Author: Plummer, Mary Wright, 1856-1916
Title: Training for librarianship / Mary W. Plummer. Rev. by Frank W. Walter.
Publisher: Chicago, American Library Association Publishing Board, 1920.
Tag(s): library schools; library economy; schools; school; training; entrance requirements; new york; library school; american library; library training; york state
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z_ UC-NRLF OD OD 04 CO TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP BY MARY W. PLUMMER REVISED BY FRANK K. WALTER PREPRINT OF MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY CHAPTER XIII EDITION 2, REVISED American iibtatp &60octatt0n }j)ttbUfiiI)ina CHICAGO 1920 Types of Libraries I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. A.L.A. MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY Chapters and Authors "American Library History," MB. BOLTON. Printed. " Library of Congress," MR. BISHOP. Printed. "The State Library," MR. WYER. Printed. "The College and University Library," MR. WYER. Printed. "Proprietary and Subscription Libraries," MR. BOLTON. Printed. "The Free Public Library," Miss LORD. Printed. "The High-School Library," MR. WARD. Printed. "Special Libraries," MR. JOHNSTON. Printed. Organization and Administration IX. "Library Legislation," MR. YUST. Printed. X. "Library Building," MR. EASTMAN. Printed. XL "Furniture, Fixtures, and Equipment," Miss EASTMAN. Printed. XII. "Administration," DR. BOSTWICK. Printed. XIII. " Training f or Librarianship," Miss PLUMMER. Printed. XIV. "Library Service," Miss BALDWIN. Printed. XV. "Branch Libraries and Other Distributing Agencies," Miss EASTMAN. Printed. XVI. "Book Selection," Miss BASCOM. Printed. XVII. "Order and Accession Department," MR. HOPPER. Printed. XVIII. "Classification, "Miss BACON. Printed. XIX. "The Catalog." Miss HOWE. In preparation. XX. "Shelf Department," Miss RATHBONE. Printed. XXI. " Loan Work," MR. VITZ. Printed. XXII. "Reference Department," DR. RICHARDSON. Printed. XXIII. "Government Documents," MR. WYER. Printed. XXIV. "Bibliography," Miss MUDGE. Printed. XXV. "Pamphlets and Minor Library Material," MR. WYER. Printed. XXVI. "Bookbinding," MR. BAILEY. Printed. Special Form? . . of Work .;." . ". / I I : : ; XXVII.* '"Librarf Gcfoifrfksg'ions and State Library Extension, or Aid and' "State Agencies," MR. WYNKOOP. .. XXVIII. "The Library and" the School," Miss WOOD. In preparation. XXIX. "Library Work with Children," Miss OLCOTT. Printed. XXX. "Library Work with the Blind," Miss CHAMBERLAIN. Printed. XXXL "Publicity." In preparation. XXXII. "Library Printing," MR. WALTER. Printed. " XIII TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP MARY WRIGHT PLUMMER Late Principal, Library School of the New York Public Library Revised by FRANK K. WALTER 1 Former Librarian, General Motors Corporation, and Vice-director, New York State Library School Development Association of American Library Schools Library schools Entrance requirements Curricula Summer schools Apprentice classes Institutes and round tables Training in normal schools List of library schools Bibliography One of the earliest and perhaps the earliest suggestion of schools for training librarians was made by M. W. Schret- tinger in his Essay at a Complete Textbook of Library Science (Munich, 1829), in which he outlined plans for central libraries with distributing centers and the formation of schools (Pflanz- schulen) for training librarians for these libraries. As early as 1864 Austria began to require special training in bibliog- raphy from candidates for positions in government libraries and in 1874 courses in bibliography and classification were 1 REVISER'S NOTE. In recognition of her influence on American library training Miss Plummer's original plan, and, as far as practicable, her phrase- ology, have been followed in this revision. It has not been possible to indicate all the changes in the text which recent developments in library training have made necessary. NtfM; 'OF- LIBRARY ECONOMY given at the University of Vienna. France had begun a similar course at the Ecole des Chartes in 1869. A fuller course, out- lined in 1874 by F. Rullman, librarian of the University of Freiburg, is summarized in the introduction to the well-known "1876 Report of the United States Bureau of Education on Public Libraries in the United States of America." The next significant mention seems to be in the Proceedings of the meeting of the Library Association of the United Kingdom in London in 1877. At this meeting C. H. Robarts, of All Souls College, Oxford, expressed a "hope for the rise of a school of highly trained students in bibliographical knowledge." Dr. Crestadoro of Italy also spoke of a royal decree made effective in Italy in 1865 requiring training for the personnel of the government libraries there and spoke of such training as desirable if not necessary. Several American librarians were present and hi their case the suggestion proved germinal. The subject was referred to in the Library Journal and at the con- ferences of the American Library Association from time to time. The chief credit for the founding of the first library school belongs to Melvil Dewey, the pioneer in many other lines of modern library work. Mr. Dewey first presented his plan for a library school to the American Library Association in 1883. The plan was approved by the Association in spite of the active opposition of several of its leading members. The school was opened in January, 1887, at Columbia College, chiefly through the personal efforts of Mr. Dewey, then librarian of the college, and through the active aid of Frederick A. P. Barnard, president of the college. Some twenty persons, experienced and inex- perienced in library matters, attended the first session, which lasted four months. The following year the course occupied seven months with a second year of the same length. The prejudice against formal library training was very strong in some quarters, but it gradually gave way as graduates of the TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 3 school went into library service and proved the superiority of planned and systematic training over the former fortuitous ways of learning. Within six years three other schools were opened. The Columbia College school was transferred to the New York State Library at Albany, where it has since remained. The schools opened at Pratt, Drexel, and Armour institutes were all connected with the institute libraries, which were for circulation as well as reference. Pratt Institute