined wisdom of many 
libraries to establish a plan that shall meet immediate require- 
ments without injuring the ultimate value of the library's work 
by lowering standards of admission to the staff. The disturb- 
ances due to the war have led to a lowering of quality of candi- 
dates and to an increased standard of wages so that the difficulty 
of reaching a satisfactory solution is perhaps greater than ever 
before. Closer relation between the work of the training class 
and the library schools has been suggested so that the former 
could act in a great degree as a source of supply to the latter. 
This seems practicable if standards drawn up by a representative 
and authorized committee of the American Library Association 
(as, for example, the proposed board on certification of librarians) 
could be adopted. 

Younger people are admitted to the apprentice classes 
than would be taken hi the library schools, the high-school 
certificate is often accepted in lieu of an examination, and 
in some libraries the training is entirely practical and utilitarian, 
guided by the immediate need of the library rather than by 
that of the apprentice, which is after all the need of the library 
in a more far-reaching sense. Promotions are often dependent 



TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 13 

upon examinations given as a means to insure the continued 
study of the apprentice who has entered the service. Unfor- 
tunately, these are often the only means effective with some 
assistants. Abolition of examinations, except to test techni- 
cal knowledge and personal efficiency, should mean that the 
library had reached the desirable condition where its whole 
force was influenced not by material inducement as much as by 
an impulse from within to self-improvement and study for the 
love of knowledge. Such a condition is unlikely until all grades 
of the service can be subjected to higher requirements than is 
possible at present. 

Institutes and Round Tables 

Still another form of instruction has developed in what are 
called library institutes and round tables. These are for the 
benefit of those librarians of small libraries who cannot spare 
the time or perhaps the money for even a summer course. 
The institute was tried first and consisted of two or three meet- 
ings at some town or village containing a library. One of the 
meetings was usually open to the public and intended to arouse 
public interest in the welfare and development of the local 
library. Librarians from neighboring towns and villages 
were invited, papers were read, discussions encouraged, and a 
question box was a usual feature. Usually an official of the 
library commission, of the state library, or of the state associa- 
tion had charge ; the local librarian was chairman of a committee 
on local arrangements, and a number of trained or experienced 
librarians assisted with the program. The chief value of the 
institute was as a method of propaganda rather than of instruc- 
tion, since the best effect was usually through the public session 
and the making of professional acquaintances outside the 
meetings. The librarians most in need of help often felt timid 
and constrained in the meetings and got most of their practical 
assistance from the individual conversations between sessions. 



14 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY 

These facts pointed the way to the round table. This is a 
gathering of librarians living in towns and villages not far apart 
to whom is sent at their request someone capable of giving 
help hi their daily problems and difficulties. At least two 
sessions are held at one of the libraries concerned, and attention 
is concentrated on the immediate expressed needs of these 
libraries. It is much easier to secure such expression under 
these circumstances than in the institute meetings. The older 
type of institute has largely given way to the round table, under 
whatever name it may be conducted. In New York state a 
definite state program for the institutes is planned and the 
state divided into definite districts where the general program 
is given. At the same tune a large force of volunteer conductors 
insures so much latitude in the form of the meeting and the 
treatment of the subject as to make each meeting practically 
local in its application. In states with library commissions the 
regular conduct of round tables is a common, recognized duty 
of the state organizer. 

Training in Normal Schools 

In 1903 twelve normal schools reported some kind of 
training hi library methods. These courses increased in num- 
ber for several years, but in recent years have been rather 
irregularly given in many places. No current statistics are 
available. In many of these schools the mistake was made 
of devoting the whole instruction to matters of technique, and 
those following the course were often led to believe that this 
training was sufficient to make librarians of them. The error 
of this is now generally recognized and it is conceded that 
the training given in normal schools should consist largely 
of training in the selection and use of books and as a means 
of general culture, with enough simple technique to enable the 
teacher or school librarian (in small schools the two offices are 
usually combined in one "teacher-librarian") to administer 



TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 15 

and care for her small collection. The importance of this train- 
ing has long been recognized by librarians, but it is only about 
fifteen years since influential teachers have awakened to the 
need of a good library in a good school. California, Minne- 
sota, New York, and Wisconsin are perhaps making the most 
substantial progress in this direction at present. As yet it is 
the high-school library that is receiving the most attention, 
but the need of good libraries in grade schools and rural schools 
is rapidly becoming better recognized. Teachers and librarians 
are both beginning to recognize that special training for school 
library work is needed. The normal-school courses often give 
excellent training to teacher-librarians who go to elementary 
schools or the rural or small-town school. The larger high 
schools usually require their teachers to be college graduates. 
The normal school seldom reaches these. The library school 
or the library course in the teachers' college is the logical place 
for the high-school librarian to receive her training. Several 
of the library schools have included special courses in school 
work in their curricula, but the combined supply of high-school 
librarians from all these courses is too small to meet the demand. 
The early establishment (in 1890) by the American Library 
Association of a standing committee on training for librarian- 
ship has been amply justified. The establishment of the Pro- 
fessional Training Section of the association (hi 1909) was 
another step in keeping the association in touch and sympathy 
with all sincere efforts toward raising the standards of the pro- 
fession through various training agencies in the various grades 
of service. The first exhaustive report on library training was 
made in 1903 by the directors of six library schools. It sum- 
marizes reports from nine library schools, ten summer schools, 
thirty-three apprentice classes, fifteen college courses in bibliog- 
raphy and the history of printing, twelve normal-school courses 
in library economy, and four correspondence courses. The 
war and its aftermath make comparative statistics of 1903 



1 6 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY 

and 1920 unfair and misleading, but with all its handicaps 
library training has gained ground. The correspondence 
courses have almost disappeared, many apprentice classes 
have been temporarily suspended by the difficulty of getting 
suitable candidates at the present salaries in the lower grades 
of library service, and the college courses are just beginning to 
recover from the effects of the war. Nevertheless, the good 
training classes are more numerous and the poorer ones more 
discredited. The number of library schools giving one or more 
years of instruction has increased to thirteen. A fourteenth, 
that of the California State Library, was discontinued with 
the class of 1920. Its place will probably be taken by the 
library school which the University of California is projecting. 
The University of Texas is just bringing to completion its plans 
for a year of library training. Brief summaries of the organi- 
zation and work of these schools are given below. 

American Library Schools Offering Not Less than 
One Year's Training 

New York State Library School, Albany, N.Y. A division of the 
University of the State of New York (the state department of 
education) and affiliated with the New York State Library. 
Supported by state appropriations. Founded January, 1887, as 
the Columbia College School of Library Economy, New York 
City. Transferred to Albany as part of the New York State 
Library, April, 1889. Present director, James I. Wyer, Jr., 
director of the New York State Library; vice-director, Edna M. 
Sanderson. Time required for graduation, two years of thirty- 
six weeks each. First-year course required; second year 
includes as electives: indexing; school library work; library 
extension; advanced cataloging; advanced reference; practice 
work in bibliography, cataloging, and reference. Entrance re- 
quirements since 1902, degree from a college registered by the 
regents of the University of the State of New York. Credits re- 
quired in Junior year, 58 (aggregating about 1,500 hours of class- 



TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 17 

room exercises, practice, and preparation) ; Senior year, 52 credits, 
(aggregating about 1,300 hours). Minimum age limit, twenty 
years. Month of practice in libraries outside of Albany and 
annual visit to libraries required each year. Degree of Bachelor 
of Library Science on graduation. Tuition for first year, $75 
to students from New York state, $100 for others; second year, 
$25 to students from New York state, $50 to others. Summer 
courses of six weeks open to persons engaged in library work and 
special short summer courses for school librarians in co-operation 
with the School Libraries Division of the university. 

