Infomotions, Inc.Behind my library door : some chapters on authors, books and miniatures / by G. C. Williamson. / Williamson, George Charles, 1858-1942

Author: Williamson, George Charles, 1858-1942
Title: Behind my library door : some chapters on authors, books and miniatures / by G. C. Williamson.
Publisher: London : Selwyn & Blount, [1921]
Tag(s): books; petitot; jean petitot; clockmakers' company; quaker watchmakers; pierpont morgan; portrait; lord ashley; daniel quare; issued
Contributor(s): Eric Lease Morgan (Infomotions, Inc.)
Versions: original; local mirror; HTML (this file); printable; PDF
Services: find in a library; evaluate using concordance
Rights: GNU General Public License
Size: 47,605 words (really short) Grade range: 14-18 (college) Readability score: 45 (average)
Identifier: behindmylibraryd00willuoft
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>s/ published in 2931. 


Two of these articles have already appeared in 
The Nineteenth Century, in 1905 and 1908. 

One has already appeared in the New Review, 
in 1894. 

They are here corrected, added to, and 
reprinted at the request of friends and by the 
kind permission of the proprietors and editors 
respectively of these two publications. 

The other material has not appeared in print 
before, save that a part of Chapter XII. is to be 
found in the privately printed catalogue of his 
Collection of Watches which I compiled for Mr. J. 
Pierpont Morgan, and of which only eighty-five 
copies were produced. 

G. C. W. 



I. OuiDA ..... I 







FOUND * ... 65 


PAINTER .... 71 


CATALOGUES . . . . 101 

IX. BRADSHAW . . . . 117 









XVI. SWINBURNE .... 201 



THE AUTHOR (PHOTOGRAVURE) . . Frontispiece* 








The clever caricature of the author, reproduced at the 
special request of several friends, was drawn by Vernon Hill. 
Some conversation had taken place, when the author was 
sitting for his portrait, concerning a certain Guzman ancestor 
whose portrait has been painted by El Greco, and the artist 
in a jocular mood declared that the doctrine of re-incarnation 
was a true one, and "I will draw you" said he, "as you 
were when you sat to El Greco." This portrait is the result. 



THERE are many books in my library bearing 
inscriptions in the handwriting of the author, 
and such volumes have a special and particular 
interest. The interest is intensified when the 
writer has passed into the Land of Silence. One 
such lies before me at this moment. My name 
is written upon its title page, and the following 
words are added, " In token of many points of 
sympathy between us Ouida." The book is 
" The Massarenes " which Ouida published in 
1897, and which she herself regarded, so she told 
me, " as the best book she had ever written." 
It is extraordinary to notice how seldom 
authors have any true sense of proportion, 
when speaking of their own books, and how, 
as a rule, they attach a fictitious importance 
to some volumes. It is seldom also that the 
opinion expressed by an author is confirmed 
by posterity. In a letter quoted in the recent 
memoir of Ouida, she says about this very 
book, " There is not an iota of exaggeration 


in my book, and I am thankful I have lived 
to show English society as it is, the Englishman 
of our old ideas is dead, or nearly so." Her 
statement is curiously inexact. She was amazed 
at my opinion that " Bimbi " contained some 
of her best work, and regarded that as a volume 
of trivial importance compared to others. 

How well I remember my first visit to Ouida, 
when, in 1900, I went over, at her request, from 
Florence to interview her in her villa at Sant' 
Alessio, near Lucca. It was not a very easy 
day's excursion, the journey from Florence to 
Lucca was a tiring one, and the day was hot. 

I had to leave Florence quite early in the 
morning, and on reaching Lucca, went at 
once to obtain some refreshment, but did not 
stay long, as I was anxious to give as much 
time as possible to the forthcoming interview. 
The house was difficult to find. It was a long 
drive from Lucca, and until one got near to 
Sant' Alessio, the people did not seem to 
know for whom I was seeking, but at length 
I arrived at a charming old-fashioned villa, and 
was greeted by a perfect roar of barking from 
the numerous dogs that Ouida had about her. 
The gates were locked, the bell was at a distance 
and not a loud one, and it was some time 
before I could gain admittance, and even then, 
having once obtained access to the house, it 
was again some little while before I could see 
my hostess. 


I had come over on a mission from one of the 
London publishers, who had been trying without 
success, by correspondence, to arrange terms 
with Ouida concerning the issue of a new book, 
and had seized the opportunity of my being in 
the neighbourhood to ask me to go over and 
do my best to settle the business. 

I was received by a little, excitable old lady, 
dressed in greyish-white silk, and standing upon 
a large white bearskin. Her skirt was cut short, 
so as to reveal her exceedingly small feet, of 
which I had already been told she was inordin- 
ately vain. She wore silk stockings to match 
her dress, and pale blue satin shoes, and pre- 
sented a striking appearance. Her hands were 
as beautifully proportioned as were her feet, 
and the lace-edged sleeves of her gown were 
quite short, to reveal her hands and wrists. 
Her hair was white, her eyes appeared to me 
to be a cold grey-blue, clear and remark- 
able. She stood erect in stately fashion on the 
big white rug, holding in her hands her own 
little favourite dog, which she called Baby, 
and having round her a group of other dogs, 
all of them barking furiously. We could not 
hear ourselves speak for a moment, then she 
silenced her dogs, and we both sat down. I 
stayed a long time with her, and we talked 
well into the evening, till it was time for 
me to return to my carriage, drive back to 
Lucca, and home to Florence, and it was 


exceedingly late before I reached the latter 
place. I had one of the most interesting 
conversations that I ever had in my life, it 
was uninterrupted, and I really was unconscious 
of the passing of time, until I rose to leave, 
when I began to feel that I should have been 
glad of some refreshment, and by the time 
I reached Lucca, was eager to obtain at least 
a cup of tea before I started on my return 
journey. Unfortunately, however, my journey 
back to Lucca was a slow one, because my 
driver met a number of oxen, those great 
white beauties with large appealing eyes, with 
which the traveller in Italy is so familiar, and 
as usual, they marched solemnly on exceedingly 
slowly, and I was almost stopped in my 
progress, only reaching Lucca just in time to 
catch the last train back to Florence. Shortly 
after my return, I had a long letter from the 
famous novelist, the first of a considerable 
series of letters, all of which I have retained. 
In it she says, " I fear you had a tiring and a 
tedious day, and I am shocked to think that I 
never even offered you a cup of tea." In 
another letter, later on, she writes, " How well 
I remember your visit. I have always regretted 
that I did not give you even a cup of tea. It 
was monstrous." And, on another occasion, 
referring to the same visit, she writes, " You 
are very good indeed to thank me for such a 
Barmecide feast as you enjoyed here." 

OU1DA 5 

I found Ouida a difficult person with whom 
to deal. The book was ready, and I might 
take it if I wished, provided I was prepared to 
accede to her terms. I was told its title, but 
I was not permitted to read a word of it. She 
declined altogether to tell me anything of what 
the book contained, or even to give me a rough 
idea of its size, and it was quite impossible from 
her manuscript to determine what that size 
would be, because she wrote on huge sheets of 
paper with vast spaces between each line, and 
her hand-writing was very large, often only 
two or three words stretching across a sheet of 

I had taken with me one or two sample books, 
and I found that she was not satisfied with any- 
thing that I showed her, and later on, she wrote 
to me, at some considerable length, concerning 
the proposal that was made. She says, " Can- 
not you make the publishers understand that I 
am accustomed to be deferred to, and not dic- 
tated to, over all the matters concerning the 
issue of my works," and then going on to criti- 
cise what I had shown her, she adds, " Compare 
the exquisite get-up of the ' Critical Studies ' 
or of l The Altruist ' with the get-up of the art 
books which you were so good as to give me, and 
to send me." One of the most charming of these 
books, and one on which I rather prided myself, 
she considered to be " extremely common, in 
binding, paper and everything ! " " The letter- 


press," she adds, " was very inferior," and then, 
finally, she writes, " Unless the boards are 
bevelled, no volume can look well, and a narrow 
book is always ugly. I hope you will endeavour 
to make these publishers conform, not to their 
ideas, but to my wishes." 

In the same letter, she concludes by saying, 
with regard to the same publishers, that " the 
sum which they pay in advance gives them no 
title whatever to choice in the matter of getting 
up of my books. I am the final authority." 
All these extracts serve to remind me how 
difficult a person Ouida was on questions of 
business, as her great obsession was her own 
importance, and the right she had to demand 
preferential treatment over any other author. 
Notwithstanding this strange side of her 
character, I have never met a more interest- 
ing conversationalist, and our talk ranged over 
a mass of subjects. Frequently, however, it 
came back to one of her favourite topics, that 
of animal life, and especially of the life, history 
and character of dogs. Perhaps unwisely, I 
had told her of a story of my own home, 
in which I had been obliged, greatly against my 
will, to destroy a favourite dog, because he had 
suddenly developed a passion for snapping, and 
his presence was dangerous to my children, 
and to my friends, whom he attacked indis- 
criminately. He had been the quietest and 
most delightful of companions, but the veterinary 


surgeon told me that there was a trouble in his 
ear, which had caused this irritable temperament, 
and he advised me with much emphasis to have 
the dog destroyed. I adopted the most humane 
process, the use of a lethal chamber, and per- 
sonally was convinced that I had acted rightly. 
Ouida was indignant. She persisted that I had 
been very wrong. In one of her letters she says, 
" I wish you had not told me of your poor dog. 
I am so sorry for him. You say he did not suffer. 
How can you know ? He must have suffered 
much, if only in being taken to, and left alone in 
that place of death." 

In another letter, she says, " Pray do not con- 
found canker with cancer.* The former is quite 
curable. Dogs do not bite because they feel 
pain. When you went to the sea, you should 
have given your dog a friend to keep him com- 
pany. You would have found him happier 
when you returned. Neglect in such matters 
is the cause of many canine ills. You did not 
do right in having him killed." 

She never w r ould allow this subject to drop, 
and returned to it over and over again, express- 
ing an almost absurd indignation with me for 
putting an end to the life of this dog, and 
apparently caring nothing for my anxiety con- 
cerning my children and my friends. In one 
of the last letters I had from her, she says, " I 
am grateful to you for not forgetting poor 

* I had not done so. I knew well the difference between them. 


Sant' Alessio, and my dear dead Baby. I often 
think of your poor little sacrificed dog, oftener 
perhaps than you do. Even you, who love 
dogs, do not regard dogs enough as sentient be- 
ings, with rights and claims." Many of her 
letters refer to her own dogs, and in one of 
them, she tells me of the death of her own little 
favourite, in the following words, " My beloved 
Baby took his gay little spirit into silence and 
darkness, to my infinite sorrow. Ten years was 
too short a space for that radiant and happy 
nature. It was the first pain he had ever known." 
In another letter, in which she talks of her own 
pets, she says, " Of those that you saw out of 
doors with me, there are living and with me 
Lillo, RufEno, and Goldoni, and a new and young 
black poodle called Marino. When he was three 
months old, he was being played ball with by the 
boys on the sands at Viareggio. They had tied 
his four legs together, and screamed with laughter 
when he fell and cried out. So I bought him, 
and he is a very clever and nice little dog." 
Even then, however, she ends up the letter, 
" I often think of your poor dog, killed for a 
mere idea ! " 

At the time of my visit, the muzzling act was 
in full force, and Ouida was furious about it, 
and would not discuss it in any quiet way. She 
said, " If I were to come over to England, I 
should shoot Walter Long. I so hate him," and 
then she added, " I suppose I should be put in 


prison, and sacrificed because I love God's 
creatures better than many men who are not 
God's people at all." In one of her letters, she 
writes about this. " I hoped better things from 
the new Government, for the entrance into 
England of dogs, but Carrington is just as silly 
and arbitrary as was Walter Long. I reminded 
him," she continues, " of John Hollingshed's 
saying that ' rabies must have been spontane- 
ous once,' but he is inexorable and, like most 
inexorable people, utterly stupid. The great 
annoyance given about dogs greatly diminishes 
the number of those kept." 

It was unfortunately a part of Ouida's nature 
that she could never grasp any other side of a 
subject than the one immediately presented to 
her, and her passion for dogs absolutely blinded 
her to the great danger of rabies, and caused 
her to hold absurd ideas against the necessity 
for trying to crush out that most terrible 

She also violently attacked everybody who 
did not agree with her, and especially anyone 
who had not paid her as much deference as she 
considered she deserved. Poor Lady Burton 
came in for some very strong remarks in her letters. 
She did certainly admit that this noble woman 
had "a fine nature," but went on to say, "She 
bored Sir Richard, and she ran into debt, which 
he alone would never have done. She did not 
know how to efface herself. She became more 


or less of a nuisance " and so on all of them 
wholly inaccurate statements, made from in- 
sufficient knowledge, and showing a cruel 
feeling towards a person whom she did not in 
the least understand, and whose abilities she 
was quite unable to appreciate. 

While she was living, I said little or nothing 
about my visit to her, because she impressed 
upon me over and over again that she did not 
wish any reference made to her in the public 
press, and yet at the same time I am quite sure 
that there was no one more anxious to be spoken 
well of in public, and more desirous of having 
mention made of herself, her life and her works, 
than was Ouida. 

Her tenacity respecting her name was another 
strange characteristic. I had addressed her 
once as Mademoiselle de la Rame"e, on another 
occasion, after I had seen her, when she told me 
to write to Lucca, I wrote Mademoiselle Ouida 
and added the name of her villa, and the name 
of the little district, Sant' Alessio, and then I 
got a very sharp letter to say, " Address only 
Lucca, my post bag goes into the town. No 
other name should be put than Ouida." When 
she was at Viareggio, I wrote to her there, and 
was again reprimanded, and I was told that, even 
if she was away, I was only to write to Lucca. 
" Ouida, Lucca, is address enough, and will 
always find me, wherever I am in the world." 

Of her latest publishers, she spoke in extra- 

QUID A ii 

ordinarily cordial terms. She had, as is well 
known, quarrelled with many, and she was not 
an easy person for any publisher to deal with. 
She spoke with fair cordiality about one or two 
whom she had met, but in one of her latest 
letters, referring to the book which she did not 
live to complete, she says, " Macmillan's have 
been of a kindness and indulgence which de- 
serves my deepest gratitude." In another letter 
she paid this firm a very high compliment, 
describing them as one of the best and fairest 
of business houses, a compliment which many 
can endorse. 

My correspondence with her continued well 
away down to the end of her life, to the final 
sad days of Viareggio, and her letters were always 
interesting and acceptable. The same old 
subjects were continually referred to. In the 
last letter but one that I had from her she says, 
" The rights of animals are disregarded, even by 
many of those who are their friends," and then, 
quite unable to resist the chance of giving me 
a dig " as you disregarded your poor little 
Irish terrier's." In the same letter she compares 
town and country, expressing in unmeasured 
terms her preference for the country, and abus- 
ing London, and all London life, saying that the 
houses in London are nothing but barns. She 
then goes on to criticise some remarks of Carlyle, 
which I had quoted, and which happened to 
have reference to the beauty and dignity of 


work, and states that there was no beauty in 
modern work, and no dignity, adding, " In most 
instances its value is dubious. I think that most 
of the work that is done in our time would be 
better left undone. It is chiefly," she adds, 
" rubbish, and of a thousand books issued there 
are only ten (perhaps) worth the paper on which 
they are printed, and in very many cases books 
are never read," she goes on to say, " except by 
those who already hold the opinions of the 
writers. This is the great difficulty. You 
cannot reach persons already enveloped in their 
own opinions. Here and there perhaps, some 
wavering mind may be strengthened, some hesi- 
tating soul won over, but alas ! it is rare." 

One of her very latest letters refers with strong 
indignation to the article that appeared in the 
Daily Mail concerning her life at Viareggio, 
pointing out that her means were but small ; 
and that the time had come when the nation 
should help her. She writes to me with un- 
measured indignation. " Need I tell you the 
rage, the humiliation, the impotent disgust, 
which the lies of the Daily Mail have excited 
in me. It is infamous that newspapers can 
make sensational articles at the cost of one's 
good name. They ought to be sent to the tread- 
mill. A correspondent," she says, " of the 
Daily Mail came over here to interview me, and 
I would not see him, hence, I suppose, his 


It was a strangely sad story. There is no 
doubt that towards the end of her career, she 
had got out of touch with life. Her books were 
not the success she had expected them to be. 
She was crippled in means by her great extrav- 
agance in previous years ; and then, when the 
report was spread that she was in destitute 
circumstances, she wrote indignantly, denying 
that her necessities were pressing, and refusing 
to accept any proffered help. I felt convinced 
that, for all her pride, she needed it, but that 
was her secret, and it was no part of my busi- 
ness to pry into it. I was very glad to do the 
best I could for her on the occasion of my 
visit, and the correspondence which followed it 
was a source of great interest and pleasure 
to me. 

I do not think that Ouida in person could 
ever have been pretty, but, when I saw her, 
she was undoubtedly impressive because her 
complexion was of extreme beauty, pink and 
white like that of a young girl. Her hair was 
beautifully dressed, her eyes were clear and 
full of expression, and the fascination of her 
hands was quite irresistible. It was later on 
in our correspondence that I reminded her of 
her promise to send me one of her own books. 
She said that she had then with her two or 
three examples of every book of importance that 
she had written, and, in consequence, I asked 
her to pick out for me what she considered 


to be her best book. Hence it was she sent me 
" The Massarenes," and the volume is a treasured 
memorial of an interesting visit and a fascina- 
ting correspondence. 



THERE are three books which stand near to one 
another in my library, all of which relate to the 
same person. One contains the saddest story 
that has perhaps ever been told, of a literary 
man ; another is, in my opinion, one of the most 
beautiful books of meditation that was ever 
written, while the third is a book of travel, one 
of the most fascinating of its kind. The third 
of the number is called, " By the Ionian Sea, 
Notes of a Ramble in Southern Italy, by George 
Gissing." The book of meditation is entitled, 
" The Private Papers of Henry Ryecroft," and 
the memoir is that wonderful book by Morley 
Roberts, which he styles, "The Private Life of 
Henry Maitland," and under these two latter 
pseudonyms, as is well known, is hidden the 
mystery of George Gissing. I have said that 
it was one of the saddest stories that has ever 
been written, and at the same time it was 
one of the most strange because it has always 
seemed to me, and probably to everybody 
else who knew Gissing, a mystery that a man 
who possessed such wonderful charm, such 
extraordinary knowledge, and scholarship of 



such a high quality, should ever have made two 
steps in life equally disastrous, the second in the 
full knowledge of what had happened to him 
under the first, and thereby have ruined his life. 
I suppose it was necessary for Morley Roberts 
to tell the story in full, and certainly, he has 
performed the task well, for he has written 
with discrimination and such reticence as was 
desirable. He communicated the facts under 
assumed names, but there was little of obscurity 
in the veil, and it was easy for those who 
had known Gissing to fill in all the details 
of the painful story. Gissing's first wife had 
died when I knew him. From his second he 
had for some time been separated, and then, 
later on, when again I met him, he was living 
in that strange and absorbing friendship with 
the lady whom Roberts called Therese. The 
last letter I had from him was from St. Jean de 
Luz, and came to hand not very long before he 
died. It was dated February 23rd, 1903, and it 
was in reply to what I had written to him about 
his Ryecroft book. There were only two books 
Gissing prepared in which he was able to let 
himself go, and of these undoubtedly the chief 
was the famous one " By the Ionian Sea," and 
it is difficult to exaggerate its rare charm. 
It is also difficult to define it. The volume is 
undoubtedly a storehouse of varied informa- 
tion. It is also a poetical appreciation, but it 
is far more than that, giving us in indirect 


fashion a great deal of evidence about the 
author himself. He lays himself bare for our 
enjoyment. He allows us to come into close 
contact with his own sympathies, and to travel 
with him in intimate friendship. We find him 
moved by sonorous words of Latin and Greek 
in strange and deep fashion. They stir his feel- 
ings as they stir ours in his fervid sentences, 
and he finds in them a noble solemnity and 
historical significance that nothing else can 
possess. The volume was written by a scholar, 
who delighted to refresh his memory with the 
old classical lore with which he was so familiar 
in early days, and to allow the troubles that 
had fallen on him all through his life to drift 
away for a while. He was able, as we have 
said to let himself go, and the real George 
Gissing was revealed in that book. Nothing 
else shows him as he was, but the nearest, 
after the " Ionian Sea," is that fascinating 
book of meditations which he issued under 
the name of Ryecroft, and which he says he 
wrote merely for his own satisfaction. This is 
a volume that a critic reads over and over again. 
It interests, it nourishes, it calms. It is a per- 
manent addition to the pleasures of a bookman, 
and although one can see that the shadow 
of his big trouble was hanging darkly over 
Gissing when he wrote, yet it is a personal 
testimony of joy, of escape, of contentment, 
and in writing it he was at least able to feel that 


he had the leisure to taste the simple realities 
of life, and the inner spirit of his books. 

However intimately one knew Gissing, there 
were always phases of his character which eluded 
definition. He scorned the Renaissance, and 
yet most truly was he a child of the Renaissance. 
He was a finished scholar, but yet possessing 
strange and deadly animal passions, and this 
curious combination brought him into intimate 
touch with the Humanists, and with the early 
Italian scholars. There were many elements of 
pathos about his life. It had been crowded with 
sadness-, and yet, strange to say, it differed from 
almost every other sad life with which I am 
acquainted, in the fact that Gissing, so far as I 
could tell, never seemed to have had a great, 
an overwhelming passion, in life. It has been 
well said that he was " never swept off his feet." 
Had he been so, he would have been saved, 
perchance, from the vortex of evil which caught 
him up and spun him round, with increasing 
pain at every moment, and yet this strangely 
mysterious man, who never understood real 
love, that love for a chosen woman of kindred 
spirit to himself, possessed tender sympathy 
and deep affection for the inanimate creation, 
a lover of trees, lanes, and flowers, with a 
strange absorbing love for all nature, and 
coupled with that, an emotion for buildings 
that represented the past, and that brought 
up before him memories of classical allusion. 


Add to this curious combination an intense 
Socialism, a wild Radicalism, which revealed 
itself at odd intervals, and you have a faltering 
attempt to explain some of the mysteries of 
Gissing's life. 

When he wrote to me from the Pyrenees, 
his love of Nature proclaimed itself in one very 
definite sentence : " Oh, to live," said he, " in 
Sussex or Surrey, to see spring come up over the 
heaths. Here, certainly, we have primroses 
and violets, yes, even here and there hartstongue 
and spleenwort, but these things on the slopes 
of the Pyrenees are indeed not the same as they 
are in the lanes of England in April." 

No man more appreciated kindly expressions 
about his own work, and when I told him 
what I thought of the " Private Papers of 
Henry Ryecroft," he wrote, " That you, who 
pass so much of your life among things nobly 
beautiful, should be able to find some measure 
of success in my attempts to tell of the beauty 
I have seen and felt, cannot but gratify me. I 
should like to add that your estimate of my 
work, as a whole, seems to differ refreshingly 
from that which is more often brought under 
my notice. After having been told by all 
manner of authorities, year after year, that the 
note of my writing is its depressing monotony, 
and that variety of subjects and manner seem 
wholly beyond my reach, it is, I confess, very 
encouraging to hear from you a different opinion. 


I suppose the fact of the matter is that very 
few reviewers have read more than one or two 
of my books. To those who, like yourself, keep 
a certain number of them in mind I am indeed 
grateful, all the more so, that I must needs 
wonder how you do it, amid the press of writing 
which calls for your attention." 

On another occasion, he had casually come 
across some lines that I had written about his 
book " By the Ionian Sea," in which I referred 
to the tender sympathy which he had expressed 
for the people of the district, and his clear 
analysis of their characters, and he then wrote 
a letter, from which I must not quote, because 
it is so full of his own personal story. It came 
right at the end of his life, when the shadow of 
death was hanging over him, and the future 
was very uncertain, and when he said he had been 
" dodging the east wind, and struggling to gain 
the glory of sunshine," he wrote as one imbued 
with the very spirit of Greek tragedy, for in 
those last few months at St. Jean de Luz, 
bravely bearing up in the hope that the errors 
of his life were atoned for, he felt that a joy was 
entering into his career, to which he had for so 
long been a complete stranger. Alas, however, 
it was not to be so. The last letter I wrote 
him received no reply, and then word came 
that he had been called away. He had told me 
that at last he was able " to rest and think, 
and be happy," and that surely in another sphere 


there would be " violets and birds with the fruits 
of the willow and the tender green grass," that 
would delight his eyes, and now that his sad 
life is over, and he has entered into his rest, 
one would hope that this strange, shy, fastidious 
man, this kindest of companions, and this most 
wonderful of conversationalists, has at last 
entered into a fuller appreciation of that for 
which he always longed, " rest, refreshment, 



EXHIBITIONS by artists, consisting entirely of 
their own work, or exhibitions at art galleries 
of the pictures of one artist only, are nowa- 
days of such frequent occurrence that it is 
curious to think there was a time when such 
shows were entirely unknown, and when it had 
not occurred to any artist that he should group 
together his own works in one room or in a 
series of rooms, and exhibit them to the public. 
It is also interesting to know that the origin of 
these exhibitions was the result of a quarrel, 
and one which made a great impression in its 
time in art circles. I am referring to a period as 
remote as 1775, and to the quarrel which took 
place between Nathaniel Hone, a sensitive and 
a passionate artist, and the Royal Academy, 
which had only so recently been founded, and 
of which he was one of the earliest members. 

His own copy of the catalogue of his little 
exhibition is in my possession. It is a rare 
pamphlet, usually lacking the preface, in which 
Hone tells the whole story of the exhibi- 
tion, and Smith, in his " Nollekens and his 
Times," speaking of it as a " work of the 




B y 

Nathaniel Hone, R. A 


The WORKS of his LEISURE, 

And many of them 

In his own POSSESSION. 

Niji uti/t eft quodfacimui, fruftra eft gloria. 




greatest rarity," reprints it almost in extenso. 
I should preface the story, however, by stating 
that Hone was an envious, bad-tempered man, 
and particularly jealous of the success of Sir 
Joshua Reynolds. He believed that Sir Joshua 
was possessed of very few original ideas, and 
almost all his compositions were taken from the 
works of other artists, especially from the old 
masters ; and, desiring to do the President as 
much harm as he possibly could, he painted a 
picture, which he called " The Pictorial Con- 
juror, displaying the whole Art of Optical 
Deception." The picture does not appear to 
be any longer in existence, and it is therefore 
impossible to say exactly what was its subject. 
Hone himself described it simply as the picture 
of a Conjuror. It is said to have represented an 
old man with a wand in his hand, commanding 
the various pictures of the Old Masters from 
which the President had plagiarised his com- 
positions, to rise out of the flames. It has also 
been stated that it represented an old man with 
a child leaning on his knee, performing various 
incantations, by means of which these pictures 
of the Old Masters floated on the air about him. 
One of the floating figures in the picture was 
that of a nude woman, and it is stated that the 
likeness was a very distinct one to Angelica. 
The Academicians were very angry at the 
picture being sent in. They regarded it as an 
attack upon their President in very bad taste, 


and they were also exceedingly annoyed at the 
representation of Angelica. In consequence, 
they rejected the picture, and refused to have 
it. It was at first actually hung in the exhibi- 
tion, and then Sir William Chambers, and 
someone else on the Council of the Academy, 
came to Mr. Hone and informed him that it 
had been rumoured that he had made an inde- 
cent figure or caricature of a female artist, and 
according to Hone's own statement, " they 
were sorry such an indelicacy should be offered 
to the public," or words to that effect. 

Here is Hone's statement concerning this part 
of the controversy : 

" Many false reports having been spread re- 
lating to a picture called ' The Conjuror,' painted 
by Mr. Hone, and offered to the Royal Academy 
for exhibition this season, he is advised by some 
very respectable friends to give a short state of 
facts to the public, which he hopes will clear 
his character from the malicious aspersions 
attempted to be fixed on him, as well as excuse 
him from the presumption of making an exhibi- 
tion singly of his own works. 

" After the picture in question had remained 
several days, and actually hung up in the Royal 
Academy exhibition, Sir William Chambers, 
with another gentleman of the council of the 
Academy, came to Mr. Hone at his house and 
informed him that it had been rumoured that he 


had made an indecent figure or caricature of a 
eminent female artist, and that they should be 
sorry such an indelicacy should be offered to the 
public, or words to this purpose. Mr. Hone was 
greatly surprised at the accusation, and assured 
the gentlemen that he had always had the highest 
esteem for the lady alluded to, both on account 
her reputation as an artist, as well as for her other 
accomplishments ; and that to remove the pos- 
sibility of such a suspicion he would alter any 
figure she or they chose, the very next day or 
before the exhibition ; and that he had not in- 
tended to represent any female figure in that 
picture, except the child leaning on the Conjuror's 
knee, and hoped they would do him the justice to 
remove any prejudice the lady might have re- 
ceived by the malicious or ignorant ; and that 
he would himself wait upon the lady to that 
purpose. The next morning two more gentle- 
men of the council, with that other gentleman 
who had been the night before with Sir William, 
called upon Mr. Hone, who were all of them so 
obliging to do him the justice to say, that they 
had carefully looked at the figures, and would 
clear him of the supposition of there being any 
woman figure ; that they were well assured then 
as before of his respect for the lady ; nor did he 
trust to this alone, but went himself twice that 
day to wait on the fair artist, to convince her of 
the error ; but was refused admittance. He 
thereupon sent a letter by his son, who delivered 


it into her own hands, and whereof the following 
is an exact copy : 

" ' Madam, 'The evening before last, I was not 
a little surprised, at a deputation (as I take if) 
from the council of our Academy, acquainting 
me, that was most prodigiously displeased at my 
making a naked Academy figure in my picture of a 
conjuror, now at the Royal Academy, representing 
your person ; I immediately perceived that some 
busy medlar, to say no worse a name, had imposed 
this extravagant lie (of whose making God knows) 
upon your understanding. To convince you, 
Madam, your figure in that composition was 
the farthest from my thoughts, as I now declare. 
I never at any time saw your works, but with the 
greatest pleasure, and that respect due to a lady, 
whom I esteem as the first of her sex in painting 
and amongst the loveliest of women in person. 
Envy and detraction must have worked strangely ; 
for yesterday morning, some more gentlemen from 
the Academy assured me that your uneasiness 
was very great ; / assured them, I would so far 
alter the figure, that it would be impossible to 
suppose it to be a woman ; tho' they cleared me of 
such a supposition themselves, as they understood 
it to be but a male figure ; and that I would put a 
beard to it, or even dress it to satisfy you and them. 
I did myself the honour of calling at your house 
twice yesterday (when I had the misfortune not 
to meet you at home), purposely to convince you, 


hozv much you had been imposed upon, as you 
will perceive, when you see the picture yourself, 
and likewise to convince you how much you have 
been imposed upon, and with how much respect 
I am, Madam, your most obedient and most 
humble Servant. 