for a number of years conducted the leading circulating library of Brooklyn as there was no public library in the city. This connection with public circulating libraries was the immediate reason for a differentia- tion in the character arid methods of these three schools, which had not the large and important book resources of a college or reference library to draw upon, but were enabled, on the other hand, to provide their students with actual practice in the methods of circulating libraries and with contact with the public at all the points of contact found in a free circulating library containing a reference department. Other schools followed, some of one type and some of the other, with individual variations, until there are at present thirteen library schools in the United States with a course of one school year or more of professional training. These, as well as the other types of training agencies mentioned later, are repre- sented in the American Library Association by the committee on library training which is expected to report annually to the association on the condition of the library schools and training classes and to suggest means of improving them. This com- mittee's first report was made at the San Francisco conference in 1891. The association at the Colorado Springs Conference in 1920, through its council, authorized the appointment of a committee to promote certification and standardization of library work. 4 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY Association of American Library Schools The Association of American Library Schools was formed in 1915. Membership in the association is dependent on meeting specified standards, set by the association, as to equip- ment, faculty personnel, and curriculum. This association has already shown its value in the raising of standards of work but it cannot take the place of genuine interest and co-operation by the American Library Association, whose scope includes all types of library training and not merely one rather well-defined type. Without such supervision there is grave danger of the establishment of schools and training classes poorly equipped , poorly organized, and without good standing in the library profession. Library Schools Entrance requirements. The earliest schools began with- out any requirements for entrance except the furnishing of references as to character, general education, and personality. Once under way and having secured a measure of recognition and popularity, they began to sift the applications received by various requirements such as college graduation, entrance examinations, a high-school certificate or diploma, and to lay as much stress as possible on desirable personal qualifications. There is little doubt that these tests have helped raise the level of librarianship, at the same time giving to the schools student material on which it was worth while to expend time and labor. A composite application blank showing the sort of informa- tion sought by the schools before admitting students would gather information on the following points: Personality: name; age; health; physical defects; married or single; nationality of parents; names of references; name, address, and occupation of parents. Education: preparatory schools, with dates of attendance; college, with dates of attendance; degrees; languages known, where TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 5 acquired, extent of use; special courses of study or reading; travel, at home or abroad. Experience: stenography and typewriting, speed acquired, machine used; library experience or training, what, where, how long, why terminated; experience in teaching, business, or other occupa- tions; name of last employer. Miscellaneous: character and extent of miscellaneous reading; periodicals read regularly; library periodicals read regularly; object of taking course. Future position: definite library position in view? minimum salary that would be acceptable; location preferred, if any. Opportunity is also given for general remarks, descriptive of tastes, aptitudes, experience, etc. The view that personality matters in a professional or vocational school, while not new or limited to library schools, is perhaps held with greater tenacity by them from the fact that their product is put to immediate use in quarters well known to the schools and that criticism at once follows any instance of failure on the school's part to consider personality in admitting students or in recommending graduates. This is a help, not a hindrance, to the schools and is so considered by them. Curricida. The curricula vary with the type of schools. Those connected with public or endowed circulating libraries supply their students with considerable practice in all the library routine; the library school directly connected with a college or reference library goes deeper into the theory, philosophy, and history of its subjects of study and into research work, its prac- tice being chiefly in the line of classification, cataloguing, book selection and evaluation, and reference work. Practice in other lines is not neglected and the students usually have a stated amount of practice in public libraries which co-operate with the school in furnishing facilities for this work. There is a noticeable tendency in nearly all the schools to diminish the amount of purely routine practice and to plan this practice so 6 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY as to bring out systematically the principles and theories involved rather than merely to fill a stated period with service in various library departments. There are but two schools requiring a full second year for a degree. One of these is connected with a university library and one with a reference library. Even in these the Senior class is small compared with the Junior, owing largely to the expense of a second year and the ease with which positions are obtained at the end of one year's study. The leading subjects in all the schools are cataloguing, classification, the study of reference material and library economy, which includes many important phases of library method and practice. Nearly all the schools give instruction in library administration, library buildings, book selection, bibliography (trade and subject), school libraries, work with children, and government documents. Many of them include more or less instruction in methods for business and special libraries. Especial stress is laid on different subjects in cases where the school has specific demands