Pratt Institute School of Library Science, Brooklyn, N.Y. Con- 
nected with Pratt Institute, supported by institute endowment, 
and affiliated with the Pratt Institute Free Library. Founded 
in November, 1890. Director, Edward F. Stevens, librarian 
of Pratt Institute Free Library; vice-director and school execu- 
tive, Josephine A. Rathbone. Time required for graduation, 
one year of thirty-eight weeks. Entrance requirements, exami- 
nations in history, current events, general information, French, 
and one other modern language, preferably German. College 
graduates, under some conditions, may be admitted without 
examination. Minimum age, twenty years. Hours of instruc- 
tion, 493. Practical work, 400 hours. Tuition, $100. Supplies 
about $40. Library visiting in and about New York, 45 hours, 
required. Vacation trip of a week, optional; cost about $50. 

University of Illinois Library School, Urbana, 111. Connected with 
the University of Illinois. Supported by university appropria- 
tion. Founded September, 1893, as the Armour Institute 
Library School, Chicago. Transferred to the University of 
Illinois, September, 1897. Present director, Phineas L. Windsor; 
assistant director, Frances Simpson. Time required for gradua- 
tion, two years of thirty-six weeks each. Total credits required 
for graduation, 32 semester hours in Junior year, 30 semester 
hours in Senior year. Entrance requirement since 1911, college 
graduation. Degree of Bachelor of Library Science on graduation. 
Matriculation fee $10, incidental fee $25 a semester, diploma fee 
$10. Students unable to matriculate pay $7 . 50 a semester in 
addition to the incidental fee. Electives: courses in other 



i8 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY 

university schools and colleges may be taken in the Senior 
year by those preparing for special library work. One month's 
practice in an assigned library and a library visit of a week 
required in each year. Summer course of six weeks provides 
elementary instruction in various library subjects. These 
courses are not credited toward a degree. The eight weeks' 
summer courses for college graduates are accepted as credit 
toward the B.L.S. degree. 

Syracuse University Library School, Syracuse, N.Y. Connected 
with Syracuse University. Supported by university appropria- 
tion. Founded 1897 as the Department of Library Economy 
of the College of Liberal Arts. Present director, Earl E. Sperry, 
librarian of the university and professor of European history; 
vice-director, Elizabeth G. Thorne. Time required for gradua- 
tion, for the degree course, two years in addition to two years 
of general college work; for the certificate course, two years 
(including 12 semester hours in the College of Liberal Arts). 
Entrance requirements, for the degree course, 15 5-hour units 
of high-school work; for the certificate course, 15 5-hour units of 
high-school work and a special entrance examination. Degree, 
Bachelor of Library Economy (in the degree course only). 
Total credits in library subjects required, 21-24 semester hours 
in first year of technical work, 23-30 semester hours in second 
year. Tuition, $120 a year for the certificate course and the 
last two years of the degree course; matriculation fee $5, infir- 
mary fee $3 a semester, athletic fee $5, certificate fee $10, diploma 
fee $10. A week's library visit required in the Senior year. 

Carnegie Library School, Pittsburgh, Pa. A department of Carnegie 
Institute. Supported by endowment from Andrew Carnegie 
and a grant from Carnegie Institute. Director, John H. Leete, 
Director, Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh; principal, Nina C. 
Brotherton. Founded 1901 as the Training School for Chil- 
dren's Librarians, a department of the Carnegie Library of 
Pittsburgh. Until 1916 gave training exclusively in library 
work with children. Course in school library work added in 
1917 and one in general library work in 1918. Two semesters of 
eighteen weeks each required for graduation. First semester, 



TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 19 

224 lecture hours; second semester, 177-182 according to course. 
Hours of practice, 360. Entrance requirements, college degree 
or examination in literature, history, and general information, 
and two foreign languages. Minimum age for entrance, twenty 
years. Diploma given upon completion of course. Tuition, $100 
a year; matriculation fee, $5.00. Annual library visit required. 
Academic library courses, four years in length, leading to ap- 
propriate degrees, offered by Carnegie Institute of Technology 
and University of Pittsburgh in co-operation with Carnegie 
Library School 