" ' Nathaniel Hone. 
" ( Pall Mall, 
" ' iqth April, 1775. ? Mrs - Angelic a Kaufman.' 

" To which the day following the answer was 
returned : 

" < Sir, 

" ' / should have answered yours immediately, 
but I was engaged in business. I cannot conceive 
why several gentlemen who never before deceived 
me, should conspire to do so at this time, and if 
they themselves were deceived, you cannot wonder 
that others should be deceived also, and take for 
satyr which you say was not intended / was 
actuated, not only by my particular feelings, but 
a respect for the arts and artists, and persuade 
myself you cannot think it a great sacrifice to 
remove a picture, that had even raised a suspicion 
of disrespect to any person who never wished to 
of end you. 

" e / am, Sir, your humble servant, 

" ' Angelica Kaufman. 
" To Nathaniel Hone, Esq., Pall Mail. 9 " 


It is clear, from this letter, that Angelica 
considered that the portrait was intended to 
represent her, that she was annoyed at the work, 
and that she considered Hone ought to withdraw 
it ; even though he had satisfied himself and 
one or two other persons that he had not in- 
tended to represent her in the painting at all. 
Hone, however, was not going to lose his chance 
of poking fun at the President, even though 
he himself stated that one of the figures 
did not represent Angelica. The opportunity 
of pointing out that in his opinion Reynold's 
compositions were most of them plagairisms, 
was not one to be lost, and he absolutely refused 
either to alter the picture, or to withdraw it, 
and took up the ground that, as an Academi- 
cian, " honoured by His Majesty's sign manual, 
and whose character has been hitherto unim- 
peached by the breath of slander, during a 
residence in that capital of upwards of thirty 
years," the picture should be accepted by the 
Academy, and should continue to be hung in 
their exhibition. The Academicians were, how- 
ever, not at all satisfied with Hone's action. 
They resented it, and on the Tuesday evening 
before the exhibition, they had a special meeting, 
with the result that, at nine o'clock that even- 
ing, a letter was sent to Hone in the following 
terms : 

" * Sir, I am directed to acquaint you, that a 


ballot having been taken by the council, whether 
your picture called " Ihe Conjuror " should be 
admitted, in the exhibition, it was determined in 
the negative. 

" ' You are therefore desired to send for the picture 
as soon as it may be convenient. 

" '/ am, Sir, your most obedient and most humble 

" ' F. M. Newton, R.A., Secretary. 

" * Nath. Hone, Esq., 

" ' Exhibition Room, Pall Mall, 

" ( Tuesday evening, 9 o'clock? ' 

Evidently this was not the first time Hone 
had come into conflict with the Academy, for 
in 1770 he had painted a gentleman in masquer- 
ade, and he had introduced into the picture a 
cross, to which the Academicians objected. 
In accordance with their wishes, he altered 
the picture, and changed the cross into a punch 
ladle ; but, later on, he took out the punch ladle 
and replaced the cross, and in his own words 
" the cross is here restored, as at first intended, 
instead of a punch ladle, which was painted by 
order of the Council of the Academy for its 

Hone then proceeded to take out an affidavit 
in the following terms to state that he did not 
introduce or intend to introduce, into his picture, 
any figure reflecting on Angelica, or on any 
lady whatever. 


< MIDDLESEX TO WIT. I, Nathaniel Hone 
of the Royal Academy do make oath, that in 
the picture of a conjuror, offered for exhibition 
to the said Academy for the present season, I 
never introduced, or intended to introduce any 
figure reflecting on Mrs. Angelica Kauffman, 
or any other lady whatever ; and I gave the 
most explicit declaration of this to Sir William 
Chambers, and three other gentlemen of the 
Academy, who called at my house for the pur- 
pose of examining into that circumstance ; and I 
at the same time told them the figure they 
pitched upon as giving offence, should be taken 
out. NATH. HONE. 

" * Sworn before me this 2nd day of May, 1775. 
W . Addington. N.B. The figure said to have 
been intended for Mrs. A Kauffman is not only 
now taken out, but all the other naked figures, lest 
they should be said to be likenesses of any parti- 
cular gentlemen or ladies, which Mr. Hone never 
meant, as the merit of the picture does not depend 
upon a few smoked academy figures, or even those 
well-dressed gentlemen who supply the place of 
those figures which were said to be so indecent, 
though Mr. Hone had shown the picture to ladies 
of the most refined taste and sentiment, at his 
own house? ' 

This did not, however, make matters any 
better. The Academy held to its decision, 


and Hone had to remove the picture. He 
then took out the figure that was said to have 
been intended for Angelica, and also, he states, 
" all the other naked figures, lest they should 
be said to be likenesses of any particular gentle- 
men or ladies, which Mr. Hone never meant " ; 
and the result of the controversy was that he 
took a room, which in Smith's time was a work- 
shop, behind the house of Messrs. Mouchett 
and Wild, wine merchants, of 70, St Martin's 
Lane, next to the old Slaughter's Coffee House, 
and there he proceeded to have the first one- 
man show in London ; exhibiting not only this 
picture of "The Conjuror," but some other works 
by himself, in justification for the position he 
had taken up. He called it " an exhibition of 
pictures by Nathaniel Hone, R.A., mostly works 
of his leisure, and many of them in his own 

The Academicians were very indignant with 
Hone over the whole transaction. Smith des- 
cribes Hone's later visit to Nollekens, saying 
that he was a tall, upright, large man, with a 
broad-brimmed hat and a lapel coat, buttoned 
up to his stock, and that he walked up to 
Nollekens with measured and stately steps, and, 
folding his arms, saluted him with, " Joseph 
Nollekens, Esq., R.A., how do you do ? ' 
" Nollekens," says Smith, " who never liked 
him, answered, ( Well, now, I suppose you are 
come to get me to join you in the Academy 


to-night, against Sir Joshua, but you are very 
much mistaken, and I can tell you more, I never 
will join you in anything you propose. You 
are always running your rigs against Sir Joshua, 
and you may say what you please, but I have 
never had any opinion of you, ever since you 
painted that picture of " The Conjuror," as you 
call it. I don't wonder they turned it out of 
the Academy ; and pray, what business had you 
to bring Angelica into it r You know it was 
your intention to ridicule her, whatever your 
printed paper and your affidavits may say. 
However, you may depend upon it, she won't 
forget it, if Sir Joshua does.' ' Hone appears 
to have expostulated with Nollekens, told him 
he was ill-tempered, and announced that he had 
brought him two prints, which he had recently 
purchased, as a present. Nollekens was not 
going to be bought over in this fashion, replying, 
" Well, I don't care, you don't bribe me in that 
way. I know what you are going to do to-night, 
and I will vote against you, so you may take 
your prints back again." Smith explains that 
Hone, whom he called the enamel painter, 
had lately commenced oil painting on a large 
scale, and in that branch of art he was not as 
successful as he had been with regard to his 
miniatures. It was then that he found that 
Reynolds was carrying away the chief patron- 
age, and this made him so jealous that, Smith 
says, " he took every opportunity of endeavour- 


ing to defame him," with the result that has 
just been stated. Whether the exhibition was 
a success, we cannot tell. Smith says the 
advertisement appeared in several of the public 
papers, that the pictures were to be seen every 
day, Sunday excepted, from ten in the morning 
until seven in the evening ; that admission was 
one shilling, and the catalogues were given 
away gratis. 

The whole thing was an extreme annoyance 
to Angelica, and it did Hone a good deal of 
harm. The picture of " The Conjuror," accord- 
ing to Miss Gerard, passed into the possession 
of a French nobleman, who in 1790 re-sold it 
for fifteen guineas to a dealer named Knight. 

The exhibition, I may state, consisted of sixty- 
six pictures, the first three items being frames of 
enamels, containing in all thirty-nine portraits, 
but to these the artist added the following note : 
" Not one of the foregoing enamels have been 
painted within these fifteen years, as Mr. Hone 
gave up his leisure hours from that time to paint- 
ing in oil." Following these three exhibits came 
a portrait of an old man in crayons, painted, he 
said, twenty-seven years ago, and a drawing 
of a young girl painted over twenty years ago, 
jhese two pictures being exhibited, he informs us, 
^S proof how little the colours have changed." 

Q to show the rapidity of his execution, he 

ed a picture which he painted in 1760, 
im, an^ an( j a drawing of a Chinese man 
come to . 


which he produced in one hour, and then a series 
of the pictures which he had exhibited at Spring 
Gardens in 1766, 1767, and 1768, and a series 
which he had exhibited at the Royal Academy 
from 1769 to 1774, arranged according to 
date. Following these came the entry about 
item seventeen already mentioned, " Two gentle- 
men in masquerade at the Royal Academy, 
1770. The cross is here restored as at first 
intended, instead of a punch ladle, which was 
painted by the order of the Academy, for its 
admittance." One would imagine that in this 
picture, he had offended against the opinion of 
the Academy by introducing a religious emblem 
into his picture, and that he had been requested 
to make some alteration in order to render the 
work suitable for exhibition. He took, however, 
the earliest opportunity of restoring the picture 
to what he had at first intended it should be, 
with a view of showing the Academy that he 
did not care in any way for its criticism, while, 
in order to make the matter more evident still, 
he exhibited with the picture what he termed 
a metzotinto print of the same. 

Following the pictures which had been ex- 
hibited at the Academy came a series of sketches 
and studies, and then six pictures which he in- 
tended to have been exhibited in the Royal 
Academy this year, and were actually hung in 
the gallery, amongst them being the one called 
" The Conjuror," which he says, in the catalogue, 


was " refused by the Council of the Royal 
Academy, though Mr. Hone had agreed to make 
some alteration in the picture." The last few 
items in the exhibition were drawings and works 
in enamel, amongst these being a moth, a butter- 
fly, a locust, a shell, and a Chinese figure. 

A special point in the catalogue which greatly 
interested me, was item No. 54, which read as 
follows : " ' Saint Pavarius,' the head finished 
at one painting from the same man who sat 
for * The Conjuror.' This poor but honest 
fellow was formerly a pavior, for which reason 
he is thus named, as have heretofore been St. 
Veronica, St. Christopher, etc., from some parti- 
cular action." The interest of this entry lies in 
its connection with George Engleheart the 
miniature painter, and with Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
Engleheart copied a portrait painted by his 
master Reynolds, which in his manuscript note- 
book he called " Pope Pavarius," and in his list 
of miniatures, " Pope Pavarion." It was not 
known who this person represented, nor could the 
name be explained by the Engleheart family, 
who still own this copy of Reynolds' work 
made by their ancestor. In writing the life of 
Engleheart, I ventured on a conjecture that the 
portrait probably represented George White 
the pavior, an Irishman, " once a pavior, then a 
beggar," as Tom Taylor says, whom Sir Joshua 
had as a professional model, and a portrait of 
whom, as captain of the Gang of Robbers, by 


Reynolds, painted in 1772, appears at Crewe 
Hall.* This portrait, with its grimy haggard 
features, resembled the miniature by Engleheart, 
which he styled " Pope Pavarius," and which 
he said was a copy of a work by Reynolds. It 
is clear that the conjecture is reduced to de- 
finite fact by the entry in Hone's catalogue, 
and that Pope Pavarius, Pope Pavarino, St. 
Pavarius, and George White the pavior are one 
and the same person, and that these various 
names were given to him by the artists who em- 
ployed him, and who poked fun at the work of 
his earlier days. 

Unfortunately, neither the original picture 
of George White, by Hone, nor the one painted 
by Reynolds and copied by Engleheart, have 
A0t yet been discovered. 

We do not know whether the controversy 
between Hone and the Academy was made up, 
but it evidently was adjusted in some way, 
for Hone exhibited in the following year, and 
continued to do so down to the time of his death, 
which occurred in Rathbone Place, August 14, 
1784, when he was sixty-seven years old. He was 
buried at Hendon, where he possessed a small 

*Another portrait of him belongs to the Earl of Durham. 



THE influence which has been exercised in the 
world of literature and art, by persons who be- 
longed to the French Reformed Protestant 
religion, and who were known as Huguenots 
has been a source of justifiable pride to their 
descendants and co-religionists, and this in- 
fluence has been the subject of marked attention 
in Geneva, the city where many of them took 
refuge. The Huguenots are able to point with 
considerable satisfaction to such men as Jean 
Cousin the painter, Jean Goujon the sculptor, 
the architect Salomon de Brosses, the enameller 
Limousin, the potter Palissy, the ebeniste Boulle, 
and the tapestry worker Gobelin, as well as to 
the subjects of those few notes, the two cele- 
brated workers in enamel, Bordier and Petitot. 

The Historical Society of French Protestantism 
has for the past forty years given considerable 
attention to the publication of contemporary 
information with regard to such important per- 
sons, and it has more than once arranged for an 
exhibition of documents and art treasures, in 
the same interest. It has quickened the ener- 



gies of a devoted body of Swiss writers, who were 
eager to gather up all that could be known re- 
specting the heroes of their faith, and who, 
from time to time, prepared volumes, not 
only on those whose names have already been 
mentioned, but on such important residents in 
Geneva as Theodore Beza, Goudimel the musi- 
cian, Calvin, and Zwingli. 

One of the latest of these workers was M. 
Ernest Stroehlin, who gathered together some 
new information on Petitot,* which may per- 
haps be of interest to English readers. He was 
permitted to examine the precious little book 
which Petitot left behind him for the benefit 
of his family, and which was drawn out entirely 
by his own hand. It is an octavo volume, 
bound in parchment and covered in velvet, 
containing 166 leaves, and was prepared in 1674, 
in order that the artist might inform his family 
of such facts in his own history as he thought 
worthy of their remembrance. The greater part 
of it is filled up with prayers and meditations, 
and the little journal bears the title, " Prieres 
et Meditations chretiennes pour la famille, en 
temps de sante", de maladie, et de mort," but the 
book contains, besides these prayers and medi- 
tations, a great deal of genealogical information 
regarding the Petitot- family, and two delightful 
portraits, one of Petitot himself and one of his 
wife, drawn in Indian ink. It passed after the 
* Petitot et Bordier, Geneve, 1905. 


death of the artist to one of his daughters, Marie, 
who married, in 1693, a certain Jean Bazin, and 
went to live at Rotterdam, and from her it has 
come down, always in the female line, to her 
descendants, through several families, and in 
several places, the little book having been at 
Amsterdam, the Hague, Montpellier, Brest, and 
Bordeaux. It now is said to belong to a 
certain Madame Roqueplane, the widow of 
Vice-Admiral Prouhet. The volume was written 
in 1674, eleven years before the Revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes. It was not, however, 
the only manuscript book which Petitot left 
behind him, for he wrote a second volume of 
" prayers and meditations during prosperity 
and under adversity," in 1682, for the use of 
his family. This is a quarto book, bound like 
the other, but the details of its history are not 
so clearly known. It belongs now to Monsieur 
Chatoney, who bought it at the sale of the 
library of Baron Jerome Pichom. It does not, 
however, contain the genealogical information 
which gives the special value to the smaller 

The portrait of Petitot himself in the little 
book shows us a man in an ample wig, having 
a white linen collar with two tassels about his 
neck, and wearing a dark-coloured cloak similar 
to those adopted by the clergy of the Huguenot 
Church. His expression is serious and meditative, 
the eyes clear and full of life, the mouth small, 


with very expressive lips, and the portrait bears a 
striking resemblance to three other portraits of 
the artist, all in enamel, one on the cover of 
a gold snuff-box that belonged to M. Stroehlin, 
signed, "P.F.," another, signed by Petitot him- 
self in full, belonging to the Countess of Dartrey, 
and a third in the possession of the Queen of 
Holland. It also enables us to decide that the 
portrait attributed to Mignard, belonging to the 
museum at Geneva, which represents a man of 
about thirty-five, in a large black wig, wearing a 
rich lace cravat and a silk broche cloak, and 
marked " Jean Petitot," is not a portrait of the 
father, with whom at this moment I am deal- 
ing, but of his son, who bore the same name. 
The portrait of Madame Petitot, which appears 
opposite to that of her husband, is a half-length, 
representing her dressed in a silk costume, the 
neck and throat bare, the hair brown and 
curly. She has a calm, dignified appearance, 
and the little volume is dedicated to her in the 
following words : " Je vous fay present, ma chere 
femme, de ce petit recueil de prieres et de medi- 
tations, que j'ay faict pour le laisser a notre 
famille, affin qu'il luy soit une aide pour les 
porter a la pieteV' 

The Petitots came originally from Burgundy, 
and were one of those artistic families which 
fled from France to Geneva. In similar 
fashion, the Bordiers came from Orleans, the 
Arlands from the Auvergne, the Huaulds from 


Poitou, the Thourons from Rouergue, and the 
Gardelles from Languedoc. Petitot's grand- 
father was a medical man, whose Christian name 
was Guyon. He had an only son, who had the 
curious name of Faulle, which name, by the 
way, has frequently been rendered in books of 
reference as Paul or Saul, but it was neither, and 
is written most clearly in Petitot's manuscript as 
Faulle. He was a wood-carver, and, in addition 
to the ordinary work carried out in such an 
occupation, was clever in making wooden models 
of buildings. His father fled from France on 
account of religious difficulties, and the son 
settled down to steady occupation in Geneva, 
and married there in 1598 one Etiennette 
Royaume, by whom he had five children, four 
sons and a daughter, the eldest son Pierre 
(1600-1668), becoming a doctor of medicine, the 
second, Joseph (1602-1665), a sculptor, the third, 
Isaac (born 1604), also a sculptor, the fourth, Jean, 
an enameller, and the fifth, Marie (1610-1677), 
was the daughter, whose second husband was 
one Pierre Prieur, a goldsmith, of whom up to 
the present time remarkably little has been 
known. Petitot speaks very highly of his 
grandfather's character, and says he was " un 
exemple de piete de zelle (sic), et de charite." 
He died in 1628. 

Jean Petitot was born on the 1 2th of July, 
1607, and baptised on the 26th of the same 
month in the evening, in the chapel of St. Ger- 


vais, by the pastor, Grenet. He was appren- 
ticed, he tells us, by his father, to a jeweller- 
goldsmith, of the name of Pierre Bordier, who 
was very little older than himself, but so clever 
in his work as to have attained a consider- 
able position in Geneva. As I have already 
mentioned, the Bordiers came from Orleans as 
emigrants in 1554, and their descendants still 
live in that place. They appear to have been 
weavers and tapestry workers, and people of con- 
siderable skill, but one of them, Augustin, took 
up the profession of a goldsmith, and it was his 
grandson, Pierre, who became close friends with 
Petitot. The" two young men, both apparently 
taught enamelling by one Jean Royaume, were 
not, however, satisfied with the progress they 
made in Geneva, and determined to do better. 
They therefore left Switzerland, and entered 
France, and, after working for a while with Jean 
Toutin the King's jeweller and enameller, came 
over to England, where they were provided 
with letters of introduction to the physician to 
Charles the First, Turquet de Mayerne. This cele- 
brated man had crossed the Channel to become 
a royal physician, and was an accomplished 
scientist, and very eager worker in chemistry, 
interesting himself especially in enamel work, 
and in endeavouring to copy the work of the 
old enamellers of Limoges. He took great in- 
terest in the two young men, who presented 
themselves to him, and appears to have intro- 


duced them to the King, made them free of his 
own workshop, and placed at their disposal 
various discoveries he had made. They re- 
presented to him the faith of some of his own 
near relatives, and a country with which he 
was himself closely connected, and by every 
means in his power he appears to have assisted 
them. The first work which was entrusted to 
them by Charles the First was the preparation of 
a St. George intended to ornament the badge of 
the Order of the Garter, but they speedily be- 
came known for their portraits, and it was at 
this time, in 1642, that Petitot prepared his great 
portrait of the Countess of Southampton, who 
was born Rachel de Ruvigny, and belonged to 
an important Huguenot family, the enamel 
now at Chatsworth, which Walpole calls " the 
most capital enamel in the world." It is a copy 
of a portrait by Vandyck, and is signed by 
Petitot. It was at this time also that the artist 
executed the fine signed enamel portrait of Mary 
Villiers, Duchess of Richmond and Lenox, 
dated 1643, which was at one time in the posses- 
sion of the Crown, and is now in the Pierpont 
Morgan collection, as well as portraits of the 
Duke of Buckingham, Charles and his Queen, 
Lady Morton, the governess to the Royal 
children ; Mrs. Middleton, the Countess of Bed- 
ford, Lady Cadogan, the Duke of York, and 
other persons of eminence in this country, whose 
portraits are to be found in various collections. 


Petitot appears to have attached himself very 
decidedly to Charles the First and his family ; 
and immediately after the execution of the King 
he left England for Paris, in company with 
several members of the Royal Household, who 
had to flee from the country. His friend 
Bordier, however, remained in London, his 
sympathies at that time being much more with 
Cromwell and the Parliamentarian party, and 
the result was that he received certain com- 
missions from Cromwell, and his supporters, 
especially the order for the Naseby enamel, 
which was certainly his greatest work. It is 
probable that the enamel portraits of Milton and 
Cromwell in the possession of Lord Chesham are 
the work of Pierre Bordier, rather than that of 
Petitot, to whom they are generally attributed, 
but the Naseby jewel was, so we are told by 
Walpole, the work of Bordier, and is certainly 
signed " P.B. fecit." This beautiful enamel was 
presented to Sir Thomas Fairfax by the Parlia- 
ment, after the battle of Naseby, in November, 
1645. With the diamond sides, which are not 
now in existence, it cost 700. After the 
death of Fairfax it was sold to John Thoresby, 
and in 1764 bought by Horace Walpole for ten 
guineas. At the Strawberry Hill sale it was 
sold for 21, to John P. Beavan, and, later on, 
belonged to Lord Hastings, who exhibited it at 
the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1889. It bears 
on one side a portrait of Lord Fairfax mounted 


on a chestnut horse, after a picture by Vandyck, 
and on the other a representation of the battle 
of Naseby. M. Clouzot in some recent articles 
on Enamels offers some arguments against this 
ascription. He believes the enamel was executed 
by some other artist whose initials were P. B., 
but he cannot suggest any person, and Walpole's 
statement must at present be considered to hold 
the field. Pierre Bordier probably died in Eng- 
land soon after 1649, as we hear nothing of him 
from that time. 

When Petitot reached Paris, he found there a 
cousin of his friend, Pierre Bordier, one Jacques 
Bordier, a goldsmith, who had enthusiastically 
taken up the work of an enameller. He also had 
been over to England, only remaining there a 
short time, and then had come to France, and 
the two men appear to have speedily become 
close friends, and to have united in partner- 
ship. Their work attracted much attention in 
Paris, and they became the most famous painters 
in enamel in the city, were given apartments in 
the Louvre, and employed by Louis the Four- 
teenth, and all the important persons about 
his court. The friendship between the two 
men, both of whom had been deeply attached 
to the Stuart family, lasted for thirty-five years, 
and was only put an end to by the death of 
Jacques Bordier. Petitot thus wrote of it in 
his journal : " De plus, comme une chose non 
attendue en mon age, tu m'as encore extraor- 


dinairement favorise, mon Dieu, en me con- 
tinuant les moyens d'exercer mon art avec 
quelque facilite en la compagnie de la personne, 
liee avec moi d'amitie et dissociation, des environ 
un demisiecle, sans avoir aucune mesintelli- 
gence ni division entre nous." 

In an important work by Richelet, published 
in 1680, Bordier and Petitot are spoken of as 
being the two greatest painters in enamel in 
Paris, the most popular portrait-painters of the 
day, overwhelmed with work and busied in the 
preparation of the tiny enamel portraits so 
popular at that time, either as lockets or as orna- 
ments set in the covers of snuff-boxes, etuis, or 
instrument cases. Their personal character was 
declared to be of the highest possible merit, 
and the two artists appear to have been treated 
with a greater amount of respect than was cus- 
tomarily given to men of their profession. All 
the greatest personages of that brilliant Court 
sat to them, although as regards the portraits 
usually attributed to Petitot alone, it seems 
to be probable, from the artist's own papers 
and from this manuscript journal to which we 
make constant reference, that his partner Bor- 
dier was quite as intimately concerned as himself 
in their preparation. It would appear that the 
actual drawing of the portrait was generally the 
work of Petitot, but that the exquisite enamelling 
process was largely superintended by Bordier, 
and his skill alone rendered it possible for the 


minute work of his colleague and friend to be 
perpetuated in this wonderful form. 

The King himself was represented over and 
over again, his mother, Anne of Austria, and his 
wife, Maria Theresa, their son the Dauphin, and 
his wife, and their grandsons, the Duke of Anjou 
and the Duke of Berry, his brother the Due 
d'Orleans, his nephew, the future Regent, his 
uncle Gaston d'Orleans, and his cousin the 
Duchesse de Montpensier La Grande Made- 
moiselle ; Charles the First and Queen Henrietta 
Maria, Charles the Second, the Duchess of 
Portsmouth, James the Second and his sister 
Mary, Princess of Orange, Christina Queen 
of Sweden, the Duchess of Lorraine and her 
brother the Duke of Guise, the Cardinals Riche- 
lieu and Mazarin, the Grand Conde and his 
wife, the Prince de Conti, the Due de la Rochefou- 
cauld, the Duchesse de Longueville and the 
Duchesse de Montbazon, the various nieces of 
Cardinal Mazarin, Olympia, Marie, and Hor- 
tense Mancini, Madame de la Valliere, Madame 
de Montespan, Mile, de Fontanges, Madame 
de Maintenon, Madame de Sevigne, and almost 
every beautiful lady or important man connected 
with the Court of France, or visiting Le Grand 

Petitot married in 1651. His wife was Mar- 
guerite Cuper, daughter of Sulpice Cuper, one 
of the King's councillors, at that time governor of 
Bordeaux, and the register of his marriage has 


recently been found. It took place at Charen- 
ton, on the 23rd day of November, 1651, in a 
building which was devoted to the religious 
services of the Protestants, and the officiating 
pastor was Monsieur Drelincourt. Bordier was 
already married, as, on the 2yth of August in 
the same year, he had espoused Anne Madeleine 
Cuper, the younger sister of Marguerite, so that 
the two friends had now become brothers-in- 
law. Later on, the connection between the two 
families was to become still closer, as eventually 
Petitot's son Jean married Madeleine Bordier, 
the daughter of his father's partner. 

Some previous writers on Petitot had stated 
that he was twice married, but the researches of 
M. Stroehlin amongst the Petitot papers proved 
that this was not the case, and the confusion had 
arisen from the fact of Petitot's son marrying 
his mother's niece. 

Jean Petitot had seventeen children, and he 
most carefully records the information respecting 
them in his journal. His eldest son Jean was 
born at Blois in 1653. In 1654 a second son 
was born at Paris, named Jacques, in 1655 a 
daughter arrived, called Marie, and in the same 
year Madame Petitot was confined of a still-born 
child. In 1657 came the second daughter, 
Madeleine, in 1658 the third, Marguerite, in 1659 
the fourth, Marie, in 1661 the fifth, Anne, in 
1662 the fourth son, to whom the Ambassador 
for Holland stood godfather, named Paul, in 


1663 a fifth son, Francois, in 1664 a sixth daughter, 
Caterine, in 1665 a sixth son, Andre, in 1668 a 
seventh daughter, Charlotte, in 1669 a seventh 
son, Sulpice Henry, in 1670 an eighth son, 
Benjamin, in 1673 a ninth son, Estienne, in 
1674 an eighth daughter, Madeleine Caterine. 

The records in the journal particularly men- 
tion the names of the godparents in the case of 
each child. 

In 1669, Petitot and Bordier were able to 
render their own country certain special and 
important political services, which were so 
highly esteemed by the Republic that the 
Syndics of Geneva created the two artists 
free citizens of Geneva with all the rights and 
privileges appertaining to such a position, and a 
joint letter from the two friends, dated the nth 
of January, 1669, was sent to the council, ex- 
pressing the sincere gratitude which Petitot and 
Bordier felt for this mark of esteem on the 
part of their native town. The letter, which is 
addressed, " Aux Magnifiques et tres honores 
Seigneurs, Messeigneurs Les Syndics du Counseil 
de Geneve," was given for the first time by 
M. Stroehlin in his volume and followed by a 
long series of letters which passed between 
Paris and Geneva, mostly the work of Jacques 
Bordier. He appears to have been not 
only the active and practical partner in the 
enamelling business, but to have developed 
a remarkable capacity for diplomacy, and was 


eventually created the official agent at Ver- 
sailles for the Republic of Geneva, a position 
which he held till the time of his death. He 
threw immense zeal into this public work, exer- 
cising himself with great energy to do all he 
possibly could for his native State, and was 
charged with some delicate negotiations between 
France and Geneva, which he appears to have 
carried through with great success. To such an 
extent was he trusted, that he became on in- 
timate terms with the Ambassadors from the 
Protestant countries, Great Britain, Holland, 
Brandenburg, and Prussia, and he appears to 
have been regarded as the special protector of 
the Genevan Republic, and as one with whom 
consultations could be made with absolute dis- 
cretion, inasmuch as he was a man of the most 
perfect integrity, and held the complete confi- 
dence of the Syndics of Geneva. 

He was present at the marriage of his daughter 
with his nephew Jean Petitot, who was follow- 
ing his father's profession. This marriage, like 
the two preceding ones, was celebrated in the 
Huguenot " temple " at Charenton. It took 
place in 1683, and was one of the last marriages 
in that building. Jacques Bordier died at Blois, 
in a house which he had inherited from his 
father-in-law, Sulpice Cuper, in the following 
year, just one year before the Revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes, and was therefore spared the 
grief of seeing the downfall of the diplomatic 


union he had worked so hard to build up. The 
Council of Geneva recognised his long services 
by special resolutions and addressed letters to 
his partner Petitot and to his son, expressive of 
their gratitude to him for all he had done. He 
was succeeded in his office as official agent of the 
Republic by his son-in-law, Jean Petitot. 

He had a large family, but eight members of 
it died in their youth. 