upon it from the region or the special type of library to which it supplies assistants or as it has special facilities for presenting special subjects. Lectures and seminars (including written and oral reports on required reading) are the usual methods of instruction in the schools. Short bibliographies on subjects of general interest are usually required in all the schools. Naturally the curricula of the schools have felt the influences of the changes and developments in library doctrine and prac- tice. As the field of librarianship has extended from the town to the county library, from the city circulating library to the library system with its branch libraries, deposit stations, and other extension agencies, from the pioneer library commission to the League of Library Commissions, as librarianship has made specialties of work with children, work with the blind, with schools, with rural communities, with state institutions, and TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 7 special libraries, legislative libraries, bibliographical societies, and as temporary activities like the camp, transport, hospital, and other libraries included in the scope of the war-service com- mittee have entered the field, the schools have adjusted and extended their courses of study hi order to keep pace. This increase in the curricula has been followed by no marked increases in the total length of the courses of the schools. It has inevitably followed that a tendency toward specialization in different lines has become apparent in several of the schools. Some demand has also arisen for a school entirely devoted to instruction in library work of a more advanced character than that now given in any of the schools. Instruction in the schools may be divided into four general classes of subjects: bibliographical and historical, technical, administrative, and critical (that is, evaluation of literature as applied to library purposes). The technical and administra- tive subjects, as a rule, receive the most attention in point of time allotted to them, that is, if the term bibliographical is confined to its narrower meaning. A typical list of the subjects included under these heads in a library school curriculum is as follows: Administrative: Subject-headings Library administration Library economy Library buildings Bookbinding Library legislation Proofreading and printing Library accounts Book-buying Biographical: Work with children Reference w rk Work with schools S 0ve u documents) Methods in special libraries 5 8toly ^^ History of printing Technical: Trade bibliography Cataloguing National bibliography Classification Subject bibliography 8 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY Critical: Survey of library field Book selection, appraisal, and Typewriting annotation Visits to libraries Periodicals Practice in assigned libraries Miscellaneous: Current topics These different subjects and even the four main classes over- lap at many points and are used with varying meanings in different schools. The Association of American Library Schools has appointed a committee to prepare a list of stand- ardized meanings of terms used hi the circulars and catalogues of the schools. Schools differ considerably in their schedules of hours, several schools devoting the morning hours to lectures and recitations and leaving the afternoons free for study and prac- tice. Others alternate study and lecture and recitation hours throughout the day. The average number of hours per week spent in class exercises is approximately from fifteen to twenty. Saturday is generally considered a holiday and the usual school holidays and vacations are generally observed. It is customary to call on librarians, in addition to the regular faculty, and on members of kindred professions or callings to give lectures, singly or hi courses. The visiting of libraries and of various places connected at some point with bookmaking or distributing is required by all schools. During the spring vacations, parties of students are conducted on visits to the libraries of nearby cities and towns. The inspirational and educational value of these visits is tested by subsequent quizzes, examinations, or written reports. Following the common tendency in the educational world, more and more stress is laid upon equipment. Connection with libraries of size and usefulness, whose resources are varied, is emphasized; books for working- tools are freely prescribed for TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 9 the school shelves; collections for the study of administrative methods are formed and machines for the practice of typewriting and facilities for the practice of bookbinding are furnished by most of the schools. All schools give practice in at least some part of actual library work. This practice is under super- vision, is reported on, and must meet certain standards in order to insure formal recognition. The custom of requiring from two weeks' to two months' practice in good libraries other than those with which the schools are connected is spreading. The specific recognition for completing the school work will be found in the appended list under the names of individual schools. As a rule, the schools regard certificates and diplomas as statements concerning the students' work in the school and in practice, and not as predictions or assurances of success in librarianship, hence they urge libraries to refer to the schools for information in regard to the individual graduate who applies for any specific position. Summer Schools Very soon after the founding of library schools it was discovered that the graduates of these could not usually be secured as librarians of small libraries paying small salaries, so that it was evident that something must be done if these small libraries were to be raised to a higher efficiency. The summer library school, with a term ranging from six to eight weeks, conducted by a library commission, a library school, a university, or some other authoritative body, was the immediate solution. These schools give elementary courses. In some cases special courses in one subject or related subjects, as cataloguing, classification, and subject- headings, are given either for the entire course or in separate courses of three or more weeks each. Pass cards are issued for the completion of separate subjects and a certificate or 10 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY diploma is given for the completion of all the subjects included in the course. Where the summer school