Simmons College School of Library Science, Boston, Mass Sup- 
ported by college appropriation. Founded October, 1902. 
Present director, June R. Donnelly. Two courses offered: a 
regular four-year course including three parts of general college 
work and one of professional library training, and a special 
one-year course of professional library training. Approximately 
1,500 hours of technical instruction and practice required. 
Entrance requirements: for the one-year course, a college de- 
gree or three years' academic work in a college of recognized 
standing; for the four-year course, examination by the College 
Entrance Board or Simmons College entrance examination or 
certificate from an accredited high school. At least two lan- 
guages and one science are prerequisites for admission to the 
one-year course. Tuition, $150 a year. Degree of B.S. for 
completion of either course. A six weeks' summer course is 
held July-August, with at least three different courses of three 
weeks each. Open to those in, or under appointment to, library 
positions and with a high-school education or its equivalent. 
College credit is given for the summer course in library work 
with children. 

Library School, Carnegie Library of Atlanta, Ga. Supported by a 
separate Carnegie endowment. Founded September, 1905. 
Present director, Tommie Dora Barker, librarian, Carnegie 
Library of Atlanta. Chief instructor, Susie Lee Crumley. 
Time required for graduation, one year of thirty-four weeks. 
Entrance requirements: four-year high-school course, examina- 
tions in history, literature, general information, current events, 



20 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY 

one modern language. Minimum age, twenty years. Hours of 
instruction, 547; hours of practice, 366. Certificate for gradua- 
tion. No tuition. 

Library School of Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. 
A department of Western Reserve University. Supported 
largely by endowment from Mr. Andrew Carnegie. Opened 
September, 1904. Present director, Alice S. Tyler. Time re- 
quired for graduation, one college year. Entrance require- 
ments: examinations in general literature, general history, 
and current information, and any two foreign languages, one 
of which must be a modern one. Graduates of approved colleges 
meeting general admission requirements are admitted without 
examination. A combined course with full credit for a year's 
work in the library school may be taken at the College for 
Women of Western Reserve University. Special course in 
library work with children in connection with the Cleveland 
Public Library. Ability to use the typewriter required . Mini- 
mum age limit, twenty years. In addition to the classroom 
practice work in technical subjects, one hundred hours of work 
with the public in the circulating departments of libraries in 
Cleveland are required. Visits to local libraries required. 
Tuition fee, $100 per year, with graduation fee of $5 . oo. Cer- 
tificate given on satisfactory completion of the year's work, 
or degree of B.S. granted for the complete combined 
course with the College for Women of Western Reserve Uni- 
versity. Open course of twelve weeks given in second semester 
on grades or credits given for this course. 

Wisconsin University Library School, Madison, Wis. Connected 
with the University of Wisconsin but administered by the Wis- 
consin Library Commission. Founded 1906. Present director, 
Clarence B. Lester; preceptor, Mary Emogene Hazeltine. 
Time required for graduation, one year of thirty-six weeks. 
Entrance requirements, high-school graduation and entrance 
examination in history, literature, current events, general 
information, and one foreign language (French, German, or 
Spanish). At least a month of preliminary library practice 
required from all without previous library experience. Appli- 



TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 21 

cants holding a degree from an approved college are not required 
to take the written examination but must meet all other entrance 
requirements. Certificate for graduation or the degree of 
B.A. on completion of library school course and three years of 
general college work. Tuition, for residents of Wisconsin, $50, 
for non-residents, $100. Two months' field work in Wisconsin 
libraries under supervision of the Library Commission. Mini- 
mum entrance age, twenty years. Six weeks' summer course 
held annually; high-school education or its equivalent required 
for admission as well as a library position or appointment to one 
or appointment as teacher or librarian in the high schools of 
Wisconsin. 