Uninterrupted success had attended the part- 
nership carried on by the two Genevan enamellers, 
and they were able to accumulate sufficient 
means to live in comfort, and to keep up country 
houses at some distances from Paris. The 
story, however, that was started by Senebier 
when he wrote about Petitot, and continued by 
Rigaud, to the effect that they amassed a 
colossal fortune, has no foundation in fact. 
It seems to be clear that many of their 
finest works were never paid for, and that 
the expenses of production with regard to the 
beautiful objects for which they were famous 
were exceedingly high. They were, however, 
both of them economical men, working very 
hard at their profession, and their success was 
undoubted. They had not suffered any disabili- 
ties on account of their religion so far as can be 
ascertained, until the Revocation of the Edict 
of Nantes, which took place on the I7th of Octo- 
ber, 1685, but from that time disaster overtook 
the Huguenots of France, and almost every 


member of that faith, whatever his position or 
influence, suffered on account of his religion. 
The storm raged about the head of Petitot for 
some months, and at length pressure was 
brought to bear upon him that he should change 
his religion. The King protected him as long 
as it was in his power to do so, but eventually 
the skill and the popularity of the old artist counted 
for nothing in his favour, and he was arrested 
as a heretic with his niece, Anne Bordier, in 1686, 
and they were both confined in the prison of 
Fort L'Eveque. By the instructions of the 
King, the great Bishop of Meaux, Jacques 
Bossuet, was sent to visit Petitot in prison, and 
he pressed him very hard indeed, with all the 
skill of which he was capable, endeavouring to 
convince the old man of the error of his ways. 
For a long time Petitot would have nothing 
whatever to say to him, but presently his health 
gave way, his strength had been undermined by 
his captivity, and he had been transferred from 
one prison to another more rigorous, when at last, 
in poor health and in great despair of mind, he 
consented to place his signature to an act of 
abjuration. The magistrates of Geneva had 
been making every effort on his behalf, and it 
is clear that the King himself was extremely 
anxious to seize some means by which Petitot 
could be released. The act by which the artist 
acknowledged his conversion afforded the King 
the opportunity which he sought, but Louis the 


Fourteenth, unwilling to acknowledge the true 
reason for the imprisonment of Petitot and his 
liberation, informed one of his sons, who came to 
thank him for the pardon given to his father, 
that he was quite willing to fall in, for once, 
with " tHe whim of an old man who desired to 
be buried with his ancestors." Accordingly, 
at the beginning of the year 1687, Petitot, in com- 
pany with a part of his family, left Paris, where 
he had been living for thirty-seven years, and, 
after passing through serious perils, reached 
Geneva in safety. 

At first he was not received with acclamation, 
and was looked upon as a man who had abjured 
his faith as a result of the persecution. The 
Consistory of the Church of Geneva took steps 
to investigate the matter, and being informed of 
all the circumstances, and understanding that 
Petitot's conversion was now the subject of a 
sincere and touching repentance on his part, 
absolved the old artist from the crime of which 
they considered he had been guilty, and received 
him back again into their communion. He 
made a solemn statement before them, that 
what they considered his apostasy was the result 
of the persecution he had undergone and the 
serious condition of his health, both of body and 
mind, in consequence ; and then his reception 
back to the Huguenot communion was under 
taken by the pastor of the parish church of 
St. Gervais. His confinement, and the anguish 


he had gone through, had, however, made 
serious inroads upon his health, and it was 
some months before the old man was himself 
again. The climate of his native country, the 
kind reception given to him by most of his friends, 
and the manner in which his change of faith had 
been set aside, soon conspired to put him into 
better spirits ; and, despite the fact that a 
great many in Geneva, including some of his 
oldest friends, declined to have anything to 
do with him, he soon recovered his customary 
high spirits, and speedily set to work at his old 
profession. He had lost the larger portion of 
his fortune on leaving Paris, but had brought 
with him all the appliances for his enamel 
work, and he was just as skilful as ever. One 
of the first commissions he received was from 
John Sobieski, King of Poland, who had defeated 
the Turks before the gates of Vienna. He 
desired to possess a portrait of himself and his 
Queen in enamel, and the aged artist acquitted 
himself of the task brilliantly, and sent a 
plaque, in which he had ingeniously combined 
the two portraits, to the King of Poland. In the 
picture the Queen was represented seated upon 
a trophy of arms, holding in her right hand a 
portrait of her successful husband, and the minia- 
ture was as brilliant in colour and as exquisite 
in execution as any work which Petitot had 
produced during the days of his youth. Another 
labour which engaged his attention was the 


reproduction of a celebrated picture by Lebrun, 
" The Family of Darius at the Feet of Alexan- 
der," but this very large enamel he was never 
able to complete. It is still to be seen in Geneva 
at the museum, but should have been fired once 
or twice more to have attained to the utmost 
perfection of its beauty. Very quickly Petitot's 
work began to be known in the neighbourhood of 
Geneva, and numbers of well-to-do persons so- 
journing in that city went to see the illustrious 
artist, and commissioned their portraits at his 
hands. His means rapidly increased, and he 
was full of energy, when, on the 3rd of April, 
1691, he was seized with an attack of paralysis, 
while in the very act of painting on the enamel 
a portrait of his faithful and devoted wife. At 
seven o'clock in the evening he died, and his son 
Paul thus records the sad event in the same little 
journal to which we have already referred : 

" Puisque notre pere a mis, dans le commence- 
ment de ce livre, une partie de ce qui lui est 
arrive, il est juste que nous y ajoutions ses 
derniers moments lesquels n'ont pas 6te moins 
pieux et saints que pendant sa vie, puisqu'il n'a 
jamais eu autre chose dans sa pensee, jusqu'au 
dernier moment de sa vie, que de donner gloire 
Dieu et d'embrasser son Sauveur, et qu'il a eu 
pour derniere parole : ' Viens, Seigneur Jesus, 
viens bientdt ! ' Apres quoi le bon Seigneur 
recut son esprit, lequel il rendit, apres quelques 


heures d'agonie, le jeudi 3 avril 1691, a 7 heures 
du soir, et a etc mis le samedi 5, a 9 heures du 
matin, dans la tombe de Mme. de Blonay, dans 
1'egKse de Saint-Martin, a Vevey. II avait 
quatre-vingt et quatre ans, quand il est mort, 
et travaillait le mardi de la semaine, dans la- 
quelle il deceda le jeudi, au portrait de notre 
mere, qui est ce qu'il a tou jours demande a Dieu, 
de pouvoir travailler jusqu'a son dernier jour, ce 
qui lui etc accorde, puisqu'il n'a etc qu'un jour 

Nothing need be added to a record so simple 
and so affecting. 

Many persons have copied the work of Petitot, 
but he has never had any real rival save in the 
person of his own son ; and some of the works of 
Jean Petitot the younger so closely resemble those 
of his father, that it is impossible to distinguish 
between them. The family genius in this respect 
appears to have died out with the death of the 
son, although the trade of a jeweller was carried on 
by other members of the same family. The little 
manuscript journal which has been made avail- 
able for the purpose of this new information, 
contains many other records relating to the 
family than those which have been quoted, but 
they refer to the descendants of Petitot's daughter 
Marie, who married a certain Jean Bazin. The 
writing of Petitot himself ends with the note in 
1674, of the birth of his youngest child. A series 


of entries were then made by his son-in-law, 
continued after his death by his widow, and added 
to by other members of the family, the last 
entry bearing date 24th of July, 1840, and re- 
cording the marriage of the lady who is the 
present owner of the book. In addition to the 
genealogical information contained in the journal, 
there are five drawings by Petitot in it made in 
Indian ink, representing the Birth of Christ, the 
Crucifixion, the Entombment, the Ascension, 
and a death's head, and to each of them are 
appended explanatory texts. The remainder of 
the book is occupied by a very long religious 
exhortation addressed by Petitot to his family, 
and by a series of shorter exhortations, prayers, 
meditations, and passages from Holy Scripture. 
Some of the prayers are taken from the works of 
Du Moulin, others were written for Petitot by 
Monsieur Turtin, a pastor of Geneva, and others 
again were composed by the artist himself. 
His hand-writing was exceedingly clear and 
legible. With the exception of the additional 
entries made by his descendants, all the rest of 
the journal is in Petitot's own hand, and he 
was himself responsible not only for the two 
portraits it contains, but for the title-page and 
five illustrations. The whole volume affords a 
pleasing record of a great artist, and lovers 
of the work of Petitot will be grateful to 
the Historical Society of the French Protestant 
Church for having undertaken to print a great 


portion of the journal, and to the late M. 
Stroehlin for his volume on Petitot and Bordier, 
and the investigations which have enabled him 
to give so much definite information respecting 
the story of the two men. 

The exquisite enamels of Petitot are well 
known to all collectors. They should perhaps 
now be called works by Petitot and Bordier, as 
it is perfectly clear that each partner was con- 
cerned in their execution. There is an interest- 
ing collection of them in the Louvre, numbering 
over forty genuine examples, and about a dozen 
which may or may not be from the same atelier, 
and some of which no doubt belong to the 
younger Petitot. At Chantilly there are seven- 
teen, including four portraits of Louis the Four- 
teenth, representation of various members of 
the Conde family, two fine portraits of Madame 
de Montespan, and one of her sister, the Abbess 
of Fontevrault, and a portrait of Ninon de 
L'Enclos ; but the largest collection in existence 
is to be found in the Jones section at the Victoria 
and Albert Museum. Here there are no less 
than fifty-eight examples, including some of 
the most beautiful works Petitot and Bordier 
ever executed. At Windsor there are seventeen, 
and others are to be found in most of the great 
collections of miniatures. The Baroness Bur- 
dett-Coutts possessed several, including delight- 
ful portraits of Charles the Second and James 
the Second, the latter of which was a present 


from the then Duke of York to Mrs. Godfrey. 
The Earl of Berkeley, Lord Wemyss, the Duke 
of Richmond, Lord Chesham, Lord Cadogan, 
Earl Beauchamp, and the Duke of Rutland, are 
amongst those who possess fine examples of 
these precious enamels, but the best private 
collection is in the possession of the Countess of 
Dartrey, and it includes a portrait of the elder 
Petitot, signed " Petitot le Vieux par luy-meme," 
one of the younger Petitot signed, " Petitot fait 
par luy-mme, d'age de 33 ans, 1685," and two 
portraits of the wife of Jean Petitot the younger, 
on one of which is the inscription, " Petitot a 
fait a Paris Janvier 1650 ce portrait qui est celui 
de sa femme." 

Lady Dartrey also possesses portraits of 
Madame de Sevigne, James the Second, the Due 
d'Orleans, the Countess of Bedford, the Duke 
of York, Madame de Montbazon, the Princesse 
de Bernouville, and of several persons whose 
names are not known, including a very beautiful 
one of an ecclesiastic. In the possession of the 
Queen of Holland is the second portrait of Petitot 
the elder, signed and dated 1650, and portraits of 
the Princess of Orange, of William the Third, 
of Louis the Fourteenth, and of Madame de 
Maintenon, while M. Ernest Stroehlin, in his 
collection in Geneva, had the third portrait 
of the old artist, and half a dozen other fine 
examples of work of Petitot and Bordier. One 
of the most superb enamels the partners ever 


executed belongs to the Countess of Carnarvon. 
It i<* a p^ld snuff-box, and bears on the top, 
on the bottom, and on each side, a series of 
beautiful portraits of the celebrated ladies of the 
French Court. There were very many works by 
Petitot-Bordier in the Hermitage collection at 
Petrograd, and others were to be found in 
Berlin, Vienna, Dresden, and Budapest. 

Until within recent times the work of Petitot 
has only been known in enamel, but three 
important drawings on paper have been dis- 
covered, and all three are in the famous Pierpont 
Morgan collection. The largest represents the 
Comtesse de Feuquieres, the friend of Mignard, 
and of Madame de Sevigne, and is inscribed in 
ink on the reverse, " donn par M. Petitot a 
madame La Comtesse de Feuquiers [sic] en 
1673." This is in the same handwriting as 
appears in the manuscript book, and is there- 
fore evidently that of the artist himself. The 
other two drawings are even more interesting. 
They represent Anne of Austria and Philippe, 
Due d'Orleans, and are signed by initials, in a 
monogram, which appears to be J. P. It is 
suggested that these are the original drawings 
for two enamel portraits of these persons 
which appear in the collection at the Louvre. 
That of the Due d'Orleans exactly resembles 
the enamel which happens to be the only por- 
trait of the Due, by Petitot, known to exist. 
The other, of Anne of Austria, is almost exactly 


like the enamel, but in the drawing the Queen 
has a crown on her head, which is represented 
as slipping off backwards, and which does not 
appear in the finished enamel. A French critic 
has suggested that this drawing is the work of 
Pierre de Jod6, who engraved a portrait after 
Nocret of Anne of Austria, but as the two 
drawings are identical in size, colouring and 
technique, and as the one of them exactly 
and the other very closely resembles the 
finished enamel save in the omission of the 
crown (which did not add to the charm of the 
portrait and the omission of which distinctly 
improved the enamel), I was disposed to accept 
them both as the preparatory sketches by 
Petitot for his enamel portraits ; and these two 
and the one just mentioned constitute the only 
three drawings at present known to exist. In 
the Pierpont Morgan collection is one other re- 
markable drawing, which has been attributed to 
Samuel Cooper. It exactly resembles Petitot's 
famous signed miniature of Mary Duchess of 
Richmond and Lenox, already referred to, which 
is, by the way, the largest work of that artist 
save the one at Chatsworth, and is one of 
the chief treasures of the collection. The draw- 
ing very closely resemblances a similar one at 
Welbeck, and each of them is almost an exact 
copy of the picture by Vandyck at Windsor 
Castle, save that they omit the attributes of St. 
Agnes, the lamb and the palm branch. It 


would seem possible that Cooper made a water- 
colour drawing from the Vandyck, in order that 
Petitot might make his enamel, or it is possible 
that Petitot also made a copy of the Vandyck. 
The two drawings, the one at Welbeck, and the 
one in the Morgan collection, are not abso- 
lutely identical. The colouring of the latter 
one is richer and bolder than that of the one at 
Welbeck, and it differs in some minute points 
from the original Vandyck. It is absolutely 
identical, however, with the finished enamel, 
and I am inclined to suggest that the one at 
Welbeck is the work of Cooper, and the other 
the work of Petitot or of Bordier, but this 
suggestion is made tentatively, as perchance 
some further information may come to light 
which will assist in determining the attribution. 

A few words may perhaps be added respect- 
ing Paul Prieur, who was referred to at the 
beginning of this article. In 1669 he was in 
England painting a miniature of Charles the 
Second, and another of Lady Castlemaine, both 
after Cooper, and executed for the King of 
Denmark, for whom he had been working for 
some time. In 1670 we hear of him in Poland 
painting a portrait of King Michael Korybut 
Visniowiecki for the Danish monarch, and then 
in 1671 he was back again in Denmark executing 
some remarkable commissions for portraits of 
the elder children of Frederick the Third, which 
can now be seen in the Rosenberg Castle collec- 


tion. By Christian the Fifth he was sent to 
execute other commissions, is believed to have 
visited Spain, and thence to have journeyed to 
Russia, where several examples of his work, all 
dated 1676, were to be seen in the Hermitage. 
In the following year he was back again in Den- 
mark, where he died. He is said also to have 
been a member of the Huguenot persuasion, 
and to have possessed secrets for the composi- 
tion of certain brilliant colours in enamel work 
(especially for a blue) which were not known 
to his competitors. His work in this country 
is of great rarity, Lady Dartrey possessing the 
finest example, but there are two remarkable 
enamels by him in the Pierpont Morgan collec- 
tion. There is also one of his enamels at Win- 
sor Castle, and Dr. Propert had two, while 
several of his beautiful enamel badges for the 
Order of the Elephant belong to the King of 



IN front of me lies a tiny service book, entitled 
" Diurnale Cartusiense," a fat little volume of 
526 pages, with a supplement added of 114 more. 
It was printed in 1879. It was given to me in 
1894, and recalls a curious and interesting story. 

The monks of the Carthusian Order were 
among the earliest to welcome and use the 
new art of printing, and they constitute the 
only Order in the Catholic Church which has 
remained a printer to this very day, for the 
monks still produce, in their own monastic 
printing-press, all the service books for their 
own use, and from that press have been issued 
some of the finest of modern liturgical books. 

The story of Carthusian printing begins in 
1606, when the Prior of one of the houses in 
Picardy printed four large Responsoria, each 
in four volumes, from type which he had himself 
made by melting down old vessels and candle- 
sticks of copper. In 1612 he left the religious 
house in Picardy and went to Pavia, there to 
assist in printing liturgical books for the same 
Order, carrying with him his home-made type. 
He was commissioned by the Father General 



of the Carthusians to print service books for 
the night office, in sufficient numbers for the 
use of all the monasteries of the Order, and the 
great book he produced continued in use for 
over two hundred and fifty years, and was 
not entirely reprinted until 1876, when a new 
edition of it was required. It can easily be 
imagined that although the books were great 
folio volumes, and printed on very substantial 
paper, and carefully handled, and only needed 
in the churches connected with Carthusian 
monastries, the constant use for two hundred 
and fifty years produced the invariable result, 
and the volumes were more or less injured, 
torn and defaced. Fortunately, the monks 
knew their office, and by dint of saying it 
continually, the words became so familiar to 
them that upon many occasions they did not 
use the books at all, and to this familiarity must 
be accredited the fact that so many of the old 
volumes remained in existence when the order 
came to reprint. The Vatican decided in 1870, 
that certain slight changes were to be made in 
the service books, and that it was time a new 
edition was prepared, and then the question 
arose as to finding a perfect copy of the old book 
of 1612 from which the new one should be pro- 
duced. As might be expected none of the mon- 
asteries possessed a perfect copy. Some of them 
were more or less complete. Many had manu- 
script additions made to them. Of some, half a 


page here and there was missing, or there 
was wanting to many pages the corner or a 
large portion of the page. Frequently the 
Fathers had used other books to supplement the 
great folio, where pages or portions of pages 
were deficient, and despite the most careful in- 
vestigation, Dom Eusebe Bergier, who travelled 
round from monastery to monastery, was quite 
unable to obtain a perfect copy, and small 
wonder, considering that the book had lasted 
for such a long period. Then another monk 
Father Charles Marie, was entrusted with the 
duty of going to all the Carthusian Houses in 
Europe, examining every copy they possessed 
of the edition of 1612, extracting perfect leaves 
from the different volumes, and making up, if 
possible, a complete set from the imperfect 
volumes which still remained. This task took 
a long time to accomplish, but it was done at 
last, and one perfect folio volume of the service 
book of 1612 was made up, and brought to the 
Chartreuse at Montreuil, Notre Dame des Pres, 
where at that time the printing works were 
established, and from this one perfect copy the 
new edition of 1876 was produced. 

When I was working at an essay on the books of 
the Carthusians I came upon the information 
concerning this precious volume. I had seen 
many fragments of the old folios both at the 
Carthusian Monastery in France at which I was 
then working, and at the others which I had 


visited in France, Italy and elsewhere, but no 
trace could I ever find of the one perfect copy 
which, however, it was quite certain must have 
existed not twenty years before I was writing my 
essay, and therefore was hardly likely to have 
perished. When it is remembered that these 
books were elephant folio, monstrous great 
volumes, it will be the more easily understood 
that the destruction of such a huge book was 
not easy, and I made up my mind, not only 
that it must exist, but that in all probability it 
existed in the very house where I was, because 
it was there that the edition of the later book 
had been printed. I set to work to search, but 
I could find no trace of it in the library. I then 
had special permission to go round to the various 
Fathers in their cells and talk to them about it, 
and one old Father, of considerably advanced 
age, asked me whether I had searched in an 
underground paper store which still existed 
beneath the library ? Some of the younger 
Fathers doubted the actual existence of this 
paper store, they had never heard of it, and 
never seen it, and for a while I could not find 
out where it was, but eventually the Prior of the 
Monastery, taking the trouble to look through 
certain keys, discovered that one of them bore 
a label relating to a paper store, and a door which 
had not been opened for some twenty years was, 
at my request, unlocked, and I entered a caver- 
nous cellar. It was full of odds and ends of all 


kinds connected with printing, piles of proof 
sheets, discarded and unimportant, all kinds of 
rough packing paper, cases, boxes and bits of 
machinery, the odds and ends of a big printing 
office, cleared out when the great work was 
accomplished, hurriedly packed away, waiting 
for an opportunity of investigation, and then 
apparently entirely forgotten. There was noth- 
ing for it but to search, and with the help of two 
of the lay brothers, the examination was made, 
and down at the bottom, close to the floor, in 
what was fortunately, a very dry place, the 
precious book was found, and in triumph I carried 
up to the Prior the only perfect copy in exis- 
tence of a magnificent piece of printing issued in 
1612, and showed him a book which he had never 
seen, and which constituted a landmark in the 
history of his Order. 

Then it was that he made me a present of the 
little book that now lies before me, a volume 
which cannot be bought, and is never issued to 
the public. It is printed for the sole use of the 
Order, and is never issued outside the monasteries. 
It is the daily office book of the Carthusian 
monk, is carried in his pocket from the moment 
he takes the habit to the moment of his sepul- 
ture. It is in daily and constant use, seldom 
out of his hand, and when he dies, it is buried 
with him. My copy was bound at the mon- 
astery by the monks themselves, whole bound in 
delightful brown morocco, and as the Prior told 


me, is the only copy that has been given to 
anyone outside the Order, except the copy 
that is regularly sent to the Vatican, and it 
was handed over to me as the only gift the 
Prior could make to me, and as evidence of his 
gratitude for the trouble I had so gladly taken 
to find the missing copy of the 1612 folio. 

To anyone who loves fine printing all the 
books of the Carthusians are worth examina- 
tion. Many of them, for choir use, are great 
folios. Others are sumptuous quartos, printed on 
paper specially made for the Order, with ink, 
brilliant black and glorious scarlet, also specially 
made, and the work executed with the most 
absolute perfection of form and accuracy, be- 
cause it is done Ad Majoram Dei gloriam. Even 
the smaller books, the little one that is given to 
the Fathers, the larger ones which form the 
library of his theological works, and the few 
very few which are printed for other religious 
societies, are all produced with the same attempt 
at perfection, everything, both as regards print- 
ing, paper and type, being done as well as 
possible, so that Carthusian books are among 
the best produced of printed books. 



IN December, 1904, the Swedish Minister had an 
article in the Nineteenth Century Review relat- 
ing to Queen Christina, but there is one special 
interest that the Queen has for English students 
to which but little attention has been given, 
and which is not alluded to in that article. Queen 
Christina was a notable patron of art, and had 
attached to her Court several portrait painters, 
one of whom was an Englishman. Compara- 
tively little has hitherto been known about 
this English painter, Alexander Cooper by 
name, and some recently discovered facts re- 
specting him may be found of interest. He was 
a brother of Samuel Cooper, the greatest minia- 
ture painter that the world has ever seen, whose 
name stands for the finest work that this parti- 
cularly English branch of art has ever achieved. 

Horace Walpole tells us that Alexander Cooper 
was the nephew of John Hoskins, and the 
brother of Samuel Cooper, and that he " went 
abroad, resided some time at Amsterdam, and 
at last entered into the service of Queen Chris- 
tina." He adds that he " painted landscapes 
in water-colours, as well as portraits," and re- 



fers to a landscape with the story of Actaeon and 
Diana, which was in his time at Burghley, but is 
now no longer to be seen there. The great con- 
noisseur had in his possession a miniature of a 
lady which was, he considered, the work of 
Alexander Cooper, and at the Strawberry Hill 
sale it was sold at two guineas. The only other 
reference that Walpole makes to Cooper is in 
connection with his note on Henry Hondius, the 
engraver, where he states that Hondius, in 1641, 
engraved a print of William, Prince of Orange, 
from a painting by Alexander Cooper. Beyond 
this information we have only a scrap or two 
from the compilers of biographical diction- 
aries. One tells us that the artist resided for a 
time in London with his brother ; another that 
he was born in 1605, and was therefore four years 
older than Samuel Cooper ; and a third that he 
left England when quite a young man, and never 
returned to this country. 

To this somewhat trivial collection of state- 
ments I have been able, to add considerably, 
as the result of investigation in State archives 
in Holland and Sweden ; and a narrative of a 
part of the artist's life, hitherto unknown, has 
now been revealed. The history of his career 
in Sweden commences in 1647, but we have a 
little information concerning his work in 1632 
and 1633. During those years Cooper was resi- 
dent at the Hague, and was painting a series of 
portraits for the King and Queen of Bohemia. 


These delightful little miniatures were the 
property of the Ex-Kaiser and set in a series 
of twelve circular discs, which fold one over 
the other, and form, when folded together, a 
little pile about a couple of inches high. The 
top and bottom discs bear the royal crown 
and monogram and the date, 1633, in white on a 
black ground, and at the back of each portrait, 
in the same coloured enamel, are the name and 
age of the person whose portrait is contained 
in the disc, and also the record when it was 
painted. The edges of all the discs are enamelled 
in the same way in a pattern of transverse lines 
in the Bohemian colours. The portraits of 
Frederick the Fifth and his wife are thus in- 
scribed : " Frederick R.B., aetat, 36, 16 
August, 1632," and " Elizabeth R.B., aetat, 
36, 9 August, 1632." That of the King was 
painted in the very year of his death, as on the 
28th of November, 1632, he died of an infectious 
disease he had contracted at Frankfort, which 
took him off at Mainz as he was on his way into 
Holland to his wife and children. 

The other portraits in the series represent the 
children of this amiable and accomplished royal 
pair, but three of them, those which should 
represent Prince Gustavus, Prince Edward, and 
Princess Sophia, are no longer in their frames. 
It is quite possible that they were never exe- 
cuted, but seems more likely that they have 
been lost. All the rest are, however, in their 


place, and are delightful portraits of serious, 
and thoughtful, children. On each is inscribed 
the age of the child, and the date on which the 
portrait was painted. The eldest son, Charles, 
was painted on the 22nd of December, 1632, 
when he was fourteen years old. He was the 
prince who was so enthusiastic a supporter 
of English drama, who quoted Shakespeare 
freely, and translated and acted in Ben Jonson's 
Sejanus. Prince Rupert " of the Rhine " was 
but twelve when his portrait was taken on 
the 2yth of December, 1632, and his brother 
Maurice, equally distinguished in the English 
civil wars, was a year younger, and was painted 
on the 6th January, 1632. Philip, who was 
killed in battle in Germany when twenty-three 
years of age, was painted on the 26th of October, 
1632, and was five years old at the time. Of 
the other four sons we have no portraits. The 
eldest, Frederick Henry, was never painted by 
Cooper, as he was drowned in 1629 ; the fifth son 
died in infancy ; and, as just stated, the por- 
traits of Edward and Gustavus are missing. 
The disc that should contain the one of Prince 
Edward is inscribed " Aetat. 8, 6th of October, 
1632," and that for Prince Gustavus " Aetat. 
I, 4th of January, 1633." 

There are three portraits in the series of the 
daughters Elizabeth, the friend of William 
Penn and of Descartes (who dedicated to her, 
his Principia), painted when she was thirteen, 


on the 26th of November, 1632 ; Louisa, 
afterwards Abbess of Maubuisson, who was 
painted at the age of ten, on the 8th of April, 
1632 ; and Henrietta, afterwards Princess of 
Transylvania, who was but six when her por- 
trait was painted on the yth of July, 1632. It 
would have been especially interesting to English- 
men to have seen the portrait of the youngest 
daughter, Sophia, as she was the ancestress of 
the Hanoverian sovereigns, and of the dynasty 
that now occupies the throne of England. The 
disc that should contain her portrait is inscribed, 
" Aetat 2, I4th October, 1633." 

These portraits tell us that Cooper was a 
frequent visitor at the house of the Queen 
of Bohemia. It is probable that shortly after 
that time he was in England, for there is a 
miniature in Holland by him representing James 
the Second as a young lad, which must have been 
painted either about 1647 or w ^ en James was 
on a visit to Scandinavia during Cooper's resi- 
dence in that country. In 1645 Cooper was 
in Holland, as Dr. van Riemsdyk discovered a 
note of a payment to him of 100 florins. Foster 
gives this information. It is probable that 
Cooper came to Stockholm in 1646, and in 1647 ^ s 
name appears as " Abraham Alexander Cooper, 
the Jew portrait painter." This entry gives us 
two fresh facts respecting the artist. Until it 
was discovered we were not aware of his first 
name, nor of his Jewish nationality ; but it is 

7 6 

clear that his talent prevented him from ever 
suffering by reason of his Semitic origin. By the 
5th of July he had become portrait painter to 
Queen Christina, and the orders to the Treasury 
appear in the archives, signed by the two trea- 
surers of the kingdom of Sweden, ordering pay- 
ment of his year's salary of 200 riksdalers. The 
payment appears to have been made on the 
loth of the same month, and the receipt in Ger- 
man is still preserved ; but it is interesting to 
notice that Cooper signs it " Alexander Cooper," 
having, apparently, dropped his first name. 

There was another portrait painter employed 
by Queen Christina at the same time, known as 
Dawid Beck, and in an entry dated the I5th of 
September, 1647, there is a note of a payment to 
be made to Cooper of 200 riksdalers on his 
present year's salary account, and to " Dawid 
Beck," of 150, the two men being grouped to- 
gether as her Majesty's portrait painters. There 
are other entries in succeeding account-books of 
similar payments, most of them being made 
" on account," and it is clear from them that 
the artist's allowance increased year by year, but 
that it was inconvenient to pay him his full sti- 
pend at one time. In 1650 he appears to have 
had an extra sum given to him as a signal mark of 
the favour of the Queen, the record being as 
follows : " October i6th. According to the letter 
of her Royal Majesty our gracious Queen, dated the 
1 5th of this month, orders are given Secretary 


Samuel Nilson, to pay portrait painter Beck 
300 riksdalers silver, which her Royal Majesty 
has graciously appointed him for gala dress at 
her happy coronation. Mutatis Mutandis, for 
Portrait Painter Cuper." 