restricts its attendance to persons already in the work and holding paid positions, it is raising the level of efficiency, and the majority of summer schools now appreciate the fact that such restriction is necessary. Other- wise the summer courses would provide a short cut into the service for persons who might otherwise obtain a more complete training or who might be unable to pass the educational and personal tests thought necessary by the regular schools for the protection of the profession. It is difficult to say how many summer schools are being conducted, since in some states they are held more or less irregularly. The leading ones meeting the standards of the report of 1905 are those carried on annually by the library commissions of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Indiana, and Iowa, those conducted by the New York State, University of Illinois, and Simmons College library schools, and one at Chautauqua, which is affiliated with the Chautauqua Assembly. The New Jersey Library Commission holds a biennial summer school. Several are conducted at colleges and universities, as at the University of Michigan and Columbia University. Ontario holds a three months' winter course at the Toronto Public Library, which is an extension of an earlier short course. " Open courses" for experienced librarians who wish to review and extend their professional knowledge are offered by the New York Public Library, Western Reserve University, and Los Angeles Public Library schools. In several instances, as in New York, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, short summer courses for school librarians are held. The small library has been improved not only by the greater efficiency of those librarians or assistants who had taken summer courses but by the general arousing of ambition and renewal of interest among librarians TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP n generally by the new opportunity and new knowledge offered by these short courses. The comparative ease with which a summer course can be established has led to great diversity in the character and quality of work done in these schools. A report on standards of entrance, standards of teaching, and the recognition given to students of summer courses was presented by the Committee on Library Training to the American Library Association conference of 1905. The League of Library Commissions, including all the commissions at that time conducting library schools or summer schools, approved the recommendations of the committee by reprinting the report. The later suggestions of the committee, as in 1917, have not superseded this earlier report. Apprentice Classes The large library, with a large and fast increasing staff and frequent resignations and promotions, found very little help in the library schools for the supplying of its lowest grades of service, since, like the small library, it was unable to pay salaries large enough to attract the trained worker to the subordinate positions. The solution (if it may be called a solution) found for this difficulty was the apprentice class. Even before the establishment of these classes, some libraries had given more or less systematic training to individual apprentices. The report of the Committee on Training for 1905 dealt with one form only of apprentice class, that assembled by a library for its own use, the apprentices receiving training in that library's methods in return for assistance given, and at the end of a given period being appointed to positions in the library or furnished with a letter of recommendation to other libraries. Since this procedure would affect the library field in general, it was considered by the committee and recommendations were made in regard to this kind of apprentice class. Concerning those classes formed by libraries strictly for their own use, 12 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY members of which were given no credentials or formal recog- nition, the committee of 1905 had nothing to say. Whether the report had any effect upon classes of the type dealt with, it is hard to say; but from the papers and discussions before the section on professional training at the conference of 1910, it was evident that there was still a wide difference of opinion among libraries as to the object, value, and influence of the apprentice system, and from the papers and discussions before the same section in 1911, 1916, 1917, and 1919, it is clear that the matter is being considered much more seriously than before and in all its bearings. There is no doubt, in view of the large library systems developing in our cities of the first and second rank, that the question is urgent and needs the combined wisdom of many libraries to establish a plan that shall meet immediate require- ments without injuring the ultimate value of the library's work by lowering standards of admission to the staff. The disturb- ances due to the war have led to a lowering of quality of candi- dates and to an increased standard of wages so that the difficulty of reaching a satisfactory solution is perhaps greater than ever before. Closer relation between the work of the training class and the library schools has been suggested so that the former could act in a great degree as a source of supply to the latter. This seems practicable if standards drawn up by a representative and authorized committee of the American Library Association (as, for example, the proposed board on certification of librarians) could be adopted. Younger people are admitted to the apprentice classes than would be taken hi the library schools, the high-school certificate is often accepted in lieu of an examination, and in some libraries the training is entirely practical and utilitarian, guided by the immediate need of the library rather than by that of the apprentice, which is after all the need of the library in a more far-reaching sense. Promotions are often dependent TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 13 upon examinations given as a means to insure the continued study of the apprentice who has entered the service. Unfor- tunately, these are often the only means effective with some assistants. Abolition of examinations, except to test techni- cal knowledge and personal efficiency, should mean that the library had reached the desirable condition where its whole force was influenced not by material inducement as much as by an impulse from within to self-improvement and study for the love of knowledge. Such a condition is unlikely