Library School of the New York Public Library, New York City. 
Connected with the New York Public Library. Supported by 
Carnegie gifts. Founded July, 1911. Present principal, Ernest 
J. Reece. Entrance requirements: age 20-35; adequate rec- 
ommendation as to personal fitness for library work; examina- 
tions in history, current events, literature, general information, 
French, and one other modern foreign language (examinations 
sometimes waived in case of college graduates). School year, 
36 weeks, (a) Certificate granted for completion of one year's 
work, including four weeks' practical work and one week of visits 
to libraries in other eastern cities. Prepares for general library 
work. Tuition, $75; for residents of metropolitan district, $45. 
(>) Diploma awarded for completion of advanced courses, which 
are open to certificate holders from schools in the Association of 
American Library Schools, and which prepare for various forms 
of specialization. Curriculum consists of 130 hours of class work, 
with related study, and with practical work occupying the 
remainder of the student's time. Tuition, $25. (c) Open courses 
(1920-21) for library workers of experience. Period twelve 
weeks, including lectures, visits, demonstrations, and oppor- 
tunity for consultation. No credit given in open courses. 

Library School of the Los Angeles Public Library, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Connected with the Los Angeles Public Library. Founded 1891 
as the training class of the Los Angeles Public Library, reorgan- 
ized 1914 as the Library School. Present director, Marion L. 



22 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY 

Horton. Time required for graduation, one year of thirty-six 
weeks. Entrance requirements, two years of college or satis- 
factory equivalent and entrance examination in literature, 
history, current events, general information, and one foreign 
language (French, German, or Spanish); college graduates 
admitted without examination. Minimum age for entrance, 
twenty years. Hours of instruction, 450. Certificate on gradua- 
tion. Open courses for six weeks for those in library work or 
with previous library training. 

St. Louis Library School, St. Louis, Mo. A department of the St. 
Louis Public Library and supported from library funds. One 
school year of thirty-six weeks. Founded 1910 as the training 
class of the St. Louis Public Library, reorganized 1917 as the 
St. Louis Library School. Present principal, Mrs. Harriet P. 
Sawyer. Entrance requirements, high-school diploma or its 
equivalent and an examination in history, literature, current 
events, and one foreign language. Candidates holding a 
bachelor's degree are admitted on the presentation of their 
diplomas. Hours of instruction, 464; practice work, 216. 
Certificate on completion of the course. Tuition, $45 a year to 
residents of Missouri, no tuition to residents of St. Louis, $75 
a year to those outside of Missouri. 

University of Washington Library School, Seattle, Wash. Connected 
with the University of Washington, supported by university 
appropriation. Present director, W. E. Henry. One year of 
professional library training, comprising 20 credits in the Senior 
college year and 28 in the fifth or graduate year. Practice work, 
360 hours. College graduates may enter the library school and 
complete the work in one year. Entrance requirements include 
20 credits each in two modern foreign languages, French and 
German preferred. Degree of B.S. in Library Science given 
at completion of the library school curriculum. Tuition same 
as in every department of the University, $10 per quarter. 



TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 23 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Extended lists of references on library training are included in Can- 
nons, H.G.T. Bibliography of Library Economy, 1910, pp. 
188-92 and 200-213 an d in Library Work, N.Y., 1912, pp. 250-73. 

American Library Association. Committee on Library Training. 
Reports. In Papers and Proceedings. Previous to 1907 the 
Papers and Proceedings were included in the Library Journal 
as a Conference number and were also published separately. 
Since 1907 they have appeared as Bulletins of the Associations. 
The Proceedings should also be consulted for the reports of the 
annual meetings of the Professional Training section, especially 
for the years 1905, 1910, 1911, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, and 1919. 

Training for Librarianship. A.L.A. Publishing Board. 

1911. 7 PP. 

American Library Institute. Papers and Proceedings. Reed, A. L. 
Graduate School of Librarianship, 1918, pp. 8-10; Hicks, F. C., 
and others. Where Shall University, College and Reference 
Library Assistants Be Trained ? 1919, pp. 11-25; Baldwin, E. V. 
Education of Librarians. 1919, pp. 226-32. 

Association of American Library Schools. Books and a vocation. 
4 pp. 1920. 