From the date of this special payment in- 
formation as to Cooper's connection with the 
court has to be obtained from another set of 
archives. His stipend in future was not paid 
through the Treasury as it had been hitherto, but 
through the Court cash accounts, and this would 
seem to imply a somewhat closer connection 
between the portrait painter and the Queen. 
He received 1,200 dalers for his stipend in 1651, 
his companion Bock (or Beck) having 900 ; and 
about that time he appears to have painted a 
portrait of the Queen, mounted in a gold chain 
and locket, which was presented to " Adjutant- 
General Niclaes Desmel, of General Konigmarke's 
army." It appears likely that the artist painted 
several portraits of Queen Christina. Two 
certainly were painted for one of the royal 
princes, and it seems possible that the person 
who commissioned them was the nephew of 
the Queen, who shortly afterwards became King 
in her place. Amongst a bundle of papers 
marked with the date 1652 are two accounts 
sent in by Alexander Cooper to Grypsholm, and 
filed amongst the accounts of the royal house- 
hold. They may be roughly translated as 
follows : 


What I have done for your Royal Highness, 
my Gracious Prince and Lord. 
For five paintings in miniature, at 40 riks- 

dalers . . . . . . . . . . 200 

For crystal glasses to them . . . . 28 

For the case for the bracelet . . . . . . 5 

For the other bracelet, diamond and gold . . 70 
For wages to Mon. Duwall for work done by 

him . . . . . . . . 10 

For Mr. Munckhofen's painting in oil . . 40 


Your Royal Highness's obedient and faithful 

Alexander Cooper, painter for Her Majesty 
the Queen of Sweden. 

The other is as follows : 

Another for your Grace, Highness, and Duke, 
for miniature and oil works. 
One painting for your Highness and Duke, 

which Monsieur Taube received and 

took with him into France . . 40 

Two pictures of Her Majesty, which your 

Princely Grace received . . 80 

Still another of your Grace for Count Magnus 

which you had . . . , . . . . 40 
Still a small one for bracelet . . . . 40 
Still two more, made ready for you . . 80 


Still one of the Queen in oil, for your Princely 

Grace . . . . . . . . . . 20 

Alexander Cooper. 

The Count Magnus mentioned in the forego- 
ing account is evidently Count Magnus Gabriel 
de la Gardie, whose portrait Cooper painted, 
and to whom he wrote a very pathetic letter 
importuning the Count that he would give 
orders for the payment to the artist of his 
salary for 1651 and for half of 1652, which was 
due to him. In this letter, which is copied into 
the archives, Cooper states that he was, "through 
the good will of God, ill and confined to his bed, 
and in the greatest need of the money." 

Just before Queen Christina abdicated, Cooper 
was set to work to paint a portrait of the new 
King, Charles the Tenth, and there are many 
references in the minutes of the Treasury Board, 
to which volumes one has now to go for the 
quoted references to the artist's career, re- 
specting presents of gold chains, medals, and 
portraits that " ought to be given " on the 
occasion of the ceremonial to the various am- 
bassadors. He appears to have prepared at 
least three portraits of Charles the Tenth, two 
of which were set in diamond etuis, and one of 
them, we are told, was given to the French 
Ambassador in 1654. After King Charles had 
been formally placed upon the throne, Cooper 


received further commissions, having evidently 
entered the service of the new monarch. There 
is an original order, both signed and sealed by 
the King, preserved in the Treasury books, 
ordering Cooper to make three portraits of his 
Majesty, and dated the 3rd of July, 1655. All 
three appear to have been set in diamond etuis, 
and were given away as presents in the following 
January one to the Swedish Ambassador to 
Russia, Gustaff Bielke, another to Major-General 
Fleetwood, " who went to England," and the 
third to the Danish Ambassador, Major-General 
Wilhelm Drakenhelm. 

There are, ^so far as can at present be 
found, no further references to portraits of 
Charles the Tenth by Cooper in the Swedish 
archives, but there are a piteous series of 
applications for arrears of stipend due to 


him after Queen Christina's departure, for por- 
traits of the Queen and for other work. A 
receipt entirely in the handwriting of the artist 
is fastened on to one of the pages of the book 
of accounts, and is, so far as I am aware, the 
only scrap of paper in existence bearing the 
artist's own signature. (See illustration on 
previous page.) 

During all this time Cooper was resident in 
Stockholm, and in 1652 there is a reference to 
his address in the tax-books of the city. He is 
spoken of as " Mons. Cuper," who lived " in the 
house of the surgeon in the inner quarter of the 
city," but he was declared as being " fiee from 
all taxes," and it is therefore possible that, as a 
Court official, he was exempt from such charges or 
in receipt of a special favour from his Sovereign 
granting him this privilege. In 1656 he left 
Sw r eden for Denmark, and entered for a time the 
service of King Christian the Fourth, executing 
various commissions for the King ; but in 1657 
he was back again in Stockholm, and there he 
appears to have resided during the remaining 
three years of his life. He died in 1660, in the 
early part of the year, somewhere before March, 
although the record of his decease does not give 
the day nor the month of his death. It declares 
in pathetic language that he died " at his rooms 
in the inner quarter of the city, alone, while at 
work, and with his brush in his hand." It would 
therefore appear as though he was overtaken by 


some sudden illness while in pursuit of his pro- 
fessional work. 

This is not the place in which to enter into any 
criticism of his painting. It may, however, be 
stated that in many respects his miniatures 
resemble those of his far greater brother, 
Samuel Cooper, but they are stiffer, more 
formal in composition, and harder and rougher 
in technique, than are the works of Samuel, 
while the colour scheme is always somewhat 
weaker. For many years the works of the 
two brothers have been confused, but when 
once the striking divergence between them is 
realised it is impossible for a connoisseur to be 
deceived. Very few miniatures by Alexander 
Cooper are known, and those that exist are for 
the most part in Holland or in Sweden. There 
are beautiful signed works belonging to the Queen 
of Holland, and two in the Rijks Museum at 
Amsterdam. There is a portrait of Gustavus 
Adolphus, in the possession of the King of 
Sweden, which must have been painted before 
1632, as the King died in that year, and which 
was therefore done before we have any trace of 
Cooper being in Sweden. It is a signed portrait, 
and unmistakable in its characteristic. Another 
portrait of the same monarch is at Gothenburg, 
having been presented to the museum by the 
descendants of a general to whose ancestors it 
was given by the King himself, and with it in the 
same museum is the portrait of Count Magnus, 



to whom Cooper addressed the letter that has 
been referred to. Two works by the artist are 
in the Whitcombe Green collection ; there is one 
in the royal collection at Windsor, two or three 
are at Montagu House, two belong to Earl 
Beauchamp, and there is one at Welbeck Abbey. 

There is also a delightful miniature by him in 
the famous Wicanders collection in Sweden. It 
represents Gustav Otto Stenbock and came from 
the De la Gardie family. It is illustrated in 
colour in Dr. Asplund's sumptuous catalogue of 
his friend's collection. 

There are several of his portraits in Finland, 
and there is a series of pencil drawings attributed 
to him in a private collection in London, but 
beyond these works very few can be definitely 
attributed to this little-known artist. It is 
curious that not one of the portraits that he 
painted either of Queen Christina or of Charles 
the Tenth is now known, and, so far as we 
know, they do not exist in any of the important 
private collections in Sweden, most of which 
have come under my inspection. It is possible 
that they were, most of them, given away to 
ambassadors, and they probably still remain in 
the hands of their descendants, although it is 
very likely that the name of the artist responsi- 
ble for these portraits are not attached to them. 
None of the portraits of Queen Christina pre- 
served in England can be attributed to Alexander 
Cooper, so far as I can at this moment state. 


It would be interesting to surmise the reasons 
that attracted him to the Court of Sweden, and 
it is possible that the portrait he painted of 
Gustavus Adolphus may have come under the 
notice of Queen Christina and have led to his 
receiving an invitation to work for her. 

Alexander Cooper appears also to have 
painted miniatures in enamel and this informa- 
tion has only come to light within the past few 
years. Baron de Bildt, the Swedish minister in 
Rome, has discovered in Queen Christina's 
correspondence with Paolo Giordano, Orsini 
II., Duke of Bracciano, some allusions to gifts 
made by the Queen to the Duke, some of which 
were miniatures, and among them was a portrait 
of herself by Alexander Cooper in enamel sent 
in November, 1651. 

A second portrait this time in coronation robes 
followed, and she promised a copy in minia- 
ture by the same painter, of one of her Titians. 

We know so little of the career of the minia- 
ture painters of the seventeenth century that, 
when fresh information comes to light, it seems 
desirable that attention should be directed to it. 
Close investigation may perhaps some day 
result in some similar knowledge coming to light 
regarding the far greater brother, Samuel Cooper, 
so frequently mentioned by Pepys in his Diary, 
and to whose hand we owe the grandest 
examples of miniature painting that have ever 
been executed. 



IT is a rough scribbling book that has belonged 
to one of the greatest of England's worthies, the 
chiefest of her metaphysicians, and it contains, 
in brief form, information bearing upon his life 
and the customs of the age in which he lived. 

Its contents serve as a touchstone upon which 
to test already accepted history, and possibly 
may help either to support or to destroy cer- 
tain theories as to the life and times of Locke 
usually accepted as correct. 

At the time that Mr. Fox Bourne wrote his 
exhaustive and masterly biography of Locke, 
this book was unknown to him, and it was a 
peculiar pleasure to me to lay before Mr. Bourne 
some new information bearing upon the subject 
of his devoted study. 

To the great life of Locke already mentioned, 
and to much information given to me by its 
author, I was indebted for many notes for this 
article, and I expressed to Mr. Fox Bourne at 
the time, my warm gratitude for his considerate 
and thoughtful courtesy. 

The volume itself is very tiny, measuring 
only 3-J by 2 inches, is whole bound in brown 
o 85 


leather, with two small brass clasps, and bears 
upon its cover in embossed gilt letters the date 

It contains John Goldsmith's almanack for 
that year, and bears the following imprint : 
" London : Printed by Tho. Radcliffe and Tho. 
Daniel for the Company of Stationers, 1669." 
The almanack is followed by various quaint 
tables The Kings of England Moveable Feasts 
and Fasts Chronology of important events 
Terms Tides Discounts. A curious distance 
table showing the distance of various towns in 
each county from the City of London, a list of 
Fairs, and two strange astrological devices, 
with their explanations, complete the printed 
matter. Beyond this are some 38 pages of MSS. 
Inside the cover are four impressions in red 
sealing-wax of as many seals or rings. To one is 
attached the following note, written in ink : 
" This was Locke's seal with the arms of his 
family." The seal is that of a shield bearing the 
following arms : " Per fesse azure and or on a 
pale, countercharged 3 hawks with wings en- 
dorsed of the last." This achievement, I am 
informed at Heralds' College, was granted to 
Michael Locke on 5th July, 1-2 Philip and Mary. 
The remaining three impressions appear to be 
those of stones engraved with classical figure 
subjects, and were probably taken from rings. 

On page I of the inside cover is a note to this 
effect : 


" This pocket book belonged to Locke, and 
was given to H. L. Long by Lord Lovelace, and 
by him to me, C. E. Long, February, 1840." How 
the book came into the possession of Lord Love- 
lace I have not been able to ascertain, but as 
Peter King, nephew (maternally) of John Locke, 
was the first Lord King and ancestor of Lord 
Lovelace, who is eighth Baron King, I presume 
that the book was found amongst some family 
papers belonging to the great Chancellor, in 
whose early education at Leyden his uncle, 
Locke, took so great an interest. Lord Lovelace 
gave the book to his old friend, Henry Lawes 
Long, Esq., J.P., of Hampton Lodge, Surrey, 
an eminent man of letters of his day, and well 
known a few years since in all literary circles. 
He married Lady Catherine, youngest daughter 
of Horatio, second Earl of Orford (of the second 
creation), and died in 1868. After his decease, 
the book came into the possession of Miss Long, 
of Landthorne Hatch, Farnham, who placed it in 
my hands for examination, and permitted its 
exhibition to the Royal Society, to which learned 
body the book had a peculiar and special interest. 
It is curious to notice that Peter, First Lord 
King, Baron Ockham, in the county of Surrey, 
and Lord High Chancellor, was born in 1669, 
the very year of the date of our pocket 

The pages of the MSS. are all carefully num- 
bered, and the notes are made with system, 


cross references from one page to another occur- 
ring occasionally. 

Locke in 1669, was resident in the family of 
Lord Ashley, and appears to have been con- 
sidered family physician, tutor, and private 
friend, besides acting in some sort of honorary 
position of secretary. I am inclined to suggest, 
therefore, that many of the memoranda in the 
book relate to matters connected with Lord 
Ashley's household, in which he was probably 
acting for his employer and managing certain 
business arrangements. 

The first note reads : " Stove. Mr. Hunt, an 
Ironmonger upon Great Tower Hill," and may be 
only a memorandum of an address. 

Following it comes this further note : " T. 
Stringer, Jan. 9, I owe Mr. Stringer, upon 
account, 80, v(ide) an(no) (16) 68, page 55 ; paid 

Mr. T. Stringer was Lord Ashley's private 
secretary and steward as well as Locke's personal 
friend, and it is suggested that this entry, as well 
as several others of similar character which 
follow it, relate to matters of account between 
Stringer as steward and Locke, who kept accounts 
for Lord Ashley, and his son Anthony. They 
may be, on the contrary, notes of personal 
transaction, as Locke was upon terms of very 
close intimacy with Stringer, who was evidently 
a very valued servant. When Ashley became 
Chancellor, in 1672, Thomas Stringer was des- 


cribed as steward of the house. Locke used 
often to go and stay with Stringer at a country 
cottage which he possessed, and the great meta- 
physician was considerate to the family of his 
old friend, as the following notes .from his diary 
of 1679 w itt show : 

" Paid, is. 6d. for a drum for little T. Stringer." 
" Paid for playthings for little Stringer, 35." 
On page 12 are memoranda as to the purchase 
of certain books from a person of the name of 
Spencer. They are as follows : " Wilkins 
Charact." i 2s. ; " World in the Moone," 6d. ; 
" Transactions " (probably of the Royal Society, 
i 2s. ; " Cowley " (probably the poems of), 
143. ; " Almanack," 53. ; " Sir Paul Neile Syno- 
pisoghica," [sic] 43. (binding is. 8d.) ; " Friendly 
Debates," 33 9d. (binding 33. 6d.) ; " Stilling- 
fleet's Sermons," 53. 6d. ; " Duke on the Sacra- 
ments," 33. ; " Taylor's Ground," 2s. 6d. ; 
" Donne's Poems," 43. 6d. ; " Nipotisms," 35. ; 
ditto, 33. ; " Hobbes," i ; " Binding of Books," 
55. ; " Agricola," i6s. ; " Transactions " (pro- 
bably Royal Society again), 6s. 2d. ; " Friendly 
Debates," is. Qd. ; " Cartes Epistolae," 12s. ; 
"Evelyn's Architecture," 133. 4d. ; "The Gaz- 
ette, No. 225," 1 8s. ; ditto, 69, 2s. ; " Memoir of 
P. Guif," 53.; Reynolds, " De Voce," is.; 
"Three Discourses," is. 6d. ; Parker's "Dis- 
courses," 33. 6d. ; " Book on Witchcraft," is. ; 
"Calilai Opera," English; " Hobbe's Works," 
Latin ; " Josephi Laurentii Polymathia, folio> 


1666 " ; " Agricola, chirugia parva " ; a French 
author of " Architecture : comparing the ancient 
with the moderne " ; " Timaeus de fibulae ubi 
modus curandi," 410 " Hoffmann " ; " Anag- 
lypta " ; " Bona Alberga herb, Marcellus Cum- 
anus " ; " Galdus piscis " ; page 6. 

The last few items may probably be merely 
notes of books for future reference or purchase, 
and not actual purchases, as to them no price is 
appended ; particulars of size are occasionally 
given, and in one instance a reference to a page. 
It is not easy to identify many of the books in 
this list. Some few of them, however, are well 
known. " Characters " and " The World in the 
Moone " were written by Dr. John Wilkins, 
Bishop of Chester. The first is spoken of as a 
masterpiece of invention, and very chimerical, 
the second was written to prove that the moon was 
inhabited. Cowley, whose works Locke pro- 
bably refers to, was a well-known man, and one 
of the founders of the Royal Society. " Friendly 
Debates" was, I expect, one of the numerous 
controversial pamphlets of the day. " Stilling- 
fleet " was Edward, Bishop of Worcester, 1689- 
99, formerly Dean of St. Paul's, and one of the 
greatest pillars of the English Church in his day. 
" Dyke on the Sacraments " was written by 
Jeremiah Dyke, of Epping, a Puritan, and the 
father of another Puritan, Dr. Daniel Dyke, 
ejected from his living for his nonconformity. 
" Donne's Poems " evidently refer to the works 


of Dr. Donne, Dean of St. Paul's, 1573-1631, 
" Nipotisms " (sic) was a book written against 
the practice of Nephewism, a term under which 
the Popes of the time were charged by the Re- 
formers with concealing their illegitimate sons. 
" Hobbes " doubtless refers to the work of 
Thomas Hobbs of Malmesbury, 1588-1679, the 
author of " The Leviathan " and other works, on 
which were founded a system of philosophical 
government called Hobbism. " Agricola " I 
take as referring to the German reformer and 
scientist, 1492-1566, who was censured in his 
time for propagating antinomianism. " Cartes 
Epistolae " is most likely the letters of Rene 
Descartes (Cartesius), the French Philosopher, 
founder of a school that has even now many 
disciples. " Evelyn's Architecture " is the 
" Parallel of Architecture," translated by John 
Evelyn, the Diarist, and author of " Sylva." 
Of " Galileo " (spelt by Locke in an Italian 
phonetic form) I imagine the part of the work 
referred to would be the mathematical series, 
published by Thomas Salusbury in 1661. 

There is an entry in the diary further on relat- 
ing to Lord Ashley's wedding that is of peculiar 
interest. It is as follows : 

" A. Ashley, married 22nd Sept. to the Lady 
Dorothy Manners, and that day I was witness to 
the Deed sealed by the Earl of Rutland, Lord 
Roos, Lady Dorothy, Thomas Stringer, C. Dur- 
and, Alsop, and delivered to the Lord Ashley." 


It was in connection with this wedding that 
Locke is said to have acted the part of match- 

In the summer of 1669, he accompanied Lord 
Ashley, so Mr. Bourne mentioned in his " Life of 
Locke " already referred to, " on a visit to the 
Earl of Rutland at Belvoir Castle, and there 
opened negociations for the marriage of his pupil 
with the Earl's daughter Lady Dorothy, then about 
twenty years old, and these negociations he 
brought to a successful issue." The wedding took 
place at Belvoir, and in Lord Ashley's letter to 
Locke, consenting to the arrangement, the follow- 
ing pretty passage occurs : " My best blessing to 
my dear son, and desire him to present my most 
affectionate service to my Lady Dorothy, who 
has highly obliged me in all her carriage in this 
affair, having done all with so much sweetness 
and prudence as gives me the assurance of the 
greatest happiness in her both to myself and 
family " ; and then, continuing, Lord Ashley says 
to Locke : " You have in the greatest concerns of 
my life been so successively and prudently kind 
to me that it renders me eternally your most 
affectionate friend and servant." As Mr. Fox 
Bourne remarked, it seems a little out of place 
to find Locke as a matchmaker, but he appears 
to have done his work gracefully, and made, 
at any rate, a good selection. 

In connection with this wedding there are a 
few more entries in our little diary, all of interest. 


In August 5th Locke notes the receipt from Lord 
Ashley of 20, " for Belvoir," money, I expect, 
intended to defray the needful payments in con- 
nection with Anthony Ashley's visit in search of 
a wife. 

Below that is carefully recorded the payment 
away of this money, and it is a curious list of 
vails, or gratuities to servants at a great house in 
the seventeenth century : " The keeper, los. 6d. ; 
housekeeper, 1 ; cooke, i ; pantler (one who 
had charge of the bread and pantry), i ; 
butler i ; groom for the chair (sedan chair), 
l ; coachman, i ; groom, i ; two laundry 
maides, i ; under butler, los. ; under groome, 
los. ; gardiner, los. ; postilian, los. ; porter, 
IDS. ; physic, 133. 6d." The fees are well grad- 
uated, according to the position of their respective 
recipients, and were decidedly handsome in 
amount, according to the then value of money. 
The references to sedan chair and " postilian " 
bring up before one a picture of the vehicles of 
carriage of those days. 

The entries in the pocket book a little further 
on make it clear that Locke had in October 
returned to London and was assisting in a 
political transaction of no small importance. On 
October 2nd, he writes : " I was witness to 
Lord Ashley sealing a deed bearing date October, 
1669, between the Lord Keeper on one part, and 
Lord Ashley and Sir Henry Vernon on the other 
part." This deed, it is evident from date and 


parties, had reference to the establishment of 
the settlement of Carolina, in which, all earlier 
patents revoked, the district was given over by 
Charles II. to the Lord Chancellor (or Lord 
Keeper) Clarendon, and thence to eight Lord 
Proprietors, of which Lord Ashley was the most 
powerful and influential. Locke, in this settle- 
ment, took much interest, and, acting as secre- 
tary and chief adviser, was able, on behalf of 
the colony, to display his versatility of talent and 
the super-abundance of his energy. 

To Locke was entrusted the drafting of the 
scheme of Government and constitution, and no 
colony was ever started with a more elaborate 
scheme of political, social, and religious organisa- 
tion, the original draft of which, in a small 
vellum-covered volume of 75 pages, is still pre- 
served amongst the Shaftesbury muniments, 
Series VIIL, No. 3. 

Locke was an important and early member of 
the Royal Society. According to Birch's His- 
tory (1756, Vol. II., p. 323), he was proposed 
November 1 9th, 1668, and elected November 
23rd. His proposer was Sir Paul Neil, a friend 
both of Boyle and Lord Ashley, and one of the 
most energetic members of the Society from the 
time of its incorporation in 1663. 

Ten weeks after his election, i.e. on February 
nth, Locke was chosen one of a Special Com- 
mittee of eleven appointed for considering and 
directing experiments. On November 3rd, 1669, 


he was elected a member of the Council, and on 
the following day appears this entry in his diary: 

" Royal Society Paid to D. Colwall 2 33., 
all dues to the Royal Society to Michaelmas last, 
and received an acquittance of him." The 
amount is two guineas subscription and one 
shilling extra, which is probably for a diploma or 
letter of election. 

Daniel Colwall, in 1669, treasurer to the Royal 
Society, and in 1703, one of the founders of its 
Museum, lived in an old house in Guildford, once 
forming part of the house of the Dominican 
Friars in that town, then known as the Friary. 
In that house the unfortunate gentleman 
ended his life by a pistol shot, and the chair 
stained with his blood was long preserved in 
the Friary. The ghastly relic was afterwards 
acquired by George, Earl of Onslow, and pre- 
sented to the master's apartments in the hospital 
of the Blessed Trinity, founded in Guildford by 
George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury, and 
there it is still to be seen with the dark blood- 
mark upon it. Colwall was buried in the middle 
of the south aisle of St. Mary's Church, Guild- 
ford. It is a somewhat remarkable burying 
place for the body of a suicide, but I suppose 
that Colwall's important position, learning, and 
celebrity, gained for him the privilege usually 
denied to those who commit self-murder. 

Locke inherited from his father, in 1660, while 
yet a student at Oxford, certain property in 


Pensford, Somersetshire, and seven years later 
this estate appears to have been added to, pos- 
sibly by the decease of other relations. 

In the Shaftesbury papers is a list in Locke's 
writing of his tenants in 1667 and 1668, and 
giving their rentals and the expenses of the 
property. The aggregate rental appears to have 
been 73 6s. iod., which at the present time 
would be worth quite three times that amount. 

The property was managed for Locke by his 
father's younger brother, Peter, as Locke 
could but seldom visit his estate, and the pages 
of the diary headed " P. Locke " have evident 
reference to this estate. 

On page 4 is an entry of the receipt on Novem- 
ber 2, 1668, of the following rents due to Michael- 
mas, 1668 : 
Tom Anthony, |qr. . . . . . . 2 10 o 

Fr. Liance, in part . . . . ..500 

Jam(es) Atkins, in part . . . . I 80 

T. Jones . . . . . . i o o 

An Hoping 4 18 o 

Fr. Lyance, in part . . . . 7 3 3 
Robt. Haroll 981 

31 7 4 

The money Locke states he received by the 
hand of T. Stringer, who probably brought it 
from Pensford to London. The necessary charges 


on the estate were paid out by Robert Haroll, 
one of the tenants, and there are several lists in 
the diary of such charges. 

In 1666, Lord Ashley was very ill, and was 
desirous of trying the waters of a spring at Astrop 
near King's Sutton, in Northamptonshire, just 
then brought into notoriety by another of Locke's 
fellow students, Richard Lower. Lord Ashley 
was coming to Oxford for the meeting of Parlia- 
ment, and Thomas, who was attending him, 
wrote to his friend Locke from London begging 
that, as he could not at that time return to 
Oxford with his illustrious patient, Locke, would 
procure twelve bottles of water for Lord Ashley's 
consumption whilst in the city. 

The waters were ordered by Locke, but did 
not arrive in time to be in readiness for Lord 
Ashley's arrival ; and Locke, vexed at the 
occurrence, and desiring to excuse his friend, Dr. 
Thomas, from the blame of it, waited upon Lord 
Ashley. Introduced by Bennett, he made a 
most favourable impression upon the nobleman, 
who invited him to supper, and to drink the 
waters with him during his sojourn in Oxford, 
and in so trivial a manner originated their 

The intimate acquaintance so commenced in- 
creased day by day, led to considerable patronage 
of Locke by Lord Ashley, and, widening into a 
firm friendship, only ceased at death. 

Thomas seems, in 1669, to have asked Locke to 


procure certain things for him in town, and it is 
notes of these purchases that Locke made in his 
diary. The following are the important en- 
tries : 

"A crucible, i 33. 6d., velvet cap, 173. 6d. ; 
watch, fy IDS. od." Various purchases of miner- 
al, for which certain unusual chemical signs are 
used which are not clear. Also purchases of 
Crocus, or some other drug designated as " Croc. 
Gr." The total account came to 11 i6s. id. 


At the end of the book are certain odd memor- 

An address is recorded : 

" Tho. Hopkins, at the Black Horse, in Col- 
lege Green, Dublin." 

There is a memorandum, to enquire the price 
of some chemical for Thomas, and then, beyond 
that, another : 

" To send to Mr. Hughes from Burley to 
send all the greyhounds that were ordered to 
be sent to Mr. Ashley to Belvoir to my Lord 
Northumberland with the others, and to send 
back a letter to me of the receipt of the mare and 

This, I expect, was a note made for Lord 
Ashley of a letter Locke was desired to write. 
Notes follow of payments made to " Grooms at 
Burley," so that evidently Locke and his pupil 
visited Lord Exeter's great house, " by Stam- 
ford town." 

One more page is of interest. It is headed 
' Mr. Concers," and is an account for three years, 
1667, 1668, 1669, for the purchase of drugs pro- 
cured probably for him in London. The page is re- 
produced opposite ; and by the side of the account 
is this note. " Received July 26th, paid me in 
money and medicines the full of this bill, and 
all ended. J.L." 

Taking a general view of the whole book, the 
most noticeable feature to me in it is the extra- 
ordinary neatness, regularity, and precision of 


the entries, betokening a mind of great exactness 
and lines of thought kept under careful command 
and within definite rule. The entries of loans 
bear the words paid, or settled, or part paid, and 
a cross reference to the page and year of the 
diary recording the close of the transactions. 
Initials heading the pages ; his own initials against 
the totals of various accounts ; the constant use 
of references to and from other diaries, and 
backwards to preceding pages of the same book ; 
the use of a tiny piece of blotting paper, trans- 
ferred from page to page ; the diminutive size 
of the book, and the fineness of the writing, are 
all signs of this exceeding precision, and there- 
fore of interest. 

One entry of great clearness will illustrate the 
whole : 

" Mr. W. Spencer. 

" Received of him, 20 July, by the hand 
of his servant, 153., for the volume of 
plays I bought for him, and so all ended. 

Of so great a man as Locke it is always re- 
freshing to gather up fresh crumbs of informa- 

The book contains only scraps ; my work has 
been to gather them up, sort them, and identify 
the part of history to which they belong, and 
so to aid in a fuller understanding of the life and 
character of one of England's greatest and noblest 



IT has been said that since the times of the 
Medici, there has never been a virtuoso who can 
be compared with the late Mr. J. Pierpont Mor- 
gan, and that his career as collector and connois- 
seur can only fittingly be put side by side with 
those of the members of that great Italian family. 
Another writer has compared the Morgan col- 
lection of treasures with those which have been 
gathered together by the various members of the 
Rothschild family, and here we are perhaps 
on firmer ground. Not very much is known 
about the collections made by the Medici, but 
a good deal is known, and much more can be 
ascertained about the famous collections which 
have been brought together by different mem- 
bers of the great Frankfort banking family. It 
must not, however, be forgotten, that the 
Rothschilds are a family, that Mr. Morgan was 
a single individual, and that, however great 
have been the collections brought together by 
the various members of that very wealthy family 
of connoisseurs, yet we have to compare the 
work of a dozen persons with that of one collector. 
The more that we do so, the greater does the 

B 101 


marvel appear that any man, working alone on 
his own responsibility, and within the space 
of one lifetime, should have brought together 
into one place a collection which embraces the 
choicest examples from perhaps fifty different 
fields of craftmanship. It must be granted, 
of course, that one of the great sources of Mr. 
Morgan's success was determined by the avidity 
with which he purchased other collections, 
adding one to the other, and in many cases 
acquiring a group of objects which had been 
obtained by a succession of owners, had been 
weeded out in order that only the best should 
be retained ; and as a result, afforded a repre- 
sentative selection of fine things relative to a 
particular artist or epoch. Having the means 
to acquire several of these collections in their 
entirety, he was able to avail himself of the work 
of past generations of collectors, and present a 
complete view of a special subject impossible for 
any person who had started collecting within 
recent days. 