until all grades of the service can be subjected to higher requirements than is possible at present. Institutes and Round Tables Still another form of instruction has developed in what are called library institutes and round tables. These are for the benefit of those librarians of small libraries who cannot spare the time or perhaps the money for even a summer course. The institute was tried first and consisted of two or three meet- ings at some town or village containing a library. One of the meetings was usually open to the public and intended to arouse public interest in the welfare and development of the local library. Librarians from neighboring towns and villages were invited, papers were read, discussions encouraged, and a question box was a usual feature. Usually an official of the library commission, of the state library, or of the state associa- tion had charge ; the local librarian was chairman of a committee on local arrangements, and a number of trained or experienced librarians assisted with the program. The chief value of the institute was as a method of propaganda rather than of instruc- tion, since the best effect was usually through the public session and the making of professional acquaintances outside the meetings. The librarians most in need of help often felt timid and constrained in the meetings and got most of their practical assistance from the individual conversations between sessions. 14 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY These facts pointed the way to the round table. This is a gathering of librarians living in towns and villages not far apart to whom is sent at their request someone capable of giving help hi their daily problems and difficulties. At least two sessions are held at one of the libraries concerned, and attention is concentrated on the immediate expressed needs of these libraries. It is much easier to secure such expression under these circumstances than in the institute meetings. The older type of institute has largely given way to the round table, under whatever name it may be conducted. In New York state a definite state program for the institutes is planned and the state divided into definite districts where the general program is given. At the same tune a large force of volunteer conductors insures so much latitude in the form of the meeting and the treatment of the subject as to make each meeting practically local in its application. In states with library commissions the regular conduct of round tables is a common, recognized duty of the state organizer. Training in Normal Schools In 1903 twelve normal schools reported some kind of training hi library methods. These courses increased in num- ber for several years, but in recent years have been rather irregularly given in many places. No current statistics are available. In many of these schools the mistake was made of devoting the whole instruction to matters of technique, and those following the course were often led to believe that this training was sufficient to make librarians of them. The error of this is now generally recognized and it is conceded that the training given in normal schools should consist largely of training in the selection and use of books and as a means of general culture, with enough simple technique to enable the teacher or school librarian (in small schools the two offices are usually combined in one "teacher-librarian") to administer TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 15 and care for her small collection. The importance of this train- ing has long been recognized by librarians, but it is only about fifteen years since influential teachers have awakened to the need of a good library in a good school. California, Minne- sota, New York, and Wisconsin are perhaps making the most substantial progress in this direction at present. As yet it is the high-school library that is receiving the most attention, but the need of good libraries in grade schools and rural schools is rapidly becoming better recognized. Teachers and librarians are both beginning to recognize that special training for school library work is needed. The normal-school courses often give excellent training to teacher-librarians who go to elementary schools or the rural or small-town school. The larger high schools usually require their teachers to be college graduates. The normal school seldom reaches these. The library school or the library course in the teachers' college is the logical place for the high-school librarian to receive her training. Several of the library schools have included special courses in school work in their curricula, but the combined supply of high-school librarians from all these courses is too small to meet the demand. The early establishment (in 1890) by the American Library Association of a standing committee on training for librarian- ship has been amply justified. The establishment of the Pro- fessional Training Section of the association (hi 1909) was another step in keeping the association in touch and sympathy with all sincere efforts toward raising the standards of the pro- fession through various training agencies in the various grades of service. The first exhaustive report on library training was made in 1903 by the directors of six library schools. It sum- marizes reports from nine library schools, ten summer schools, thirty-three apprentice classes, fifteen college courses in bibliog- raphy and the history of printing, twelve normal-school courses in library economy, and four correspondence courses. The war and its aftermath make comparative statistics of 1903 1 6 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY and 1920 unfair and misleading, but with all its handicaps library training has gained ground. The correspondence courses have almost disappeared, many apprentice classes have been temporarily suspended by the difficulty of getting suitable candidates at the present salaries in the lower grades of library service, and the college courses are just beginning to recover from the effects of the war. Nevertheless, the good training classes are more numerous and the poorer ones more discredited. The number of library schools giving one or more years of instruction has increased to thirteen. A fourteenth, that of the California State Library, was discontinued with the class of 1920. Its place will probably be taken by the library school which the University of California is projecting. The University of Texas is just bringing to completion its plans for a year of library training. Brief