Encyclopedia Americana. 1919. Library Training. 17:393-94. 

Independent. Putnam, Herbert. Education for Library Work. 
52:2773-76. Nov. 22, 1900. 

Library Journal. Library schools and training classes of the United 
States, 1894. 19:296-305; Plummer, M. W.; Forecast of the 
Next Twenty-five Years for Library Schools. 1910. 35:251-53; 
Donnelly, J. R., Library School and the Library. 1910. 35: 
1909-11; Babcock, Kendrie C., Bibliographical Instruction in 
College. 1913. 38:133-36; Henry, W. E., Librarianship as a 
Profession. 1917. 42:355-56; Hitchler, Theresa, Library 
School Training vs. Practical Experience. 1917. 42:931-38; 
Lichtenstein, W., Question of a Graduate Library School. 1918. 
43 : 2 33~35 5 Williamson, C. C. and others, Training for Librarian- 
ship. 1919. 44:562-87. 

National Education Association. Proceedings. Report of the 
Joint Committee representing the A.L.A. and the N.E.A. on 



24 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY 

Instruction in Library Administration in Normal Schools. 1906, 

pp. 215-81. 
New York Library Association. Committee on Standardization. 

Report. 1920. In New York Libraries. V. 7. Pp. 127-132. 
New York State Library School. Librarianship as a Profession. 

Albany, 1911. 32 pp. 
Public Libraries. Dewey, Melvil, Future of Library Schools, 1905. 

10 : 43 5-38 ; Hardy, E. A. , Training of Librarians in the Province 

of Ontario, 1006. 11:143-45; Summer Library Schools. 

1006. 11:131-34; Brief for the Library Schools, 1910. 

15 : 287-91 : Strohm, A. J., Do We Need a Postgraduate Library 

School? 1910. 15:54-55; Walter, F. K., Specialization 

among Library Schools. 1913. 18:227-29; Bacon, Corinne, 

Relations of the Library School to the School and College 

Library. 1914. 19:396-98. 
Special Committee on Certification, Standardization and Library 

Training. Report. 1920. In American Library Association. 

Papers and Proceedings. 1920. 
Special Libraries. 1919. 10:1-6. Dana, J. C., Business Man 

and the Special Library; Hasse, Adelaide R., The Great Release; 

Walter, F. K., Future Training of the Business Librarian; 

Donnelly, June R., Looking Forward. 
University of Washington Library School. Call to Librarianship. 

Seattle, 1919. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE 
AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION 

PUBLISHING BOARD 
78 E. WASHINGTON ST., CHICAGO, ILL. 



A SELECTED LIST 

BOOK LISTS 

The Booklist. 10 numbers a year. Subscription price, $2.00. 
Booklist books (of current year). Issued about March 1. 

libraries * CaroHne Webster. 1920. 



Guide to the study and use of reference books. Alice B. Kroeger. 

Revised by Isadore G. Mudge. 1917. Cloth, $3.00 
Periodicals for the small library. Frank K. Walter, 3d ed. 1919 

.raper, 25 cents. 

A ths the hospital library. Edith K, Jones. 1913. 

Josephine A ' R athbone. 1919. Paper, 60 



LIBRARY ECONOMY 

Binding for libraries. 2d ed. 1915. Paper, 15 cents. 
Manual for institution libraries. Carrie E. Scott, 1916. Paper 
25 cents. 

r i fri^ d i e F air fnoH 00 ^' Mar S aret W. Brown. Revised by 
Gertrude Stiles. 1921. Paper, 25 cents. 



* siness - like conduct in libraries. A. E, Bostwick. 
Paper, 25 cents. 

Standard library organization and equipment for secondary schools of 
S1Z6S ' Certai 



40 crits < ed * 



CATALOGING 

d title entdes ' American ed. 1908. Cloth, 
IibrarieS ' Theresa Hitclll er. Revised ed. 1915. 



$2 OO 

List f r 9 iT f fflTO catatogi - 3d ed - revised 

of juveniie books 



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