It may be noted in passing that, he gathered 
about him a group of experts to advise him 
in certain sections, keeping them for the most 
part, rigidly within their own special groove, and 
consulting them upon the questions which they 
understood better than other people, and, as he 
was able to pay the highest price for the finest 
things, he secured, as a rule, what he wanted. It 
was not worth while to plant upon him forgeries 


because when the prices paid were so large, the 
risk was proportionally serious, and one which no 
collector, and certainly no dealer, was prepared 
lightly to undertake. It was fittingly said by a 
recent writer that it was very difficult to know 
what Mr. Morgan collected, because it was 
almost impossible to think of any group of art 
objects which he did not collect. His reach was 
a wide one, his love of beauty extended into 
all classes of craftmanship, and his desire to have 
the very best in every way was overpowering. 
In one respect, he may fittingly be compared 
with the members of the great Jewish banking 
house already mentioned, because, like the 
Rothschilds, he was eager to help others who 
followed after him in the study of art, by pre- 
paring catalogues of what he himself possessed, 
and describing his various treasures with all 
the necessary technical detail. He went, how- 
ever, far beyond these great modern collectors, 
and it may perhaps be said that no collector 
has produced, for the benefit of posterity, a 
series of books which can be compared to the 
group of catalogues which Mr. Morgan caused 
to be compiled by various experts whom he 
gathered about him. 

Most of the volumes of this fine collection lie 
before me, and they constitute a library in them- 
selves. They vary in size and in proportion. 
Some are of enormous size, royal folio, and even 
larger than royal folio ever was, because the 


height of the great volumes on pictures is twenty- 
two inches and a half, and the royal folio ends 
at twenty inches. Others are octavo and 
quarto, while one certainly is a duodecimo, and 
the group, which comprises over fifty volumes, 
contains books which range between these sizes, 
and are illustrated more or less completely in 
different methods of book illustration. 

It would ill befit me to say anything whatever 
in these pages concerning the contents of the 
six volumes for which I was responsible, but I 
may perhaps be permitted, in glancing at the 
whole series, to say something about their illus- 
trations, more especially as these constitute one 
of the most important features of the six books 
in question. Illustrations always appealed to Mr. 
Morgan. He loved his treasures, and he liked 
to see adequate representations of them, and 
with regard to certain volumes of the catalogues, 
his own statement was that he wished the 
illustrations to be made as perfect as possible 
in order that, should anything happen to the 
original objects, should they be lost in the ocean, 
or should they perish by fire or earthquake, the 
illustrations would remain, and would be of 
sufficient accuracy and importance to enable 
students to work from them with almost as great 
an advantage as if the actual objects were before 
them. He went further, because, knowing that 
it would be impossible for European students to 
give close attention to many of the objects he 


possessed, when they had been transported to his 
distant home, he distributed these catalogues 
with a lavish hand through the great libraries 
of Europe, sending them to places in many in- 
stances so remote as Petrograd and Breslau, as 
Bucharest and Copenhagen, so that the students 
of Europe could go to the Universities and 
museums near at hand, and acquire the knowledge 
they desired. 

He also presented these sumptuous books to 
the colleges, libraries and museums of his own 
much beloved United States, and even Egypt 
profited by his generosity, India was not for- 
gotten, and South America certainly on one 
occasion received a remembrance of his bene- 
volence. Merely to glance at the titles of these 
catalogues shows how far-reaching were his in- 
terests. In ancient art to begin with, there are 
books upon Greek and Roman bronzes, antique 
glass, papyri, and upon a wonderful manuscript 
of the Gospels. 

The tiniest book in the series, the duodecimo 
of thirty-eight pages with twenty-one plates, 
issued in New York in 1908, is the work of Mr. 
C. H. W. Johns, and relates to the wonderful 
Ur-Engur bronze of the fourth century, an object 
of the greatest possible interest and importance. 
Issued in the same year, and by the same writer, 
there was a catalogue of the objects with cunei- 
form inscriptions which had been gathered to- 
gether, and which form part of this wonderful 


collection, and there were six volumes issued in 
1903 by Mr. Froehner, concerning the collection 
of antique glass, three relating to the Amherst 
collection of papyri, which Mr. Morgan bought 
en Hoc from Lord Amherst of Hackney ; 
and three more, the work of the scholarly 
Mr. Seymour de Ricci, which refer to the three- 
fold collection of antiquities, Gallo-Roman, 
Merovingian and Germanic, the great collector 
had acquired. 

The volume written by Mr. Hoskier on the 
beautiful early manuscript of the Gospels, of 
which Mr. Morgan was so justly proud, is a 
triumph of typography in its own particular 
way. When the Pope started the commission 
for the study of the Vulgate, there was a great 
desire expressed on the part of Cardinal Gasquet, 
then Head of the Commission, that facilities 
might be afforded him and his helpers of study- 
ing this precious early manuscript. Photographs 
of it accordingly were made, because Mr. Mor- 
gan was always ready to assist scholarly and 
scientific research, but when the photographs 
had been prepared, it seemed to him that it 
would be far better to go further, to produce 
a complete book on the manuscript, and to illus- 
trate in coloured facsimile its glorious purple and 
gold, and its uncial writing, in order that every 
aid should be afforded to the students who 
were working at the manuscript of the Vulgate, 
and that they might have before them, in the 


most perfect form, easily available, a work 
dealing with this manuscript, compiled by some- 
one who was facile prince-ps in all matters con- 
cerning it. This was the origin of Mr. Hoskier's 
work, and it exemplifies one interesting trait of 
Mr. Morgan's character. 

In a few instances, when he purchased his 
various collections, catalogues more or less com- 
plete were in existence. Sometimes they were 
in manuscript, others had to a certain extent 
been printed, and in one or two cases the cata- 
logue had been already prepared prior to Mr. 
Morgan's purchase of the collection and accom- 
panied it, but as a rule, even if this was the case, 
the Morgan hall-mark was given to the volume 
by its re-issue or by the splendid manner of its 
production. As an example of this, let me take 
the catalogue prepared by Mr. Bernard Franck, 
concerning his collection of eighteenth century 
ivory tablets in wonderful gold and enamel 
cases, known in France as Garnets de bal. Of 
this catalogue, only fifty examples were printed, 
and the book in consequence is a rare one. 
Mr. Franck had given away one or two copies 
of the catalogue before he sold the collection. 
Mr. Morgan acquired all the remaining copies 
with the collection and distributed them with 
the utmost care, but before he did so, he added 
to the catalogue. The title-page tells us that it 
described 124 Garnets de bal du huitieme sihle, 
and that Mr. Franck had been forming the 


collection between 1875 an( ^ 1902, and had 
obtained examples of every variety with which 
he was acquainted, but when we turn to 
the end of the book, we find not only 124 
illustrated, but 130, because Mr. Morgan ac- 
quired six superb examples, entirely different 
from any that were mentioned in Mr. Franck's 
catalogue, and, as he purchased them almost at 
the same time as he bought the Franck collection, 
he decided to have these others illustrated at 
the end of the book. The pages illustrating 
these were printed in the same type as all the 
other part of the book, although they were 
printed in England, and the rest of the book in 
France ; but an exact replica of the type used in 
France was made for these extra pages, the 
illustrations were printed in exactly the same 
way as all Mr. Franck's illustrations, the extra 
leaves were of the same paper, and the whole 
thing was so bound up jthat, unless one knew 
the story of the addition to the volume, one could 
only tell that these pages had been added by the 
very slight difference in the colour of the gilding 
on the edges, and by the fact that the new 
pages are somewhat stouter, and have not the 
curve of the earlier ones. 

In another instance, the catalogue which had 
already been commenced by an expert of long 
experience, was completed after his death by 
another and full tribute was paid to each of the 
workers, one of whom had cojomenced his task 


long before Mr. Morgan acquired the collection 
in question. One writer only just lived long 
enough to see his own sumptuous catalogue is- 
sued. Few volumes are more beautiful in the 
whole range of this series than the one prepared 
by the Count Xavier de Chavagnac, dealing with 
the French porcelain, and notably with that of 
Sevres. Count de Chavagnac was the greatest 
authority on his subject, and he took infinite 
pains in preparing his sumptuous catalogue to 
give the most perfect descriptions of the objects 
in question, to obtain from the archives of the 
Royal factory full information respecting their 
dates, the artists who decorated them, and their 
history, so as to make the book one of standard 
reference where French porcelain, either of 
Sevres, Chantilly, St. Cloud, or Vincennes was 

Its illustrations are marvels of French colour 
printing. Nothing better was ever produced by 
a mechanical process. A special frontispiece 
was engraved, and a special cul-de-lampe, and 
these in accordance with French fashion, were 
printed in two states, one on the finest of thin 
vellum, before letters, and one after letters on 
pa-pier Japan. The whole book was produced 
on paper specially made for the purpose, at the 
National Printing Office of France, with the 
authorisation of the Minister of Justice, and 
only 150 copies were printed, of which twenty- 
five special ones were bound in morocco, and 


No. 16 of this extraordinary issue is in my 

The Count only lived long enough to see his 
precious book through the press, and to handle 
the first copy of it, and he was never able to 
hear the glowing eulogies which its owners pro- 
nounced upon the book to which he had devoted 
so many years of his life. So suddenly had he 
died, that it was not known for certain in Paris 
whether the book was actually complete, and 
more than one scholar in Europe was approached 
with a view to completing the work, if it was left 
unfinished, as had been surmised. 

Some knowledge of the difficulty in producing 
an illustrated book enables a real bibliographer 
to appreciate to the fullest extent the three fine 
volumes which comprise the catalogue of manu- 
scripts and early printed books, forming part of 
Mr. Morgan's library, and issued in 1907. These 
volumes are the work of that well-known au- 
thority, Mr. Alfred J. Pollard, of the British 
Museum, and they have one feature which dis- 
tinguishes them from every other catalogue of 
the kind. I speak under correction, but I have 
the strongest possible belief that they are the 
only books of their kind where the illustrations 
or facsimiles appear actually facing or side by 
side with the descriptions of the books to which 
they refer. In many books of this sort, it has 
been found impossible to have the illustrations 
adjacent to the descriptions. In these Morgan 


volumes it was determined that no difficulty 
should prevent this, and infinite trouble was 
taken in arranging and in altering and planning 
the description of the books, so that, side by side 
with the descriptions, and facing them on the next 
page, should occur such illustrations of the books 
as the volume contained. No one who has not 
been accustomed to such work can understand 
the difficulty entailed by this task, but it was 
triumphantly carried out by its learned author, 
and as a general result, the volumes are far 
more useful for the purpose of reference than 
any other similar books of the same character 
with which I am acquainted. 

Here again, and in an even more sumptuous 
catalogue of the manuscripts prepared by Dr. 
James, no pains were spared by way of illustra- 
tion. The best of colour processes were adopted, 
the best of facsimile work used in the repro- 
ductions of the colour-plates, and in these four 
books, and the equally sumptuous volume on 
the Toovey collection of book-bindings, the illus- 
trations are as fine as any mechanical process 
could possibly ensure. 

When Mr. Morgan came to deal with his pictures 
he wanted to have something rather different 
in his catalogue from what had ever been pro- 
duced, and suggested that the frames in which 
the pictures were exhibited should be included 
in the photogravures. The result has been 
particularly satisfactory. The pictures look far 


better in their frames, than if they had been re- 
presented without them. The book is, of 
course, in its three huge volumes, somewhat in- 
convenient to handle, on account of the large 
size of the plates, but these are wonderfully 
printed, and give a better view of the pictures 
to which they refer than is perhaps the case in 
any other similar catalogue. In these three great 
folio volumes, the work of Mr. William Roberts, 
the pictures are represented by eighty-nine photo- 
gravure plates, and by coloured frontispieces. 
Mr. Humphry Ward wrote the introduction to 
each volume, and the biographical and descriptive 
notes which Mr. Roberts added to his account 
of each picture have great importance, and 
serve to give all future students absolute and 
authoritative data upon which to base their 

It should be added that for convenience Mr. 
Morgan had all the letterpress contained in 
these three huge volumes reprinted in an 8vo 
volume, and bound in green morocco. This 
book was privately printed like the other and 
presented to various scholars and Libraries. 

Similarly important, and almost as huge in 
size, are the three volumes on the collections of 
bronzes. Dr. Bode was responsible for the first 
two volumes dealing with the bronzes of the 
Renaissance, and Sir Cecil Harcourt Smith, of 
the Victoria and Albert Museum, for the last 
which deals with Greek and Roman bronzes. 


To the final volume, there is a pathetic interest 
attached, because the book has only been issued 
since the decease of the great collector, and he 
himself possessed in his library only the incom- 
plete and advance copy of the illustrations, and 
a small part of the letter-press. Those of us to 
whom Mr. Morgan promised the book, did not 
receive it till nearly a year after his death, and 
it is sad to reflect on the fact that this great 
volume, superbly illustrated with its long series 
of coloured photogravures, was never in its 
complete setting in the hands of the connoisseur 
who commissioned its production. 

The silver plate, a magnificent collection, was 
catalogued by Mr. E. A. Jones in two great 
books, one dealing exclusively with the Gutmann 
collection of German plate, and the other with 
all the rest. These volumes are splendidly 
illustrated by gravure plates. 

The carved woodwork and metal work and 
other treasures of the Hoentschel collection 
were dealt with by Messrs. Perate and Briere 
in 1908, in four volumes with 268 gravure plates 
and some colour plates. 

The Chinese porcelains comprise three volumes, 
the two issued in 1904 and 1911, the work of 
Mr. Morgan's old and valued friend, Mr. W. M. 
Laffan, and the one which was issued in 1907, 
partly by Mr. Bushell, and partly by Mr. 
Laffan, and here again we have to record the 
fact that Mr. Laffan did not live long enough to 


be able to complete, all the work in connection 
with it to which he had set his hand. 

Mr. Laffan knew his subject exceedingly 
well, few men knew it better, and the volumes 
for which he was responsible are important con- 
tributions to the history of the porcelain of the 
great Eastern Kingdom. 

Another very beautiful book is the one 
on the Fairfax Murray Old Master drawings, 
two volumes, delightfully illustrated in fac- 

Then there are catalogues by Molinier of the 
Oppenheim collection and the Mannheim col- 
lection, the great treasures of which Mr. Morgan 

There is also the little catalogue by Mr. Sey- 
mour de Ricci of the tapestries, and a smaller 
catalogue of these tapestries in French, and 
there is yet to appear the final work by the same 
author on this series of Renaissance tapestries, 
unequalled in their importance by any other 
collection, because the work commenced by 
Mr. de Ricci before Mr. Morgan's death was 
not completed by him until after that event 
had taken place. 

Dealing with a somewhat abstruse subject 
was the catalogue compiled by Mr. Kondakoff 
on the Byzantine enamels, a very scholarly 
work, which will always be referred to by 
students who wish to give special attention to 
this recondite and somewhat obscure field of art, 


and also one by Mr. Walters on certain special 
Enamels of the same period. 

As regards the miniatures, the jewels, the 
carved woodwork and rock crystal, and above 
all, the watches, mechanical process was not 
accepted. Mr. Morgan was not satisfied that 
any such process could adequately represent 
these special treasures, and in the end artists 
were employed for the purpose of painting the 
coloured reproductions, were trained and taught 
how the work was to be done, and set to work 
to copy, with absolute fidelity, the original 
objects set before them, so that in the two 
editions-de-luxe of these six catalogues those 
printed on real vellum and on Japanese vellum, 
there are hand-coloured illustrations, rivalling 
in accuracy the originals, and in the case of 
objects in metal, produced in gold and silver 
leaf, engraved, tooled and decorated, so that 
they should facsimile the actual object which 
they represented. 

It was only in these six volumes that Mr. 
Morgan decided to employ hand-work, and the 
result gave him great satisfaction. 

Certain copies of the book for more general 
circulation were produced without the hand- 
coloured illustrations, with a large number of 
photogravure plates, but the sumptuous ones 
were reserved for presentation to various 
monarchs in Europe, members of his own family 
and the great museums of the world. 


These books are thick quarto volumes, the 
sumptuous issue fastened with clasps and with 
silver mounts, and each book set in its own slip- 

A curious little catalogue not often to be met 
with and of rarity, because so few copies were 
printed concerned his collections of rare wines 
and vintages of the most famous years, and of 
the highest importance for quality, bouquet and 

Here are described famous wines known only 
to a few connoisseurs, in many instances to be 
found only in Mr. Morgan's cellars, parcels 
strictly limited in quantity all that could be 
obtained representing the most famous vineyards 
of Europe. 

There were no such Madeiras or Tokays, no 
such old Claret in Magnums, no such Sherries 
in Demijohns, and certainly no such eighteenth 
century Cognacs and Armagnacs to be found 
as this little book records, and hardly can any 
cellar compete with a list so carefully selected 
and so wonderfully complete. 

The whole series of catalogues gathered up to- 
gether forms an imposing monument to the 
greatest collector who has ever lived, and one 
which will endure as long as there are any students 
of art, who desire at first hand to obtain authori- 
tative information upon the subjects of special 
interest to them. 



I WONDER how many of those who are in the 
habit of constantly using Bradshaw's Railway 
Guide have ever noticed that the date on each 
of its issues is given, not in ordinary form, but in 
the manner especially adopted by the Quakers, 
so that in lieu of saying the 2Oth of June, the 
date is given as the 2oth of Sixth Month, and 
that in the case of the monthly issue, the name 
of the month does not appear, but the time-table 
bears the figures of the 4th or 5th or 6th Month, 
as the case may be. I wonder also how many 
have ever examined the first of the editions of this 
famous book, or thought that there were first 
editions of it, and how surprised they would be 
if they compared the present portly volume with 
the tiny thin book which was really the first 
issue of Bradshaw's Railway Guide. This very 
first edition of all was a little book issued at 
6d. on the igth day of the Tenth Month in 1839, 
and what has been called the second edition 
was issued on the 25th of the same month in the 
same year. In between these two books, there 
appears to have been issued another for the little 
volume, printed on the 25th of the month, is 
i 117 


called No. 3, but of No. 2, only a single copy is 
known still to remain. It has just been discovered 
in the possession of Bernard Quaritch, Limited. 
It was regarded as of such slight importance that 
copies were not kept, and no public or private 
library has at present, so far as I know, been 
able to produce any copy of Bradshaw's Railway 
Time-Tables bearing the statement that it was 
No. 2. As a matter of fact, in all probability, 
the two books to which I have just referred were 
not first and second editions, because the rail- 
way time-tables, issued by George Bradshaw, were 
in two forms, one for the Liverpool and Manchester 
districts, and one for London and Birming- 
ham districts, and, to a certain extent, the two 
overlapped one another. One was issued at 
6d. the other at a shilling. It is not easy to 
account for the difference in price, because 
there was very little between the sizes of the 
two volumes, although certainly the shilling one 
was slightly the stouter of the two, but not suffi- 
ciently so to account for the doubling of the 
price. It was probably ascertained, immediately 
after the issue of the first book, that 6d. was not 
a sufficiently high price for it, and other issues 
were made is. The first little book is bound in 
green cloth, is 4! by 6 inches, and is lettered in 
gold on the side " Bradshaw's Railway Com- 
panion." The other is bound in purple cloth, 
4$ inches by 3^, and it has on the cloth an 
attached label in which is lettered in green relief 


on gold, " Bradshaw's Railway Time-Tables, 
price one shilling." 

Who, we might ask, was the man whose 
name has passed into a household word, the 
issuer of this first little railway time-table, 
whose name it still bears ? He was George 
Bradshaw, a Quaker, who lived in Manchester 
in 1835, and followed the calling of an engraver 
of maps and plans of cities. He was the son 
of Thomas Bradshaw and his wife Mary Rogers, 
and was born near Salford on the 29th of 
July, 1801. His parents were of humble origin, 
but they determined to give their son a good 
education, and after being instructed for a 
while by a Mr. Coward, a Swedenborgian minister, 
to whose Church his parents were attached, the 
boy was sent to school at Overton, a school kept 
by Mr. Scott. Later on, he was apprenticed to 
an engraver in Manchester, named Beale. In 
1820, his parents went to Ireland, and George 
Bradshaw appears to have accompanied them, 
and there commenced work on his own account, 
as an engraver, but the business was not success- 
ful, and he returned to Manchester. Here he 
set to work at land surveying and the pro- 
duction of various maps, the first of which 
was of Lancashire, and that one was followed 
by maps of the canals of Lancashire and York- 
shire, which a recent writer has described as in 
all probability " still the most complete record 
of our inland navigation." 


By this time, George Bradshaw had left the 
Swedenborgians, to become a member of the 
Society of Friends, and was active in the cause of 
peace, in working in schools for poor children, 
especially on Sundays, and was also associated 
with a very well-known temperance advocate 
of the day, Elihu Burritt.* In 1839 Bradshaw 
married Martha Derbyshire, also a member 
of the Society of Friends, and it was then that 
he commenced to issue his time-table, and is 
believed to have done so, in the first place, 
with a view to illustrating his beautiful work 
as a map engraver. He tells us, in the very 
first issue, that the necessity for the book 
was so obvious, to need no apology, that he 
published it by the assistance of the several 
railway companies, and that therefore the in- 
formation might be depended upon as being 
correct and authentic, and he himself vouches 
for the accuracy of the maps and plans with 
which it was adorned. He announced that the 
next issue of the book would be on the 1st of 
First Month, 1840. There were three editions 
of the first book. The first, dated 19.10.39, con- 
tained however only the Liverpool, Manchester 
and Northern Railways, the second dated 29.10.39 
the Southern Railways, the third volume was 
an amalgamated edition of the Northern and 
Southern tables. The price was raised then to a 

* When a boy I heard this man give a temperance address at 
the Crystal Palace. 


shilling, and the figure 3 appears on the right 
corner of the title. All three books were pub- 
lished concurrently for a year or two. Their popu- 
larity decreased as the Monthly Guide became 
established, and the Companion died about 1848. 
In 1841 he started another, which is really the 
more direct progenitor of the time-table of the 
present day, and which bears the same title 
" Bradshaw's Guide." He relinquished the 
phrase " Railway Time-Table " and " Railway 
Companion " which he had adopted in the first 
two little books, did not attempt any binding 
in cloth, or the issue of elaborate maps, but 
brought out boldly on the ist of 1 2th Month, 
1841, what he simply called " Bradshaw's 
Guide " and which consisted of thirty-two pages 
of print, at once the cheapest and most complete 
book that had been published on the subject. 
A little later on, in 1843, he came back again to 
his old love of maps, and introduced into it ten 
coloured maps, and some plans, and from this 
guide-book descend in steady progress, the pre- 
sent books so familiar to all of us. I need not 
pursue the long story of the changes, in fact it is 
not possible for me to do so, because no one quite 
understands the evolution of this particular 
book, inasmuch as the September issue of 1844 
bore the number of 146, as though it had been 
the 1 46th issue, and yet the evidence is quite 
contradictory, as the previous number, so far as 
can be traced at present, was No. 40. What there 


was in between, or what accounts for this curious 
jump in figures, no one can tell. The story 
has never been elaborated from a bibliographical 
point of view, and perhaps it is hardly worth the 
while of any bibliographer to give it the requisite 
attention, but the three little books issued in 
1839, will bear some careful consideration, and 
there are many curious features about them 
which are of interest in the present day. One 
thing that at once strikes the observer is the 
extreme beauty of the maps and plans. They 
are very small, and not easy to use on account 
of their abundance of detail, but they are 
marvellously accurate and extraordinarily well 
engraved, evidence that Bradshaw, even in 
his earliest days, was desirous of giving the 
best that he could to his customers. Then, 
when we begin to examine the letterpress, there 
are many strange references. The once accepted 
tradition that no official of a railway company is 
to receive a tip, existed even in those early days. 
We find amongst the important notes that " no 
gratuity, under any circumstances, is allowed to 
be taken by any servant of the company." It 
is also quite evident that the trains went slowly 
and that the people who travelled by them 
were restless, and inclined to move about at the 
various stations, because we are told that, " to 
guard against accidents and delay, it is especially 
requested that passengers will not leave their 
seats at any stations except on the way between 


London and Birmingham at Wolverton, where 
ten minutes is allowed for refreshments." In 
these early days, the seats were numbered, 
the number appeared on the ticket, and a pas- 
senger might claim the seat corresponding to 
his ticket, and when not numbered, he might 
take any seat not previously occupied. It is 
curious, however, to notice that the passenger 
was not always provided with a seat inside the 
carriage, and that there were outside seats, for 
which a lower scale of fares was charged. He 
could, if he preferred, ride in his own carriage, 
and that carriage could be put on to the railway. 
In that case, he did not have to pay first-class, 
but " gentlemen riding in their own carnages 
are charged second-class fare, and servants and 
grooms riding with the horses, fourteen shillings 
for the fare between Birmingham and Man- 
chester." The railway officials were just as par- 
ticular about their tickets then as they are now, 
perhaps even more so. We read " The check 
ticket given to the passenger on the payment of 
his fare will be required from him on leaving the 
coach, or at the station next before his arrival at 
London or Birmingham, and if not then presented 
he will be liable to have the fare again de- 
manded." There were no smoking carriages, 
and we read in the time-table, " No smoking is 
allowed at the station, nor in the Company's 
carriages." The regulation about children is 
rather curiously worded. We are told that 


" infants in arms, if unable to walk," are free 
of charge, and one immediately begins to wonder 
as to what class of infant in arms would be able 
to walk ! It was evidently a great favour to the 
public that waiting-rooms should be provided, 
and attention was particularly drawn to the fact 
that there was an attendant in charge, the matter 
being mentioned twice in one sentence. " At 
the Wolverton Central Station, a female is in 
attendance, where refreshments may be obtained 
at the Birmingham Station, refreshments are 
provided, and waiting-rooms with female atten- 

The second-class carriages were open at the 
side, without lining, cushions, or divisions in the 
compartment, but the second-class carriages that 
were used on the night mail train were closed, 
and entirely protected from weather. On that 
train it was mentioned that " each carriage has 
a small roof lamp." 

With regard to luggage " passengers," we 
read, " are especially recommended to have 
their names and addresses or destination legibly 
written on their luggage, when it will be placed 
on the top of the coach in which they ride, unless 
it be in a bag or other small package, so small as 
may be conveniently taken into the carriage, 
and placed under the seat opposite to that they 
occupy." I believe I am correct in stating that 
at the present day no passenger has the right to 
place his luggage in the rack over his own head 


in the railway carriage. The place where he 
should put it is in the rack opposite, the idea 
being that he can keep his eye upon it, and it will 
be seen that this was the case in the early days of 
railway travelling, as the small packages were 
then placed opposite to the passengers, although 
they were under the seats, and not above them. 

There are many examples similar to these 
which prove how conservative we have been in 
England in the matter of railway regulations. 
When they have once been planned and agreed 
upon, they remain, and it takes almost an earth- 
quake to alter them. Allusion has already 
been made to the old-time fiction that no ser- 
vant of a railway company is allowed to accept 
a gratuity, and the present custom, which has 
singularly little to recommend it, and which 
states that a ticket, once issued, cannot be 
transferred to anyone else, and cannot be used 
upon any other day than the one whose date it 
bears, is another survival of the early regulations. 
The little time-table before me states that " A 
passenger, having once paid his fare, and taken 
out a ticket, may go by any of the trains that 
day, but the ticket will not be availale on the 
following day, unless in any very special in- 

An odd feature appears with regard to children's 
fares. The book states that " children under 
seven years of age for first-class carriages are 
charged second-class price, but for second- 


class carriages are charged third-class price." 
Probably the result was, however, very much 
what it is in the present day, when the child's 
fare is half-price for an adult. 

The division of the trains was, of course, 
different from what it is now, as in the time-table 
we read of first-class and second-class trains, as 
well as quick trains, mail trains and mixed trains, 
these phrases referring in some cases to the speed, 
and in other cases to whether the carnages are of 
all classes, or some are open and some closed. The 
table of trains is of course a very short one, and 
the little books only relate to certain districts, the 
green book giving the trains from Liverpool to 
Manchester, from Manchester to Littleborough 
and back, from York to Leeds and Selby and 
back, from Preston to Liverpool and Manchester 
and back, and from Manchester to Bolton and 
back, together with the fares and hackney coach 
fares from Lime Street Station, Liverpool, and 
various places in the city. 

The second book gives the fares from London 
to Birmingham and back, from London to 
Twyford and back, from Birmingham to Liverpool 
and Manchester and back, from Liverpool to 
Manchester and back, and from Newcastle to 
Carlisle, and also, in a very much abbreviated 
form, the trains for Birmingham and Derby, 
Manchester and Leeds, Manchester, Bolton and 
Bury, Nottingham and Derby, Sheffield and 
Rotherham, London and Twyford. In addition 


to this, we have, in the second book, the 
hackney coach fares from Euston Station to 
various places in London, divided into two 
groups, either for a coach or for a cab, in the 
same sort of table as for the various distances in 

A little later, a volume was issued which con- 
tained the railways from London to Brighton, 
but the very idea of travelling with a season 
ticket seemed to be inconceivable, for after 
announcing that only first-class trains stopped at 
first-class stations, a phrase which is not very 
easy to understand, and then having described 
the trains as containing their best carriages 
" glass coaches," it went on to state that an 
annual subscription ticket from London to 
Brighton and back would cost one hundred 
pounds ! " 

It is sometimes difficult for us to understand 
that so short a time has elapsed since the first 
railways were introduced into England. Very 
rapid progress has been made in all matters 
connected with them, yet, in the midst of all 
this, there occur well-defined rules which were 
laid down at first, and have not been altered to 
the least extent. 

George Bradshaw continued to issue his guide 
up to the time of his death, and was the founder 
of the firm which is still responsible for this 
very useful book. He himself, having taken 
great interest in Peace Conferences, attending 


various important meetings in Frankfort, and 
various places abroad, began to lend a helping 
hand to the ocean penny postage movement, 
and was present at a Conference held in its 
support in Manchester, in 1853. 

He was at that time keenly interested in Con- 
tinental Bradshaws, which seemed to him to offer 
a wider sphere of circulation than the English 
one, and, anxious to gather up information him- 
self on the spot concerning the Continental rail- 
ways, went off to Norway, about the railways 
of which country little was known at that 
time. Cholera was raging in Christiania, and 
three days after Bradshaw's arrival in that 
place, he died from this fatal malady, when he 
was but fifty-three years of age but his name 
will probably endure till the last train has 
finished running. 

N.B. While this chapter was in print, I found out that 
my friend Mr. E. H. Dring was preparing to study the 
bibliography of Bradshaw, and I am greatly indebted to him 
for some new information which I have incorporated on 
pages 1 20 and 121. He is studying the whole subject, aided 
by several unique works in his possession, and he will, I hope, 
in due course produce a finished bibliographical treatise on 
these interesting and very rare little books. 