summaries of the organi- zation and work of these schools are given below. American Library Schools Offering Not Less than One Year's Training New York State Library School, Albany, N.Y. A division of the University of the State of New York (the state department of education) and affiliated with the New York State Library. Supported by state appropriations. Founded January, 1887, as the Columbia College School of Library Economy, New York City. Transferred to Albany as part of the New York State Library, April, 1889. Present director, James I. Wyer, Jr., director of the New York State Library; vice-director, Edna M. Sanderson. Time required for graduation, two years of thirty- six weeks each. First-year course required; second year includes as electives: indexing; school library work; library extension; advanced cataloging; advanced reference; practice work in bibliography, cataloging, and reference. Entrance re- quirements since 1902, degree from a college registered by the regents of the University of the State of New York. Credits re- quired in Junior year, 58 (aggregating about 1,500 hours of class- TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 17 room exercises, practice, and preparation) ; Senior year, 52 credits, (aggregating about 1,300 hours). Minimum age limit, twenty years. Month of practice in libraries outside of Albany and annual visit to libraries required each year. Degree of Bachelor of Library Science on graduation. Tuition for first year, $75 to students from New York state, $100 for others; second year, $25 to students from New York state, $50 to others. Summer courses of six weeks open to persons engaged in library work and special short summer courses for school librarians in co-operation with the School Libraries Division of the university. Pratt Institute School of Library Science, Brooklyn, N.Y. Con- nected with Pratt Institute, supported by institute endowment, and affiliated with the Pratt Institute Free Library. Founded in November, 1890. Director, Edward F. Stevens, librarian of Pratt Institute Free Library; vice-director and school execu- tive, Josephine A. Rathbone. Time required for graduation, one year of thirty-eight weeks. Entrance requirements, exami- nations in history, current events, general information, French, and one other modern language, preferably German. College graduates, under some conditions, may be admitted without examination. Minimum age, twenty years. Hours of instruc- tion, 493. Practical work, 400 hours. Tuition, $100. Supplies about $40. Library visiting in and about New York, 45 hours, required. Vacation trip of a week, optional; cost about $50. University of Illinois Library School, Urbana, 111. Connected with the University of Illinois. Supported by university appropria- tion. Founded September, 1893, as the Armour Institute Library School, Chicago. Transferred to the University of Illinois, September, 1897. Present director, Phineas L. Windsor; assistant director, Frances Simpson. Time required for gradua- tion, two years of thirty-six weeks each. Total credits required for graduation, 32 semester hours in Junior year, 30 semester hours in Senior year. Entrance requirement since 1911, college graduation. Degree of Bachelor of Library Science on graduation. Matriculation fee $10, incidental fee $25 a semester, diploma fee $10. Students unable to matriculate pay $7 . 50 a semester in addition to the incidental fee. Electives: courses in other i8 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY university schools and colleges may be taken in the Senior year by those preparing for special library work. One month's practice in an assigned library and a library visit of a week required in each year. Summer course of six weeks provides elementary instruction in various library subjects. These courses are not credited toward a degree. The eight weeks' summer courses for college graduates are accepted as credit toward the B.L.S. degree. Syracuse University Library School, Syracuse, N.Y. Connected with Syracuse University. Supported by university appropria- tion. Founded 1897 as the Department of Library Economy of the College of Liberal Arts. Present director, Earl E. Sperry, librarian of the university and professor of European history; vice-director, Elizabeth G. Thorne. Time required for gradua- tion, for the degree course, two years in addition to two years of general college work; for the certificate course, two years (including 12 semester hours in the College of Liberal Arts). Entrance requirements, for the degree course, 15 5-hour units of high-school work; for the certificate course, 15 5-hour units of high-school work and a special entrance examination. Degree, Bachelor of Library Economy (in the degree course only). Total credits in library subjects required, 21-24 semester hours in first year of technical work, 23-30 semester hours in second year. Tuition, $120 a year for the certificate course and the last two years of the degree course; matriculation fee $5, infir- mary fee $3 a semester, athletic fee $5, certificate fee $10, diploma fee $10. A week's library visit required in the Senior year. Carnegie Library School, Pittsburgh, Pa. A department of Carnegie Institute. Supported by endowment from Andrew Carnegie and a grant from Carnegie Institute. Director, John H. Leete, Director, Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh; principal, Nina C. Brotherton. Founded 1901 as the Training School for Chil- dren's Librarians, a department of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. Until 1916 gave training exclusively in library work with children. Course in school library work added in 1917 and one in general library work in 1918. Two semesters of eighteen weeks each required for graduation. First semester, TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 19 224 lecture hours; second semester, 177-182 according to course. Hours of practice, 360. Entrance requirements, college degree or examination in literature, history, and general information, and two foreign languages. Minimum age for entrance, twenty years. Diploma given upon completion of course. Tuition, $100 a year; matriculation fee, $5.00. Annual library visit required. Academic library courses, four years in length, leading to ap- propriate degrees, offered by Carnegie Institute of Technology and University of Pittsburgh in co-operation with Carnegie Library School Simmons College School of Library Science, Boston, Mass Sup- ported by college appropriation. Founded October, 1902. Present director, June R. Donnelly. Two courses offered: a regular four-year course including three parts of general college work and one of professional library training, and a special one-year course of professional library training. Approximately 1,500 hours of technical instruction and practice required. Entrance requirements: for the one-year course, a college de- gree or three years' academic work in a college of recognized standing; for the four-year course, examination by the College Entrance Board or Simmons College entrance examination or certificate from an accredited high school. At least two lan- guages and one science are prerequisites for admission to the one-year course. Tuition, $150 a year. Degree of B.S. for completion of either course. A six weeks' summer course is held July-August, with at least three different courses of three weeks each. Open to those in, or under appointment to, library positions and with a high-school education or its equivalent. College credit is given for the summer course in library work with children. Library School, Carnegie Library of Atlanta, Ga. Supported by a separate Carnegie endowment. Founded September, 1905. Present director, Tommie Dora Barker, librarian, Carnegie Library of Atlanta. Chief instructor, Susie Lee Crumley. Time required for graduation, one year of thirty-four weeks. Entrance requirements: four-year high-school course, examina- tions in history, literature, general information, current events, 20 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY one modern language. Minimum age, twenty years. Hours of instruction, 547; hours of practice, 366. Certificate for gradua- tion. No tuition. Library School of Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. A department of Western Reserve University. Supported largely by endowment from Mr. Andrew Carnegie. Opened September, 1904. Present director, Alice S. Tyler. Time re- quired for graduation, one college year. Entrance require- ments: examinations in general literature, general history, and current information, and any two foreign languages, one of which must be a modern one. Graduates of approved colleges meeting general admission requirements are admitted without examination. A combined course with full credit for a year's work in the library school may be taken at the College for Women of Western Reserve University. Special course in library work with children in connection with the Cleveland Public Library. Ability to use the typewriter required . Mini- mum age limit, twenty years. In addition to the classroom practice work in technical subjects, one hundred hours of work with the public in the circulating departments of libraries in Cleveland are required. Visits to local libraries required. Tuition fee, $100 per year, with graduation fee of $5 . oo. Cer- tificate given on satisfactory completion of the year's work, or degree of B.S. granted for the complete combined course with the College for Women of Western Reserve Uni- versity. Open course of twelve weeks given in second semester on grades or credits given for this course. Wisconsin University Library School, Madison, Wis. Connected with the University of Wisconsin but administered by the Wis- consin Library Commission. Founded 1906. Present director, Clarence B. Lester; preceptor, Mary Emogene Hazeltine. Time required for graduation, one year of thirty-six weeks. Entrance requirements, high-school graduation and entrance examination in history, literature, current events, general information, and one foreign language (French, German, or Spanish). At least a month of preliminary library practice required from all without previous library experience. Appli- TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 21 cants holding a degree from an approved college are not required to take the written examination but must meet all other entrance requirements. Certificate for graduation or the degree of B.A. on completion of library school course and three years of general college work. Tuition, for residents of Wisconsin, $50, for non-residents, $100. Two months' field work in Wisconsin libraries under supervision of the Library Commission. Mini- mum entrance age, twenty years. Six weeks' summer course held annually; high-school education or its equivalent required for admission as well as a library position or appointment to one or appointment as teacher or librarian in the high schools of Wisconsin. Library School of the New York Public Library, New York City. Connected with the New York Public Library. Supported by Carnegie gifts. Founded July, 1911. Present principal, Ernest J. Reece. Entrance requirements: age 20-35; adequate rec- ommendation as to personal fitness for library work; examina- tions in history, current events, literature, general information, French, and one other modern foreign language (examinations sometimes waived in case of college graduates). School year, 36 weeks, (a) Certificate granted for completion of one year's work, including four weeks' practical work and one week of visits to libraries in other eastern cities. Prepares for general library work. Tuition, $75; for residents of metropolitan district, $45. (>) Diploma awarded for completion of advanced courses, which are open to certificate holders from schools in the Association of American Library Schools, and which prepare for various forms of specialization. Curriculum consists of 130 hours of class work, with related study, and with practical work occupying the remainder of the student's time. Tuition, $25. (c) Open courses (1920-21) for library workers of experience. Period twelve weeks, including lectures, visits, demonstrations, and oppor- tunity for consultation. No credit given in open courses. Library School of the Los Angeles Public Library, Los Angeles, Cal. Connected with the Los Angeles Public Library. Founded 1891 as the training class of the Los Angeles Public Library, reorgan- ized 1914 as the Library School. Present director, Marion L. 22 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY Horton. Time required for graduation, one year of thirty-six weeks. Entrance requirements, two years of college or satis- factory equivalent and entrance examination in literature, history, current events, general information, and one foreign language (French, German, or Spanish); college graduates admitted without examination. Minimum age for entrance, twenty years. Hours of instruction, 450. Certificate on gradua- tion. Open courses for six weeks for those in library work or with previous