THERE is a fascination about tiny books, and 
this seems to be intensified when they are short 
and square and squat " dumpy twelves " as 
some writer has styled them. There is also of 
course an especial charm about privately printed 
volumes, books that the ordinary purchaser can- 
not buy from the booksellers, and which are 
only issued for the members of a society. Both 
these elements of attraction are united in the 
privately printed Opuscula of the Sette of Odd 
Volumes. The books are difficult to get. Very 
few people have a complete series, because one 
of the books is so rare that it is almost 
impossible to purchase a copy of it. I have 
been collecting these dainty little volumes for 
a long time, and I think that I am nearer to per- 
fection in my series of Odd Volumes than any 
other member of Ye Sette can claim to be, and 
yet one never can tell. It is only a few months 
since that there was sold to a member of the 
Society in one of the auction rooms in London 
two copies of one of the volumes (No. 7), 
printed on large paper, and each differing from 



the other, both in the size of the paper, and in 
bibliographical peculiarities. No one had known 
that there were more than 133 copies of that 
book printed, and no one had guessed that out 
of that 133 there were any on large paper. Per- 
chance these were proofs, or perhaps copies 
printed for the author himself, but they had 
never been heard of before, and such a circum- 
stance may, of course, happen again. 

Ye Sette of Odd Volumes claims to have 
existed from time immemorial. As a matter of 
fact, the " time immemorial " goes back to 
about 1875, but it has managed to do a good 
deal of work in its time, and only a little while 
ago held its 37oth dinner. 

The first of its privately printed books was 
issued in 1880, and was called " B.Q." a 
biographical and bibliographical fragment re- 
lating to its first President, the well-known and 
greatly respected Bernard Quaritch. Since then 
the little series has gone on extending, and the 
last volume that was issued to the members of 
the Sette was numbered 73. 

The books deal with all kinds of subjects. They 
are, for the most part, papers or essays that were 
read by members of the Sette at the meetings, 
usually after dinner, and as the persons forming 
the Sette have generally been selected because 
they knew more about some one special subject 
than anyone else, so the papers and essays con- 
tain something definite in the way of information 


on the author's own subject, that is not to be 
found elsewhere. There are papers on " Intaglio 
Engraving," on " Caligraphy," " Blue and 
White China," " Neglected Frescoes in Northern 
Italy," "Automata," "The Royal Society," 
" The Sweating Sickness," " London Anti- 
quities," " University Magazines," " Odd Num- 
bers," " Ships," " Queen Anne Music," " Frost 
Fairs on the Thames," " Liturgical Literature," 
" Children's Books," " Coloured Books," " Pla- 
giarism," " Magic Mirrors," " Organ Music," 
"Arabs," "Scottish Witchcraft Trials," and 
many other subjects, and they are all printed 
with the same characteristics, and all about the 
same size, not absolutely regular on the book- 
shelf, because some are rather taller than others, 
some more fat, and others a trifle more dumpy, 
but there they are, a charming and a precious 
little set of books. 

The rarest of all is the first edition of a little 
pamphlet by Professor York Powell, called 
" Some words on Allegory in England." So 
rare is this pamphlet that a second edition 
of it, forming Opusculum 37, was issued after 
the death of the author, and the opportunity 
was taken of including in this reissue some 
charming reminiscences of York Powell, a table 
of the chief events in his life, and some general 
information about the precious little pamphlet 
which constitutes the rara avis which all collectors 
of Odd Volumes are anxious to acquire. 


The original first edition was issued in Sep- 
tember, 1895, and less than fifty copies were 
sent out to the members. It was only a thin 
square pamphlet of twenty-five pages, in a rough 
brown paper cover, and it was distributed by the 
writer with his good wishes. It was not issued 
according to the inflexible laws which govern 
Ye Sette of Odd Volumes, it offended against 
all the canons of Ye Sette with regard to its 
publications, and was really an efflorescence, 
and would have become a source of serious 
trouble to the conscientious bibliographer and 
collector. The Librarian of Ye Sette, Brother 
Quaritch, recognising the value of the paper, 
but shocked at its unorthodox vesture, and 
unwilling to let it wander away without a label, 
or anything to mark it as an Opusculum, caused 
to be printed and issued a little leaflet of four 
pages, not quite the same size as the original 
pamphlet, and not on the same paper, with the 
ordinary and legitimate statement that it was 
one of the privately printed Opuscula of Ye 
Sette, and he sent round to each of the Brethren 
who had received from the author the little 
pamphlet, two copies of his leaflet of four pages. 
Some had already destroyed the pamphlet, not 
realising its interest, and not recognising it 
as one of the Opuscula. Some had mislaid it, 
and the result is, that some people have got the 
pamphlet, and not the leaflet, and some have 
the leaflet (one copy, or perhaps two), and not 


the pamphlet, and as very few of the Brothers 
who are now on the roll of Ye Sette of 
Odd Volumes were members when the Brother 
Ignoramus issued this little book, in September, 
1895, the difficulty in obtaining the precious 
little paper, of which only sixty .were printed, 
is evident. I believe there was one man who 
had two copies of it. One I have seen. The 
other, he told me, he believed he has put away so 
safely that he could not find it ! It is the greatest 
treasure in my set of the books, and my copy 
happens to be a specially inscribed one. 

Another of the rare books is one on " Queen 
Anne Music " which was issued in 1883. There 
were only a hundred copies and it is a little 
pamphlet of forty pages. It very seldom comes 
into the market, and always fetches a very high 

The collector who is trying to gather together 
a set of these privately printed books will be 
puzzled, when he looks at the list, to find that 
the numbers jump from 33 to 35, and that there 
is no No. 34. As a matter of fact, No. 34 is 
another of the very rare pamphlets, and not one 
of the original set of Opuscula. It is called, 
not an Opusculum but an " Obfusculum." It is 
declared as having been " secretly issued " 
to the members of the Sette, and is endorsed as 
" Not fit for publication." It is a little pamph- 
let of thirty-four pages, dated 1894, of which 
seventy-one copies only were printed, and it 


consists of a very clever, although somewhat 
sarcastic treatise concerning one of the mem- 
bers of the Sette, who was not able to print 
his paper for the other members, because of 
certain unfortunate and unforeseen accidents. 
Some members of the Sette, putting their heads 
together, issued in this pamphlet what they 
pretended was the paper read by the learned 
member. They invented all kinds of extraor- 
dinary foot-notes, and added to this sham paper 
a series of numerous verses, the work of various 
members of the Sette, all of them upbraiding the 
unfortunate person who had not printed for the 
other members his very interesting paper, and 
who stated that he was quite unable to do so. 
This amusing little squib was unofficially issued 
and circulated amongst the members of the Sette. 
It is called No. 34, and occupies that place in 
the series of volumes, but it was unauthorised, 
and is very difficult to obtain. 

The bold man, however, who sets to work to 
collect the privately printed books of the Sette 
of Odd Volumes, must not confine his attention 
to the little series to which I have just alluded, 
because there are four other sets of books issued 
by this Sette, all of which he will want to possess. 
There are first the annual Year-Bokes. The 
earliest, separately issued, dealt with the eleventh 
year of the work of the Sette, because the previous 
years had been carefully described in other 
volumes which came in amongst the Opuscula, 


before it had occurred to the members to issue 
the Year-Bokes as a separate compilation. The 
result of this arrangement is that Opusculum 
No. 3, a very fat little book, tells the story of the 
History of the society from 1878 to 1883, and 
Opusculum No. 18, continues the interesting 
narrative down to 1888. Then in 1889 begins the 
first of the Year-Bokes, and year by year they 
went steadily on, until we come to Year-Boke 
No. XIX. which was produced in 1910, and then 
there occurs a gap. No. XX. has never been 
issued. It will come out some day, but when, 
nobody knows. Again Nos. XXL, XXII. and 
XXIII. are also still on the stocks ; the 
delinquent Presidents, who were responsible for 
the missing Year-Bokes, are constantly being up- 
braided by the other members, and there is yet 
hope of seeing these missing books issued. 

No. XXIV., which dealt with the 34th year of 
the Society's procedure, has been issued ; and 
three more volumes are in course of compila- 
tion Nos. XXV., XXVI. and XXVII. 

These books are not bound in the same way as 
the Opuscula. They have brown leather backs, 
with bands of the two colours, blue and red, 
which constitute the selected colours of the 

Of one of these Year Bokes, No. II., there 
are two editions, one expurgated and the other, 
a far rarer volume, unexpurgated and with- 
drawn from circulation. The first issue was 


considered to be libellous. It is, of course, a 
treasure every collector desires to acquire. 

Still, that is not the end. There are four 
other series. There are a certain number of 
delightful little papers, rather shorter than those 
issued in the Opuscula, and not quite of such 
importance, that were issued as Miscellanies. 
There are twenty of them, and some are seldom 
to be met with. No more will be issued. 

Then there is a set of booklets, which it is 
much more easy to collect, as they are given 
away at the dinners of the Sette to all the guests 
that are present, and therefore printed in very 
much larger numbers than any of the privately 
printed volumes referred to. Of these booklets 
there are forty-four, the first issued in 1890, 
the last in 1920. Some of them, to the careless 
bibliographer, seem to be alike, but there are 
certain divergencies. Some have a line printed 
in red where another one has it in black, and there 
are errors and misprints which have to be attended 
to by the careful collector. They give a little 
history of the Sette. They detail the list of its 
publications, and of its members. They give 
its rules and its regulations, and constitute de- 
lightful little memorials of the various occasion 
upon which they are presented. 

Then there is the set of Extras, and nobody 
knows quite how many there are of these. Some 
are leaflets of only three or four pages. Others, 
such as the Order of Initiation, one of the very 


rarest, is a little pamphlet of fifty pages. Others 
steer in between, for example, the Private and 
Confidential Report of the Publication Com- 
mittee, which was issued in 1910, is a little 
book of twenty-seven pages and is unusually 
difficult to obtain. Several of them are Vale- 
dictory Addresses, delivered by Presidents when 
vacating the Chair of Office, and sometimes these 
are pamphlets of eight pages, and sometimes 
larger ones of twenty-two. One of two of the 
Extras are broadsides. Several are poems. One 
is the reprint of a tract on electricity and magne- 
tism, which one of the members printed and gave 
away. Others, again, relate to the bookplates 
of the members of the Sette, or to excursions 
made by the Sette, or to exhibitions of books 
and pamphlets and manuscripts brought to- 
gether by members of the Sette. There are, 
perchance, about five-and-thirty of these little, 
ephemeral leaflets, which constitute the series 
of Extras, and the patient collector must try 
to acquire all of them, if he would claim that 
his collection of the publications of the Sette 
of Odd Volumes is anything like complete. 

Finally, there are what may be termed 
Oddities, books issued by members in Opuscu- 
lum form. There are volumes, " In praise of 
Tobacco," concerning Playing Cards, Book 
Plates, Samuel Pepys, Sir Thomas Bodley, 
Limited Editions and others called, " With the 
Odd Volumes," " An Odd Volume for Smokers," 


" Sevres China," " The Yeoman's Tale," " An 
Odd Ditty," " Quatrains," and so on, some 
sixteen wholly unauthorised, but very interest- 
ing volumes. 

If he is a very enthusiastic collector, the reader 
will collect the menus of the dinners, and the 
notices issued to the members. In this he can 
never attain perfection. Even the great albums of 
the Sette in its Archives, which are supposed to 
include a copy of every thing printed in connection 
with the Sette, do not contain all that has been 
issued, and various members have certain trea- 
sures which they guard with all secrecy, for fear 
they should be called upon to hand over and 
deliver them up to the Archives of the Society, 
to make its own set complete. Hence it is that 
collecting the publications of Ye Sette of Odd 
Volumes is a never-ending task. One may hope 
to make the series of Miscellanies, of Opuscula, 
of Year-Bokes, of Booklets, practically com- 
plete. One may get very close to a complete 
set of the Extras, but when it comes to the menus 
and the various little documents, perfection is 

Once again, books do not constitute all that 
the Society has issued. It has issued to some of 
its members some charming little illustrations 
known as Folia, and these are very rare, and 
difficult to obtain, and then again there are 
certain works that are called " Opera Minora," 
which are dedicated to the Sette, and one which 


is known as the " Opus Majus," a large book on 
Palaeography, which the collector must obtain. 
These he can generally get at with some difficulty, 
and the power of the purse, but many of the 
tiny things have perished, and of these he can 
never hope to make his series perfect. 

A prettier little lot of books it would be 
difficult to imagine, and the sport of Odd Volume 
hunting may be warmly commended to the 
collector who wants to start a new hobby. He 
will find it fascinating and amusing, and he is 
not likely, as he gathers the little books about 
him, ever to regret that he started upon the 



ONE of the shelves in my library is entirely filled 
with books more or less intimately connected 
with the craft of horology, ranging in period 
from some of the first literature on the subject 
down to the very latest catalogues. I suppose 
that the earliest reference of any importance 
to the invention of watches is that which was 
made by Johannes Cocclaeus in his commen- 
tary on the Cosmographia of Pomponius Mela 
(a copy of which is before me), published in 
Nuremberg in 1511. The words may be thus 
very freely translated, " Ingenious things are 
just now being invented by Peter Hele, as yet a 
young man. He hath works which even the 
most learned mathematicians admire, for he 
fabricates small horologes of iron, fitted with 
many wheels, which wheresoever they are borne, 
and without any weight, both show and strike 
forty hours, whether they be carried in the bosom 
or in the pocket." The man to whom allusion 
is made in this interesting statement is more 
usually known as Peter Henlein, a clever worker 
in iron, who was born in Nuremberg in 1480, 
and died there in 1542, and to his memory there 



is in his native town a very stately monument, 
while his bust also appears in the National 
Valhalla at Regensburg. He certainly was, as 
far as we know at present, the first person to 
adopt the long ribbon of steel, coiled very tightly 
round a central spindle, as the driving force for 
a portable clock or watch, and he appears to 
have brought this ingenious idea into use, shortly 
after 1500. It is not much later than that, 
when Martin Luther, in writing to Father Frederick 
Pistorius, the last Abbot of Saint Egidius in 
Nuremberg, on the 22nd of April, 1527, thanks 
the Abbot most warmly for his very acceptable 
present of a watch, and goes on to say, " I feel 
compelled to become a pupil of our mathema- 
ticians, in order to understand this unique time- 
keeper. Never before have I seen such an 

We, of course, know that the class of watch in- 
vented by Henlein, one of which belonged to 
Luther, and is referred to in the earlier books on 
my horological shelf, was not exactly what we 
should term a pocket watch. More strictly 
speaking, it was a table clock or watch. It 
was in a shallow circular case. It stood on a 
table, and had a hinged lid to it. Nothing made 
by Henlein himself now remains, at least none 
of the collectors have ever been able to fin$ a 
watch that bears his signature. It was at first 
thought that there was one in existence, and I 
remember, when in Vienna, being shown in the 


house of a great collector, a watch with Henlein's 
signature, but, as the collector (herself, by the 
way, an interesting person, and a poet of 
no mean reputation in Austria, the Baroness 
Ebner-Eschenbach) was careful to explain to me 
the signature had since been discovered to be a 
forgery, and the watch I could myself declare 
was certainly not of Henlein's period. It was 
evident that it belonged to a time fifty to 
seventy years after his. It is of interest, how- 
ever, to know that there are many very early 
circular clock-watches in existence, although in 
several instances, the movements have been so 
altered and changed that but little of the original 
metal-work remains. The cases, however, have 
seldom been interfered with, and one of the most 
important, I have often examined, because it 
belongs to a private collector in London, who 
has some interesting watches in his possession. 
This is dated 1539, and bears upon it the coat 
of arms of an English family, the Stanhopes ; 
a long and interesting inscription relating to that 
family, and two Latin mottoes. This case is 
probably that of one of the earliest table watches 
in existence ; one of the very first to be received 
in London, and constitutes a land-mark in the 
history of English horology. 

The majority of my books relating to watch- 
making are early French volumes of the eighteenth 
century, because in about 1780 there was quite 
a considerable literature issued in Paris bearing 


upon it, and the subject at that time was re- 
ceiving considerable attention from mathemati- 
cians, and especially from astronomers. Great 
searching was then taking place for a chrono- 
meter which would be reliable in the marine 

France has always been the home of an impor- 
tant watch-making industry, and this centred 
round particular districts, notably about Blois, 
Paris and Lyons ; but one of the earliest places in 
France where watches were made was Autun, 
and in that town there was a whole series of 
watchmakers, members of the Cusin family, 
who were specially interested in the manufacture 
of portable time-keepers. At the beginning the 
trade remained in and around Nuremberg, and 
even when a part of it passed to France, there was 
still a considerable industry left in Nuremberg, 
so much so, that in various countries of Europe 
the early oval watches were always known as 
" Nuremberg eggs," irrespective of their places 
of origin. These oval watches came into use in 
about 1560, and then rapidly there was a 
demand for other shapes, and watches were 
made cross-shaped, octagonal, hexagonal, and, 
later on, circular. 

The special demand for the less usual shapes of 
watches appears to have existed more in France 
than in Germany, the good taste of the French 
watchmaker leading him to vary his ideas 
with regard to shape at his own sweet will, and 


to prepare, for his various clients, watches that 
would please them. It was in France also that 
the idea of using other materials for watch cases 
came first into vogue, and the makers of Lyons 
and Blois, Autun, Angouleme, and Rouen, 
utilized rock-crystal, agate, and eventually 
enamel, in the manufacture of their watches, and 
produced some of the most beautiful objects of 
which horology can boast. It is probable that 
the cross-shaped watches were made for the 
heads of religious orders, abbots or abbesses, 
whereas those that resembled a scallop shell 
or were octagonal or circular were probably for 
lay clients who demanded something original 
and unusual. 

In about 1600 there arose a curious idea of 
making memento mori watches in the shape of 
skulls, very likely that they should be placed 
upon a prie-dieu or a domestic altar, or worn 
in connection with a rosary, or round the neck, 
because it must be remembered when one finds 
references to watches in this period there is 
nothing as to their being carried in the pocket. 
There were no pocket watches, they were made 
to stand on the table or the desk, or else to be 
worn upon a chain or rosary hanging around the 
neck, or suspended from the waist. 

It has been interesting, in going through the 
Huguenot records, many extracts from which 
find a place on the shelf to which I have alluded, 
to notice how much in this country we owe 


to these people, who fled from France to 
England, and brought over with them consider- 
able knowledge and skill in their industry. 
From the earliest days of watchmaking in 
England, we have been indebted to persons who 
were natives of other countries than our own, 
but in front stand two men who may be un- 
doubtedly claimed as Englishmen, William 
Anthony, the clockmaker for Henry VIII., and 
Bartholomew Nusam, who it is clear was a 
Yorkshireman. Nusam, however, was followed 
by Nicholas Urseau, evidently a foreigner, and 
then we come to a long list of makers working 
in England, whose names reveal their foreign 
connection. To them again there is one great 
exception, because Ramsay, who was the clock- 
maker to James I. and to Henry Prince of 
Wales, was a Scotsman, and a man of high repute 
and considerable importance, so much so, that 
when the Clockmakers' Company was incor- 
porated in 1631, Ramsay became its first master, 
and from that time we have still in existence a 
long range of documents belonging to that 
interesting company which give us names and 
very of ten information concerning the early watch- 
makers of England, their places of business, their 
career, and the names of those who worked 
with, and eventually succeeded them. We 
have every reason in England to be proud of 
the exponents of this great craft, because even 
if we did learn the details of it first from Germany, 


and eventually from France, we have produced 
men who have been supreme in their own work, 
and who have been responsible for many of 
the chief inventions that have assisted in making 
the modern watch what it is. Thomas Tompion 
has been well styled " the father of English 
watch-making," and was certainly one of the 
greatest watchmakers of the day; George Graham 
was responsible for the horizontal cylinder escape- 
ment and the deadbeat ; and Daniel Quare 
invented the repeater watch. All these hold 
high position in the story of the great masters 
of horology, and it is of interest to note that 
many of the early watchmakers belonged to the 
Society of Friends, and that we owe to that 
Society such men as Graham, Tompion, Quare, 
WagstafTe, and East, whose names carry great 
weight in the catalogues of collectors and in 
the records of the Clockmakers' Company. I 
refer to some of these in another chapter. 

In exterior decoration, the English watch- 
makers did not attempt to compete with their 
French brethren. Most of the early English 
watches are plain, and severe in their decoration. 

A few of the metal cases certainly are ex- 
quisitely engraved and chased, and now and 
again, English watches may be found having 
enamels inserted in the case, the enamels, as a 
rule, being French work, but on the other hand, 
French cases are often of extreme beauty, 
especially those which belong to the period of 


Louis XIII., when the miniature and enamel 
painters of Blois, Lyons, and Rouen, vied with 
each other in producing exquisite examples of 
decoration, and in painting both the exterior 
and interior of the cases which contain the 
watch movements with religious and classical 
scenes, represented with wonderful dexterity. 

There is a growing interest in France in the 
story of the old French clockmakers, and in 
many districts there have been students work- 
ing at the archives, concerning the watchmakers 
of their own especial towns. To study the 
subject, one has to search the proceedings of 
some of the lesser known French archaeological 
societies, and find in various articles, dealing 
with the notable families of the towns, informa- 
tion concerning the various watchmakers and 
what they did. In other instances, there have 
been books devoted expressly to the subject, 
special essays dealing with the watchmakers 
of a particular place, such as Blois, full of 
freshly garnered information, obtained from 
records and archives, all bearing upon the subject 
in question. 

Something of the same sort of work has 
been done in Scotland from the records of 
the Hammermen, and in England from the 
Clockmakers' Company, while inquiring students 
in Germany and in Poland have been gather- 
ing up information concerning the watch- 
makers of Augsburg, of Breslau, of Warsaw, and 


of other places, so as to ascertain, with more 
or less accuracy, when certain watches were 
made, and something of the history of the men 
who made them. Augsburg, especially recalls 
an interesting investigation, in which I took 
some part, in order to discover who was 
responsible for a wonderful watch set in a ring, 
and eventually, by research in that city, in 
Antwerp, in Mantua, and in Sweden it was 
found possible to piece together the story of the 
manufacture of a watch set in a ring for the Duke 
of Mantua, made by two watchmakers, one a 
German and the other a Swede, one of whom was 
responsible for the beautiful mount, with the 
little folding triptych which covered the face of 
the watch, and the other for the finely made 
movement with all its delicate workmanship. 
As soon as one begins to study carefully the 
history of a town with regard to any local craft, 
one comes upon a mine of information regarding 
these old craftsmen of the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth century. They worked so carefully, put 
so much of themselves into what they achieved, 
and also their story is so often recorded in the 
archives of Guilds and Corporations that those 
who seek diligently and can piece together little 
detached details can often arrive at quite a 
long story of the history of some craftsman who 
quietly working perhaps in one of the smaller 
German towns produced a work of art now 
the treasure of a great and important collectioi 


It does not always occur to us, when we use 
phrases connected with the watch, to enquire 
from what they are derived, and we are perhaps 
apt to overlook the fact that we owe the habit of 
keeping the watch in a pocket to the Puritans in 
England, whose dislike of display induced them 
first of all to conceal their timekeeper from the 
public gaze. Previous to that time, watches had 
been worn upon chains, sometimes two of 
them, one hanging on either side of the wearer, 
but the Puritan put his watch away, and the 
old German word, " fubbe," meaning small 
pocket, began to be introduced when the place 
where the watch was kept was more carefully 
defined, and from that we have the word " fob," 
which has now become part of the English 
language. There were other places where the 
watch was worn, besides suspended on the chain. 
I have already referred to one set in a ring, 
but watches have been also used as buttons to a 
coat, and the Due de Richelieu, in 1781, is 
described wearing watches as fastenings for his 
coat, and the same idea was adopted by 
Count Cagliostro, who journeyed from Lyons to 
Grenoble in an open carriage wearing six watches 
as buttons to his overcoat. There are also 
instances on record in which watches have 
been made in such a small size that one could be 
worn as a stud. Such a watch is actually to be 
seen in the Pierpont Morgan collection. 

We must not think that Shakespeare, when, 


in the well-known passage in " As you Like It," 
he speaks of Jacques drawing " a Dial from his 
poke," refers to a pocket watch. That must 
have been some kind of portable sundial with a 
compass attached, for most certainly, in his 
time, no watches such as we understand in the 
use of the word, were kept in the pocket, 
but in other places Shakespeare does refer to 
table watches, and to their striking. References 
in the mouth of Malvolio in "Twelfth Night," 
and of Sebastian in " The Tempest " certainly 
allude to table watches which must have stood 
on a desk or a prie-dieu, and which struck the 
hour upon a bell. 

There have been many collections of watches 
in England, and there are interesting examples 
to be seen in our national museums, but perhaps 
the best and most important collection now 
available is that preserved in the Guildhall, 
belonging to the Clockmakers' Company (of 
which I am a member), and a very interesting 
and well-arranged catalogue of that collection 
is not the least of the treasures on my horo- 
logical shelf. We have, however, nothing in 
England to compare in the way of great beauty 
with the collection of watches that at one 
time existed in Russia. The Empress Catherine 
was warmly interested in the work of the 
English watchmakers of the eighteenth century, 
and purchased many of their finest examples, 
commissioning many others, and the watches in 


the Hermitage collection were the best examples 
in existence of the craft of the greatest horologers 
both of France and England. I have had them 
all in my hands, and examined them closely. I 
wonder where they now are ? 



IT is a somewhat curious circumstance that the 
chief eighteenth-century watchmakers in London 
should have been members of the Society of 
Friends. Comparatively little has hitherto been 
known about several of those men whose names 
are still household words to the craft, and 
whose signatures on their movements are eagerly 
accepted by collectors, as guarantees of sound 
workmanship and of extraordinary excellence 
even now. It fell to my lot some few years ago 
to make special searches for information respect- 
ing Graham, Tompion, Quare, East and Wagstaffe, 
who were the most notable amongst them, and as 
the notes I collected are buried in a privately 
printed catalogue, it may be worth while here 
to reprint some of the stories connected with 
the life and work of these men. East was 
the earliest, Tompion perhaps the greatest of 
his day, Graham produced the most beautiful 
work, Quare was the most eminent inventor, 
and the person who took the highest position in 
the society of the day, while Wagstaffe, whose 
portrait is highly characteristic, was the friend 
of George Fox, and a very popular man. All of 



them are worthy of note, and to those interested 
in English biography, and fine craftsmanship, 
and especially to all collectors, I think a few notes 
concerning them may be of some interest. 


Edward East was watchmaker to Charles II., 
a clever and important maker, successor in the 
esteem of the King to David Ramsay. 

It is recorded that East resided at one time in 
Pall Mall, near the Tennis Court, and attended 
the King when various games were being played 


in the Mall, His Majesty often providing one of 
East's watches as a prize for the competition, 
and it was spoken of simply as an " East." 
Later on East seems to have removed to Fleet 
Street, for Britten records that when Mr. 
(afterwards Sir Thomas) Herbert, one of the King's 
attendants, failed in his punctual duties in the 
morning, His Majesty provided him with a gold 
alarum watch which was procured from East, 
the King's clockmaker in Fleet Street. 

In the Return of Strangers in Farringdon 
Without, now preserved in the Record Office, 
dated 1635, East is recorded as resident in Fleet 
Street in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, 
employing a Dutchman name Elias Dupree. 
Lady Fanshawe, says Britten, stated that when 
she came from France in the autumn of 1641, 
she lodged in Fleet Street with Mr. East the 
watchmaker. In 1690 East is referred to as 
residing at the Sun, outside Temple Bar. In the 
Morrison collection were two manuscript warrants 
authorizing the Receiver-General to pay 40 to 
Mr. East, watchmaker, for a " watch and an 
alarum of gold, made by him for the late King 

East was one of the ten persons named in the 
original Charter for the Clockmakers' Company. 
He was Master in 1645, anc ^ again in 1652. 
Britten says that he was the only treasurer ever 
appointed to the Company, and the office was 
created because, in 1647, tne renter warden re- 


fused to give the usual security for the goods 
of the Company, and a treasurer had therefore to 
be appointed, but on the death of Edward East, 
the office was allowed to lapse. In 1692, his 
old friend Henry Jones, who was Master of the 
Company, and who had been East's apprentice, 
informed the Court that Mr. East desired during 
his lifetime to make a gift of 100 to the Company, 
for the benefit of the poor, and Mr. Jones added 
that he would contribute a similar sum. In the 
following year Mr. East gave the 100, and the 
records of the Clockmakers' Company show that 
it was ordered, " That the Masters and wardens 
do go to Mr. East and give him hearty thanks 
for his charity." 

I have been fortunate enough to discover the 
date of his death, which has hitherto been un- 
known. He died in 1701, in the Parish of All 
Hallows at the age of eighty-four, and his burial 
is recorded in the Friends' Register at Devon- 
shire House. It is therefore evident that the 
old tradition which states that he became a 
Quaker and died in that fellowship is correct, 
and East's name must be added to those of 
Quare, Wagstaffe, Tompion, Graham, Peckover, 
and others who were more or less intimately 
associated with the Society of Friends. The 
only perfect " East," with chain, car and key 
complete, that I have ever seen is in the Pierpont 
Morgan collection. It came from the Hilton- 
Price collection. 


Thomas Tompion was one of the greatest of 
the English watchmakers, and has in fact been 
called the father of English watchmaking. 
According to the accounts given concerning him 
by Britten, and in the Dictionary of National 
Biography, he was born at Northill, Bedford- 
shire, in 1638, and when quite a young man, 
became a clockmaker at Water Lane, Blackfriars, 
his shop, the Dial and Three Crowns, being at the 
Fleet Street corner of the Lane, close to where 
now stand the offices of the Daily News. He 
was the leading clockmaker at the Court of 
Charles the Second, and a man whose mathe- 
matical and philosophical pursuits made him 
very popular amongst the learned men of his 
time, both he and his great successor Graham, 
being gladly received on terms of equality by 
the members of the Royal Society. He was a 
member of the Clockmakers' Company in 1671, 
a Freeman, admitted by redemption in 1674, an 
Assistant on the Court in 1691, Warden in 1700, 
and Master in 1704. He is believed to have 
been unmarried, and he died on 2Oth November, 
1713. So high was his reputation that he was 
buried in Westminster Abbey, and in the same 
tomb, later on, his friend Graham was also in- 
terred. Tompion's will, dated 2ist October, 
1713, was proved seven days after his death by 
George Graham, one of the Executors. By it 
the clockmaker bequeathed to his nephew his 
land and property at Northill and 100. To his 


niece, who had married a clockmaker named 
Banger, he gave a life interest in 500, and at 
her death it was to revert to his niece Elizabeth, 
the wife of his apprentice and friend Graham. 
George Graham and his wife were the residuary 
legatees, and there were another niece and a 
cousin mentioned in the will. 

Tompion is referred to in the records of the 
Clockmakers' Company as a " great clock- 
maker," and he was responsible for many in- 
ventions in the horological world, his clocks and 
watches being so exceedingly well made that they 
have always been regarded as objects worthy 
of being treasured by the persons who possessed 
them, and have steadily increased in value. 
There are three fine examples of his work in the 
Pierpont Morgan collection. Several of his 
clocks are still in excellent working order, as, 
for example, the one which now belongs to Lord 
Mostyn, one made for William III. at Kens- 
ington Palace, the fine one in the Pump Room at 
Bath, and the two chiming clocks at Windsor 
Castle and Buckingham Palace. The Weather- 
field collection is unusually rich in works by 
Tompion. In addition to being a watchmaker 
and a clockmaker, he was also responsible for 
barometers, and there is a fine one at Hampton 
Court Palace by him. Britten quotes many 
advertisements relating to watches made by 
Tompion showing the extent of his business at 
that time. 


The following interesting extract from the 
Clockmakers' Company refers to the old diffi- 
culty arising from the forgery of English names 
upon foreign watches. 

" 1703. The Master and Mr. Quare produced 
letters from Patrick Cadell of Amsterdam, stat- 
ing that Cabriere, Lambe and others, at Amster- 
dam had set the names of Tompion, Windmills 
and Quare on their work, and sold it for English." 
I am indebted to Mr. Richard W. Goulding, 
librarian to the Duke of Portland, for the informa- 
tion that the Earl of Portland purchased from 
Thomas Tompion, in 1691, a watch called a 
" spring horologe," and the record of this pur- 
chase is contained in Lord Portland's account- 
book for that year. 

George Graham was one of the most important 
English watchmakers. He was born in Cumber- 
land, a member of the Society of Friends, in 
1673, on 2Oth July, probably at a place called 
Horsegills, in the parish of Kirklinton, but the 
register declares his actual birthplace as Riggs, 
a little place only two miles from Horsegills, 
where his mother may have been staying at the 
time. Graham did not continue in the Society 
of Friends, and hence their registers, the most 
detailed and exact of any religious community, 
are not available for his life. He came up to 
London in 1688, was apprenticed to some unknown 
watchmaker in London, but speedily attracted 
the attention of Tompion, and apparently his 


indentures were assigned to the greater man. 
The records of the Clockmakers' Company do 
not prove with absolute certainty to whom the 
apprenticeship was first made, because in one 
place he is spoken of as apprenticed to Thomas 
Aske, and in another to Henry Aske, but it is 
probable that the latter was Graham's master 
for a time, and then he passed the final part of his 
apprenticeship with Tompion, or else entered 
Tompion's employ as soon as his apprentice- 
ship had expired. With the " great clock- 
maker " he speedily became on friendly terms, 
and the two men lived together for many 
years in amity and brotherly affection. Graham 
married one of Tompion's nieces, was executor 
to his will, residuary legatee, and successor in his 
business. He was an expert mechanician and 
mathematician, became a Fellow of the Royal 
Society, and contributed to its transactions 
many interesting papers, mostly of a mathe- 
matical, horological, or astronomical character. 
He was a man who prided himself upon the 
perfection of his work and was in constant 
demand by the learned men of the day, 
who required instruments made with perfection 
of skill and extreme beauty of mechanism. It 
was Graham who made for Halley the great 
quadrant at Greenwich, and for Bradley the 
transit instrument, and zenith sector which he 
steadily used. He also supplied the French 
Academy with the apparatus used for the 


measurement of the meridian, and was responsible 
for the great planetarium made for the Earl of 
Orrery, which, receiving its designation from 
Lord Orrery, was the first of a series of instru- 
ments which still bear the name of that distin- 
guished nobleman. Graham was a very skilful 
man, frank and open in his conversation, ex- 
tremely kind-hearted, full of enthusiasm, and 
ready to help any one who was in difficulties. 
He enjoyed excellent health, was most particular 
about his costume, and had certain marked 
idiosyncrasies well known to his friends. Amongst 
them was his great objection to interest on 
money, and an entire want of confidence in any 
banking system. He carried . this to such an 
extent that he kept all his cash in a strong 
box, where notes to a very large amount were 
found at his death, some of which had been in 
his possession thirty or forty years. He was 
a member of the Clockmakers' Company, and a 
benefactor to the poor of that Company. His 
death took place on i6th November, 1751, at 
his house in Fleet Street, and he was buried by 
night on the 24th of the same month, and in the 
grave in which his master and friend Tompion 
had already been interred. 

Graham was responsible for the " dead beat " 
escapement, invented as an improvement upon 
Clement's anchor escapement, but perhaps his 
greatest invention was the mercurial pendulum, 
in which he compensated for the expansion of 


the steel by the expansion of the mercury in a 
jar connected with it, and so preserved constant 
the vibrating length of the pendulum. His 
portrait is in the possession of the Clockmakers' 
Company at the Guildhall, and a long, although 
somewhat inaccurate, account of him appears 
in the sixth volume of a work entitled, " The 
Worthies of Cumberland," by Dr. Lonsdale, 
1875, a work now very scarce. There is also a 
notice of him in the " Dictionary of National 

He first became a member of the Clockmakers' 
Company on 3Oth September, 1695, anc ^ Assist- 
ant on 26th April, 1716, and was Master in 
1722. There are various watches by him in the 
Clockmakers' Company Museum in the Guild- 
hall ; one in gold, a particularly fine example 
of his work, dated 1751, bears the number 37. 

His house of business for seventeen years was 
with Tompion at the Dial and Three Crowns at 
the corner of Water Lane, Fleet Street, where 
now stands the Daily News office, but in 1720 
he removed to the Dial and One Crown on the 
other side of the way, next door to the Globe and 
Duke of Marlborough's Head Tavern, and there 
he died. This site is now covered by the offices 
of " Sporting Life." 

Daniel Quare, a distinguished English watch- 
maker, was an eminent man of business, and 
an inventor of more than ordinary genius, 
who, eventually took up a position in London 


Society, and was greatly respected and esteemed 
by people who moved in the highest social 
circle of the day. The names of his parents 
are at present unknown, and it is not quite 
certain as to where he was born, but according 
to the " Dictionary of National Biography," 
and the various investigations made concerning 
him by Mr. Isaac Sharp, the learned secretary of 
the Society of Friends, and later on, by the 
writer, he is believed to have been born 1^1648, 
and was probably a native of Somerset. He 
was admitted in 1671, on 3rd April, as a brother 
of the Clockmakers' Company, became an Assist- 
ant in the Court on 29th September, 1698, and 
Master on 29th September, 1708. He married 
in 1676, Mary Stevens, the daughter of Jeremiah 
Stevens, a maltster of High Wycombe, Buck- 
inghamshire, and the marriage, which is recorded 
at Devonshire House, describes him as a clock- 
maker, residing at St. Martin's-le-Grand, in the 
liberty of Westminster. Shortly afterwards he 
removed to the parish of St. Anne and St. Agnes, 
Aldersgate, and there, in 1678, for refusing to 
pay a rate for the maintenance of the clergy of 
his parish his goods to the value of 5 were seized 
to defray the fine of 2 123. 6d. This was on the 
warrant of the Mayor of the day, one James 
Edwards. In the following year, Quare refused 
to defray the charges of the militia, and two 
clocks and two watches were taken from him, 
to the value of n 53. A little later on he left 


Aldersgate, and settled in Lombard Street, and 
there he was fined, in 1683, for attending a meet- 
ing in White Hart Court, and goods to the value 
of 145 iys. 6d. were taken from him and from 
five other persons, his companions. These 
sums in present currency represent considerable 
amounts. Two years after that Quare migrated 
again, and finally settled down at the King's 
Arms in Exchange Alley, taking up his residence 
near to various other watchmakers, who were in 
that same narrow street. On 4th June, 1686, 
he, with fifty other Friends, was summoned to 
appear before the Commissioners appointed by 
James II. to sit at Clifford's Inn to hear their 
grievances. This interview is reported in a 
work entitled, " The Christian Progress of that 
Ancient Servant and Minister of Jesus Christ, 
George Whitehead, 1725." Whitehead was 
one of those who were examined, and he 
obtained the privilege, on behalf of his oppressed 
brethren, of summoning those who were " Suf- 
ferers by the Informers' unjust Persecutions 
and false Informations " to appear before the 
Commissioners appointed by the King. It is 
mentioned in this book that when the day came 
for hearing, and the informers saw the goodly 
array of Friends present, they were, says White- 
head, " in a great rage, and some of them cried 
out, ' Here comes all the Devils in Hell,' and 
seeing me they said, and ' there come the old 
Devil of all.' ' Every effort was made to stop 


this evidence before the Commissioners, White- 
head, before the second interview, with three 
other persons, one of whom is stated to have 
been Daniel Quare, was arrested and brought 
before the Lord Mayor, who detained them for 
some hours, but eventually released them in 
order that they might appear at Clifford's Inn. 
Finally Whitehead had a third interview with 
the Commissioners, when they showed him their 
report to the King, and he protested against 
a part of it, and then he tells us that " they were 
so honest as they did amend their Report, and 
made it more seizable and to Purpose." In 
1689, Quare was again fined for tithes and 
Priests' maintenance, and plate worth 3 os. nfd. 
was taken from him, but after that we have no 
further reference to the clockmaker being per- 
secuted, and he seems to have been regarded 
with great favour by William III. It was at 
Quare's petition that two Westmorland Friends 
were released from prison, and Quare on 2nd 
May, 1695, introduced four Friends, one of 
whom was the celebrated George Whitehead, 
to a private interview with the King, the result 
of which was that the King exerted himself on 
behalf of the Friends, when an address was 
brought under the notice, of Parliament, in favour 
of the Affirmation Bill. Quare's signature 
appears, with those of nineteen other Friends, 
upon a petition of the House of Commons pre- 
sented by Edmund Waller on yth February, 


1695-6. He was a trusted member of the Parlia- 
mentary Committee of the Meeting for Suffer- 
ings, and in less than two years between 1700 
and 1702, the Meeting paid him 356 on account 
of Parliamentary expenses disbursed by him. 
Quare is also frequently mentioned in the books 
of the Barking Meeting, and two letters addressed 
by him to that Meeting are still in existence. 
Evidence of the high esteem to which he had 
attained in the world of London is given by 
the attendance at the marriage of his three 
daughters, and of his son Jeremiah. His 
daughter Anna married John Falconer, mer- 
chant, on 7th June, 1705, at Devonshire House, 
and the marriage certificate was not only 
signed by William Penn, George Whitehead, 
and various important Friends, but by the 
Venetian Ambassador, the Envoy from Florence, 
the Son of the Envoy from Hanover, the Por- 
tuguese Envoy, the Emperor's Resident, the 
Swedish Envoy, the Resident of Prussia, the 
Envoy of Denmark, Henrietta Countess of 
Strafford, and by many other people. His 
daughter Sarah was married to Jacob Wyan, 
mercer at the Bull and Mouth, on 1 5th March, 
1712, and this ceremony was attended not only 
by Penn, Whitehead, and others but by several 
" Ambassadors and Envoys." Then a little 
later in the same year, Quare's son Jeremiah 
was married. By marriage he is declared as a 
merchant, and he married one Anna Brain on 


6th September. The marriage took place at 
Devonshire House, and amongst the persons who 
were present, in addition to Penn and White- 
head, were the Earl of Orrery, the Duke of 
Argyll, the Duke of Bolton, the Venetian Am- 
bassador, the Comte de Briangon, and other 
distinguished foreigners. It was, however, at 
the marriage of his third daughter, Elizabeth, 
in November, 1715, that the greatest evidence 
of the high position held by Daniel Quare 
was most clearly set forth, and the original 
marriage certificate still in existence shows the 
names of the persons who were present on that 
occasion. Elizabeth was married on loth 
November at the Gracechurch Street Meeting to 
Silvanus Bevan of Cheapside, citizen and apothe- 
cary, son of Silvanus Bevan of Swansey (sic), 
Glamorgan, South Wales, merchant, a member of 
the family of Bevan, " so long prominently 
associated," says Mr. Sharp, " with the work 
and history of Friends, and whose name for 
upwards of a century has been associated in 
Lombard Street with that of Barclay." He it 
was, Mr. Sharp tells us, " who carved the well- 
known medallion of William Penn, and effigies 
of many other celebrities of his time." To the 
wedding several members of the Royal Family 
were invited, but a letter, happily extant, from 
the pen of an invited guest, Rebecca Osgood, 
mentions that the Prince and Princess and most 
of the quality, who had promised to attend the 


ceremony had the night before to inform the 
bridal party that by reason of an Act of Parlia- 
ment, which forbade them to go to a Quaker's 
meeting, they were unable to be present. The 
Duchess of Marlborough was, however, at the 
wedding, and various persons of high position 
connected with the different Embassies. Im- 
mediately after the wedding the party went to 
Skinners' Hall, where, the letter tells us, a very 
splendid dinner was given, and it was this 
dinner that the Princess of Wales, with 300 
guests of high distinction, again including the 
Duchess of Marlborough, graced with their 

As regard Quare's clockmaking industries, 
it is interesting to record that he was the 
inventor of the repeater action, and that it is 
also claimed that he was the first to adopt 
and to adapt the concentric minute hand. 
His invention of the repeater anticipated that of 
the Rev. Edward Barlow by about ten years, 
and Barlow's application for a patent was 
therefore strongly opposed by the Clockmakers' 

The following extract from the minute books 
of the Clockmakers' Company refers to this 

" 1688, September 29. Be it remembered 
that in Pursuance of the Order of the Court of 
the 8th day of February, i68|, and according to 


the order of the Court of the 5th March, i68|, 
the patent endeavoured to be obtained, by one, 
Mr. Edward Barlow, a priest, and to be granted 
to him by the King's majesty, for his sole mak- 
ing and managing for all pulling repeating 
pocket clocks and watches, he pretending to be 
the true and first inventor of that art and in- 
vention, was by diligence and endeavour of 
the Master, Wardens, and assistants of this 
Company, with great charge and expense, 
which was borne by and out of the stock of the 
Company, very successfully prevented, and upon 
the 2nd of March, i68|-, ordered by the King in 
Council not to be granted." 

Another extract relates to the old difficulty 
arising from the forgery of English names upon 
foreign watches. 

" 1703. the Master and Mr. Quare produced 
letters from Patrick Cadell of Amsterdam, 
stating that Cabrier Lambe, and others, at 
Amsterdam, had set the names of Tompion, 
Windmills and Quare on their work, and sold it 
for English." 

Quare made a repeating watch, and also a 
very fine clock for William III. The clock goes 
for a year without rewinding and being made for 
a bedroom does not strike. It still stands 
in its original position by the side of the 


King's bed in Hampton Court Palace, and shows 
sun dial time, the phases of the moon, and the 
course of the sun. It was altered in 1826 by 
Vulliamy, and is still going. Another Quare's 
clock, with a double pendulum, is to be seen in 
the Royal Hospital at Greenwich, and one of 
his very finest tall case clocks is in the possession 
of Mr. C. F. Bell, of Oxford. Furthermore, 
Quare was the inventor of a portable barometer, 
which, according to the words of his patent, 
" might be removed and carried to any place, 
though turned upside down." One of these 
barometers is in the United Service Institu- 
tion and another belongs to Mr. C. F. Bell. 
An ordinary barometer by Quare is to be seen 
at Hampton Court. Of his clocks, three are in 
the Wetherfield collection, others belong to Mr. 
Abbott, Mr. Cook and other collectors. Clock- 
watches by him belonged to Mr. Britten and 
Mr. Robert Meldrum, and there is a lantern 
clock made by him in the British Museum. 
Other clocks for which he was responsible 
are at Windsor Castle and in the possession of 
Mr. Arkwright of Hampton Court, near Leo- 

Two of Quare's apprentices, Daniel and 
Thomas Grignion, started in business for them- 
selves after the death of Quare, and there are 
both clocks and watches signed by them belong- 
ing to a period of about 1730. One of these 
clocks is in the possession of the writer. In some 


instances the clocks and watches are signed 
" Daniel and Thomas Grignion from the late 
Mr. Quare." In others the word " finishers " 
appears attached to the names of the Grignion 
brothers. Their house of business was at the 
King's Arms and the Dial at Russell Street, 
Convent [sic] Garden, and the firm became 
Grignion and Son of the same address in 1775, 
Thomas Grignion in 1780, and, again, another 
Thomas Grignion, perhaps a son of the last, 
who was working between 1800 and 1825. 

Towards the end of his life, Quare was ap- 
pointed clockmaker to George I., but at first 
he had to decline this position, because he ob- 
jected to taking the oath of allegiance, and there- 
fore could not qualify for the position, which 
carried with it a stipend of 300 per year. His 
long statement concerning his refusal to accept 
the post is still in existence. In it he explained 
that the religious difficulty was eventually over- 
come ; he was not obliged to take the oath, his 
scruples were respected, and he was permitted 
to pass into the palace by the back stairs, the 
Yeoman of the Guard being ordered to pass 
him in without calling upon any person for 
leave. Quare cordially acknowledged the cour- 
tesy of Lord Carteret, who had had the matter 
in hand, and the consideration with which the 
King had treated him, and in the document 
from which the quotation is made refers to the 
help that he received from the Divine Provi- 


dence, in making his petition, and the way in 
which God had assisted him, throughout the 
whole of his career. 

His successor in the business, Steven Horse- 
man, had been apprenticed to him, to 1702, and 
was admitted to the Clockmakers' Company 
in 1709. 

Of Quare's family, the first seven children 
died in infancy. 

Daniel Quare died on the 2ist March, 172!, at 
his country house at Croydon, and was buried 
in Bunhill Fields on the 27th of the same month. 
His age was seventy-five. The Daily Post of 
Thursday the 26th March, thus refers to his 
decease : " Last week dy'd Mr. Daniel Quare, 
watchmaker in Exchange Alley, who was famous 
both here and at foreign Courts for the great 
improvements he made in that art, and we hear 
he is succeeded in his shop and trade by his 
partner Mr. Horseman." 

His son Jeremiah was his executor. His will 
was made on 3rd May, 1723, and proved on 26th 
March, 1724. From his personal estate he left 
his wife Mary Quare, 2,800, all his household 
goods, both in London and in the country, and 
the " two gold watches she usually wears, one of 
them being a repeater, and the other a plain 
watch." He also left to the four children of 
his late daughter Anna Falconer 1,600, and to 
the two children of his son Jeremiah 800, and 
declared in his will that " he did already fully 


advance " his late daughter Anna Falconer and 
his son Jeremiah on the occasion of their re- 
spective marriages. His widow lived with her 
son Jeremiah until her death on 4th November, 
1728, at the age of seventy-seven. She died in 
the parish of St. Dionis Backchurch, Lime Street, 
and was buried in Bunhill Fields. Her son 
Jeremiah died in less than a year after his 
mother on 25th August, 1729, of fever, at the 
age of forty-five, and he was buried in School 
House Lane. 

I am indebted to Mr. C. F. Bell, of the Ashmo- 
lean Museum, already mentioned, for the follow- 
ing interesting references to Quare : 

Gay, in one of his eclogues called " The 
Espousal," a dialogue between two Quakers, has 
the following lines : 

I own Josiah gave the golden toy, 

Which did the virtuous hand of Quare employ. 

Swift possessed a watch by Quare, which 
he mentions in his will, 3rd March, 1740, as 
" my plain gold watch, made by Quare," and 
bequeaths it to a Mrs. Mary Swift, alias 

Hogarth, in his autobiography, says, " A 
watchmaker may say, ' The watch which I have 
made for you is as good as Quare or Tompion, 
or any other man could have made," etc. Carlo 
Goldini, in a comedy entitled " La Bottega del 

Caffe," 1750, makes one of his characters, Don 
Marzio, when playfully accused of having been 
imposed upon in the purchase of a watch, 
protest that he had it sent from London, and 
that it is " Uno dei piu perfetti che abbia fatto 
il Quare." 

From the same source I learn of the exist- 
ence of many of Quare's watches, clocks, and 
barometers, though scattered in places as widely 
separated as Petrograd and Budapest. 

I am indebted to Mr. Richard W. Goulding, the 
learned librarian to the Duke of Portland, for the 
following interesting extracts concerning Quare, 
which he found in the Earl of Portland's account 
books for 1691 and 1692, and which he has 
kindly permitted me to publish. 

Account Book of William Bentinck, Earl of 
Portland, under heading " Uijtgave Kleedije 
Linden en Anders in Engels Gelt. (Expenses cloth- 
ing linen, etc., in English money.) 

1691, den 2 Jan. : 

Ain Daniel Quare, Horologe-Macker, over 
Leverantie van een Gouden Horologe dat de 
Uijren Repeteert, volgens Recipisse, betallt. 
(To Daniel Quare, watchmaker, for the supply 
of a gold repeater watch according to the receipt 
paid.) 64 los. 

Under heading : 

" Uijtgave Acu Alderhande Reckeningen uijt 
de privy purse van syne Maj* in den Jaere, 1692, 
betallt in Engels gelt." (Expenses on various 


accounts, from the privy purse of his Majesty 
in the year 1692, paid in English money.) 

23rd May : 

Aen Daniel Quare, Horologe-Macker, voor 
een Goude, Repeating Wat(c)h voor Syne 
Maj*, op Ordre ende by recepisse. (To Daniel 
Quare, watchmaker, for a gold repeater watch 
for his Majesty to order and according to receipt.) 
69 173. 6d. 

There is a curious letter amongst the papers 
at Devonshire House, written from Kendal 
by Mary Wass, who appears, from the way in 
which she writes, to have been a niece, or a 
great-niece of Daniel Quare, but whose relation- 
ship it is not easy to determine. The letter 
contains an interesting reference to clocks made 
by her uncle, and is therefore worthy of being 
quoted. It reads as follows : 

" Dr. Uncle thy most ingaging lines came to 
hand in due time, but my last hinted something 
off father's receiveing a hurt of his eye, defer'd 
writeing ye longer in hopes to give yye more 
perfect Acct of ye recovery, for since I writ to 
thee, it was as if ye sight would be lost and father 
was much deject'd and brought to a very low 
estate of health what with ye pain of ye eye and 
trouble of mind, but now am thankfull I can say 
its much better and ye pain is abated, but there 
is yet a humour with something of a spec yt 
grows near ye sight wch occations dimness, but 


it is now so well to wt it has been yt father 
is in full hope it may not hinder his journey to 
London at Yearly Meeting and I am also very 
desirous to come along with him ... as thy 
cordial lines, dr Uncle had some good efect on 
me, being attend'd with ye sweetness, and good 
advice yt like epistles where writ upon my heart, 
wch I esteem as a perticular favour, neither am 
I unmindfull I owe gratefull acknowledgments 
that thou art pleased to rembr me with so 
good a present, which I must acknowledge 
would have been very acceptable unto me, if 
my lot had been cast att or near Lond ; for I 
know thy Clocks are of great value, and perhaps 
wld. looke too great amongst ye Common 
People of this place, beside ye difficulty of Car- 
riage so many miles without harm, moreover wee 
have a Clock pretty siuteing to our Country and 
station, so yt under all those conciderations am 
reddy to conclude something of less charge to 
thee might answer as well for my servis and be 
let alone till I see theee." 

This is unsigned and undated, and copied 
on the back of a letter, in the same hand- 
writing, signed Mary Wass, Kendall, 4-8th ins, 

Several clocks and watches by Quare are 
illustrated in Britten's " Old Clocks and Watches," 
third edition, London, 1911, and the volume con- 
tains a long account of the clockmaker. It 


also quotes four advertisements of the loss 
of Quare's watches, which are interesting as 
evidence of the value which was attached to 
them in his time. 

Thomas Wagstaffe was born at Banbury in 
Oxfordshire in 1724, his mother being Sarah 
French, while her mother was the eldest daughter 
of Giles and Maud Tydmarsh. Of these people 
we have the following information. Giles Tyd- 
marsh was a prisoner in Oxford Castle, on an 
excommunication for not attending the parish 
church, and he was kept in prison for seven years 
and then released in 1672, with about four 
hundred more prisoners, by letters patent of 
King Charles II., issued in that year. After 
his release, Giles and his wife, with their son and 
daughter (the daughter afterwards becoming 
Mrs. French) settled at Chipping Norton, and he 
took up the occupation of a shoemaker. Both he 
and his wife lived to be ninety years of age, the 
wife surviving the husband by only one day, 
and they were buried in one grave at Milton. 
They had four children, one, Giles, married Hirom 
Maud, of Barton in Oxfordshire, who brought 
him 70 as her dowry. He lived in a cottage 
in the Nether Row in Chipping Norton. One 
of the daughters, Sarah, as already mentioned, 
married Joseph French. Her daughter was the 
wife of Thomas Wagstaffe, of Banbury, and they 
had at least four children. The eldest son re- 
moved with his family to Philadelphia, and 


there are descendants of that branch of the 
family still residing in the United States. 
Another daughter, said also to have been called 
Sarah, married Joseph Lownds. A son, John, 
resided in Norfolk, and another son, Thomas, 
was the watchmaker to whom I refer. 

According to an account of him, which appears 
in the tenth section of a book called " Piety 
Promoted," a collection of brief memorials of 
members of the Society of Friends compiled 
at different dates, Thomas Wagstaffe passed the 
chief part of his life in London, where he carried 
on his trade. In the decline of his days he re- 
tired to Stockwell, in Surrey, where he gave 
some attention to literary work, and was the 
author of at least three books. One was 
issued in 1774, and contained about fifteen sheets, 
giving accounts of sixty-six deceased Friends. 
He prefixed to these accounts a brief preface, 
and added a short concluding address to the 
reader. In 1796 he was the author of another 
book, slightly larger, containing about seventeen 
small octavo sheets, and sixty-six narratives, 
with a preface. He had always been particularly 
addicted to making inquiries into the doings of 
ancient times, so far as they related to Friends, 
and he had a memory well stored with anecdotes. 
Another of the books which he prepared for the 
members of the Society was issued in 1776, and 
was the account of the Life and Gospel Labours 
of William Beckett, of Wainfleet, Lancashire. 

i 7 8 


When quite an old man, Wagstaffe left Stock- 
well for Chipping Norton, where he had various 
relatives, and there he died in 1802. His 
place of business in London was 33, Grace- 
church Street, and he is known to have resided 
there between 1769 and 1794. Britten states 
that members of the Society of Friends when 
visiting London were accustomed to lodge at 
Wagstaffe's house, and on their return to America 
frequently took one of his clocks with them. 


He adds that there are many long case clocks by 
Wagstaffe in America, generally in the possession 
of Quakers or their descendants. He also re- 
fers to an interesting mahogany case clock by 
him in the Cathedral of Kazan in Petrograd. 

The birth registers of the Society of Friends do 
not give any entry of the birth of Thomas 
Wagstaffe himself, but many dates are there 
recorded concerning various members of the 

I am able to publish, by the kindness of Mr. 
Norman Penny of the Friends' Reference Library, 
a hitherto unknown silhouette portrait of this 
old watchmaker, and also one of his bills con- 
cerning a gold watch supplied to George Fox and 
to the credit of the account of one of his own 
watches taken back in exchange. 



THE Burlington Fine Arts Club in London and 
the Grolier Club in New York are associations 
with somewhat similar aims, and each has been 
instrumental in the production of fine and im- 
portant books. 

I am proud of my membership of each Club, 
and of the fact that it has extended over a long 
period of years, and look with some special in- 
terest upon the two shelves in my Library devoted 
to the Club literature. 

The Grolier is more especially the Bookman's 
Club. Its members are interested in books, 
however, not so much as literature but as works 
of art. The constitution of the Club declares 
that " its object shall be the literary study and 
promotion of the arts pertaining to the produc- 
tion of books." 

Its members are true bibliophiles, loving books 
for their intrinsic beauty, whether of illustration, 
type, binding or print. Fittingly is the Club 
named from the great French book-lover, Jean 
Grolier de Servier, Treasurer General of France 
in the sixteenth century. 



The Club has only been in existence since 1884, 
but year by year since then it has held Exhibi- 
tions of books and book illustrations, and has 
issued privately printed works of sumptuous 
character. Its custom is to print in special 
form, on the finest of paper, and with all the 
adjuncts that go to make up a volume perfect 
from the book lover's point of view, some rare 
treatise or some fine modern bibliography or 
work on art, to issue it at a special price to its 
members only ; and to print two extra special 
copies usually on vellum, one of which is kept 
by the Club, and the other sold by auction to 
the members. 

Its first work was a reprint of the very rare 
first edition of Barker's Decree of the Star 
Chamber, concerning Printing (1637), only 148 
copies of the work being issued to members. 
So scarce has this now become that a copy 
cannot be obtained under about 30, although it 
only cost the members, when first issued, the 
sum of two dollars. 

One of its most sumptuous productions was 
the standard work on Grolier himself, a trans- 
lation of Le Roux De Lincy's essay, with an 
added catalogue of all the books then known 
to have belonged to Grolier's Library, and 
a great deal of important supplementary in- 
formation. This was issued in 1907, it has 
fourteen fine facsimile plates in colour and 
cost the members forty dollars a copy, but 


it has gone up enormously in value since the 
original issue. 

The finest of all the books issued by this 
club, a somewhat different character, as 
instead of printing one volume, it came out in 
three great portfolios. It comprised over 1,000 
photographic reproductions of all the known 
Etchings and Dry Points of Whistler, in exact 
facsimile and in the size of the originals, and it 
was issued to the Club members at a hundred 
dollars for the set. It is now impossible to 

In addition to such sumptuous works as these, 
the Grolier Club has issued works of lesser in- 
trinsic value, but in every case finely printed and 
illustrated. Such, for example, are the Histories 
of the Plantin Press (1888), and of the Chiswick 
Press (1896), the Note Books of Carlyle (1898), 
Boccaccio's Life of Dante (1900), Milton's 
Areopagitica (1890), Donne's Poems (1895), 
a work on Title Pages by De Vinne (1901), 
and a Booke of Kings (on Jap vellum) by H. C. 
Levis (1913). 

Furthermore there is a delightful series of 
specially printed Catalogues of exhibitions held 
at the Club House, such as those Illuminated 
Manuscripts (1892), Books by Early English 
Writers (1893), Books from the libraries of 
noted Bibliophiles (1895), Lithographs (1876), 
Engravings of Diirer (1897), Italian Books (1904), 
and so on. 


These and many others which succeeded 
them, and all of which are detailed in the Club 
Bibliography are books which the members 
purchase from time to time, but in addition 
there is a charming series of books which come 
gratuitously and are no less important as regards 
typography and style. 

There are the catalogues of all the Exhibi- 
tions, each differing from the other, but all in 
i6mo size and with biographical and biblio- 
graphical information of much importance, and 
there are also the Annual Transactions, graceful 
little volumes, charmingly printed on hand-made 
paper, ranging with them. Some of these Trans- 
actions volumes and many of the Catalogues are 
again issued to members for purchase in Demy 
410 (7 x 9|), on better paper and with illus- 
trations, so that those who prefer can, in addition 
to the volume sent gratuitously, have it also in 
sumptuous and augmented form. 

Finally there are the Notices of Meetings, 
the Cards of Invitation and Admission, and the 
Circulars Respecting the Books, Menus and 
Bibliographical scraps of which no member can 
have a complete set, but all are delightful and 
everyone worthy of being retained in a port- 
folio or scrap book. They are all models of 
good taste in the arts of printing and illustration, 
and the world has never seen anything better. 
They are cherished by all good Grolierites ; and 
though I have most of the catalogues, almost 


all the Year Books and many of the books I 
wish that I had them all for they are a constant 
source of delight to every man who is a real 
lover of fine printing. 

Perhaps I ought to have laid some stress, as a 
bibliophile, upon the edition brought out by the 
Club in 1889 in three splendid volumes of the 
Philobiblon of Richard de Bury, Bishop of 
Durham. It is indeed a reverent reproduction 
and could scarcely be surpassed, an absolute 
delight to eye, hand and mind. If the Club 
had done nothing more than the production of 
this masterpiece it would have justified its 

The Burlington Fine Arts Club is an older 
and more solemn association. 

Its aim is the study of Arts in all its varied 
forms, not confined by any means to books or 
book illustrations. 

It was founded in 1857, a little group of 
ninety-seven members, shortly afterwards raised 
to 200, and it has always embraced the chief 
collectors of the day and the experts on every 
branch of art and art craftsmanship. 

Its exhibitions have become famous, and have 
included many of the greatest treasures of the 
world in their purview. Its little gallery, open 
only to the public by members' orders, has 
received visits from almost every person of 
importance in Europe, and the most noted 
collectors all over the world have vied with 


one another in lending to the Club from 
time to time their most cherished and rarest 

Its exhibitions began first in Pall Mall, and 
then more formally in Piccadilly, where they con- 
tinued down to 1870, when the present Club 
House was obtained in Savile Row, and the 
Gallery that has been the scene of so many de- 
lightful gatherings was built. 

The catalogues have always been in 4to 
size, and I possess the entire series from 1868 

They vary in substance and in contents, and 
they deal with objects so different as Old Master 
Drawings, Bronzes, Ivories, Porcelains, Book- 
bindings, Miniatures, Enamels, Pictures, Iron 
Work, Water Colours, Etching, Sculpture, Silver, 
Illuminated Manuscripts, Seals, Mezzotints, 
Embroidery, and so forth. 

In intention each is the same, to bring together 
the choicest possible collection of objects relative 
to the special period or branch of craftsmanship 
under consideration, to catalogue them with abso- 
lute fidelity and with all possible wealth of his- 
toric allusion, and to present, in the form of a 
preface, a treatise upon the period of groups of 
objects written by the chief expert, or group of 
experts, of the day. 

On the whole, the intention of the Club has 
been carried out in superb manner, for each 
catalogue represents the last word and the best 


opinion obtainable on the special matter with 
which it is concerned. 

The catalogues are issued gratis to the mem- 
bers, but in addition to these blue-paper-covered 
compilations, splendidly printed on hand-made 
paper, there are issued to members, at prices of 
from five guineas downwards, sumptuous editions 
in folio size of the same catalogues, richly illus- 
trated with plates in colour facsimile, in half-tone, 
and in photogravure. 

These form valuable works of reference, and 
in fact such catalogues as those on Greek Art 
(1888 and 1893), Portrait Miniatures (1889), 
Bookbindings (1891), Enamels (1897), Silver- 
work (1901), Early German Art (1906), 
Early English Portraiture (1909), English Em- 
broideries (1905), have at once been accepted 
as the Standard works in their respective 

Here again there are Circulars, Invitations, 
Subscription Forms, and the like, to be collected 
and preserved, not specially objects of artistic 
excellence as are those of the Grolier Club ; but 
all examples of the choicest printing that can be 
done in this country, and possessing a grave 
serious aspect peculiarly their own. 

I have spoken of neither Club House, my pur- 
pose being more concerning the books issued by 
each Club ; but the Club Houses, as those who 
know them can tell, are cosy and comfortable 
homes, the libraries in each club of more than 


usual importance and the adjuncts to Club life 
convenient in every way. 

The Burlington Fine Arts Club has perhaps 
the best Library of Art books, English and 
foreign, in London, the Giolier Club a very choice 
collection of books notable for typography or 
binding, as well as those collected for literary 
value, and, moreover, a cabinet containing a 
unique group of miniature books, many score in 

Each Library has printed in graceful form 
the Catalogue of what it possesses the Grolier 
Club, as might be expected, in sumptuous 
fashion; the Burlington, in style more restrained. 

Each has infinite attractions to the Lover of 
Books, and to the Collector of Objects connected 
with the Fine Arts. 



OF the many Book Clubs in America specially 
concerned with the printing and production of 
privately issued volumes, the most notable in 
many ways is undoubtedly the Bibliophile 
Society of Boston. It has a unique record in 
the fact that for at least eleven years it was 
successfully conducted v.ithout any dues its 
books, having been subscribed for (allowing 
only one copy for each member) by 96 per cent, 
of its full membership. It has a working 
fund of twenty thousand dollars, the voluntary 
contribution of its members, and belonging to 
them individually. Further, it has no salaried 
officials, and its small incidental expenses are 
charged, each year, into publication account. 
Its books are beautiful, and have a special 
feature of their own, inasmuch as their title 
pages are, as a rule, printed from specially 
designed copper plates engraved in the finest 
manner, and as also in many instances the 
books are issued full bound in brown polished 
morocco. More delightful volumes than their 1 
reproductions of the Deserted Village and Gray's 
Elegy, printed on vellum and exquisitely illus- 



trated, can hardly be conceived, while Swinburne's 
Ode to Mazzini and Border Ballads were produced 
in equally sumptuous style, and sent out in 
double slip cases for their better preservation. 
One of the rarer productions of this Private Press 
is the transcript of the speech Charles Dickens 
made at Gore House in 1851. Ten copies 
only were printed on vellum, and another still 
more interesting production is a facsimile in 
sheets, on blue paper, of the essay Swinburne 
wrote on Whistler, which caused the estrange- 
ment between the two men lasting down to 
Whistler's death. This is reproduced so per- 
fectly that it is not easy at first to believe that 
the sheets are not those bearing Swinburne's 
own handwriting, and, in a suitable portfolio, 
it forms a wonderful treasure for all admirers 
of the painter and the poet. It stands on my 
shelves side by side with a book of considerable 
rarity containing Whistler's own corrections, and 
with many of his rarer catalogues and some of 
his autograph letters. 

The Year Books of this same Society are 
equally good examples of fine book making. 
I possess Vols. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, II and 12. They 
are all in cases, and have the finest modern 
copper-plate engraved titles that I have ever seen 
or handled, admirable scroll work set within a 
suitable frame, and containing little vignettes 
inserted, many of which are of exquisite 
beauty. The Shelley and Dickens and Wash- 


ington Irving and Andr books are interesting 
especially for the sake of their fine title pages, 
which are admirably printed on vellum. 

Another club which deserves special mention 
is the Caxton Club of Chicago. Its Year 
Books and four of its finest volumes are before 
me as I write. Three are on Bookbinding, 
those on Thomas Berthelet, Henry VIII. 's Book- 
binder, issued in 1901 ; on Samuel Mearne, 
Binder to Charles II., issued in 1906 ; both 
written by Mr. Cyril Davenport, and that on 
French Bookbinders of the eighteenth century by 
Octave Uzanne, translated by Mabel Mc.Ilvaine, 
and sent out in 1904. These are quarto books, 
admirably illustrated by full page plates in 
photogravure and in colour facsimile. Even 
more notable, however, is the volume for which 
the members subscribed in 1905, that on William 
Caxton, written by the best authority on the great 
printer, Gordon Duff. This volume was issued 
to the members at 25 dollars a copy, 148 only, and 
each copy contains in an envelope in the bind- 
ing an actual leaf printed by Caxton himself ! 
The Club bought, at the sale of Lord Ashburn- 
ham's books, an imperfect copy of Chaucer's 
Canterbury Tales printed in about 1478 ; and 
this book, which Lord Ashburnham had pur- 
chased at the Heber sale, was cut up by the 
Club, and one leaf of it inserted in each of 
these 148 copies. In consequence the volume 
has a special attraction to all book lovers, 


and has become a rare and valuable work. 
Other volumes and the Catalogues of its 
Exhibitions and its Annual Year Books are 
worthy of note, and everything produced by the 
Caxton Club shows excellent craftsmanship. 

In glancing at these American Book Clubs, The 
Club of Odd Volumes at Boston deserves particu- 
lar mention. Its prototype was Ye Sette of 
Odd Volumes, to which allusion has already 
been made ; and at first, when it was founded, 
it assumed the same title, but there was a pro- 
test on behalf of the mother society, made by 
Mr. Clulow, who was then the President of 
Ye Sette, and in 1887, the name of The Club 
of Odd Volumes was finally adopted. The 
Society was incorporated in 1890, and at first 
held its meetings in various hotels, or in the 
library of the Boston Art Club, but eventually 
it was enabled to build its own club house in 
Mount Vernon Street, and there it possesses a 
delightful home. This Club House was en- 
larged in 1916, so as to provide a large meeting- 
room, and ample space for exhibitions, and the 
building takes the form of the reproduction of 
an old Colonial Inn. 

In the exhibition room there have been some 
very important shows. That in 1897 referred 
to Early New England History; in 1898 to 
Bookplates ; and later exhibitions have been of 
objects relative to the history of Boston ; of 
matters relating to Izaak Walton and The 


Compleat Angler ; to mezzotints ; to the history 
of the Boston Stage ; to Angling Bookplates, and 
to exhibits relating to Thackeray. 

The Club has always been fortunate in posses- 
sing amongst its members several of the great 
printers of the day, not only those resident in 
America, but as honorary members, such men 
as Ashbee, Cobden, Sanderson and others, who 
represent the craft at its best in England. In 
consequence, its publications have a special 
value and importance. The first issued by the 
club was the catalogue of the J. B. Gough 
Collection, the works of George Cruikshank. 
This came out in 1890. It was followed in 1892 
by a work on mezzotints, and by a catalogue 
of an exhibition of portraits of the Women of 
the Court of Louis XV. A somewhat similar 
volume came out in 1893, and this was followed 
by five volumes of Early American Poetry. 
Then came a book on Early Boston Book- 
sellers, which was published in 1900, and in 
the same year, a delightful paper on Chaucer. 
In 1901, the publication was " A Talk on Book- 
plates " ; in 1902, a work on " The Triumphs 
of Early Printing " ; in 1903, a reprint of a 
scarce book on New England ; in 1904, a volume 
entitled " Early Schools and School-books of 
New England," and in 1905 a volume on Remick, 
an early Boston Engraver. 

Then there came a change with regard to the 
volumes issued by the Club. Hitherto, they had 


been printed by the University Press, Cambridge, 
but the volume issued in 1906 was the work of 
the Merrymount Press, Boston ; and was differ- 
ently bound to the preceding volumes. It was 
called " The Historic Of and the Life and Death 
of Sir William Kirkcaldy." In the following 
year, the Club went back to its old printers, and 
issued a work in two volumes on The Early 
Massachusetts Press. Then it went to the 
Riverside Press, with a delightful work on 
Horace Walpole as a printer, written by its 
excellent secretary, Mr. Percival Merritt. The 
books issued in 1908 were called " Collectors " 
(an address by Mr. Hunnewell and the Library 
of Rameses the Great, by Mr. Nicholls) ; but 
those in 1909 made a still more startling change 
with regard to printing, as both the books were 
produced in England, one called " William 
Caxton," was printed at the Doves Press, the 
other called " The Private Press," was printed 
at the Essex House Press by Mr. Ashbee. This 
list does not include all the books that the Club 
has issued, although it names the chief ones ; 
but I must not forget to mention " Notes from 
a Country Library " ; "A Reprint of Tristram 
Shandy's Political Romance, 1759 " ; a mono- 
graph on Isaiah Thomas, the printer, and 
two volumes, entitled " The Boston Book 
Market," and "The Isle of Pines." The notices 
for the meetings, the cards of invitation, and 
the menus of the various dinners, are also all 


of them interesting examples of fine and skilful 
printing, worthy of notice. 

The Club is a very hospitable one. It has its 
regular Club dinners, and its Thursday after- 
noon tea-parties. It welcomes most heartily 
visitors from the Old Country, especially those 
who are connected with similar societies in 
England, and to the members of Ye Sette of 
Odd Volumes it offers a particularly cordial 
reception. I have the pleasantest possible 
remembrance of the way in which I was received 
at the Club some years ago, and I was glad to 
become a member of it. Other members of 
Ye Sette have also been similarly received ; but 
it has seldom fallen to the good fortune of the 
English Society to be able to entertain the 
members of the Boston Club. Very few of 
them appear to have come over to England, 
but they will be assured, whenever they do 
come, of an exceedingly hospitable reception. 

In conclusion, I must not more than briefly 
refer to the Book Club of California and its 
charming volume on Bret Harte, and to the 
Brothers of the Book at Chicago, and all their 
dainty productions. Suffice it that the Book 
Clubs of America are numerous, manifold in 
their endeavour, and varied in their member- 
ship; but to the collector of fine books their 
privately printed volumes are a great joy, and 
eagerly to be desired in every way. 



ONE of the tiniest little books that I possess is a 
copy of the calendar of the French Court, issued 
in 1789, probably the last issue of the Royal 
calendars ; for in the July of that very year, 
the French Revolution commenced, with the 
taking of the Bastille. The volume is in 
size 24mo, in its contemporary binding of full 
French morocco, with the blank leaves for every 
day of the year, and with its bright blue silken 
marker. It is in perfect order, and is an interest 
ing little relic of those days. It may be amusing 
to glance through some of its pages. There is 
of course in the forefront of it the almanac, 
which gives the phases of the moon, and all the 
saints' days, the movable and fixed feasts, 
and some remarks respecting historical events, 
eclipses, and the signs of the Zodiac, and then 
opposite to each page are the blank leaves on 
which accounts can be kept, respectively headed 
" Perte " and " Gain." Following this come 
printed pages full of information, dealing with 
the Kingdom of France, and with all the various 
officials of the Royal House. 



There is a description of the country, with its 
boundaries, a reference to its Parliament, its 
Chambers of Commerce, and its various courts, 
chronologies of the kings of France, divided out 
into the three great groups, Merovingians, to 
754, Carlovingians, to 987, and the third race, 
the House of Capet, which is taken in this list 
from 996, down to the then King Louis XVI., 
reigning in 1789. Then we come to the various 
officials of the different sections of the Royal 
State. First of all, the House of the King, 
with the lists of names of the almoners and the 
chaplains, the persons who were responsible for 
the music, the Master of the Household (then 
the Prince de Conde), and of the officials 
who were under him, the Finance Department, 
under a Minister of State (then M. Necker), the 
Gentlemen-in-waiting, the Royal Chamberlain 
(the Due de Bouillon), the various officials 
under him, the Robes Department under the 
Due de Liancourt, the Master of Ceremonies 
with his officials, the department for looking 
after the lodgings of the Court, and their suites, 
under the Grand Marshal of the Chambers, the 
Library Department a very small one the 
Medical and Surgical Department a far larger 
one ; and then a very long list of officials con- 
nected with the stables, and one longer still 
connected with the military establishment. 

Following that, we come to the Household of 
Queen Marie Antoinette, with her Grand 


Almoners, and chaplains, her chief Lady-in- 
waiting, the Princess de Chimay, and many 
ladies under her, the greatest names in France, 
her stable department, her robe department, 
her physicians, and apothecaries, her librarian, 
M. Moreau, the Controller-General for the Gar- 
dens, her three readers, the Abbe de Vermond 
and his two lady assistants, her legal depart- 
ment, and then the officials who were responsible 
for the education of the Dauphin and the 
Children of France, the first being under the 
care of the Due d'Harcourt, the second under 
that of the Duchesse de Polignac. Similar long 
lists of officials belonging to the Maison de 
Monsieur, the Maison de Madame, and the 
Maison de Monsieur le Comte d'Artois and the 
Comtesse, follow the King and Queen and then 
we come to the separate establishments of the 
Princesses, Madame Elizabeth, Madame Ade- 
laide, and Madame Victoire, each of whom have 
their almoner, their confessor, Mistress of the 
Robes, a long list of ladies-in-waiting, gentlemen- 
in-waiting, secretaries, and officials connected 
with the stable, medicine and surgery. 

Beyond those we come to the group who were 
connected with the education of their Royal 
Highnesses, the Due d'Angouleme and the Due 
de Berry, and then we have the various officials 
of the Royal Courts, and of the different branches 
of the Ministry, dealing with finance, law, 
societies, etc. Another list gives us the dates of 


the births of all the Royal Family, and then con- 
tinues on through Europe with the same kind of 
information, telling us that Charles II. was 
reigning over Spain ; that Francis IV. was the 
King of the Two Sicilies ; that Marie Fran9oise 
Elizabeth was Queen of Portugal ; Pius VI., 
Pope ; Pierre, Grand Duke of Tuscany ; Ferdi- 
nand, Duke of Parma ; Hercules, Duke of Modena ; 
narrating some information respecting the Grand 
Master of the Order of Malta, and then pro- 
ceeding to speak of Victor Amadeus III., who 
was Duke of Savoy, Joseph II., who ruled 
over Austria-Hungary and Bohemia, and giving 
a list of the Great Electors of Mayence, Treves, 
Cologne, Bavaria, Saxony, Brandenburg and 
Hanover. A separate group is made of the sovereign 
Princes of the Empire, headed by the Count 
Palatine, and followed by the Dukes of Saxe- 
Weimar, Saxe-Gotha, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe- 
Hildeburghausen, Saxe-Coburg, Brandenburg, 
Brunswick, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklen- 
burg-Strelitz, Wurtemburg, Hesse-Cassel, Hesse- 
Rhinefels, Liechtenstein, Hesse-Darmstadt, 
Hesse-Homburg, Baden, Holstein-Sonderburg, 
Holstein-Beck, Holstein-Oldenburg, the Saxe- 
Anhalts, and the various houses of Nassau. 
Then we come to the Elector of Prussia, Frede- 
rick William II., the King of England, George 
III., Christian VII., reigning over Denmark, 
Gustav III. over Sweden, Stanislaus over Poland, 
Catherine II., Empress of Russia, Abdul Hamet, 


Sultan of Turkey, and finally, the heads of the 
Republics of Venice, of the United Provinces and 
of Genoa. 

Following these, comes some further information 
respecting previous monarchs of several of 
these countries, and then a long list of the 
Knights of the various Orders in France, the 
Ordres du Roi, the Order of the Saint Esprit, 
the Order of the Toison d'Or, and the Order of 
Saint Louis, and details concerning the Church, 
the Pope, the various Cardinals, the Archbis- 
hops and Bishops of the Dioceses of France. 

Finally, we come to the less important officials 
of the Royal House, the ushers, the valets, 
barbers, clock winders and mechanics, and also 
those who were responsible for the tapestry, 
and the personal servants of the King, who 
had to wait upon him at different times. 

Amongst the Royal palaces over which they 
had control, we find one name of ill omen, the 
Bastille, mentioned as one of the residences 
of the King, with its Governor, and various 

The little book throws an interesting light on 
the life in the Royal Court of France at that 
time, and the crowds of persons who held offices of 
more or less importance about the Royal Family, 
and were provided with posts from which they 
drew considerable revenues, regardless of the 
fact that they stood upon the very brink of 
a volcano, which, within a few months of the 


issue of this tiny little book, was to burst 
out and overwhelm in its destructive fury 
almost all the persons whose names appear in 
it. The volume is crowded with the great 
and historic families of France which were 
famous before the days of the Revolution, and 
many of which disappeared altogether from the 
history of that country at the time of this start- 
ling change in the whole affair of the French 



IT is rather strange that, although I knew 
Swinburne's mother and sisters so very well, I 
saw comparatively little of the poet himself, and 
yet after all, it is not so very curious, as he 
was but seldom at home, and had his own 
establishment when I knew them. 

I have, however, on my shelves all of his 
books, and in one of them is fastened a letter 
from him that has a rather interesting history. 

The book is " The Heptalogia, or the Seven 
against Sense, a Cap with Seven Bells," which 
was published anonymously in 1880. It is, as 
is well known, a book of Parodies, in which 
poems by Tennyson, Coventry Patmore, 
Browning, Mrs. Browning, Lord Lytton and 
Swinburne are most cleverly parodied. It created 
some sensation, but was speedily recognised 
as from Swinburne's hand, and the parody of 
his own peculiarities of style in the final poem 
Nephelidia is exceedingly fine. For a long time, 
however, the poet refused to acknowledge the 
authorship, and in fact it is doubtful whether 
he ever did so in definite and unmistakable 
terms. I was visiting Lady Jane one day, and 



showed to her and her daughters a book of 
Lyrics from Swinburne's Works, that had 
been published by Mosher, of Portland, U.S.A. 
It was of course a pirated book, but withal 
so charmingly printed and bound that it 
was a pleasure to look at it, and in that light 
Lady Jane appreciated what she termed a 
compliment to her gifted son. She asked my 
permission to show it to him, to which I gladly 
assented. Our talk then ranging over his 
poetry, I referred to the Heptalogia, and put the 
natural question as to its authorship. This 
Miss Alice Swinburne at once acknowledged, 
and praised the skill with which the book was 
compiled, in no measured terms. She had 
always promised me the poet's autograph, and 
together we decided that the best possible way 
would be to get him to sign my copy of the 

A little later on I sent both of the books, mine 
and Mosher's to her, and in her letter of April 
1 5th, 1896, now before me, she says : " I shall 
be very glad to do as you wish, but I cannot give 
you much hope, for he really gets such endless 
applications for his opinion upon various writings 
that we scruple to trouble him, and I always 
take what I think a favourable opportunity 
(when he is with us in the country, generally,) 
to ask him for anything of this sort." Time 
went on, I often saw the three sisters, and they 
frequently alluded to this circumstance. " Al- 


gernon," said they, " has got both your books, 
and some day you will get them back. We 
frequently remind him of them." The Mosher 
book he admired, and the selection from his 
poems was, he considered, a judicious one, but 
neither of the volumes came back into my hands 
for six long years. Meantime Lady Jane and 
Charlotte Swinburne had died, and only the 
elder and younger sisters, Alice and Isabel, re- 

On August 9th, 1902, there suddenly arrived a 
parcel from Putney containing three books, 
my own two returned, a copy of Swinburne's 
poems " from the author " and a quaint letter in 
guarded terms, which I promptly fastened into 
the Heptalogia. 

" Dear Dr. Williamson," it ran, " I have much 
pleasure in complying with your request, and 
only wish what I send was better worth having. 
" Yours very truly, 

" A. C. Swinburne. 
"The Pines, 
"Aug. 8, 1902." 

I hastened off to see my special friend, Isabel 
Swinburne (Alice, alas, was then ill, and she 
died in the following year), to tell her the good 
news, when she supplemented the information 
contained in the letter. It appeared that the 
two books had been discovered in Swinburne's 


room at The Pines, and with them a memoran- 
dum from his elder sister Alice, asking him to 
write to me acknowledging the authorship. He 
was horrified at the discovery, as the books were 
in the packing paper in which they had remained 
all these years, and in penance for his omission 
he sent me the gift of his book. 

Mr. Watts-Dunton, on whose judgment he 
placed such reliance, was not at home at the time, 
and Swinburne did not like, he said, " to dis- 
figure my book," and not having his friend at 
hand to advise him, had written the letter I had 
received, and had at the same time told his sister 
what he had done, and asked her to explain to 
me when next we met that he did not know 
where to put his signature in the book, and also 
thought that, as it was issued anonymously, 
it would be incorrect to write inside it that he was 
the author. 

Miss Swinburne offered to ask him again if I 
wished, but she advised me to fasten the letter 
in the book, and refer to the story in some other 
place, and I accepted very gladly her suggestion. 

It was eleven years afterwards before I really 
knew Watts-Dunton. In the interval, we had 
corresponded briefly, and I had met Swinburne 
three or four times at his sister's house. He 
used to come fluttering in, quivering like a 
great butterfly, and moving with that extra- 
ordinary dancing movement that was so 
charcteristic of him. Suddenly, and with much 


elaborate ceremony, he would bow, and then, 
as a rule, relapse into silence. In was difficult, 
on account of his deafness, and his shyness, to 
obtain much information out of him, unless by 
chance one happened to refer to Elizabethan 
dramatists. Only once did I ever hear him 
talk with anything like emotion and emphasis, 
and it was then, to my great surprise, in praise 
of some ten lines by Tennyson, the final ones 
in the poem called " Audley Court." These 
Swinburne greatly admired. His phrase, so 
far as I can remember, was that they were 
" unapproachable in truth and beauty." He 
quoted other lines by Tennyson relating to the 
sea, with almost equal fervour, and then, all 
at once, he stopped speaking altogether, and 
not another syllable could I get him to utter. 
He was always, to me, a mysterious and un- 
approachable being, and even from his sisters, 
in later years, by reason of his deafness, he was 
very much apart. They were, however, per- 
fectly satisfied at knowing that he was so well 
safeguarded, and down to within the last few 
weeks of her death, Miss Isabel Swinburne spoke 
to me with intense gratitude concerning his life 
in Putney. 

His relatives were, on the contrary, my intimate 
friends, full of charm and fascination. Alice 
was the most artistic of the three, Charlotte 
deeply interested in books, and especially in 
early printing, Isabel full of genealogical and 


pedigree lore, great at heraldry, and having 
at her fingers' ends all the history of some of 
our more curious peerage successions, especially 
that of the Barony of Willoughby de Eresby, 
with which her cousins the Burrells were con- 

All of them were very devout members of the 
extreme High Church section of the Church of 
England, and deeply concerned at some of their 
brother's earlier productions, while fully re- 
cognizing his incomparable genius. 

They possessed delightful pictures, fine family 
miniatures and drawings, choice old cabinets, 
and at least three superb water colours by Tur- 
ner, so that their house was a treasure house of 
art and always a joy to visit. 

Isabel was a person of very definite opinions, 
and spoke out her mind in no measured terms, 
especially when she considered that the reputa- 
tion of her poet brother was concerned. 

The younger brother, Edward, I only met on 
one occasion. He died in 1891. 

In the autumn of 1913, I wrote to Watts- 
Dunton, reminding him of our earlier acquaint- 
ance, and using the name of Isabel Swinburne, 
asked him to write a Foreword to the volume I 
was then compiling on the Keats' poems and 
manuscripts at Hampstead. He gladly consented, 
and several letters passed between us, one of 
which is set forth in the recently published 
biography by Messrs. Ricketts and Hake. From 


him I received another copy of Swinburne's 
poems, graced with his autograph and copies of 
his Aylwin and Coming of Love, and of Swin- 
burne's books on Blake, Dickens, and Charlotte 
Bronte, similarly inscribed, as well as the won- 
derful Foreword to the Keats book, which was, 
alas ! the very last piece of literary work that he 

The MS. of this, and his delightful letters 
praising the Keats book in far too generous terms, 
are fastened into my own copy of the volume, 
together with others on the same topic from 
Mr. Buxton Forman, Sir Sidney Colvin, Viscount 
Morley, and other lovers of Keats, and all the 
corrected proofs are with them. Nothing that 
Mr. Watts-Dunton ever wrote was more graceful 
and charming than was this Foreword, and it 
was a peculiar joy to me to obtain this tribute 
from his pen. 

Our talk when we met ranged over many 
subjects, but memories of Swinburne and his 
mother and sisters occupied the greater space, 
and he delighted in recalling to me many 
happy days he had spent with the family, 
and many delightful conversations in which 
he had taken part. The Swinburnes all loved 
him, and felt a debt of gratitude for all his 
goodness to their brother and all the con- 
siderate care he bestowed upon him for over 
twenty long years. 

Few records of devoted friendship can equal 


his. He had, as has been well said, " a genius 
for friendship," and to all who knew and loved 
him Watts-Dunton's memory is one of never 
fading fragrance. 


Miller, Son & Campy., Printers, Fahenham and London, 


The Keats Letters, Papers and other Relics. 

8 Portraits and 57 Plates in Collotype. 
Limited to 320 copies. Imp. 410, 3 3s. Od. net. 

Ozias Humphry : His Life and Works. 

Numerous illustrations in colour, gravure and black 
and white. Demy 410, 4 4s. Od. net. 

Murray Marks and His Friends. 

With numerous illustrations. Demy 8vo, 12s. 6d. net. 

Daniel Gardner, Painter in Pastel and Gouache. 

Numerous illustrations in colour, gravure and half-tone. 
Demy 410, 5 5s. Od. net. 
Limited to 500 copies. 

George, Earl of Cumberland (15581606). 

His Life and Voyages, a study from original documents, 

with 21 illustrations. 
Demy Svo, 25s. Od. net. 

Lady Anne Clifford, Countess of Dorset, Pembroke 
and Montgomery (16901676). 

With numerous illustrations. Limited to 250 copies. 
Demy 410, 2 2s. Od. net. 

The Miniature Collector. 

A guide for the amateur, with very numerous illustrations. 

Sm. Svo, 7s. 6d. 
And many other Works. 

With Lady Victoria Manners. 
The Life and IHork of John Zoffany, R.A. 

With numerous illustrations in colour, gravure, and 

black and white. 
Limited to 500 copies. Demy 410, 7 7s. Od. net. 

Angelica Kauffmann. 

With numerous illustrations in colour, gravure, and 
black and white. Demy 410. 

[/ Prtparatioit. 






Williamson, George C. 
(George Charles) 

Behind my library door 


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