library training. St. Louis Library School, St. Louis, Mo. A department of the St. Louis Public Library and supported from library funds. One school year of thirty-six weeks. Founded 1910 as the training class of the St. Louis Public Library, reorganized 1917 as the St. Louis Library School. Present principal, Mrs. Harriet P. Sawyer. Entrance requirements, high-school diploma or its equivalent and an examination in history, literature, current events, and one foreign language. Candidates holding a bachelor's degree are admitted on the presentation of their diplomas. Hours of instruction, 464; practice work, 216. Certificate on completion of the course. Tuition, $45 a year to residents of Missouri, no tuition to residents of St. Louis, $75 a year to those outside of Missouri. University of Washington Library School, Seattle, Wash. Connected with the University of Washington, supported by university appropriation. Present director, W. E. Henry. One year of professional library training, comprising 20 credits in the Senior college year and 28 in the fifth or graduate year. Practice work, 360 hours. College graduates may enter the library school and complete the work in one year. Entrance requirements include 20 credits each in two modern foreign languages, French and German preferred. Degree of B.S. in Library Science given at completion of the library school curriculum. Tuition same as in every department of the University, $10 per quarter. TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANSHIP 23 BIBLIOGRAPHY Extended lists of references on library training are included in Can- nons, H.G.T. Bibliography of Library Economy, 1910, pp. 188-92 and 200-213 an d in Library Work, N.Y., 1912, pp. 250-73. American Library Association. Committee on Library Training. Reports. In Papers and Proceedings. Previous to 1907 the Papers and Proceedings were included in the Library Journal as a Conference number and were also published separately. Since 1907 they have appeared as Bulletins of the Associations. The Proceedings should also be consulted for the reports of the annual meetings of the Professional Training section, especially for the years 1905, 1910, 1911, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, and 1919. Training for Librarianship. A.L.A. Publishing Board. 1911. 7 PP. American Library Institute. Papers and Proceedings. Reed, A. L. Graduate School of Librarianship, 1918, pp. 8-10; Hicks, F. C., and others. Where Shall University, College and Reference Library Assistants Be Trained ? 1919, pp. 11-25; Baldwin, E. V. Education of Librarians. 1919, pp. 226-32. Association of American Library Schools. Books and a vocation. 4 pp. 1920. Encyclopedia Americana. 1919. Library Training. 17:393-94. Independent. Putnam, Herbert. Education for Library Work. 52:2773-76. Nov. 22, 1900. Library Journal. Library schools and training classes of the United States, 1894. 19:296-305; Plummer, M. W.; Forecast of the Next Twenty-five Years for Library Schools. 1910. 35:251-53; Donnelly, J. R., Library School and the Library. 1910. 35: 1909-11; Babcock, Kendrie C., Bibliographical Instruction in College. 1913. 38:133-36; Henry, W. E., Librarianship as a Profession. 1917. 42:355-56; Hitchler, Theresa, Library School Training vs. Practical Experience. 1917. 42:931-38; Lichtenstein, W., Question of a Graduate Library School. 1918. 43 : 2 33~35 5 Williamson, C. C. and others, Training for Librarian- ship. 1919. 44:562-87. National Education Association. Proceedings. Report of the Joint Committee representing the A.L.A. and the N.E.A. on 24 MANUAL OF LIBRARY ECONOMY Instruction in Library Administration in Normal Schools. 1906, pp. 215-81. New York Library Association. Committee on Standardization. Report. 1920. In New York Libraries. V. 7. Pp. 127-132. New York State Library School. Librarianship as a Profession. Albany, 1911. 32 pp. Public Libraries. Dewey, Melvil, Future of Library Schools, 1905. 10 : 43 5-38 ; Hardy, E. A. , Training of Librarians in the Province of Ontario, 1006. 11:143-45; Summer Library Schools. 1006. 11:131-34; Brief for the Library Schools, 1910. 15 : 287-91 : Strohm, A. J., Do We Need a Postgraduate Library School? 1910. 15:54-55; Walter, F. K., Specialization among Library Schools. 1913. 18:227-29; Bacon, Corinne, Relations of the Library School to the School and College Library. 1914. 19:396-98. Special Committee on Certification, Standardization and Library Training. Report. 1920. In American Library Association. Papers and Proceedings. 1920. Special Libraries. 1919. 10:1-6. Dana, J. C., Business Man and the Special Library; Hasse, Adelaide R., The Great Release; Walter, F. K., Future Training of the Business Librarian; Donnelly, June R., Looking Forward. University of Washington Library School. Call to Librarianship. Seattle, 1919. PUBLICATIONS OF THE AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION PUBLISHING BOARD 78 E. WASHINGTON ST., CHICAGO, ILL. A SELECTED LIST BOOK LISTS The Booklist. 10 numbers a year. Subscription price, $2.00. Booklist books (of current year). Issued about March 1. libraries * CaroHne Webster. 1920. Guide to the study and use of reference books. Alice B. Kroeger. Revised by Isadore G. Mudge. 1917. Cloth, $3.00 Periodicals for the small library. Frank K. Walter, 3d ed. 1919 .raper, 25 cents. A ths the hospital library. Edith K, Jones. 1913. Josephine A ' R athbone. 1919. Paper, 60 LIBRARY ECONOMY Binding for libraries. 2d ed. 1915. Paper, 15 cents. Manual for institution libraries. Carrie E. Scott, 1916. Paper 25 cents. r i fri^ d i e F air fnoH 00 ^' Mar S aret W. Brown. Revised by Gertrude Stiles. 1921. Paper, 25 cents. * siness - like conduct in libraries. A. E, Bostwick. Paper, 25 cents. Standard library organization and equipment for secondary schools of S1Z6S ' Certai 40 crits < ed * CATALOGING d title entdes ' American ed. 1908. Cloth, IibrarieS ' Theresa Hitclll er. Revised ed. 1915. $2 OO List f r 9 iT f fflTO catatogi - 3d ed - revised of juveniie books RETURN TO the circulation desk of any University of California Library or to the NORTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY Bldg. 400, Richmond Field Station University of California Richmond, CA 94804-4698 ALL BOOKS MAY BE RECALLED AFTER 7 DAYS 2-month loans may be renewed by calling (510)642-6753 1-year loans may be recharged by bringing books to NRLF Renewals and recharges may be made 4 days prior to due date. DUE AS STAMPED BELOW JULIO 2800 12,000(11/95) L^Q ,,-t * ' \"i. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY