Infomotions, Inc.A guide to the study of medieval history, for students, teachers, and libraries. / Paetow, Louis John, 1880-1928




Author: Paetow, Louis John, 1880-1928
Title: A guide to the study of medieval history, for students, teachers, and libraries.
Publisher: Berkeley [Calif.] University of California Press 1917
Tag(s): middle ages history outlines, syllabi, etc; middle ages bibliography; geschichte; medieval; paris; leipzig; moyen age; histoire; history partii; medieval history; london; general medieval; new york; medieval culture; jeanne d'arc; france; history; roger bacon; thirteenth century; middle ages; byzantine empire; york; edition; medii aevi; cambridge medieval; etudes sur; bibliography general; etude sur; deutsche geschichte; historische zeitschrift
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GUIDE TO THE STUDY OF 
MEDIEVAL HISTORY 

FOR STUDENTS, TEACHERS, 
AND LIBRARIES 



BY 

LOUIS JOHN PAETOW, PH.D. 

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF MEDIEVAL HISTORY 
IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 




UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA^WlES 
BERKELEY 
1917 






l 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SYLLABUS SERIES No. 90 



Copyrighted, 1917, by 
L. J. PAETOW 



PREFACE 

Ever since the fall of 1914 the stream of historical writing on 
the middle ages has become thinner and thinner, so that today it 
is comparatively easy to keep abreast with the literature on the 
subject due to the phenomenal decrease of new contributions by 
European scholars. This sudden lull, preceded by a period of 
almost feverish activity in book-making, is a peculiarly propitious 
time for the making of inventories of the wealth of historical 
literature which has been produced in the century since the close 
of the Napoleonic wars. Such a task for medieval history is 
attempted in this Guide. 

The book has grown out of mimeographed syllabi prepared for 
two courses offered in the University of California, a general course 
in medieval history designed especially for juniors, and an advanced 
course in medieval culture for seniors and graduate students. These 
two syllabi have furnished the bases for parts n and in of this 
Guide. Part I, containing the most important general books useful 
in a study of medieval history, has been added in order to make 
the. manual as complete and comprehensive as is possible within its 
limits. These general books are referred to constantly in parts n 
and in by cross references to the black-faced numbers by which 
they are designated. The table of contents furnishes an analysis 
of the general books in part I. 

Part II is divided into thirty-five sections and part ill into 
twenty-eight sections. The titles and Eoman numbers of these sec- 
tions are indicated by means of analytical page headings. A 
section comprises a well-defined subject which represents approxi- 
mately one week's work in the courses mentioned above. Each 
section is divided into three parts: A, Outline; B, Special Recom- 
mendations for Reading; and C, Bibliography. "A," the Outline, 
aims to present the subject matter of the section in an orderly 
fashion, including the principal names and dates which readers will 
encounter in the books which are listed, and thus dispenses with 
the need of a text book. Under 'B, " Special Recommendations 
for Reading, are indicated such books and articles as are likely to 
appeal to undergraduates in college who have only a limited amount 
of time to give to the subject. The references are made as specific 
as possible and are graded and classified to suit various library 
conditions, individual tastes, and special requirements. Care has 
been taken to indicate, wherever possible, the original sources 
which are easily accessible and translated into English. "C," the 

Hi 



PREFACE 

Bibliography, presents a classified list of the most important special 
books and articles which will guide students in making reports and 
in preparing papers, but which is particularly designed for mature 
readers and for investigators who desire a survey of the most 
important literature in the fields in which they are interested. 
Ordinarily the literature on a given subject is thus divided under 
"B, " Special Recommendations for Reading, and "C, " Bibli- 
ography, and should be sought for under both headings. At the 
end of each section are listed the special bibliographies which must 
be consulted by those who wish to pursue the subject to its ultimate 
limits. 

While the mimeographed syllabi mentioned above were designed 
for only certain grades of college students, this printed Guide has 
been modified and augmented so as to appeal to all classes of 
students and readers who have advanced beyond the textbook 
stage and who have access to good libraries. It is hoped that 
teachers will find it useful and that librarians will give it a place 
among their books of reference. The task of selection, which is 
always difficult, has been rendered peculiarly delicate by the plan 
to make the book appeal to so wide a circle of readers. The present 
resources and the future needs of the University of California 
Library have been made the basis of selection. In this Guide 
there are listed all books, valuable for a study of medieval history, 
which now are in this library, and in addition, all others on this 
subject, which, in the opinion of the author, should be acquired by 
the library in the near future. It is hoped that this basis of 
selection will be considered as practical and as representative as 
any which might have been adopted to suit conditions in America. 

The difficulty of choosing from the mass of literature in the 
various modern European languages has been met by selecting all 
the best material in English, French, and German, and by makig 
a more limited selection from books in Italian and Spanish. Except 
in rare instances, all the other modern European languages have 
been neglected. 

English history is not treated fully because in America the 
subject is usually taught in separate courses and because we have 
such admirable bibliographical guidance for the medieval period in 
the second edition of C. Gross, The sources and literature of English 
history. 

In a book of this kind there is not much space for commentary 
and criticism of individual wor'-s. Confrorted by the great diffi- 
culty of evaluating such a huge amount of literature, one is sorely 
tempted to give way to fear and to modesty by grouping books 

iv 



PREFACE 

alphabetically in long unclassified lists. But this way out of the 
difficulty has been avoided because the average reader dislikes to 
choose altogether for himself, or at least he is curious to know 
another's choice before he makes his own. Critical notes have 
been inserted here and there, but the main task of criticism is 
revealed in the selection itself and in the order in which the books 
and articles are listed. Throughout the work classification has been 
made as minute as possible and with rare exceptions, as in the case 
of text books on pages 41-44, under each heading the books which 
are considered the most important are listed first. On the whole, 
books written in English are probably judged a little more leniently 
than those in foreign languages, because in all doubtful cases the 
English books were given the benefit of the doubt. The occasional 
advantage of the alphabetical arrangement of books is not entirely 
lost by this system of grouping because it is in large measure 
supplied by the index. 

The index contains in one alphabet authors, editors, translators 
of medieval books, titles of large collections, and subjects on which 
there is special literature. All articles and papers, as well as 
books, are included. The blackfaced figures refer to numbers in 
part i; the light-faced figures to pages in parts n and in. Reference 
is made to the place where the title of a work is given in full. 
If the reader wants complete information concerning the title of a 
work which he finds mentioned in abbreviated form he should turn 
to the index which indicates the place where he will find the 
desired details. Librarians will find that the information given about 
books is sufficient to locate them readily in the trade catalogues. 

Again and again the author has been tempted to submit the 
manuscript to his friends who are specialists in this field of history, 
knowing full well how much the book would be benefitted by their 
criticism; but sore experience in bibliographical work has convinced 
him that it would not be fair to impose even portions of this 
task upon his friends. Thus he decided to be content with what- 
ever others had prepared for him in the form of printed books 
and syllabi and to do alone as much as his time, strength, patienco, 
and the facilities at his command permitted. Perhaps this will 
induce those whom he spared and others to be all the more willing 
to point out mistakes and omissions and to offer suggestions for 
improvement. 

L. J. PAETOW. 

"Berkeley, California, 

October 17, 1917. 



_ 



PART I 
GENERAL BOOKS 

CHAPTER I 
BIBLIOGBAPHICAL WORKS 

PAGE 

1. Bibliographies of Bibliographies 1 

2. General Bibliographies: Catalogues of Large Libraries and 

Archives 1 

3. Bibliographies of Periodical Literature 3 

4. General Historical Bibliographies 3 

5. General Bibliographies of the Middle Ages 4 

6. Bibliographies of Various Countries 5 

(a) France 5 

(fc) Germany and Austria 6 

(c) England 7 

(d} Italy 7 

(e) Spain 7 

(f) Switzerland 8 

(g) Belgium and Netherlands 8 

(ft) Eussia 8 

(t) Poland and Bohemia 8 

(j) Scandinavia 8 

7. Bibliographies of Various Subjects 8 

(a) Church 8 

(&) Philosophy 9 

s (c) Education '..... .. 9 

(d!) Law and Politics 10 

(e) War 10 

(f) Jews 10 



CHAPTER II 
BOOKS OF REFERENCE 

Miscellaneous Books of Reference 11 

(a) Guide to Reference Books 11 

(ft) Historical Method 11 

vii 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

(c) Chronological and Tabular Aids 11 

(d) Guides to Historical Fiction 12 

(e) Words and Expressions Famous in History 12 

(f) Guides to the Learned World 13 

(g) Dictionary of Names 13 

(ft) Book Eeviews 13 

2. Biographical Dictionaries 13 

3. Encyclopaedias 14 

(a) General Encyclopaedias 14 

(ft) History of the Church and Keligion 16 

Political Economy 17 

Education 17 

Jews .'. 17 

Islam 18 

4. Atlases and Other Geographical Aids 18 

(a) General Historical Atlases 18 

(ft) Atlases for Church History 18 

(c) Atlas for the History of Medieval France 19 

(d) Dictionaries of Geographical Names 19 

(e) Historical Geographies 19 

5. Historical Periodicals 20 

(a) General Historical Periodicals 20 

(ft) Periodicals Devoted Especially to Medieval History 22 

(c) History of Culture and Literature 22 

(d) Byzantine Empire 23 

(e) Church History 23 

(f) History of Philosophy 23 

- (#) History of Education 23 

(ft) History of Law 23 

(i) Periodicals for Teachers of History 24 

6. Pictorial Works 24 

7. Guides to Learned Societies 26 

CHAPTER III 

SOME AUXILIARIES TO THE STUDY OF 
MEDIEVAL HISTORY 

. Latin Palaeography 27 

(a) Handbooks .; 27 

(6) Abbreviations 28 

(c) Facsimiles 29 

2. Diplomatics and Sphragistics 29 



CONTENTS 



3. Chronology 31 

4. Genealogy 32 

5. Heraldry 33 

6. Numismatics 34 

7. Archaeology 34 

8. Philology 35 

CHAPTER IV 
GENERAL MODERN HISTORICAL WORKS 

1. Universal Histories 36 

2. Medieval and Modern History 37 

3. Medieval History 39 

(a) Standard General Surveys -. 39 

(6) Large Sections of the Middle Ages 39 

(c) Impressionistic Surveys of the Middle Ages 40 

(d) Recent Foreign Text Books 40 

(e) Selections from Modern Historians 41 

(f) The Mediterranean 1 41 

4. Text Books of Medieval History in English 41 

5. Source Books: Short Selections from the Sources for Schools. 43 

6. Histories of the Church 44 

(a) General Histories of the Church 44 

(1) History of Religions 44 

(2) Voluminous Standard Accounts 44 

(3) Shorter Accounts and Text Books 45 

(4) Miscellaneous 46 

(ft) The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy... 47 

(c) The Latin Church in the Middle Ages 47 

(1) Extensive Standard Accounts 47 

(2) Text Books 47 

(3) Miscellaneous ,. ...'....:. "48 

The Medieval Papacy.......:.. ...".:..:...:..::... 48 

Church and State in the Middle Ages 49 

The Church in France in the Middle Ages 50 

(</) The Church in Germany in the Middle Ages 50 

(h) The Church in Italy in the Middle Ages .-. 50 

(i) The Church in Spain in the Middle Ages 51 

0') History of Church Councils 51 

(fc) History of Dogma 51 

(Z) Monasticism 52 

(m) Collections on Church History 53 

ix 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

7. The Medieval Empire in the West 53 

8. France 54 

(a) General Histories of France 54 

(1) Monumental Works 54 

(2) Shorter Accounts 55 

(3) One-volume Histories 55 

(ft) General Histories of Medieval France 56 

(c) French Institutions 56 

(d) Foreign Eelations of France 57 

(e) Great Kegions of France 57 

(f) Miscellaneous 57 

9. Belgium and the Netherlands 58 

10. Germany 59 

(a) General Histories of Germany 59 

(1) Monumental Works 59 

(2) Shorter Accounts and Text Books 59 

(b) Germany in the Middle Ages 59 

(c) German Institutions 60 

(d) Austria 61 

(e) Prussia 62 

(/) Alsace-Lorraine 62 

11. Italy 62 

(a) General Histories of Italy 62 

(1) Political History 62 

(2) Constitutional History 63 

(3) Maritime History 63 

(&) Medieval History of Italy 63 

(1) Monumental Works 63 

(2) Shorter Works and Text Books 64 

112. Spain and Portugal 64 

(a) General History of Spain 64 

(1) Monumental Works 64 

(2) Shorter Works and Text Books 65 

(3) Constitutional History of Spain . 65 

(ft) Portugal 66 

13. The Byzantine Empire 66 

(a) General Accounts 66 

(&) Greece in the Middle Ages 68 

(c) Constantinople 68 

(d) Miscellaneous 69 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

14. Eastern Europe 69 

(a) General Accounts .' 69 

(&) Eussia 69 

(c) Finland and the Baltic Provinces: Livonia, Es- 

thonia, and Courland 70 

(d) Poland 71 

(e) Bohemia and Moravia 71 

(f) Hungary 72 

(g) Balkan States 72 

(1) General 72 

(2) Eumania 72 

(3) Bulgaria 72 

(4~) Serbia and Bosnia 72 

] 5. Scandinavian Countries 73 

(a) General 73 

(b) Denmark 73 

(c) Norway 73 

(d) Sweden 74 

(e) Iceland 74 

16. History of Culture and Civilization 74 

(a) General Histories of Civilization 74 

(b) History of Freedom of Thought 75 

(c) Medieval Civilization in General 76 

(d) Medieval Intellectual Life in General 76 

(e) France 77 

(f) Germany 77 

(1) Medieval and Modern Times 77 

(2) The Middle Ages 78 

(g) Histories of Literature 78 

(1) General Histories of Literature 78 

(2) Ancient Classical Literature and Learning.. 79 

(3) Literary History of the Middle Ages 79 

(4) Byzantine Literature 80 

(5) France 80 

(6) Germany and Austria 80 

(7) Italy ..." 81 

(8) England 81 

(9) Spain and Portugal 81 

(10) Eussia and Scandinavia 81 

(ft) History of Philosophy and "Weltanschauung" 82 

(1) Medieval "Weltanschauung" 82 

(2) General Histories of Philosophy 82 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

(3) Medieval Philosophy 83 

(t) History of Education 83 

(1) General Histories of Education 83 

(2) History of Medieval Education 84 

17. Jews 84 

(a) General History of the Jews '... 85 

(&) Jews in the Middle Ages 85 

(1) Social and Economic History 85 

(2) Intellectual Life of Medieval Jews 86 

(3) Medieval Jewries 86 

(4) General Accounts and Miscellanea 87 

18. Collections 87 

(a) Important Academies and Learned Societies 88 

(1) France and Belgium 88 

(2) Germany and Austria 89 

(3) England ?. 89 

(4) Italy 89 

(5) Spain 90 

(&) Collections of Historical Essays 90 

(c) Commemorative Essays 91 

(d) Miscellaneous Collections 92 



CHAPTER V 
LAEGE COLLECTIONS OF OEIGINAL SOUECES 

1. General Collections 93 

2. Medieval Church 93 

(a) General Collections of Ecclesiastical Writings 93 

(&) The Papacy..., 94 

(c) Church Councils 95 

(d) Lives of Saints 96 

(e) Monastic Eules 96 

3. France and Belgium 96 

4. Germany, Austria and Switzerland 99 

5. Italy 100 

6. England , 101 

7. Spain and Portugal 102 

8. Byzantine Empire 103 

9. Eastern Europe 103 

10. Northern Europe 104 

11. Education and Learning 104 

12. Jews ... .. 104 



CONTENTS 



PART II 
GENERAL HISTORY OF THE MIDDLE AGES 

PERIOD I. 500-1100 PAGB 

T. Introduction 105 

II. The Latin West in the Sixth Century 107 

III. The Greek East in the Sixth Century 113 

IV. Monasticism in the Sixth Century 117 

V. The Eise of the Papacy in the Sixth Century 121 

VI. Expansion of Orthodox Latin Christendom from about 

590 to 755 125 

VII. The Eise of the Franks to the Time of Charlemagne. 132 

VIII. Charlemagne 138 

IX. Foes of Western Christendom from the Eighth to 
the Eleventh Century. From the South. Moham- 
medans 144 

X. Foes of Western Christendom from the Eighth to 

the Eleventh Century. From the North. Northmen. 150 
XL Foes of Western Christendom from the Eighth to 
the Eleventh Century. From the East. Slavs and 

Asiatic Nomads 155 

XII. Early Medieval Institutions 159 

XIII. The Beginnings of the Greater Medieval Monarchies. 165 

XIV. Eevival of the Medieval Empire in the West in Ger- 

many 169 

XV. The Church from the Eighth to the Eleventh Century. 173 

XVI. The Investiture Strife, 1056-1122 179 

XVII. The Byzantine Empire from the Death of Justinian, 

565, to the First Crusade, 1095... 184 

XVIII. The Culture of the Early Middle Ages 191 

PERIOD II. 1100-1500 

XIX. The Beginning of a New Era in the History of West- 
ern Europe about 1100 193 

XX. The Normans 194 

XXI. The Crusades 201 

XXII. The Popes and the Hohenstaufen 211 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

XXIII. The New Monastic Movement 222 ' 

XXIV. The Organization and Work of the Christian Church 

in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries 233 ^ 

XXV. The Political History of France, 1108-1328 241 ' 

XXVI. Medieval Economic Conditions 247 

XXVII. The Life of the Nobles in the Middle Ages 260 

XXVIII. Culture in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries 265 

XXIX. The Church from about 1300 to about 1450 267 ' 

XXX. France during the Hundred Years' War 276 "" 

XXXI. Germany from the Great Interregnum to the Second 

Half of the Fifteenth Century 285 

XXXII. Italy in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries 293 

XXXIII. The Kemarkable Interest in Ancient Classical Litera- 

ture, Art, and Archaeology in Italy during the 
Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries 303 

XXXIV. Christian Spain in the Later Middle Ages 315 

XXXV. Eastern and Northern Europe in the Later Middle 

Ages 323 



CONTENTS 




PERIOD I. 500-1100 

I. The Transition from Ancient to Medieval Culture 333 

II. Types of the Transition Period, about 400-600 339 

III. The Transformation of Ancient Eome into a Medieval 

City 344 

IV. The Classical Heritage of the Early Middle Ages 348 

V. Medieval "Weltanschauung" 352 

VI. The Faith, Morals, and Learning of the Merovingian 

Franks and of the Visigoths in Spain 357 

VII. Learning in the British Isles from the Fifth to the 

Eighth Century 361 

VIII. The Age of Charlemagne 361 

IX. Learning in and about the Imperial Court during the 

Ninth and Tenth Centuries 368 

X. Mohammedan Culture in the West 373 

XI. The Eve of a New Era in Medieval Culture. The 

Eleventh Century 380 



PERIOD II. 1100-1300 

XII. The Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries in the History 

of Culture 384 

XIII. The City of Paris in the Middle Ages 385 

XIV. Growth of a Spirit of Inquiry Based on Logic. 

Abelard and Bernard of Clairvaux 391 

XV. The New Aristotle 396 

XVI. Heresies and the Inquisition 399 

XVII. Systematization of Medieval Philosophy and Theology. 405 
XVIII. Rise and Decline of Interest in the Ancient Classics. 410 

XIX. The Ars Dictaminis and the Ars Notaria 417 

XX. The Study of Roman and Canon Law 420 

XXI. Rise and Decline of Interest in the Natural Sciences. 426 
XXII. Medieval Universities.... ... 437 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

XXIII. Latin Language and Literature in the Twelfth and 

Thirteenth Centuries 445 

XXIV. Medieval French Language and Literature 452 

XXV. Historiography and Political Thought 457 

XXVI. Medieval Books and Libraries 462 

XXVII. Medieval Art 470 

XXVIII. The Scholarship of Dante 478 

INDEX .. ... 485 



xvi 



PART I 
GENERAL BOOKS 



CHAPTER I 
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL WORKS 

1. Bibliographies of Bibliographies 

1. STEIN, H. Manuel de bibliographic generale. Paris, 1898. 
(Manuels de bibliographic historique, II.) 

Historical bibliographies are treated in ch. xm, 401-466, 
but many other sections are of interest to the historian. Con- 
tains criticisms of some books. Much more useful than 
PETZHOLDT, but does not supersede it altogether. 

2. PETZHOLDT, J. Bibliotheca bibliographica : kritisches Verzeieh- 
niss der das Gesammtgebiet der Bibliographic betreffenden Literatur 
des In- und Auslandes. Leipzig, 1866. 

Pages 771-875 deal with history and cartography. 

2. General Bibliographies: Catalogues of Large Libraries 
and Archives 

3. British Museum. Catalogue of printed books in the library of 
the British Museum. Many parts, but no definite division into 
volumes. London, 1881-1900. Supplement, 1900-1905. 

An alphabetical list according to authors, but also contains 
subject entries, some of which were, sold as separates, e.g., 
"Dante." Since 1880 there has been published a Catalogue 
of new books which brings the printed catalogue up to date. 
These new books have been classified every five years in an 
excellent subject-index by G. K. FORTESCUE, Subject-index of 
the modern works added to the library of the British Museum 
in the years 1881-1900, 3 vols., London, 1902-03; works added 
in 1901-05, 1 vol., 1906; works added in 1906-10, 1 vol., 1911. 
The following aids are valuable: List of books forming the 
reference library in the reading room of the British Museum, 
4th edition, 2 vols., London, 1910; and G. W. PORTER, List of 
bibliographical works in the reading room of the British Mu- 
seum, 2nd edition; revised by G. K. FORTESCUE, London, 1889. 
For guides to manuscript material in England consult GROSS, 
no. 36 below. See also II. C. SHELLEY, The British Museum: 
its history and treasures, Boston, 1911; and R. A. PEDDIE, The 
British Museum reading room: a handbook for students, Lon- 
don, 1912. 



2 . GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

4. Bibliotheque nationale. Catalogue general des livres imprimis 
de la Bibliotheque nationale. Paris, 1897ff. Vol. LXIV (to 
Grosvenor) appeared in 1916. 

This is strictly an author catalogue; there are no subject 
entries. Three series are contemplated, of which this is the 
first: 1. Authors (including anonymous works whose authors 
are known); 2. Anonymous works; 3. Publications of a special 
nature. This catalogue is being supplemented by a Bulletin 
mensuel des publications etrangeres, 1874ff. ; and a Bulletin 
mensuel des recentes publications frangaises, 1882ff. For other 
French libraries consult the Catalogue general des bibliotheques 
publiques de France, Paris, 1893-1903, which includes the de- 
partments of France and the libraries of Paris except the 
Bibliotheque nationale. 

See also the Catalogue alphabetique des livres imprvmes mis 
a la disposition des lecteurs dans la salle de travail [of the 
Bibliotheque nationale], suivi de la liste des catalogues usuels 
du department des manuscrits, Paris, 1910. This list of cata- 
logues of manuscripts [included in the work just cited] is 
the most complete list of catalogues of manuscript material 
kept in libraries, such as the Catalogue general des manuscrits 
des bibliotheques publiques de France, Paris, 1885ff. Far more 
than a mere bibliography is the very extensive Notices et 
extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliotheque nationale et autres 
bibliotheques, Paris, 1787ff., no. 885 below. The same is true 
of B. HAURAU, Notices et extraits de quelques manuscrits 
latins de la Bibliotheque nationale, 6 vols., Paris, 1890-1893. 

For archive material see the exhaustive guide of C. V. 
LANGLOIS, Etat des inventaires des Archives nationales au l er 
Janvier 1914, Paris, 1914, 80pp. A collection, by no means 
complete, of inventaries of archives (French and foreign) 
is now on the shelves of the reading-room of the Archives 
nationales in Paris, but no list of it has been printed yet. 
See also nos. 20 and 25 below. 

A. FRANKLIN, Guide des savants, des litterateurs, et des 
artistes dans les bibliotheques de Paris, Paris, 1908, is a valu- 
able handbook for students of history working in Paris. 

The best guide for American students in France now is 
Science and learning in France: with a survey of opportunities 
for American students in French universities, published by The 
Society for American fellowships in French universities, 1917. 

5. MAZZATINTI, G. Inventari del manoscritti delle biblioteche 
d 'Italia. 13 vols. Forli, 1891-1904. 

See also G. MAZZATINTI, Gli archivi della storia d'ltalia, 
Florence, 1897ff., and no. 41 above. For the Vatican the best 
guide for American historians is still C. H. HASKINS, "The 
Vatican archives," in American historical review, II (1896), 
40-58; but see also G. BROM, Guide aux archives du Vatican, 
2nd edition, Eome, 1911; C. R. FISH, Guide to the materials -for 
American history in Boman and other Italian archives, Wash- 
ington, D. C., 1911; also E. BEGNI, The Vatican: its history, 
its treasures, New York, 1914. 



CHAP, i HISTORICAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES 3 

6. GRAESEL, A. Handbuch der Bibliothekslehre. 2nd edition. 
Leipzig, 1902. 

This standard handbook for librarians contains excellent 
bibliographies and a wealth of miscellaneous information of 
importance to all frequenters of libraries and archives. A. 
GRAESEL, Fiihrer filr Bibliotlielcsbenutzer, Leipzig, 1905, 2nd 
edition, 1913, is a primer for beginners. 

The article on "Libraries" in the Encyclopaedia Britan- 
tiica is a valuable guide (with good bibliographies) for all 
the large libraries of the world, to be supplemented by 
Minerva: Jahrbuch der gelehrten Welt, no. 83 below. 

The most comprehensive periodical in this field is the 
Centralblatt filr Bibliotlielcswesen, Leipzig, 1884ff., which no 
historian can afford to overlook. See also Bibliotheques, 
livres et libraires: conferences faites a I'Ecole des Hautes- 
Etudes Socialcs sous le patronage de I' Association des Biblio- 
tJiecaires frangais, Paris, 191 2ff. 

For the literature on archives and libraries in Germany, 
see DAHLMANN-WAITZ, no. 28 below, pp. 27-33. 

7. SONNENSCHEIN, W. S. The best books. London, 1891. 3rd 
edition in three parts. Parts I-II, 1910. 

3. Bibliographies of Periodical Literature 

8. POOLE'S index to * periodical Jriteraturo. Boston, 1802ff. Con- 
tinued by Annual library index, N. Y., Publishers' weekly, 1893ff. 

9. Eeader's guide to periodical literature. White Plains, N. Y., 
1905ff. 

10. Bibliographic der deutschen Zeitschriftenliteratur. Leipzig, 
1896ff. (Internationale Bibliographic der Zeitschriftenliteratur. 
Abteilung A). 

11. Bibliographic der fremdsprachigen Zeitschriftenliteratur. 
Gautzsch, near Leipzig, 1911ff. (Internationale Bibliographic der 
Zeitschriftenliteratur, Abteilung B). 

In some measure this continues the Repertoire biblio- 
grapMque des principalcs revues franqaises, 1897-99, 3 vols., 
Paris, 1898-1900. 

4. General Historical Bibliographies 

12. LANGLOIS, C. V. Manuel de bibliographic historique. 2 vola., 
in one. Paris, 1901-04. 

Part I, Instruments bibliographiques; part IT, Histoire et 
organisation des Etudes historiques. A work of fundamental 
value to every advanced student of history. 

13. Jahresberichte der Geschichtswissenschaft. Berlin, 1880ff. 
36 vols. in 1916. 

Annual surveys of historical literature covering the years 
1878-1913. Unfortunately the volumes appear two or more 
years after the close of the year surveyed. The plan of this 
comprehensive work is explained by J. JASTROW, Handbuch 
zu Literaturberichtcn, no. 147 below. 



4 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

14. HERRE, P. Quellenkunde zur Weltgeschichte. Leipzig, 1910. 

Includes both sources and modern works. C. K. ADAMS, 
A manual of historical literature, New York, 1882, was an over- 
ambitious attempt to write short reviews of the ' ' best books ' ' 
covering the whole field of history and is now out of date. 
C. M. ANDREWS, J. M. GAMBRILL, and LIDA L. TALL, A bibli- 
ography of history for schools and, libraries, New York, 1910, 
reprinted with slight alterations, 1911, is a very handy little 
volume especially useful to teachers in high schools. 

15. Check-list of collections relating to European history [by the 
Committee of Bibliography of the American Historical Association]. 
Proof edition with locations, March, 1912. 

This list, although incomplete and imperfect, is of value 
to American scholars because it indicates in what American 
libraries the large sets of historical material for European 
history can be found. 

5. General Bibliographies of the Middle Ages 

16. CHEVALIER, U. Repertoire des sources historiques du moyen 
age: bio-bibliographie. 2 vols. Paris, 1877-86. 2nd edition, 1905-07. 

17. CHEVALIER, IT. Repertoire des sources historiques du moyen 
age: topo-bibliographie. 2 vols. Pa rib, .i<_><ir-1903. 

These two T .orks cover the period from the beginning of 
the Christian era to 1500 A.D. They are invaluable guides for 
the literature on persons, places, and things in the middle 
ages, but are difficult to use because no attempt has been 
made to weed out worthless material. Good and bad, old and 
new, accounts are jumbled together in long alphabetical lists. 

18. POTTHAST, A.- Bibliotheea historica medii aevi: Wegweiser 
durch die Geschichtswerke des europaischen Mittelalters bis 1500. 
Berlin, 1862. Supplement, 1868. 2nd edition, enlarged and im- 
proved, 2 vols., Berlin, 1896. 

A stupendous undertaking devoted to the classification of 
the primary sources of medieval history. No modern works 
are mentioned except those which explain the sources. Only 
printed annals, chronicles, etc., are noted which were written 
between 375 and 1500. Printed archive material is rigorously 
excluded. 

Part I contains accurate titles and brief descriptions of 
all important printed collections of sources; part II is an 
alphabetical list of medieval authors and their works, with 
lists of the manuscripts, editions, translations and commen- 
taries on each work. A third edition would be very welcome. 
For criticisms of the second edition see the review by A. 
VIDIER, in Le moyen age, IX (1896), 73-83. 

19. BRESSLAU, H. "Quellen und Hilfsmittel zur Geschichte der 
romanischen Volke'r im Mittelalter. " In.Grundriss der Romanischen 
Philologie, no. 305 below, II, part IV (1896), 431-515. 



CHAP, i BIBLIOGRAPHIES OF COUNTRIES 5 

20. OESTERLEY, H. Wegweiser durch die Literatur der Urkun- 
densammlungen. 2 vols. Berlin, 1885-86. 

The period covered is 500-1500 A.D. Naturally the work 
is best for Germany. 

6. Bibliographies of Various Countries 
(a) FRANCE 

21. MOLINIER, A. Les sources de 1'histoire de France. Vols. I- 
VI on middle ages. Paris, 1901-06. (Manuels de bibliographic 
historique, III.) 

This is now the standard bibliography of the history of 
France devoted primarily to the original sources, but- also 
including modern works which throw light on the sources and 
their authors. Vol. VI is the index for the middle ages. The 
first portion of vol. V contains an introduction to the 
medieval portion of the work. Numbers in italics in the index 
volume refer to sections in this introduction. See also H. 
BRESSLAU, no. 19 above. 

22. MONOD, G. Bibliographic de 1'histoire de France: catalogue 
methodique et chronologique des sources et des ouvrages relatifs a 
1'histoire de France depuis les origines jusqu'en 1789. Paris, 1888. 

Until the appearance of MOLINIER, no. 21 above, this was 
the chief guide for the study of the history of France. Even 
now it still maintains a proper place beside MOLINIER because 
MONOD pays particular attention to modern works. A second 
edition was announced in 1910. For good recent bibliograph- 
ical notes see no. 508 below. 

23. FRANKLIN, A. Les sources de 1'histoire de France: notices 
bibliographiques et analytiques des inventaires et des recueils de 
documents relatifs a 1'histoire de France. Paris, 1877. 

24. STEIN, H. Bibliographic generale des cartulaires franc.ais ou 
relatifs 1'histoire de France. Paris, 1907. 

25. LANGLOIS, C. V. and STEIN, H. Les archives de 1'histoire de 
France. 3 parts. Paris, 1891-93. 

Supplemented by L. MIROT, ' ' Les inventaires d 'archives, ' ' 
in Con ff res biblioaraphique Internationale, compte rendu, II 
Paris, 1900, pp. i 86-210; and the Rapport au ministre sur 
I 'administration des archives nationales, departmentalcs, etc., 
Paris, 1902. See also the Annuaire des bibliothcques et des 
archives, Paris, 1886ff. 

26. LASTEYRIE, R. DE, A. VIRIER, and others. Bibliographic g6n- 
erale des travaux historiques et archeologiques publics par les soci6t6s 
savantes de la France. Paris 1888ff. (Vol VII appeared in 1914.) 

27. LELONG, J. Bibliotheque historique de la France, contenant 
le catalogue des ouvrages, imprimis et manuscrits, qui traitent de 



6 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

1'histoire de ce royaume ou qui y ont rapport. New edition, by 
FEVRET DE FONTETTE. 5 vols. Paris, 1768-1778. 

Still important for ancient books. Contents analyzed in 
A. FRANKLIN, no. 23 above, 1-9. 

(6) GERMANY AND AUSTRIA 

28. DAHLMANN-WAITZ. Quellenkunde der deutschen Geschichte. 
8th edition, by P. HERRE and many others. Leipzig, 1912. 1st edi- 
tion by F. C. DAHLMANN, in 1830. 

The most perfect of all bibliographies of national history. 
It covers both the medieval and the modern history of Ger- 
many and includes original sources and modern works. The 
comparative value of books is indicated to some extent by 
differences of type. It has a model index. 

29. WATTENBACH, W. Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittel- 
alter bis zur Mitte des dreizehnten Jahrhunderts. Berlin, 1858. 6th 
edition, 2 vols. Berlin, 1893-94. Vol. I in 7th edition by E. 
DUMMLER. Stuttgart and Berlin, 1904. 

30. LORENZ, O. Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter 
seit der Mitte des dreizehnten Jahrhunderts. Berlin, 1870. 3rd 
edition, 2 vols., 1886-87. 

These two model works of WATTENBACH and LORENZ supple- 
ment each other. They are not mere bibliographies of the 
original sources but are rather histories of medieval history 
writings which concern Germany. WATTENBACH is the best 
introduction to the Monumenta Germaniae historica, no. 978 
below. 

31. VILDHAUT, H. Handbuch der Quellenkunde zur deutschen 
Geschichte. 2 vols. Arnsberg, 1898-1900. 2nd, revised edition. 
Werl, 1906, 1909. 

Popularizes and supplements WATTENBACH and LORENZ, 
nos. 29 and 30 above, and takes cognizance of the literature 
which appeared since the second edition of POTTHAST, Weg- 
weiser, no. 18 above, came out in 1896. 

32. LOEWE, V. Biicherkunde der deutschen Geschichte: kritischer 
Wegweiser durch die neuere deutsche historische Literatur. Berlin, 
1903. 4th edition. Altenburg, 1913. 

The first edition, Kritischer Wegweiser durch die neuere 
deutsche historische Literatur, Berlin, 1900, appeared under 
the pseudonym "F. FORSTER. " 

33. JANSEN, M. and SCHMITZ-KALLENBERG, L. Historiographie und 
Quellen der deutschen Geschichte bis 1500. 2nd edition. Leipzig, 
1914. (Grundriss der Geschichtswissenschaft, no. 331 below, 1:7.) 

A book for students. Similar to VILDHAUT, no. 31 above, 
but on a much smaller scale. 



CHAP, i BIBLIOGRAPHIES OF COUNTRIES 7 

34. JACOB, K. Quellenkunde der deutschen Geschiehte im Mit- 
telalter [to 1400]. Leipzig, 1905. Vol. I, 2nd, enlarged edition, 
1913 (Sammlung Goschen, 279). 

Practically a short epitome of DAHLMANN-WAITZ, no. 28 
above, for schools. 

35. CHARMATZ, E. Wegweiser durch die Literatur der oster- 
reichischen Geschiehte. Stuttgart, 1913. 

(c) ENGLAND 

36. GROSS, C. The sources and literature of English history 
from the earliest times to about 1485. New York and London, 1900. 
2nd edition, revised and enlarged, 1915. 

No other bibliographical tool for the history of medieval 
England deserves mention beside the second edition of this 
fine achievement of American scholarship. When CHARLES 
GROSS died in 1909 he was Professor of History in Harvard 
University. 

(d) ITALY 

37. CIPOLLA, C. Pubblicazioni sulla storia medioevale italiana. 
Venice, 1914. 

38. CALVI, E. Biblioteca de bibliografia storica italiana. Eome, 
1903. Supplement, 1907. . 

39. Lozzi, C. Bibliotheca istorica della antica e nuova Italia, 
saggio di bibliografia analitico, comparato e critico. 2 vols. Imola, 
1886. 

40. CAPASSO, B. Le fonti della storia delle provincie Napolitane 
dal 568 al 1500. Ee-edited by E. O. MASTRJANI. Naples, 1902. 

41. Quellen und Forschungen aus italienischen Archiven und 
Bibliotheken. Issued by Preussisches historisches Institut in Eome. 
Eome, 1898ff. 

Contains a yearly survey of new books on Italian history. 
See also H. BRESSLAU, no. 19 above. 

(e) SPAIN 

42. ALTAMIRA, E. Historia de Espana, no. 628 below, vol. IV 
(1914), 587-672. 

This is a short bibliographical guide to the literature on 
Spanish history. See also BRESSLAU, no. 19 above, pp. 450, 503- 
511. E. ALTAMIRA, La ensenanza de la historia, 2nd edition, 
Madrid, 1895, contains bibliographical matter of importance. 
For a description of the rich manuscript collections of Spain 
consult E. BEER, ' ' Handschrif tenschatze Spaniens, ' ' in Sitz- 
ungsberichte of the Vienna Academy, 1891, 124ff. M. MENEN- 
DEZ Y PELAYO was assigned the task of writing a bibliography 
of the history of Spain for the Historia general de Espana, 
no. 622 below, but the book has not appeared. 



8 GENERAL BOOKS 

(/") SWITZERLAND 

43. BARTH, H. Bibliographic der Schweizer Geschiehte, ent- 
haltend die selbstandig erschienenen Druckwerke zur Geschiehte der 
Sehweiz. Vols. I and II, 1914-15. (Quellen zur Schweizer Geschiehte. 
Neue Folge, IV Abtlg., Handbiicher.) 

44. BURCKHAKDT, F. Bibliographic der Sehweizer Geschiehte. 
Jahrgang, 1913. Bern, 1915. (Beilage zu Bd. 12, N. F. des Anzeigers 
fiir Schweizer Geschiehte.) 

(g) BELGIUM AND NETHERLANDS 

45. PIRENNE, H. Bibliographic de 1'histoire de Belgique: cata- 
logue methodique et chronologique des sources et des ouvrages prin- 
cipaux relatifs a 1'histoire de tous les Pays-Bas jusqu-'en 1598 et 
a 1'histoire de Belgique jusqu'en 1830. Ghent, 1893. 2nd edition, 
Brussels, 1902. 

(K) EUSSIA 

46. BESTUSCHEW, K. Quellen und Literatur zur russischen Ge- 
schiehte von den altesten Zeiten bis 1825. Translated into German 
by T. SCHIEMANN. Mitau, 1876. 

For recent literature see EAMBAUD, no. 682 below, and E. 
J. KERNER, The foundations of Slavic bibliography, University 
of Chicago Press, 1916, 39 pp. E. J. KERNER will publish in 
the fall of 1917, Selected bibliography of Slavic Europe, in 
western European languages, comprising history, language, and 
literature, Harvard University Press. 

(i) POLAND AND BOHEMIA 

47. FINKEL, L. Bibliografia historyj polskiej. 3 vols., in 7 parts. 
Cracow, 1891-1906. 

For Bohemia, see C. ZIRBT. Siblwgrafie ceslce historic, 4 
vols., Prague, 1900-09. 

(j) SCANDINAVIA 

48. SETTERWALL, K. Svensk historisk bibliografi, 1875-1900. 
Stockholm, 1907. 

Supplemented by a yearly survey in a Supplement to the 
Historisk Tidslcrift. 

7. Bibliographies of Various Subjects 
(a) CHURCH 

49. BRATKE, E. Wegweiser zur Quellen- und Literaturkunde der 
Kirchengeschichte: eine Anleitung zur planmassigen Auffindung 
der literarischen und monumentalen Quellen der Kirchengeschichte 
und ihrer Bearbeitungen. Gotha, 1890. 

See the unfavorable review of it by C. MIRBT in Historische 
Zeitschrift, LXV (1890), 117-120. 



RTI 



CHAP, i BIBLIOGRAPHIES OP SUBJECTS 9 

50. SMEDT, C. DE. Introductio generalis ad historiam ecclesiast- 
icam critice traetandam. Ghent, 1876. 

Still a serviceable elementary bibliography of ecclesias- 
tical history. J. A. FISCHER, A select bibliography of church 
history, Boston, 1885, is insufficient and antiquated. Begin- 
ners will find much additional material in the bibliographies 
in FLICK, no. 428 below. See also J. F. HUNT, Literature of 
theology: a classified bibliography of theology and general 
religious literature, New York, 1896. 

51. HURTEB, H. Nomenclator litterarius theologiae catholicae, 
theologos exhibens aetate, natione, disciplinis distinctos. 4 vols. 
3rd edition. Innsbruck, 1903-1910. 

Does for theological literature of the middle ages what 
POTTHAST, no. 18 above, has done for chronicles and his- 
torical texts. 

52. HUBLER, B. Kirchenrechtsquellen. 3rd edition. Berlin, 1898. 

53. Bibliotheca hagiographica latina antiquae et mediae aetatis. 
2 vols. Brussels, 1898-1901. 

Supplements and completes the section "Vita" in POTT- 
HAST, no. 18 above. The best bibliography of hagiographical 
literature. See Ada Sanctorum, no. 963 below. 

54. Bibliographic der Kirchengeschichtlichen Literatur: aus der 
Bibliographie der theologischen Literatur. Edited by B. PUNJER, 
later G. KRUGER. Leipzig, ]882ff. 

55. Theologischer Jahresbericht. Freiburg, 1882ff. 

(&) PHILOSOPHY 

56. Philosophisches Jahrbuch. Issued by the Gorres-Gesellschaft. 
Fulda, 1888ff. 

57. Die Philosophic der Gegenwart: eine Internationale Jahres- 
iibersicht. Edited by A. EUGE. Heidelberg, 1910ff. 

(c) EDUCATION 

58. Historisch-padagogischer Literaturbericht. 

The Bericht for 1911 appeared as the 4th Beiheft of the 
Zeitschrift fur Geschichte der Erziehung und des Unterrichts, 
Berlin, 1913. 

See also Pcidagoyischer Jahresbericht. Leipzig, 1846ff. 

59. CUBBERLEY, E. P. Syllabus of lectures on the history of 
education, with selected bibliographies. New York, 1902. 

Contains extensive bibliographies. Other similar syllabi 
are: P. MONROE, Syllabus of a course of study on the history 
and principles of education, New York, 1911; and W. J. 
TAYLOR, A syllabus of the history of education, Boston, 1910. 



10 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

(d) LAW AND POLITICS 

60. MUHLBBECHT, O. Wegweiser durch die neuere Literatur der 
Eechts- und Staatswissenschaften. 2nd edition. Berlin, 1893. Sup- 
plement, 1901. 

See also Uebersiclit der gesammten staats- und rechtwissen- 
schaftlichen Literatur, edited by O. and H. MUHLBRECHT, Ber- 
lin, 1869ff. 

(e) WAR 

61. POHLEE, J. Bibliotheea historico-militaris: systematischer 
tibersicht der Erscheinungen aller Sprachen auf dem Gebiete der 
Geschichte der Kriege und Kriegswissenschaft seit Erfindung der 
Buchdruckerkunst bis 1880. 4 vols. Cassel, 1899. 

(f) JEWS 

62. List of works relating to the history and condition of the 
Jews in various countries. The New York Public Library, 1914. 



CHAPTER II 

BOOKS OF KEFEBENCE 

1. Miscellaneous Books of Reference 

(ct) GUIDE TO KEFERENCE BOOKS 

63. KROEGER, ALICE B. Guide to the study and use of reference 
books: a manual for librarians, teachers, and students. Boston, 
1902. 2nd edition, revised and enlarged, 1908. Supplement, 1909- 

1910, by ISADORE G. MUDGE, American Library Association, Chicago, 

1911. Supplement 1911-13, Chicago, 1914. 

A new edition was announced in 1916. The Library Journal 
(February and March) supplements the publication from year 
to year. 

(6) HISTORICAL METHOD 

64. BERNHEIM, E. Lehrbuch der historischen Methode. 5th and 
6th edition, Leipzig, 1908. 

65. LANGI.OIS, C. V. and C. SEIGNOBOS. Introduction aux etudes 
historiques. Paris, 1899. 4th edition, Paris, 1909. Translated by 
G. G. BERRY, Introduction to the study of history. London, 1898. 
Eeprinted in a cheaper edition. London, 1912. 

66. WOLF, G. Einfiihrung in das Studium der neueren Geschichte. 
Berlin, 1910. 

Contains much which interests the student of medieval 
history. 

67. VINCENT, J. H. Historical research. New York, 1911. 

Designed to be an introduction for beginners in historical 
research work in American universities. See also the article 
"History" by C. H. HASKINS and II. E. BOURNE in the 
Cyclopedia of education. 

(c) CHRONOLOGICAL AND TABULAR AIDS 

68. PLOETZ, C. Epitome of ancient, mediaeval and modern his- 
tory. Translated from the German, and enlarged by W. II. TIL- 
LINGHAST. Boston, latest edition, 1915. 

69. HEILPRIN, L. The historical reference book: comprising a 
chronological table of universal history; a chronological dictionary 
of universal history; a biographical dictionary with geographical 
notes, for the use of students, teachers, and readers. 6th edition. 
New York, 1902. 



12 GENERAL BOOKS 

70. HAYDN'S Dictionary of dates and universal information re- 
lating to all ages and nations. 25th edition. London, 1910. 

See also E. F. SMITH, A dictionary of dates, London and 
New York, 1911 (Everyman's library). 

71. LITTLE, C. E. Cyclopedia of classified dates. New York, 
1900. 

72. PUTNAM, G. P. Tabular views of universal history: a series 
of chronological tables presenting in parallel columns a record of 
the more noteworthy events in the history of the world from the 
earliest times down to the present day. New York, 1914. 

73. MORISON, M. Time-table of modern history, A.D. 400-1870. 
New York, 1901. 2nd edition. 1908. 

74. NICHOL, J. Tables of European history, literature, science, 
and art, from A.D. 200 to 1909; and of American history, literature, 
and art. 5th edition. New York, 1909. 

75. HASSALL, A. A handbook of European history, 476-1871, 
chronologically arranged. London, 1897. 

76. History for ready reference from the best historians, bi- 
ographers, and specialists. Edited by J. N. LARNED. 5 vols. Spring- 
field, Mass., 1895-1901. 

Vol. VI is devoted to recent history. 

(d) GUIDES TO HISTORICAL FICTION 

77. BAKER, E. A. A guide to historical fiction. New edition, 
entirely rewritten and greatly simplified, with an index of 170 pages. 
London, 1914. 

78. NIELD, J. A guide to the best historical novels and tales. 
London, 1902. 4th edition, 1911. 

79. BUCKLEY, J. A. and WILLIAMS, W. T. A guide to British his- 
torical fiction. London, 1912. 

(e) WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS FAMOUS IN HISTORY 

80. BiiCHMANN, G. Gefliigelte Worte. 24th edition. Berlin, 
1910. 

81. HERTSLET, W. L. Der Treppenwitz der Weltgeschichte: ge- 
schichtliche Irrtumer, Entstellungen und Erfindungen. 8th edition. 
Berlin, 1912. 

82. FOURNIER, E. L 'esprit dans 1'histoire: recherches et curiosi- 
tes sur les mots historiques. Paris, 1857. 



CHAP, it BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARIES 13 

(f) GUIDES TO THE LEARNED WORLD 

83. Minerva: Jahrbuch der gelehrten Welt. Strassburg, 1890ff. 

84. Minerva: Handbuch der gelehrten Welt. Vol. I. Die Univer- 
sitaten und Hochschulen, etc.: ihre Geschichte und Organisation. 
Strassburg, 1911. 

85. Pantheon: Adressbueh der Kunst- und Antiquitaten-Sammler 
und -Handler, Bibliotheken, Archive, Museen, Kunst-, Alterturas- 
und Geschichtsvereine, Biicherliebhaber, Numismatiker: ein Hand- 
buch fur das Sammelwesen der ganzen Welt. Erzlingen, 1914. 



(9} 

86. The century cyclopedia of names: a pronouncing and ety- 
mological dictionary of names in geography, biography, mythology, 
history, ethnology, art, archaeology, fiction, etc. Edited by B. E. 
SMITH. Eevised and enlarged edition. New York, 1911. 

(ft) BOOK EEVIEWS 

87. Bibliographic der deutschen Rezensionen, mit Einschluss von 
Referaten und Selbstanzeigen. Supplement zur Bibliographic der 
deutschen Zeitschriften-literatur. Leipzig, 1901ff. (Internationale 
Bibliographic der Zeitschriftenliteratur, Abteilung C.) 

Two thousand to three thousand periodicals are scoured. 
Since 1912 the title is Bibliographic der Rezensionen, and each 
volume is published in two parts: 1, German periodicals; 2, 
periodicals in other languages, of which about 130 are English 
and American. In its new form this valuable publication 
makes a world-wide appeal to scholars. Since August, 1914, 
no literature from enemy countries is included. See supple- 
ment volume XX, p. 3. 

88. Book review digest. 'White Plains, 1905ff. Vol. I is entitled, 
Cumulative book review digest. 

Covers about fifty leading English and American periodi- 
cals. Gives extracts from reviews. The sign + indicates 
favorable comment; , unfavorable comment. 

2. Biographical Dictionaries 

89. Dictionary of national biography. Edited by L. STEPHEN 
and S. LEE. 63 vols. and 3 supplementary vols. London, 1885-1901. 
2nd edition, 22 vols., 1908-09. 

A model work of its kind. Confined to English biography, 
but that includes many men who made a reputation upon the 
continent in the middle ages, e.g., Roger Bacon. It contains 
signed articles with good bibliographies. 



14 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

90. Allgemeine deutsche Biographie. 55 vols. Leipzig, 1875- 
1910. Vols. XLVII-LV are supplements. 

Described by R. v. LILIENCRON, in Gotting. Gelehrten Anzei- 
gen (1898), 160, 655ff. 

91. Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Osterreich. Edited 
by C. v. WURZBACH. 60 vols. Vienna, 1856-91. 

92. Biographie nationale, publiee "par 1 'academic royale de Bel- 
gique. Brussels, 1866ff. 

93. Biographie universelle. Edited by a society of literary men. 
52 vols. with supplements. Paris, 1811-62. New edition, 45 vols. 
Paris, 1854-65. 

For want of something better, this general biography must 
serve in the place of a national biography for France. See 
also the French encyclopedias, nos. 98-99 below, for names. 
In 1913, a Dictionnaire de biographic -frangaise was announced, 
to be edited by L. DIDIER and others. 

94. SMITH, Sir W., and WAGE, H. Dictionary of Christian bi- 
ography, literature, sects, and doctrines. 4 vols. London and 
Boston, 1877-87. 

Extends to the time of Charlemagne. A revised, but 
abridged, edition of the above is H. WACE and W. C. PIERCY, 
A dictionary of Christian biography and literature to the end of 
the sixth century A.D , London and Boston, 1911. This new 
edition does not supersede the old, which must still be con- 
sulted for the more extended articles and for all material 
falling in the seventh and eighth centuries. 

95. Who's who: an annual biographical dictionary. London, 
1848ff. 

Students of medieval history have occasion to consult this 
and similar manuals when they desire information about 
living authors of books on the middle ages. For America, 
see Who's who in America: a biographical dictionary of notable 
living men and women of the United States, Chicago, 1899ff. 
For France, Qui etes-vous? Annuaire des contemporains, Paris, 
1908. For Germany, Wer ist's?, Leipzig, 1904ff.; Deutsche 
Literaturlcalender, edited by J. KURSCHNER, Leipzig, 1878ff.; 
and Biographisches Jahrbuch und deutscher Nelcrolog, edited 
by A. BETTELHEIM, Berlin, 1898ff. For further means of find- 
ing modern authors see Centralblatt fur Bibliothelcswesen, XII 
(1896), 115ff. 

3. Encyclopaedias 

(a) GENERAL ENCYCLOPAEDIAS 

96. Encyclopaedia Britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, 
literature, and general information, llth edition, 29 vols. Cam- 
bridge University Press, 1911. 



CHAP, it GENERAL ENCYCLOPAEDIAS 15 

Vol. XXIX consists of a very important index. Most of 
the articles are signed and some contain good bibliographies, 
although in many cases they have not been brought up to 
date in this edition. Many foreign scholars have contributed. 
In 1914 the publication of separately bound reprints of 
articles on the history of various countries was begun. There 
have appeared the History of France; History of Germany ; 
History of Belgium, Italy, and Switzerland; History of Austro- 
Hungary and Poland; and the History of Russia and the 
Balkan States. 

97. New international encyclopaedia. 2nd edition. 24 vols. New 
York, 1914-1916. 

98. La Grande encyclopedic: inventaire raisonne des sciences, 
des lettres et des arts, par une societe de savants et de gens de 
lettres. 31 vols. Paris, 1885-1903. 

A very serviceable work of reference for students of his- 
tory. It was not a mere publisher's venture, but was the 
work of a learned society headed by the famous chemist 
BERTHELOT. Subject entries are more numerous than in the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. Many articles are signed. Its 
biographical articles are especially good and supplement no. 
93 above. 

99. LAROUSSE Grand dictionnaire universel du XIX e siecle. 17 
vols. Paris, 1866-90. Smaller, not an abridged, edition by C. 
AUGE, Nouveau Larousse illustre, 7 vols. Paris, 1898-1904. Supple- 
ment, 1907. 

A dictionary and an encyclopaedia combined. The very 
unique and compact Petit Larousse illustre, Paris, 1906, has 
been simmered down until it is little more than an ordinary 
dictionary. 

100. Allgemeine Encyklopadie der Wissenschaften und Kiinste. 
Founded by J. S. ERSCH and J. G. GRUBER. 170 vols. Berlin, 
1818-90. 

Still incomplete. The most voluminous undertaking of its 
kind addressed exclusively to the world of scholars. 

101. BROCKHAUS Konversations-Lexicon: allgemeine deutsche 
Keal-Eneyklopadie. 14th edition. 16 vols. Leipzig, 1892-95. Vol. 
17 is a supplement, 1897. 

102. MEYERS Konversations-Lexicon: ein Nachschlagewerk des 
allgemeinen Wissens. 24 vols. 6th edition, revised and enlarged, 
Leipzig, 1902-1913. 

These two German works are similar in character and of 
about equal value to students of history. Perhaps MEYERS 
is slightly more serviceable on account of its excellent biblio- 
graphies and fine maps. Articles are not signed. 



16 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

103. Enciclopedia universal ilustrada Europeo-Americana. Barce- 
lona [no dates]. Vol. XXXI (Lon-Madz), had appeared in 1916. 

(6) HISTORY OP THE CHURCH AND RELIGION 

104. Catholic encyclopedia: an international work of reference 
on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic 
Church. 15 vols. and an index. New York, 1908-1914. 

Designed to serve as a general encyclopaedia with special 
emphasis on the part played by Catholics in the advancement 
of learning. Thus everything even remotely connected with 
the church is included. Scholars from all parts of the world 
have contributed. Articles are signed. It is handsomely 
illustrated. There are some excellent bibliographies appended 
to articles (e.g., Eoger Bacon). 

105. Encyclopaedia of religion and ethics. Edited by J. HAST- 
INGS and others. Edinburgh and New York, 1908ff. Vol. VIII, to 
Mulla, appeared in 1916. 

106. The new SCHAFF-HERZOG encyclopedia of religious knowl- 
edge. Based on the third edition of. the Realencyklopadie founded 
by J. J. HERZOG and edited by A. HAUCK. Edited by S. M. JACK- 
SON and others. 12 vols. New York and London, 1908-1912. 

See no. 112 below. 

107. Encyclopedic des sciences religieuses. 

Composed of the following separate works: 1. Dictivmiuire 
d'archeologie chretienne, no. Ill below; 2. Dictionnairc d'liix- 
toire et de geographic ecclesiastique, by BAUDRILLAKT, no. 110 
below; 3. Dictionnaire de theologie catholique by VACANT and 
MANGENOT, no. 109 below; 4. Dictionnaire de la bible, by 
VIGOUROUX; and 5. Dictionnaire du droit canonique (in prepara- 
tion). When completed, this will be the largest work of 
reference on religion in any language. It incorporates the 
highest achievements of Eoman Catholic scholarship in France. 

108. SMITH, Sir W., and CHEETHAM, S. Dictionary of Christian 
antiquities. 2. vols. London, 1876-80. 

Covers the period to the time of Charlemagne. Now being 
superseded by Dictionnaire d'archeologie chretienne, no. Ill 
below. See also J. S. BUMPUS, Dictionary of ecclesiastical 
terms, Philadelphia, 1910. 

109. Dictionnaire de theologie catholique, contenant 1 'expose des 
doctrines de la theologie catholique, leurs preuves et leur histoire. 
Edited by A. VACANT and E. MANGENOT. Paris, 1909ff. 

A very ambitious undertaking on a vast scale, distinctly 
Eoman Catholic in tone. Good bibliographies, with special 
emphasis on the sources. Unfortunately, the type is exces- 
sively small. Articles are signed. 



, ii SPECIAL ENCYCLOPAEDIAS .17 

110. Dictionnaire d'histoire et de geographic ecclesiastique. 
Edited by A. BAUDRILLART and others. Paris, 1912ff. Vol. II, to 
Aneurin, appeared in 1914. 

111. Dictionnaire d 'archeologie chretienne et de liturgie. Edited 
by F. CABROL. Paris, 1907ff. 

Extends to the time of Charlemagne. 

112. Realencyklopadie fiir protestantische Theologie und Kirche, 
begriindet von J. J. HERZOG. 3rd edition, edited by A. HAUCK. 24 
vols. Leipzig, 1896-1913. 

As its name implies, it is decidedly Protestant in tone. 
The articles dealing with history are particularly good. See 
no. 106 above. 

113. Kirchenlexikon oder Encyklopiidie der katholischen The- 
ologie. Edited by H. J. WETZER and B. WELTE. 12 vols. Frei- 
burg-i-B, 1847-60. 2nd edition by J. HERGENROTHER and F. KAULEN, 
13 vols., Freiburg, 1882-1903. French translation, with modifica- 
tions by J. GOSCHLER, 26 vols., 1869. 

Distinctly Roman Catholic in tone. A well-balanced work. 

114. MORONI, G. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da 
S. Pietro ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. Venice, 1840-61. Six index 
vols., 1878-79. 

(c) POLITICAL ECONOMY 

115. Dictionary of political economy. 3 vols. and appendix. 
Edited by R. H. I. PALGRAVE. London, 1894-1908. 

116. Handwb'rterbuch der Staatswissenschaften. Edited by J. 
CONRAD and others. 3rd edition, revised. 8 vols. Jena, 1909-1911. 

See also Worterbuch der Volkswirtschaft, edited by L. 
EI.STER, 2 vols., Jena, 1898, 3rd edition, 1911. 

(d) EDUCATION 

117. A cyclopedia of education. Edited by P. MONROE. 4 vols. 
New .York, 1911-13. 

118. SCHMID, K. A. Enzyklopiidie des gesammten Erziehungs- 
und Unterrichtswesens. 2nd edition by W. SCHRADER. 10 vols. 
Gotha and Leipzig, 1876-87. 

See also Enzylclopadisches Handbuch der Padagofjik, edited 
by W. REIN. 2nd edition, 9 vols., Langensalza, 1902-1909. 

(e) JEWS 

119. Jewish encyclopaedia: a descriptive record of the history, 
religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people. 12 vols. 
New York, 1901-06. 



18 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

(f) ISLAM 

120. The encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by M. T. HOUTSMA and 
others. London, 1913ff. 

See also T. P. HUGHES, A dictionary of Islam, London, 
1885, 2nd edition, 1896. 

4. Atlases and Other Geographical Aids 

(a) GENERAL HISTORICAL ATLASES 

121. SHEPHERD, W. B. Historical atlas. New York, Henry Holt, 
1911. 

The best general atlas for the use of students in schools 
and undergraduates in college. Due to the war, the book 
is temporarily out of print, because the plates are made in 
Germany. E. MuiR, Hammond's new historical atlas for students, 
2nd edition, New York, 1915, and E. W. Dow, Atlas of European 
history, New York, 1907, are fair substitutes. A very cheap 
Atlas of historical geography: Europe, New York, 1910, is 
published in the Everyman's library series. (See also the 
volumes on Asia and Africa.) The appearance of these recent 
atlases in English, with good indexes, makes it unnecessary 
for American students to refer to such popular German 
atlases as F. W. PUTZGER, Historischer Schulatlas, American 
edition 1903, 35th edition, 1911; Meyers historischer Hand- 
atlas, Leipzig, 1911 (which, however, has a unique map for 
the Normans in Europe) ; and J. PERTHES, Geschichts-Atlas, 
Gotha, 1898, 2nd edition, 1904. 

122. POOLE, E. L. Historical atlas of modern Europe from the 
decline of the Eoman empire. Oxford, 1902. 

123. DROYSEN, G. Allgemeiner historischer Handatlas. Leipzig, 
1886. 

124. SCHRADER, F. Atlas de geographic historique. Paris, 1896. 
New edition, Paris, 1907. 

125. SPRUNER, K. VON and MENKE, T. Handatlas fur die Ge- 
schiehte des Mittelalters und der neueren Zeit. 3rd edition, Gotha, 
1880. 

126. VIDAL DE LA BLACHE, P. Atlas generale: histoire et geo- 
graphic. Paris, 1897. New edition, Paris, 1913. 

(b) ATLASES FOR CHURCH HISTORY 

127. HEUSSI, K. and MULERT, H. Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte. 
Tubingen, 1905. 

128. McCLURE, E. Historical church atlas. London, 1897. 



CHAP - n HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHIES 19 

(c) ATLAS FOR THE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL FRANCE 

129. LONGNON, A. Atlas historique de la France. Plates I-XV 
[to 1380 A.D.]. Paris, 1885-89. 

The work was left incomplete. A valuable descriptive 
text is published under a separate cover. 

(d) DICTIONARIES OF GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES 

130. GRAESSE, J. G. T. Orbis latinus: oder Verzeichniss der 
lateinischen Benennungen der bekanntesten Stadte . . . Meere, Seen, 
etc., in alien Teilen der Erde nebst einem deutschlateinischen Reg- 
ister. Dresden, 1861. New, revised, edition, 1909. 

131. Dictionnaire de geographic ancienne et moderne a 1 'usage 
du libraire et de 1 'amateur de livres. Par un bibliophile [P. 
DECHAMPS]. Paris, 1870. 

For Gaul, up to the tenth century, there are excellent 
tables of Latin geographical names with their modern French 
equivalents in A. LONGNON, Atlas historique de la France, 
Texte explicatif, no. 129 above. 

132. EGLI, J. Nomina geographical Sprach- und Sacherklarung 
von 42,000 geographischen Namen aller Erdraume. Leipzig, 1872. 
2nd edition. Leipzig, 1893. 

133. EGLI, J. Geschichte der geographischen Namenkuride. Leip- 
zig, 1886. 

134. OESTERLEY, H. Historisch-geographisches Worterbuch des 
deutschen Mittelalters. 2 vols. Gotha, 1883. 

135. BISCHOFF, H. T. and MOLLER, J. H. Vergleichendes Worter- 
buch der alten, mittleren, und neuen Geographic. Gotha, 1892. 

136. GRO'HLER, H. Ueber Ursprung und Bedeutund der franz- 
osisehen Ortsnamen. Part. I: Ligurische, iberische, phonizische, 
griechische, gallische, lateinische Namen. Heidelberg, 1913. 

137. CHEVIN, L'ABBE. Dictionnaire latin-franqais des noms pro- 
pres de lieux ayant une certaine notoriete, principalement au point 
de vue ecclsiastique et monastique. Paris [1897]. 

138. Dictionnaire topographique de la France. Vols. I-XXVII. 
Paris, 1861-1912. 

(e) HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHIES 

139. FREEMAN, E. A. The historical geography of Europe. 2 
vols. London, 1881. 2nd edition, 1882. 3rd edition, by J. B. BURY. 
London, 1903. 

To be used in connection with his Atlas of the historical 
geography of Europe, 3rd edition, London, 1903. 

E. W. DANN, Historical geography on a regional basis: 
Europe, London, 1908; and K. JOHNSTON, A sketch of historical 
geography, London, 1909, are recent school books. 

See also no. 110 above. 



20 GENERAL BOOKS PART * 

140. HIMLY, A. Histoire de la formation territorials des etats 
de 1 'Europe centrale. 2 vols. Paris, 1876. 2nd edition, 1894. 

141. KRETSCHMER, K. Historische Geographic von Mitteleuropa. 
Munich and Berlin, 1904. (Part IV of no. 330 below.) 

142. KOTZSCHKE, E. Quellen und Grundbegriffe der historischen 
Geographic Deutschlands und seiner Nachbarlander. Leipzig and 
Berlin, 1906. In Grundriss der Geschichtswissenschaft, no. 331 
below, I, part II, 397-449. 

A good short account of ground covered in Kretschmer, 
no. 141 above. 

143. GOTZ, W. Historische Geographic. Leipzig, 1904. (In 
"Die Erdkunde," XIX.) 

144. BOTTCHER, C. Geschichtlich-geographischer Wegweiser fiir 
das Mittelalter und die neuere Zeit. Leipzig, 1891. 

A school-book. 

145. KNULL, B. Historische Geographic Deutschlands im Mittel- 
alter. Breslau, 1903. 

146. VIDAL DE LA BLACHE, P. Tableau de la geographic de la 
France. Vol. I, part I, of Histoire de France, no. 508 below. Paris, 
1908. 

5. Historical Periodicals 

147. JASTROW, J. Handbuch zu Literaturberichten. Berlin, 1891. 

See pp. 177ff. for a list of periodicals pertaining to his- 
tory. See also no. 13 above. STEIN, no. 1 above, gives a list 
of historical societies and periodicals, pp. 697-708. 

(a) GENERAL HISTORICAL PERIODICALS 

148. American historical review. New York, 189off. Index, 
vols. I-X, 1905; vols. XI-XX, 1915. 

149. English historical review. London, 1886ff. Index for vols. 
I-XX, 1906; vols. XXI-XXX, 1916. 

150. Historische Zeitschrift. Munich, 1859ff. Index, vols. I- 
LVI, 1888; LVII-XCVI, 1906. 

151. Historische Vierteljahrschrift. Freiburg, 1898ff. 

A continuation of the Deutsche Zeitschrift fiir Geschichts- 
wissenschaft, 1889-1898. This continued the older and valu- 
able "Bibliotheca historica" under the title "Bibliographic 
zur deutschen'Geschichte, " which is now continued in the 
Historische Vierteljahrschrift. This list serves a temporary 
purpose, until the Jahresbericht, no. 13 above, appears. The 
Historische Zeitschrift supplements the list in the Historische 
Vierteljahrschrift mainly because it takes cognizance of a 
good deal of periodical literature, and because it reviews 
many books sent to it directly from different countries. 



CHAP, ii HISTORICAL PERIODICALS 21 

152. Historisches Jahrbuch. Munich, 1880ff. 

This is the organ of the Roman Catholic Gorresgesell- 
schaft. It is a scholarly periodical, containing excellent re- 
views, and pays particular attention to eastern Europe. 
Index, vols. I-XXXIV, 1914. 

153. Mitteilungen aus der historischen Literatur. Herausgegeben 
von der historischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin, 1873ff. Index, vols. 
I-XX, 1893. 

154. Historisches Literaturblatt : kritisch-bibliographisches Organ 
fiir Geschichte und ihre Hilfswissenschaften. 1898ff. 

155. Korrespondenzblatt des Gesamtvereins der deutschen Ge- 
schichts- und Altertumsvereine. Berlin, 1853ff. 

156. Revue historique. Paris, 1876ff. Index vols. I-XIV, 1881; 
XV-XXIX, 1887; XXX-XLIV, 1891; XLV-LII, 1896; LIII-LXXIV, 
1901; LXXV-LXXXIX, 1906; XC-CV, 1911. 

See also the Kevue des etudes historiques, publiee par la, 
Societe des etudes historiques, Paris, 1834ff. This title was 
adopted in 1899; it had varied considerably between 1834 and 
1899. 

157. Revue des questions historiques. Paris, 1886ff. Index for 
vols. I-XX, 1887; XXI-X1,, 1889; XLI-LX, 1897. 

Pays exceptional attention to historical literature on 
Scandinavia and Russia. 

158. Revue de synthese historique. Paris, 1900ff. Index for the 
vols. covering the years 1900-1910, Paris, 1912. 

159. Revue critique d'histoire et de litterature. Paris, 1867ff. 
Index for the vols. covering the years 1866-90 in 1894. 

Established "to enforce respect for method, to execute 
justice upon bad books, to check misdirected and superfluous 
work. ' ' 

160. Archivio storico italiano. Florence, 1842ff. 5 series. 

A vast collection of sources, essays, reviews, with special 
reference to Italian history. Indexes, first series, 1857; 1855- 
1872, Florence, 1874; fourth series, 1891; fifth series, 1900. 

161. Revista storica italiano. Turin, 1884ff. Index 1884-1901. 
2 vols., 1904. 

A Nuova rivista storica, edited by A. ANZILOTTI, and others 
was begun in Milan, January, 1917. 

162. Bullettino dell' Istituto storico italiano. Rome, 1886ff. 

163. Revista de archives, bibliotecas y museos. Madrid, 1871- 
78; 1881-82; 3rd series, 1897ff. 

Much broader in scope than its title would indicate. 
Covers all phases of Spanish history and the auxiliary studies, 
and contains the best current bibliographies of historical 
, work in Spain. 



22 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

(&) PERIODICALS DEVOTED ESPECIALLY TO MEDIEVAL HISTORY 

164. Bibliotheque de 1'Ecole des chartes: revue d 'Erudition con- 
sacrSe sp6cialement a 1 'etude du moyen age. Paris, 1839ff. Indexes, 
1839-49, Paris, 1849; 1870-79, Paris, 1888. 

The contents of the first thirty-six volumes are analyzed 
in A. FRANKLIN, Les sources de I 'histoire de France, no. 23 
above, 399-429. In the bibliographies, which are very full, 
special attention is given to palaeography and diplomatics. 
See Livret de 1'Ecole des chartes, 1901-1913: supplement au 
Livret publie en 1902, Paris, 1913. 

165. Le moyen age: revue d 'histoire et de philologie. Paris, 
1888ff. 

Vol. VIII has bound with it: A. VIDIER, "Repertoire 
methodique du moyen age franc.ais . . . ann6e 1895." The 
Repertoire for 1894 forms a regular part of this volume. 

166. Mitteilungen des Instituts fur osterreichische Geschichts- 
forschung. Innsbruck, 1880ff. 

Especially devoted to the middle ages and to the auxiliary 
sciences. 

167. Neues Arehiv der Gesellschaft fur altere deutsche Ge- 
schichtskunde. Hannover, 1876ff. A continuation of Arehiv der 
Gesellschaft etc., 12 vols., Hannover, 1824-74. 

Reports on progress of work in connection with the 
Monumenta Germaniae historica, no. 978 below. 

168. Archivio Muratoriana. Vol. I was completed in 1914. 

Supplements no. 988 below. 

(c) HISTORY OF CULTURE AND LITERATURE 

169. Arehiv fur Kulturgeschichte. Edited by G. STEINHAUSEN. 
Berlin, 1902ff. 

Follows the Zeitschrift fur Kulturgeschichte, 1894-1901. 
For other predecessors, see DAHLMANN-WAITZ, no. 28 above, 
no. 1693. 

170. Arehiv fiir Literatur- und Kirchengeschichte des Mittel- 
alters. Edited by H. DENIFLE and F. EHRLE. Vols. I- VII. Berlin, 
1885-1900. 

171. Revue de 1 'histoire litteraire de la France. Paris, 1894ff. 

A periodical which reports on work done in connection 
with no. 803 below. 

172. Bulletin critique de litterature, d 'histoire et de philologie. 
1880ft 

173. Studi medievali. Edited by F. NOVATI and R. RENIER, 
Turin, 1904ff. 



CHAP, ii HISTORICAL PERIODICALS 23 

(d) BYZANTINE EMPIRE 

174. Byzantinische Zeitschrift. Founded by K. KRUMBACHER. 
Leipzig, 1892ff. Index of vols. I-XII, 1908. 

175. Vizantijskij vremennik [Byzantine chronical]. Published 
by the Academy of Sciences of Petrograd. 1894-1915. 

Continued by: VizantijsTcoe obozrienie [Byzantine review], 
1915ff. Contains articles, reviews, and texts. The new re- 
view publishes articles in Eussian, French, English, Latin, 
and Greek, but not in German. 

(e) CHURCH HISTORY 

176. Zeitschrift fur Kirchengeschichte. Edited by T. BRIEGER 
and B. BESS. Gotha, 1877ff. See vols. XXVI-XXX (1905-09) for 
a bibliography of church history. 

177. Analecta Bollandiana. Edited by C. DE SMEDT, etc. Paris, 
etc., 1882ff. 

Reports on progress of work in connection with the Ada 
sanctorum, no. 963 below. 

178. Revue d'histoire ecclesiastique. Edited by A. CAUCHIE. 
Louvain, 1900ff. Bibliography beginning with vol. V (1904). 

179. Rb'mische Quartalschrift fiir christliehe Altertumskunde und 
fur Kulturgeschichte. Rome, 1887ff. 

180. Revue de 1'histoire des religions. Paris, 1880ff. 

(f) HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY 

181. Archiv fur Geschichte der Philosophie. Edited by L. STEIN. 
Berlin, 1888ff. 

As an appendix; Jdhresberichl uber sammtliche Erschein- 
ungen auf dent Gebiete der Geschichte der Philosophie. 

(g) HISTORY OF EDUCATION 

182. Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft fur deutsche Erziehungs- und 
Schulgeschichte. Founded by K. KEHRBACH. Berlin, 1891ff. Con- 
tinued as, Zeitschrift fur Geschichte der Erziehung und des Unter- 
richts. Berlin, 1911ff. Includes Beihefte. They contain the His- 
torisch-padagogische Literaturberichte in nos. 15, 17, 19, 21. Berlin, 
1906ff. 

(ft) HISTORY OF LAW 

183. Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung fiir Rechtsgeschichte. 3 
parts: Germanic, canon, and Romanic Law. Weimar, 1880ff. 

From 1861-1880 it was published under the title: Zeit- 
schrift fiir Rechtsgeschichte. 



24 GENERAL BOOKS PART1 

(t) PERIODICALS FOR TEACHERS OF HISTORY 

184. History teachers' magazine. Philadelphia, 1909ff. 

185. History. London, 1912-1916. 

Since April, 1916, the organ of the Historical association 
[England]. A new series began with this number under the 
title The quarterly journal of the Historical association, new 
series, no. 1, April 1916. The^new journal is devoted chiefly 
to the teaching of history, and is edited by A. F. POLLARD. 

186. Vergangenheit und Gegenwart: Zeitschrift fur den Ge- 
schichtsunterricht und staatsbiirgerliche Erziehung in alien Schul- 
gattungen. Edited by F. FRIEDRICH and P. RUHLMANN. Leipzig. 



6. Pictorial Works 
See also nos 318, 775 below. 

187. PARMENTIER, A. Album historique. Publie sous la direc- 
tion de M. Ernest Lavisse. 4 vols. Paris, 1897-1907. Edition de 
luxe, vols. I-III, 1901-1902. Vol. I: Le moyen age (du IV au 
XIII 8 siecle), 2nd edition, 1900. Vol. II: La fin du moyen age 
(XlV'et XV e siecles), 1897. 

188. LACROIX, P. and SERE, F. Le moyen-age et la renaissance: 
histoire et description des moeurs et usages, du commerce et de 
1 'Industrie, des sciences, des arts et des litteratures en Europe. 5 
vols. Paris, 1847-52. Several later editions. Translated into 
English in 4 vols: Manners, customs and dress during the middle 
ages, and during the renaissance period, London, 1874; Science and 
literature in the middle ages and at the period of the renaissance, 
London, 1878; Military and religious life in the middle ages and 
at the period of the renaissance, London [n. d]; The arts of the 
middle ages, and at the period of the renaissance, London, 1870. 

189. KLEINPAUL, E. Das Mittelalter: Bilder aus dem Leben und 
Treiben aller Stande in Europa. 2 vols. Leipzig [1895]. 

190. ESSENWEIN, A. Kulturhistorischer Bilderatlas. Vol. II. 
Mittelalter. Leipzig, 1883. 

191. RACINET, A. Le costume historique. 6 vols. Paris, 1876- 
88. 500 plates. 

Vols. Ill and IV on the middle ages. The Brooklyn Public 
Library published a reading and reference list on costume, 
1909. 

192. LACROIX, P. Costumes historiques de la France d'apres 
les monuments les plus authentiques . . . Avee un texte descriptif. 
10 vols. Paris [1852]. 



CHAP, ii PICTORIAL WORKS 25 

193. PLANCHE, J. E. A cyclopaedia of costume, including a 
general history of costumes. [A.D. 1-1760.] 2 vols. London, 1876- 
79. Many illustrations. 

194. HEPNER-ALTENECK, J. H. DE. Costumes du moyen-age 
Chretien. 3 vols. Frankfort, 1840-54. 420 plates. 

Now see also vol. Ill of C. ENLABT, Manuel d'archeologie 
frangaise, Paris, 1916. 

195. Zur Geschichte der Costume. Munich, 1874. New edition 
1895. Colorierte Ausgabe. Munich, 1913. 

196. EOSENBERG, A. Geschichte des Kostiims. Vol. I, Berlin, 
1910. 

197. DEMAY, G. Le costume au moyen-age d 'apres les sceaux. 
Paris, 1880. 

198. CLINCH, G. English costume from prehistoric times to the 
end of the eighteenth century. Chicago, 1910. 

199. QUICHERAT, J. Histoire du costume en France. Paris, 1877. 

200. BRETT, E. J. A pictorial and descriptive record of the 
origin and development of arms and armour. London, 1894. 133 
good plates. 

201. Longman's historical illustrations: England in the middle 
ages. 1910. 

202. BELLOC, H. The book of the Bayeux tapestry, presenting 
the complete work in a series of colour facsimiles. London, 1914. 

The Bayeux tapestry is also produced in color in vol. VI, 
1916-1923 of Vetusta monumenta, Society of Antiquaries of 
London, 7 vols., London, 1747-1906, which is interesting for 
many other fine illustrations. Another reproduction of the 
tapestry is in F. E. FOWKE, The Bayeux tapestry, London, 
1898. See GROSS, no. 36 above, no. 2139. 

203. DIEDERICHS, E. Ueutsches Leben der Vergangenheit in 
Bildern. 2 vols. Jena, 1908. Vol. I, 15th and 16th centuries. 

204. DAERING, O. Deutschlands mittelalterliche Kunstdenkmiiler 
als Geschichtsquelle. Leipzig, 1911. 

205. VAN DER LINDEN, H. and OBREEN, H. Album historique de 
la Belgique. Brussels, 1912. 

206. HERRAD VON LANDSBERG (Abbess of Hohenburg, died 1195). 
Hortus deliciarum; public aux frais de la Soci6t6 pour la conserva- 
tion des monuments historiques d 'Alsace. Strassburg, 1901. 

For other literature on this interesting book see DAHL- 
MANN-WAITZ, Quellenkunde, no. 5723. 



26 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

207. LABARTE, J. Histoire des arts industriels au moyen age. 
4 vols. Paris, 1864-66. 2nd edition, 3 vols., 1872-75. Many illus- 
trations. 

His Handbook of the arts of the middle ages, 1855, is a 
translation of a smaller work. 

7. Guides to Learned Societies 

See also no. 83 above. 

208. Carnegie Institution of Washington. Handbook of learned 
societies and institutions: American. Washington, 1908. 

A similar handbook for the rest of the world is in prepara- 
tion. The material which is accumulating for it may be 
consulted at the Library of Congress in Washington, D. C. 
See "List of European historical societies," in Annual 
Report of the American historical association, 1914, vol. I, 301- 
310. STEIN, no. 1 above, pp. 642-649, gives a list of acad- 
emies and miscellaneous learned societies and their publica- 
tions. 

209. Year-book of the scientific and learned societies of Great 
Britain and Ireland, giving an account of their origin, constitution, 
and working. London, 1884ff. 

210. DELAUNAY, H. Les societes savantes de France. Paris, 1902. 

See also no. 26 above. 

211. MULLER, J. Die wissenschaftlichen Vereine und Gesell- 
schaften Deutschlands im neunzehnten Jahrhundert: Bibliographic 
ihrer Veroffentlichungen seit ihrer Begriindung bis auf die Gegen- 
wart. Berlin, 1883-87. 



CHAPTER III 

SOME AUXILIARIES TO THE STUDY OF MEDIEVAL 
HISTORY 

1. Latin Palaeography 

(a) HANDBOOKS 

212. THOMPSON, E. M. An introduction to Greek and Latin 
palaeography. Oxford, 1912. 250 plates. The author regards it as 
an enlarged edition of his Handbook of Greek and Latin palae- 
ography, London, 1893, 3rd edition, 1906. 

In its enlarged form, the book is the best handbook in 
any language. See the bibliography at the end. 

The best book for the history of writing in the middle 
ages, apart from the form, is W. WATTENBACH, Das Schrift- 
wesen im Mittelalter, Leipzig, 1871; 3rd edition, 1896 (see 
outline XXVI in part III below). WATTENBACH also has an 
Einleitung zur lateinischen Palaeographie, Leipzig, 1869; 4th 
edition, 1886. 

Beginners will be interested in H. W. JOHNSTON, Latin 
manuscripts: an elementary introduction to the use of critical 
editions 'for high school and college classes, Chicago, 1897; and 
E. E. THOYTS, How to decipher and study old documents : being 
a guide to the reading of ancient manuscripts, London, 1893, 
3rd edition, revised, 1909. Now see also J. E. SANDYS, A 
companion to Latin studies, Cambridge, 1910, 765-805. 

213. PAOLI, C. Programma scolastico di paleografia latina e di 
diplomatica. 3 parts, Florence, 1883-98. 3rd edition of part 1, 
1901. Translated by K. LOHMEYER, Grundriss der lateinischen 
Palaographie und der Urkundenlehre. Innsbruck, 1885ff. 3 parts. 
3rd edition of part I, 1902. 

214. PROU, M. Manuel de paleographie latine et franchise suivi 
d'un dictionnaire des abreviations; aves 23 fac-simile's. Paris, 1890. 
3rd edition with an album of 24 plates. Paris, 1910. 

See the bibliography on pp. 2-12. 

215. REUSENS, E. H. J. Elements de pa!6ographie. Louvain, 
1891. Enlarged edition, Louvain, 1899. 

See bibliography, pp. 468-79. 

216. STEFFENS, F. Lateinische' Palaographie: 100 Tafeln mit 
oiner systematischen Darstellung der lateinischen Schrift. Fri- 



28 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

bourg, 1903. Supplement, 1906. 2nd edition, 125 plates, Trier, 
1907-09. French edition, by R. COULON, Paleographie latine. 
Treves, 1910. 125 plates. 

See also his Proben aus Handschriften lateinischer Schrift- 
steller zur ersten Einfiihrung, Trier, 1907. 

217. BRETHOLTZ, B. "Lateinische Palaeographie. " In Grund- 
riss der Geschichtswissenschaft, no. 331 below, vol. I. Leipzig, 
1906, pp. 21-130. 2nd edition, 1912. 

218. TRAUBE, L. Zur Palaographie und Handschriftenkunde. 
Munich, 1909. In vol. II of his Vorlesungen und Abhandlungen 
(posthumous edition by F. BOLL). 

219. HALL, F. W. A companion to classical texts. Oxford, 1913. 

See especially chapter IX, "The nomenclature of Greek 
and Latin MSS. with the names of former possessors. ' ' 

220. LOEW, E. A. The Beneventan script: a history of the south 
Italian minuscule. Oxford, 1914. 

221. CHASSANT, A. Paleographie des chartes et des manuscrits 
du XI e au XVII 6 siecle. 8th edition, Paris, 1885. 

222. WAILLY, N. DE. Elements de paleographie. 2 vols. Paris, 
1838. 

223. MARUCCHI, O. Epigrafia cristiana. Milan, 1910. Translated 
by A. WILLIS, Christian epigraphy. Cambridge University Press, 
1912. 

(6) ABBREVIATIONS 
See also nos, 244, 245 below. 

224. CAPPELLI, A. Dizionario di abbreviature latine ed italiene. 
Milan, 1899. German edition with additions, Lexicon abbreviatur- 
arum: Worterbuch lateinischer und italienischer Abkiirzungen. 
Leipzig, 1901. 2nd edition, revised, 1912. 

225. CHASSANT, A. Dictionnaire des abreviations latines et 
franchises du moyen age. Paris, 1846. 5th edition, 1884. 

226. CHATELAIN, E. Introduction a la lecture des notes tiron- 
iennes. Paris, 1900. 

227. PERUGI, G. L. Le note tironiane. Rome, 1911. 

228. GUENIN, L. P. and E. Histoire de la stenographic dans 
1'antiquite et au moyen age: les notes tironiennes. Paris, 1907. 

229. ZIMMERMANN, A. Geschichte der Stenographic in kurzen 
Ziigen vom klassischen Altertum bis zur Gegenwart. Vienna, 1912. 



CHAP, in PALAEOGRAPHY AND DIPLOMATICS 29 

(c) FACSIMILES 

230. The Palaeographical Society. Facsimiles of manuscripts 
and inscriptions. Edited by E. A. BOND, E. M. THOMPSON, G. F. 
WARNER and W. WRIGHT. Series I-II; 465 facsimiles with descrip- 
tive text, transliteration, tables of contents, etc., and indices. Lon- 
don, 1873-1901. New Palaeographical Society. Facsimiles of 
ancient manuscripts. Parts I-X. London, 1903-1912. 250 plates. 

231. Becueil de fac-similes a 1 'usage de 1'Ecole des Chartes. 
4 parts. 100 plates. Paris, 1880-87. 

See also the Album paleor/raphique, edited by L. DELISLE, 
for the Societe de 1'Ecole des Chartes. 50 plates. Paris, 1887. 

In 1911 there was formed in Paris a society for the photo- 
graphic reproduction of the most important medieval manu- 
scripts, especially illuminated ones. 

232. CHROUST, A. Monumenta palaeographica: Denkmaler der 
Schreibkunst des Mittelalters. 2 series. Munich, 1899ff. 

233. Archive paleografieo italiano, edited by E. MONACI: Rome, 
1882ff. 

234. WILLIAMS, H. S. Manuscripts, inscriptions, and muniments 
oriental, classical, mediaeval and modern, described, classified and 
arranged, comprehending the history of the art of writing. 200 
facsimiles. 4 vols. London [about 1901]. 

235. SILVESTRE, J. B. Paleographie universelle, collection de fac- 
simile d 'Ventures de tons les peuples. 4 vols. Paris, 1839-41. 
Translated by F. MADDEN, Universal palaeography. 2 vols. London, 
1850. 

236. GALABERT, F. Album de pale"ographie et de diplomatique: 
facsimiles phototypiques de documents relatifs a 1'histoire du Midi 
de la France, et en particulier de la ville de Toulouse. Paris, 1912ff. 

237. ARNDT, W. Schrifttafeln zur Erlernung der lateinischen 
Palaographie. Berlin, 1897ff. 4th edition of parts I and II, Berlin, 
1904-1906. Part III, Berlin, 1903. 2nd edition, unchanged, 1908. 

2. Diplomatics and Sphragistics 

238. MABILLON, J. De re diplomatica libri VI. Paris, 1681; 
supplement, 1704. 2nd edition, 1709. 3rd edition, 2 vols., Naples, 
1789. 

This book, together with TOUSTAIN and TASSIN, Nouvrau 
traite de diplomatique, 1750-65, laid the bases of thia dis- 
cipline. See also R. ROSENMUND, Die Fortschritte der Diplo- 
matik seit Mabillon, vornehmlich in DeutscMand-Ocsterreich, 
Munich and Leipzig, 1897. 



30 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

239. GIRY, A. Manuel de diplomatique. Paris, 1894. 

For a very recent brief sketch see R. THOMMEN, L. 
SCHMITZ-KALLENBERG, and H. STEINACKER, Urkundenlehre, 2nd 
edition, Leipzig and Berlin, 1913 (in Grundriss der Geschichts- 
wissenschaft, no. 331 below, I, parts 2 and 2o). 

240. BRESSLAU, H. Handbueh der Urkundenlehre fur Deutsch- 
land und Italien. Vol. I, Leipzig, 1889. 2nd edition, vol. I, 1912, 
vol. II, part I, 1915. 

The second edition of vol. I covers only nine of the nine- 
teen chapters of the first edition. Now see also the important 
book by E. L. POOLE, Lectures on the history of the papal 
chancery down to the time of Innocent III, Cambridge Univer- 
sity Press, 1915. 

241. LEIST, F. Urkundenlehre: Katechismus der Diplomatik, 
Palaographie, Chronologic, und Sphragistik. Leipzig, 1882. 2nd 
edition, 1893. 

242. JOHNSON, C. and JENKINSOJST, H. English court hand, A.D. 
1066-1500, illustrated chiefly from the public records. Oxford, 
Clarendon Press, 1915. One vol. together with an atlas of 44 plates. 

See also H. JENKINSON, Palaeography and the practical 
study of court hands, Cambridge University Press, 1915. 

243. HALL, H. Studies in English official historical documents. 
Cambridge, 1908. 

Supplemented by his Formula book of English historical 
documents, parts I-II, Cambridge, 1908-1909. 

244. MARTIN, C. T. The record interpreter: a collection of ab- 
breviations, Latin words, and names used in English historical 
manuscripts and records. London, 1892. 2nd edition, 1910. 

245. WALTER, J. L. Lexicon diplomaticum: abbreviationes vocum 
in diplomatibus exponens. 3 parts. Gottingen, 1745-47. Another 
edition, Ulm, 1756. 

Still the most complete list of abbreviations in official 
documents of the middle ages. 

246. ROMAN, J. Manuel de sigillographie. Paris, 1913. 

247. ILGEN, T. Sphragistik. 2nd edition, 1912. (In Grundriss 
der Geschichtswissenschaft, no. 331 below, I, part 4, pp. 1-58.) 

Has a very full bibliography. 

248. Archiv fiir Urkundenforschung in zwanglosen Heften her- 
ausgegeben von K. BRANDI, H. BRESSLAU, and M. TANGL. Leipzig, 
1907ff. 

249. Kaiserurkunden in Abbildungen. Edited by H. v. SYBEL 
and T. v. SICKEL. Berlin, 1880-91. 



C HAP - ni CHRONOLOGY 31 

3. Chronology 

250. GROTEFEND, H. Zeitrechnung des deutschen Mittelalters und 
der Neuzeit. 2 vols. Hannover, 1891-98. 

251. GROTEFEND, H. Taschenbuch der Zeitrechnung des deutschen 
Mittelalters und der Neuzeit. Hannover and Leipzig, 1898. 3rd 
edition, 1910. 

This is a condensation of the previous work. A still 
briefer account, but the most recent of all, is the following: 

252. GROTEFEND, H. Abriss der Chronologic des deutschen Mit- 
telalters und der Neuzeit. 2nd edition. Leipzig, 1912. (In Grund- 
riss der Geschiehtswissenschaft, no. 331 below, vol. I, part 3.) 

253. IDELER, L. Handbuch der mathematischen und technischen 
Chronologic. Berlin, 1825-26. 2 vols. 2nd edition. Breslau, 1883. 

254. RUHL, F. Chronologic des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit. 
Berlin, 1897. 

A very convenient general account. The same is true of 
GIRT, Manuel de diplomatique, no. 239 above. See also B. M. 
LERSCH, Einleitung in die Chronologic, 2 parts, 2nd edition, 
Freiburg, 1899. 

255. 1'Art de verifier les dates. 2nd part. Depuis la naissance 
de Jesus-Christ [to 1770?]. Paris, 1750. 3rd edition, 3 vols., 1783- 
87. 4th edition by SAINT-ALLAIS, 18 vols., 1818-19. 

256. MAS-LATRIE, L. DE. Tr4sor de chronologic, d'histoire et de 
geographic pour l'6tude et 1'emploi des documents du moyen age. 
Paris, 1889. 

257. GINZEL, F. K. Handbuch der mathematischen und tech- 
nischen Chronologic. 3 vols. Leipzig, 1906-1914. 

258. KELLNER, K. A. H. Heortologie: oder die geschichtliche 
Entwicklung des Kirchenjahres und der Heiligenfeste von den 
altesten Zeiten bis zur Gegenwart. Freiburg, 1901. 2nd edition, 
1906. Translated from the 2nd German edition, Heortology: a his- 
tory of the Christian festivals from their origin to the present day. 
London, 1908. 

259. HAMPSON, E. T. Medii aevi kalendarium : or dates, charters, 
and customs of the middle ages. 2 vols. London, 1841. 

260. SCHMH), J. Die Osterfestberechnung in der abendlandischen 
Kirche bis zum Ende des VIII. Jahrhunderts. Freiburg, 19t)7. 

261. SCHRAM, E. Kalendariographische und chronologische 
Tafeln. Leipzig, 1908. 



32 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

262. CAPPELLI, A. Cronologia e calendario perpetuo: tavole 
cronografiche e quadri sinottici per verifieare le date storiche dal 
principio dell ' era cristiana ai giorni nostri. Milan, 1906. 

263. BOND, J. J. Handybook of rules and tables for verifying 
dates with the Christian era: giving an account of the chief eras 
and systems used by various nations, etc. London, 1866. 4th 
edition, London, 1889. 

Especially valuable for English history. 

264. WISLICENUS, W. F. Astronomische Chronologic: ein Hilfs- 
buch fiir Historiker, Archaologen, etc. Leipzig, 1895. 

265. WISLICENUS, W. F. Der Kalender. Leipzig, 1905. 

266. BRINKMEIER, E. Praktisches Handbuch der historischen 
Chronologic aller Zeiten und Volker, besonders des Mittelalters. 
2nd edition. Berlin, 1882. 

267. BILFINGEB, G. Die mittelalterlichen Horen und die mod- 
ernen Stunden: ein Beitrag zur Kulturgeschichte. Stuttgart, 1892. 

4. Genealogy 

268. LOEENZ, O. Lehrbueh der gesamten wissenschaftlichen 
Genealogie. Berlin, 1898. 

269. LORENZ, O. Genealogisches Handbuch der europaischen 
Staatengeschichte. 3rd edition. Stuttgart, 1907. 

270. STOCKVIS, A. M. H., J. Manuel d'histoire de gSnealogie et 
de chronologic de tous les etats du globe. 3 vols. Leyden, 1888-91. 

271. FORST-BATTAGLIA, O. Genealogie. Leipzig and Berlin, 1913. 
In Grundriss der Geschichtswissenschaft, no. 331 below, I, part 4a. 

See also his Genealogische TabeUen zur Geschichte des Mit- 
telalters und der Neuzeit: Abteilung Mittelalter, erste Liefe- 
rung, Vienna, 1914. 

272. HEYDENREICH, E. Handbuch der praktisehen Genealogie. 
2nd edition. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1913. 

273. DEVRIENT, E. Genealogisches Handbuch der europaischen 
Staatengeschichte. 3rd edition. Stuttgart, 1908. 

274. HUBNER, J. Genealogische Tabellen. 5 vols., with appen- 
dix, Leipzig, 1725-33. 2nd edition with continuation, 1737-66. Sup- 
plements, 6 numbers, Copenhagen, 1822-24. 

275. GROTE, H. Stammtafeln. Leipzig, 1877. 

276. GEORGE, H. B. Genealogical tables illustrative of modern 
history. 5th edition, revised, Oxford, 1916. 



CHAP, in GENEALOGY AND HERALDRY 33 

277. Almanach de Gotha: annuaire genealogique, diplomatique 
et statistique. Gotha, 1763ff. 

Since 1871 published in both French and German. 

278. ALLSTROM, C. M. Dictionary of royal lineage of Europe, 
etc. 2 vols. Chicago, 1902-04. 

279. RYE, W. Records and record searching: a guide to the 
genealogist and topographer. London, 1888. 2nd edition, 1897. 

280. MARSHALL, G. W. The genealogist's guide. London, 1879. 
4th edition, Guildford, 1903. 

281. HOFMEISTER, A. ' ' Genealogie und Familienforschung als 
Hilfswissenschaft der Geschichte. " In Historische Vierteljahr- 
schrift, XV (1912), 457-492. 

282. WOODS, F. A. Mental and moral heredity in royalty: a 
statistical study in history and psychology. With 104 portraits. 
New York, 1906. 

283. BRACKET, A. Pathologie mentale des rois de France: Louis 
XI et ses ascendants; une vie humaine etudiee a travers six siecles 
d'hSredite (852-1483). Paris, 1903. 

5. Heraldry 

284. BOUTELL, C. A manual of heraldry. London, 1863. 3rd 
edition, Heraldry, historical and popular. London, 1864. Abridged 
under the title, English heraldry. London, 1867; 10th edition, with 
464 illustrations, by A. C. FOX-DAVIES, 1908; llth edition, revised 
as Handbook of English heraldry, 1913. 

See also W. A. SHAW, The Jcnights of England, 2 vols., 
London, 1906. 

285. FOX-DAVIES, A. C. A complete guide to heraldry. London, 
1909. 

See also his The art of heraldry: an encyclopaedia of 
armory, London, 1904. 

286. WOODWARD, J. and BURNETT, G. A treatise on heraldry, 
British and foreign. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1892. New edition, 1896. 

287. GRITZNER, M. Handbuch der heraldischen Terminologie in 
zwolf Zungen. Niirnberg, 1890. 

Now see his Heraldik, 2nd edition, Leipzig and Berlin, 
1912, in Gmndriss der Gcschichtswissenschaft, no. 331 below, 
I, part 4, pp. 59-97. 

288. SEYLER, G. A. Geschichte der Ileraldik. Nuremberg, 1890. 

289. PEDRICK, G. A manual of heraldry: a popular introduction. 
London [no date, ca. 1913]. 



34 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

290. SACKEN, E. Katechismus der Heraldik. 6th edition, 1899 
(Webers Katecliismen). 

291. [HoziER, L. P. D']. Armorial general de la France. 12 vols. 
Paris, 1865ff. 

6. Numismatics 

292. ENGEL, A. and SERBURE, E. T'raite de numismatique du 
moyen age. 3 vols. Paris, 1891-95. 

Contains comprehensive bibliographies. 

293. LUSCHIN VON EBENGREUTH, A. Allgemeine Miinzkunde und 
Geldgesehichte des Mittelalters und der neueren Zeit. Munich, 1904. 
In Handbuch der mittelalterlichen und neueren Geschichte, no. 330 
below. 

See also the following two elementary books on the sub- 
ject: H. HALKE, Einleitung in das Studium der Numismatik, 
3rd edition, Berlin, 1908; and H. DANNENBERG, Grundzuge der 
Miinzlcunde, 1891, 2nd edition, 1899 (Webers illustrierte Kate- 
chismen). 

294. BLANCHET, J. A. and DIEUDONNE, A. .Manuel de numis- 
matique franchise. Vol. I, Paris, 1912. 

295. FRIEDENSBURG, F. Deutsche Miinzgeschichte. 2nd edition. 
Leipzig and Berlin, 1912. In Grundriss der Geschichtswissenschaft, 
no. 331 below, I, part 4, pp. 98-132. 

296. FRIEDENSBURG, F. Die Miinze in der Kulturgeschichte. Ber- 
lin, 1909. 

297. POOLE, S. L. Coins and medals: their place in history and 
art. London, 1885. 3rd edition, 1894. 

298. KEARY, C. F. Coinages of western Europe, Honorius to 
Charles the Great. London, 1879. 3rd edition, 1894. 

7. Archaeology 
See also no. 754 below. 

299. ENLART, C. Manuel d 'archeologie f ranc,aise depuis les temps 
meroviengiens jusqu'a la renaissance. Vols. I III. Paris, 1902- 
1916. 

A second edition of vol. I was announced in 1917. See 
also J. A. BRUTAILS, Precis d' archeologie du moyen age, Paris, 
1908. 

300. GAY, V. Glossaire archeologique du moyen age et de la 
renaissance. Vol. I (A-G). Paris, 1882-1887. 

301. LECLERCQ, H. Manuel d 'archeologie chretienne depuis les 
origines jusqu'au VHP siecle. 2 vols. Paris, 1911. 

302. KAUPMANN, K. Handbuch der christlichen Archaologie. 
Paderborn, 1905. 2nd edition, enlarged, 1913. 



. HI PHILOLOGY 35 

8. Philology 

303. BOCKH, A. Enzyklopadie und Methodologie der philolog- 
ischen Wissenschaften. Leipzig, 1886. 

This handbook does for philology what BERNHEIM, no. 64 
above, does for history. 

304. KORTING, G. Enzyklopadie und Methodologie der roman- 
ischen Philologie. Heilbronn, 1884-88. 

His Enzyklopadie und Methodologie der franzosischen Phil- 
ologie, Leipzig, 1894; and his Handbuch der romanischen Phil- 
ologie, Heilbronn, 1896, are little more than extracts from the 
above. 

305. Grundriss der romanischen Philologie. Edited by G. 
GROBER. 2 vols. Strassburg, 1886-1902. Vol. I, 2nd edition, 1904- 
1906. 

Supplemented by Kritischer Jahresbericht uber die Fort- 
schritte der romanischen Philologie, Munich and Leipzig, 
1892ff.; as well as by the Repertoire des travaux historiques 
contenant I' analyse des nouvelles publications faites sur I'his- 
toire des monuments et de la langue de France, Paris, 1882ff. 

For further details on the French language and literature 
in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, see outline XXIV in 
part III below. 

306. MORP, H. Die romanischen Literaturen, and W. MEYER- 
LUBKE, Die romanischen Sprachen. Berlin and Leipzig, 1909. 

Part of vol. I of no. 729 below. 

307. Grundriss der germanischen Philologie. Edited by H. PAUL. 
2 vols. in 3. Strassburg, 1891-93. 2nd edition, 3 vols. in 4, 1900- 
1909; 3rd edition, many vola., 1911ff. 

Supplemented by the Jahresbericht uber die Erscheinungen 
auf dem Gebiete der germanischen Philologie, Berlin, ISOOff. 

308. The Oxford English dictionary: a new English dictionary 
on historical principles, founded mainly on the materials collected 
by the Philological society. Edited by J. A. H. MURRAY. Oxford, 
1888ff. Vol. IX (Si-Th) appeared in 1916. 

309. Thesaurus linguae latinae editus auctoritate et concilio 
academiarum quinque Germanicarum: Beroliensis, Gottingensis, 
Lipsiensis, Monacensis, Vindobonensis. Leipzig, 1900ff. 

Extends to the end of the sixth century. For Du CANOE 
and medieval Latin language and literature in general, see 
outline XXIII in part III below. 

310. Miinchener Archiv fur Philologie des Mittelalters und der 
Renaissance. Munich, 191 3ff. 

311. Archiv fur slavische Philologie. Berlin, 1876ff. 

312. Die osteuropaischen Literaturen und die slavvischen Sprachen. 
Berlin and Leipzig, 1908. 

Part of no. 729 below. 



1. Universal Histories 

313. Allgemeine Geschichte in Einzeldarstellungen. Edited by 
W. ONCKEN. 45 vols. Berlin, 1879-93. 

Commonly known as the ' ' ONCKEN ' ' series. 

Part II, History of the middle ages, 10 works in 15 vols., 
contains the following: 1. G. F. HERTZBERG, Geschichte des 
romischen Kaiserreich.es, 1880; 2. F. DAHN, Urgeschichte der 
germanischen und romanischen Volker, 4 vols., 1881-89; 3. E. 
WINKELMANN, Geschichte der Angelsachsen bis zum Tode 
Konig Aelfreds, 1883; 4. A. MULLER, Der Islam im Morgen- und 
Abendland, 2 vols., 1885-87; 5. B. KUGLER, Geschichte der 
Kreuzziige, 1880; 6. H. PRUTZ, Staatengeschichte des Abend- 
landes im Mittelalter von Karl d. Grossen bis auf Maximilian, 
2 vols., 188587; 7. G. F. HERTZBERG, Geschichte der Byzantiner 
und des Osmanischen Seiches bis gegen Ende des sechszehnten 
Jahrhunderts, 1883; 8. L. GEIGER, Senaissance und Humanismus 
in Italien und Deutschland, 1882; 9. S. RUGE,* Geschichte des 
Zeitalters der EntdecTcungen [no date]; 10. T. SCHIEMANN, 
Russland, Polen und Livland bis ins 17 Jahrhundert, 2 vols., 
1886. 

314. History of all nations. 24 vols. Philadelphia, 1902-05. 

Vols. VI- VII by J. VON PFLUGK-HARTTUNG; and vols. 
VIII-X, by H. PRUTZ, are on the middle ages. 

315. Weltgeschichte. Edited by H. F. HELMOLT. 9 vols. Leip- 
zig and Vienna, 1899-1907. 2nd, revised, edition by A. TILLE, 10 
vols., 1913ff. Translated into English, The history of the world. 
8 vols. New York, 1902-07. 

A co-operative work arranged anthropologically and ethno- 
logically, not chronologically. Based on the ideas of F. 
EATZEL. It is rather confusing. The portions on the middle 
ages are not so good as other parts of the work. 

316. RANKE, L. VON. Weltgeschichte. 9 vols. 5th edition, Leip- 
zig, 1896-98. Popular edition, without notes, 4 vols. Leipzig, 1895. 

Extends to the end of the 15th century. 

317. WEBER, G. Allgemeine Weltgeschichte. 15 vols. and 4 index 
vols. 2nd edition, Leipzig, 1882-89. 

318. Weltgeschiehte: die Entwickelung der Menschheit in Staat 
und Gesellschaft, in Kultur- und Geistesleben. 6 vols. Berlin, 



CHAP, iv MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY 37 

1907-10. Edited by J. VON PFLUGK-HARTTUNG. Vol. II, Geschichte 
des Mittelalters. Berlin, 1909. 

Beautifully illustrated. See facsimiles of bulls and 
charters, with translations. 

319. L 'evolution de Phumanite. Edited by H. BERR. Paris, 
1915ff. 

A proposed general history to embrace about 100 vols. A 
list of the 51 vols. asigned to ancient and medieval history 
is printed in the Revue de synthese historique, XXVIII (1914), 
338-342. 

320. Bibliothek der Geschichtswissenschaft. Edited by E. 
BRANDENBURG. Leipzig, 1908ff. 

The various volumes pertaining to the middle ages in this 
set and in nos. 321-327 below will be mentioned in appro- 
priate places. 

321. Story of the nations series. New York, G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. 

322. The making of the nations series. London, Adam and 
Charles Black. 

323. The great peoples series. New York, Appleton. 

324. Heroes of the nations series. New York, G. P. Putnam 's 
Sons. 

325. The world's epoch makers. Edited by O. SMEATON. New 
York, Charles Scribner's Sons. 

326. Monographien zur Weltgeschichte. Edited by E. HEYCK 
and others. Bielefeld, ]897ff. Illustrated. 

327. Weltgeschichte in Karakterbildern. Edited by F. KAMPERS 
and others. Part II on the middle ages. Illustrated. 



2. Medieval and Modern History 

328. Histoire generale du IV e siecle a nos jours. Edited by E. 
LAVISSE and A. EAMBAUD. 12 vols. Paris, 1893-1901. 

Vols. I-III cover the period 395-1492 A.D. A co-operative 
work of fundamental importance. About a dozen scholars 
have contributed to each volume. A new illustrated edition 
is planned. It is to be hoped that it will be supplemented 
by an index and an atlas of maps. 

E. LAVISSE, Vue fiencrale de I 'hiitoire politiquc dc I 'Europe, 
2nd edition, Paris, 1890; translated by C. GROSS, General view 
of the political history of Europe, New York, 1897, is a re- 
markably lucid and stimulating summary of a couple of 
hundred pages. 



38 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

329. Periods of European history. 8 vols. London and New 
York, Macmillan. 

C. W. C. OMAN, The dark ages, 476-918, 1893, 2nd edition, 
1894. T. F. TOUT, The empire and papacy, 918-1273, 1898. 
K. LODGE, The close of the middle ages, 1273-1494, 1901. 

330. Handbuch der mittelalterlichen und neueren Geschichte. 
Edited by G. v. BELOW, and F. MEINEKE. Munich and Berlin, 1903ff. 

An undertaking like the Handbuch der Tclassischen Alter- 
tumswissenschaft, edited by I. MULLER, but broader in scope. 
The volumes are appearing irregularly. In a measure this 
publication is supplemented by the Grundriss edited by 
MEISTER, no. 331 below, and by the Bibliothek der Geschichts- 
wissenschaft, no. 320 above. 

331. Grundriss der Geschichtswissenschaft: zur Einfiihrung in 
das Studium der deutschen Geschichte des Mittelalters und der 
Neuzeit. Edited by A. MEISTER. Leipzig and Berlin, 1906ff. 

Not confined to German history. Special attention is 
given to sciences auxiliary to history. The various numbers 
which have appeared thus far will be mentioned in their 
appropriate places. 

332. Allgemeine Staatengeschichte. Hamburg, 1829ff. Gotha, 
1855ff. Founded by A. H. L. HEEREN and F. A. UKERT. Continued 
by W. v. GIESEBRECHT and K. LAMPRECHT. Part I. Geschichte der 
europaischen Staaten. 

Started by the same impulses which created the Monu- 
menta Germaniae historica, no. 978 below. WOLF, no. 66 above, 
pp. 459-62, gives a good description of it and mentions some 
of the more useful works included. A complete list of the 
volumes is given by LOEWE, Biickerkunde, no. 32 above, 
Anhang. 

333. LINDNER, T. Weltgeschichte seit der Volkerwanderung. 
Vols. I-VII, Stuttgart and Berlin, 1901-1910. 

334. KLOPP, O. Politische Geschichte Europas seit der Volker- 
wanderung. 2 vols. Mainz, 1912. 

335. Epochs of modern history. Longmans. 

R. W. CHURCH, The beginnings of the middle ages, 1885; 
A. H. JOHNSON, The Normans in Europe, 1877; G. W. Cox, 
The crusades, 1875. 

336. FORREST, J. The development of western civilization. 
Chicago, 1907. 

337. DEWE, J. A. Mediaeval and modern history: its formative 
causes and broad movements. London, 1907. 

338. HILL, D. J. A history of diplomacy in the international 
development of Europe. 2 vols. London, 1905. 



CHAP, iv MEDIEVAL HISTORY 39 

339. WOOLEY, R. M. Coronation rites. Cambridge, University 
Press, 1915. (Cambridge handbooks of liturgical study.) 

3. Medieval History 
(a) STANDARD GENERAL SURVEYS 

340. The Cambridge medieval history. Planned by J. B. BURY. 
Edited by H. M. GWATKIN and J. P. WHITNEY. London and New 
York, 1911ff. Vol. II appeared in 1913. 

Vol. I, The renaissance, of the Cambridge modern history, 
12 vols., London, 1902ff., is important for the history of the 
fifteenth century and some chapters reach back even farther. 

341. GIBBON, E. [1737-1794]. The history of the decline and 
fall of the Roman empire. Edited with introduction, notes, ap- 
pendices and index by J. B. BURY. 7 vols. London, 1896-1900. 

The first edition appeared 1776-1781. It covers the period 
from the 2nd century A.D. to the close of the 16th century. 
The scope of the work is so broad that it practically is a 
general history of the middle ages. BURY'S edition was re- 
printed in 12 vols. by Fred de Fau and Company of New 
York in 1906, in The worlcs of Edward Gibbon, vols. I-XII. 
This reprint is in large clear type on good white paper which 
adds much to the enjoyment of reading GIBBON. A very 
cheap new edition in six volumes, is now in Everyman's 
library, no. 944 below. It is edited by A. SMEATON, who has 
utilized the notes of GUIZOT, Mn MAN, WENDT, SMITH, and 
BURY, besides adding some of his own. The notes ot GIBBON 
are given in full. 

342. ASSMANN, W. Geschichte des Mittelalters. Parts I and II 
fto 1273] in 2nd edition by E. MEYER. Brunswick, 1875-79. Part 
III [Germany from 1273 to 1517] in 3rd edition by A. VON R. 
FISCHER, B. SCHEPPING and L. VIERECK. Brunswick, 1902-06, 

343. PRUTZ, H. Staatengeschichte des Abendlandes im Mittel- 
alter von Karl dem Grossen bis auf Maximilian. 2 vols. Berlin, 
1885-87. 

Part of no. 313 above. 

344. PRUTZ, H. and PPLUGK-HARTTUNO, J. v. Geschichte des 
Mittelalters. Berlin, 1889. 

(6) LARGE SECTIONS OF THE MIDDLE AGES 

345. HODGKIN, T. Italy and her invaders. 8 vols. Oxford, 
1880-99. Vols. V-VI in a second edition, revised by R. H. HoDGKm, 
1916. 

I, The Visigothic invasion; II, The Hunnish invasion: the 
Vandal invasion and the Herulian mutiny ; III, The Ostroaothio 
invasion, 476-535; IV, The imperial restoration, 5S5-55S ; V, 



40 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

The Lombard invasion, 553-600; VI, The Lombard kingdom, 
600-744; VII,- Prankish invasions, 744-774; VIII, The Prankish 
empire, 774-814. 

In spite of its restricted title, this work is practically a 
general history of Europe from the 4th to the 9th century. 

346. CURTEIS, A. M. History of the Eoman empire from the 
death of Theodosius the Great to the coronation of Charles the 
Great. London and Philadelphia, 1875. 

347. LOSERTH, J. Geschichte des spateren Mittelalters von 1197 
bis 1492. Munich, 1903. 

Part of no. 332 above. It contains excellent bibliographies. 

(c) IMPRESSIONISTIC SURVEYS OF THE MIDDLE AGES 

348. HALLAM, H. View of the state of Europe during the middle 
ages. 2 vols. London, 1818. llth edition, 3 vols., 1855. Often 
reprinted. 

349. YOUNG, G. F. East and west through fifteen centuries: 
being a general history from B.C. 44 to A.D. 1453. To be complete 
in 4 vols. London, 1916ff. Vols. I and II [to the middle of the 8th 
century] appeared in 1916. 

350. FLETCHER, C. B. L. The making of. western Europe: being 
an attempt to trace the fortunes of the children of the Eoman 
empire. In 2 vols. Vol. I: The dark ages, A.D. 300-1000. Vol. II.: 
The first renaissance, A.D. 1000-1190. London, 1912ff. 

In popular vein, like his History of England. 

351. SOUTTAR, E. A short history of mediaeval peoples: from the 
dawn of the Christian era to the fall of Constantinople. New York, 
1907. 

352. DEL MAR, A. The middle ages revisited or the Eoman gov- 
ernment and religion and their relation to Britain. New York, 1900. 

Contains a curious bibliography. 

353. SHEPPARD, J. G. The fall of Eome and the rise of new 
nationalities. London, 1861. 

A series of lectures. 

(d) EECENT FOREIGN TEXT BOOKS 

354. BELLONOTTO, Storia del medio evo (dal 475 al 1313). Vol. 
I. Turin, 1913. 

355. FELTEN, W. Geschiehte des Mittelalters: von Christi 
Geburt bis zur Entdeckung Amerikas. Vienna, 1910. 

356. MOELLER, C. Histoire du moyen age (476-950). Louvain 
and Paris, 1904. Second impression, augmented by an analytical 
table, 1910. 

357. SEIGNOBOS, C. Le moyen age. Paris, 1911. 



CHAP, iv TEXT BOOKS 41 

(e) SELECTIONS FROM MODERN HISTORIANS 

358. LANGLOIS, C. V. Lectures historiques: histoire du moyen 
age (395-1270). Paris, 1901. 2nd edition, 1912. 

Short selections from French historians, together with 
good bibliographies. 

359. MUNRO, D. C., and SELLERY, G. C. Mediaeval civilization. 
New York, 1904. Enlarged edition, 1907. 

A collection of comparatively short selections, most of 
them translated and adapted from standard French and Ger- 
man works. 

(f) THE MEDITERRANEAN 

360. MANFRONI, C. II dominio del Mediterraneo durante il medio 
evo. Rome, 1900. (Reprint from Rivista marittima, 1900.) 

361. HERRE, P. Der Kampf um die TTerrschaft im Mittelmeer. 
Leipzig, 1909. (Wissenschaft und Bildung, 46.) 

4. Text Books of Medieval History in English 

362. ADAMS, G. B. Medieval and modern history. New York, 
Macmillan, 1899. 

A portion of his old European history, very slightly revised. 

363. ADAMS, G. B. Civilization during the middle ages. New 
York, Scribner, 1896. New, revised, edition, 1914. 

364. BELL, K. Mediaeval Europe: a text-book of European his- 
tory, 1095-1254. Oxford, 1911. (Oxford text-books of European 
history.) 

365. BtfMONT, C., and MONOD, G. Histoire de 1 'Europe et en par- 
ticular de France de 395 a 1270. Paris, 1891. Translated by MARY 
SLOAN and G. B. ADAMS, Medieval Europe, 395-1270. New York, 
1902. 

366. BOURNE, IT. E. History of mediaeval and modern Europe. 
New York, Longmans, 1905. 

367. DAVIS, H. W. C. Medieval Europe. New York, Holt, 1911. 

368. DAVIS, W. S. A history of mediaeval and modern Europe. 
Boston, Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1914. 

369. DURUY, V. Histoire du moyen age. Paris, 1861. Trans- 
lated and abridged from the 12th edition by E. H. and M. D. 
WHITNEY, with notes and revisions by G. B. ADAMS, The history of 
the middle ages. New York, 1891. 

370. EMERTON, E. Introduction to the middle ages (375-814). 
Boston, Ginn and Co., 1888. 



42 GENERAL BOOKS 

371. EMERTON, E. Mediaeval Europe (814-1300). Boston, Ginn 
and Co., 1894. 

Professor EMERTON is preparing a volume entitled, The 
beginnings of modern Europe, 1250-1450. 

372. GRANT, A. J. A history of Europe. New York, Longmans, 
1913. 

373. HARDING, S. B. New medieval and modern history. New 
York, American Book Co., 1913. 

Based on the author's Essentials in mediaeval and Modern 
history, 1909. 

' 374. HOWE, S. B. Essentials in early European history. New 
York, Longmans, 1913. 

375. MEYERS, P. V. N. Mediaeval and modern history. Boston, 
Ginn and Co., 1885. Revised edition, 1902, in 2 parts; I, The middle 
ages; II, The modern age. The 1902 edition was published again 
in 1905 in one volume, constituting a slightly abridged edition of 
the 1902 text. 

376. MUNRO, D. C. A history of the middle ages. New York, 
D. Appleton and Co., 1902. 

377. ROBINSON, J. H. Medieval and modern times: an introduc- 
tion to the history of western Europe from the dissolution of the 
Roman empire to the opening of the great war of 1914. Boston, 
Ginn and Co., 1916. 

Practically a new edition of the author 's An introduction 
to the history of western Europe, Boston, Ginn and Co., 1902. 

378. SEIGNOBOS, C. History of mediaeval and modern civiliza- 
tion. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1907. 

379. Six ages of European history from A.D. 476 to 1878. 6 vols. 
Edited by A. H. JOHNSON. For the higher forms of schools. London 
and New York, The Macmillan Co., 1910. 

J. B. H. MASTERMAN, The dawn of mediaeval Europe, 476- 
918 ; BEATRICE A. LEES, The central period of the middle age, 
918-1273; ELEANOR C. LODGE, The end of the middle age, 
1273-1453. 

380. TERRY, C. S. A short history of Europe from the fall of 
the Roman empire to the fall of the eastern empire. London, Rut- 
ledge, 1911. 

381. THATCHER, O. J. and SCHWILL, F. Europe in the middle 
age. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1897. 

L. THORNDIKE, The history of medieval Europe, Boston, 
Houghton, Mifflin Company, has been announced in 1917 as 
a text book written especially for college students. 



CHAP - Iv SOURCE BOOKS 43 

382. WEST, W. M. The modern world, from Charlemagne to the 
present time. Boston, Allyn and Bacon, 1915. 

Based upon the author 's Modern history, Boston, 1907. 

5. "Source Books": Short Selections from the Sources for Schools 
These books are included here rather than under Sources, nos. 
9491013 below, because they are so closely associated with text 
books in the schools. 

383. AVER, J. C. Source book of church history for the first six 
centuries. New York, Scribner's Sons, 1913. 

A similar source book which covers about the same ground 
but prints documents in the original Greek and Latin is the 
Enchiridion fontium historiae ecclesiasticae antique, edited by 
C. KIRCH, Freiburg-i.-B., 1910. 

384. COULTON, G. G. A mediaeval garner. London, 1910. 

385. DUNCALF, F., and KREY, A. C. Parallel source problems in 
mediaeval history. New York, Harper and Brothers, 1912. 

386. FLING, F. W. European history studies: civilization during 
the middle ages. Selections made by G. JONES. Ten numbers. 
Chicago, 1900. 

The Teutonic barbarians; Monasticism; Extracts from the 
Koran; Chivalry and the mode of warfare; etc. 

387. HENDERSON, E. F. Select historical documents of the middle 
ages. London and New York, The Macmillan Co., 1892. 

388. MATHEWS, S. Select mediaeval documents and other ma- 
terial, illustrating the" history of church and empire, 7541254. 
Boston and Chicago, 1892. 2nd edition, 1900. 

The documents are printed in the original Latin. 

389. OGG, F. A. A source book of mediaeval history. New 
York, American Book Co., 1908. 

390. EEICH, E. Select documents illustrating mediaeval and 
modern history. London, King, 1905. 

Documents are in Latin. 

391. ROBINSON, J. H. Readings in European history. 2 vols. 
Chicago, Ginn and Co., 1906. Abridged in one vol., 1906. 

Contains good critical bibliographies at the end of chap- 
ters. Vol. I covers the middle ages. 

392. THATCHER, O. J., and McNEAL, E. H. A source book of 
mediaeval history. New York, Scribners, 1905. 



44 GENERAL BOOKS PART1 

393. Translations and reprints from original sources in European 
history. Department of history, University of Pennsylvania. Also 
sold by Longmans, Green and Co., New York, 1894ff. 

The following numbers pertain to medieval history: Vol. 
I, No. 2 (15 cents), No. 4 (25 cents) ; Vol. II, No. 3 (10 cents), 
No. 4 (10 cents); No. 7 (20 cents); Vol. Ill, No. 2 (20 cents), 
No. 3 (20 cents), No. 4 (20 cents), No. 5 (20 cents). The 
publishers will bind all these together in one volume. 

6. Histories of the Church 

(a) GENERAL HISTORIES OF THE CHURCH 
(1) History of Religions 

394. REINACH, S. Orpheus: histoire generate des religions. 3rd 
edition, Paris, 1909. Translated by FLORENCE SIMMONDS, Orpheus: 
a general history of religions. New York, 1909. 

Since no attempt is made in this Guide to list books on 
the history of religions, this popular little manual, with its 
bibliographical notes at the end of chapters, will serve as an 
introduction to those who wish to go deeper into the subject. 

(2) Voluminous Standard Accounts 

395. MOEILER, \V. Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte. 3 vols. 
Freiburg, 1889-94. 2nd edition, in 4 vols, 1893-1902. Vol. Ill in 
3rd edition, 1907. Translated by A. RUTHERFORD and J. H. FREESE, 
History of the Christian church. 3 vols. London and New York, 
1893-1902. 

Vol. II on the middle ages. Protestant. 

396. SCHAFF, P. History of the Christian church. New edition 
in 7 vols. New York, 1882-1910. 

Protestant. Vol. V, which is by D. S. SCHAFF, his son, 
extends to 1517. 

397. HERGENROTHER, J. VON. Handbuch der allgemeinTi v,-~->~~~. 
geschichte. 3 vols. 5th edition, by J. P. KIRSCH. Freiburg, 1911ff. 
(Theologische Bibliothek). 

There is a French translation by BELET. Roman catholic. 

398. MOURRET, F. Histoire generale de 1'eglise. 8 vols. Paris, 
1909ff. 

399. NEANDER, J. A. \V. Allgemeine Geschichte der christlichen 
Religion und Kirche [to 1430]. 6 vols. Hamburg, 1826-52. Trans- 
lated by J. TORREY, General history of the Christian religion and 
church. 9 vols. London, 1847-55. 

Protestant. 



CH , AP - IV CHURCH HISTORIES 45 

400. GIESELER, J. C. L. Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte. 3 vols. 
Bonn, 1824ff. In 6 vols. in 5, 1828-57. Translated by S. DAVIDSON, 
A text-book of church history. 5 vols. Edinburgh, 1854; American 
edition, New York, 1876-80. 

Protestant. 

401. ALZOG, J. Universalgeschichte der Kirche. Mainz, 1841. 
10th edition, by F. X. KKAUS, 1882. Translated from the 9th Ger- 
man edition by F. J. PABISCH and T. S. BYRNE, Manual of universal 
church history. 4 vols. Dublin, 1889-1902. 

402. SHELDON, H. C. History of the Christian church. 5 vols. 
New York, 1894. 

403. BAUR, F. C. Geschichte der christlichen Kirche. 5 vols. 
3rd edition of vol. I; 2nd edition of vols. II, III, IV. Tubingen, 
1863-1877. 

404. MOHLER, J. A. Kirchengeschichte, edited by P. B. GAMS. 
3 vols. Regensburg, 1867-1870. 

(3) Shorter Accounts and Text Books 

405. FISHER, G. P. History of the Christian church. New York, 
1888. 

Protestant. A guide to the study of the Christian religion, 
edited by G. B. SMITH, Chicago [1918]. W. HOBHOUSE,' The 
church and the world in idea and in history, London, 1910, 2nd 
edition, revised, 1911 (Bampton lectures, 1909). A. BAUDRIL- 
I.ART, L'eglise catholique, la renaissance, le protestantisme, 
Paris, 1904, translated by Mrs. P. GIBBS, The catholic church, 
the renaissance and protestantism, London, 1908, is a series of 
lectures. A. MATER, L'er/lise catholique: ,o constitution, son 
administration, Paris, 1906, is historical in its treatment. 

406. MULLER, K. Kirchengeschichte. 2 vols. [to 1555]. Tubin- 
gen, 1892-1902. In Grundriss der theologischen Wissenschaften, 4, 2. 

See the author's short sketch entitled, "Christentum und 
Kirche Westeuropas im Mittelalter, " in Kultur der Gegen- 
wart, no. 729 below, part I, IV, 2nd edition, Berlin and Leip- 
zig, 1909. 

407. KURTZ, J. H. Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte. Mitau, 
1894. 14th edition, by N. BONWETSCH and T. TSCHACKERT. 2 vols. 
Leipzig, 1906. Translated from the 9th German edition by J. MAC 
PHERSON, Church history. 3 vols. London, 1888-93. 

Protestant. 

408. KNOPFLER, A. Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte auf Grund 
der akademischen Vorlesungen von K. J. v. HEFELE. 5th edition, 
Freiburg, 1910. 

Roman catholic. 



46 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

409. PUNK, F. X. Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte. 5th edition. 
Paderborn, 1907 (Wissenschaftliche Handbibliothek). 

Eoman catholic. 

410. KRAUS, F. X. Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte. 6th edition. 
Trier, 1909. 

Roman catholic. 

411. SCHUBERT, H. v. Grundziige der Kirchengeschichte. 4th 
edition. Tubingen, 1909. 

412. SOHM, R. Grundriss der Kirehengeschichte. Leipzig, 1887. 
16th edition, 1909. Translated by MAY SINCLAIR, from the 8th 
German edition, Outlines of church history. London, 1901. 

413. LOOFS, F. Grundlinien der Kirchengeschichte. Halle, 1901. 
2nd edition, 1909. 

414. HEUSSI, K. Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte. Tubin- 
gen, 1909. 

415. HURST, J. F. A history of the Christian church. 2 vols. 
New York, 1897-1900 (Library of biblical and theological litera- 
ture, vols. VII and VIII). 

416. WEINGARTEN, H. Zeittafeln und tfberblicke zur Kirchen- 
geschichte. 6th edition, by C. F. ARNOLD. Leipzig, 1905. 

417. Unsere religiosen Erzieher: eine Geschichte des Christen - 
tums in Lebensbildern. Edited by B. BESS. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1908. 

(4) Miscellaneous 

418. Epochs of church history. Edited by M. CREIGHTON. Lon- 
don, Longmans, Green and Co. 

A. PLUMMER, The church of the early fathers; A. CARR, The 
church and the Eoman empire ; H. M. GWATKIN, The Arian con- 
troversy ; H. F. TOZER, The church and the eastern empire; W. 
R. STEPHENS, Hildebrand and his times; U. BALZANI, The popes 
and the Hohenstaufens. 

419. RENAN, E. Etudes d'histoire religieuse. 7th edition. Paris, 
1864. Nouvelles etudes d 'histoire religieuse. Paris, 1884. 

420. VACANDARD, E. Etudes de critique et d'histoire religieuse. 
2 vols. Vol. I, 4th edition; vol. II, 2nd edition, Paris, 1909-1910. 

421. Kirchengeschichtliche Festgabe ANTON DE WAAL zum gold- 
enen Priester-Jubilaum (11 October 1912) dargebracht. Edited by 
F. X. SEPPELT. Freiburg, 1913. (In Rb'mische Quartalsehrift, Sup- 
plementheft XX.) 

Analyzed in Eevue historique, CXXII (1916), 322. 



CHAP, iv CHURCH HISTORIES 47 

(ft) THE ECCLESIASTICAL HIERARCHY 

422. EUBEL, C. Hierarchia catholica medii aevi. 3 vols. Mun- 
ster, 1898-1910. Vol. I, 2nd edition, Miinster, 1913. 

Extends from 1198 to 1600 A.D. 

423. GAMS, P. B. Series episcoporum ecclesiae catholicae. Ratis- 
bon, 1873. Supplement, 1886. 

(c) THE LATIN CHURCH IN THE MIDDLE AGES 
(1) Extensive Standard Accounts 

424. MILMAN, H. H. History of Latin Christianity. 6 vols. 
London, 1854-5. Latest edition, 9 vols., London, 1883. 

Extends to the middle of the fifteenth century. Protestant. 
See also J. C. ROBERTSON, History of the Christian church to 
the reformation, 6th edition, 8 vols., London, 18741875. 

425. BARONIUS, C. (died 1607). Annales ecclesiastici a Christo 
nato ad annum 1198. 12 vols. Rome, 1588-93. Edited by J. D. 
MANSI. 35 vols. Lucca, 1738-59. Apparatus, 1 vol., 1740. Index, 
4 vols., -1757-9. New edition, with all continuations, 37 vols. Bar- 
le-Duc and Paris, 1864-83. This edition was to comprise about 50 
vols., but was not completed. 

Fragmentary translations of this work have been made 
into French, Italian, German, Polish, and Arabic. BARONIUS 
printed many extensive selections from the sources. 

426. DUFOURCQ, A. L'avenir du christianisme. 8 vols. Paris, 
1908ff. 

427. LANGEN, J. Geschichte der romischen Kirche. 4 vols. (to 
Innocent III). Bonn, 1881-1893. 

(2) Text Books 

428. FLICK, A. C. The rise of the mediaeval church. New York, 
1909. 

429. FICKER, G., and HERMELINK, H. Handbuch der Kirchen- 
geschichte fur Studierende: das Mittelalter. Tubingen, 1912. 

430. SELL, K. Christentum und Weltgeschichte bis zur Refor- 
mation. Leipzig, 1910 (Aus Natur und Geisteswelt, 297). 

431. LAGARDE, A. The Latin church in the middle ages. Trans- 
lated by A. ALEXANDER. New York, 1915 (International Theological 
Library). ' 

432. HARDWICK, C. A history of the Christian church: middle 
age. 4th edition, revised, and edited by W. STUBBS. London, 1874. 



48 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

(3) Miscellaneous 

434. LEA, H. C. A history of auricular confession and indulg- 
ences in the Latin church. 3 vols. Philadelphia, 1896. 

435. LEA, H. C. An historical sketch of sacerdotal celibacy in 
the Christian church. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1867. 3rd edition, 
2 vols., London, 1907. 

436. LEA, H. C. Studies in church history: the rise of the tem- 
poral power; benefit of clergy; excommunication; the early church 
and slavery, etc. Philadelphia, 1883. 

437. MORIN, G. Etudes, textes, dScouvertes: contributions a 
1 'histoire des douze premiers siecles. Vol. I. Paris, 1913. 

438. TRENCH, R. C. Lectures on medieval church history. New 
York, 1878. 

(d) THE MEDIEVAL PAPACY 

439. MANN, H. K. The lives of the popes in the early middle 
ages. London, 1902ff. 

Vol. VIII (to 1130), appeared in 1910. For the history of 
the papacy in the later middle ages, see CREIGHTON, PASTOR, 
etc., under outline XXIX of part II below. 

440. GREGOROVIUS, F. Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter. 
8 vols. Stuttgart, 1859-72. 5th edition, Stuttgart, 1903ff. Trans- 
lated from 4th German edition by ANNIE HAMILTON, History of the 
city of Rome in the middle ages. 8 vols. in 13. London, 18941902. 

441. GRISAR, H. Geschichte Roms und der Papste im Mittel- 
alter. Freiburg, 1898ff. Translated by L. CAPPADELTA, History of 
Rome, and the popes in the middle ages. St. Louis, 1911ff. 

442. REUMONT, A. v. Geschichte der Stadt Rom. 3 vols. Ber- 
lin, 1867-1870. 

Chiefly on the middle ages. 

443. GREENWOOD, T. Cathedra Petri: a political history of the 
great Latin patriarchate. 14 books in 6 vols. London, 1856-72. 

Extends to the reformation. 

444. BARRY, W. The papal monarchy from St. Gregory the 
Great to Boniface VIII (590-1303). London, 1902 (The story of 
the nations series). 

445. DOLLINGER, J. J. I. VON. Die Papstfabeln des Mittelalters. 
Munich, 1863. 2nd edition by J. FRIEDRICH. Stuttgart, 1890. 
Translated by H. B. SMITH, Fables respecting the popes in the 
middle ages. New York, 1872. 

446. DOLLINGER, J. J. I. VON [Psuedonym, JANUS]. Der Papst 
und das Konzil. Leipzig, 1869. 2nd edition, by J. FRIEDRICH, under 



CHAP, iv CHURCH AND STATE 49 

the title, Das Papsttum, Munich, 1892. Translated into English, 

The pope and the council. Boston, 1870. 

See J. HERGENROTHER, Anti- Janus, Freiburg, 1870. Al- 
though these books reflect the ecclesiastical politics in Ger- 
many of the time when they were written, they are full of 
interest to the student of medieval history. 

447. NORDEN, W. Das Papsttum und Byzanz: die Trennung der 
beiden Machte und das Problem ihrer Wiedervereinigung bis 1453. 
Berlin, 1903. 

448. SEPPELT, F. X. Das Papsttum und Byzanz. Breslau, 1904 
(Kirchengeschichtliche Abhandlungen, ed. by M. SDRALEK, 2). 

449. McKiLLiAM, A. E. A chronicle of the popes from St. Peter 
to Pius X. London, 1912. 

See also the old but detailed ARTAUD DE MONTOR, Histoire 
des souverains pontifes romains, 8 vols., Paris, 1847. 

450. McCABE, J. Crises in the history of the papacy. New 
York, 1916. 

451. ROCQUAIN, F. La papaute au moyen age: Nicolas I., 
Gregoire VII., Innocent in., Boniface VIII. Paris, 1881. 

452. KRUGER, G. Das Papsttum: seine Idee und ihre Trager. 
Tubingen, 1907 (Religionsgeschichtliche Volksbiicher). Translated 
by F. M. S. BATCHELOR and C. A. MILES, The papacy: the idea and 
its exponents. New York, 1909. 

453. WURM, H. Die Papstwahl: ihre Geschichte und Gebrauche. 
Cologne, 1-902. 

See also L. LECTOR, Le conclave: oriaines, histoire, organisa- 
tion, legislative ancienne et moderne, Paris, 1902. 

454. BEET, W. E. The medieval papacy, and other essays, Lon- 
don, 1914. 

(e) CHURCH AND STATE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 
See also nos. 499-5Q4, 670, 725 above. 

455. EICHMANN, E. Kirche und Staat. Vols. I-II [750-1350 
A.D.] Paderborn, 1912-1914. 

456. SCADUTO, L. Stato e chiesa negli scritti politici dalla fine 
della lotta per le investiture sino alle morte di Ludovico il Bavaro 
(1122-1347). Florence, 1882. 

457. NIEHUES, B. Geschichte des Verhaltnisses zwischen Kaiser- 
thuin und Papstthum im Mittelalter. 2 vols. 2nd edition, Miinster, 
1877-87. 

To the time of Otto the Great. 



50 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

458. FEIEDBERG, E. Die mittelalterlichen Lehren iiber das Ver- 
haltnis von Staat und Kirche. Part I. Leipzig, 1874. 

See also his Die Grenzen zwischen Staat und Kirche, Tubin- 
gen, 1872. 

459. GREENWOOD, ALICE D. The empire and the papacy in the 
middle ages. 3rd edition, London, 1901. 

Too broad in scope. It practically is a short general his- 
tory of the middle ages. 

(/) THE CHURCH IN FRANCE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

460. Gallia Christiana in provincias ecclesiasticas distributa. 
Begun by the Benedictines of St. Maur and continued by the 
Academic des inscriptions et belles-lettres. 16 vols. Paris, 1715- 
65. Gallia Christiana novissima. 3 vols. 1895-1900. 

Contents analyzed by A. FRANKLIN, Les sources de I'his- 
toire de France, no. 23 above, 465-85. See also P. DESLANDRES, 
Histoire de I'eglise catholique en France, Paris, 1913; and H. 
FISQUET, La France pontificale, 2 vols., Paris [18641866]. 

(g) THE CHURCH IN GERMANY IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

461. HAUCK, A. Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands. Vols. I-V, 
part I. Leipzig, 1887-1911. Vol. I in 3rd to 4th edition, 1904; vol. 
II in 3rd to 4th edition, 1911; vol. Ill in 3rd to 4th edition, 1906. 

See also A. NAEGLE, Kirchengeschichte Bohmens: quellen- 
massig und Tcritisch dargestellt, vol. I (on the introduction of 
Christianity), Vienna, 1915; and W. MOLL, Kerkgeschiedenis 
van Nederland voor de hervorming, 2 vols., Arnhem and 
Utrecht, 1869, index 1871; German edition by P. ZUPPKE, 
Die vorreformatorische Kirchengeschichte der Niederlande, 2 
vols., Leipzig, 1895. 

462. HINSCHIUS, P. Das Kirchenrecht der Katholiken und Pro- 
testanten in Deutschland. Part I. Das katholische Kirchenrecht. 
6 vols. in 7. Berlin, 1869-97. 

Incomplete. Although a book on church law, this vast 
work is placed here because it is a mine of trustworthy 
details on all phases of the church. 

463. WERMINGHOFF, A. Geschichte der Kirchenverfassung 
Deutschlands im Mittelalter. Vol. I. Leipzig, 1905. 

His Verfassungsgeschichte der deutschen Kirche im Mittel- 
alter, Leipzig, 1907, in Grundriss, no. 331 above, vol. II, 6, 
is essentially an abridgment of his Geschichte. 

(h) THE CHURCH IN ITALY IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

464. SAVIO, F. (S. J.). Gli antichi vescovi d 'Italia dalle origin! 
al 1300 descritti per regioni: la Lombardia, parte I., Milano. Flor- 
ence, 1913. 

The beginning of a very important Italia sacra, which 
will supersede F. UGHELLI. Italia sacra, 9 vols., Rome, 1644 
62; 2nd edition, 10 vols., Venice, 1717-22. 



CHAP, iv CHURCH COUNCILS 51 

465. DRESDNER, A. Kultur- und Sittengeschichte cler italienischen 
Geistlichkeit. Breslau, 1890. 

466. CAPPELLETTI. Le chiese d 'Italia dalla loro origine sino ai 
nostri giorni. 21 vols. Venice, 1844-70. 

(t) THE CHURCH IN SPAIN IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

467. Espana sagrada. Edited by H. FLOREZ, etc. 51 vols. 
Madrid, 1754-1879. 

Contains many original sources. Index of the first 49 vols. 
in vol. XXII of Coleccion de documentos ineditos para la his- 
toria de Espana, no. 997 below. See also V. DE LA FUENTE, 
Historia ecclesiastica de Espana, 2nd edition, 6 vols., Madrid, 
1873-75. 

468. GAMS, P. B. Die Kirchengeschichte von Spanien. 3 vols. 
Kegensburg, 1862-1879. 

(j) HISTORY OF CHURCH COUNCILS 

469. HEFELE, C. J. VON. Conciliengeschichte. 7 vols. Freiburg- 
i-B., 1855-74; 2nd edition, 6 vols., 1873-90. Continued by J. A. 
C. HERGENROTHER, vols. VIII-IX, 1887-90. Translated by W. R. 
CLARK, History of the councils of the church, vols. I-V [to 787], 
Edinburgh, 1871-96. Translated and augmented by H. LECLERQ, 
Histoire des conciles. Paris, 1907ff. Vols. I-V, part I, in 9 vols. 
[to 1152]. Paris, 1907-12. 

470. LANDON, E. H. A manual of councils of the holy catholic 
church. 1845. New and revised edition by his son, P. LANDON. 
2 vols. Edinburgh, 1893. 

Arranged in dictionary form, thus constituting a handy 
work of reference. 

471. DESLANDRES, P. Les grands concile des Latran. Paris, 1913. 
(In Questions historiques, science et religion, no. 682.) 

E. CECCHUCHI, Histoire des conciles oecumeniques, Lyons, 
1901. 

(fc) HISTORY OF DOGMA 

472. HARNACK, A. Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte. 3 vols. 
Freiburg-i-B., 1886ff. 4th edition, revised, in 3 vols. Tubingen, 
1909-10. Translated from the 3rd edition, by N. BUCHANAN, His- 
tory of dogma, 7 vols., London, 1897-99. 

See also his Dogmengeschichte, 4th edition, Tubingen, 1905. 

473. TIXERONT, J. Histoire des dogmes. 3 vols. 2nd to 4th 
editions. Paris, 1906-12. Translated by H. L. B., History of 
dogmas. St. Louis, 1910ff. 

Extends to 800 A.D. 



52 GENERAL BOOKS PABTI 

474. FISHER, G. P. History of Christian doctrine. New York, 
1896 (The international theological library, IV). 

A history of doctrine as well as of dogmas. See also K. 
R. HAOENBACH, A history of Christian doctrines [English trans- 
lation], Edinburgh, 1883-1885. 

475. LOOFS, F. Leitfaden zum Studium der Dogmengeschichte. 
Halle, 1889. 4th edition, 1906. 

Protestant. 

476. SEEBERG, R. Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte. 2 vols. 2nd 
edition. Leipzig, 1908-10. 

See also his Grundriss der Dogmengeschichte, 3rd edition, 
Leipzig, 1910. 

477. BONWETSCH, G. N. Grundriss der Dogmengeschichte. 
Munich, 1908. 

478. BACH, J. Die Dogmengeschichte des Mittelalters vom 
christologischen Standpunkt. 2 vols. Vienna, 1873-75. 

(I) MONASTICISM 

479. MONTALEMBERT, COMTE DE [C. F. R. DE TRYONJ. Histoire 

des moines d 'Occident depuis S. Benoit jusqu'a S. Bernard. 7 vols. 
Paris, 1860-1877. Authorized translation, The monks of the west, 
7 vols., Edinburgh, 1861-79; another edition, with introduction by 
F. A. GASQUET, 6 vols., London, 1896. 

480. WISHART, A. W. Short history of monks and monasteries. 
Trenton, 1902. 

481. WORKMAN, H. B. The evolution of the monastic ideal: from 
the earliest times down to the coming of the friars. London, 1913. 

482. ECKENSTEIN, LiNA. Women under monasticism: chapters on 
saint-lore and convent life between A.D. 500 and A.D. 1500. Cam- 
bridge, 1896. 

See also ETHEL R. WHEELER, Women of the cell and cloister, 
London [1913]; and AGNES B. C. DUNBAR, A dictionary of 
saintly women, '2 vols., London, 1904-1905. 

483. HEIMBUCHER, M. Die Orden und Kongregationen der katho- 
lischen Kirche. 2 vols. Paderborn, 1896-97. 2nd edition, 3 vols., 
1907-08. 

484. ZOCKLER, O. Askese und Monchthum. 2 vols. 2nd edition. 
Frankfurt, 1897. 

These two books contain excellent bibliographies. 

485. MORIN, G. L 'ideal monastique et la vie chretienne des 
premiers jours. 2nd edition, revised. Paris, 1914. 



CHAP, iv MEDIEVAL EMPIRE 53 

486. WOODHOUSE, F. C. Monasticism, ancient and modern. Lon- 
don [1896]. 

487. JAMESON, ANNA. Legends of the monastic orders. Cor- 
rected and revised edition. Boston [1884]. 

(m) COLLECTIONS ON CHURCH HISTORY 

488. Freiburger historische Studien. Edited by A. BiiCHi, etc. 
Fribourg (Switzerland), 1905ff. 

489. Forschungen zur christlichen Literatur- und Dogmengeschichte. 
Edited by A. EHRHARD and J. P. KIRSCH. Paderborn, 1900ff. 

490. Kirchengeschichtliche Abhandlungen. Edited by SDRALEK. 
Breslau, 1902ff. 

491. Kirchenrechtliche Abhandlungen. Edited by U. STUTZ. 
Stuttgart, 1902ff. 

492. Kirchengeschichtliche Studien. Edited by A. KNOPFLER, 
etc. 6 vols. Minister, 1891ff. 

493. Papers of the American society of church history. 2nd 
series. Edited by W. W. BOCKWELL. New York, 1908ff. 

494. Studien und Mitteilungen aus dem kirchenhistorischen 
Seminar der theologischen Fakultat zu Wien. Vienna, 1908ff. 

495. Studien zur Geschichte der Theologie und der Kirche. 
Edited by N. BONWETSCH und R. SEEBERG. Leipzig, 1897ff. Neue 
Studien, etc. Same editors. Berlin, 1907ff. 

496. Veroffentlichungen aus dem kirchenhistorischen Seminar zu 
Miinchen. Edited by A. KNOPPLER. Munich, 1899ff. 

497. FUNK, F. X. v. Kirchengeschichtliche Abhandlungen und 
Untersuchungen. Vols. I-III. Paderborn, 1897-1907. 

498. HARNACK, A. Reden und Aufsatze. 2 vols. Giessen, 1904. 
2nd edition, 1906. 

7. The Medieval Empire in the West 
See also no. 538 below; and the general books on Germany 
and Italy, nos. 560-621 below. 

499. BRYCE, J. The holy Roman empire. Oxford, 1864. 2nd 
edition, revised, 1866. A new edition, enlarged and revised, London 
and New York, 1904. 

This is the best book on the subject in any language. 
See E. A. FREEMAN 's enthusiastic review of the 1st edition, 
with some references to the 3rd edition, 1871, in his His- 
torical essays, first series, London, 1871, pp. 126-160 (first 
printed in the North British review, March, 1865). For 
GIBBON, Decline and fall, see no. 341 above. 



54 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

500. FISHER, H. The medieval empire. 2 vols. London, 1898. 

From Otto I to the end of the Hohenstaufen. This is not 
a systematic narrative of events, but rather a series of 
essays, mostly constitutional. 

501. GIESEBRECHT, W. v. Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit. 
5 vols. Brunswick and Leipzig, 1855-88. Vols. I III, 5th edition, 
Leipzig, 1881-90; vol. IV, 2nd edition, Brunswick, 1877; vol. VI, 
edited and continued by B. v. SIMSON, Leipzig, 1895. 

502. ZEUMER, K. Heiliges romisches Reich deutscher Nation: 
eine Studie iiber den Reichstitel. Weimar, 1910 (Quellen und 
Studien, by K. ZEUMER, IV, 2). 

503. FICKER, J. Das deutsche Kaiserreich in seinen universalen 
und nationalen Beziehungen. Innsbruck, 1861. 2nd edition un- 
altered, 1862. 

504. BIROT, J. Le saint empire du couronnement de Charlemagne 
au sacre de Napoleon. Paris, 1903. 

505. STENGEL, E. E. Den Kaiser macht das Heer: Studien zur 
Geschichte eines politischen Gedankens. Weimar, 1910. 

506. HAHN, L. Das Kaisertum. Leipzig, 1913 (Das Erbe der 
Alten, vol. VI). 

See ch. VIII, "Die Erben der romischen Kaiser." 

507. GUGLIA, E. Die Geburts-, Sterbe- und Grabstatten der 
romisch-deutschen Kaiser und Konige. Vienna, 1914. 

See also M. KEMMERICH, "Die Portrats deutscher Kaiser 
und Konige bis auf Rudolf von Habsburg," in Neues Archiv, 
XXXIII (1907), 461-513. 

8. France 
(a) GENERAL HISTORIES OF FRANCE 



508. Histoire de France depuis les origines jusqu'a la revolu- 
tion. Edited by E. LAVISSE. 8 vols in 16. Paris, 1900-1912. 

A new illustrated edition has been planned, which will, 
we hope, be supplied with maps and. an index. This monu- 
mental co-operative work is now the standard history of 
France and has in large measure superseded the following 
older monumental histories of France, nos. 509513 below. 
Good bibliographies are scattered in footnotes. 

A very handy condensed history of France for the general 
reader is being published under the title, Histoire de France 
racontee a tons, edited by L. BATIFFOL, to be completed in six 
volumes, of which four had appeared in 1916; translated by 
ELSIE F. BUCKLEY, The national history of France, New York, 
1916ff. 



CHAP, iv FRENCH HISTORY 55 

509. SISMONDI, J. C. L. S. DE. Histoire des franc.ais depuis 
1'origine jusqu'en 1789. 31 vols. Paris, 1821-44. 

510. MARTIN, H. Histoire de France depuis les temps les plus 
recules jusqu'en 1789. 19 vols. Paris, 1838-54. 4th edition in 17 
vols., 1855-60. Popular, illustrated, edition, 7 vols., 1867-85. 

511. DABESTE, M. C. Histoire de France depuis les origines 
jusqu'a nos jours. 3rd edition. 9 vols. Paris, 1884r85. 

512. MICHELET, J. Histoire de France depuis les origines jusqu' 
en 1789. 17 vols. Paris, 1833-67. New edition, 19 vols., 1879. 
Abridged translations by G. H. SMITH, History of France, 2 vols., 
New York, 1845-47. 

513. LAVALLEE, T. Histoire des franc.ais depuis les temps des 
gaulois jusqu'en 1873. 7 vols. Paris, 1864-1873. 

(2) Shorter Accounts 

514. KITCHIN, G. W. A history of France (to 1793). 3 vols. 
Oxford, 1873-1877. Vol. I, 4th edition, revised, 1899. 

Vol. I extends to 1453. 

515. MACDONALD, J. E. M. A history of France. 3 vols. New 
York, 1915. 

516. CROWE, E. E. The history of France. 3 vols. London, 
1830. 

517. GUIZOT, F. P. G. A popular history of France from the 
earliest times. Translated by R. BLACK. 6 vols. Boston [187-f]. 

(3) One-volume Histories 

518. ADAMS, G. B. The growth of the French nation. New 
York, 1896. 

519. BELLOC, H. A history of the French people. Vol. 1. Lon- 
don, 1913. 

520. HASSALL, A. The French people. London, 1902. 

521. HEADLAM, C. France. London, 1913 (The making of the 
nations.) 

522. DURUY, V. Histoire de France. New edition, 2 vols., Paris, 
1884. Translated and abridged from the 17th French edition by 
Mrs. M. CAREY; with an introduction by J. F. JAMESON, A history 
of France. New York, 1889. 

523. CAVAIGNAC, E. Esquisse d'une histoire de France. Paris, 
1910. 



56 GENERAL BOOKS PART1 

524. JERVIS, W. H. The student's France: a history of France 
from the earliest times to the establishment of the second empire 
in 1852. New York [no date, ca. 1862]. 

525. MACKINNON, J. The growth and decline of the French mon- 
archy. London and New York, 1902. 

The first four chapters, which are on the middle ages, are 
scarcely more than an introduction to the work, which is 
devoted mainly to the modern monarchy. 

(6) GENERAL HISTORIES OF MEDIEVAL FRANCE 

526. MASSON, G. The story of mediaeval France: from Hugh 
Capet to the beginning of the 18th century. New York, 1888 (Story 
of the nations series). 

(c) FRENCH INSTITUTIONS 
See also no. 584 below. 

528. GLASSON, E. Histoire du droit et des institutions de la 
France. 8 vols. Paris, 1887-1903. 

Extends ^o the end of the middle ages. 

529. VIOLLET, P. Droit public: histoire des institutions poli- 
tiques et administratives de la France. 3 vols. Paris, 1890-03. 

Extends to the end of the middle ages. See also his 
Histoire du droit civil franc.ais, 3rd edition, Paris, 1905. 

530. LUCHAIRE, A. Manuel des institutions franchises, periode 
de Capetiens directs. Paris, 1892. 

531. BRISSAUD, J. Manuel d 'histoire du droit frangais. Issued 
in 5 parts. Paris, 1898-1904. Translated in part by J. W. GARNER, 
History of French public law. Boston, 1915. 

Sums up the researches of VIOLLET, FLACH, LUCHAIRE, 

ESMEIN, FUSTEL DE COULANGES, etc. 

532. ESMEIN, A. Cours elementaire d 'histoire du droit franchise. 
Paris, 1892. 8th edition, 1907. 

533. HOLTZMANN, R. Franzosische Verfassungsgeschichte von der 
Mitte des neunten Jahrhunderts bis zur Revolution. Munich and 
Berlin, 1910. 

Part of no. 330 above. 

534. CAM, HELEN M. Local government in Francia and England. 
London, 1912. 

535. FUNCK-BRENTANO, F. L'ancienne France: le roi. 3rd edi- 
tion. Paris, 1913. 

See also H. SCHREUER, Die rechtlichen Grundlagen der 
franzosischen Konigskronung, Weimar, 1911. 



CHAP, iv FRENCH HISTORY 57 

536. MAYER-HOMBERG, E. Die frankischen Volksrechte im Mit- 
telalter: eine rechtgeschichtliche Untersuchung. Vol. I, Die frank- 
ischen Volksrechte und das Reichsrecht. Weimar, 1912. 

(d) FOREIGN RELATIONS OF TRANCE 

537. CORBIN, P. Histoire de la politique exterieure de la France. 
Vol. I. Les origines et la periode anglaise (jusqu'en 1483). Paris, 
1912. 

538. LEROUX, A. Les conflicts entre la France et 1 'empire pen- 
dant le moyen age. Paris, 1902. 

Contains a very important bibliography. See also, H. 
OTTO, "Das Streben der Konige von Frankreich naeh der 
romischen Kaiserkrone, " in Kgl. Gymnasium zu Hadamar, 
Bericht uber das Schuljahr 1898-99, Beigabe. 

539. LANGLOIS, C. V. "The comparative history of England and 
France in the middle ages." English historical review, V (1890), 
259-263. 

(e) GREAT REGIONS OP FRANCE 

540. DEVIC, DOM C. and VAISSETTE, DOM J. Histoire generate de 
Lanquedoc. New edition in 15 vols. Toulouse, 1872-1904. 

541. MOYNE DE LA BORDERIE, A. LE. Histoire de Bretagne [to 
1715]. Vols. I-V. Paris, 1896-1913. 

542. FEBVRE, L. Histoire de Franche-Comte. Paris, 1912 (Vieil- 
les provinces de France). 

(f) MISCELLANEOUS 

543. LANGLOIS, C. V. The historic role of France among the 
nations. An address delivered at the University of Chicago, October 
18, 1904. Chicago, 1905. 

544. STEPHEN, SIR J. Lectures on the history of France. 2 vols. 
London, 1851. 

545. Collection des meilleurs dissertations, etc., relatifs a 1'his- 
toire de France: composee en grande partie de pieces rares, etc. 
Edited by C. LEBER. 20 vols. Paris, 1838. 

For an analysis of its contents, see FRANKLIN, no. 23 
above, 343ff. 

546. LA RONCIERE, C. Histoire de la marine franchise. 4 vols. 
Paris, 1889-1910. 

547. CHEVALIER, E. Histoire de la marine franchise depuis les 
debuts de la monarchic jusqu'au traite de paix de 1763. Paris, 
1902. 

548. MOLINIER, A. Les obituaires franchises au moyen age. 
Paris, 1890. 



58 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

9. Belgium and the Netherlands 

549. PIBENNE, H. Histoire de Belgique. 4 vols. Brussels, 1900- 
11. Vols. I-III [to 1567], 2nd edition, 1901-12. 3rd edition of 
vol. I, 1909. Translated into German by F. AENHEIM, 4 vols., Gotha, 
1899-1913, which is part of no. 332 above. 

550. PIRENNE, H. Les anciennes democraties des Pays-Bas. 
Paris, 1910. Translated by J. V. SAUNDERS, Belgian democracy: its 
early history. London and New York, 1915. (In Publications of 
the University of Manchester, Historical series, XXVII.) 

A very convenient manual for those who cannot master 
PIRENNE 's larger works. 

551. VAN DER LINDEN, H. Manuel d 'histoire de Belgique. With 
a preface by H. PIRENNE. 2 vols. Brussels, 1910. 

552. VANDERKINDERE, L. La formation territoriale des princi- 
pautes beiges au moyen age. 2 vols. 1st and 2nd editions. Brus- 
sels, 1902. 

553. MILLARD, E. Les Beiges et leurs generations historiques. 
Brussels, 1902. 

554. BOULGER, D. C. The history of Belgium. 2 vols. London, 
1902-09. 

See also his Belgium, Detroit, 1913. 

555. VAN DER ESSEN, L. A short history of Belgium. Chicago 
[1916]. 

556. ENSOR, R. C. K. Belgium. New York, 1915. (In Home 
university library, 95.) 

557. BLOK, P. J. Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche Volk. 
8 vols. Groningen, 1892-1908. Translated by O. A. BIERSTADT and 
RUTH PUTNAM, History of the people of the Netherlands. 5 vols. 
New York, 1898-1912. Vol. I, to the beginning of the fifteenth 
century. Vols. I-IV (to 1648) translated into German by A. G. 
HOUTROUW, Gotha, 1901-09, which is part of no. 332 above. 

558. ROGERS, J. E. T. Holland. New York, 1900 (Story of the 
nations series). 

559. WENZELBURGER, K. T. Geschichte der Niederlande. 2 vols. 
[to 1648]. Gotha, 1878-86. 

Part of no. 332 above. 



CHAP, iv GERMAN HISTORY 59 

10. Germany 
(a) GENERAL HISTORIES OF GERMANY 

(1) Monumental Worlcs 
See also nos. 499-507 above. 

560. Bibliothek deutscher Geschichte. Edited by H. v. ZWIEDE- 
NECK-SiJDENHORST. Stuttgart, 1876ff. 

A general work something like the Histoire de France, no. 
508 above, but published in separate volumes which will be 
mentioned in their proper places. A complete list of them is 
given by LOEWE, BucherTcunde, no. 32 above, Anhang. 

561. LAMPRECHT, K. Deutsche Geschichte. 12 vols. in 16 parts. 
Berlin, 1891-1909. Partly in 2nd to 4th editions, 3 supplements, 
1902-04. 

For literature on this and other works of LAMPRECHT, see 
DAHLMANN-WAITZ, no. 28 above, no. 1451. 

(2) Shorter Accounts and Text Books 

562. Handbuch der deutschen Geschichte. Edited by B. GEB- 
HARDT. 2 vols. Stuttgart, 1891. 4th edition by F. HIRSCH. Berlin 
and Leipzig, 1909-10. 

This co-operative history is the best short general work 
on Germany. 

563. HENDERSON, E. F. A short history of Germany. 2 vols. in 
1. New York, 1902. New edition in 2 vols., 1916. 

564. HOLLAND, A. W. Germany. London, 1914 (The making of 
the nations). 

565. LEWIS, C. T. A history of Germany from the earliest times. 
Founded on D. MULLER, History of the German people. New York, 
1886. 

566. HEYCK, E. Deutsche Geschichte: Volk, Staat, Kultur- und 
Geistesleben. 3 vols. Bielefeld, 1905-06. 

567. JAGER, O. Deutsche Geschichte. 2 vols. Munich, 1909. 

568. KAMMEL, O. Deutsche Geschichte. 2 vols. 2nd edition. 
Dresden, 1905. 3rd edition, Leipzig, 1910. 

See also his Der Werdegang des deutschen Volkes, 2 vols., 
3rd edition, Leipzig, 1911-12. 

569. SCHAFER, D. VON. Deutsche Geschichte. 2 vols. Jena, 1910. 

(b) GERMANY IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

570. Jahrbiicher der deutschen Geschichte [to 1250]. Under the 
auspices of the Munich Academy. Berlin and Leipzig, 1862ff. 

27 vols. in 1909. 



60 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

571. KICHTEE, G., and KOHL, H. Annalen der deutschen Ge- 
schichte im Mittelalter von der Griindung des frankischen Reichs 
bis zum Untergang der Hohenstaufen. Mit fortlaufenden Quellen- 
ausziigen und Literaturangaben [to 1137]. 4 vols. Halle, 1873-98. 

572. ZELLER, J. Histoire d'Allemagne. 7 vols. [to Luther]. 
Paris, 1872-92. Vol. Ill, L 'empire germanique et 1'eglise au moyen 
age, in 2nd edition, 1884. 

573. NITZSCH, K. W. Geschichte des deutschen Volkes bis zum 
Augsburger Religionsfrieden. Nach dessen hinterlassenen Papieren 
und Vorlesungen. 3 vols. Leipzig, 1883-1885. 2nd edition by G. 
MATTHAI, Leipzig, 1892. 

574. GERDES, H. Geschichte des deutschen Volkes und seiner 
Kultur im Mittelalter. 3 vols [to 1250]. Leipzig, 1891-1908. 

575. HENDERSON, E. F. A history of Germany in the middle 
ages. London, 1894. 

576. STUBBS, W. Germany in the early middle ages (476-1250). 
London and New York, 1908. 

577. STUBBS, W. Germany in the later middle ages (1200-1500). 
Edited by A. HASSALL. London and New York, 1908. 

(c) GERMAN INSTITUTIONS 

578. WAITZ, G. Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte. 8 vols. [to the 
12th century]. Kiel and Berlin, 1844-1878. 6 vols., 2nd and 3rd 
editions, Berlin, 1880-1896. 

W. ALTMANN and E. BERNHEIM, Ausgewdhlte Urlcunden 
zur . . . Verfassungsgeschichte DeutscMands im Mittelalter, 
4th edition, Berlin, 1909, serves the same purpose for German 
as W. STUBBS, Select charters, does for English constitutional 
history. See also W. STUBBS, Constitutional history of Eng- 
land, in GROSS, no. 36 above, no. 643. 

579. BRUNNER, H. Deutsche Rechtsgeschichte. 2 vols. Leipzig, 
1887-1892. Vol. I, 2nd edition, 1906. 

A very good text is his Grundziige der deutschen Bechts- 
geschichte, Leipzig, 1901, 4th edition, 1910. See also his 
Forschungen zur Geschichte des deutschen und fransosischen 
Bechtes, Stuttgart, 1894. 

580. GIERKE, O. Das deutsche Genossenschaftsrecht. 4 vols. 
Berlin, 1868-1914. 

Part of vol. Ill translated by F. W. MAITLAND, Political 
theories in the middle ages. London, 1900. 

581. BELOW, G. VON. Der deutsche Staat des Mittelalters: ein 
Grundriss der deutschen Verfassungsgeschichte. Leipzig, 1914. 

See also A. HEUSLER, Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte, Leip- 
zig, 1905. 



AUSTRIAN HISTORY 61 

582. MEISTER, A. Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte, von den 
Anfangen bis ins 15 Jahrhundert. Leipzig, 1907. 

Part of no. 331 above. 

583. SCHRODER, E. Lehrbuch der deutschen Eechtsgeschichte. 5th 
edition. Leipzig, 1907. 

584. MAYER, E. Mittelalterliche Verfassungsgeschichte: deutsche 
und franzosische Verfassungsgeschichte vom 9 bis zum 14 Jahr- 
hundert. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1899. 

585. DUNGERN, O. D. War Deutschland ein Wahlreich? Leipzig, 
1913. 

586. PFLEIDERER, O. Das deutsche Nationalbewusstsein in Ver- 
gangenheit und Gegenwart. Berlin, 1896. 

587. HOOPS, J. Reallexicon der germanischen Altertumskunde. 
Vol. I, A-E. Strassburg, 1911-13. 

Extends to about the 12th century. 

(d) AUSTRIA 

588. KRONES, F. v. Handbuch der Geschichte Osterreichs von 
der altesten bis zur neuesten Zeit. 6 vols. Berlin, 1879-81. 

See also his Grundriss der osterreichischen Geschichte, 
Vienna, 1882; and his Osterreichische Geschichte, 2 vols., 
Leipzig, 1899-1900 (Sammlung Goschen). A recent Italian 
work is A. DUDAN, La monarchia degli Absburgo, 800-1915, 
2 vols., Rome, 1915. 

589. HUBER, A. Geschichte Osterreichs. Vols. I-V [to 1648]. 
Gotha, 1885-95. 

Part of no. 332 above. 

590. LEGER, L. Histoire de 1'Austriche-Hongrie depuis ses orig- 
ines jusqu'a 1'annee 1894. 5th edition. Paris, 1907. Translated 
by B. HILL, History of Austro-Hungary. London, 1889. Also trans- 
lated by W. E. LINGELBACH in no. 314 above. 

591. KRALIK, R. Osterreichische Geschichte. Vienna, 1914. 

592. MAYER, F. M. Geschichte Osterreichs mit besonderer Riick- 
sicht auf das Kulturleben. 2 vols. 3rd edition. Vienna and Leip- 
zig, 1909-10. 

593. ITuBER, A. Osterreichische Reichsgeschichte. Leipzig, 1895. 
2nd edition by A. DOPSCH, 1901. 

594. LUSCHIN VON EBENGREUTH, A. Osterreichische Reichsge- 
schichte. 2 vols. Bamberg, 1895-96. 

See also his Grundriss der osterreichischen Beichsgeschichte. 
Bamberg, 1899. 



62 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

(e) PRUSSIA 

595. EANKE, L. v. Zwolf Bitcher preussiseher Geschichte. 5 
vols. Leipzig, 1874. 2nd edition, Leipzig,. 1878-79. (Vols. XXV- 
XXVII of his complete works.) 

596. PRUTZ, H. Preussische Geschichte. 4 vols. Stuttgart, 
1899-1902. 

H. TUTTLE, History of Prussia, 4 vols., Boston, 1884-1896 
(vol. I, A.D. 1134-1740, in second edition), touches but slightly 
on the middle ages. 

(f) ALSACE-LORRAINE 

597. DERICHSWEILER, H. Geschichte Lothringens: der tausend- 
jahrige Kampf urn die Westmark. 2 vols. Wiesbaden, 1901. 

Condensed in his Geschichte LotJiringens, Leipzig, 1905 
(Sammlung Goschen). 

598. PUTNAM, EUTH. Alsace and Loraine from Caesar to Kaiser. 
New York, 1915. 



11. Italy 

(a) GENERAL HISTORIES OF ITALY 

(1) Political History 

Many of the general works on Germany just listed above must 
be consulted for the history of Italy in the time when German 
emperors were constantly crossing the Alps. 

599. Storia politica d 'Italia scritta de una societa di professori. 
Edited by P. VILLARI. Milan, 1881ff. 

600. CANTU, C. Storia degli Italian!. 6 vols. Turin, 1854. 4th 
edition, 1892. Translated into French by A. LACOMBE under the 
supervision of the author and from the 2nd edition, Histoire des 
Italiens. 12 vols. Paris, 1859-62. 

601. CAPPELLETTI, L. Storia d 'Italia (476-1900). Genoa, 1902. 

See also E. BESTA, La Sardegna medioevale, 2 vols., Palermo, 
1908-1909. 

602. SEDGWICK, H. D. A short history of Italy (476-1900). Bos- 
ton, 1905. 

603. BELVIGLIERI, C. Tavole sinerone e genealogiche di storia 
italiana dal 306 al 1870. Florence, 1885. 

604. FEDELE, P. "La coscienza della nazionalita in Italia nel 
medio evo. " Nuova Antologia (1915). 



CHAP, iv ITALIAN HISTORY 63 

(2) Constitutional History 

605. FERTILE, A. Storia del diritto italiano. 6 vols. and index. 
Padua, 1873-87. 2nd edition by P. DEL GIUDICE, Turin, 1891-1903. 

606. BESTA, E. Storia del diritto italiano. Pisa, vol. II, 1914. 

Vol. II relates to the Lombard period. 

607. FICKER, J. Forschungen zur Belch s- und Bechtsgeschichte 
Italiens. 4 vols. Innsbruck, 1868-74. 

See also WAITZ, no. 578 above. 

608. MAYER, E. Italienische Verfassungsgeschichte von der 
Gothenzeit zur Zunftherrschaft. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1909. 

609. SCHUPFER, F. Manual! di storia del diritto italiano. 4th 
edition. Citta di Castello, 1908. 

(3) Maritime History 

610. MANFRONI, C. Storia della marina italiana dalle invasion! 
barbariche al trattato di Ninfeo (1261). Leghorn, 1899. Continued 
by his Storia della marina italiana (1261-1453). 2 vols. Leghorn, 
1902. 

A third work continues the story in modern times. 



(ft) MEDIEVAL HISTORY OF ITALY 

(1) Monumental WorTcs 
See also no. 345 above. 

611. HARTMANN, L. M. Geschichte Italiens im Mittelalter. 
Leipzig, 1897ff. Vol. IIP appeared in 1911. 

Now the most reliable and scholarly work on medieval 
Italy. Part of no. 332 above. 

612. MURATORI, L. A. Annali d 'Italia. 12 vols. Borne, 1744- 
1749. Often reprinted. Translated into German by BANDIS. 9 vols. 
Leipzig, 1745-50. 

From the beginning of the Christian era to 1749. See C. 
TROYA, Studi intorno agli "Annali d' Italia" del Muratori, 2 
vols., Naples, 1877. 

613. SISMONDI, J. C. L. S. DE. Histoire des r^publiques italiennes 
du moyen age. 16 vols. Paris, 1809-1818. 5th edition, 8 vols. Brus- 
sels, 1838-39. Translated, condensed, and revised by W. BOULTING, 
History of the Italian republics in the middle ages. London [ca. 
1905]. 

This is practically a general history of medieval Italy. In 
large measure it supersedes MURATORI, no. 612 above. 



64 GENERAL BOOKS PART ' 

614. TROYA, C. Storia d 'Italia del medio evo. 17 vols. Naples, 
1839-59. 

Extends from the fall of the Roman empire in the west 
to the end of the Lombard kingdom. The author had planned 
to carry it to 1321. It is still of importance and is not en- 
tirely superseded by HODGKIN, Italy and her invaders, no. 345 
above, and perhaps not wholly even by HARTMANN, no. 611 
above. 

(2) Shorter Works and Text Books 

615. VILLARI, P. Le invasion! barbariche in Italia. Milan, 1901. 
Translated by LINDA VILLARI, The barbarian invasions of Italy. 2 
vols. London, 1902. 

616. VILLARI, P. L 'Italia da Carlo Magno alia morte di Arrigo 
VII. Milan, 1910. Translated by his daughter, Mrs. C. HULTON, 
Mediaeval Italy from Charlemagne to Henry VII. London, 1910. 

These two works form the best general history of medieval 
Italy available in English. 

617. COTTERILL, H. B. Mediaeval Italy during a thousand years 
(305-1313). London, 1915 (Great nations series). 

618. BROWNING, O. Guelfs and Ghibellines: a short history of 
mediaeval Italy from 1250-1409. London, 1893. The age of the 
condottieri: a short history of mediaeval Italy from 1409-1530, 
London, 1895. 

619. GABOTTO, F. Storia dell' Italia occidentale nel medio evo, 
395-1313. Vols. I and II [to 568 A.D.], 1912. 

620. LANZANI, F. I comuni, da Carlomagno ad Henrico VII. 
Milan, 1880. 

Part of no. 599 above. 

621. KLEIN, V. Italiens historic i middelalderen med saerlight 
blik paa kulturudviklingen. Copenhagen, 1907. 

12. Spain and Portugal 

(a) GENERAL HISTORY OF SPAIN 
(1) Monumental Works 

622. Historia general de la Espana. By members of the Real 
Academia de la Historia. 18 vols. Madrid, 1890-98. No more pub- 
lished. 

623. LAFUENTE, M. Historia general de Espana. 30 vols. Madrid, 
1850-67. 2nd edition continued by J. VALERA. 24 vols. Barcelona, 
1888-90. 



CHAP, iv SPANISH HISTORY 65 

624. KOSSEEUW, SAINT HILAIRE. Histoire d'Espagne. 2nd edi- 
tion. 14 vols. Paris, 1844-79. 

See also M. ROMEY, Histoire d'Espagne, 9 vols., Paris, 
1839-1849. 

625. MARIANA, J. DE. Tlistoria general de Espafia. Toledo, 1601; 
Madrid, 1623. New editions, 8 vols., Madrid, 1819; 10 vols., Barce- 
lona, 1839. 

The original work was published in Latin, Historiae de 
rebus Hispaniae libri XX, Toledo, 1592, with ten additional 
books in 1616, and was translated into Spanish by the author 
himself. 

626. LEMBKE, F. W. Geschichte von Spanien. Vol. I, Hamburg, 
1834; vols. II and III by H. SCHAFER, Hamburg, 1844, and Gotha, 
1861; vols. IV-VII (to 1516), by F. W. SCHIRRMACHER, Gotha, 1881- 
1902. 

Part of no. 332 above. Eather antiquated. 

627. DUNHAM, S. A. Spain and Portugal. 5 vols. London, 
1832-33. 

(2) Shorter Works and Text Books 

628. ALTAMIRA, R. Historia de Espafia y de la civilizacion 
espanola. 4 vols. Barcelona, 1900-1911. 3rd edition, 1913-14. 

629. BURKE, U. R. A history of Spain from the earliest time to 
the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. 2 vols. London, 1895. 2nd 
edition, with additional notes, and an introduction by M. A. S. 
HUME. 2 vols. London, 1900. 

630. DIERCKS, G. Geschichte Spaniens von den friihesten Zeiten 
bis auf die Gegenwart. 2 vols. Berlin, 1895-96. 

See also his Spanische Geschichte, Leipzig, 1905 (Sammlung 
Goschen, 266). 

631. HUME, M. A. S. The Spanish people, their origin, growth 
and influence. London, 1901. In The great peoples series. 

See the Bibliography. 

632. PERKINS, CLARA C. Builders of Spain. New York, 1909. 

(3) Constitutional History of Spain 

633. COLMEIRO, M. De la constitucion y del gobierno de los 
reinos de Leon y Castilla. 2 vols. Madrid, 1855. 2nd edition, 
1873-75. 

See also his Derecho administrativo espanol, 3 vols., 4th 
edition, Madrid, 1876-80; J. M. ANTEQUERA, Historia de la 
legislacion espanola, Madrid, 1849, 4th edition, 1895; F. MAR- 
TfNEZ MARINA, Ensayo hist6rico-critico sobre la antiqua legis- 



66 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

lacion . . . de Leon y Castillo, Madrid, 1808, 2 vols., 1834; and 
A. MARICHALAR and C. MANRIQUE, Historia de la legislation y 
recitaciones del derecho civil de Espana, 9 vols., Madrid, 1861- 
1876. 

634. DANVILA Y COLLADO, M. El poder civil en Espana. 6 vols. 
Madrid, 1885-87. 

The introduction to vol. I is a long and very important 
general survey of the middle ages. 

635. CARDENAS, F. DE. Ensayo sobre la historia de la propriedad 
territorial en Espana. 2 vols. Madrid, 1873-75. 

(6) PORTUGAL 

636. HERCULANO, A. Historia de Portugal desde 6 comenc.o da 
monarchia ate 6 fin do reinado de Alfonso III (to 1279). 4 vols. 
Lisbon, 1846-53. 4th edition, 1868ff. 

See also the more popular book by J. P. OLIVEIRA MARTINS, 
Historia de Portugal, 2 vols., 6th edition, Lisbon, 1901. 

637. EIBEIRO, J. P. Dissertac,oes chronologicas e criticas sobre 
a historia e iurisprudencia ecclesiastica e civil de Portugal. 5 vols. 
in 7. Lisbon, 1810-36. 

638. STEPHENS, H. M. Portugal. London, 1891 (Story of the 
nations). 

639. SCHAFER, H. Geschichte von Portugal. 5 vols. Hamburg 
and Gotha, 1836-54. 

Part of no. 332 above. 

640. MAcMuRDO, E. The history of Portugal from the com- 
mencement of the monarchy to the reign of D. Joao V. 3 vols. 
London, 1888-89. 

641. GAMA BARROS, H. DA. Historia da administrate publica em 
Portugal nos seculos 12 a 15. 2 vols. Lisbon, 1885-1897. 

642. MICHEL, F. Les Portugais en France et les Franc.ais en 
Portugal. Paris, 1882. 



13. The Byzantine Empire 

(a) General Accounts 
See also no. 418 above [TOZER]. 

643. BURY, J. B. A history of the later Roman empire 395-800 
A.D. 2 vols. New York, 1889. 



CHAP, iv BYZANTINE EMPIRE 67 

644. BURY, J. B. A history of the eastern Eoman empire from 
the fall of Irene to the accession of Basil I (A.D. 802-867). London 
and New York, 1912. 

These two works form the standard history of the period 
which they cover. 

645. FINLAY, G. ' ' History of the Byzantine empire, from 
DCCXVI to MLVII." New York, 1906 (Everyman's library). 

This is a reprint of vol. II of his History of Greece, no. 
656 below. 

646. OMAN, C. Story of the Byzantine empire. New York, 1892 
(Story of the nations series). 

647. FOORD, E. A. The Byzantine empire: the rearguard of 
European civilization. London, 1911. 

Very inadequate. 

648. BUSSELL, F. W. The Roman empire: essays on the constitu- 
tional history, 81-1081 A.D. 2 vols. London, 1910. 

Very disappointing. 

649. GELZER, H. Byzantinische Kulturgeschichte. Tubingen, 
1909. 

See also his Ausgewahlte Heine Schriften, Leipzig, 1907; 
and his "Abriss der byzantinischen Kaisergeschichte, " Ap- 
pendix to no. 800 below. 

650. HESSELING, D. C. Byzantium: Studien over onze Besehaving 
ria de Stichting van Konstantinopel. Haarlem, 1902. French trans- 
lation, Essai sur la civilization byzantine, with a preface by G. 
SCHLUMBERGER. Paris, 1907. 

651. GRENIER, P. L 'empire byzantin, son Evolution sociale et 
politique. 2 vols. Paris, 1904. 

652. HERTZBERG, G. F. Geschichte der Byzantiner und des osman- 
ischen Reiches bis gegen Ende des sechszehnten Jahrhunderts. 
Berlin, 1883. 

Part of no. 313 above. 

653. ROTH, K. Geschichte des byzantinischen Reiches. Leipzig, 
1904 (Sammlung Gb'schen). 

654. KRAUSE, J. H. Die Byzantiner des Mittelalters in ihrem 
Staats- Hof- und Privatleben, insbesondere vom Ende des lOten bis 
gegen Ende des 14ten Jahrhunderts nach den byzantinischen Quel- 
len. Halle, 1869. 

655. LE BEAU, C. Histoire du Bas-Empire. 28 vols. Paris, 1757- 
1817. 



68 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

(b) GREECE IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

656. FINLAY, G. History of Greece from its conquest by the 
Komans to the present time. Begun 1843. Edited by H. F. TOZER. 
7 vols. Oxford, 1877. 

657. MILLER, W. The Latins in the Levant, a history of Frank- 
ish Greece (1204-1566). London, 1908. 

658. HERTZBERG, G. F. Geschichte Griechenlands seit dam Ab- 
sterben des antiken Lebens bis zur Gegenwart. 4 vols. Gotha, 
1876-79. 

Part of no. 332 above. 

659. HOPF, K. Geschichte Griechenlands vom Beginn des Mittel- 
alters bis auf unsere Zeit (395-1821). 2 vols. Leipzig, 1867-68. 

Vols. 85-86 in no. 100 above. See also D. BIKELAS, La 
Grece byzantine et moderne, Paris, 1893. 

660. GREGOROVIUS, F. Geschichte der Stadt Athen im Mittel- 
alter. 2 vols. 2nd edition, Stuttgart, 1889. 

(c) CONSTANTINOPLE 

661. HUTTON, W. H. Constantinople: the story of the old capital 
of the empire. London, 1900. 3rd edition, 1907 (Mediaeval towns 
series). 

See also J. EBERSOLT, Le grand palais de Constantinople et 
le livre des ceremonies, Paris, 1910; and J. B. BURY, "The 
great palace," in Byzantinische Zeitschrift, XX (1911). 

662. GROSVENOR, E. A. Constantinople. 2 vols. Boston, 1895. 

663. VAN MILLIGEN, A. Byzantine Constantinople: the walls of 
the city and adjoining historical sites. London, 1899. 

See also A. D. MORDTMANN, Esquisse topographique de Con- 
stantinople, Lille, 1892; and W. J. BROADRIBB and W. BESANT, 
Constantinople: a sketch of its history from its foundation to 
its conquest by the TurTcs in 1453, London, 1879. 

664. BAKER, B. G. The walls of Constantinople. London, 1910. 

665. DWIGHT, H. G. Constantinople old and new. Illustrated. 
New York, 1915. 

666. CLEMENT, CLARA E. Constantinople: the city of the Sultans. 
Boston, 1895. 

667. EARTH, H. Constantinople. Paris, 1906 (Les villes d'art 
celebres). 

668. GURLITT, C. Konstantinopel. Berlin [1908] (Die Kultur). 

669. SCHULTZE, V. Konstantinopel. Berlin, 1913. 

See also E. OBERHUMMER, Constantinopolis : Abriss der 
Topographic und Geschichte, Stuttgart, 1899. 



CHAP, iv EASTERN EUROPE 69 

(d) .MISCELLANEOUS 

670. SESAN, V. Krrche und Staat im romisch-byzantinis'-hen 
Reiche seit Konstantin dem Grossen bis zum Falle Konstantinopels. 
Czernowitz, 1911ff. 

Vol. I extends to 380 A.D. 

671. COBHAM, C. D. Patriarchs of Constantinople. Cambridge 
University Press, 1911. 

672. ZACHARIAE VON LINGENTHAL, K. E. Geschichte des griech- 
isch-romischen Eechts. 3rd edition, Berlin, 1892. 

673. DIEHL, C. Figures byzantines. 2 vols. Vol. I in .4th edi- 
tion; vol. II in 3rd edition. Paris, 1909. 

674. DIEHL, C. Etudes byzantines. Paris, 1905. 

675. KRUMBACHER, K. Populare Aufsatze. Leipzig, 1909. 

676. RAMBAUD, A. Etudes sur 1'histoire byzantine. Paris, 1912. 

677. GFRORER, A. F. Byzantinische Geschichten. 3 vols. Graz, 
1872-77. 

678. McCABE, J. The empresses of Constantinople. London, 
1913. 

679. DIETERICH, K. Byzantinische Charakterkopfe. Leipzig, 
1909 (Aus Natur und Geisteswelt, 244). 



14. Eastern Europe 

(a) GENERAL ACCOUNTS 

680. MARQUART, I. Osteuropaische und ostasiatisehe Streifziige: 
ethnologische und historisch-topographische Studien zur Geschichte 
des 9. und 10. Jahrhunderts (ca. 840-940). Leipzig, 1903. 

See also A. WIRTH, Geschichte Asiens und Osteuropas, vol. 
I, Von den Anfdngen bis 1790, Halle, 1904. 

(&) RUSSIA 

681. KLUCHEVSKY, V. O. A history of Russia. Translated from 
the Russian by C. J: HOGARTH. 3 vols. London and New York, 
1911-13. 

A very poor translation of the best book we have on the 
history of Russia. M. BARING, The Russian people, London, 
1911, is based largely on Kluchevsky's lectures, which form 
the basis of his book. Another reflection of Kluchevsky is 
the first volume of J. MAVOR, An economic history of Russia, 
2 vols., London and New York, 1914. 



70 GENERAL BOOKS 

682. EAMBAUD, A. Histoire de la. Eussie depuis les origines 
jusqu'a nos jours. 6th edition, revised by E. HAUMANT. Paris, 
1914. Translated by LEONORA B. LANG, A popular history of Eussia, 
in 3 vols., Boston, 1882. New edition, 1886. 

The best general history of medieval and modern Eussia 
by a western scholar. See pp. 933-953 in the latest French 
edition for an extensive bibliography. Now see also F. P. 
GIORDANI, Storia della Eussia secondo gli studi piu recenti, 2 
vols., Milan, 1916. 

683. MORFILL, W. E. Eussia. London, 1890 (Story of the 
nations series). 

684. BRUCKNER, A. Geschichte Busslands, bis zum Ende des 18 
Jahrhunderts. 2 vols. Gotha, 1896-1913. 

Part of no. 332 above. 

685. SCHIEMANN, T. Bussland, Polen und Livland bis ins 17 
Jahrhundert. 2 vols. Berlin, 1886-87. 

Part of no. 313 above. 

686. PANTENIUS, T. H. Geschichte Busslands von der Entstehung 
des russischen Eeichs bis zur Gegenwart. Leipzig, 1908. 

687. BESTUSCHEW, K. Geschichte Eusslands. A German transla- 
tion from the Eussion by T. SCHIEMANN. Mitau, 1874. 

688. LEROY-BEAULIEU, A. L 'empire des tsars et les Eusses. 
Paris, 1881-82. Translated from the 3rd French edition by Z. A. 
EAGOZIN, The empire of the tsars and the Eussians. 3 vols. New 
York, 1894-1902. 

This book on modern Eussia constantly reaches back to 
the middle ages to find explanations for present conditions. 

689. EEEB, W. Bussische Geschichte. Leipzig, 1903 (Sammlung 
Goschen). 

690. FIERI ING, P. La Eussie et le Saint-Siege. 4 vols. Paris, 
1896-1907. Vol. I in 2nd edition, 1906. 

(c) FINLAND AND THE BALTIC PROVINCES: LIVONIA, ESTHONIA, 

AND COURLAND 

See also no. 717 below. 

691. SERAPHIM, E. Geschichte Liv-, Esth- und Kurlands von der 
" Aufsegelung" des Landes bis zur Einverleibung in das russische 
Eeich. 2 vols. 2nd edition. Eeval, 1897-1903. 

See also his Geschichte von Livland, vol. I, Gotha, 1905, 
part of no. 332 above; his Baltische Geschichte im Grundriss, 
Beval, 1908; and L. ARBUSOW, Grundriss der Geschichte von 
Liv-, Esth- und Kurland, 3rd edition, Biga, 1908. For Livonia 
see also no. 685 above. 






CHAP, iv POLAND AND BOHEMIA 71 

692. SCHYBERGSON, M. G. Finlands historica. 2 vols. Helsing- 
fors, 1887-89. German edition by F. ARNHEIM. Gotha, 1896. 

Part of no. 332 above. 

(d) POLAND 
See also no. 685 below. 

693. ORVIS, JULIA S. A brief history of Poland. New York, 
1916. 

694. MORFILL, W. R. Poland. London, 1893 (Story of the 
nations series). 

S. A. DUNHAM, The history of Poland, London, 1834. L. 
LEPSZY, Cracow, the royal city of ancient Poland: its history 
and antiquities, translated by R. DYBOI.SKI, London, 1912. 

695. PHILLIPS, W. A. Poland. Home university library, 1915. 

696. ROEPELL, R. Geschichte Polens. Vol. I. Continued by J. 
CARO, vols. II-V (to 1506). Hamburg and Gotha, 1840-86. 

Part of no. 332 above. 

697. CARO, J. Geschichte Polens. Gotha, 1863. 

698. BRANDENBURGER, C. Polnische Geschichte. Leipzig, 1907 
(Sammlung Goschen). 

(e) BOHEMIA AND MORAVIA 

699. MAURICE, C. E. The story of Bohemia from the earliest 
i times to the fall of national independence in 1620. New York, 

1896 (Story of the nations series). 

700. BRETHOLZ, B. Geschichte Bohmens und Mahrens bis zum 
Aussterben der Premysliden (1306). Munich and Leipzig, 1912. 

The old standard work on Bohemia was F. PALACKY, Ge- 
schichte von Bohmen, vols. I-V [to 1526], Prague, 1836-67, 
vols I-III in 3rd, but unchanged edition, 18641896. See 
also A. ZYCHA, Ueber den Ursprung der Stadte in Bohmen und 
die Stadtepolitik der Premysliden, Prague, 1914. 

701. BACHMAN, A. Geschichte Bohmens. Vols. I and II. Gotha, 
1899-1905. 

Part of no. 332 above. Vol. I extends to 1400 A.D. 

702. LUTZOW, F. H. H. V. Bohemia, an historical sketch. Lon- 
don [1909] (Everyman's library). First published in 1896. 

See also his Lectures on the historians of Bohemia, London, 
1905 (Ilchester lectures for 1904), and his The story of 
Prague, London, 1907. 

703. MONROE, W. S. Bohemia and the Cechs: the history, people, 
institutions, and the geography of the kingdom, together with ac- 
counts of Moravia and Silesia. Boston, 1910. 



72 GENERAL BOOKS PAKTI 

(f) HUNGARY 

704. VAMBERY, A. The story of Hungary. New York and Lon- 
don, 1886 (Story of the nations series). 

705. SAYOUS, E. Histoire generale des Hongrois. 2 vols. Paris, 
1876. 

(g) BALKAN STATES 

(1) General 

706. MILLER, W. The Balkans: Eoumania, Bulgaria, Servia, 
Montenegro. New York, 1896 (Story of the nations series). 

N. FORBES, A. J. TOYNBEE, D. MITRANY, and D. G. HOGARTH, 
The Balkans: a history of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Rumania, 
Turkey, Oxford, 1915. W. HOWARD-FLANDERS, Balkania: a 
short history of the Balkan states, London, 1909. L. LEGER, 
Serbes, Croates et Bulgares, Paris, 1913. 

707. JIRECEK, K. J. Die Eomanen in die Stadten Dalmatiens 
wahrend des Mittelalters. 3 vols. Vienna, 1901, 1903, 1905 (Denk- 
sehriften of the Vienna academy). 

(2) Rumania 

708. JORGA, N. Geschichte des rumanischen Volkes. Vols. I-III 
(to 1640). Gotha, 1905-10. 

Part of no. 332 above. 

709. XENOPOL, A. D. Histoire des Eoumains. 2 vols. Paris, 1896. 

Vol. I, 513-1633 A.D. See. also his Les Eoumains: histoire, 
etat material et intellectuel, Paris, 1909. 

(3) Bulgaria 

710. SONGEON, R. P. G. Histoire de la Bulgarie depuis les orig- 
ines jusqu'a nos jours (485-1913). Paris, 1913. 

711. SAMUELSON, J. Bulgaria past and present: historical, politi- 
cal and descriptive. London, 1888. 

712. BOUSQUET, G. Histoire du peuple bulgare depuis les orig- 
ines jusqu'a nos jours. Paris, 1909. 

713. JIRECEK, K. J. Geschichte der Bulgaren. Prague, 1876. 

(4) Serbia and Bosnia 

714. JIRECEK, K. J. Geschichte der Serben. Vol. 1 [to 1371]. 
Gotha, 1911. 

See the review of this book by W. MILLER, "The me- 
diaeval Serbian empire," in Quarterly review, CCXXVI 
(1916), 488-507. 

715. KANITZ, F. Das Konigreieh Serbien und das Serbenvolk 
von der Romerzeit bis zur Gegenwart. Vol. I. Leipzig, 1904. 



CHAP, iv SCANDINAVIAN COUNTRIES 73 

716. THALi.6czY, L. Studien zur Geschichte Bosniens und Ser- 
biens im Mittelalter. Translated by F. ECKHART. Munich, 1914. 

V. KLAIC, Geschichte Bosniens, Leipzig, 1885. S. NOVA- 
KOVIC, "Les problemes Serbes," in Archiv fur slavische Phil- 
ologie, XXXITI-XXXIV (1912). 

15. Scandinavian Countries 
(a) GENERAL 

717. STEPANSSON, J. Denmark and Sweden with Iceland and 
Finland. New York, 1916 (Story of the nations series). 

E. C. OTTE, Scandinavian history, London, 1874. 

718. SINDING, P. C. The Scandinavian races: the northmen; the 
sea-kings and vikings; their manners and customs . . . up to the 
present time. New York, 1866. New edition, 1875. 

The first edition bears the title, History of Scandinavia 
from the early times of the northmen and vikings to the present 
day. 

719. MAURER, K. v. Vorlesungen iiber altnordische Rechts- 
geschichte. Vols. I-IV. Leipzig, 1906-1909. 

A posthumous work. 

(&) DENMARK 

720. Danmarks riges historic. By J. STEENSTRUP and others. 
Vols. I-VI. Copenhagen, 1896-1907. 

721. ALLEN, C. F. Histoire de Danemark depuis les temps les 
plus recules jusqu 'a nos jours. French translation, by E. BEAU- 
vois, from the 7th Danish edition. 2 vols., Copenhagen, 1878. 

The French translation adds important bibliographies. 

722. DAHLMANN, F. S. Geschichte von Danemark. Vols. I-III. 
Vols. IV-V (to 1648) by D. SCHAFER. Hamburg and Gotha, 1840- 
1902. 

Part of no. 332 above. 

(c) NORWAY 

723. GJERSET, K. History of the Norwegian people from the 
earliest times to the present day. 2 vols. New York, 1915. 

724. BOYESEN, H. H. The story of Norway. London, 1886 (Story 
of the nations series). 

725. WILLSON, T. B. History of the church and state in Norway 
from the tenth to the sixteenth century. Westminster, 1903. 



74 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

(d) SWEDEN 

726. GEIJER, E. G. Geschichte Schwedens. Vols. I-III. Vols. 
IV-VI by F. F. CARLSON. Vol. VII (to 1772) by L. STAVENOW. 
Hamburg and Gotha, 1832-1908. 

Part of no. 332 above. 

727. MONTELIUS, O. Sveriges historia fran aldsta tid till vara 
dagar. 6 vols. Stockholm, 1877-1881. 

(e) ICELAND 

728. HERRMANN, P. Island in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart: 
Reise-erinnerungen. 3 vols. Leipzig, 1907-1910. 

Vol. I, ch. Ill, "Geschichte Islands." See references to 
other works cited in the footnotes and especially J. BRYCE, 
"Primitive Iceland," in I, 236-300, of his Studies in history 
and jurisprudence, 2 vols., Oxford, 1901. 

16. History of Culture and Civilization 
(a) GENERAL HISTORIES OF CIVILIZATION 
See also nos. 187-207 above. 

729. Die Kultur der Gegenwart: ihre Entwickelung und ihre 
Ziele. Edited by P. HINNEBERG. Berlin and Leipzig, 1905ff. 

About 22 vols. had appeared in 1914. Most of the sep- 
arate works in parts I and II have some bearing upon the 
middle ages. The most important of them will be mentioned 
in appropriate places. 

730. Kulturgeschichtliche Bibliothek. Edited by F. FOY. 3 sec- 
tions. Heidelberg, 1911ff. 

731. Quellen und Forschungen zur Sprach- und Culturgeschichte 
der germanischen Volker. Edited originally by B. TEN BRINK and 
W. SCHERER. Strassburg, 1874ff. 

732. BREYSIG, K. Kulturgeschichte der Neuzeit. Vols. I and II. 
Berlin, 1900-01. 

Vol. II, part 2, is on the middle ages. 

733. HELLWALD, F. v. Kulturgeschichte in ihrer natiirlichen 
Entwicklung bis zur Gegenwart. Augsburg, 1874. 4th edition, re- 
vised and enlarged by eighteen German scholars. 4 vols. Leipzig, 
1896-1898. 

Vol. Ill is on the middle ages. See also E. DRIAULT, Vue 
generale de I'histoire de la civilisation, 2 vols., Paris, 1909 
(Bibliotheque de I'histoire contemporain). 

734. HENNE-AM-RHYN, O. Allgemeine Kulturgeschichte von der 
Urzeit bis auf die Gegenwart. 9 vols. Leipzig, 1877-1908. 



CHAP, iv FREEDOM OP THOUGHT 75 

735. Social England: a record of the progress of the people in 
religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature, 
and manners. Edited by H. D. TRAILL and written by various 
specialists. 6 vols. London, 1894-97. Illustrated and revised edi- 
tion, 6 vols., 1901-04. 

736. GUIZOT, F. Histoire de la civilisation en Europe depuis la 
chute de 1 'empire romain. Paris, 1828. Translated by C. S. HENRY, 
History of civilization from the fall of the Eoman empire to the 
French revolution, as vol. I of History of civilization. 4 vols. New 
York, 1846. 

See no. 763 below. 

737. MILYOUKOV, P. Skizzen russischer Kulturgeschichte. Ger- 
man edition by E. DAVIDSON. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1898-1901. 

738. BAUDRILLART, H. Histoire du luxe privS et public, depuis 
1'antiquite jusqu'a nos jours. 2nd edition. 4 vols. Paris, 1880- 
1881. Vol. Ill, Le moyen age et la renaissance. 

(6) HISTORY OP FREEDOM OP THOUGHT 
See also no. 817 below. 

739. WHITE, A. D. A history of the warfare of science with 
theology in Christendom. 2 vols. New York, 1896. 

740. BURY, J. B. A history of freedom of thought. New York 
[1913] (Home university library). 

741. LECKY, W. E. H. History of the rise and influence of the 
spirit of rationalism in Europe. 2 vols. 1865. Kevised edition, 
London, 1870. 

742. ROBERTSON, J. M. A short history of free-thought, ancient 
and modern. 2 vols. 2nd, revised edition, London, 1906. 

743. SANTA YANA, G. The life of reason: or, The phases of 
human progress. 5 vols. New York, 1905-06. 

See especially vol. Ill, Reason in religion. 

744. RUFFINI, F. Religious liberty. Translated from the Italian 
by J. P. HEYES, with a preface by J. B. BURY. London, 1912. 

745. WHETHAM, W. C. D., and WHETHAM, CATHERINE D., his wife. 
Science and the human mind: a critical and historical account of 
the development of natural knowledge. London, 1912. 

746. DRAPER, J. W. History of the intellectual development of 
Europe. 2 vols. Revised edition, New York, 1876. 

747. HOLLAND, F. M. The rise of intellectual liberty from Thales 
to Copernicus. New York, ]885. 



76 GENERAL BOOKS 

748. ZOCKLER, O. Geschichte der Beziehungen zwischen Theologie 
und Naturwissenschaften mit besonderer Riicksicht auf die Schof- 
ungsgeschichte. 2 vols. Giitersloh, 1877-79. 

(c) MEDIEVAL CIVILIZATION IN GENERAL 

749. Beitrage zur Kulturgeschichte des Mittelalters und der 
Renaissance. Edited by W. GOETZ. Leipzig and Teubner, 1908ff. 

750. Vom Mittelalter zur Reformation: Forschungen zur Ge- 
schichte der deutschen Bildung. Edited by K. BURDACH. Berlin, 
1912ff. 

Very broad in scope. By no means strictly confined to 
Germany, e.g., piiblication began in 1912 with parts 3 and 4 
of vol II, Briefu-echsel des Cola di Eienzo, edited by K. BUR- 
DACH and P. PIUR. Original sources are edited along with 
special studies. 

751. GRUPP, G. Kulturgeschichte des Mittelalters. 2 vols. Stutt- 
gart, 1894-95. 2nd edition, 4 vols, Paderborn, 1907-14. 

752. KURTH, G. Les origines de la civilisation moderne. 2 vols. 
5th edition, Brussels, 1903. 

Extends to the time of Charlemagne. 

753. LECKY, W. E. H. History of European morals from Augus- 
tus to Charlemagne. 2 vols. London and New York, 1870. New, 
cheap impression, London, 1911. 

754. WRIGHT, T. Essays on archaeological subjects, and on vari- 
ous questions connected with the history of art, science, and litera- 
ture in the middle ages. 2 vols. London, 1861. 

755. MERRYWEATHER, F. S. Glimmerings in the dark: or lights 
and shadows of the olden time. London, 1850. 

(d) MEDIEVAL INTELLECTUAL LIFE IN GENERAL 

756. TAYLOR, H. O. The mediaeval mind. 2 vols. New York, 
1911. 2nd edition, revised and enlarged, 1914. 

757. WORKMAN, H. B. Christian thought to the Reformation. 
New York, 1911. 

758. NOVATI, F. L'influsso del pensiero latino sopra la civilta 
italiana del medio evo. 2nd edition, Milan, 1899. 

759. HAUREAU, B. Singularites historiques et Htteraires. Paris, 
1861. 

Ten studies, among which are the following: Ecoles d 'Ir- 
lande; Theodulfe, eveque d 'Orleans; Odon de Cluny; Anselme 
le Peripatetieien; Guillaume de Conches. 



.CHAP, iv INTELLECTUAL HISTORY 77 

760. MAITLAND, S. E. The dark ages: a series of essays intended 
to illustrate the state of religion and literature in the ninth, tenth, 
eleventh, and twelfth centuries. London, 1844. 

This is a curious old defence of the culture of the period. 
Probably its oldest prototype is J. MABILLON, Traite des 
etudes monastiques, Paris, 1691. 

761. FIGUIEB, L. Vies des savants illustres avec 1 'appreciation 
sommaire de leurs travaux. 5 vols. Paris, 1866-1870. 

Vol. II, Moyen age; vol. Ill, Renaissance. 



(e) FRANCE 

See also no. 781 below. 

762. RAMBAUD, A. Histoire de la civilisation franchise, 7th edi- 
tion, 2 vols., Paris, 1898. 

763. GUIZOT, F. Histoire de la civilisation en France. Vols. 
I-V. Paris, 1829-1838. 2nd edition, vols. I-IV, Paris, 1840. 6th 
edition, 4 vols., Paris, 1857. Translated by W. HAZLITT as vols. 
II-IV of History of civilization. New York, 1846. 

Extends from the 5th to the 14th century. 

764. ROSIERES, R. Histoire de la societe franchise au moyen age 
(987-1483). 2 vols. Paris, 1880. 3rd edition, 1884. 

765. REYNAUD, L. Les origines de 1 'influence franchise en Alle- 
magne: etude sur 1'histoire comparee de la civilisation en France et 
en Allemagne pendant la periode preeourtoise (950-1150). Vol. I. 
Paris, 1913. 

766. VOSSLER, K. Frankreichs Kultur im Spiegel seiner Sprach- 
entwicklung. Heidelberg, 1913. 

767. CHALLAMEL, A. Mmoires du peuple franc.ais. 8 vols. Paris, 
1873. 

(f) GERMANY 
(1) Medieval and Modern Times 

768. STEINHAUSEN, G. Geschichte der deutschen Kultur. Leip- 
zig, 1904. 2nd edition, revised, 2 vols., 1913. 

Popular, but reliable. The best general survey. 

769. FREYTAG, G. Bilder aus der deutschen Vergangenheit. 4 
vols in 5. Leipzig, 1859-62. 27th to 32nd editions, 1908-09. 

Vols. I-II, part 1, to 1500. 

* 

770. HENNE-AM-RHYN, O. Kulturgeschichte des deutschen Volkes. 
2 vols. Berlin, 1886. 3rd edition, 1898. 



78 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

771. EICHARD, E. History of German civilization: a general sur- 
vey. New York, 1911. 2nd, revised, edition, 1913. 

772. SCHEER, J. Deutsche Kultur- und Sittengesehichte. Leip- 
zig, 1852-53. 12th edition, 3 vols., 1909. 

773. SCHEER, J. Germania: zwei Jahrtausende deutschen Lebens 
kulturgeschichtlich geschildert. 6th edition by H. PRUTZ. Stutt- 
gart, 1905. 

774. BIEDERMANN, K. Deutsche Volks- und Kulturgeschiehte. 
4th edition. 3 vols. Wiesbaden, 1901. 

775. Monographien zur deutschen Kulturgeschichte. Edited by 
G. STEINHAUSEN. 12 vols. Leipzig, 1899-1905. Two supplementary 
vols., Deutsches Leben der Vergangenheit in Bildern. 1907-08. 

For a list of vols. see DAHLMANN-WAITZ, no. 28 above, 
no. 1733. 

(2) The Middle Ages 

776. HERRE, P. Deutsche Kultur im Mittelalter in Bild und 
Wort. Leipzig, 1912. 

777. STEINHAUSEN, G. Kulturgeschichte der Deutschen im Mit- 
telalter. Leipzig, 1910 (Wissenschaft und Bildung, 88). 

778. LOHER, F. v. Kulturgeschichte der Deutschen im Mittel- 
alter. 3 vols. Munich, 1891-94. 

779. MICHAEL, E. Culturzustande des deutschen Volkes wahrend 
des dreizehnten Jahrhunderts. 5 vols. Vols. I V, Freiburg, 1897- 
1911. 

780. STEINHAUSEN, G. Geschichte des deutsehen Briefes. 2 
parts. Berlin, 1889-91. 

See also the source-book, Deutsche Privatbriefe des Mittel- 
alters, edited by G. STEINHAUSEN, 2 vols., Berlin, 1899-1907. 

781. CHELARD, E. La civilisation franchise dans le developpe- 
ment de 1'Allemagne (moyen age). Paris, 1900. 

(<7) HISTORIES OF LITERATURE 
(1) General Histories of Literature 

782. BAUMGARTNER, A. Geschichte der Weltliteratur. 7 vols. St. 
Louis, 1897-1912. Vol. IV. Die lateinische und griechische Litera- 
tur der christlichen Volker. 1900. 

The author is a Jesuit. 

783. SAINTSBURY, G. A history of criticism and literary taste in 
Europe from the earliest texts to the present day. 3 vols. Edin- 
burgh and London, 1900-04. 

Vol. I, Classical and mediaeval criticism. 



CHAP, iv HISTORIES OF LITERATURE 79 

784. SISMONDI, J. C. L. S. DE. Historical view of the literature 
of the south of Europe. Translated from the Italian by T. ROSCOE. 
4 vols. London, 1823. 

(2) Ancient Classical Literature and Learning 

785. SANDYS, J. E. A history of classical scholarship. 3 vols. 
Cambridge, 1903-06. Vol. I, From the sixth century B.C. to the end 
of the middle ages, in a 2nd edition, 1906. 

There is an abridged edition in one volume, A short his- 
tory of classical scholarship from the sixth century B.C. to the 
present day, Cambridge, 1915. See also A. GUDEMAN, Grund- 
riss der Geschichte der klassischen Philologie, 2nd edition, 
Leipzig, 1909 ; and H. T. PECK, A history of classical philology, 
from the 7th century B.C. to the 20th, century A.D. London 
and New York, 1911. 

786. NORDEN, E. Die antike Kunst-prosa vom 6 ten Jahrhundert 
vor Christus bis in die Zeit der Renaissance. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1898. 
New edition, 1909. 

(3) Literary History of the Middle Ages 
See also no. 170 above. 

787. MANITIUS, M. Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur des 
Mittelalters. Vol. I. Munich, 1911. 

This is now the standard handbook for the history of 
medieval Latin literature. The first volume extends to about 
1050. Until the work is carried into later centuries, we must 
be content with G. GROBER, ' ' ttbersicht iiber die lateinische 
Literatur von der Mitte des 6. Jahrhunderts bis 1350" in 
Grundriss, no. 305 above, vol. TT, part T, 98-432; and with 
SANDYS, no. 785 above. 

788. EBERT, A. Allgemeine Geschichte der Literatur des Mittel- 
alters im Abendlande. 3 vols. Leipzig, 1874-87. Vol. 1 in 2nd 
edition, 1889. 

Extends to the beginning of the llth century. There is 
a French translation by J. AYMERIC and J. CONDAMIN, 3 vols., 
Paris, 1883-1889. 

790. UKRVIEUX, A. L. Les fabulistes latins depuis le siecle d'Au- 
guste jusqu'a la fin du moyen age. 5 vols. Paris, 1893-1899. 

791. SPENCE, L. A dictionary of medieval romance and romance 
writers. London, 1913. 

792. LUDLOW, J. M. Popular epics of the middle ages of the 
Norse-German and Carlovingian cycles. 2 vols. London, 1865. 

793. KKR, W. P. Essays on medieval literature. London, 1905. 

On Dante, Boccaccio, Chaucer, Gower, Froissart, and an 
estimate of the late Gaston Paris. 



80 GENERAL BOOKS PART1 

794. LAWRENCE, W. W. Mediaeval story. New York, 1912. 

795. MCLAUGHLIN, E. T. Studies in mediaeval life and litera- 
ture. New York, 1894. 

796. BULFINCH, T. Mythology: the age of fable, the age of 
chivalry, and legends of Charlemagne. Complete in one volume, 
revised and enlarged. New York, 1913. 

797. DELISLE, L. Litterature latine et histoire du moyen age. 
Paris, 1890. 

798. FALKE, J. v. Geschichte des Geschmacks im Mittelalter 
und andere Studien auf dem Gebiete der Kunst und Literatur. 2nd 
edition. Berlin, 1892. 

799. [MARTENE, E., and DURAND, TL] Voyage litteraire de deux 
religieux Benedictines de la Congregation de St. Maur. Paris, 1717. 
Second voyage litteraire de deux religieux Benedictines de la Con- 
gregation de St. Maur. Paris, 1724. 

(4) Byzantine Literature 

800. KRUMBACHER, K. Geschichte der byzantinischen Literatur 
von Justinian bis zum Ende des ostromischen Keiches (527-1453 
A.D.). Munich, 1890. 2nd edition, 1897. (In Handbuch der klas- 
sichen Altertumswissenschaft.) 

Of fundamental importance. See his condensed, but more 
recent (1907) treatment, "Die griechische Literatur des 
Mittelalters, " in Die Kultur der Gegenwart, no. 729 above, 
I, 8. 

801. DIETERICH, K. Geschichte der byzantinischen und neu- 
griechischen Literatur. Leipzig, 1902 (Die Literaturen des Ostens, 4). 

802. MONTEIATICI, G. Storia della letteratura Bizantina, 324- 
1453. Milan, 1916. 

(5) France 

803. Histoire litteraire de la France. Vols. I-XXXIV. Paris, 
1733-1915. Begun by the Religieux Benedictins de la Congregation 
de Saint-Maur and continued by the Academic des inscriptions et 
belles-lettres. 

The first 26 vols. are analyzed in A. FRANKLIN, no. 23 
above, pp. 585-97. For a detailed bibliography of medieval 
French literature, see outline XXIV in part III below. 

(6) Germany and Austria 

804. SCHERER, W. Geschichte der deutschen Literatur. llth 
edition. Berlin, 1910. Translated from the 3rd German edition by 
Mrs. F. C. CONYBEARE, History of German literature. 2 vols. New 
York, 1901. 



CHAP, iv HISTORIES OF LITERATURE 81 

805. NAGL, J. W., and ZEIDLER, J. Deutsch-osterreichische Liter- 
aturgeschichte. Vols. I-II. Vienna, 1899-1909. 

806. VOGT, F., and KOCH, M. Geschichte der deutschen Literatur 
von den altesten Zeiten bis zur Gegenwart. 2 vols. Leipzig and 
Vienna, 1897. 3rd edition, 1910. 

807. KELLE, J. Geschichte der deutschen Literatur von den 
altesten Zeiten bis zum 13 Jahrhundert. 2 vols. Berlin, 1892-96. 

(7) Italy 

808. GASPARY, A. Gesehichte der italienischen Literatur. 2 vols. 
Strassburg, 1885-88. Translated by H. OELSNER, The history of 
Italian literature to the death of Dante. London, 1901. 

809. GARNETT, R. A history of Italian literature. London, 1908. 

810. D'ANCONA, A., and BACCI, O. Manuale della letteratura ital- 
iana. New, revised, edition, vols. I-VI, Florence, 1907-10. 

Vols. I and II cover the middle ages. 

811. TIRABOSCHI, G. Storia della letteratura italiana [to 1700]. 
Modena, 1772ff. 16 vols. Milan, 1822-26. 

See especially vols. III-V [476-1400 A.D.] in 2nd edition, 
Modena, 1787-94. 

(8) England 

812. Cambridge history of English literature. Edited by A. W. 
WARD and A. R. WALLER. Vols. I-XII. Cambridge, 1907-15. 

For additional references see GROSS, no. 36 above. 

(9) Spain and Portugal 

813. FITZMAURICE-KELLY, J. A history of Spanish literature. 
London, 1898. Reprint, 1915. 

The second Spanish edition, Historia dc la literatura 
Espanola, Madrid, 1916, is especially valuable for its full 
bibliography. See also G. TICKNOR, History of Spanish litera- 
ature, 3rd edition, 3 vols., London, 1863; the Spanish transla- 
tion by P. DE GAYANOOS, 4 vols., Madrid, 1851-1861, contains 
additions and corrections. For Portugal, see A. LOISEAU, 
Histoire de la litterature portugaise, Paris, 1885. 

(10) 'Russia and Scandinavia 

814. BRUCKNER, A. Geschichte der russischen Literatur. Leipzig, 
1905 (Die Literaturen des Ostens, 2). 

See also K. WALISZEWSKI, Histoire de la literature russe, 
Paris, 1900; W. R. MORFILL, Slavonic literature, London, 1883; 
and G. KREK, Einlcitung in die alavische Literaturgeachichte, 
Graz, 1874, 2nd edition, 1887. For Scandinavia, See P. 
SCHWEITZER, Geschichte der ukandinavischcn Literatur, 3 vols., 
Leipzig, 1885-1889; and E. MOOK, "Nordische Literatur," in 
PAUL'S Grundriss, no. 307 above. 



82 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

(h) HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY AND "WELTANSCHAUUNG" 
( 1 ) Medieval ' ' Weltanschauung ' ' 

815. POOLE, R. L. Illustrations of the history of mediaeval 
thought. London, 1884. 

Now see also C. C. J. WEBB, Studies in the history of 
natural theology, Oxford, 1915, on St. Anselm, Abelard, St. 
Thomas Aquinas, etc. 

816. EICKEN, H. v. Geschichte und System der mittelalterlichen 
Weltanschauung. Stuttgart, 1887. 

In 1905 it was announced that C. BAEUMKER would prepare 
a volume on Die mittelalterliche Weltanschauung, for the Hand- 
~buch of BELOW and MEINECKE, no. 330 above, but the work 
has not appeared. E. TROELTSCH, Die Soziallehren der christ- 
lichen Kirchen und Gruppen, vol. I of his Gesammelten Schrif- 
ten, Tubingen, 1912, 178-426. 

817. BEUTER, H. Geschichte der religiosen Aufklarung im Mit- 
telalter. 2 vols. in 1. Berlin, 1875-77. 

The period covered is from the 8th to the 14th century. 

818. Weltanschauung: Philosophie und Religion in Darstellungen. 
Edited by W. DILTHEY and about twenty others. Berlin, 1911. 

819. EUCKEN, E. Die Lebensanschauungen der grossen Denker. 
8th edition. Leipzig, 1909. Translated by W. S. HOUGH and W. E. 
BOYCE-GIBSON, The problem of human life as viewed by the great 
thinkers. London, 1909. 

820. DILTHEY, W. Einleitung in die Geisteswissenschaften: Ver- 
such einer Grundlegung fur das Studium der Gesellschaft und der 
Geschichte. Vol. I. Leipzig, 1883. 

821. TROEIS-LUND, T. F. Himmelsbild und Weltanschauung im 
Wandel der Zeiten. Authorized German translation by L. BLOCH. 
3rd edition, Leipzig, 1908. 

(2) General Histories of Philosophy 

822. UEBERWEG, F. Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie. 
10th edition, 4 vols. Berlin, 1905-09. Translated from the 4th 
German edition by G. S. MORRIS, A history of philosophy from 
Thales to the present time. 2 vols. New York, 1872-1874, also 1892. 

See also W. TURNER, History of philosophy, Boston, 1903. 

823. WINDELBAND, W. Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Philosophie. 
5th edition. Tubingen, 1910. Translated by J. H. TUFTS, A history 
of philosophy. 2nd edition. New York, 1901. 

824. FABRE, J. Histoire de la philosophic depuis 1'antiquite 
jusqu'a la revolution franchise. 5 vols. Paris, 1902ff. Vol. II, 
La pensee chretienne: des Evangiles a 1 'Imitation de Jesus-Christ. 



CHAP, iv MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY 83 

825. WULF, M. DE. Histoire de la philosophic scholastique dans 
les Pays-Bas et la principaute de Liege jusqu 'a la revolution f ran- 
caise. Louvahi, 1895. 2nd edition, 1910. 

(3) Medieval Philosophy 

826. Beitrage zur Geschichte der Philosophic des Mittelalters: 
Texte und Untersuchungen. Edited by C. BAEUMKER and G. v. 
HERTLING. Miinster, 1891ff. 

A collection as valuable for the original texts as for the 
scholarly expositions of the editors. 

827. WULF, M. DE. Histoire de la philosophic m^dievale. Lou- 
vain, 1900. 2nd enlarged edition, 1905. 3rd edition, an English 
translation by P. COFFEY, History of medieval philosophy. London 
and New York, 1909. 4th edition in French, enlarged and revised, 
1912. 

For Jewish philosophy in the middle ages see NEUMARK, 
no. 866 below. 

828. PICAVET, F. Esquisse d 'une histoire generale et compared 
des philosophies me'dievales. Paris, 1905. 2nd edition, 1907. 

829. HAUREAU, B. Histoire de philosophic scolastique. 2nd edi- 
tion, 3 vols., Paris, 1872-80. 

830. GRABMANN, M. Die Geschichte der scholastischen Methode. 
Nach den gedruckten und ungedruckten Quellen dargestellt. Vols. 
I and II. Freiburg-i-B., 1909-11. 

831. BAEUMKER, C. "Die europaische Philosophic des Mittel- 
alters." Berlin and Leipzig, 1909. In Kultur der Gegenwart, no. 
729 above, I, 5. 

832. ENDRES, J. A. Geschichte der mittelalterlichen Philosophic 
im Abendlande. Kempten, 1908. 

833. PRANTL, K. VON. Geschichte der Logik im Abendlande. 
4 vols. Leipzig, 1855-70. Vol. II in 2nd edition, 1885. 

Extends to the Renaissance. 

834. STOCKL, A. Geschichte der Philosophic des Mittelalters. 
3 vols. Mainz, 1864-66. 

835. RICKABY, J. Scholasticism. London, 1908. 

A primer based largely on WULF, no. 827 above. 

(i) HISTORY OF EDUCATION 
(1) General Histories of Education 

836. Geschichte der Erziehung vom Anfang bis auf unsere Zeit. 
Edited by K. A. SCHMID. Continued by G. SCHMID. 5 vols in 10 
parts. Berlin, 1884-1902. 



84 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

837. WILLMANN, O. Didaktik als Bildungslehre. 2 vols. Bruns- 
wick, 1882. 4th edition, in one vol., 1909. 

838. BAUMEISTER, [K.] A. Handbuch der Erziehungs- und Un- 
terrichtslehre fiir hohere Schulen. 4 vols. Munich, 1895-98. 

839. ZIECJLER, T. Geschichte der Padagogik mit besonderer Riiek- 
sicht auf das hohere Unterrichtswesen. 3rd edition. Munich, 1909. 

840. SCHERER, H. Die Padagogik in ihrer Entwickelung im 
Zusammenhange mit dem Kultur- und Geistesleben. Vols. I and 
II, 1-2. Leipzig, 1897-1907. 

(2) History of Medieval Education 

841. GRAVES, F. P. A history of education during the middle 
ages and the transition to modern times. New York, 1910. 

842. ECKSTEIN, F. A. Lateinischer Unterricht. Leipzig, 1882. 

Extract from SCHMID'S Encyclopadie, no. 118 above, IV, 
1, 204-405. 

843. ECKSTEIN, F. A. Lateinischer und griechischer Unterricht 
im Mittelalter. Edited by H. HEYDEN (part I, Geschichte). Leip- 
zig, 1887. 

844. MASIUS, H. "Die Erziehung im Mittelalter." Stuttgart, 
1892. In Geschichte der Erziehung, no. 836 above, II, part I, 94- 
333. 

845. DRANE, AUGUSTA T. Christian schools and scholars. Lon- 
don, 1881. Reprint, New York, 1909. 

846. SPECHT, F. A. Geschichte des Unterrichtswesens in Deutsch- 
land von den altesten Zeiten bis zur Mitte des 13 Jahrhunderts. 
Stuttgart, 1885. 

847. PAULSEN, F. Das deutsche Bildungswesen in seiner ge- 
schichtlichen Entwickelung. Leipzig, 1906 (Aus Natur und Geistes- 
welt, 100). 

848. LEACH, A. F. Some results of research in the history of 
education in England with suggestions for its continuance and 
extension. British Academy publications. Oxford University Press, 
1915. 

849. LEACH, A. F. Educational charters and documents, 598- 
1909. Cambridge, 1911. 

17. Jews 

For a general bibliography see no. 62 above. For Jews in 
England see GROSS, no. 36 above, 69d; in Germany, DAHLMANN- 
WAITZ, no. 28 above, pp. 150ff. 



CHAP, iv MEDIEVAL JEWS 85 

(a) GENERAL HISTORY OF THE JEWS 

850. GRATZ, H. Geschichte der Juden von den altesten Zeiten 
bis auf die Gegenwart. 13 vols. Partly in 2nd-4th editions. Leip- 
zig, 1894-1908. Translated into English, History of the Jews from 
the earliest times to the present day. 6 vols. Philadelphia, 1891-98. 

Popular edition of the above, entitled Volkstumliche Ge- 
schichte der Juden, 2nd edition, 3 vols., 1908. 

S. M. DUBNOW, History of the Jews in Russia and Poland 
from the earliest times until the present day, translated from 
the Russian by I. FRIEDLANDER, vol. 1, Philadelphia, 1916. 

851. HOSMER, J. K. The Jews, ancient, mediaeval, and modern. 
New York, 1891. Often reprinted (Story of the nations series). 

852. ABBOTT, G. F. Israel in Europe. London, 1907. 

853. HERRMANN, F. Geschichte des jiidischen Volkes seit der Zer- 
storung Jerusalems. Calw and Stuttgart, 1908. 

854. HENNE-AM-RHYN, O. Kulturgeschichte des judischen Volkes, 
von den altesten Zeiten bis zur Gegenwart. 2nd edition. Jena, 1892f. 

855. LIEBE, G. H. T. Das Judentum in der deutschen Vergan- 
genheit. Leipzig, 1903. 

Part of no. 775 above. 

856. BEDARRIDE, I. Les juifs en France, en Italic, et en Espagne: 
recherches sur leur etat depuis leur dispersion jusqu'a nos jours 
sous le rapport de la legislation, de la litterature et du commerce. 
Paris, 1859. 3rd edition, revised, 1867. 

(b) JEWS IN THE MIDDLE AGES 
(1) Social and Economic History 

857. ABRAHAMS, I. Jewish life in the middle ages. London and 
Philadelphia, 1896. 

See also D. S. SCHAPF, "The treatment of the Jews in the 
middle ages," Bibliotheca Sacra (1903), 547-69; J. H. 
BRIDGES, "The Jews of Europe in the middle ages," Living 
age, LV, 769-788; and J. v. DOLLINGER, "The Jews in 
Europe," in his Studies, no. 913 below. 

858. CARO, G. Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte der Juden im 
Mittelalter und der Neuzeit. Vol. I, Das friihere und das hohe 
Mittelalter. Leipzig, 1908. 

859. HAHN, B. Die wirtschaftliche Tiitigkeit der Juden im 
frankischen und deutschen Reich bis zum 2 Kreuzzug. Freiburg, 
1911. 

860. HOFFMANN, M. Der Geldhandel der deutschen Juden wahr- 
end des Mittelalters bis zum Jahre 1350. Leipzig, 1910. 



86 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

861. SCHIPPER, I. Anfange des Kapitalismus bei den abend- 
landischen Juden im friiheren Mittelalter bis zum Ausgang des 12 
Jahrhunderts. Vienna, 1907. 66 pp. (Reprint from Zeitschrift fur 
Volkswirtschaft, XV.) 

(2) Intellectual Life of Medieval Jews 

862. SCHLEIDEN, M. J. Die Bedeutung der Juden fur Erhaltung 
und Wiederbelebung der Wissenschaften im Mittelalter. 4th edi- 
tion. Leipzig, 1879. 32 pp. Translated by M. KLEIMENHAGEN from 
the 4th, revised, German edition, The importance of the Jews for 
the preservation and revival of learning during the middle ages. 
London, 1911. 63 pp. 

863. STEINSCHNEIDER, M. Die arabische Literatur der Juden. 
Frankfurt, 1902. 

See also D. NEUMARK, Geschichte der judischen Literatur 
des Mittelalters, 2 vols., Berlin, 1898. 

864. STEINSCHNEIDER, M. Die hebraischen ubersetzungen des 
Mittelalters, und die Juden als Dolmetscher: ein Beitrag zur Liter a- 
turgeschichte des Mittelalters. 2 vols. Berlin, 1893. 

865. STEINSCHNEIDER, M. Die Geschichtsliteratur der Juden in 
Druckwerken und Handschriften. Frankfurt, 1905. 

866. NEUMARK, D. Gesehichte der jiidischen Philosophic des 
Mittelalters. 2 vols. Berlin, 1907-1910. 

Now see also I. HTJSIKT, A history of mediaeval Jewish 
philosophy, New York, 1916; and A. BONILLA Y SAN MART{N, 
Historia de la filosofia Espanola, 2 vols., Madrid, 1908-1911, 
the second volume of which is on Jewish philosophy to the 
twelfth century. 

867. YELLIN, D., and ABRAHAMS, I. Maimonides. Philadelphia, 
1903. 

868. GUDEMANN, M. Geschichte des Erziehungswesens und der 
Cultur der abendlandischen Juden wahrend des Mittelalters und der 
neueren Zeit. 3 vols. Vienna, 1880-1888. 

See also his Quellenschriften zur Geschichte des Unterrichts 
und der Erziehung bei den deutschen Juden von den dltesten 
Zeiten bis auf Mendelssohn, Berlin, 1891. 

(3) Medieval Jewries 

869. PHILIPSON, D. Old European Jewries. Philadelphia, 1894. 

870. RODOCANACHI, E. Le saint-siege et les juifs: le ghetto a 
Rome. Paris, 1891. 

871. BERLINER, A. Geschichte der Juden in Rom von der altesten 
Zeit bis zur Gegenwart. 2 vols., in one. Frankfurt, 1893. 



CHAP, iv MEDIEVAL JEWS 87 

872. EGBERT, U. Les signes d'infamie au moyen age: Juifs, 
Sarasins, heretiques, lepreux, cagots, et filles publiques. Paris, 1891. 

(4) General Accounts and Miscellanea 

873. HARRIS, M. H. History of the mediaeval Jews: from the 
Moslem conquest of Spain to the discovery of America. New York, 
1907. Second edition, revised and enlarged, 1916. 

874. CHWOLSON, D. Beitrage zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des 
Judentums von c. 400 v. Chr. bis c. 1000 n. Chr. Leipzig, 1910. 

875. DEPPING, G. B. Les juifs dans le moyen age: essai his- 
torique sur leur etat civil, commercial et litteraire. Paris, 1845. 

876. BAER, F. Studien zur Geschichte der Juden im Konigreich 
Aragonien wahrend des 13 und 14 Jahrhunderts. Berlin, 1913. 

877. STRAUSS, B. Die Juden im Konigreich Sizilien unter Nor- 
mannen und Staufern. Heidelberg, 1910 (Heidelberger Abhandlun- 
gen). 

878. BEGNE, J. Etude sur la condition des juifs de Narbonne du 
V e au XIV e sieele. Narbonne, 1912. 

879. STEINBERG, AUGUSTA. Studien zur Geschichte der Juden in 
der Schweiz wahrend des Mittelalters. Zurich, 1902. 

880. STOBBE, O. Die Juden in Deutschland wahrend des Mittel- 
alters. Brunswick, 1866. Eeprint, Leipzig, 1902. 

881. STERN, M. Urkundliche Beitrage iiber die Stellung der 
Papste zu den Juden. Kiel, 1893. 

882. MAULDE LA CLAVIERE, A. E. DE. Les juifs dans les eiats 
francjais de saint-siege au moyen age: documents pour servir a 
1'histoire des Israelites et de la papaute". Paris, 1886. 

883. ADLER, E. N. Auto de f6 and Jew. London, 1908. 

884. The itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela: critical text, trans- 
lation and commentary by E. N. ADLER. London, 1907. 

See also BEAZLEY, Dawn of modern geography, II. ch. IV, 
"Benjamin of Tudela and other Jewish travellers" to ea. 1250. 

18. Collections 

See more extended lists for France in MONOD, no. 22 above, pp. 
120-127; for Germany, DAHLMANN-WAITZ, no. 28 above, pp. 19ff. 
STEIN, no. 1 above, on pp. 642-649, gives a list of indexes of the 
publications of academies and miscellaneous learned societies, and 
on pp. 697-708 a similar list of indexes of serial publications of 
historical societies. Fortunately we have in English the following 



88 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

interesting articles by foreign scholars in the Annual report of the 
American historical association, 1909, 229-277: "Historical societies 
in Great Britain, by G. W. PROTHERO; "The work of Dutch his- 
torical societies," by H. T. COLENBRANDER; "The historical societies 
of France, " by C. ENIART; "The work of historical societies in 
Spain," by R. ALTAMIRA. 

(a) IMPORTANT ACADEMIES AND LEARNED SOCIETIES 

(1) France and Belgium 

885. Academic des inscriptions et belles-lettres [of Paris]. His- 
toire et memoires. 50 vols. Paris, 1717-1809. Me'moires, 1803ff. 
Memoires presentes a 1' Academic par divers savants etrangers; first 
series, Sujets divers, Paris, 1844ff.; second series, Antiquites de la 
France, 1843ff. Notices et extraits des manuscripts de la Biblio- 
theque nationale et autres bibliotheques, Paris, 1787ff. Monuments 
et memoires (Fondation EUGENE PIOT), Paris, 1894ff. 

See also nos 460, 803 above and 975 below, and the Eecueil 
des historiens des croisades, under outline XXI in part II 
below. 

886. Societe de 1'histoire de France. Paris. 

Issues an Annuaire-Bulletin, 1837ff., in addition to the 
publications for which see no. 966 below. Also see 974 below. 

887. Bibliotheque des ecoles franchises d'Athenes et de Rome. 
Paris, 1876ff. 

One hundred and ten volumes had appeared in 1913. For 
series II and III see no. 959 below. See also the -Melanges 
d'archeologie et d'histoire, edited by the Ecole franc.ais de 
Rome. 

888. Bibliotheque de 1 'Ecole pratique des hautes etudes [of 
Paris]. Section des sciences philologiques et historiques. Paris, 
1869ff. 

889. Bibliotheque de la Faculte des lettres, Universite de Paris. 
Paris, 1896ff. 

890. Ecole des chartes. Paris. 

See nos 164 and 231 above. 

891. Academic des sciences morales et politiques. Comptes ren- 
dus. Paris, 1840ff. 

892. Academic royale des sciences, des lettres et des beaux-arts 
de Belgique. Bulletins. Brussels, 1836ff. 

893. Recueil de travaux publics par les membres de la conference 
il 'histoire, ... of the University of Louvain. Louvain, 1890ff. 



CHAP, iv LEARNED SOCIETIES 89 

(2) Germany and Austria 

For collections edited by individuals see DAHLMANN-WAITZ, 
Quellenkunde, nos. 1364-1389. 

894. Abhandlungen der koniglichen Akademie der Wissenshaften 
in Berlin, 1815ff. Philosophisch-historische Klasse, 1908ff. Sitz- 
ungsberichte, 1882ff. 

895. Abhandlungen der koniglichen bayerischen Akademie der 
Wissenschaften zu Munchen. Historische Klasse. Munich, 1833ff. 
Sitzungsberichte. Philosophisch-philologisch-historische Klasse. Munich, 
1871ff. 

896. Abhandlungen der koniglichen sachsischen Gesellschaft der 
Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. Philologisch-historische Klasse. Leip- 
zig, 1846ff. 

897. Abhandlungen der koniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissen- 
schaften zu Gottingen, 1843ff. Historisch-philologische Klasse, 
1893ff. Nachrichten, 1894ff. 

898. Studien und Darstellungen aus dem Gebiete der Geschichte, 
im Auftrage der Gorres-Gesellschaft und in Verbindung mit der 
Eedaktion des historischen Jahrbuches herausgegeben von H. 
Grauert. Freiburg, 1900ff. 

See no. 152 above. 

899. Bibliothek des kgl. preussischen historischen Instituts in 
Eom. Borne, 1905ff. 

See also no. 41 above and 993 below. 

900. Publikation des osterreichischen historischen Instituts in 
Rom. Vienna and Leipzig, 1910ff. 

Both of these publications contain studies as well as texts. 

901. Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissen- 
schaften zu Wien. Philosophish-historische Klasse. Vienna, 1848ff. 

See also no. 986 below. 

902. Sitzungsberichte der koniglichen bohmischen Gesellschaft 
der Wissenschaften zu Prag. Prague, 1859ff. Philosophisch-his- 
torisch-philologische Klasse, 1885ff. 

(3) England 

903. Royal historical society. Transactions. London, 1872ff. 

904. The British academy for the promotion of historical, philo- 
sophical and philological studies. London, 1903ff. 

(4) Italy 

905. Istituto storico italiano. Bulletino, no. 162 above, and 
Fonti, no. 990 below. 



90 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

906. Keale accademia del Lincei. Founded 1603. 

Since 1875 divided into two classes, one of which is de- 
voted to ' ' scienze morali, storiche e filologiche. ' ' 

(5) Spain 

907. Eeal academia de la historia. Madrid, 1738ff. Boletin, 
1877ff. 

For a list of its publications see Annual report of the 
American historical association, 1909, p. 271. 

(6) COLLECTIONS OF HISTORICAL ESSAYS 

For similar collections, mostly German, see DAHLMANN-WAITZ, 
Quellenkunde, nos. 1304-1338. 

908. FUSTEL DE COULANGES, N. D. Becherches sur quelques prob- 
lemes d'histoire. Paris, 1894. 

909. COULTON, G. G. Mediaeval studies. London, 1905ff. First 
series, 2nd revised edition, with three appendices. London, 1915. 

910. CBEIGHTON, M. Historical lectures and addresses. London, 
1903. 

911. CREIGHTON, LOUISE (VON GLEHN) "Mrs. MANDELL CEEIGH- 
TON. ' ' Heroes of European history. London and New York, 1906. 

912. CUTTS, E. L. Scenes and characters of the middle ages. 
London, 1872. Eeprinted 1902. 3rd edition, 1911. 

913. DOLLINGER, J. v. Akademische Vortrage. 3 vols. Nord- 
lingen and Munich, 1888-1891. Translated by MARGARET WARRE, 
Studies in European history. London, 1890. 

914. EDELSTAND DU MERIL, M. Etudes sur quelques points d'arch- 
eologie et d'histoire litteraire. Paris, 1862. 

Among the eight studies are the following: Les formes 
du marriage . . . pendant le moyen age; De 1 'usage non inter- 
rompu jusqu'a nos jours des tablettes en cire; De la tapis- 
serie de Bayeux et de son importance historique. 

915. EDELSTAND DU MERIL, M. Melanges archSologiques et litter- 
aires. Paris, 1850. 

Especially pp. 243-89, "Des origines de la basse latinite 
et la necessite de glossaires speciaux. ' ' 

916. FREEMAN, E. A. Historical essays. 4 series in 4 vols. 
London, 1871ff. 

917. FROUDE, J. A. Short studies in great subjects. Vols. I and 
II. London, 1894. 

918. GASQUET, F. A. The last abbot of Glastonbury and other 
essays. London, 1908. 



CHAP, iv HISTORICAL ESSAYS 91 

919. GASQUET, F. A. Old English bible and other essays. Lon- 
don, 1897. 

920. GRAEVENITZ, G. v. Deutsche in Rom: Studien und Skizzen 
aus elf Jahrhunderten. Leipzig, 1902. 

Ch. 1, Charlemagne; ch. 2, Otto III. 

921. HARRISON, F. The meaning of history. New York, 1908. 

922. JESSOPP, A. The coming of the friars and other historical 
essays. 5th edition. London, 1889. 

923. JESSOPP, A. Studies by a recluse. London, 1893. 3rd edi- 
tion, 1895. 

924. JOURDAIN, C. Excursions historiques et philosophiques a 
travers le moyen age. Paris, 1888. 

925. LANGLOIS, C. V. Questions d 'histoire et d 'enseignement. 
Paris, 1902. 

926. LUCHAIRE, A. Melanges d 'histoire du moyen age. Paris, 
1908. 

927. PATTISON, R. P. DUNN. Leading figures in European his- 
tory. New York, 1912. 

928. SALZMANN, L. F. Mediaeval byways. Boston, 1913. 

929. SHAHAN, T. J. The middle ages: sketches and fragments. 
New York, 1904. 

930. STILLE, C. J. Studies in mediaeval history. Philadelphia, 
1882. 2nd edition, 1883. 

931. STUBBS, W. Lectures on European history. Edited by A. 
HASSALL. London, 1904. 

932. STUBBS, W. Seventeen lectures on the study of mediaeval 
and modern history and kindred subjects. Oxford, 1886. 3rd edi- 
tion, 1900. 

933. WRIGHT, T., and HALLIWELL, J. O. Reliquae antiquae. 2 
vols. London, 1845. 

(c) COMMEMORATIVE ESSAYS 

For other similar essays, mostly German, see DAHLMANN-WAITZ, 
Quellenkunde, nos. 1339-1353. 

934. Melanges d 'histoire offerts a M. CHARLES BEMONT, par ses 
Sieves a 1'occasion de la vingt-cinquieme annfie de son enseignement 
a I'e'cole pratique des hautes eludes. Paris, 1913. 

935. Melanges offerts a M. EMILE CHATELAIN. Paris, 1909. 

936. Melanges PAUL FABRE: tude d 'histoire du moyen age. 
Paris, 1902. 



92 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

937. Melanges FITTING (Soixante-quinzieme anniversaire de M. le 
professeur HERMANN FITTING). 2 vols. Paris, 1908. 

938. Recueil de travaux d 'erudition dedi&s a la memoire de 
JULIEN HAVET. Paris, 1895. 

939. Melanges d 'etudes d 'histoire du moyen age dediSes & 
GABRIEL MONOD. Paris, 1896. 

(d) MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

940. Cambridge historical series. Edited by G. W. PROTHERO. 

941. Cambridge historical essays. 

942. Cambridge manuals of science and literature. Cambridge 
University Press. 

943. Continental legal history. Published under the auspices of 
the Association of American Law Schools. Boston, Little, Brown 
and Company. 

In 1915, vols. I, II, III, V, XI had appeared. 

944. Everyman's library. London and New York. 

See also the Temple classics, and the King's classics. 

945. Goschen Sammlung: geschichtliche Bibliothek aus der 
"Sammlung Goschen." Berlin and Leipzig. 

946. Home university library. New York, 1911ff. 

947. Aus Natur und Geisteswelt. Teubner, Leipzig. 

948. Wissenschaft und Bildung. Quelle and Meyer, Leipzig. 



CHAPTER V 
LARGE COLLECTIONS OF ORIGINAL SOURCES 

1. General Collections 
See also nos. 383-393 above. 

949. Records of civilization: sources and studies. Edited by J. 
T. SHOTWELL. New York, Columbia University Press, 1915ff. 

A collection of translations from the sources, with intro- 
ductions and bibliographies. The volumes thus far published 
which pertain to the middle ages are: History of the Franks 
by Gregory, bishop of Tours, selections, translated with notes 
by E. BREHAUT, New York, 1916; and The book of the popes 
(Liber pontificalis) , I, to the pontificate of Gregory I, trans- 
lated, with an introduction by LOUISE R. LOOMIS, New York, 
1916. See below, no. 959 note. 

A similar collection of translations into German, but on a 
humbler scale, is the Quellensammlung fur den geschichtUchen 
Unterricht an hoheren Schulen, Leipzig, also still in process 
of publication. 

950. Bibliotheca gcriptorum medii aevi Teubneriana. Leipzig, 
ca. 14 vols. in 1911. 

Prints Latin texts. Although merely a publisher's ven- 
ture, the collection is valuable enough to be ranged with 
academic sets of texts. 

951. Thesaurus novus anecdotorum seu collectio monumentorum, 
complectens regum ac principum aliorumque virorum illustrium 
epistolas et diplomata bene multa. 5 vols. Edited by E. MARTEXE 
and U. DURAND. Paris, 1717ff. 

952. Veterum scriptorum et monumentorum amplissima collectio. 
Edited by E. MARTENE and U. DURAND. 2nd edition. 9 vols. Paris, 
1724-1733. 

The above two are typical older collections of miscel- 
laneous material, most of which can now be found in critical 
newer editions. 

2. Medieval Church 
(a) GENERAL COLLECTIONS OP ECCLESIASTICAL WRITINGS 

953. Patrologiae cursus completus. Series latina, 221 vols. 
Paris, 1844-1864. Vols. 218-221 are index vols., Paris, 1862-1864. 



94 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

Series graeca, 161 vols., in 166 [no index], Paris, 1857-1866. Edited 
by J. P. MIGNE. 

Although this vast collection is a mere publisher's ven- 
ture and consists largely of reprints of old and often very 
imperfect editions, it is now universally recognized by scholars 
as an indispensable tool for the study of the medieval 
church. The complete works of some authors are included. 
Some of the selections are profane works which have little 
or no connection with the church. The Latin series extends 
to the time of pope Innocent III (1198-1216); a table of 
authors in both series, arranged alphabetically, is printed in 
POTTHAST, Wegweiser, no. 18 above, I, pp. xciv ff. The Greek 
series extends to 863 A.D. It contains Latin translations of 
the Greek texts. These Latin translations have been pub- 
lished separately under the title, Patrologiae graecae latine 
tantum editae, 81 vols., in 85, Paris, 1856-1867. 

In 1914 the Kgl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Got- 
tingen appointed a Eeligionsgeschichtliche Kommission to 
edit the most important sources of church history in German 
translations, under the title, Quellen der Eeligionsgeschichte, 
chief editor, OLDEXBERG. For programme write to Prof. 
TITIUS in Gottingen. 

A well-selected collection of source material for school use 
is Quellen zur Geschichte des Papst turns und des romischen 
Katholizismus, edited by C. MIRBT, Freiburg, 1895, 3rd edition, 
Tubingen, 1911. 

954. Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum latinorum. 62 vols in 
1913. Vienna, 1866ff. 

This is to comprise all the writings of church fathers 
to the seventh century. An attempt is made to establish the 
very best texts from the most important manuscripts. The 
contents of vols. I-XXXI are given in POTTHAST, Wegweiser, 
no. 18 above, I, p. Iviii. 

The principal set of English translations of the writings 
of the church fathers since about 324 is A select library of 
Nicene and post-Nicene fathers of the Christian church, edited 
by P. SCHAFF and H. WACE, in two series: series I, 14 vols., 
New York, 1886-1890; series II, 14 vols., New York, 1890- 
1900. 

955. Collection de textes et documents pour 1 'etude historique du 
christianisme. Edited by H. HEMMER and P. LEJAY.' Paris. 

Ten volumes had appeared in 1910. Original texts, with 
translations into French. It promises to be a very valuable 
aid in the study of the original sources of church history. 
See also Sammlung ausgewdhlter Icirchen- und dogmengeschicht- 
licher Quellenschriften, edited by G. KRUGER, Freiburg. 

(ft) THE PAPACY 

956. Eegesta pontificum Eomanorum ad annum 1198. Edited by 
P. JAFFE. 2 vols. Berlin, 1851, 2nd edition, Leipzig, 1885-1888. 



CHAP, v CHURCH HISTORY 95 

957. Eegesta pontificura Eomanorum, inde ab anno post Christum 
natum 1198 ad annum 1304. Edited by A. POTTHAST. 2 vols. 
Berlin, 1874-1875. 

958. Regesta pontificum Eomanorum (to 1198). Edited by P. 
F. KEHR under the auspices of the Academy of sciences in Gottin- 
gen. Berlin, 1906ff. 

Liber diurnus, ou Secueil des formules usitees par la chan- 
cellerie pontificate du V e au XI siccle, edited by E. DE EOZIERE, 
Paris, 1869. This edition is not superseded by that of T. 
v. Sickel which appeared in 1889. 

959. Bibliotheque des ecoles franchises d'Athenes et de Eome. 
2nd and 3rd series. Paris, 1884ff. 

Contains the registers of popes of the 13th century, most 
of which are still incomplete in 1916, and also the best com- 
plete edition of the Liber pontificalis, edited by L. DUCHESNE, 

2 vols., Paris, 1886, 1892, now translated in part in no. 949 
above. (A new edition of the Liber pontificalis in the Monu- 
menta Germaniae hi-atorica, Gesta pontificum, I, was begun by 
T. MOMMSEN in 1898, but it is still incomplete.) In the 3rd 
series the publication of letters of the popes of the 14th 
century has been begun. For the 1st series, see no. 887 above. 
See also BERNHEIM, Lehrbuch, no. 64 above, p. 561, and 
BRESSLAU, Handbuch, no. 240 above, I, 72-85, 104124, for 
references to papal documents. 

960. Acta pontificum Eomanorum inedita (97-1198). Edited by 
J. VON PFLUGK-HARTTUNG. 3 vols. Tubingen and Stuttgart, 1881- 
1888. 

For documents concerning the papal states see the Codex 
diplomaticus dominii temporalis S. Sedis, edited by A. THEINER, 

3 vols., Eome, 1861-1862; and the old collection, Monumenta 
dominationis pontificae, edited by CENNI, Rome, 1760-1761. 

961. Epistolae pontificum Eomanorum ineditae. Edited by 8. 
LOEWENFELD. Leipzig, 1885. 

Pontificum Eomanomm qui fuerunt inde ab ex. saecula IX 
usque ad finem saeculi XIII vitae, edited by J. M. WATTERICH, 
2 vols., Leipzig, 1862. 

(e) CHURCH COUNCILS 

962. Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio. Edited 
by J. D. MANSI and others. 31 vols. Florence and Venice, 1759- 
1798 fto 1590 A.D.]. New edition and continuation, vols. 0-47, 
Paris, 1900ff. 

There is a conspectus for vols. I-XLVI and an alpha- 
betical index in vol. XXXVIa. See HEFELE, Concilienge- 
schichte, no. 469 above. 



96 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

(d) LIVES OF SAINTS 

963. Acta sanctorum. Begun by J. BOLLANDUS. Still incom- 
plete. Vols. 1-66. Antwerp, 1643-1770; Brussels, 1845ff.; Paris and 
Rome, 1866 and 1887. Brussels, 1894ff. New edition, vols. 1-66, 
Paris, 1863ff. 

This vast collection of biographies of saints is arranged 
according to saints' days, and now extends well into November. 

The more recent volumes have been edited under the able 
supervision of the late C. DE SMEDT. See the description of 
the set in POTTHAST, Wegweiser, no. 18 above, I, p. xxxii. 
There is an index to the volumes for January to October in 
vol. 62. For guides to the various biographies contained in 
the collection, see also POTTHAST, Wegweiser, section "Vita"; 
and the Bibliotheca hagiographica, no. 53 above. The Analecta 
Bollandiana, no. 177 above, form a periodical supplement to 
the Acta sanctorum. See also C. NARBEY, Supplement aux 
Acta sanctorum pour les vies de saints de I'epoque Merov- 
ingienne, vols. I and II, Paris, 1899, 1912; and S. BARING- 
GOULD, Lives of the saints, 16 vols., Edinburgh, 1914. 

(e) MONASTIC RULES 

964. Codex regularum monasticarum. Edited by L. HOLSTEN. 
3 parts. Rome, 1661. 2nd edition, 6 vols., Vienna, 1759. 

Still the largest collection of monastic rules. 

3. France and Belgium 

965. Collection de documents inedits 'sur 1'histoire de France. 
Publie par les soins du ministre de 1 'instruction publique. Paris, 
1835ff. 

Three hundred and thirty-one volumes had appeared in 
1915. I: Chroniques, memoires, journaux, recits et composi- 
tions historiques; II: Cartulaires et recueils de cfiartes; III: 
Correspondances et documents politiques et administratives; 
IV: Documents de la periode revolutionnaire; V: Documents 
philologiques, philosophiques, juridiques, etc.; VI, Publica- 
tions archeologiques. 

The first 177 vols. are analyzed in A. FRANKLIN. Les 
sources de 1'histoire de France, no. 23 above, 107-183. POTT- 
HAST, Wegweiser, no. 18 above, I, p. liv, gives an alphabetical 
list of the contents of the first 212 vols. 

966. Publications de la Societe de 1'histoire de France. Paris, 
1835ff. 

Number 376 appeared in 1917. Contents of the first 130 
vols. are anaylzed in A. FRANKLIN, Les sources de 1'histoire de 
France, no. 23 above, 207-251; and the contents of the first 
203 vols in POTTHAST, Wegweiser, no. 18 above, I, p. cxl. See 
also no. 886 above. The Publications de la Societe de I'his- 
.toire de Normandie, Rouen, 1870ff., contain valuable additional 
material. 



CHAP, v FRANCE AND BELGIUM 97 

967. Kerum Gallicarum et Francicarum scriptores. (Eecueil des 
historiens des Gaules et de la France). Edited by M. BOUQUET and 
others. 24 vols. Paris, 1738-1904. Extends to 1328. New impres- 
sion of first 19 vols. by L. DELISLE. Paris, 1868-1880; vols. XX- 
XXIII, 1893-1894. Vol. XXIV, Paris, 1904. Nouvelle serie in quarto, 
7 vols., Paris, 1899-1906 (Documents financiers, obituaires, pouilles). 

There is an index in vol. XXIII. The contents of the first 
22 vols. is analyzed in A. FRANKLIN, Les sources, no. 23 above, 
82-94. POTTHAST, Wegweiser, no. 18 above, I, p. xlii, has a 
short analysis. This collection is commonly referred to as 
"Bouquet." 

968. Collection de textes pour servir a 1'etude et a 1'enseigne- 
ment de 1'histoire. 1" serie. Des origines au XVIIP sieele. 49 
vols. in 1913. Paris, 1886ff. 

Similar to the German Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in 
usum scholarum, no. 979 below, but more comprehensive. In- 
cludes sources for modern history. The texts are accom- 
panied by notes and introductions. Although designed prim- 
arily for instructional purposes, the set maintains a high 
standard of scholarship. 

Beginners will find much help in the following guides to 
the study of medieval chronicles of France: G. MASON, Early 
chroniclers of Europe: France, London, 1879; L. CONSTANS, 
Les grands historiens du moyen age, Paris, 1891; and A. 
DEBIDOUR and E. ETIENNE, Les chroniquers franc.ais au moyen 
age, Paris, 1895. 

969. Collection complete des memoires relatif s a 1 'histoire de 
France depuis le regne de Philippe-Auguste jusqu'en 1763. Edited 
by C. B. PETITOT [and M. MONMER<JU]. Series I, 52 vols; series 
II, 79 vols. Paris, 1819-1829. 

Dissertations are interspersed here and there. The first 
15 vols. of series I extend to almost 1500. Their contents are 
analyzed in A. FRANKLIN, Les sources de 1'histoire de France, 
no. 23 above, 288-302. 

970. Nouvelle collection des memoires sur 1 'histoire de France 
depuis le 13" sieele jusqu'a la fin du 18" sieele. Edited by J. 
MICHAUD and P. POUJOULAT. 32 vols. Paris, 1836-1839. 

A new edition of the previous set, with additions. A 
publishers' venture rather than a serious historical work. 
Vols. I-IV treat the period up to 1500. The contents are 
analyzed in A. FRANKLIN, Les sources de I'hintoire de France, 
no. 23 above, 303-315. In this edition there are no disser- 
tations. 

971. Collection des m6moires relatifs a 1'histoire de France, 
depuis la fondation de la monarchic franchise jusqu'a XIII* sieele. 
Edited by M. F. GUIZOT. 31 vols. Paris, 1824-1835. 



98 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

French translations without the original texts. Not a 
scholarly piece of work. Contents are analyzed in A. FRANK- 
LIN, Les sources de I'histoire de France, no. 23 above, 270-78; 
also in POTTHAST, Wegweiser, no. 18 above, I, p. Ixxx. 

972. Collection des chroniques nationales franchises 6crites en 
langue vulgaire, du XIIP au XVI* siecle. Edited by J. A. BUCHON. 
47 vols. Paris, 1824-1829. 

Contents analyzed in A. FRANKLIN, Les sources de I 'histoire 
de France, no. 23 above, 279-287. 

973. Choix de chroniques et me'moires sur I'histoire de France. 
Edited by J. A. BUCHON. 17 vols. Paris, 1836-1838. 

This and the above collection are analyzed in POTTHAST, 
Wegweiser, no. 18 above, I, pp. xliv-xlvi. 

974. Les grandes chroniques de France. Paris, 1910ff. 

A new edition begun by the Societe de I'histoire de France. 

975. Chartes et diplomes relatifs a I'histoire de France publics 
par les soins de 1'Academie des inscriptions et belles-lettres. Paris, 
1908ff. 

For contents up to 1917, see Eevue historique, CXXI, 321, 
note 2, and American historical review, XXII (1917), 463. See 
also Table chronologique des diplomes, chartes, titres et actes 
imprimes conccrnant I 'histoire de France, edited by L. G. O. 
DE BRQUIGNY; vols. I-III, Paris, 1736-1776; continued, vols. 
IV-VIII (to 1314), Paris, 1836-1876. Likewise Eecueil 
general des anciennes lois frangaises de 420 a 1789, edited by 
ISAMBERT and others, 29 vols., Paris, 1822-1833. For the later 
middle ages we have a better collection, Ordonnances des rois 
de France de la III s race jusqu'en 1514, 22 vols., Paris, 1723- 
1849 (often called Ordonnances du Louvre). 

976. L 'histoire de France racontee par les contemporains. Ex- 
traits des chroniques et des memoires. Edited by B. ZELLEE. 65 
vols. Paris, 1881-1890. 

An older, similar venture is DUSSIEUX, L'histoire de France 
racontee par les contemporains. 

977. Collection de chroniques Beiges inedites. Ill vols. Brus- 
sels, 1836ff. 

The first 44 vols. are analyzed in A. FRANKLIN, Les sources 
de I'histoire de France, no. 23 above, 184-206; and the contents 
of the first 86 vols. are indicated in POTTHAST, Wegweiser, 
no. 18 above, I, p. liii. See also the Collection des chroniquers 
et trouveres Beiges, Brussels, 1863ff.; the Eecueil de chroniques, 
chartes et autres documents concernant I'histoire et les 
antiquites de la Flandre occidentale, public par la Societe 
d 'emulation de Bruges, 56 vols., Bruges, 1839-1864. For Hol- 
land we have WerJcen uitgegeven door het Historisch Genoot- 
schap te Utrecht, 1863ff., which is devoted largely to the his- 



CHAP, v GERMANY AND AUSTRIA 99 

tory of the seventeenth century; the contents of the few 
volumes relating to the middle ages is indicated in POTTHAST, 
Wegweiser, I, p. cxlvi. The same society also published a 
Codex diplomaticus neerlandicus, 8 vols., Utrecht, 1848-1863. 

4. Germany, Austria and Switzerland 

978. Monumenta Germaniae historica (500-1500). Edited by G. 
H. PEBTZ, T. MOMMSEN, etc. Folio series, Berlin, 1826-1874; quarto 
series, 1876ff. 

This is the most famous nineteenth century collection of 
medieval sources. Brief analyses of its contents will be 
found in DAHLMANN-WAITZ, no. 28 above, no. 892; HERRE, no. 
14 above, no. 1020; POTTHAST, Wegweiser, no. 18 above, T, 
p. cxii; Cambridge medieval history, no. 340 above, II, p. 714. 
FRANKLIN, no. 23 above, 95-106, analyzes the folio series 
published before 1874. A great deal has been written about 
this remarkable achievement of German scholarship; POTT- 
HAST listed all that had appeared before 1895. The Neues 
Archiv, no. 167 above, keeps the world of scholars informed 
regarding the progress of work on the Monumenta. WAT- 
TENBACH, no. 29 above, is the best introduction to the main 
contents of the set. The limits of the work are 500-1500 A.D., 
but thus far it has gone little beyond the middle of the 
13th century. 

979. Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usiim scholarum, ex 
Monumentis Germaniae historicis recusi. 46 vols. in 1905. Hanover, 
1840ff. 

This octavo collection for pedagogical use is a selection 
from the chronicles which appear in the Monumenta Ger- 
maniae historica. In some cases, however, the octavo edition 
contains the more recent and more trustworthy text of a 
medieval author. The contents of the sot are analyzed briefly 
in DAHLMANN-WAITZ, no. 28 above, no. 1001. 

980. Quellensammlung zur deutschen Geschichte. Edited by E. 
BRANDENBURG and G. SEEI.IOER. Leipzig, 1907ff. 

Intended primarily for seminar use in German universi- 
ties, but also makes a wider appeal to scholars. The works 
which appeared before 1912 are listed in DAHLMANN-WAITZ, 
no. 28 above, no. 895. 

981. Die Geschichtschreiber der deutschen Vorzeit. Edited by 
G. IT. PERTZ, etc. Berlin and Leipzig, 1849ff. 2nd edition, 90 vols., 
by W. WATTENBACH, ibid., 1884ff. 3rd edition and continuation by 
O. UOI.DER-EOOER and M. TANGL, 1909ff. 

The contents are given in POTTHAST. Wegweiser, no. 18 
above, I, p. Ixxiv. This very convenient set contains good 
German translations of the most interesting parts of the 
section "Scriptores" in the Monumenta Germaniae historica. 



100 GENERAL BOOKS 

982. Die Chroniken der deutschen Stadte von 14 bis ins 16 Jahr- 
hundert. Herausgegeben durch die historische Kommission bei der 
Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Miinchen, unter Leitung VON K. 
HEGEL und G. v. BELOW. Vols. I-XXX. Leipzig, 1862ff. 

The contents are briefly indicated in DAHLMANN-WAITZ, 
no. 28 above, no. 1003. 

983. Bibliotheca rerum Germanicarum. Edited by P. JAFFE. 
6 vols. Berlin, 1864-1873. 

Contents in POTTHAST, Wegweiser, no. 18 above, I, p. Ixxxv. 
See also Monumenta Germaniae selecta db anno 768 usque ad 
annum 1250, edited by M. DOEBEEL, 5 vols., Munich, 1889ff. 

984. Fontes rerum Germanicarum. Edited by J. F. BOHMER. 4 
vols. Stuttgart, 1843-68. 

This collection contains sources, mostly chronicles, from 
the later middle ages, whereas JAFFE, no. 983 above, is 
devoted to the early middle ages. These two collections con- 
tain important sources which had not been edited in the 
Monumenta Germaniae historica. Even now both are still 
useful. 

985. Eegesta imperii. Edited by J. F. BOHMER. Frankfurt, 
1831ff. New edition in several parts by various authors. Innsbruck, 
1877ff. 

For titles of the various parts of the new edition, see 
HEBRE, no. 14 above, no. 1024, or BERNHEIM, no. 64 above, 
p. 560. Detailed information about the archives and archive 
material for Germany is in BBESSLAU, no. 240 above, passim. 
For pedagogical purposes J. F. BOHMER, Acta imperii selecta, 
Innsbruck, 1870; and E. WINKELMANN, Acta imperii inedita 
saeculi XIII et XIV, 2 vols., Innsbruck, 1880-1885, are valu- 
able; but the best book for that purpose is the Quellen- 
sammlung zur Geschichte der deutschen Reichsverfassung in 
Mittelalter und Neuzeit, edited by K. ZEUMER, Leipzig, 1904; 
new edition, 1913. 

986. Fontes rerum Austriacarum: osterreichische Geschichts- 
quellen. By the Vienna Academy. Part 1, Scriptores, vols. I-IX, 1. 
Part 2, Diplomataria et acta, vols. I-LXII. Vienna, 1849ff. 

Contents of vols. published up to 1896 in POTTHAST, Weg- 
weiser, no. 18 above, I, p. Ixix. See also Monumenta historiae 
Bohemica, edited by A. GINDELY, 5 vols., Prague, 1864-1890. 

987. Quellen zur Schweizer Gesehichte. Herausgegeben von der 
allgememen geschichtsforschenden Gesellschaft der Schweiz. Vols. 
I-XXV. Basel, 1877-1907. IsFew series, 1908ff. 

Contents in DAHLMANN-WAITZ, no. 28 above, no. 918. See 
also Mittheilungen zur vaterldndischen Geschichte issued by 
the Historischer Verein in St. Gallen, 20 vols., St. Gall, 1862- 
1885, contents in POTTHAST, Wegweiser, no. 18 above, p. ex. 



ITALY AND ENGLAND 101 

5. Italy 

988. Rerum Italicarum scriptores ab anno aerae christianae 500 
ad 1500. Edited by L. A. MURATORI [died 1750]. 25 vols. in 28. 
Milan, 1723-1751. Indexes, Turin, 1885. New edition by G. CAE- 
DUCCI and V. FIORINI. Citta di Castello, IDOOff. 

This renowned collection was the first great attempt to 
collect all the medieval sources of one country. Work on the 
new edition, together with additions, are reported in the 
Archivio Muratoriana, no. 168 above. See also the additions 
in the Archivio storico italiano, no. 160 above. 

A very serviceable introduction to the sources of medieval 
Italy is U. BALZANI, Le chroniche Italiane nel medio evo, 
Milan, 1884, 3rd edition, Milan, 1909; English edition, Early 
chroniclers of Italy, London, 1883. 

989. Antiquitates Italicae medii aevi. 6 vols. Edited by L. A. 
MURATORI. Milan, 1738-1742. Index, Turin, 1885. 

990. Fonti per la storia d 'Italia. Published by the Istituto 
storico italiano. Rome, 1887ff. 44 vols. in 1916. 

In the following divisions: Scrittori; Epistolari e Regesti; 
Diplomi; Statuti; Leggi; Antichita (Necrologi). This is 
supplemented by the Bollettino dell' Istituto storico italiano, 
no. 162 above. 

991. Monumenta historiae patriae edita iussu Caroli Alberti 
regis. First series in folio, vols. I-XX; second series ill quarto, 
vols. XXIff. Turin, 1836ff. 

992. Document! di storia italiana. Publicati a cura della R. 
Deputazione di Toscana, dell' Umbria e delle Marche. 9 vols. 
Florence, 1867-1889. 

For contents see POTTHAST, IVegiveiser, no. 18 above, I, 
p. Ixiii. Especially devoted to the middle ages. 

993. Regesta chartarum Italiae. Edited by Kgl. Preuss. his- 
torisches Institut and the Istituto storico italiano. Rome, 1907ff. 

Contents in DAHLMANN-WAITZ, no. 28 above, no. 1274. 

994. La storia d 'Italia, narrata da scrittori contemporanei agli 
avvenimenti. Edited by P. ORSI. 3 vols. Turin, 1896-1905. Vol. I 
(473-1313) in 2nd edition, 1905. 

A collection of extracts from the sources, translated into 
Italian with explanatory remarks and bibliographies. 

6. England 

995. Rerum Britannicarum medii aevi scriptores: or Chronicles 
and memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during the middle ages, 
published by the authority of her Majesty's treasury under the 



102 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

direction of the Master of the Eolls. 99 works in 244 vols. Lon- 
don, 1858-1896. 

This collection is commonly called the ' ' Eolls Series. ' ' 
For the contents in alphabetical arrangement according to 
titles of works, see GROSS, no. 36 above, pp. 704-711. POTT- 
HAST, Wegweiser, no. 18 above, I, pp. cxxvii ff., lists the sep- 
arate works according to their order in the set. 

996. Foedera, conventiones, litterae, et eujuscunque generis acta 
publica inter reges Angliae et alios quosvis imperatores, reges, 
pontifices, principes, vel communitates [1101-1654]. Edited by T. 
EYMER. 

For various editions and aids see GROSS, no. 36 above, no. 
2097. Also see GROSS in general for source material relating 
to English history. 

7. Spain and Portugal 

997. Coleccion de documentos ineditos para la historia de 
Espana. 112 vols. Madrid, 1842-1895. Index to vols. I-CII, 
Madrid, 1891. Nueva coleccion de documentos ineditos para la his- 
toria de Espana y de sus Indias. Vols. I- VI. Madrid, 1892-1896. 

These important collections are supplemented by a great 
mass of source material in the Espana sagrada, no. 467 above. 
For a guide to the narrative sources of medieval Spain see 
B*. BALLESTER Y CASTELL, Las fuentes narativas de la historia 
de Espana durante la edad media (417-1474), Palma de Mal- 
lorca, 1908. On pp. 203-207 he prints an analysis of the 
contents of the old collection, Hispaniae illustratae, edited by 
A. SCHOTT, 4 vols., Frankfurt, 1603-1608. See also C. CIROT, 
Etudes sur I'historioqraphie espannole: les histoires generales 
d'Espagne entre AlpTionse X et Philippe II (1284-1556), Bor- 
deaux, 1904 (Bibliotheque des universites du Midi, 9). 

998. Coleccion de las cronicas y memorias de los reyes de Gas- 
tilla. 7 vols. Madrid, 1779-1787. 

An important special collection, the contents of which are 
given in POTTHAST, Wegweiser, no. 18 above, I, p. lii. 

999. Coleccion de documentos ineditos del Archivo general de la 
Corona de Aragon. 40 vols. Barcelona, 1847-1876. 

See also Coleccion de documentos para el estudio de la his- 
toria de Aragon, edited by E. IBARRA Y EODRIGUEZ, etc., vols. 
I-V, Taragossa, 1904-1908; and Coleccion de documentos in- 
editos para la historia de Navarre, vol. I, Pamplona, 1900. 

1000. Cortes de los antiguos reinos de Leon y de Castilla. Vols. 
I-V (to 1559). Madrid, 1861-1906. With an introduction by M. 
COLMEIRO. 2 vols. Madrid, 1883-84. 

See also Cortes de los antiguos reinos de Aragon y de Val- 
encia y Principado de Cataluna, vols. I-XIII [1064-1423], 
Barcelona, 1896-1909. 



CHAP.V EASTERN EUROPE 103 

1001. Portugaliae monumenta historica a saeculo VIII post 
Christum usque ad XV. Edited by A. HERCULANO. Lisbon, 1856ff. 
Other collections consisting chiefly of chronicles are: 
Collecqao de livros ineditos da historia Portugueza, edited by 
J. CORREA DA SERRA, 5 vols., Lisbon, 1790-1793; Collec^ao dos 
principaes auctores da historia Portugueza, 8 vols., Lisbon, 1806- 
1809; and Collecqao dos documentor e memorias da Academia 
real da liistoria Portugueza, 15 vols., Lisbon, 1722-1736. 
Archive material is collected in Quadro elementar das relacoes 
politicas e diplomaticas de Portugal, edited by the Viscount 
of SANTAREM, 18 vols., Paris, 18421860, continued as Corpo 
diplomatico Portuguez [to 1640], edited by REBELLO DA SILVA, 
36 vols., 1856-1878. 



8. Byzantine Empire 

1002. Byzantinae historiae scriptores. 39 (or 47, or 23, or 27, 
according to arrangement) vols. Paris, 1645-1711. 

Contains excellent translations from Greek into Latin 
along with the Greek texts. Begun under the auspices of 
Louis XIV. Contents listed in POTTHAST, Wegireiser, no. 18 
above, I, p. xlvi. Extracts in French translation by L. 
COUSIN, Histoire de Constantinople depuis le regne de Justin 
jusqu'd la -fin de I' empire, 8 vols., Paris, 1672-1674. Another 
edition (more valuable) printed in Holland, 11 vols., 1685. 
In large part reprinted in Patrologiae graecae, edited by 
MIGNE, no. 953 above. See also Fragmenta hiatoricorum Graec- 
orum, edited by C. MULLER, 5 vols., Paris, 1841-1883. 

1003. Corpus scriptorum historiae Byzantinae. 50 vols. Bonn, 
1828-1897. 

Very poorly edited. Contents in POTTHAST, Wegweiser, 
no. 18 above, I, p. lix. See also Fontes rerum Tlyzantinarum, 
St. Petersburg, 1892; and Analecta Byzantino-russica, ibid, 
1891, both edited by W. REGEL. 



9. Eastern Europe 

1004. Monumenta medii aevi historica res gestas Poloniae illus- 
trantia. Vols. I-XVIII. Cracow, 1874-1908. 

See also Scriptores rerum polonicarum, vols. I-XX, Cracow, 
1872-1907; and Monumenta Poloniae hixtorica, edited by A. 
BIELOWSKI and others, 6 vols., Lemberg and Cracow, 1864- 
1893. 

1005. Codex diplomaticus Poloniae (to 1506). 4 vols. Warsaw, 
1847-1887. 

See also Codex diplomaticus maiori Poloniae (to 1444), 
vols. I-V, Posen, 1877-1908; and Codex diplomatic Poloniae 
minoris, vols. I-IV, Cracow, 1876-1905. 



104 GENERAL BOOKS PARTI 

1006. Monumenta Hungariae historica. Part 1, Diplomataria. 
Part 2, Scriptores. Part 3, Monumenta comitialia. Part 4, Acta 
extera. Budapest, 1857ff. 

See also Codex diplomaticus Hungariae, edited by G. FEJER, 
43 vols., Budapest, 1829-1844, with a chronological'table, 1862, 
and an index, 1866; and Codex diplomaticus regni Croatiae, 
Dalmatian, et Slavoniae, edited by T. SMICIKLAS, vols. I-V 
(1101-1272), Agram, 1904-1907. Vol. I~Ts vol. VII of the 
older collection, Monumenta spectantia historiam Slavorum 
meridionalium, 11 vols., Agram, 1868-1893. Now see also the 
new collection, Acta et diplomata res Albaniae mediae aetatis 
illustrantia, edited by L. DE THALL6CZY and others, vol. I 
(344-1343), Vienna, 1913. 

10. Northern Europe 

1007. Scriptores rerum Danicarum medii aevi. Edited by J. 
LANGEBEK, etc. 8 vols. Kopenhagen, 1772-1834. Index, 1878. 

1008. Repertorium diplomaticum regni Danici mediaevalis. Edited 
by K. ERSLEV and others. Copenhagen, 1894ff. 4 vols. had appeared 
in 1906. 

Eegesta diplomatica historiae Danicae fto 1660], series I, 
vols. I-II, Copenhagen, 1847-1870, series II, vols. I-II, 1889- 
1907. Acta pontificum Danica, Copenhagen, 1904ft'. 

1009. Diplomatarium Norvegicum. Edited by C. C. A. LANGE 
and others. Christiania, 1847ff. 

1010. Scriptores rerum Sueciearum medii aevi. 3 vols. Upsala 
and Lund, 1818-1876. 

1011. Diplomatarium Suecanum (Svenskt diplomatarium), 817- 
1350. 6 vols. Stockholm, 1829-1878. Continuations, 1351-1414, 
Stockholm, 1866-1887. 

11. Education and Learning 

1012. Monumenta Germaniae paedagogica. Schulordnungen, Schul- 
biicher und paedagogisehe Miscellaneen aus den Landen deutscher 
Zunge. Edited by K. KEHRBACH. Berlin, 1886ff. 

Complete list of contents in DAHLMANN-WAITZ, no. 28 
above, no. 2932. Includes many secondary accounts. See also 
the Beitrdge edited by BAEUMKER, no. 826 above, which con- 
tain many original texts. 

12. Jews 

1013. Eegesten zur Geschichte der Juden im frankischen und 
deutschen Eeiche bis zum Jahre 1273. Edited by J. ARONIUS and 
others. Berlin, 1887-1902. 

See also nos. 863, 864, 865, 868 note, 881, 884, above. 



PART II 

GENERAL HISTORY OF THE 
MIDDLE AGES 



PERIOD I. 500-1100 



I. INTEODUCTION 
A. OUTLINE 

1. The period of time usually designated as the "middle ages." 
Various limits: 1 A.D., 313, 325, 378, 395, 410, 476, pontificate of 
Gregory the Great 590-604, 800, as the beginning; and as the close, 
"the revival of learning" (ca. 1350), 1453, 1492, 1517 or 1520, 
1648, 1789. Attempts to eliminate the period altogether. 

2. History of the rise and spread of the term "middle ages." 
The conceptions of the humanists. The part played by the idea of 
a "revival of learning" and of a "renaissance." , Importance 
of the history of the Latin language in developing the idea of a 
middle period. Du CANGE, Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis. 
The great influence of the hand-books of CHRISTOPHER KELLER 
(CELLARIUS, 1634-1707), who divided history thus : (1) Historic 
antiqua, to Constantine the Great; (2) Historic, medii aevi, to the 
fall of Constantinople in 1453; and (3) Historia nova. 

3. Ideas which medieval scholars had about the time in which 
they lived. 

4. Futility of basing divisions of history upon any other ground 
except that of convenience. Convenience and simplicity of calling 
the thousand years from about 500 to about 1500 the middle ages, 
now that the peculiar phrase is so deeply rooted in the modern 
languages and in books on history. Reasons for the following divi- 
sion which has been adopted in this Guide: period I, 500-1100; 
period II, 1100-1500. The continuity of history. 

5. Danger of investing the "middle ages" with attributes 
which make the period appear to have an individuality all its 
own. Curious modern connotations of "medieval" and "middle 
ages." "The dark ages." "The thousand years of gloom." 

6. The geographical area concerned in medieval history. Its 
main physical features. Importance of the two great basins, the 
Mediterranean and the North and Baltic seas, and the routes which 
connected them. 

7. Broad classification of the people who lived in this area in 
500 A.D. 



106 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY TARTU 

8. The main tools available for studying the political geography 
of the middle ages. 

9. The relationship of geography and history. 

10. Geographical knowledge in the middle ages. Dante's con- 
ception of the world in which he lived. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOE BEADING 

Meaning of middle ages. The most suggestive survey is J. T. 
SHOTWELL'S article "Middle Ages" in the eleventh edition of the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. The most recent contribution to our knowl- 
edge of the origin of the conception of "middle ages" is P. LEH- 
MANN, "Vom Mittelalter und von der lateinischen Philologie des Mit- 
telalters, " in Quellen und Untersuchungen zur lateinischen Philologie 
des Mittelalters, V (1914), 1-25; also printed separately, Munich, 
1914. This article is summarized briefly by G. L. BUKR, "How 
the middle ages got their name," in American historical review, 
XX (1915), 813-4. See also Professor BURR'S article "Anent 
the middle ages," in American historical review, XVIII (1913), 
710-726; and F. KEUTGEN, "On the necessity in America of the 
study of the early history of modern European nations," in 
Annual report of the American historical association, 1904, 91-106. 
A summary and criticism of most of the literature mentioned below 
may be found in E. BERNHEIM, Lehrbuch der historischen Methode, 
70-84. There are some good suggestions in G. B. ADAMS, Civiliza- 
tion during the middle ages, ch. i; H. O. TAYLOR, Mediaeval mind, 
I, ch. i; J. H. ROBINSON, History of western Europe, eh. i; in his 
Readings, I, ch. i ; and D. C. MUNRO, History of the middle ages, ch. i. 
Geography. As an introduction to the study of geography for 
medieval history, study SHEPHERD, Atlas, 2-3, 42-43. Learn the 
use of E. A. FREEMAN, The historical geography of Europe, and make 
yourself familiar with the standard historical atlases, nos. 121-129 
above. For Dante's geography, see E. MOORE, Studies in Dante, 
3rd series, Oxford, 1903, 109-143. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The middle ages as a period of history. M. BUDINGER, "Ueber 
Darstellungen der allgemeinen Geschichte, insbesonders des Mittel- 
alters," in Historische Zeitschrift, VII (1862), 108-132. O. LORENZ, 
Die Geschichtswissenschaft, Berlin, 1886, 228-260. W. STUBBS, Seven- 
teen lectures, chs. ix-x, "Characteristic differences between mediaeval 
and modern history." On the date 476 A.D. see J. H. ROBINSON, The 
new history, New York, 1912, 155-194. F. X. v. WEGELE, Geschichte 
der deutschen Historiographie, Munich and Leipzig, 1885, 473-489. 



11 LATIN WEST 107 

B. M. MEYER, ' ' Mittelalter, ' ' in Feuilleton der Nationalseitung, 1907, 
no. 277. H. GUNTER, "Das Mittelalter in der spateren Geschichtsbe- 
trachtung," in Historisches Jahrbuch, XXIV (1903), 1-14. E. A. 
FREEMAN, The methods of historical study, 20-40, 191-225. See 
DAHLMANN-WAITZ, Quellenkunde, no. 27, for a bibliography on the 
division of history into periods. 

Characteristics of the middle ages. G. KURTH, Qu'est-ce que le 
moyen age?, 5th edition, Paris, 1907. A. EHRHARD, Das Mittelalter 
und seine kirchliche Entivickelung, Munich and Mainz, 1908, combats 
the idea of "dark ages." H. GRISAR, Das Mittelalter einst und 
jetzt: zwei Bcitrdge iiber Erhard's "Der Katholicismus und das 
Jahrhundert," 2nd edition, Munich, 1902. F. PICAVET, "Le moyen 
age, caracteristique theologique et philosophico-scientifique, limites 
chronologiques, " in Academic des sciences morales et politiques, 
Paris, 1901. N. JORGA, Les bases necessaires d'une nouvelle histoire du 
moyen age, Paris, 1913. S. R. MAITLAND, The dark ages. F. GUIZOT, 
History of civilization in Europe, lecture I. 

Geography and history. E. C. SEMPLE, The influences of geo- 
graphical environment, New York, 1911. This is based on F. 
RATZEL, Anthropo geographic, 2 vols., Stuttgart, 1882-1891, 2nd 
edition, 1891-1899, I, Grundziige der Amcendung der Erdkunde au'f 
die Geschichte. H. B. GEORGE, The relation of geography and history, 
Oxford, 1901, 3rd edition, 1907. E. HUNTINGTON, Civilization and 
climate, Yale University Press, 1915. Sir R. L. PLAYFAIR, "The 
Mediterranean, physical and historical," in Smithsonian report 
(1890), 259-276 (see also nos. 360-361 above). W. Z. RIPLEY, The 
races of Europe, London and New York, 1899. 

Historical atlases. See nos. 121-129 above. 

Dictionaries of geographical names. See nos. 130-138 above. 

Historical geographies. See nos. 139-146 above. 



II. THE LATIN WEST IN THE SIXTH CENTURY 
A. OUTLINE 

1. Fundamental differences in civilization between the Roman 
(Latin) West and the Hellenic (Greek) East, destined to become more 
and more pronounced, in spite of the essential unity of the Medit- 
terranean World, even at the end of the fifth century, illustrated 
especially by the universality of the Christian religion and the 
Roman law. 

2. The constant weakening ot Roman government and the steady 
decline of Graeco-Roman culture in the Latin West. The events of 
the year 476 in Italy. Romulus (Augustulus), nominal boy em- 



108 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

peror, son of Orestes, deposed by Odovacar (Odoacer), who now 
ruled in Italy. 

3. The infiltration of Germanic peoples into the Koman Empire. 
Location of the more important Germans about 475 A.D. Visigoths 
in Spain and southern Gaul, with the capital at Toulouse (battle 
of Adrianople, 378; sack of Eome by Alaric, 410). Vandals in 
Africa (sack of Eome by Gaiseric, or Genseric, 455). Burgundians 
in the Ehone valley (Nibelungenlied). Angles, Saxons and Jutes 
in England since about 449. Franks in northern Gaul. Ostrogoths 
in the Danube valley. 

4. The Visigothic kingdom in Spain, 415-711. King Euric, 
466484. Alaric II and the Franks under Clovis. Battle of 
Vougle, 507. The Brevmrium Alariti, 506. Conversion of the Arian 
Visigoths to orthodox Christianity. Isidore of Seville (ca. 570- 
636). Arab conquest, 711. 

5. The nomad Huns (not Germans), dispersed before 475 A.D. 
Attila, their king, (died 453). "Battle of Chalons," 451. Huns 
in Italy, 452. Pope Leo the Great and Attila. 

6. Italy was still the center of the western world about 475. 
IJs attractiveness to German barbarians. 

7. The rise of Theodoric the Ostrogoth. Born about 455, son 
of King Theodemir.' At the age of seven he was sent to Con- 
stantinople as a hostage. Befriended by Aspar. When about 
eighteen he returned to his people living in old Pannonia (modern 
Hungary). King of Ostrogoths, 471. In 488 he set out for Italy 
with the consent of Zeno, the eastern emperor. 

8. Conquest of Italy by Theodoric. Siege of Eavenna. Murder 
of Odovacar in 493. Theodoric proclaimed king in Italy by his 
troops. Thus established the kingdom of the Ostrogoths in Italy 
which lasted from 493 to 555, with the capital at Eavenna. 

9. Theodoric 's attempt to establish an Ostrogothic hegemony 
in the west. Marriage alliances. Diplomatic relations with the 
Vandals, Visigoths and the Franks under Clovis. 

10. Theodoric 's attempt to establish a dualism in Italy. The 
Edictum Theodorici, about 500. 

11. The "golden age" of Italy, about 511-522. The glory of 
Eavenna, and the great public works in Eome (for the last time 
"felix Eoma") and Verona. Famous men of letters: Boethius, 
Symmachus, Cassiodorus. 

12. The Arianism of the Ostrogoths. Theodoric 's relations with 
the orthodox bishops of Italy and with the pope in Eome. Com- 
parative weakness of the papacy during Theodoric 's reign as 



LATIN WEST 109 

shown by the mission of Pope John I in Constantinople, and his 
imprisonment and death in 526. 

13. Theodoric's relations with the Byzantine empire. He never 
thought of setting up a rule in Italy independent of the Byzantine 
emperor. His growing suspicions that intrigues against him were 
hatching in Constantinople. Execution of Boethius and Sym- 
machus, 525. 

14. Last bitter years of Theodoric. He had no son. Death of 
his son-in-law Eutharic, whom he had chosen as his successor, about 
5.22. Death of Theodoric in 526. Succeeded by his grandson 
Athalaric. Rapid decline of the Ostrogothic kingdom (see next 
outline). 

15. The failure of Theodoric's attempt to unite the Latin 
West under German leadership a task not attempted again until 
the time of Charlemagne. 

16. The legends of Theodoric (Dietrich von Bern). 

17. Ostrogothic kings of Italy, 493-553. 

Theodoric, 493-526 Hildibad, 540-541 

Athalaric, 526-534 Eraric, 541 

Theodohad, 534-536 Totila (Baduila), 541-552 

Witigis, 536-540 Teias, 552-553. 

18. Visigothic kings in Spain. 

Atawulf, 415 Theudis, 531-548 

Sigeric, 415 Theudigisel, 548-549 

Wallia, 415-420 Agila, 549-554 

Theodoric (Theodored), Athanagild, 554-567 

420-451 Leova I, 567-572 

Thorismund, 451-452 Leovigild, 570-586 

Theodoric, 452-466 Reccared- I, 586-601 

Euric, 466-483 Leova II, 601-603 

Alaric II, 483-506 Witeric, 603-610 

Theodoric and Amalric, Gundimar, 610-612 

506-522 Sisibut, 612-620 

Amalric, sole ruler, 522- Reccared II, 620-621 . . . 

531 Roderic, 710-711 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

Brief general accounts which establish a connection with Roman 
history. EMERTON, Introduction to the study of the middle ages, 
1-59. ADAMS, Civilization during the middle ages, chs. l-v. BRYCE, 
Holy Roman empire, chs. l-lll. W. S. DAVIS, An outline history of 
the Eoman empire (44 B.C. to 378 A.D.), New York, 1909. 



110 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Longer accounts with special emphasis on the Ostrogoths. 
LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire generate, I, chs. i and n. Cambridge 
medieval history, I, especially chs. xiv and xv. VILLARI, The bar- 
barian invasions of Italy, book II. OMAN, The dark ages, chs. I-H. 
BURY, History of the later Roman empire, I, books II-III. H. BRAD- 
LEY, The story of the Goths to the end of the Gothic dominion in 
Spain, New York, 1888. E. A. FREEMAN, Historical essays, 3rd series, 
121-172, has an interesting account of ' ' The Goths at Eavenna. ' ' 

Biographies of Theodoric. T. HODGKIN, Theodoric the Goth, 
New York, 1891. G. PFEILSCHIFTER, Die Germanen im romischen 
Reich: Theodorich der Grosse, Mainz, 1911 (note the pictures in the 
latter and in C. DIEHL, Ravenne, Paris, 1907). 

Visigothic Spain. Cambridge medieval history, II, eh. vi. OMAN, 
The dark ages, 128-144. T. HODGKIN, "Visigothie Spain," in 
English historical review, II (1887), 209-234. HUME, The Spanish 
people, 41-70. Longer and more authoritative accounts are in U. E. 
BURKE, History of Spain, I, chs. iv-xi; and E. ALTAMIRA, Historia 
de Espana (1913 edition), I, 165-223. 

Detailed general accounts. HODGKIN, Italy and her invaders, 
III. GIBBON, Decline and fall of the Roman empire, ehs. xxviff. 
GREGOROVIUS, Rome in the middle ages, I. J. v. PFLUGK-HARTTUNG, 
The great migrations, translated from Allgemeine Weltgeschichte as 
vol. VI of no. 314 above. 

Original sources. Bead the Germania of Tacitus (translated in 
Translations and reprints of the University of Pennsylvania, VI, 
no. 3) if you have never studied it before. The Letters of Cassio- 
dorus are translated in part by T. HODGKIN, London, 1886. JORDANES, 
Origin and deeds of the Goths, is translated by C. C. MIEROW, 
Princeton, 1908, new edition, 1915. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 42, 43, 45, 50. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. Most of the subjects in this outline are touched 
upon in many of the general histories of Germany, nos. 560-587 
above, and Italy, 599-621 above, see especially 614. In addition 
see also E. A. FREEMAN, Western Europe in the fifth century: an 
aftermath, London, 1904; C. KINGSLEY, The Roman and the Teuton, 
London, 1875; and A. THIERRY, Recits de I'histoire romaine au V e 
siecle, Paris, 1860. 

General accounts of the German invasions. L. SCHMIDT, 
Geschichte der deutschen Stdmme bis zum Ausgang der Volkerwan- 
derung, vols. I-II, Berlin, 1904-1911; a shorter account is his Allge- 



11 LATIN WEST 111 

meine Geschichte der germanischen VolTcer bis zur Mittc des sech- 
sten Jahrhunderts, Munich, 1909, part of no. 330 above; and he has 
summarized it recently in very brief and popular form in his 
Die germanischen Seiche der F olkerwanderung, Leipzig, 1913 (Wis- 
senschaft und Bildung). F. DAHN, Urgeschichte der germanischen 
und romanischen Volker, 3 vols., Berlin, 1880-89, part of no. 313 
above; and his Die Konige der Germanen, 6 vols., Munich, 1861-71. 
E. VON ERKERT, Wanderungen und Siedelungen der germanischen 
Stamme in Mittel-Europa von der dltesten Zeit bis auf Karl den 
Grossen, Berlin, 1900. W. M. F. PETRIE, Migrations, London, the 
Anthropological institute of Great Britain and Ireland (the Hux- 
ley lecture for 1906), has an interesting series of maps. See also 
the slight sketch by A. C. HADDON, The wanderings of peoples, Cam- 
bridge, 1911, ch. in. F. MARTROYE, L 1 'accident a I'epoque byzantine: 
Goths et Vandales, Paris, 1904. L. WILSER, Die Germanen, neue, den 
Fortschritten der Wissenschaft angepasste und mehrfach erweit- 
erte Auflage, vol. I, Leipzig, 1913. G. KAUFMANN, Deutsche 
Geschichte bis auf Karl den Grossen, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1880-1881. O. 
GUTSCHE and W. SCHULTZE, Deutsche Geschichte von der Urzeit bis 
zu den Karolingern, 2 vols., Stuttgart, 1894-1896. E. v. WIETERS- 
HEIM, Geschichte der V olkerwanderung, 4 vols., Leipzig, 1859-1864, 
2nd edition, by F. DAHN, 2 vols., 1880-81. F. LOT, "Lea migrations 
saxonnes en Gaule et en Grande-Bretagne du IIP au V* siecle," in 
Revue historique, CXIX (1915), 1-40. G. WAITZ, Deutsche Verfass- 
ungsgeschichte, vol. I, is our main source of information for early 
German institutions, but see also F. B. GUMMERE, Germanic origins, 
New York, 1892. 

Ostrogoths. L. M. HARTMANN, Geschichte Italiens im Mittel : 
alter, vol. I, is now the best general survey of the Ostrogoths in 
Italy. E. LONCAO, Fondazione del regno di Odoacre e suoi rapporti 
con I'Oriente, Scansano, 1908. M. DUMOULIN, "Le gouvernement 
de Th6odoric et la domination des Ostrogoths en Italic d'apres les 
ocuvres d'Ennodius," in Revue historique, LXXVIII (1902), 1-7, 
241-265, LXXIX (1902), 1-22. T. MOMMSEN, "Ostgotische 
Studieri," in Neues Archiv, XIV (1889), 223-249, 451-544, XV 
(1890), 181-186 (also in his Gesammelte Schriften, VI), are funda- 
mental studies on Ostrogothic law and institutions; but now see 
also, P. DEL GIUDICE, Sulla questione dell' unitd o dutilitd del diritto 
in Italia sotto la dominazione Ontrogota, Milan, 1918. G. SALVIOLI, 
Sullo stato e la popolazione d'ltalia primo e dopo le invamoni bar- 
bariche, Palermo, 1900. 

Visigoths. A. FERNANDEZ GUERRA, Historia de Espana desdc 
la inva^idn de los pueblos gcrmdnicos hasta la ruina de la monar- 



112 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

quia visigoda, 2 vols., Madrid, 1890, part of no. 622 above. H. 
LECLERCQ, L'Espagne chretienne [to 711], Paris, 1905, 2nd edition, 
1906 (Bibliotheque de 1'enseignement de 1'histoire eeclesiastique). 
DON JUAN ORTEGA Y RUBIO, Los visigodos en Espana, Madrid, 1903. 
E. PEREZ PUJOL, Historia de las instituciones societies de la Espana 
goda, 4 vols., Valencia, 1896. F. DAHN, Die Verfassung der West- 
gothen, 2nd edition, Leipzig, 1885; and his, Die aussere Geschichte 
der Westgothen, Wiirgburg, 1870. J. ASCHBAOH, Geschichte der 
Westgoten, Frankfurt, 1827. 

Burgundians. C. BINDING, Das Burgundish-Romanische Konig- 
rcioh von 443 bis 532, Leipzig, 1868. A. JAHN, Geschichte der Bur- 
gundionen und Burgundiens bis sum Ende der I Dynastie, 2 vols., 
Halle, 1874. H. DE CLAPAREDE, Les Burgondes jusqu'en 443: contri- 
bution a 1'histoire externe du droit germanique, Geneva, 1909, 
(Memoire public a 1'ocassion du Jubile de 1 'Universite, 1559-1909). 

Vandals. F. MARTROYE, Genseric: la conquete Vandale en 
Afrique et la destruction de I' empire d' Occident, Paris, 1907. L. 
SCHMIDT, Geschichte der Wandalen, Leipzig, 1901. 

Huns. E. HUTTON, Attila and his Huns, New York, 1915. Cam- 
bridge medieval history, I, eh. xii. HELMOLT, History of the world, 
V, 319-326. 

Original Sources. An examination of the general nature and 
trustworthiness of the sources was made recently in a doctoral disser- 
tation by C. J. H. HAYES, An introduction to the sources relating 
to the Germanic invasions, New York, 1909. Most of the important 
sources are well edited in Monumenta Germaniae historica, no. 978 
above, auctorcs antiquissimi, vols. I-XIV, Berlin, 1877-1904. Some 
of these are translated into German in Die Geschichtschreiber der 
deutschen Vorzeit, no. 981 above, sueh as vol. X, Isidors Geschiohte 
der Goten, Vandalen, Sueven, nebst Ausziigen aus der Kirchenge- 
schichte des Beda Venerabilis, revised edition by D. COSTE, Leipzig, 
1910. 

Bibliographies. The best systematic bibliography is in DAHL- 
MANN-WAITZ, Quellenkunde, nos. 3506-4090. The sources are best 
described by W. WATTENBACH, no. 29 above. See also the elaborate 
lists of books in the Cambridge medieval history, I, especially those 
for chapters vn-xv, and II, ch. vi for the Visigoths; also the other 
general bibliographies for the history of Germany, nos. 31-34 
above, and Italy, nos. 37-41 above. 



GREEK EAST 113 

III. THE GREEK EAST IN THE SIXTH CENTURY 

A. OUTLINE 

1. Recent change of attitude towards the eastern or Byzantine 
empire on the part of historians. GIBBON'S misconceptions. The 
Byzantinische Zeitschrift, no. 174 above, edited by K. KRUM- 
BACHER, and its Russian counterpart, no. 175 above. The fore- 
shadowing of the "Eastern Question" in Europe. 

2. The stability of the Byzantine empire and its services to west- 
ern civilization. No enemy ever entered Constantinople until 
1204 and the empire did not fall before the Mohammedan Turks 
until 1453. 

3. Description of the city of Constantinople in the time of 
Justinian. St. Sophia. 

4. The reigns of Justin I (518-527) and Justinian I (527-565). 
Both born in Macedonia. The empress Theodora. The Hippo- 
drome. Greens and Blues. The Nika riot (532). 

5. The codification of the Roman law. Previous codifications, 
especially the Theodosian code, 438. The Corpus iuris civilis, 529ff. 
(Code, Pandects or Digest, Institutes, Novels.) Tribonian was 
editor-in-chief. Significance of the fact that it was written and 
promulgated in Latin, although it was compiled in the Greek East. 

6. Justinian 's administration of the empire. The Byzantine 
army. The Persian wars against Chosroes. Disastrous financial 
policy. Relations with the church. The great plague of 542. 
Justinian's interest in building and in theology. The controversy 
about "The Three Chapters." Imprisonment of Pope Vigilius. 
Humiliation of the papacy. 

7. The plan of Justinian to reconquer the west and to re-estab- 
lish the empire as it was in the time, of Constantine. 

8. The fall of the Vandal kingdom in Africa, 533-534. Beli- 
sarius versus Gelimer. Rise of the Berber tribes, 534-539; 546- 
548. Imperial Africa after the fall of the Vandal kingdom. 

9. The reconquest of Italy and the fall of the Ostrogothic king- 
dom. Two stages, 535-540; and 540-555. Murder of Amalasuntha, 
535. Belisarius and Narses against Theodahad, Witigis, Totila, 
and Teias. The desolation of Rome and of all Italy. The recon- 
struction of Italy under imperial administration. The Pragmatic 
Sanction of 554. 

10. Justinian's foothold in Spain, 554. The rivalry between 
king Agila and Athanagild gave the Greeks the opportunity to 
intervene. Capture of Carthagena, Malaga, and Corduba. Visi- 
gothic resistance under king Athanagild, 554-567. 



114 



GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY 



PART II 



11. The Lombard invasion of Italy, 568, under Alboin. 

12. The fate of Italy: divided between the Byzantine empire 
(Exarchate of Eavenna), the Lombards, and the rising papacy. 

13. Failure of Justinian 's attempt to reunite the Mediterranean 
world. His feeble old age and death in 565 at the age of 83 years. 
Eapid decline of the Greek East in the generation after Justinian. 
Persistance of the/ idea of a united Roman empire. 

14. The eastern emperors, 395-565. 



Arcadius, 395-408 
Theodosius II, 408-450 
Marcian, 450-457 
Leo I, the Thracian, 457- 
474 



Zeno, the Isaurian, 475- 

491 

Anastasius I, 491-518 
Justin I, 518-527 
Justinian I, 527-565 



15. Lombard kings in Italy, 568-774. 



Alboin, 568-572 
Clepho, 572-573 
Authari, 583-590 
Agilulf, 590-615 
Adaloald, 615-625 
Arioald, 625-636 
Rothari, 636-652 
Rodoald, 652-653 
Aribert, 653-662 
Godebert, 662 
Grimoald, 662-671 



Berthari, 672-688 
Cunibert, 688-700 
Liutbert, 700-701 
Aribert II, 701-711 
Ansprand, 712 
Liutprand, 712-743 
Hildebrand, 743-744 
Ratchis, 744-749 
Aistulf, 749-756 
Desiderius, 756-774 



B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 
General surveys. A brief sketch may be found in BEMONT and 
MONOD, Medieval Europe, ch. vni. Longer general accounts are: 
Cambridge medieval history, II, 1-52 and 222-235 (see also I, 
ch. i) ; BURY, Later Roman empire, book IV, part i; LAVISSE and 
RAMBATJD, Histoire generate, I, ch. iv; OMAN, Dark ages, chs. in, 
v, vi, xi; OMAN, Byzantine empire, chs. i-vm, xi. 

Justinian. The most authoritative work is 0. DIEHL, Justinicn, 
et la civilisation byzantine au Vie siecle, Paris, 1901. W. G. HOLMES, 
The age of Justinian and Theodora, 2 vols., London, 1905-1907. The 
article "Justinian" in the Encyclopaedia, Britannica is by J. BRYCE. 
Constantinople. Cambridge medieval history, I, ch. i, has a brief 
description of the city as founded by Constantine. For Justinian 's 
city see BURY, Later Soman empire, book I, ch. v, and HOLMES, The 
age of Justinian, I, ch. i. MUNRO and SELLERY, Medieval civilization, 
87-113, "The Hippodrome at Constantinople," is a translation of 
a very interesting extract from DIEHL, Justinien. F. HARRISON. 



111 GREEK EAST 115 

The meaning of history, 309-367, "Constantinople." See also the 
general works on Constantinople, nos. 661-669 above. 

Roman law. The article ' 'Roman law ' ' in the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica will serve as a brief introduction to the codification of the 
Roman law. BURY, Later Eoman empire, book IV, ch. in. Cambridge 
medieval history, II, eh. in. GIBBON, Decline and fall, ch. XLIV. 
MILMAN, History of Latin Christianity, book III, ch. v. 1-33. 

Modern attitude towards Byzantine history. F. HARRISON, 
Byzantine history in the early middle ages, London, 1900; the same 
author 's ' ' Constantinople as an historic city, ' ' in Fortnightly review, 
LXI (1894), 438-458; and E. A. FREEMAN, "The Byzantine empire," 
in his Historical essays, 3rd series, 231-237. 

Lombards. OMAN, Dark ages, ch. xi; and a more detailed account 
in Cambridge medieval history, II, ch. vn. 

Detailed general accounts. HODGKIN, Italy and her invaders, 
vols. IV and VI. GIBBON, Decline and fall, chs. XXX-XLIII. 

Original sources. Extracts illustrating the church in the Eastern 
Empire in J. C. AYER, A source book for ancient church history, 538- 
564. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 50, 52. Cambridge medieval history. I, 

maps 1, 6, 14; II, maps 15, 18. 

i 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. For general works on the Byzantine empire 
see nos. 643-679; 800-802 above. Many of the general works under 
"Eastern Europe," nos. 680-716 above, touch upon the subject of 
this outline. 

Byzantine administration in Italy. C. DIEHL, Etudes sur 
I 'administration byzantine dans I'Exarchat dc Bavenne (568-751), 
Paris, 1888. L. M. HARTMANN, Unterjsuchungen zur Geschichte der 
byzantinischen Verwaltung in Italien (540-750), Leipzig, 1889. 
A. GAUDENZI, Sui rapporti tra I'ltaUa e I'impero d'Oriente (476-554), 
Bologna, 1888. 

Byzantine Africa. C. DIEHL, 1,'Afrique byzantine, histoire de la 
<loini nation byzantine en Afrique (533-709), Paris, 1896. 

Byzantine warfare. H. DELBRUCK, Geschichte der Kriegskunst, 
II, Berlin, 1902, sometimes corrects and supplements C. "W. C. OMAN, 
A history of the art of war, London, 1898. J. PRESLAND, Belisarius: 
general of the east, London, 1913. 

The Empress Theodora. C. DIEHL, Th6odora: imperatrice de 
Byzance, Paris, 1904. C. E. MALLET, "The empress Theodora," in 
English historical review, II (1887), 1-20. 



116 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Greek Church under Justinian. H. S. ALIVISATOS, Die Mrchliche 
Gesetzgebung des Kaisers Justinian, I, Berlin, 1913. J. PARGOIBE, 
L'glise byzantine de 527 a 847, Paris, 1905 (Bibliotheque de 
1 'enseignement de 1 'histoire eccle'siastique) . E. L. WOODWARD, Chris- 
tianity and nationalism in the later Roman empire, London, 1916, has 
a chapter on Justinian; another on Egpyt and Syria; and another 
on Africa. 

Roman law. P. COLLINET, Etudes historique sur le droit de 
Justinien, Paris, 1912. For other works on Roman law see outline 
XX, part III below. 

Byzantine studies in Germany. K. DIETRICH, "Die Byzantin- 
isehe Zeitschrift und die byzantinischen Studien in Deutschland, " in 
Internationale Monatsschrift, VI, no. 3 (Dec., 1912), 345-376. 

Lombards. K. BLASEL, Die Wanderziige der Langobarden, Bres- 
lau, 1909. 

Original sources. For large collections of sources for Byzantine 
history see nos. 1002-1003 above. For the time of Justinian the 
works of PROCOPIUS have attracted most attention, especially the 
De Bellis, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1905; and the Historia arcana, Leipzig, 
1906, both edited by J. HAURY who has written an authoritative esti- 
mate of PROCOPIUS, Zur Beurteilung des Geschichtschreibers Procopius 
von Cdsarea, Munich, 1896. The De Bellis is translated in Die 
Geschichtschreiber, no. 981 above; the Historia arcana by the 
Athenian Society, Athens, 1906. The De aedificiis of PROCOPIUS is 
translated by A. STEWART and others, Of the buildings of Justinian, 
Palestine pilgrims text society, London, 1886. 

The standard edition of the Roman law of Justinian is the Corpus 
iuris civilis, 3 vols., Berlin, 1884ff. : vol. I, Institutiones , edited by P. 
KRUGER, Digesta, edited by T. MOMMSEN, llth edition, 1908; vol. II, 
Codex, edited by T. KRUGER, 8th edition, 1906; vol. Ill, Novellae, 
edited by R. SCHOELL and W. KROLL, 1895. For other editions of 
the Roman law see Cambridge medieval history, II, 726, and confer 
also outline XX, part III below. 

PAULUS DIACONUS, Historia Langobardorum, is translated by W. 
D. FOULKE, History of the Langobards, by Paul the Deacon: with 
explanatory and critical notes, a biography of the author, and an 
account of the sources of the history, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, 1907. 

Bibliographies. A good bibliography is in C. DIEHL, Justinien, 
667-670, but see also the classified lists of books in the Cambridge 
medieval history, II, for chs. i, n, in, vil, vin (A), pp. 720-727, 739- 
742. 



MONASTICISM 117 

IV. MONASTICISM IN THE SIXTH CENTURY 
A. OUTLINE 

1. Since the church, as organized by the papacy, was still in 
its infancy in the first half of the sixth century, the nature and 
importance of universal Christianity in that period can be appre- 
ciated best by a study of monasticism. Hagiography. The Acta 
sanctorum, no. 963 above. 

2. Monasticism originated in asceticism and mysticism. It is 
by no means peculiar to Christianity. 

3. Evolution of monasticism in northern Egypt. Hermits or 
anchorites and coenobites. St. Anthony (born about 250 A.D. in 
middle Egypt). Semi-eremitical life in the deserts of Nitria and 
Scete. The Life of St. Anthony by Athanasius. The reports of 
Palladius, Cassian, St. Jerome, and Bufinus on monastic life in 
Egypt in the fourth century. The legend of Paul of Thebes. 

4. Evolution of monastic life in southern Egypt. Pachomius 
(born about 290, died 346), the founder of the coenobitical monastic 
life. 

5. The anchorites of Syria and Mesopotamia. "The Sons of 
the Covenant" early in the fourth century. The stylites or pillar 
saints, especially St. Simeon Stylites near Antioch about the middle 
of the fifth century. Excessive austerities practiced by these east- 
ern saints. The monastery of Jerome and the convent of Paula 
in Bethlehem towards the end of the fourth century. 

6. Monasticism in the Greek world. St. Basil, near Neocae- 
sarea in the Pontus region during the second half of the fourth 
century. Well organized community life. Moderate asceticism. 
His two rules, the longer and the shorter, taught moderation in 
the ascetic life. Basilian monasticism in Constantinople. Its 
spread into the Slavonic world. Mount Athos. 

7. Introduction of monasticism into the west. St. Athanasius 
brought two Egyptian monk to Rome in 339. Spread of the mon- 
astic ideal in Rome, especially among the women of the higher 
classes, such as Paula and Melania. St. Jerome (died 420). 
Rufinus. Ambrose in Milan (died 397).' Eusebius, bishop of Ver- 
celli (died 371). St. Augustine, bishop of Hippo (died 430). 
Paulinus of Nola near Rome (died 431). Holy islands in the 
Tyrhenian sea such as Capraria. 

8. Monasticism in Gaul. St. Martin, bishop of Tours in 372. 
Founded a monastery near Poitiers about 362. Marmoutier. John 
Cassian in Marseilles. Honoratus on the island of Lerins. The 



118 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

monastery of Conclat in the Jura mountains. Decline of mon- 
astieism in Gaul in the late fifth and early sixth century. 

9. Irish monasticism (see outline VI below). 

10. St. Benedict of Nursia (ca. 480-ca.550). His cave at 
Subiaco. Founded Monte Cassino about the third decade of the 
sixth century. Here he wrote his Rule. Visit of Totila in 543. 

11. The famous Rule of St. Benedict. Its moderation. Lack of 
stress on learning. Although little known in the sixth century 
its influence became vast after 600. 

12. Cassiodorus (died between 575-585) founded the monastery 
called Vivarium at Squillace in Calabria. His great services in 
encouraging monastic learning. 

13. Contrast between eastern and western monasticism. The 
importance of monasticism in early medieval civilization. 

14. The evolution of a difference between regular and secular 
clergy. 

15. Women under monasticism. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BEADING 

Short general surveys. Cambridge medieval history, I, 521-542, 
written by E. C. BUTLER, an authority on monasticism, who has also 
written the articles ' ' Monasticism, Benedictines, Benedict ' ' in the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. A. W. WISHART, Short history of monks 
and monasteries, chs. i-ni. FLICK, Medieval church, ch. xi. 

Various estimates of monasticism. A. HARNACK, Das Monchtum: 
seine Ideale und seine Geschichte, Giessen, 1895, translated by E. E. 
KELLETT and F. H. MARSEILLE, Monasticism: its ideals and history, 
and the Confessions of St. Augustine, London, 1901. H. O. TAYLOR, 
The classical heritage of the middle ages, New York, 1903, 3rd edition, 
1911, 136-197. J. O. HANNAY, The spirit and origin of Christian 
monasticism, London, 1903. WORKMAN, The evolution of the monastic 
ideal. MONTALEMBERT, Monies of the west, introduction. GIBBON, 
Decline and fall, ch. xxxvu. Bead TENNYSON'S poem, St. Simeon 
Stylites. 

St. Benedict. An excellent short sketch of his life and work is 
in F. H. DUDDEN, Gregory the Great: his place in history and thought, 
2 vols., London, 1905, I, 109-115; II, 161-169. There is a short 
chapter in J. B. CARTER, The religious life of ancient Rome, Boston, 
1911, eh. vn. Longer account in MONTALEMBERT, Monies of the west, 
I, book IV; and in MILMAN, History of Latin Christianity, book III, 
ch. vi. 

The legends about St. Benedict as told by pope GREGORY THE 
GREAT can be read in English, in E. G. GARDNER, The Dialogues of 
St. Gregory, London, 1911; E. J. LUCK, The life and miracles of St. 



MONASTICISM 119 

Benedict by St. Gregory the Great (from an old version), London, 
1880; The little flowers of St. Benedict, gathered from the Dialogues 
of St. Gregory the Great, London, 1901. 

Monte Cassino. LOEW, The Beneventan script, 1-21, gives a 
short sketch of the role of Monte Cassino in the history of medieval 
culture. 

Women under raonasticism. LINA ECKENSTEIN, Women under 
monasticism. 

Original sources. The famous Life of St. Anthony by ATHANASIUS 
is translated in Nicene and post-Nicene fathers, 2nd series, IV, 195- 
221; also in E. A. T. W. BUDGE, The paradise or garden of the fathers, 
2 vols., London, 1907, 1, 3-76. For the works of St. Basil see Nicene 
and post-Nicenc fathers, 2nd series, VII. 

The all-important Bule of ST. BENEDICT is translated in large part 
in Henderson, Select documents, 274-313, and in THATCHER and 
McNEAL, Source book, 432-484. A good recent translation has been 
made by F. A. GASQUET, Rule of St. Benedict, London, 1908. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 46-47, 94-95. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. For general works on monasticism see nos. 
479487 above, especially 483. Naturally all general books on the 
church, nos. 394-498 above, treat of monasticism more or less. 
See also the encyclopaedias and dictionaries of church history, nos. 
104-114, e.g., the article, "Cenobitisme" by H. LECLERCQ in 111. 
For Greek monasticism see also 800. 

General surveys. L. S. DE LE NAIN DE TILLEMONT, Memoires pour 
servir a I'histoire ecclesiastique des six premiers siecles, 15 vols., 
Brussels, 1693-1707, 2nd edition, 16 vols., Paris, 1701-1712. T. W. 
ALLIES, The monastic life: from the fathers of the desert to Charle- 
magne, London, 1896. I. G. SMITH, Christian monasticism from the 
fourth to the ninth centuries, London, 1892. J. MABILLON, Annales 
ordinis sancti Bencdicti, 6 vols., Paris, 1703-1739. 

Egyptian monasticism. A good short general sketch of Egyptian 
monasticism is in L. DUCHESNE, Hintoire ancienne de I'eglise, 3 vols., 
Paris, 1905ff., (various later editions), translated into English, 
Early history of the Christian church, New York, 1909ff., II, ch. xiv. 
E. C. BUTLER, The Lausiac history of Palladius, in Texts and studies, 
vol. VI, 2 vols., Cambridge, 1898-1904. P. VAN CAUWENBERGH, 
Etude sur les moines d'Egypte, depuis le concile de Chalc6doine 
(451) jusqu'd I'invasion arabe (640), Paris, 1914, is a recent special 
study on the later period. C. KINGSLEY, The hermits: their lives 
and works, London, 1885. G. K. GRUTZMACHER, PacJwmiu* und das 
alteste Klosterleben, Freiburg, 1896. 



120 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Eastern monasticism. The best general book is J. M. BESSE, 
Les moines d'Orient anterieure au Concile de Chalcedoine (451), 
Paris, 1900. S. SCHIWIETZ, Das morgenldndische Monchtum, Mainz, 
1904, is a series of collected articles. E. S. HARDY, Eastern 
monasticism, London, 1864, is now rather antiquated. H. DELEHAYE, 
"Les Stylites, Saint Symeon et ses imitateurs, " in Revue des ques- 
tions historiques, LVII (1895), 52-103 (also printed separately, 
Brussels, 1895), is full of curious details about this most striking 
example of excessive asceticism in the East. Oriens christianus: 
Halbjahrheft fur die Kunde des christlichen Orients, edited by A. 
BAUMSTARK, new series, Leipzig, 1912ff. 

St. Basil. W. K. L. CLARKE, St. Basil the Great: a study in 
monasticism, Cambridge University Press, 1913. E. F. MORISON, 
Basil and his rule: a study in early monasticism, London, 1912. 

Mount Athos. K. LAKE, The early days of monasticism on Mount 
Atlws, Oxford, 1909. A. BILEY, Athos: or, The mountain of tlie 
monks, London, 1887. 

African monasticism. J. M. BESSE, Le monachisme Africain, 
Liguge, 1900; and H. LECLERCQ, L'Afrique chretienne, Paris, 1904. 

Early monasticism in Gaul. J. M. BESSE, Les moines de I'an- 
cienne France: periode gallo-romaine et merovingienne, Paris, 1906. 
E. C. BABUT, Saint Martin de Tours, Paris [1912]. A. LECOY DE LA 
MARCHE, Vie de saint Martin eveque de Tours, Tours, 1895. H. BAS, 
Saint Martin, Tours, 1898. J. C. CAZENOVE, St. Hilary of Poitiers and 
St. Martin of Tours, London, 1883. L. LAUNOY, Histoire de I'eglise 
Gaulois depuis les origines jusqu'a la conquete franque (511), 
vols. I-II, Paris, 1906. A. C. COOPER-MARSDEN, The history of the 
Island of Lerins: monastery, saints and theologians of St. Honorat, 
Cambridge, University Press, 1913. ABBE F. BONNARD, Saint Hono- 
rat de Lerins, Tours, 1914. 

St. Benedict of Nursia. P. P. LECHNER, St. Benedict and his 
times, London, 1900. D. B. MARECHAUX, Saint Benoit: sa vie, sa 
regie, sa doctrine spirituelle, Paris, 1911. L. TOSTI. San Benedetto, 
Monte Cassino, 1892, translated into English by W. E. WOODS, 
London, 1896. G. GRUTZMACHER, Die Bedeutung Benedicts von Nursia 
und seine Begel in der Geschichte des Monchtums, Berlin, 1892. 
A. 1'HuiLLiER, Explication de la regie de S. Benoit, 2 vols., Paris, 
1901; and his Le patriarche S. Benoit, Paris, 1905. 

Serial publications. Studien und Mitteilungen zur Geschichte 
des Benediktinerordens und seiner Zweige (since 1911, vol. XXXII, 
this is a new title for Studien und Mitteilungen aus dem Benedikt- 
iner und Cist ercienseror den, vols. I-XXXI, Briinn, Wiirzburg and 
Vienna, 1880ff). Beitrdge zur Geschichte des alien Monchtums und 



RISE OP PAPACY 121 

des Benediktinerordens, (edited by Father Herwegen of the abbey 
of Maria-Laaeh) was begun 1912. Archives dc la France monastique. 
Revue Mabtilon, Paris, 1899ff. 

Original sources. Muc-h of the original material for early 
monasticism may be found in nos. 953-955, 963, 978, above. The 
most complete collection of monastic rules is no. 964 above. See 
also the Patrologia orientalis, edited by E. GRAPFIN and F. NAU, 
Paris, 1903ff. ; and the Corpus scriptorum christianorum orientalium, 
edited by J. B. CHABOT and others, Paris, 1903ff. 

The original Eule of ST. BENEDICT can best be studied in the 
edition of E. C. BUTLER, Sancti Benedicti regula monachorum: 
editio critico-practica, Freiburg-i-B., 1911. Documents for the his- 
tory of early Benedictine monks have been edited by B. ALBERS, 
Consuetudines monasticae, vols., I-V, Monte Cassino, 1900-1912. 
For lives of Benedictine saints we have the old collection, Ada 
sanctorum ordinis sancti Benedicti in saeculorum classes distributa 
[to 1100 A.D], edited by J. MABILLON, 9 vols., Paris, 1668-1702. 

Bibliographies. See the bibliography for ch. XVHI, on mon- 
asticism, in the Cambridge medieval history, I, 683-687, and the 
bibliographies there referred to. Also consult the general biblio- 
graphies of church history, nos. 49-55 above. 



V. THE KISE OF THE PAPACY IN THE SIXTH CENTUEY 
A. OUTLINE 

1. Eetrospect: the rise of Eome and the papacy to headship in 
western Christendom. The Petrine theory. 

2. The position of the bishops of Eome in the time of Theo- 
doric and the Ostrogothic wars. Eelations with other prelates, with 
Arian and heathen barbarians, and with Justinian and Theodora in 
Constantinople. 

3. Emergence of the papacy from the chaos in Italy produced 
by the fall of the Ostrogoths, 555, and the invasion of the Lom- 
bards, 568. 

4. Pope Gregory I, the Great (590-604). The real founder of 
the papacy. Servus servorum dci. 

5. Early career of Gregory. Born about 540 in Eome. Desola- 
tion of the city in his youth. Eeceived a good education. Prefect 
of the city in 573. 

6. Gregory as a monk. Established six monasteries in Sicily 
and turned his father's house in Eome into the monastery of St. 
Andrew. Interest in missionary work in the island of Britain. 



122 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

7. His active church work. He became one of the seven deacons 
of Rome ca. 578. In 579 Pope Pelagius II sent him to Constanti- 
nople as apocrisiarim, where he stayed about six years. Met 
Leander of Seville there. Gregory did not learn Greek. About 
585 he returned to his monastery in Rome and was abbot there 
until 590. 

8. Election of Gregory to the papacy. Pope Pelagius died of 
a plague which swept Rome in 590. With remarkable unanimity 
the clergy and people of Rome chose Gregory as their new pope. 
The septiform litany to stay the plague. The legend of the Arch- 
angel Michael on the Mausoleum of Hadrian. Maurice, the east- 
ern emperor, sanctioned the election, and Gregory, although reluc- 
tant, was consecrated September 3, 590. ' ' Monasticism ascended 
the papal throne in the person of Gregory the Great. ' ' Milman. 

9. The politics of Gregory the Great. He was lord of the city 
of Rome. Transformation of imperial Rome into the capital of 
western Christendom (see outline III, part III). He was likewise the 
lord of Italy and took the neglected place of the eastern emperor 
in protecting Rome and Italy against the ' ' unspeakable ' ' Lom- 
bards. His careful administration of papal lands. More and 
more he became arbiter of all western Christendom. 

10. Relations with Constantinople. His disputes with the 
emperor on account of the Lombards. His quarrel with the patri- 
arch, John the Faster, over the phrase, sacerdos universalis. 
Gregory supported the emperor Phocas, the murderer of his pre- 
decessor Maurice, in 602. 

11. Gregory 's attempts to stamp out Arianism, especially among 
the Visigoths and the Lombards. Conversion of the Visigothic 
king Reccared to orthodox Christianity, 587 (see next outline). 

12. Missionary work under Gregory (see next outline). 

13. Enhancement of the Christian cult by Gregory. Gregorian 
music. 

14. His interesting Letters and influential books: Pastoral care { 
Dialogues, and Moralia. 

15. Gregory's real greatness contrasted with his inability to 
foresee the glorious future of the remarkable papal monarchy 
which he had founded. 

16. Popes, 440-604. 

Leo I, 440-461 Anastasius II, 496-498 

Hilary, 461-467 Symmachus, 498-514 

Simplicius, 467-483 Hormisdas, 514-523 

Felix III, 483-492 John I, 523-526 

Gelasius, 492-496 Felix IV, 526-530 



RISEX)P PAPACY 123 

Boniface II, 530-532 Pelagius I, 555-560 

John II, 532-535 John III, 560-573 

Agapetus I, 535-536 Benedict I, 574-578 

Silverius, 536-537 Pelagius II, 578-590 

Vigilius, 537-555 Gregory I, 590-604 

B. SPECIAL BECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

Sketch of the rise of the church and the papacy. No attempt 
is made in this Guide to include the vast literature on the history 
of the early church and the rise of the papacy to about 500. 
ADAMS, Civilization during the middle ages, 39-64, 107-136 will 
serve as a brief review. 

The papacy in the sixth century up to 590. For the papacy 
in the time of Theodoric see the literature under outline II above. 
The conditions after 555 are described briefly in DUDDEN, Gregory 
the Great, I, 58-68, 80-98, 158-186. 

Short general accounts of the pontificate of Gregory. LAVISSE 
and RAMBAUD, Histoire generale, I, 237-264 ; or Cambridge medieval 
history, II, 235-262. For summaries and tabulations of most of 
the -subjects mentioned in the outline read FLICK, The rise of the 
medieval church, chs. v, ix, X; or BARRY, Papal monarchy, ch. in. 
See also CARTER, The religious life of ancient Borne, ch. vin, and 
O. BARDENHEWER, Patrologie, Freiburg, 1894, 3rd edition, 1910, 
translated by T. J. SHAHAN, St. Louis, 1908, 123. A spirited 
article on the importance of this pontificate is E. LAVISSE, "L'6ntree 
en scene de la papaute, " in Revue des deux mondes, December 15, 
1886, 3rd period, LXXVIII, 842. 

Longer accounts. MANN, Lives of the popes, I, part I, 1-250; 
MILMAN, History of Latin Christianity, II, ch. vn; HODOKIN, Italy 
and her invaders, V, chs. vn-x; MONTALEMBERT, Monks of the west, 
book V; GREGOROVIUS, Home in the middle ages, II, 16-103. 

Biographies of Gregory the Great. The standard biography 
of Gregory is the well-written book by F. H. DUDDEN, Gregory 
the Great: his place in history and in thought, 2 vols., London, 1905. 
J. BARMBY, Gregory the Great, London, 1892 (The fathers for 
English readers); and H. H. HOWORTH, St. Gregory the Great, Lon- 
don, 1912, are shorter biographies which can be recommendi'd. 

Original sources. GREGORY'S Pastoral rule and select Letters 
are translated in the Select library of Niccne and post-Niccne fathers, 
2nd series, XII :in<l XIII. His Dialogues can now be read in 
English in the attractive edition by E. G. GARDNER, The DMlogues 
of St. Gregory, London, 1911. The biographies of the popes in the 
pontificalis to the pontificate of Gregory, are now translated 



124 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PART " 

into English by L. E. LOOMIS, The book of the popes, see no. 949, 
note, above. See also POOLE, Papal chancery, 166-170. Short 
extracts from Gregory's works are translated in ROBINSON, Bead- 
ings, I, 73-82. See also AYER, Source book, 590-602. 
Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 46-47, 94-95. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. For general works on the church see nos. 439- 
454 above in particular and nos. 394498 in general. Many books 
on Italy deal with the papacy in some detail, see nos. 599-621 
above, especially 611. See also the encyclopaedias for the history 
of the church and religion, nos. 104-114 above, e.g., the article 
"Gregory the Great," by G. E. HUDLESTON, in 104, and the 
periodicals for church history, nos. 176-180 above. 

Biographies of Gregory the Great. Probably the oldest life 
of Gregory was written by an anonymous monk of Whitby, about 
713, and edited by F. A. GASQUET, A life of Pope St. Gregory, the 
Great, 1904. G. CAPPELLO, Gregorio I e il suo pontificato, Saluzzo, 
1905. J. CARDUCCI, Storia di San Gregorio Magno e del suo tempo, 
Rome, 1909. E. CLAUSIER, St. Gregoire le Grand: pape et docteur 
de I'eglise, Paris, 1886-1891. H. GRISAR, San Gregorio Magno, 
Rome, 1904. T. TARDUCCI, Storia di Gregorio Magno e del suo tempo, 
Rome, 1909. W. WISBAUM, Die wichtichsten Bichtungen und Ziele 
der Thdtigkeit des Papstes Gregors des Grossen, Cologne, 1884. C. 
WOLFSGRUBER, Gregor der Grosse, Saulgau, 1890, 2nd edition, Ratis- 
bon, 1897. F. and P. BOHRINGER, Die Voter des Papsttums: Leo I 
und Gregor I, Stuttgart, 1879. T. BONSMANN, Gregor der Grosse: 
ein Lebensbild, Paderborn, 1890. 

Gregory before his elevation to the papacy. W. STTTHLFATH, 
Gregor I, der Grosse: sein Leben bis zu seiner Wahl 2um Papste 
nebst einer Untersuchung der dltesten Viten, Heidelberg, 1914. C. 
WOLFSGRUBER, Die vorpdpstliche Lebensperiode Gregors des Grossen 
nach seinen Brief en dargestellt, Vienna, 1886. 

Politics of Pope Gregory. J. DOIZE, Deux etudes sur I'adminis- 
tration temporelle du pape Gregoire le Grand, Paris, 1904. F. NOBILI- 
VITELLESCHI (PoMPONio LETo), Delia storia civile e politico del 
papato dall' imperatore Teodosio a Carlomagno, Bologna, 1902. 
F. W. KELLETT, Pope Gregory the Great and his relations with Gaul, 
Cambridge, 1888 (Prince Consort dissertation). L. PINGATJD, La 
politique de Saint Gregoire le Grand, Paris, 1872. T. WOLLSCHACK, 
Die Verholtnisse Italiens, insbesondere des Langobardenreichs, nach 
dem Briefwechsel Gregors I, Horn, 1888. E. BAXMANN, Die Politik 
der Papste von Gregor I bis auf Gregor VII, 2 vols., Elberfeld, 



VI EXPANSION OF CHRISTENDOM 125 

1868-69. Gregory's relations with the eastern empire are described 
by J. B. BURY, The later Roman Empire, II, 145-158. D. E. BENE- 
DETTI, S. Gregorio Magno e la schiavitu, Eome, 1904. 

Gregorian music. The Oxford history of music, edited by W. H. . 
HADOW, 6 vols., Oxford, 1901ff., vol. I. G. MORIN, Les veritables 
origines du chant gregorien, Rome and Tournai, 1904 (a propos du 
livre de F. A. GEVAERT, Les origines du chant liturgique de I'eglise 
latine, Ghent, 1890). A. GATARD, La musique Gregorienne: etude 
descriptive et historique, illustree de dome planches, Paris, [1913], 
(Les musiciens celebres). C. VIVELL, Der Gregorianische Gesang, 
Graz, 1904. 

Original sources. For general collections of source material 
on the papacy see nos. 956-961 above; for the church in general, 
nos. 953-964 above. See also H. DELEHAYE, "S. Gregoire le Grand 
dans 1 'hagiographie grecque" in analecta Bollandiana, XXIII 
(1904), 440-454. 

The most convenient collection of the works of Gregory is 
in MIGNE, no. 953 above, Series latino, vols. LXXV-LXXIX, which 
includes in vol. LXXV the Vita Gregorii of JOHN THE DEACON and 
PAUL THE DEACON. His letters are edited in a more critical edition 
by P. EWALD and L. M. HARTMANN, Gregorii I papae registrum epis- 
tolarum, 2 vols., Berlin, 1891-1899, in the Monumenta Germaniae 
historica, Epistolae, I-II. 

Bibliographies. In addition to the general bibliographies of 
the church, nos. 49-55 above, it is sufficient to refer to the classified 
list of books in the Cambridge medieval history, II, 743-746. 



VI. EXPANSION OF OETHODOX LATIN CHRISTENDOM 

FROM ABOUT 590 TO ABOUT 755 

A. OUTLINE 

1. The importance of the spread of Mohammedanism as a 
factor determining the direction of expansion. 

2. Importance of the missionary work of the Christian church. 
The two problems: (1) conversion of the Arians to orthodoxy, 
(2) conversion of the heathen; the two main factors: (1) the 
monks, (2) the papacy; the two main centers from which the 
work was carried on: (1) British Isles, especially Ireland, (2) 
Rome. 

3. Conversion of western Arians to the orthodox faith. Bur- 
gundians had been converted about 517. Before 570, the Sueves 
in Spain had been converted by St. Martin of Braga. Strength 



126 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

of Arianism among the Visigoths in Spain. Conversion of Leovi- 
gild's rebel son Hermenegild by his Frankish wife Ingundis in 
Seville about 580. Conversion of king Reccared in 587 at the 
beginning of his reign. Orthodox Latin culture represented by 
Leander, archbishop of Seville, who died in 601, and by Isidore 
of Seville, bishop of Seville, who died in 636. The Arian Lom- 
bards in Italy were converted before the end of the seventh 
century. 

4. Conversion of the Franks from heathendom to orthodox 
Christianity. Baptism of Clovis and 3000 warriors in 496 (see 
the next outline). 

5. Christianity in Ireland. Pre-Patrician Christianity in Ire- 
land. St. Patrick, the "Apostle of the Irish," labored in Ireland 
432-461. St. Bridget, the "Mary of Ireland," died 525. Ireland 
became the "Isle of Saints." 

6. Irish missionaries in Scotland. [Legend of St. Ninian (ca. 
353-ca. 432), a Briton.] St. Columba occupied the island of 
lona in 563. Soon after he went among the northern Picts. Died 
597. St. Kentigern (died 612) in Strathclyde. The Culdees. 

7. Irish missionaries on the continent. Columban, a monk 
of Bangor, with twelve companions, went to France about 585. 
Near the Vosges mountains he founded the monasteries of Luxeuil 
("the monastic capital of France" Montalembert), Anegray, 
and Fontaines. Banished from the Burgundian kingdom by Brun- 
hild. Went to Switzerland and then to Italy where he was granted 
land by the Lombard king Agilulf for the foundation of a 
monastery at Bobbio, and where he died in 615. The rule of 
Columban contrasted with that of Benedict. St. Gall (died 645) 
the most famous disciple of Columban, founded the monastery of 
St. Gall in Switzerland. St. Wandrille and Eustasius, abbot of 
Luxeuil, were other disciples. Other Irish monks in Germany 
were Fridolin, Trudbert in the Black Forest, and Kylian, the 
"Apostle of Franconia. " 

8. Conversion of the English by monks from Eome. In 596 
Pope Gregory sent Augustine with forty monks to England where 
they landed in 597. Conversion of King Ethelbert of Kent who 
had married Bertha, a Christian princess from Paris. St. Augus- 
tine was consecrated first archbishop of Canterbury. Augustine's 
methods of spreading the faith among the heathen. 

-^9. Celtic and Roman Christianity in England. Conflict between 
St. Augustine (died 604) and the British bishops. Aidan (died 
651), at the call of king Oswald of Northumbria, came from lona 
in 635 and established himself on Lindisfarne (called "Holy Isle" 



VI EXPANSION OP CHRISTENDOM 127 

since the eleventh century). St. Cuthbert. Differences between the 
tWo churches (date of Easter, tonsure, celibacy, Vulgate, etc.); 
not settled until the Council of Whitby in Northumbria in 664. 
Theodore of Tarsus in Cilicia, archbishop of Canterbury in 668; 
he died in 690. Benedict Biscop founded a monastery at Wear- 
mouth in 674, dedicated to St. Peter, and another at Jarrow in 
680, dedicated to St. Paul. Although seven miles apart, these two 
monasteries were practically one, called the monastery of the 
Apostles Peter and Paul. Bede (or Baeda), the Venerable, 673- 
735, entered Jarrow when seven years of age and spent his whole 
life there. 

10. Early English missionaries on the continent. Wilfrith I 
(St. Wilfrid), bishop of York from 665-709 among the heathen 
Frisians. In 690 he was followed by Willibrord (658-ca. 739), a 
Northumbrian, who was made archbishop of the Frisians (with 
his seat at Utrecht) at the request of Pepin. The two Hewalds, 
or Ewalds (Black and White Hewald) among the Saxons. 

11. St. Boniface (ca. 680-755), the "Apostle of Germany," 
was the most important English missionary. His name was Win- 
frith and he was born of noble parents near Crediton about 680. 
Entered a monastery at Exeter when he was seven years old. 
About 716 he sailed to Frisia. In 719 pope Gregory II formally 
made him missionary to German tribes. Later worked among the 
Thuringians and Hessians. In 723 he went to Rome and was 
consecrated "regionary" bishop by pope Gregory II. Destruc- 
tion of the sacred oak of Thor at Geismar. In 732 pope Gregory 
III made him missionary archbishop and papal legate (in 743 he 
fixed his see in Mainz). The alliance of Boniface with the see in 
Rome was of far-reaching importance. Boniface was the friend 
of Charles Martel and of Pepin, whom he crowned king of the 
Franks at Soissons in 751. . Monastery of Fulda founded 744, its 
first abbot being Sturm. Boniface resigned his see at Mainz to 
Lul and met a martyr's death among the wild Frisians in 755. 
Buried in Fulda. The work of Boniface in Frisia was continued 
by St. Willehad who went there in 770. 

12. Means and methods of spreading the Christian faith. 

13. Popes, 604-816. 

Sabinianus, 604-606 John IV, 640-642 

Boniface III, 607 Theodorua I, 642-649 

Boniface IV, 608-615 Martin I, 649-654 

Deusdedit, 615-618 Eugenius I, 654-657 

Boniface V, 619-625 Vitalianus, 657-672 

Honorius I, 625-638 Adeodatus, 672-676 

Severinus, 638-640 Donus I, 676-678 



128 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Agatho, 678-681 Constantine, 708-715 

Leo II, 682-683 Gregory II, 715-731 

Benedict II, 684-685 Gregory III, 731-741 

John V, 685-686 Zachary, 741-752 

Conon, 686-687 Stephen II, 752-757 

Sergius I, 687-701 Paul 1, 757-767 

John VI, 701-705 Stephen III, 768-772 

JohnVII, 705-707 Hadrian I, 772-795 

Sisinnius, 708 Leo III, 795-816 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BEADING 
General accounts. Cambridge medieval history, II, ch. xvi. 
LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire generate, I, 255-264, 285-296 (por- 
tions of this are translated in MUNRO and SELLERY, Medieval civiliza- 
tion, 114-128, see also 60-86, 129-136). TAYLOR, The mediaeval 
mind, I, 169-204. MILMAN, History of Latin Christianity, book IV, 
chs. iii-v. MONTALEMBERT, Monks of the west, especially book VII. 
FLICK, Sise of the mediaeval church, ch. xn. 

Pope Gregory's missionary labors. DUDDEN, Gregory the Great, 
II, 99-159, is in large part an account of the English mission, but 
it also contains other information not readily found elsewhere. 

St. Patrick and the Irish element. The standard biographies 
are J. B. BURY, The life of St. Patrick, London, 1905; and J. HEALY, 
The life and writings of St. Patrick, Dublin, 1905. Now see also 

F. R. M. HITCHCOCK, St. Patrick and his Gallic friends, London, 
1916; and L'ABB^ RIGUET, Saint Patrice (vers 389-461), Paris, 1911 
(Les Saints). If you heed the hint that H. ZIMMER, "tJber die 
Bedeutung des irischen Elements fur die mittelalterliche Kultur, " 
in Preussische Jahrbiicher, LIX (1887), 26ff., translated by J. L. 
EDMONDS, The Irish element in mediaeval culture, New York, 1891, 
reprint, London, 1913, tends to paint too bright a picture, the 
sketch is safe and agreeable reading. 

The Christian church in the British Isles. W. HUNT, The 
English church (597-1066), London, 1901, chs. i-xn passim. W. 
BRIGHT, Chapters on early English church history [to 709], Oxford, 
1878, 3rd edition, 1897. A. PLUMMER, The churches in Britain before 
A.D. 1000, vols. I and II, London, 1911-1912 (Library of historical 
theology, edited by W. C. PIERCY). 

Biographies of Boniface. The best biography in English is 

G. F. BROWNE, Boniface of Crediton, London, 1910; in French, G. 
KURTH, Saint Boniface, Paris, 1902, 4th edition, 1913 (Les saints). 

English monastic life. F. A. GASQUET, English monastic life, 
London, 1904, 3rd edition, 1905, draws an ideal but trustworthy 



VI EXPANSION OP CHRISTENDOM 129 

picture of life in a monastery, which applies to all periods of the 
middle ages; see especially ch. vi. 

Original sources. The Life of St. Columban by the monk JONAS 
is translated in the Translations and reprints of the University of 
Pennsylvania, II, no. 7. The most important primary source is 
BEDE, Historia ecclesiasticae gentis Anglorum, edited by C. PLUMMER, 
2 vols., Oxford, 1896, and translated, with notes, by A. M. SELLAB, 
Bede's ecclesiastical history of England, London, 1912 (also trans- 
lated in Everyman's library). For the conversion of the English, 
the salient portions of it are extracted in The mission of St. Augus- 
tine to England according to original documents, edited by A. J. 
MASON, Cambridge, 1897. See also Documents illustrative of English 
church history, edited by H. GEE and W. J. HARDY, London, 1896. 

The English letters of St. Boniface are edited by E. KYLIE, Lon- 
don, 1911 (King's Classics). There is a German translation of all 
his letters by M. TANGL, Die Briefe des hi. Bonifatius, in Die 
Geschichtschreiber der deutschen Vorzeit, XCII, Leipzig, 1912. The 
life of Saint Boniface by Willibald has just appeared in a transla- 
tion by G. W. EOBINSON, Harvard University Press, 1916 (Harvard 
translations). 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 46-47, contains a very important map 
on the "Development of Christianity to 1300"; see also 94-95, 
97 and 101 (ground plan of St. Gall in Switzerland). 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. General histories of the church are listed above, 
nos. 394-498, of which no. 461 is especially valuable; periodicals on 
church history, nos. 176180 above; and encyclopaedias for the 
history of the church and religion, nos. 104-114 above. 

Visigothic church. M. E. MAGNIN, L'&glise wisigothique au 
Vile sieclc, vol. I, Paris, 1912. 

Celtic Christianity. L. GOUGAUD, Les chrf-tientes celtiques, Paris, 
1911. H. WILLIAMS, Christianity in early Britain, Oxford, 1912. H. 
XIMMER, The Celtic church in Britain and Ireland, London, 1912, 
translated by Miss A. MEYER from the Realencyklopadie fiir pro- 
testantische Thcologie, X (1901), 204-43. MRS. J. R. GREEN, The old 
Irish world, Dublin, 1912. G. F. BROWNE, The Christian ChurcJi in 
these islands before Augustine, 2nd edition, London, 1895. G. T. 
STOKES, Ireland and the Celtic church, 2nd edition, London, 1888. 

St. Columba. E. A. COOKE, The life and work of St. Columba, 
London, 1888. V. BRANPORD, St. Columba: a study of social inherit- 
ance and H/iii-il ii<il <li rilo])i>ifnt, ?,<linburgh, 1913. 



130 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Irish missionaries on the continent. MARGARET STOKES, Three 
months in the forests of France: a pilgrimage in search of vestiges 
of the Irish saints in France, London, 1895; see also her Six montlis 
in the Apennines, London, 1892, an account of her. visit to the region 
where St. Columban died. W. LEVISON, ' ' Die Iren und die f rank- 
ische Kirche," in Historische Zeitschrift, CIX (1912), 1-22. L. 
GOUGAUD, "L'oeuvre des Scotti dans 1 'Europe continentale (fin 
VI e -fin XP siecles)," in Eevue d'histoire ecclesiastique, IX (1908), 
21-46; 255-277. J. VON PFLUGK-HARTTUNG, "The old Irish on the 
continent," in Eoyal historical society, new series, V (1891), 75- 
102 (translated from the German). T. S. HOLMES, The origin and 
development of the Christian church in Gaul during the first six 
centuries of the Christian era, London, 1911, ch. xvn. HODGKIN, Italy 
and her invaders, VI, book VII, ch. in (Saint Columbanus) J. H. A. 
EBRARD, Die iroschottische Missionskirche des 6, 7 und 8 Jahrhun- 
derts, Giitersloh, 1873; and his Bonifatius, der Zerstorer des 
Columbanischen Kirchenthums auf dem Festlande: ein Nachtrag 
zu dem Werlce "Die iroschottische Missionskirche," Giitersloh, 1882. 

E. MARTIN, /Saint Columban, Paris, 1905. L. DEDIEU, Colomban, 
legislateur de la vie monastique, Cahors, 1901 (dissertation). O. 
SEEBASS, Vber Columba von Luxeuils Klosterregel, Dresden, 1883 (dis- 
sertation) . 

St. Augustine and the conversion of the English. H. H. 
HOWORTH, Saint Augustine of Canterbury, London, 1913 (Birth of 
the English church, vol. II). E. L. CUTTS, St. Augustine of Canter- 
bury, London, 1895. G. F. BROWNE, Augustine and his companions. 
London, 1895, 2nd edition, 1897, continued by his, The conversion 
of the Heptarchy, London, 1906. F. E. BASSENGE, Die Sendung 
Augustins zur Bekehrung der Angelsachen, Leipzig, 1890. H. H. 
HOWORTH, The golden days of the early English church, 3 vols., 
London, 1916. J. T. MILLS, The great days of Northumbria, New 
York, 1911. ELIZABETH W. GRIERSON, The story of the Northumbrian 
saints: S. Oswald, S. Aidan, S. Cuthbert, London, 1913. F. CABROL, 
L'Angleterre chretienne avant les Normands, Paris, 1908, 2nd edi- 
tion, 1909 (bibliography, pp. ix-xxxiii). W. H. HUTTON, The 
influence of Christianity upon national character illustrated by the 
lives and legends of the English saints, London, 1903 (Bampton 
lectures). 

Boniface and the conversion of Germany. G. SCHNURER, Boni- 
fatius: die Bekehrung der Deutschen zum Christentum, Mainz, 1909. 

F. ZEHETBAUER, Das Kirchenrecht bei Bonifatius dem Apostel der 
Deutschen, Wien, 1910. Festgabe zum Bonifatius-Jubildum, Fulda, 
1905, is a collection of studies. B. KUHLMANN, Der heilige Boni- 



VI EXPANSION OP CHRISTENDOM 131 

fatius, Apostel der Deutschen, Paderborn, 1895. O. FISCHER, Boni- 
fatius, der Apostel der Deutschen, Leipzig, 1881. F. J. VON Buss, 
Winifrid-Bonifadus, Graz, 1880. A. WERNER, Bonifacius der 
Apostel der Deutschen und die romanisirung von Mitteleuropa, Leip- 
zig, 1875. P. PFAHLER, S. Bonifacius und seine Zeit, Ratisbon, 
1880. J. M. WILLIAMSON, Life and times of St. Boniface, London, 
1904, is quite worthless. On the friends of Boniface see H. HAHN, 
Bonifaz und Lul: ihre angelsdchsischen Korrespondenten, Leipzig, 
1883. E. LAVISSE, "La conquete de la Germanic par l'4glise 
romaine, ' ' Bevue des deux mondes, April 15, 1887, 3 e periode, LXXX, 
878. The following two books are devoted to the early history of 
the German church, F. W. RETTBERG, Kirchengeschichte Deutsch- 
lands, vols. I and II, Gottingen, 1846-48; and J. FBIEDRICH, Kirch- 
engeschichte Deutschlands, vols. I-II, Bamberg, 1867-1869. 

Methods of early missionaries. H. LAU, Die angelsdchsische 
Missionsweise im Zeitalter des Bonifaz, Kiel, 1909 (dissertation). 
W. KONEN, Die Heidenpredigt in der Germanenbekehrung, Diissel- 
dorf, 1910 (dissertation). E. KYLIE, "The conditions of the Ger- 
man provinces as illustrating the methods of Boniface, ' ' in Journ-tl 
of theological studies, London, VII (1905-06), 29ff. See also VACAN- 
DARD, "L'idolatrie en Gaule, " etc., p. 359 below. 

Original sources. The main sources are found in such general 
collections as nos. 953, 963, and 978 above, but for classified lists 
of them see the bibliographies noted below. The life of Saint 
Columba by Adamnan is edited with a translation by W. Reeves, 
Edinburgh, 1874, new edition by J. T. Fowler, Oxford, 1894, and 
a translation has appeared also in the New universal library pub- 
lished by Button. The life of Ceolfrid, abbot of the monastery of 
Wearmouth and Jarrow by an unknown author of the eighth century, 
is edited and translated by D. S. BOUTFLOWER, London, 1912. A 
little German source book on the subject of this outline is edited 
by T. HANLEIN, Die Bekehrung der Germanen zum Christentum, I, 
Die Bekehrung der Franken und Angelsachsen, Leipzig, 1914 (Voig- 
landers Quellenbiicher, 78). 

Bibliographies. For additional books on this subject, both 
original sources and secondary works, it is sufficient to consult 
GROSS, no. 36 above, especially nos. 1423-1471, 1591-1663; DAHL- 
MANN-WAITZ, no. 28 above, nos. 4151-4219; and the Cambridge 
medieval history, II, 793-797. 



132 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 



VII. THE RISE OF THE FRANKS TO THE TIME OF 
CHARLEMAGNE 

A. OUTLINE 

1. The Franks were destined to succeed in founding a strong, 
well-nigh universal, state in western Europe. The Teutonic 
versus the Romanic elements in European civilization. 

2. The origin of the Franks and their coming into Roman Gaul. 
The Pranci of Peutinger's chart. Salian and Ripuarian Franks. 
Salian Franks were in Toxandria about 400. Tournai became the 
capital. Clodion, the first recorded Frankish king. Merovech 
(^ sea-born; the word "Merovingians" is derived from his name). 
His son Childeric died 481. The Salian Franks aided Ae'tius 
against the Huns at the so-called battle of Chalons in 451. Ripu- 
arian Franks in the region of Aix-la-Chapelle, Cologne and Bonn. 
The Lex Salica, written down about 510, reflects the primitive 
civilization of the Franks. 

3. Various peoples on the soil which is now France about 
500 A.D., Gallo-Romans, Visigoths, Burgundians, Alemans, Salian 
and Ripuarian Franks, Thuringians, etc. 

4. Clovis, king of the Salian Franks from 481 to 511. Defeated 
Syagrius, the Roman official, at his capital Soissons in 486. In 
491 he overcame the Thuringians. In 496 he attacked the Ale- 
mans in a battle near Strasburg. Clovis married Clotilda, 
daughter of Chilperic, the king of the Burgundians. Theodoric, 
king of the Ostrogoths, married Albofleda, the sister of Clovis. 
Conversion of Clovis to orthodox Christianity, baptized in Rheims 
on Christmas day, 496. War with the Burgundians under their 
king Gundobad, 500ff. Renewed wars with the Alemans (505-507), 
who were rescued by Theodoric the Ostrogoth. Visigoths defeated 
at Vougle, near Poitiers, in 507; Alaric II, their king, was slain. 
Burning of Toulouse. Theodoric again intervened, took Provence 
for himself and gave Septimania to the Visigoths, thus shutting 
the Franks off from the Mediterranean. Clovis made Paris his 
capital where he died in 511 and was buried in the church which 
afterward became Sainte-Genevieve. 

5. The sons of Clovis. 

(1) Theodoric (Capital, Rheims) died 534. His son was 

Theudibert, the best king of the period, who died 548, 
leaving Theodebald, who died of debauchery in 555. 

(2) Clodimir (Capital, Orleans) died 524. His children 

were murdered by (3) and (4). 



vn RISE OF THE FRANKS 133 

(3) Childebert (Capital, Paris) died 558. 

(4) Chlotar I (Capital, Soissons). Sole ruler in 558. Burned 

his rebellious son Chramnus, together with his wife 
and children, in a hut, and died of remorse in 561. 

6. Frankland in the time of the sons of Clovis. Burgundy 
taken in 534, Provence in 536. Thuringians were crushed. In 
542 Childebert marched against Saragossa in Spain (foundation 
of the monastery of St. Vincent, later St. Germain-des-Pres, to 
house the tunic of St. Vincent which he brought from Spain). 
But Arinoriea (= Brittany) and the Basques remained independent, 
and Septimania remained in the hands of the Visigoths, from 
whom it passed to the Arabs and was not won by the Franks until 
the time of king Pepin. 

7. Grandsons of Clovis. His son Chlotar I (died 561) left four 
sons: 

(1) Charibert (Capital, Paris) died 567. 
(2) Sigebert (Capital, Metz), was the husband of Brunhild 
(Brunehaut), the daughter of Athanagild, king of the 
Visigoths. Sigebert assasinated 575, by henchmen of 
Fredegund. 

(3) Chilperic (Capital, Soissons), married Galswintha, 

sister of Brunhild. When Galswintha was strangled, 
he married Fredegund, a serving-woman. Chilperic 
murdered in 584. His son was Chlotar II, sole king, 
613-629, and his son Dagobert, sole king, 629-639. 

(4) Guntram (Capital, Orleans), tried to hold balance 

of power between (2) and (3), died 593. 

8. Frankland in the time of the grandsons of Clovis. Chilperic 
(died 584) was a good type of the Merovingian despot. Fierce 
rivalry between Brunhild (in Austrasia) and Fredegund (in Neu- 
stria). Brunhild became regent for her son Childebert (575-596), 
and later for her grandsons, Theodoric (died 613) and Theodebert. 
Fredegund died 597. Brutal execution of Brunhild at Lake Neu- 
chatel in 613. Gregory, bishop of Tours, (ca, 538-594) the his- 
torian of this period. His Historiae Francorum libri X. 

9. Eeigns of Chlotar II (613-629) and Dagobert (629-639), 
sole rulers of Frankland, but even they were obliged to recognize 
the essential division of Gaul into Neustria, Austrasia and Bur- 
gundy. 

10. Bois faineants (Do-nothing kings), 639-751. In this period 
the Merovingian kings were a race of children, mere puppets in 
the' hands of the mayors of the palace in the three kingdoms. 



134 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

11. The mayors of the palace in Austrasia were most important. 
Arnulf , bishop of Metz, and Pepin, ' ' of Landen, ' ' were founders 
of the office in Austrasia. When Pepin died 640, he was soon suc- 
ceeded by his son Grimoald (643-656) who tried to oust the Mero- 
vingian puppet king and to put his own son Childebert on the 
throne but did not succeed. About 680 Pepin of Heristal, grandson 
of Arnulf and Pepin of Landen, became mayor of the palace in 
Austrasia. In 687 he defeated Berthar, the mayor of Neustria, 
at Testry, near St. Quentin. This event marked the real beginning 
of the Carolingian line. 

12. Charles Martel, illegitimate son of Pepin, mayor of the 
palace, 714-741. Defeated the Arabs in the battle of Tours, in 
732. In 739 Pope Gregory III appealed to Charles against Liut- 
prand, king of the Lombards, but Charles refused to march against 
Liutprand who had been his ally against the Arabs. 

13. Pepin, first king of the Franks. Charles, who died in 741, 
divided the kingdom between his two sons Carloman and Pepin. 
In 747 Carloman entered a monastery on Mount Soracte in Italy. 
In 751 Pope Zachary sanctioned the crowning of Pepin as king 
of the Franks. In all probability Boniface consecrated him. The 
last Merovingian puppet, Childeric III, was sent to a monastery. 
In 752 Pepin got control of Septimania (except Narbonne which 
fell in 758). In 753 he invaded Saxony and exacted tribute. 

14. The alliance of the Franks with the papacy. Lombards 
were threatening the pope in Rome. The Mohammedan menace in 
the south. The Eastern emperor failed to protect Italy and 
the papacy. In 753 pope Stephen II visited Pepin in Frankland. 
The "Donation of Constantine. " The "Donation of Pepin." 
The ' ' Eoman Question. ' ' In 754 or 755 and again in 756 Pepin 
marched armies against Aistulf, the Lombard. In 756 Desiderius 
became king of the Lombards and continued to threaten the pope 
who appealed to Pepin in vain. 

15. Last deeds and death of Pepin. Subdued Aquitaine in 768 
when Waifar died. Aquitainians were given right to live under 
their own laws. Pepin himself died in Paris in 768 and was buried 
in St. Denis. 

16. Frankish institutions in the time of the Merovingians. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

Brief general accounts. EMEETON, Introduction to the middle 
ages, chs. vn, x, xn. BEMONT and MONOD, Medieval Europe, chs. 
v, vi, XH. ADAMS, The growth of the French nation, chs. n-iv. It is 
profitable to follow these short surveys up by either BBYCE, Holy 



RISE OP THE FRANKS 135 

Roman empire, ch. iv; or ADAMS, Civilization, 137-154; and especially 
MUNRO and SELLERY, Medieval civilization, 60-S6. 

Longer general accounts. The most satisfactory recent account 
in English is in the Cambridge medieval history, I, 292-303, II, 109- 
158, 575-594; but KITCHIN, History of France, I, 48-117, can still 
be recommended. The standard survey in French is in LAVISSE, 
Histoire de France, II, part I, 67-279; a similar but shorter account 
is in LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire generale, I, 114-158, 274-308. 

Detailed accounts in English. HODGKIN, Italy and her invaders, 
VII. SERGEANT, The Franks, chs. vi-xv. OMAN, The dark ages, chs. 

IV, VII, X, XV, XVII, XIX. 

Original sources. Fortunately the essential portions of the 
famous book of GREGORY OF TOURS, Historiae Francorum libri X 
have now been translated into English by E. BREHAUT, History of 
the Franks by Gregory, bishop of Tours, New York, 1916, in Records 
of Civilization, no. 949 above. Short extracts are translated in Ooo, 
Source book, 47-59; ROBINSON, Readings, I, 51-55; and THATCHER 
and McNEAL, Source book, 26-37. The "Donation of Constantino" 
is translated in HENDERSON, Select documents, 319-329; and the 
Salic law, ibid., 176-189. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 53, and especially LONGNON, Atlas his- 
torique de la France, plates II-IV. Peutinger's chart is edited by 
K. MILLER, Tabula Peutingcriana : die Weltkarte des Castorius, 
genannt die Peutingerischc Tafel, Ravensburg, 1888. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. General histories of France, Belgium, and the 
Netherlands, nos. 508-559 above, and of Germany, nos. 660-698 
above, are almost equally valuable for this early history of the 
soil of modern France. Many books listed under outline II above 
are valuable for this subject. 

General accounts. M. PROU, La Gaule merovingicnne, Paris, 
1897. G. RICHTER, Annalen dcs frdnkischen Seiches im Zcitalter dcr 
Merovinger, Halle, 1873. O. GUTSCHE and W. SCHW/TZE, Deutsche 
Geschichte von der Urzeit bis zu den Karolingern, 2 vola., Stuttgart, 
1894-96. G. . KAUPMANN, Deutsche Geschichte but auf Karl den 
Grossen, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1880-1881. .1. SCHMAUS, Geschichte und 
Hi rkunft dcr alien Franken, Bamberg, 1912. 

Clovia. The best biography is G. KUBTH. Clovix, Tours, 1896, 
2nd edition, 2 vols., Paris, 1901. H. VON SCHUBERT, Stoat und 
Kin-he in den arianischen Konian n-lt, n nn<l im Reiche Chlodwigs, 
Munich and Berlin, 1912 (Historische Bibliotek, 26). A. LECOY DE 



136 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

LA MARCHE, La fondation de la France du 4 e au 6 e siecle, Lille, 1893. 
C. PFISTER, "Le bapteme de Clovis, " in Revue hebdomadaire, 
October 21, 1916. 

Dagobert. J. H. ALBERS, Konig Dagobert in Gesohichte, Legcnde 
und Sage, Worms, 1884. 

Mayors of the Palace. G. EITEN, Das UnterTconigtum im.Reiche 
der Merovinger und Karolinger, Heidelberg, 1907 (in Heidelberger 
Abhandlungen zur mittleren und neueren Geschichte, 18). E. HERR- 
MANN, Das Hausmeieramt, ein echt germanisches Ami, Breslau, 1880. 
H. VON SYBEL, Die Entstehung des deutschen Konigthums, 3rd edition, 
Frankfurt, 1884. H. E. BONNEL, De Anfdnge des karolingischen 
Hauses, Berlin, 1866. P. A. F. GERARD, Histoire des Francs d'Aus- 
trasie, 2 vols., Brussels, 1864. G. H. PERTZ, Geschichte der Mero- 
vingischen Hausmeier, Hanover, 1819. 

Charles Martel. J. VAN DEN GHEYN, Histoire de Charles Martel, 
Paris, 1910. T. BREYSIG, JahrbuoJier des frarikisclien Reichs, 714-41, 
Leipzig, 1869, part of 570 above. 

Pepin. H. HAHN, Jahrbiicher des frdnkischen Reichs, 741-52, 
Berlin, 1863, part of no. 570 above. L. OELSNER, Jahrbiiclier des 
frdnTcischen Reichs unter Konig Pippin, Leipzig, 1871, part of no. 570 
above. 

Church and state to the time of Charlemagne. A recent and 
very authoritative study on the relations between church and state 
in the time of Pepin is E. CASPAR, Pippin und die romische Kirche: 
Icritische Untersuchungen zum frdnTcish-pdpstlichen Bunde im 8 Jahr- 
hundert, Berlin, 1914. A. CRIVELLUCCI, Storia delle relazioni tra lo 
stato e la chiesa, vols. I-III (to Hadrian I, 772-795) and Appendix 
to vol. I, Bologna, 1886, Livorno, 1888, Pisa, 1909. F. NOBILI- 
VITELLESCHI (PoMPONio LEW), Delia storia civile e politica del 
papato, 3 vols., Bologna, 1900-1906, extends to the renaissance; vol. 
II on Charlemagne. L. ARMBRUST, Die Tefritorialpolitik der Pdpste, 
500-800, Gottingen, 1885. J. FEHR, Staat und Kirche im frdnkischen 
Reiche bis auf Karl den Grossen, Vienna, 1869. H. VON SCHUBERT, 
Staat und Kirohe von Constantin bis Karl den Grossen, eine Eede, 
Kiel, 1906. 

Donation of Constantine. The easiest introduction to the study 
of this famous forgery is C. B. COLEMAN, Constantine the Great and 
Christianity: three phases: the historical, the legendary, and the 
spurious, New York, 1914 (Columbia University Studies), 175-242,, 
also 99-172 for the legend of Constantine, 217-242 contain the 
texts which are essential, and 243-254 a comprehensive bibli- 
ography. See also the bibliography of the most important critical 
studies in Cambridge medieval history, II, 805. 



RISE OF THE FRANKS 137 

Constitutional history. By far the most important books are 
those by N. D. FUSTEL DE COULANGES, Histoire des institutions polit- 
iques de I'ancienne France, 6 vols., Paris, 1888-1891; re-edited, 
revised, and completed from the author's notes by C. JULLIAN: I, 
La Gaule romaine, 4th edition, 1914; II, L 'invasion germanique et la 
fin de I'empire, 3rd edition, 1911; III, La monarchic franque, 3rd edi- 
tion, 1905; VI, L'alleu et le domaine rural pendant I'epoque mero- 
vingienne, 1914; V, Les origines du systeme feodal: le benefice et le 
patronat pendant I'epoque merovingienne, 4th edition, 1914; VI, Les 
transformations de la royaute pendant I'epoque carolingienne, 3rd 
edition, 1914. See also his Eecherches sur quelqucs problemcs d'his- 
toire, Paris, 1885, 2nd edition, 1894, and Nouvelles recherches, pub- 
lished by C. JULLIAN, Paris, 1891. E. LESNE, La propriete ecclesias- 
tique en France aux epoques romaine et merovingienne, Paris, 1910. 
J. TARDIF, Etudes sur les institutions politiques et administratives de 
la France: epoque merovingienne, Paris, 1881. See also the general 
books on German, nos. 578-587 above, and French constitutional 
history, .nos. 528-536 above. 

Faith, morals, and learning of the Franks. See outline VI in 
part III below. 

Miscellaneous. A. THIERRY, Becits des temps mcrovingiens, 2 
vols., Paris, 1840, revised edition, 1887. J. HAVET, Questions mero- 
vingiennes, in his Oeuvres completes, vol. I, Paris, 1896. J. DEPOIN, 
"Questions merovingiennes et carolingiennes" in Eevue des Etudes 
historiques, (1904); also his ''Etudes merovingiennes," ibid., 
(1909). E. A. FREEMAN, Western Europe in the eighth century and 
onward: an aftermath, London, 1904. G. LAFONT, Les origines de 
la nationaite francaise: essais sur les Celtes, les Kymris, les Gaulois, 
les Francs, et les Ibcres, Tours, 1901. G. REVERDY, Les relations de 
Childebert II et de Byzance, Paris, 1913 (extract from Eevue his- 
torique, CXIV). K. PLATH, Die Konigspfalzcn der Merovingcr und 
Karolinger, Leipzig, 1892. G. ROLOFF, "Die Umwandlung dea 
friinkischen Heeres von Chlodwig bis Karl den Grossen," in Neve 
Jahrbiicher fiir das klassische Altertum IX, (1902). C. PFISTER, Le 
duche mcrovingien d' Alsace et la Ugende de sainte Odile, Paris, 1892. 

Original sources. Most of the sources for this period are well 
edited in the Monumenta Gcrmaniae historica, no. 978 above, and in 
BOUQUET, no. 967 above. The best edition of the Historiac Franc- 
orum libri X of GREGORY OF TOURS is in vols. II and XVI of the 
Collection de textes, no. 968 above, Paris, 1886-93, new edition by 
R. POUPARDIN, 1 vol., Paris, 1913. The chroniclers are described by 
G. MASSON, Early chroniclers of Europe: France, and by W. WATTEN- 
BACH, Deutschlands Gcschichtsqucllcn. The interesting Merovingian 



138 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

charters are edited and described by P. LAUER and C. SAMARAN, Les 
diplomcs originaux des Merovingiens, fac-similes phototy piques, avec 
notices et transcriptions with a preface by M. PROU, 2 fasc. Paris, 
1908; and Les diplomes merovingiens des Archives nationales, Paris, 
1915. 

Bibliographies. DAHLMANN-WAITZ, Quellenkunde, B, book II, 
passim; and Cambridge medieval history, I, 657, II, 728-732, 801- 
808, especially the very exhaustive and excellent portions on pp. 
801-808 drawn up by Professor G. L. BURR. See also the important 
bibliographies in the footnotes of LAVISSE, Histoire de France, II, 
part I. Besides, all the bibliographies for France and Germany, 
nos. 21-34 above, especially MOLINIER, no. 21, for Belgium, no. 45 
above, and for the church, nos. 49-55 above, are serviceable. 

VIII. CHARLEMAGNE 
A. OUTLINE 

1. The importance of the idea of universal empire in medieval 
thought. 

2. Charlemagne 's personality. Einhard 's Vita Caroli magni. 

3. Fairly abundant sources of information for the reign of 
Charlemagne. Famous annals. Capitularies. Monumenta Germaniae 
historica, no. 978 above. 

4. Charlemagne's accession. Pepin divided his kingdom between 
his two sons, Charles (the elder, born ca. 742) and Carloman. Bert- 
rada, their mother, tried to keep them at peace. She married 
Charles to a daughter of Desiderius in spite of the violent protests 
of pope Stephen III, but the union was broken within a year. 
Carloman died in 771 and Charles made himself sole ruler. 

5. Completion of the military work of his predecessors; the 
farthest extension of Frankland. (1) Major conquests: (a) The 
overthrow of the Lombard kingdom in Italy. Desiderius threatened 
pope Hadrian I who appealed to Charles. Desiderius was captured 
by Charles in Pavia in 774. Charles made his second son, Pepin, 
king of Italy, (ft) Saxon wars lasted over thirty years. The 
Saxon hero Widukind. Execution of about 4500 Saxons in one 
day at Verden on the Aller in 782. The Capitulary concerning 
Saxony. (2) Frontier wars: (a) In Spain, 778-811. Roncesvalles. 
Roland. The Spanish March. Balearic Islands a Frankish protec- 
torate in 799. (b) In Bavaria against Duke Tassilo. (c) With 
the Danish king Godfred who sent a fleet in 810 down Frisia hop- 
ing to attack Aix-la-Chapelle. (d) With the Slavs to the east, espe- 
cially the "Wiltzi and Sorbs, (e) With the Avars. The "rings" 



vnl CHARLEMAGNE 139 

of the Avars. They were defeated and dispersed in 795 and 796 
by Charles and his son Pepin. 

6. Relations of Charles with the papacy before 800. His visit 
to Borne in 774 to see pope Hadrian I. The famous scene in St. 
Peters when Charles confirmed the "Donation of Pepin." The 
"Roman Question." The beginnings of the Papal States. Pre- 
carious position of the pope in Rome, especially of Leo III (795- 
816). 

7. Relations of Charles with the Byzantine empire. Intrigues 
of the Byzantine empire in Benevento with the dispossessed Lom- 
bards in Italy, against Charles. Echoes of the inconoclastic con- 
troversy. In 880 the empress Irene had her young sou Constantino 
VI betrothed to Rotrud, a daughter of Charlemagne, but the 
engagement was broken. In 797 Constantine was blinded by Irene 
and died. Irene declared herself empress. 

8. Revival of the empire in the west in 800. World politics 
in the year 800: Irene in Constantinople, pope Leo III in Rome, 
Haroun-al-Raschid in Bagdad. Charles was crowned emperor of 
the Romans by pope Leo III in St. Peters, Rome, on Christmas day, 
800. Foundations of, and theories about, the revival of the empire. 
The nature of the empire in the time of Charlemagne. 

9. Imperial government of Charlemagne. The general assemblies. 
The capitularies. Charlemagne's court (palatium) whose members 
were called palatines (ministri and ministeriales) . Local govern- 
ment dukes, counts, missi dominici. Central and local courts 
(teabini). His army (the group system of military service). Primi- 
tive financial system. 

10. Carolingian learning and art. The palace school. Charle- 
magne's interest in learning. His edict concerning monastic and 
cathedral schools. Charlemagne imported scholars, Alcuin, Paul 
the Deacon, Paul of Pisa. The reform in writing, the ' ' Caroline 
minuscule. ' ' New interest in architecture and literature, especially 
history writing. 

11. The succession of Charlemagne. The partition of 806 between 
his three sons, Charles, Louis, and Pepin. Pepin died in 810 and 
Charles in 811, leaving Louis the sole successor of Charlemagne. 
Charlemagne died in Aix-la-Chapelle, in 814, at the age of about 72 
years. He was buried there in an ancient sarcophagus which may 
still be seen. 

12. The legend of Charlemagne. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 
Brief general accounts. EMERTON, Introduction to the middle 
tige,<f, chs. xm-xiv; or KITCHEN, History of France, I, 118-153; will 



140 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

do about as well as other similar sketches. A comparatively brief 
account of great excellence is in Handbuch der deutschen Geschichte, 
edited by GEBHARDT, I, chs. vi-vii. 

Longer general accounts. The latest scholarly summary of the 
period in English is in the Cambridge medieval history, II, chs. 
xvin, xix, xxi, xxn ; which is better than OMAN, The dark ages, chs. 
xx, xxi, xxn ; or SERGEANT, The Franks, chs. xvi-xx. The standard 
general accounts in French are LAVISSE, Histoire de France, II, part 
I, 280-357; and a shorter survey in LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire 
generate, I, eh. vii. A very satisfactory survey of the times of 
Charlemagne rom the standpoint of Italy and the Byzantine empire is 
in HODGKIN, Italy and her invaders, VIII (see also VII, chs. xm- 
xiv ) ; a similar account, but shorter, is VILLARI, The barbarian 
invasions of Italy, II, book IV. GREGOROVIUS, Some in the middle 
ages, II, 462-512, III, 1-21, is devoted to this period. GIBBON, 
Decline and fall, describes the reign of Charlemagne in ch. XLIX. 
A book which views the period from the standpoint of the church 
is C. L. WELLS, The age of Charlemagne, New York, 1898 (Ten 
epochs of church history). 

Revival of the empire. BRYCE, Holy Roman empire, chs. iv, v. 
FISHER, Mediaeval empire, I, ch. i, "The survival of the imperial 
idea. ' ' 

Biographies of Charlemagne. T. HODGKIN, Charles the Great, 
London, 1897 (Foreign statesmen); and H. W. C. DAVIS, Charle- 
magne (Charles the Great) : the hero of two nations, London and 
New York, 1899 (Heroes of the nations) are both good. J. I. MOM- 
BERT, A history of Charles the Great, New York, 1888, can still be 
recommended. F. KAMPERS, Karl der Grosse, Mainz, 1910, is a 
popular sketch in German with excellent pictures. 

Original sources. The very best introduction to the study of 
Charlemagne is the interesting biography written by his friend 
EINHARD (sometimes spelled EGINHARD), and conveniently trans- 
lated by S. E. TURNER, Life of Charlemagne by Eginhard, New York, 
1880; and also by A. J. GRANT, Early lives of Charlemagne, London, 
1907. DUNCALF and KREY, Parallel source problems, 3-26, translated 
many contemporary accounts of the coronation of Charlemagne in 
800. See also Translations and reprints, VI, no 5, "Laws of Charles 
the Great," and III, no. 2, for the capitulary "De villis." All 
the source books listed above, nos. 385-392, give considerable space 
to the time of Charlemagne. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 54, 55; and especially, LONGNON, Atlas 
historique de la France, plates v, and vii-x. 



vni CHARLEMAGNE 141 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. A very large number of general books touch 
upon the history of Charlemagne more or less, chief among them 
are those on France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany and Italy, 
nos. 508-621 above. See also those on the church, nos. 394-498 
above, and especially those on the medieval empire in the west, 
nos. 499-507 above- 
General surveys. E. MUHLBACHER, Deutsche Geschichte unter 
den Karolingern, Stuttgart, 1896. S. ABEL and B. v. SIMSON, Jahr- 
biicher des frdnkisohen Eeiclis unter Karl dem Grossen, vol. I, 2nd edi- 
tion, Leipzig, 1888, vol. II, Leipzig, 1883, part of no. 570 above. 
G. EICHTER and H. KOHL, Annalen des frankischen Eeiclis im Zeitalter 
der Karolinger, 2 vols., Halle, 1885-1887, part of no. 571 above. 
F. DAHN, Die Konige der Germanen, vol. VIII. W. STUBBS, Ger- 
many in the early middle ages 476-1250, chs. n-ni. 

The Empire of Charlemagne. A. KLEINCLAUSZ, L 'empire caro- 
lingien: ses origines et ses transformations, Paris, 1902. W. OHR, 
Der Karolingische Gottesstaat in Theorie und Praxis, Leipzig, 1902. 
W. OHR, Die Kaiserkronung Karls des Grossen, Tubingen, 1904. E. 
LAVISSE, ' ' La f ondation du Saint-Empire, ' ' in Eevue de deux 
mondes, series 3, LXXXVII (1888), 357-392. 

Charlemagne's relations with the church and the papacy. H. 
LILIENPEIN, Die Anschauungen von Staat und Kirche im Beich der 
Karolinger, Heidelberg, 1902 (Heidelberger Abhandlungen, 1). J. DE 
LA SERVIERE, Charlemagne et I'eglise, Paris, 1904. J. A. KETTERER, 
Karl der Grosse und die Kirche, Munich and Berlin, 1898. B. MAL- 
FATTI, Imperatori e papi ai tempi della siynoria dei Franchi in Italia, 
vols. I and II, Milan, 1876. L. HALPHEN, Etude sur I 'administration 
de Eome au moyen age (757-1282), Paris, 1907. L. M. HARTMANN, 
Geschichte Italiens im Mittelalter, vols. II-III. R. BAXMANN, Die 
Politik der Pdpste von Gregor I bis auf Gregor VII. See also the 
bibliography of the previous outline under "Relations between the 
church and state to the time of Charlemagne." 

Donations to the papacy. The "Roman Question." Beginnings 
of the Papal States. Much has been written on this subject. For 
comprehensive bibliographies see Cambridge medieval history, II, 
805-806, and DAHLMANN-WAITZ, Quellenkunde, no. 4372. The fol- 
lowing will serve as an introduction: L. DucHESNE, Les premiers 
temps de I'etat pontifical, Paris, 1898, 2nd edition, 1904, translated, 
The beginnings of the temporal sovereignty of the popes, 754-1073, 
London, 1908. A. CRIVELLUCCI, Le origini dcllo stato dclla chiesa: 
Hlori<i ilocit/nintata, Pisa, 1909. G. SciiNiJRER, Die Entstehung des 



142 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Kirchenstaates, Cologne, 1894. W. GUNDLACH, Die Entstehung des 
Kirchenstaates und der kuriale Begriff der "respublica Romanorum," 
Breslau, 1899 (Heft 59 of Gierke's Untersuchungen). P. PINTON, 
Le donazioni barbariche ai papi, Rome, 1890. H. C. LEA, "Else of 
the temporal power," in his Studies in church history. J. HALLER, 
"Die Karolinger und das Papsttum, " in Historische Zeitschrift, 
CVIII (1911), 38-76. 

Relations with the Eastern Empire. J. B. BURY, Later Eoman 
empire, 395-800, especially II, book VI, ch. xi, "The popes, the 
Lombards, and the Franks"; and in his, A history of the eastern 
Eoman empire (802-867), ch. X, "Relations with the western 
empire." L. BREHIER, La querelle des images, Paris, 1904 (Science 
et religion). A. GASQUET, Etudes byzantines: I 'empire byzantin et 
la monarchic franque, Paris, 1888. O. HARNACK, Das karolingische 
und das byzantinische Reich in ihren politischen Beziehungen, 
Gottingen, 1880. 

Charlemagne. B. HAUREAU, Charlemagne et sa cour, 742-814, 
Paris, 1888. H. MARTIN, Charlemagne et I' empire carlovingien, Paris, 
1893. H. BROSIEN, Karl der Grosse, Leipzig, 1885. A. VETAULT, 
Charlemagne, with an introduction by LEON GAUTIER, 3rd edition, 
Tours, 1888, 4th edition, 1908. P. MACHERL, Karl der Grosse: ein 
Lebensbild, Graz, 1912. P. CLEMEN, Die Portraitdarstellungen Karls 
des Grosscn, part I, Aachen, 1889. C. PFISTER, Le personage et 
I'oeuvre de Charlemagne, Metz, 1914. A. HUYSKENS, Karl der Grosse 
und seine Lieblingspfalz Aachen, Aachen, 1914. 

Administration. N. D. FUSTEL DE COULANGES, Les transforma- 
tions de la royaute pendant I'epoque carolingienne, Paris, 1892, 3rd 
edition, 1914 (this is vol. II of his "Histoire"). G. WAITZ, Deutsche 
Verfassungsgeschwhte, vols. III-IV. E. SEYPARTH, Frdnkische 
Reichsversammlungen unter Karl d. Grossen und Ludwig d. Frommen, 
Leipzig, 1910. G. SEELIGER, Die Kapitularien der Karolinger, Munich, 
1893. H. BRUNNER, Die Entstehung der Schwurgerichte, Berlin, 
1872, proves the Frankish origin of the jury. T. QUOIDBACH, 
Esquisse du regime politique de la nation Franque sous Charlemagne, 
Louvain, 1914 ( extract from 1'Annuaire de 1'Universite catholique 
de Louvain, 1914). G. BAIST, "Zur Interpretation der Brevium 
exempla und des Capitulare de villis, " in Vierteljahrschrift fur 
Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichtc, XII (1914). See also the general 
constitutional histories of France, nos. 528-536 above, and of Ger- 
many, nos. 578-586 above. 

Economic conditions. A. DOPSCH, Die Wirtschaftsentwiclcelung 
der Karolingerseit, rornehmlich in Deutschland, vols. 1 and II, Wei- 
mar, 1912-1913. This is supplemented by P. SANDER, tiber die Wirt- 



CHARLEMAGNE 143 

tehaftsentvnclclung der Karolingerzeit, in SCHMOLLERS Jahrbuch fur 
Gesctzgcbung, XXXVII (1913), 1. S. LOISEL, Essai sur la legislation 
e'conomique des Carolingiens d'apres les capitulaires, Caen, 1904 (dis- 
sertation). K. T. v. INAMA-STERNEGG, Deutsche Wirtschaftsgc- 
m-hichte, I, Bis sum Schluss der Karolingerperiode, 2nd edition, Leip- 
zig, 1909. C. BARRIERE-FLAVY, Les arts industrials des peuples bar- 
bares de la Gaule du VI e au Vllle siede, 3 vols., Paris, 1901. 

Legend of Charlemagne. A. KLEINCLAUSZ, L 'empire carolingien, 
491ff. T. BULFINCH, Mythology . . legends of Charlemagne, revised 
and enlarged edition, New York, 1913. A. J. CHURCH, Stories of 
Charlemagne and the twelve peers of France, from the old romances, 
New York, 1902. The Song of Roland is translated by O'HAQEN, 
-n<l edition, London, 1883; also by ISABEL BUTLER, Boston, 1904. 
G. RAUSCHEN, Die Lcgende Karls des Grossen im 11 und 12 Jahr- 
hundert, Leipzig, 1890. E. MiiNTZ, La legende de Charlemagne dans 
Vart du moyen-dge, Paris, 1885 (reprint from Romania, XIV (1885), 
321-342). JESSE WESTON, The romance cycle of Charlemagne and 
lii N peers, 2nd edition, London, 1905. 

Carolingian learning and art. See outline VIII of part III 
below. 

Original sources. Almost everything of prime importance is 
now edited in the Monumenta Gcrmaniae historica, no. 978 above; 
see also BOUQUET, no. 967 above. The archive material for the 
whole Carolingian period is now available in the perfected edition 
of Die Regesten des Kaisserreichs unter den Karolingern, 751-918, 
cilitod by E. MTHLBACHER, 2nd edition, completed by J. LECHNER, 
Innsbruck, 1908, which is a recast of part I of BOHMER, Regesta 
in>i>iri>, no. 985 above. A convenient source book for the origin of 
the papal states is, Die Quellcn sur Geschichte der Entstehung des 
h'irrliriititaatcs, edited by J. II M.I.KIC. Leipzig and Berlin, 1907. The 
Latin text of the Life of Charlemagne by Ei SHARD has been edited 
recently by H. W. OARROD and R. B. MOWAT, with introduction and 
notes, Oxford University Press, 1915; but the 6th edition of the 
/'.'.; hurnli nni, i, 1 1 of ElNHARD in the Monumenta Gcrmaniae historica, 
edited by O. HOLDER-EOGER, and published separately, Hanover and 
I.cip/.ijr, 1911, part of no. 979 above, is still the standard text. See 
O. MONOD. h'.tmlis crit\<i\ic nur ICH sources de I'histoirc carolingicnne, 
I '.'iris, 1898, vol. CXIX of no. 888 above; O. MASSON, Early chronicles 
"n>) : l-'miK-f : L. HALHHEN, "Etudes <Titi<|ue8 sur 1 'liistoire de 
Charlemagne: I, La composition des Annales royales, " in Rrruc 
hixtnri<i>tr. ('XXIV (1917), 52-64; and F. KURZE, Die karolingischcn 
his zum Todt Kinhnnla, Hcrlin, 1!M.'! (I'rogramm). 



144 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Bibliographies. The best general bibliography is DAHLMANN- 
WAITZ, Quellenkunde, 289-324. For the relations with the church 
see especially the Cambridge medieval history, -II, 814-817 (see also 
801-809, 813, for general bibliographies). The bibliographies in 
the footnotes of LAVISSE, Histoire de France, II, part I are of great 
value. The sources are best described in MOLINIER, Les sources 
de I'histoire de France, I, 181-227. Almost all the general bibli- 
ographies for France, Germany, and Italy, nos. 21-41 above, and 
those for the church, nos. 4955 above, are useful. 



IX. FOES OF WESTEKN CHEISTENDOM, FKOM THE EIGHTH 

TO THE ELEVENTH CENTURY. FROM THE SOUTH. 

MOHAMMEDANS 

A. OUTLINE 

1. Recent progress made in the historical study of Moham- 
medanism. Contrast with the interesting chapters on the subject 
in GIBBON, Decline and fall of the Eoman empire. In this outline 
no attempt is made to treat in detail the rise and spread of Moham- 
medanism in the east. The subject is treated from the standpoint 
of the Latin west. 

2. The rise and spread of Mohammedanism in Arabia. The 
physical and political geography of the peninsula before 600 A.D. 
The civilization, and especially the religion, of the Arabs before 
that date. The Kaaba in Mecca. Mohammed (often also spelled 
Mahomet or Muhammad), 570-632. The Emigration (Hegira) in 
622 from Mecca to Medina, which is the beginning of the Moham- 
medan era. Military exploits of Mohammed. The fall of Mecca 
in 630. The Koran. 

3. Meaning of the terms: Moslems (or Muslims), Sabians, Islam, 
Moors, Saracens. 

4. The spread of Mohammedanism in the east after the death 
of the prophet in 632. The successors of Mohammed, soon called 
Caliphs (representatives of the prophet), Abu Bekr, 632-634; Omar, 
634-644; Othman, 644-655; All, 655-661. Conquest of Arabia, the 
Ridda war. Conquest of Syria, fall of Damascus in 634, the ter- 
rible defeat of the Byzantines on the Yarmuk in 636, fall of 
Jersalem in 638. Conquest of Persia by 652. Conquest of Egypt, 
evacuation of Alexandria, 642. 

5. Attacks upon- Constantinople. Mohammedans took Chalcedon 
in 668 and from thence threatened the capital. Sea fights, ca. 674 
680. Great seige of Constantinople, 716-717. 



lx MOHAMMEDANS 145 

6. Later history of Mohammedanism in the east. Divisions 
between Sunnites and Shiites. Ommiads with capital at Damascus 
in 661-750. Abbassides with capital at Bagdad, 750-1258. Ulti- 
mate division into three caliphates, with capitals at Bagdad, Cairo, 
and Cordova. 

7. Conquest of northern Africa west of Egypt. Occupation of 
Barka, in the Pentapolis, in 642. The importance of the conversion 
of the Berbers to Mohammedanism. Weak hold of the Byzantine 
government in northern Africa. Foundation of Kairawan in 670. 
Conquest of Carthage in 697. Supremacy of the Arabian fleet in 
the Mediterranean. Disappearance of Latin civilization in northern 
Africa about 700. 

8. Conquest of Spain. Weakness of the Visigothic state in 
Spain. Legend of the overtures made to the Mohammedans by 
count Julian (Urban) to avenge himself on the last Visigothic king, 
Roderic. Landing of Tarik near Gibraltar (= Gebel Tarik, the 
Mount Tarik), in 711. Easy conquest of Spain. Fall of Cordova 
and Toledo. Jealousy of his superior, Musa, who came over and 
subdued Seville. 

9. Invasion of Gaul. Hurr crossed the Pyrenees in 717 or 718. 
Narbonne occupied in 720. Defense of Toulouse by Duke Eudo of 
Aquitaine. Internal dissensions among the Mohammedans due 
largely to quarrels between Arabs and Berbers. Their defeat by 
Charles Martel in the battle of Tours or Poitiers in 732. In 759 
they gave up Narbonne to Pepin and disappeared behind the 
Pyrenees. Charlemagne's invasion of northern Spain and the estab- 
lishment of the Spanish march. 

10. Occupation of Sicily. Sporadic attacks on the Byzantines 
in Sicily as early as 664. Derivation of the word corsair from 
Kovp&ov a summer campaign. Renewed raids upon many islands 
of the Mediterranean towards the end of the reign of Charlemagne. 
Crete occupied in 826. Conquest of Sicily by the Aghlabids from 
Kairawan, 827-902. (For the reconquest of Sicily by the Normans 
in 1061, see outline XX below.) 

11. Invasion of Italy. Appeal of duke Andrea of Naples to 
the Saracens in Sicily against Duke Sikard of Benevento in 837. 
Saracens conquered Bari about 841. Attack on Rome in 846. Nava\ 
battle off Ostia in 849, Ineffective assistance given by the Caro- 
lingians. Co-operation with the Byzantines. Pillage and destruc- 
tion of Monte Cassino. Final expulsion of the Saracens from Italy 
about 915. The "Saracen towers" near Naples. 

12. Peaceful relations between Moslems and Christians in the 
west. Mohammedan civilization in the ninth and tenth centuries 



146 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

especially in Spain and Sicily. Lasting effects 6n the culture of 
western Christendom. (See outline X of part III below.) 

13. In the eleventh century Latin Christians took the offensive 
against the Moslems from Spain to Palestine. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

General sifrveys. The best general survey is now in the Cam- 
bridge medieval history, II, ehs. x-xn. Another good account is in 
LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire generals, I, chs. ix, xv. BEMONT and 
MONOD, Medieval Europe, chs. x-xi, is a more elementary sketch. 
GIBBON, Decline and fall, chs. L-LI, although out of date in many 
respects, will always remain interesting reading. A collection of 
very stimulating lectures has just come from the press, C. S. HUR- 
GRONJE, Mohammedanism: lectures on its origin, its religious and 
political growth, and its present state, New York and London, 1916. 
See also the articles "Mahomet" (by Margoliouth), "Mahommedan 
Institutions, " " Mahommedan Law, " " Mahommedan Religion, ' ' 
' ' Caliphate, ' ' and ' ' Berbers, ' ' in the Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

Mohammed. The best biography is W. MUIR, The Life of 
Mohammed from original sources, London, 1861, 3rd edition, 1894, a 
new and revised edition by T. H. WEIR, Edinburgh, 1912. D. S. 
MARGOLIOUTH, Mohammed and the rise of Islam, New York and 
London, 1905 (Heroes of the nations series) is very good. G. M. 
DRAYCOTT, Mahomet: founder of Islam, New York, 1916. H. GRIMME, 
Mohammed: die weltgeschichtliche Bedeutung Arabiens, Mainz, 1904 
(Weltgeschichte in Charakterbildern), is particularly valuable for 
its pictures. 

Moors in Spain. U. R. BURKE, History of Spain, I, chs. xn, xiv, 
xvi. R. ALTAMIRA, Historia de Espana (1913 edition), I, 224-300. 
L. POOLE, Moors in Spain, New York, 1903 (Story of the nations). 
See the few pages from DOZY on ' ' Moslem civilization in Spain, ' ' 
in MUNRO and SELLERY, Medieval civilization, 224-239. HELMOLT, 
History of the world, IV, 494-510. HUME, The Spanish people, 71- 
111. 

Saracens and the Byzantine empire. J. B. BURY, Later Soman 
empire, II, 258-273, 401-407; and his, A history of the eastern Eoman 
empire (802-867), ch. vui, "The Saracen wars." 

Saracens in Sicily, Italy, and Crete. J. B. BURY, A history of 
eastern Eoman empire (802-867), ch. ix, "The Saracen conquests of 
Crete and Sicily." R. LANCIANI, Destruction of ancient Some, New 
York, 1899, ch. xi. GREGOROVIUS, History of the city of Some, III, 
65-68, 87-100, 178-187, 259-270. E. W. BROOKS, "The Arab occupa- 
tion of Crete," English historical review, XXVIII (1913), 431-443. 



MOHAMMEDANS 147 

Original sources. The best translations of the Koran are by 
E. H. PALMER, Koran, 2 vols., Oxford, 1880 (Miiller's Sacred books 
of the east, vols. VI, IX); El-Tcor'an: or Koran, translated from the 
Arabic, the suras arranged in chronological order, with notes and 
index, by J. M. RODWELL, 2nd edition, London, 1876 (also reprinted 
in Everyman's library, New York, 1909); Koran, commonly called 
the Alcoran of Mohammed, translated by G. SALE, 2 vols., London, 
1825, latest edition by E. M. WHERRY, A comprehensive commentary 
on the Quran: comprising Sale's translation and preliminary discourse, 
with additional notes and emendations, 4 vols., London, 1896 
(Triibner's oriental series). Extracts from the Koran have been 
edited with a very good introduction by S. L. POOLE, under the title, 
The speeches and table-talk of Mohammed, New York, 1905, which is 
the best introduction to the study of the Koran. See also Selections 
from the Kuran, edited by E. W. LANE, London, 1879. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 53, 54-55, 58-59, 64, 66-67. Cambridge 
medieval history, II, maps 23, 24. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. For an encyclopaedia and a dictionary of Islam 
see no. 120 above. Many of the general books on Spain and Portu- 
gal, nos. 622-642 above, Italy, nos. 599-621 above, and the Byzan- 
tine empire, nos. 643-679 above, give much space to the Moham- 
medans. See also the general histories of the Mediterranean, nos. 
360-361 above. 

General accounts. L. C. CAETANI, Annali dell' Islam, vols. I-VII, 
Milan, 1905-1914 (extends thus far through 32 a.H., or to August, 
653 A.D.) ; C. HUART, Histoire des Arabes, 2 vols., Paris, 1912-1913; 
and A. MULLER, Der Islam im Morgen- und Abendland, 2 vols., Berlin, 
1885-87 (part of no. 313 above), are standard and fundamental 
works. W. Mum, The Caliphate: its rise, decline and fall, from 
original sources, London, 1883, a new and revised edition by T. H. 
WEIR, Edinburgh, 1915 (first edition bore the title, Annals of the 
early Caliphate). T. W. ARNOLD, The preaching of Islam: a history 
of the propagation of the Muslim faith, Westminister, 1896, 2nd edi- 
tion, revised and enlarged, London, 1913. J. WELLHAUSEN, Das 
arabische Reich und sein Sturz, Berlin, 1902. I. GOLDZIHER, Muham- 
medanische Studien, 2 vols., Halle, 1889-90, translated from the Ger- 
man by KATE E. CHAMBERS, Aspects of Islam, Yale University Press, 
1915. I. GOLDZIHER, Vorlesungen iiber den Islam, Heidelberg, 1910, 
translated by K. C. SEELYE, with an introduction by M. JASTROW, 
Mohammed and Islam, Yale University Press, 1916. C. H. BECKER, 
Christentum Und Islam, Tubingen, 1907, translated by H. J. CHAYTOR, 



148 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Christianity and Islam, New York, 1909 (Harper's library of living 
thought). M. HARTMANN, Fiinf Vortrdge uber den Islam, Leipzig, 
1912. AMEER ALT SYED, A short history of the Saracens, London, 
1899, reprinted with corrections, 1900. A. GILMAN, The Saracens 
from the earliest times to the fall of Bagdad, New York, 1886 (The 
story of the nations). D. S. MARGOLIOUTH, Mohammedanism, London, 
[1911] (Home university library). E. DOZY, Essai sur I'histoire de 
I'Islamisme, translated from the Dutch by V. CHAUVIN, Leyden and 
Paris, 1879. S. L. POOLE, The Mohammedan dynasties, Westminister, 
1894. G. WEIL, Geschichte der Chalifen, 5 vols., Mannheim, 1846- 
1862. E. A. FREEMAN, The history and conquests of the Saracens: 
six lectures, London, 1856, 3rd edition, 1876. C. GUTERBOCK, Der 
Islam im Lichte der byzantinischen Polemilc, Berlin, 1912. E. MEYER, 
Ursprung und Geschichte der Mormonen, mit ExTcursen uber die 
Anfdnge des Islams und des Christentums, Halle, 1912. 

Mohammed. L. CAETANI, Studi di storia orientate, vol. Ill, La 
biografia di Maometto prof eta ed uomo di stato, II principio del Calif - 
fato, La conquista d' Arabia, Milan, 1914. E. BOSWORTH SMITH, 
Mohammed and Mohammedanism, 3rd edition, London, 1889. P. 
DE LACY JOHNSTONE, Muhammad and his power, Edinburgh, 1901, 
(The world's epoch-makers, 7). AMEER ALI SYED, The spirit of 
Islam: or the life and teachings of Mohammed, Calcutta, 1902. H. 
EECKENDORF, Mohammed und die Seinen, Leipzig, 1907 (Wissenschaft 
und Bildung). H. GRIMME, Mohammed, 2 vols., Miinster, 1892-1895. 
A. SPRENGER, Das Leben und die Lehre des Mohammad: nach bisher 
grosstentheils unbenutzten Quellen, 2nd edition, 3 vols., Berlin, 1869. 
T. NOLDEKE, Das Leben Muhammed's: nach den Quellen popular dar- 
gestellt, Hannover, 1863. A. GEIGER, Was hat Mohammed aus dem 
Judentum aufgenommen? 2nd edition, Leipzig, 1902. 

Koran. D. S. MARGOLIOUTH, The early development of Moham- 
medanism, London, 1914 (Hibbert lectures). T. NOLDEKE, Geschichte 
der Qordns, Gottingen, 1860, new edition, revised by F. SCHWALLY, 
vol. I, Leipzig, 1909. E. SELL, The historical development of the 
Quran, London, 1905. W. MUIR, The Goran: its composition and 
teaching, London, 1878. L SCHAPIRO, Die haggadischen Elemente im 
erzdhlenden Teil des Korans, Leipzig, 1907. 

Conquest of north Africa. M. CAUDEL, Les premiers invasions 
arabes dans I'Afrique du Nord, Paris, 1900. E. MERCIER, Histoire de 
I'Afrique septentrionale (Berberie) depuis les temps les plus recules 
jusqu'd la conquete frangaise, 3 vols., Paris, 1888-1890. S. L. POOLE, 
The history of Egypt in the middle ages, London, 1901. E. AME- 
LINEAU, "La conquete de 1'Egypte par les Arabes, I," in Revue 
historique, CXIX (1915), 273-310. H. FOURNEL, Les Berbers: etude 



IX MOHAMMEDANS 149 

sur la conquete de I'Afrique par les Ardbes, 2 vols., Paris, 1875-1881. 
C. H. BECKER, Beitrdge zur Geschichte Jfgyptens unter dem Islam, 2 
parts, Strasburg, 1902-1903. 

Moors in Spain and the Balearic islands. E. P. A. DOZY, His- 
toire des Musulmans d'Espagne, 4 vols., Leyden, 1861, translated by 
F. G. STOKES, with a biographical introduction and additional notes, 
Spanish Islam: a history of the Moslems in Spain, London, 1913. 
S. P. SCOTT, History of the Moorish empire in Europe, 3 vols., Phila- 
delphia, 1904. F. CODERA, Estudios criticos de historia drabe espanola, 
Saragossa, 1903. J. A. CONDE, History of the dominion of the Arabs 
in Spain, translated from the Spanish, 3 vols., London, 1854. H. 
COPPEE, History of the conquest of Spain by the Arab Moors, 2 vols., 
Boston, 1881. L. SCHWENKOW, Die lateinisch geschriebenen Quellen 
zur Geschichte der Eroberung Spaniens durch die Araber, Gottingen, 
1894. A. FERNANDEZ GUERRA, Caida y ruina del imperio visigotico- 
cspanol, Madrid, 1883. E. SAAVEDRA, Estudio sobre la invasion de los 
drabes en Espana, Madrid, 1892. CAMPANER, Eesena historico-critica 
de la dominacidn de los Arabes y de los Moros en las islas Baleares 
[to 1286], Madrid, 1888. 

Mohammedan invasion of Gaul. G. LOKYS, Die Kdmpfe der 
Araber mit den Karolingern bis sum Tode Ludwigs II, Heidelberg, 
1906 (Heidelberger Abhandlungen zur mittleren und neueren 
Geschichte). M. H. ZOTENBERG, Invasions des Visigoths et des 
Arabes en France, Toulouse, 1876, is an extract from no. 540 above. 
M. REINAUD, Invasions des Sarrazins en France, Paris, 1836. 

Saracens in Italy and Sicily. M. AMABI, Storia dei Musulmani 
di Sicilia, 4 vols., Florence, 1854-68. J. GAY, L'ltalie meridionale 
et I'empire byzantin depuis I'avenement de Basile I jusqu'a la prise 
de Bari par les Normands, Paris, 1904. G. B. MOSCATO, Cronaca dei 
musulmani in Calabria, San Lucido, 1902. C. WAERN, Mediaeval 
Sicily, New York, 1911, chs. i-n. 

Arabian commerce in the north of Europe. G. JACOB, Der 
nordisch-baltische Handel der Araber im Mittelalter, Leipzig, 1887; 
and his Welche Handelsartikel bezogen die Araber des Mittelalters 
aus den nordisch-baltischen Landern? 2nd edition, Berlin, 1891. 
E. BABELON, Du commerce des Arabes dans le nord de I'Europe avant 
les croisades, Paris, 1882. 

Periodical on Islam. Der Islam: Zeitschrift fur Geschichte und 
Kultur des islamischen Orients, edited by C. H. BECKER, Strasburg, 
1910ff. 

Original sources. EL-BOKHARI, (died 870 A.D.), Les tradition* 
islamiques, translated from the Arabic with notes and an index by 
O. HOUDAS and W. MARCAIS, vols. I-III, Paris, 1903-1908. The 



150 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

origins of the Islamic state: being a translation from the Arabic 
accompanied with annotations, geographic and historical notes of 
the Kitdb Futuh al-Bulddn of AL-!MAM ABU-L 'ABBAS AHMAD IBN 
JABIR AL-BALADHURI, vol. I, by P. K. HITTI, New York, 1916 (Studies 
in history, economics, and public law, Columbia University, vol. 
LXVIII, no. 163). Trades de paix et de commerce et documents divers 
contenant les relations des Chretiens avec les Arabs d'Afrique septen- 
trionale au moyen age, edited by DE MAS-LATRIE, Paris, 1866, sup- 
plement, 1872. Biblioteca Arabo-Sicula, versions italiana, 2 vols. 
and a supplement, edited by M. AMARI, Turin and Rome, 1880-1889. 
J. WELLHAUSEN, Muhammed in Medina: das ist Vakidi's Kitab al 
Maghazi in verkiirzter Wiedergabe, Berlin, 1882. Bibliotheca 
arabico-hispana, edited by F. CODERA Y ZAIDIN, 10 vols., Madrid, 
1882-1895. 

Bibliographies. Cambridge medieval history, II. 758-765, and 
the special bibliographies indicated there. See also no. 42 above. 

X. FOES OF WESTERN CHRISTENDOM, FROM THE EIGHTH 

TO THE ELEVENTH CENTURY. FROM THE NORTH. 

NORTHMEN 

A. OUTLINE 

1. The fury of the Northmen. "From the fury of the North- 
men, good Lord, deliver us" (a furore Normannorum libera nos). 
This phrase, so common in litanies of the middle ages, was not 
in use in Carolingian times, but the following prayer, dating ca. 
900, is an interesting prototype: " Summa pia gratia nostra con- 
servando corpora et custodita, de genie fera Normannica nos libera, 
quae nostra vastat, deus, regna, etc." (See L. DELISLE, Littera- 
ture latine et histoire du moyen age, p. 17). 

2. The civilization of the Teutonic people of the north, Danes, 
Norwegians, and Swedes. The scalds. The sagas. The Gokstad 
and Oseberg ships. The vikings (= warriors). 

3. Causes and character of their migrations. Often women and 
even children accompanied the men on their ships. The chief raids 
of the Northmen occurred between 800 and 1000. 

4. The Northmen in the British and northern islands. Men- 
tioned in the Anglo-Saxon chronicle under the year 787. Monastery 
of Lindisfarne raided in 793. In 795 they were in Ireland. lona 
was raided about 800. Faroe Islands, Orkneys, Shetland Islands 
and Hebrides were occupied in the time of Charlemagne. Towards 
the middle of the ninth century the Northmen were numerous in 
England. King Alfred (871-901) and the Danes. The Danelaw. 



NORTHMEN 151 

Iceland occupied about 875. Greenland touched upon about 900 
and North America about 1000. 

5. Eaids on the continent in the west and in the Mediterranean. 
In 810, in Charlemagne's time, king Godfred of Denmark plundered 
the coast of Frisia. About the time, of the death of Charlemagne 
(814) Vikings visited the mouth of the Loire and in 843 made a 
settlement on the island of Noirmoutier and also occupied the 
He de Rhe near the mouth of the Charente. Antwerp was destroyed 
about 836, and the island of Walcheren was occupied in 837. In 
841 they appeared on the Seine and destroyed Eouen. Nantes 
was plundered in 843. They were on the Garonne in 844, when 
Toulouse was attacked. In 845 they appeared before Paris and 
in the same year destroyed Hamburg. In 856 Paris was plundered. 
The next year they sailed down to Spain, appeared before Lisbon, 
sacked Cadiz and ascended the Guadalquivir to Seville. Under 
Hasting a band sailed into the Mediterranean to sack Rome in 
859 but they got no further than Luna. Some sailed up the Ehone 
river and they occupied the island of Camargue. Charles the Bold 
treated with Hasting and his followers, some of whom became 
Christians and accepted feudal holdings. Orleans was reached in 
865. Northmen were defeated at Saulcourt in 881 but they 
plundered Aachen, Cologne, etc. Paris was beseiged 885. Charles 
the Fat paid tribute and allowed the raiders to plunder Burgundy. 
Decisive defeat of the Northmen by the German king Arnulf near 
Louvain in 891. 

6. Expeditions to the East. Eurik and his followers, the 
Varangians, came from Sweden and settled at Novgorod about 
862. Varangians in the service of the emperor in Constantinople. 

7. The important settlement of Northmen in northern France, 
in and about Eouen, about 911. Charles III, the Simple, offered 
Normandy as a fief to Eollo or Rolf and gave him his daughter 
Gisela in marriage. Eolf was baptized soon after. 

8. Conversion of Northmen to Christianity in the tenth century 
and the political reorganization of the North. The beginnings of 
modern Norway and Sweden. 

9. The sudden and short-lived burst of Danish imperialism 
under Canute the Great, 1014-1035. 

10. The important part the Normans were destined to play in 
medieval history (see outline XX below). 

B. SPECIAL EECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 
Introductory surveys. C. H. HASKINS, The Normans in European 
liixtury, Boston and New York, 1915, ch. II, "The coming of the 



]52 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Northmen." LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire generale, II, ch. xni. 
OMAN, The dark ages (see "vikings" in the index). 

Longer general accounts. The best general survey is now in 
GJERSET, History of the Norwegian people, I, especially pp. 45-280. 
C. F. KEARY, The Vikings in western Christendom A.D. 789 to A.D. 
888, London, 1891. A. MAWER, The Vikings, Cambridge university 
Press, 1913 (Cambridge manuals), is a recent popular sketch. 
BEAZLEY, Dawn of modern geography, II, 17-111. 

Danes in England. C. OMAN, England before the Norman con- 
quest, London, 1910, 382-491. C. PLUMMER, The life and times of 
Alfred the Great, Oxford, 1902, lecture iv. For Canute and Danish 
imperialism the best book is L. M. LARSON, Canute the Great, 
995 (tire.) 1035, and the rise of Danish imperialism during the 
Viking age, New York, 1912 (Heroes of the nations). 

Northmen in Russia. RAMBAUD, History of Russia, ch. iv. 
KLUCHEVSKY, A history of Russia, I, ch. v. 

Original sources. The sagas are the best introduction to a study 
of life in the Viking age. The following are especially interesting 
and easily accessible in English: Heimskringla of Snorro Sturle- 
son, translated by S. LAING, London, Norroena Society, 1906; The 
story of Burnt Njal, translated by G. W. DASENT, 2 vols., Edin- 
burgh, 1861, and London and New York, Norroena Society, 1906 
(now also in Everyman 's library, New York, 1900) ; Volsunga Saga, 
translated by E. MAGNUSSON and W. M. MORRIS, London, Norroena 
Society, 1906. For interesting extracts concerning the raids of 
Northmen see OGG, Source book, 157-173. See A. BUGGE, "The 
origin and credibility of the Icelandic saga," in American historical 
review, XIV (1908-1909), 249-261. 

Maps, The best map for the raids and settlements of the 
Northmen, is in MEYERS Historischer Handatlas, 25. See also 
SHEPHERD, Atlas, 46-47, 57, 58-59, 64. VOGEL, Die Normannen, 
below, has an excellent map showing the territory overrun by 
Northmen in France, Germany, the Netherlands, and northern 
Spain. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. For general works on the Scandinavian coun- 
tries see nos. 717-728 above. Due to the wide range of the viking 
raids, many of the general works of all the countries of Europe, 
nos. 508716 above, touch upon their history. 

General accounts. J. STEENSTRUP, Normannerne, 4 vois., Copen- 
hagen, 1876-82, vol. I, translated by E. de BEAUREPAIRE, Etudes 
preliminaires pour servir a I 'histoire de Normands et de leur invasions, 
Caen, 1880. SARAH O. JEWETT, The story of the Normans told 



NORTHMEN 153 

chiefly in relation to their conquest of England, London and New 
York, 1886 (Story of the nations), chs. I and II. A. H. JOHNSON, 
The Normans in Europe, London, 1877, chs. l-m (part of no. 335 
above). W. Roos, "The Swedish part in the viking expeditions," 
English historical review, VII (1892), 209-223. G. B. DEPPINO, His- 
toire des expeditions maritimes des Normands, Paris, 1843. ELEANOR 
HULL, The Northmen in Britain, London, 1913. T. CARLYLE, Early 
kings of Nonvay, New York, 1875. 

Civilization of the Northmen. P. B. Du CHAILLU, Viking age: 
the early history, manners, and customs of the ancestors of the 
Kni/lish-speaking nations, 2 vols., New York, 1889. A. BUGGE, 
Vikingerne, 2 series, Copenhagen, 1904-06, translated from the Nor- 
wegian by H. HUNGERLAND, Die Wikinger: Bilder aus der nordischen 
Vergangenheit, Halle, 1906. O. MONTELIUS, Kulturgeschwhte 
Schwedens von den altesten Zeiten "bis sum elften Jahrhundert nach 
Christi, Leipzig, 1906. S. MULLER, Nordische Altertumskunde, Ger- 
man edition by O. L. JIRICZEK, 2 vols., Strasburg, 1879-98. C. 
MULLER, Altgermanische Mceresherrschaft, Gotha, 1914, treats the 
period up to 1200. A. OLRIK, Nordisches Geistesleben in heidnischer 
und friihchristlicher Zeit, translated by W. EANISCH, Heidelberg, 
1908. J. J. A. WORSAAE, The pre-history of the north, based on con- 
temporary memorials, translated by M. F. MORLAND SIMPSON, Lon- 
don, 1886. F. NIEDNER, Islands Kultur zur Wikingerzeit, Jena, 1913, 
in Thule: altnordische Dichtung und Prosa, I, 1. 

Northmen in France. W. VOGEL, Die Normannen und das frdnk- 
ische Beich bis zur Grundung der Normandie 799-911, with a very 
important map, Heidelberg, 1906 (in Heidelberger Abhandlungen 
zur mittleren und neueren Geschichte, 14). This work of funda- 
mental importance is supplemented by F. LOT, "La grande inva- 
sion normande, 856-862," in Bibliothdque de I'ecole des chartes, 
LXIX (1908), 5-62; and by the same author's Etudes critiques sur 
I'abbaye de Saint-Wandrille, Paris, 1913, ch. HI. E. FREEMAN, 
"The early sieges of Paris," in his Historical essays, series I, 207- 
251. H. H. HOWORTH, "The early intercourse of the Danes and 
Franks," in Soyal historical society, VI (1877), 147-182; VII 
(1878), 1-29. E. THUBERT, "Les Northmen en France," in Revue 
d'histaire diplomatique, XX (1906), 511-536. VAN DEB LINDEN, 
"Les Normands a Louvain (884-892;," in Eevue historique, CXXIV 
(1917), 64-81. 

Vikings in Spain. A. K. FABRICIUS, La premiere invasion des 
Normands dans I'Espagne musulmane en 814, Lisbon, 1892; and his, 
La connaissance de la pcninsule espagnole par les hommcs du Nord, 
Lisbon, 1892. R. DOZY, Bechcrches sur I'histoire et la littcrature 



154 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

de I'Espagne pendant le moyen age, 3rd edition, 2 vols., Paris, 1881, 
II, 252-332. 

Eastward expeditions of Northmen. T. J. ARNE, La Suede et 
J 'orient: etudes archeologiques sur les relations de la Suede et 
I'orient pendent I'dge des Vikings, Upsala, 1914ff. (in Lundell's 
Archives d 'etudes orientales). V. THOMPSON, The relations between 
ancient Russia and Scandinavia, and the origin of the Eussian state, 
Oxford, 1878. 

Northmen in America. W. HOVGAARD, The voyages of the Norse- 
men to America, the American-Scandinavian Foundation, New York, 
1914. F. NANSEN, In northern mists: arctic explorations in early 
times, translated by G. CHATER, 2 vols., London and New York, 
1911 (bibliography, II, 384-396). W. H. BABCOCK, Early Norse 
visits to North America, Smithsonian Institution (no. 2138), 1913 
(bibliography, pp. 179-189). A. SCHALCK DE LA FAVERIE, Les Nor- 
mands et la decouverte de I'Amerique au Xe siecle, Paris, 1912. J. 
FISCHER, Die Entdeckungen der Normannen in America, Freiburg, 
1902, translated into English by H. SOULSBY, London, 1903. G. 
B. DE LAGREZE, Les Normands dans les deux mondes, Paris, 1890. 

Original sources. The following collections contain transla- 
tions of most of the important early literature relating to 
the Northmen: Norroena, the history and romance of northern 
Europe: a library of supreme classics printed in complete form, 15 
vols., London Norroena Society, 1906; Corpus poeticum boreale: 
the poetry of the old northern tongue from the earliest times to the 
thirteenth century, classified and translated by G. VIGFUSSON and 
F. YORK POWELL, 2 vols., Oxford, 1883; Origines Islandicae: a col- 
lection of the more important sagas and other native writings relating 
to the settlement and early history of Iceland, edited and translated 
by G. VIGFUSSON and F. YORK POWELL, 2 vols., Oxford, 1905; 0*70 
booJc of the Viking society, London, 1895ff. A convenient short 
introduction to the sagas is W. A. CRAIGIE, The Icelandic sagas, 
Cambridge University Press, 1913 (Cambridge manuals). 

A very sumptuous work on the Oseberg burial ship, to consist 
of five volumes, is being published by the Norwegian government, 
Osebergfundet, edited by A. W. BROGGER and others, 1916ff. The. 
ship, which was found in 1904 and dates from the ninth century, 
is now exhibited in a special building in Christiania; the objects 
found in it are on exhibition in the Historical Museum. The well- 
known Gokstad ship is described briefly by I. UNDSET, A short 
guide for the use of visitors to the viking ship from Gokstad, Chris- 
tiania, 1889, 3rd edition, 1898. 

The sources for the Norsemen in America may be found tran- 



SLAVS AND NOMADS 155 

slated in the Flateyjarbok : the Flatey book and recently discovered 
Vatican manuscripts concerning America as early as the tenth cen- 
tury, documents now published for the first time, which establish 
beyond controversy the claim that North America was settled by 
Norsemen fire hundred years before the time of Columbus, London, 
Norroena Society, 1906; and in the Original narratives of early 
American history: the Northmen, Columbus and Cabot, 985-1503, 
New York, 1906 (the voyages of the Northmen are edited by 
J. E. OLSON) ; as well as in vol. V of Norroena mentioned above. 
Bibliographies. For the old Norse Sagas, see GROSS, no. 36 above, 
35, and for modern books on the Northmen, especially in their rela- 
tion to England, ibid., 42. The notes in GJERSET, History of the 
Norwegian people, contain many bibliographical references. For 
the sources on the Northmen in France, see A. MOLINIEB, Les sources, 
I, 264-271. J. STEF^NSSON, List of books belonging to the Viking 
club, society for northern research, London [1907]. H. HERMANNSON, 
Catalogue of the Icelandic collection bequeathed by Willard Fiske to 
the Cornell University library, Ithaca, New York, 1914; and his The 
Northmen in America (982-c.iSOO) : a contribution to the bibli- 
ography of the subject, Ithaca, 1909, in Islandica: an annual relating 
to Iceland and the Fiske Icelandic collection in Cornell University 
library, edited by G. W. HARRIS, 1908ff., vol. II, are vast mines of 
references to books on the North. See also the first part of 
P. RIANT 's library, 2641 items on Scandinavia, acquired by Yale 
University. 



XI. FOES OF WESTERN CHRISTENDOM FROM THE EIGHTH 

TO THE ELEVENTH CENTURY. 'FROM THE EAST. 

SLAVS AND ASIATIC NOMADS 

A. OUTLINE 

1. The grand divisions of European peoples in the middle ages; 
Romanic, Teutonic, Slavic, and the eastern background formed 
by the Asiatic nomads. 

2. The role of the Slavs in medieval history. They serve as 
a buffer between the Teutonic west and the Asiatic nomads. 
Lack of organization among the Slavs. Enslavement of the Slavs 
by Teutons and Asiatic nomads. 

3. The rivili/ation and extent of the Slavs about 700 A.D. Wends, 
Serbs, Slavs. Western Slavs: Polabians (Sorbs, Abodrites, Wil- 
x.ians, Pommeranians), Czechs, Moravians, Slovaks; eastern and 
northern Slavs: Russians (White, Little, and Great Russians), 



156 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Slovenes (Bulgarians, Croats and Serbians). The Lithuanians 
(Letts and Prussians). 

4. Relations of Merovingians and Carolingians with the Slavs. 
Samo, a Frank adventurer, became king of the Czechs of Bohemia, 
623-668. 

5. The evanescent empire of Moravia. Struggles of the Mor- 
avians with the Franks after Charlemagne. Svatopluk II acknowl- 
edged by Charles III, the Fat (881-887). The conversion of these 
Slavs. The eastern emperor Michel III (842-867) sent as apostles 
of the Slavs two brothers, born in Salonica, Constantine (later 
Cyrillus, died 869) and Methodius (died 885). Their relations with 
the pope in Eome. 

6. Decline of the Slavs in the region between the Elbe and 
the Oder where the Polabians were practically wiped out by the 
Germans in the tenth and eleventh centuries. 

7. Kise and decline of Poland. Boleslav the Valiant (992- 
1025) conquered far and wide but did not gain a permanent hold 
on the Baltic. Poland declined after his death. Close relations 
with the Latin church. The archbishopric of Gnesen founded 
about 1000A.D. Quasi-parliamentary government under Boleslav. 

8. Bohemia. Amalgamation of the Czechs. Latin Christianity 
prevailed. Vratislav II was the first king (1086). Practically a 
vassal of the Emperor Henry IV. 

9. The glorious era of Bulgarian history. The Bulgares, a 
Finnish tribe, organized the Slavs of old Moesia in the seventh 
century. Converted to Byzantine Christianity in the ninth cen- 
tury. Simeon (829-927), the first Czar of the Bulgarians. Pre- 
slav the capital. Golden era of literature. The Bogomiles (Mani- 
chaean heretics). Subjugation of Bulgarians by the eastern 
emperors, especially by Basil II, the "Slayer of the Bulgarians." 

10. The beginnings of Eussia. Eurik and his Swedes, the 
Varangians, settled around Novgorod about 962. Oleg, Eurik 's 
successor, made Kiev his capital. Attacked Constantinople in 
907. Sviotoslav (964-972) seriously threatened Constantinople, 
but was checked in 971 by John Zimisces. Vladimir (972-1015), 
the Clovis of Eussia, was baptized about 990. A flood of Byzan- 
tine civilization came into Eussia with eastern Christianity. Yaro- 
slav the Great (1015-1054), the Charlemagne of Eussia. Close 
relations of Eussia with the west during this early period. 

11. The Asiatic nomads. The peculiar geographic influences 
which shaped their destinies. Finns, Huns, Avars, (Bulgars), 
Khazars, Petchenegs, Cumans, Magyars, etc. 

12. Avars occupied old Pannonia and Dacia when the Lombards 






SLAVS AND NOMADS 157 

forsook that region. Their "rings." Charlemagne's campaigns 
against them 795-796. Shortly after his death they were dispersed 
as the Huns had been in the fifth century. 

13. Hungarians or Magyars. About 900 they dispossessed the 
Moravians in modern Hungary. Their low state of civilization. 
Their dread invasions of Europe in the tenth centry, penetrating 
even into Provence and Lorraine. Crushed by Otto I in 955 in 
the battle of the Lechfeld. Stephen I (955-1038) was the founder 
of modern Hungary. Accepted Latin Christianity. The great 
archbishopric of Gran was established about 1000 A.D. 

14. The state of eastern Europe just before the crusades. 

B. SPECIAL EECOMMENDATIONS FOR BEADING 

General accounts. The best short survey is in LAVISSE and EAM- 
BAUD, Histoire generate, I, ch. xiv. Cambridge medieval history, II, 
ch. xiv, is authoritative and important, but rather confusing. A 
fairly comprehensive account may be pieced together from J. B. 
BURY'S books, History of the later Roman empire, II, 11-24, 274- 
280, 331-338, 470-476; A history of the eastern Boman empire, ehs. 
xi-xin. The same is true of HELMOLT, History of the world, vol. V, 
222-223, 227-242, 271-288, 326-338, 347-348, 353-355, 374-379, 425- 
461, 469-476. See also GIBBON, Decline and fall, ch. LV. 

Nomads. The general character of nomadic life is well 
described in Cambridge medieval history, I, ch. xn ; and by ELLEN 
C. SEMPLE, Influences of geographic environment, ch. xiv. 

Histories of various countries of eastern Europe. Make a selec- 
tion from the general books on eastern Europe, nos. 680-716 above. 

Maps. Cambridge medieval history, I, map 3 ; II, maps 25, 26a, 
26b. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 2-3, 46-47, 52-59. Use FREEMAN, The his- 
torical geography of Europe, especially pp. 113-117, 155-158, as a 
guide to these maps; and see also KIPLEY, The races of Europe, chs. 
xin, xv. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. For books on eastern Europe see nos. 680-716, 
588-596, 311-312 above; but for the contact of Slavs and nomads 
with western civilization a large number of general books on 
other European countries are also of value; see e.g., nos. 313-361, 
499-598, 643-679, 717-727 above. For histories of Slavic literature 
see no. 814 above. 

Early Slavic history in general L. LEGER, Le monde slave: 
etudes politiqucs et litteraires, series 1 and 2, 2 vols., Paris, 1897- 
1902; and his Etudes slaves; his Nouvelle etudes slaves: histoire et 
litterature, Paris, 1880; and his La mythologie slave, Paris, 1901. 



158 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

H. MERBACH, Die SlawenTcriege des deutschen Volkes, Leipzig, 1914. 
W. OHNESORGE, Ausbreitung und Ende der Slawen swischen Nieder- 
Elbe und Oder, Liibeck, 1911. A. MEITZEN, Siedelung und Agrar- 
wesen der West- und Ostgermanen, der Kelten, Romer, Finnen und 
Sloven, 3 vols. and an atlas, Berlin, 1895. M. MURKO, Geschichte 
der dlteren siidslawischen Literaturen, Leipzig, 1908. A. LEFEVRE, 
Germains et Slaves: origines et croyances, Paris, 1903. W. E. S. 
RALSTON, Early Russian history, London, 1874. E. W. SETON- 
WATSON, Racial problems in Hungary: a history of the Slovaks, 
London, 1909. E. MISSALEK, "Die Forschung auf dem Gebiete der 
altesten polnischen Geschichte," in Historische Zeitschrift, CXIII 
(1914), 62-69. E. ZHABSKI, Die Slavenkriege zur Zeit Ottos III 
und dessen Pilgerfahrt nach Gnesen, Lemberg, 1882 (Programm). 

Samo. O. NEMECEK, Das Reich des Slawenfursten Samo, Mah- 
risch-Ostrau, 1906 (Programm). 

Rumania. N. JORGA, Les elements originaux de I'ancienne 
civilisation Roumaine, Jassy, 1911. E. FISCHER, Die Herkunft der 
Rumdnen, Bamberg, 1904. 

Conversion of Slavs to Christianity. Chief interest centers 
in the work of Constantine and Methodius. The following are 
special works on the subject: A. BRUCKNER, Die Wahrheit uber die 
Slavenapostel, Tubingen, 1913; F. SNOPEK, Konstantinus-Cyrillus 
und Methodius: die Slavenapostel (Operum academiae Valehradensis, 
II), Kremsier, 1911; L. K. GOETZ, Geschichte der Slavenapostel Kon- 
stantinus (Kyrillus) und Methodius, Gotha, 1897; and L. LEGER, 
Cyrille et Methode: etude historique sur la conversion des Slaves au 
chritianisme, Paris, 1868 (see also A. NAEGLE, Kirchengeschichte 
Bohmens, under no. 461 above). L. K. GOETZ, Staat und Kirche in 
Altrussland: Kiever Periode, 998-1240, Berlin, 1908. L. K. GOETZ, 
Das Kiever Hohlenldoster als Kulturzentrum des vormongolischen 
Russlands, Passau, 1904. M. USPENSKI, La Russie et Byzance au 
W siecle, Odessa, 1888. 

The home of the Asiatic nomads. E. HUNTINGTON, The pulse 
of Asia: a journey in central Asia illustrating the geographical basis 
of history, New York, 1907. F. H. SKRINE and E. D. Eoss, The 
heart of Asia, London, 1899. SVEN HEDIN, Central Asia and Tibet, 
2 vols., New York, 1903. G. F. WRIGHT, Asiatic Russia, 2 vols., 
New York, 1902. A, VAMBERY, Travels in central Asia, New York, 
1865. 

Asiatic nomads. F. EATZEL, The history of mankind, translated 
from the 2nd German edition by A. J. BUTLER, 3 vols., London, 
1896-1898, III, 313-533. H. v. KUTSCHERA, Die Chasaren: histor- 
ische Studie, Vienna, 1909. E. H. PARKER, Thousand years of the 



MEDIEVAL INSTITUTIONS 159 

Tartars, London, 1895. A. THIERRY, Histoire d'Attila et de ses suc- 
cesseurs jusqu'd I'etablissement des Hongrois en Europe, suivis des 
It'ficndes et traditions, 2 vols., Paris, 1856. 

Avars. K. GROH, Kiimpfe der Avaren und Langobarden, Halle, 
1889 (dissertation). 

Hungarians in Europe. K. LUTTICH, Ungarnziige in Europa im 
10 Jahrhundert, Berlin, 1910 (Historisehe Studien, edited by E. 
Ebering, 84). For literature on the battle of the Leehfeld in 955 
see DAHLMANN-WAITZ, Quellenkunde, no. 4816. J. B. BURY, "The 
coming of the Hungarians: their origin and early homes," Scottish 
review, XX (1892), 29-52. A. VAMBERY, Der Ursprung der Mag- 
yaren, Leipzig, 1882. L. DUSSIEUX, Essai sur les invasions des Hon- 
grois en Europe et en France, Paris, 1839. 

Original sources. See the large collections, nos. 1002-1006 
above, and Enchiridion fontium historiae Hungarorum, edited by 
H. MARCZALI and others, Budapest, 1901. 

Bibliographies. Cambridge medieval history, I, 660-665; II, 
770-784. LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire generale, I, 741-742. See 
also nos. 46-47 above. 

XII. EARLY MEDIEVAL INSTITUTIONS 
A. OUTLINE 

1. The danger of massing together almost all medieval institu- 
tions, and studying them under the caption "Feudalism." Mean- 
ing and application of this term in the history of medieval Europe 
and in other times and places. In this outline chief attention is 
given to the institutions of the area which is now France. 

2. The intermingling of ancient institutions, Graeco-Roman, 
Jewish, Celtic, Teutonic, and Slavic. Impossibility of disentang- 
ling the various elements. 

3. Germanic ideas of law and their application. Personality 
of law. Peculiar ideas about legal evidence. Compurgation. 
Ordeals. Wager of battle. Wergeld. The Leges barbarorum, espe- 
cially the Lex Salica, the Lex Bipuariorum, the Leges Visigothorum, 
Leges Burgundionum, Lex Saxonum, Lex Frisionum, Lex Alaman- 
norum, and the Leges Langobardorum. The Leges Bomanae, epitomes 
of Roman law. 

4. The survival of a very narrow stream of Roman law (Lex 
Bomana) in the early middle ages. Its chief hold was in the church 
which also fostered Jewish ideas of law. .Until about 1100 A.D. the 
Justinian code was little known in the west. The Edictum Theo- 

id about 500, the Breviarium Alarici, 506 (also known as the 



160 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Breviarium Alaricianum or Lex Eomana Visigothorum) , and the Lex 
romana Burgundionum promulgated by king Gundobad. 
/ 5. The dreams of a universal empire and a universal Christian 
brotherhood contrasted with the actual political and social state 
of Europe after Charlemagne. 

6. Political disorganization caused by the inroads of the foes 
of western Christendom and by internal disorder. Consequent lack 
of improvement of economic conditions. Failure of the empire to 
guard life and property and the consequent rise of other agents 
who performed this service. Unusual importance of the strongly 
armed and mounted man and the fortified house and walled town. 
Petty feudal warfare. 

7. Older institutions which may have had some influence in 
shaping feudal institutions. The Germanic comitatus. The Eoman 
patrocinium and precarium. I 

8. Fundamental elements in feudalism: .(1) the personal ele- 
ment; (2) the economic element; and (3) Jthe governmental ele- 
ment. The very gradual fusion of all these elements. Endless con- 
fusion resulting from this commingling which made feudalism any- 
thing but a system. 

9. The personal element. Need of the weaker and poorer man 
to bind himself to a stronger and richer man in times of disorder 
when the state did not give adequate protection. Commendation. 
Homage and fealty. Lord and vassal. Capitulary of Kiersey, 
877 A.D. Duties of lord to his vassal: protection and justice. 
Duties of vassal to his lord: aid and counsel. Aid consisted largely 
of military service, which was honorable, noble service (castle- 
ward) ; but in time the vassal was bound to aid his lord in many 
other ways, e.g., relief, fines on alienation, the technical ' ' aids, ' ' 
three ordinary and two extraordinary, entertainment (droit de 
gite, coshering). The lord had many special rights, escheat, for- 
feiture, coinage. Counsel consisted largely of service in the 
lord's court, but might also be merely advice and helpfulness when 
the lord was in difficulties. 

10. The economic element. The infeudation of land and other 
sources of income. The benefice. The fief (feudum). Earity of 
allodial holdings. Peculiar ideas about tenure (ridiculous ten- 
ures). Development of primogeniture. 

11. The governmental element. The localization of govern- 
mental functions by usurpation, long undisputed exercise, and the 
granting of immunities. Special importance of the legal rights of 
land holders. Feudal courts and feudal law. Justice as a source 
of income. 



XH MEDIEVAL INSTITUTIONS 161 

12. Sharp division of classes of people. Drastic distinction 
between nobles and non-nobles. Slavery in the early middle ages. 
Feudal relations existed only among the nobles. The non-nobles 
were not concerned in feudalism except that they formed the 
economic basis upon which it was reared. A serf was not the 
vassal of his lord. Lay nobles and ecclesiastical nobles. Tor the 
life of nobles in the middle ages, see outline XXVII below; for 
the life of non-nobles, see outline XXVI below. 

13. Monarchy in the midst of feudalism. Theoretically the 
king was the apex of an imaginary feudal pyramid, but actually 
monarchy was fundamentally at variance with feudal conditions. 

14. The church in the midst of feudalism. Especially by 
bequests the church acquired much land and wealth which became 
infeudated as did almost all property in the middle ages. Mort- 
main. Lay investiture. Efforts of the church to serve as peace- 
maker in the endless feudal warfare. The "Truce of God" and 
the "Peace of God." 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EEADING 

Short general accounts. Most of the subjects of this outline 
are treated briefly in EMERTON, Introduction to the middle ages, chs. 
vin and xv ; and in his Mediaeval Europe, ch. xiv. ADAMS, Civilization 
during the middle ages, ch. ix (see also the same author's article 
"Feudalism" in the eleventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica). ROBINSON, History of western Europe, ch. ix, or his, Medieval 
and modern times, ch. vi. MUNRO and SELLERY, Medieval civilization, 
159-211. The beginnings of these conditions are now briefly 
described by VINOGRADOFF in the Cambridge medieval history, II, ch. 
xx (see also pp. 151-155). 

More extended accounts. The best survey of moderate com- 
pass is by SEIGNOBOS, in LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire g&nerale, II, 
ch. i, which has been translated by E. W. Dow, The feudal regime, 
New York, 1902. A similar treatment with more particular refer- 
ence to France is in LAVISSE, Histoire de France, II, part I, 194- 
215, 414-439; part II; 1-38. The article "FSodalite" by MORTET 
in La grande encyclopedic, XVII, 191-229, is authoritative. 

Germanic ideas of law. In addition to ch. vm of EMERTON, 
Introduction, read H. C. LEA, Superstition and force, Philadelphia, 
1878; J. B. THAYER, A preliminary treatise on evidence at the com- 
mon law, Boston, 1898, chs. I and ii; and G. NEILSON, Trial by com- 
bat, London, 1890, 1-74. 

Roman law in the early middle ages. P. VINOORADOFF, Roman 
law in mediaeval Europe, New York, 1900, is an excellent book. 



162 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

The church and feudalism. H. C. LEA, Studies in church history, 
has a good chapter on "The church and feudalism," 342-391 (see 
also pp. 524-574 on slavery). 

Peace of God and Truce of God. LAVISSE, Histoire de France, 
II, part II, 133-138. The article "Truce of God" in the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica. 

Original sources. For illustrative documents in English trans- 
lation see Translations and reprints, IV, no. 3, ' ' Documents illustra- 
tive of feudalism," and no. 4, "Ordeals, compurgation, etc."; 
OGG, Source book, 196-232; THATCHER and McNEAL, Source book, 
341-387; and ROBINSON, Readings, I, 171-191. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 69. LONGNON, Atlas historique de la 
France, plates vn-xi. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. Feudal conditions are touched upon in a large 
number of general books on the middle ages, but see especially 
the manuals on the history of institutions of France, Germany 
and Italy, nos. 528-536, 552, 578-587, 605-609, above. See also 
the important books of FUSTEL DE COULANGES, p. 137 above. 

Feudalism in general. V. MENZEL, Die Entstehung des Lehns- 
wesens, Berlin, 1890. F. LOT, Fideles ou vassaux : etude sur la nature 
juridique du lien qui unissait les grands vassaux a la royaute depuis 
le milieu du IX e siecle jusqu'd la fin du Xlle siecle, Paris, 1904 (dis- 
sertation). J. T. ABDY, Feudalism: its rise, progress, and conse- 
quences, London, 1890 (lectures delivered at Gresham College). 
S. E. TURNER, A sketch of the Germanic constitution from early times 
to the dissolution of the empire, New York and London, 1888. 
E. WIART, Essai sur la precaria, Paris, 1894. A. PROST, L'im- 
munite: etudes sur I'histoire et la developpement de cette insti- 
tution, Paris, 1882, extract from the Nouvelle revue historique du 
droit frangais. E. BOUTARIC, ' ' Le regime feodal, son origine et son 
etablissement, et particulierement de 1'immunite, " in Revue de 
questions historiques, XVIII (1875), 325-380. P. ROTH, Feudalitat 
und Unterthanenverband, Weimar, 1863 (see the important review 
of this book by G. WAITZ, "Die Anfange des Lehnwesens, " in 
Historische Zeitschrift, XIII (1865), 90-111). P. ROTH, Geschichte 
des Benefisialwesens von den dltesten Zeiten bis ins zehnte Jahrhun- 
dert, Erlangen, 1850. E. BEAUDOIN, Etudes sur les origines du 
regime feodal: la recommandation et le justice seigneuriale (Annales 
de 1'enseignement superieur de Grenoble, 1889). G. L. v. MAURER, 
Geschichte der Frohnhofe, Bauernhofe und Hofverfassung in Deutsch- 
land, 4 vols., Erlangen, 1862. G. WAITZ, fiber die Anfange der 



MEDIEVAL INSTITUTIONS 163 

Vassalitdt, Gb'ttingen, 1856 (from vol. VII of no. 897 above). H. P. 
FANGERON, Les benefices et la vassalite au IXc siecle, Rennes, 1868. 
Du CANGE, Glossarium, no. 309 note above, contains much valuable 
information about feudal terms. 

Feudalism in France. P. GUILHIERMOZ, Essai sur I'origine de la 
noblesse en France au moyen age, Paris, 1902. H. SEE, Les classes 
rurales et la regime domanial en France au moyen age, Paris, 1901, 
has an excellent bibliography, pp. vi-xxxvii. A. GENGEL, Die 
Geschichte des frdnkischen Eeichs im besonderen Hinblick auf die 
Entstehung des Feudalismus, Frauenfehl, 1908. M. KROLL, L 'im- 
munity franque, Paris, 1911. E. BOURGEOIS, Le capitulaire de Kiersy- 
sur-Oise (877), Paris, 1885 (dissertation). C. SEIGNOBOS, Le regime 
feodal en Bourgogne jusqu 'en 1360, Paris, 1882. A. MOLINIER, 
' ' Geographic feodale du Languedoc, ' ' in Histoire generate de 
Lajiguedoc, XII, 225-312; and his "Etude sur 1 'administration 
feodale dans le Languedoc, 900-1250," ibid., VII, 132-213. 

Slavery and serfdom. P. ALLARD, Les esclaves Chretiens, Paris, 
1914; and his, Les origines du servage en France, Paris, 1913. AGNES 
M. WERGELAND, Slavery in Germanic society during the middle ages, 
Chicago, 1916. F. SCHAUB, Studien zur Geschichte der Slclaverei im 
Friihmittelalter, Berlin, 1913 (Abhandlungen zur mittleren und 
neueren Geschichte, 44). F. PIJPER, "The Christian church and 
slavery in the middle ages," in American historical review, XIV 
(1909), 675-695. 

Church and feudalism. E. LESNE, Histoire de la propriete eccle- 
siastique en France aux epoques romaine et merovingienne, Paris, 
1910. G. A. PREVOST, L'eglise et les campagnes au moyen age, Paris, 
1892. U. STUTZ, Geschichte des kirchlichen Benefizialwesens von 
seinen Anfdngen bis auf die Zeit Alexanders III, Berlin, 1896. 

Peace of God and Truce of God. L. HUBERTI, Studien zur 
Rechtsgeschichte der Gottesfrieden und Landfrieden, vol. I, Die 
Friedens-Ordnungen in Frankreich, Ansbach, 1892. K. W. NITZSCH, 
Heinrich IF und der Gottes- und Landfrieden (in Forschungen zur 
deutschen Geschichte, 21). S. HERZBERG-FRANKEL, Die dltesten 
Land- und Gottesfrieden in Deutschland, (ibid., 3). E. SEMICHON, 
La paix et la treve de dieu, Paris, 1857, 2nd edition, 1869. F. KOcn, 
Die Landfriedensbestrcbungen Kaiser Friedrichs I, Marburg, 1887 
(dissertation). J. FEHR, Der Gottcsfricde und die katholische Kirche 
des Mittelalters, Augsburg, 1861. A. KLUCKHOLM, Geschichte des 
Gottesfriedens, Leipzig, 1857. 

Germanic law. K. VON AMIRA, Grundrisn des (jermanutchen Sechts, 
3rd edition, Strasburg, 1913 (vol. % V of the 3rd edition of no. 307 
above). E. H. MACNEAL, The minores and mediocres in the Germanic 



164 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

tribal laws, Chicago, 1905 (dissertation). E. JENKS, Law and politics 
in the middle ages with a synoptic table of sources, London, 1913 
(see especially ch. i). F. POLLOCK and F. W. MAITLAND, The history 
of English law before the time of Edward I, 2 vols., Cambridge, 1895; 
2nd edition, 1898. O. DECLAREUIL, Les epreuves judiciaires dans le 
droit franc du Ve au VIII siecle, Paris, 1899. F. PATETTA, Le ordalie, 
Turin, 1890. S. BIDAULT DES CHAUMES, Etude sur le Mallum, Paris, 
1906. J. J. H. DAGASSAN, Du relevement de I'autorite publique sous 
Charlemagne, etude sur le droit public aux VHIe et IX e siecles d'apres 
les capitulaires, Bordeaux, 1895. H. BRUNNEE, Die Entstehung der 
Schwurgerichte, Berlin, 1872; to be supplemented by C. H. HASKINS, 
"The early Norman jury," in American historical review, VIII 
(1902-03), 613-640. 

Roman law in the early middle ages. A. v. HALBAN-BLUMEN- 
STOCK, Das romische Becht in den germanischen Volksstaaten, Bres- 
lau, 1899-1907 (parts 56, 65, and 89 of Untersuchungen zur 
deutschen Staats und Eechtsgeschichte, edited by O. GIERKE, Breslau, 
1878ft.). 

Original sources. Much miscellaneous matter may be found in such 
general collections as nos. 967, 978, and 988 above. The important For- 
mulae Merovingici et Karolini aevi, edited by K. ZEUMER in no. 978 
above, Leges, vol. V, Hannover, 1882-1886, had been edited by E. DE 
KOZIERE entitled, Becueil general des formules usites dans' I' empire 
des Francs du V& au Xe siecle, 3 vols., Paris, 1859-1871. Textes rela- 
tifs aux institutions privees et publiques aux epoques merovingienne et 
carolingienne, edited by !M. THEVENIN, Paris, 1887, is a part of no. 
968 above. Layettes du tresor des chartes, edited by A. TEULET and 
DE LABORDE, 3 vols., Paris, 1863-1875. Livre des vassaux du Comte 
de Champaigne et de Brie, 1172-1222, edited by A. LONGNON, 2 vols., 
Paris, 1901-1904. A very interesting picture of the way in which 
the most famous abbey of Paris was involved in feudalism is 
furnished by the Polyptique de I'abbe Irmion ou denombrement des 
manses, des serfs et des revenus de I'abbaye de St. Germain de Pres 
sous le regne de Charlemagne, edited with prolegomena by B. GUERARD, 
2 vols., Paris, 1844, new edition by A. LONGNON, 2 vols., Paris, 
1886-1895 (Documents de la Societe de 1'histoire de Paris). 

Bibliographies. The best bibliography is in DAHLMANN-WAITZ, 
Quellenlcunde, nos. 4383-4614. See also Cambridge medieval history, 
II, 810-812. 



BEGINNINGS OP MONARCHIES 165 

XIII. THE BEGINNINGS OF THE GREATER MEDIEVAL 

MONARCHIES 

A. OUTLINE 

1. The inevitable conflict between the various political factors 
in the middle ages: (1) papacy, (2) empire, (3) kingdoms, (4) local 
feudal principalities, (5) cities. The ultimate victory of the king- 
doms. The nature and importance of kingship in the middle ages. 

2. Louis the Pious, the successor of Charlemagne, 814-840. His 
relations with the church and the papacy. Various divisions of 
his empire during his reign. The birth of Charles (the Bald), in 
822. Wars with his sons. The ' ' Field of Lies, ' ' 833. 

3. The breakup of the empire of Charlemagne. The fatal prin- 
ciple of division, the attacks of foes from all sides, and other 
causes. Civil strife between the sons of Louis the Pious: Lothair, 
Louis the German, and Charles (Pepin had died in 838). The 
battle of Fontenay, 841. The Strasburg oaths, 842. The important 
Treaty of Verdun, 843. The shoe-string portion of Lothair, Loth- 
arii regnum (later Lotharingia), a permanent source of trouble. 
Well-defined East-Frankish and West-Frankish regions. Partition 
of Mersen, 870. Charles II, the Bald, 875-881. Charles the Fat 
(881-888), sole ruler of the Franks in 885. His weakness was 
illustrated by the .siege of Paris by the Northmen in 885, and he 
was deposed in 887. 

4. The grand divisions of the Carolingian empire: (1) West- 
Frankish kingdom, (2) East-Frankish kingdom, (3) Italy, (4) Bur- 
gundy, (5) Provence, (6) Lorraine. 

5. Germany, the East-Frankish kingdom. The great stem- 
duchies: (1) Saxony, (2) Franconia, (3) Bavaria, (4) Swabia. The 
intermediate position of Lotharingia or Lorraine. The early kings 
of Germany: Arnulf of Carinthia (887-899), Louis the Child, (899- 
911), Conrad I of Franconia (911-918), Henry I, the Fowler (919- 
936). The importance of the last reign. Battle near Merseburg 
on the Unstrut against the Hungarians in 933. 

6. France, the West-Frankish kingdom. Odo, count of Paris, 
the hero of the siege of Paris, king of West Frank land 888-898, 
but soon after became the vassal of Arnulf, king of Germany. 
For a whole century it was doubtful whether France would be inde- 
pendent or subject to Germany. The successors of Odo: Charles 
the Simple, 898-923; Robert I, 923; Rudolf of Burgundy, 923-936. 
Reinstatement of the Carolingian line in the person of Louis IV, 
d'Outre-mer, 936-954, (who was the son of Charles the Simple). 



166 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

His successors, Lothaire, 954-986, and Louis V, le DSbonnair, 986- 
987, were the last of the Carolingians in the West. The change 
of dynasty in 987 when Hugh Capet (987-996, founder of the 
Capetian line of French kings) was chosen king. Paris became the 
capital. Painfully slow growth of kingly power under his suc- 
cessors, Eobert II, the Pious, 996-1031; Henry I, 1031-1060; Philip 
I, 1060-1108. During this last reign, William of Normandy won 
England, 1066, and the crusades began in 1095. 

7. Italy. Rivalry between Berengar of Friuli and Guy of 
Spoleto. Invasions of the Saracens (see outline IX above) and 
Hungarians (see outline XI above). Alberic's domination in Borne, 
928-941. The degradation of the papacy (Marozia, pope John XI, 
931-936). 

8. England, from Alfred the Great (871-901) to William the 
Conqueror (1066-1087). 

9. The importance of the middle region, Lorraine and Bur- 
gundy. 

10. The rising kingdoms of Spain (see outline XXXIV below). 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

Short general sketches. EMERTON, Mediaeval Europe, ehs. i and 
in. DAVIS, Medieval Europe, chs. HI-IV. 

Longer general accounts. OMAN, The dark ages, chs. xxm-xxix, 
together with TOUT, Empire and papacy, chs. n (in part) and iv. 
A similar account in French is in LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire 
generale, I, chs. vin, x, xi. 

France. Short sketches in English may be found in ADAMS, 
Growth of the French nation, chs. v-vi; KITCHIN, History of France, 
4th edition, I, 153-215; MACDONALD, A history of France, I, chs. VI- 
vn. The best account is in LAVISSE, Histoire de France, II, part I, 
358-413; part II, 39-77, 144-178. 

Germany. E. F. HENDERSON, A history of Germany in the middle 
ages, chs. vi-vni. W. STUBBS, Germany in the early middle ages, chs. 
IH-V. Handbuch der deutschen Geschichte, edited by GEBHARDT, I, 
portions of chs. vi and vm. 

Italy. P. VILLARI, Mediaeval Italy from Charlemagne to Henry 
VII, 1-75. H. B. COTTERILL, Mediaeval Italy, 385-398. H. D. SEDG- 
VVICK, Short history of Italy, chs. vii-vm. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 56, 58-65. Read FREEMAN, Historical 
geography of Europe, in connection with it. For France, see LONG- 
NON, Atlas historique de la France, plates vi-xi, and read the explana- 
tory text which goes with it. 



BEGINNINGS OP MONARCHIES 167 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. The general books on France, Belgium and 
the Netherlands, Germany, and Italy, nos. 508-621 above, are espe- 
cially useful. Some of the books mentioned in the outline on 
"Charlemagne," above, such as MUHLBACHER and KLEINCLAUSZ, 
pertain to this period. The same is true of many books in the 
previous outline on "Early medieval institutions," such as GENGEL 
and BOURGEOIS, Le capitulaire de Kiersy-sur-Oise. 

Decline of the Caroling!" ns. J. CALMETTE, La diplomatic caro- 
lingienne du traite de Verdun a la morte de Charles le Chauve, 843-77, 
Paris, 1901, part 135 of no. 888 above. J. W. THOMPSON, The decline 
of the missi dominici in Prankish Gaul, Chicago University Press, 
1903, is a short paper of 23 pages. G. MONOD, Du role de I'opposi- 
tion des races et des nationalites dans la dissolution de I'empire caro- 
lingien (in Annuaire de 1'Ecole pratique des hautes Etudes, 1896). 
T. POUZET, La succession de Charlemagne et le traite de Verdun, Paris, 
1890. F. LOT and L. HALPHEN, Annales de I'histoire de France d 
I'epoque carolingienne : le regne de Charles le Chauve (840-877), part 
'I, 840-851, Paris, 1909, part 175 of no. 888 above. 

Oaths of Strasburg. A. GASTE, Les serments de Strasbourg: 
etude historique, critique et philologique, 2nd edition, Paris, 1888. 
A. KRAFFT, Les serments carolingiens de 84% d Strasbourg en roman 
et tudesque: avec nouvelles interpretations linguistiques et considera- 
tions ethnographiques, Paris, 1901. 

Beginnings of France. J. FLACH, Les origines de I'ancienne 
France: X* et XI* siecles, 3 vols., Paris, 1886-1904. F. FUNCK- 
BRENTANO, L'ancicnne France: le roi. H. SCHREUER, Die rechtlichen 
Grundgedanken der franzosischen Konigskronung. A. LONGNON, 
Origines et formation de la nationalite fran^aise, elements ethniques, 
nn iti', territorial, Paris, 1912. R. LATOUCHE, Histoire du comte du 
Maine pendant le X e et le Xl e siecle, Paris, 1910. L. HALPHEN, Le 
comt6 d'Anjou au XIc siecle, Paris, 1906. F. LOT, Melanges d'his- 
toire bretonne [6-11 century], Paris, 1907. J. FLACH, "Le comt6 
ilc Fliindre et ses rapports avec la couronne de France du IX* au 
XII" siecle," in Revue historique, CXV (1914), 1-33, 241-271. 

Early kings of France, 888-987. E. FAVRE, Eudes, comte de 
I'm -is et roi de France, 882-898, Paris, 1893, part 99 of no. 888 
above. A. ECKEL, Charles le Simple, Paris, 1899, part 124 of no. 
888 above. P. LAUER, Robert I vr ct Raoul de Hourgogne, rois de 
France, 923-936, Paris, 1910, part 188 of no. 888 above. W. LIPPERT, 
A' iin iff Rudolf von Frankreich, Leipzig, 1886 (dissertation). P. 
LAUER, Le regne de Louis IV, d'Outre-mcr, Paris", 1900, part 127 of 
no. 888 above. A. HEIL, Die politischen Bczifhunf/cn zwischen Otto 



168 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

dem Grossen und Ludwig IV von Frankreich (936-954), Berlin, 1904 
(Historische Studien, 46). F. LOT, Les derniers Carolingiens: 
Lothaire, Louis V, Charles de Lorraine (954-991), Paris, 1891, part 
87 of no 888 above. A. HIMLY, Wala et Louis le Debonnaire, Paris, 
1849. 

Hugh Capet and the first Capetian kings of France, 987-1108. 
A. LUCHAIRE, Histoire des institutions monarchiques de la France 
(987-1180), 2 vols., 2nd edition, Paris, 1891ff. F. Lor, Etudes sur 
le regne de Hugues Capet et la fin du Xc siecle, Paris, 1903, part 147 
of no. 888 above. C. PFISTER, Etudes sur le regne de Robert le Pieux, 
996-1031, Paris, 1885, part 64 of no. 888 above. A. FLICHE, Le 
regne de Philippe I* r , roi de France (1060-1108), Paris, 1912. 

Germany. B. SIMSON, Jahrbiieher des frdnkischen Reiches unter 
Ludwig dem Frommen, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1874-1876, part of no. 570 
above. E. DUMMLER, Geschichte des ostfrdnkischen Reiches [to 918], 
2nd edition, 3 vols., Leipzig, 1887-1888, part of no. 570 above. 
G. WAITZ, Jahrbiieher des deutschen Reiches unter Heinrich I, 3rd 
edition, Leipzig, 1885, part of no. 570 above. 

Italy. G. ROMANO, Le dominazioni barbariche in Italia, 395- 
1024, Milan, 1909ff., part of no. 599 above. C. W. PREVIT ORTON, 
The early history of the House of Savoy, 1000-1233, Cambridge 
University Press, 1912. G. MENGOZZI, La cittd italiana nell' alto 
medio evo: il periodo Longobardo-Franco, Home, 1914. S. HELLMANN, 
Die Graf en von Savoyen und das Reich bis zum E-nde der staufischen 
Periode, Innsbruck, 1900. 

Lorraine. R. PARISOT, Le royaume de Lorraine sous les Caro- 
lingiens, 843-923, Paris, 1899 (dissertation); and his, Les origines 
de la Haute-Lorraine et sa premiere maison ducale, 959-1033, Paris, 
1909. H. WELSCHINGER, Strasbourg, Paris, 1908 (Les villes d'art 
celebres). See also nos. 597-598 above. 

Burgundy. A. HOFMEISTER, Deutschland und Burgund im friih- 
eren Mittelalter: eine Studie iiber die Entstehung des Arelatischcn 
Reiches und seine politische Bedeutung, Leipzig, 1914. E. PETIT, 
Histoire des dues de Bourgogne de la race capetienne [to 1363], 9 
vols., Paris, 1885-1905. R. POUPARDIN, La royaume de Bourgogne 
(888-1038), Paris, 1907. L. JACOB, Le royaume de Bourgogne sous 
les empereurs Franconiens, 1038-1125, Paris, 1906. A. J. KLEIN- 
CLAUSZ, Dijon et Beaume, Paris, 1907 (Les villes d'art celebres). 
A. HALLAYS, Nancy, Paris, 1908 (Les villes d'art celebres). 

Provence. G. DE MANTEYER, La Provence du premier au dou- 
zieme siecle, Paris, 1908, in Memoires et documents of the Societe 
de 1'ecole des chartes, vol. VIII. R. POUPARDIN, Le royaume de 
Provence sous les Carolingiens (855-933), Paris, 1901, part 131 of 



GERMAN EMPIRE 169 

no. 888 above. F. KIENER, Ferfassungsgeschichte der Provence seit 
der Ostgothenherrschaft bis zur Errichtung der Konsulate (510-1200), 
Leipzig, 1900. 

Original sources. Practically all the important sources have 
been published in nos. 965-994 above. Die Eegesten des Kaiser- 
reichs unter den Karolingern, 751-918, 2nd edition, completed by 
J. LECHNER, Innsbruck, 1908, are continued by Die Segesten des 
Kaiserreichs under den Herrschern aus dem sdcJisischen Hause, 919 
1024, new edition by E. v. OTTENTHAL, part I (to 973), Innsbruck, 
1893, parts of no. 985 above. For documentary material on early 
France, see especially no. 975 above. 

Bibliographies. DAHLMANN-WAITZ, Quellenkunde, pp. 289-295 
passim, 298-301, 324-333. The sources, especially for France, are 
best described in A. MOLINIER, Les sources, I, pp. 227-286, II, 1-18. 
See also the general bibliographies, nos. 21-41 above. 



XIV. REVIVAL OF THE MEDIEVAL EMPIRE IN THE 
WEST IN GERMANY 

A. OUTLINE 

1. The manifold transformations of the medieval empire make 
it a difficult and elusive subject to study. Glaring contrasts 
between theory and actuality. 

2. The early years of the reign of Otto I, 936-962. Splendid 
coronation at Aachen. Local German affairs with feudal nobles 
and the church. Wars with Slavs and Hungarians (Lechfeld, 
955). Relations with Italy. The political state of Italy and the 
p:il>acy in the tenth century. Alberic II. Saracens and Byzan- 
tines in the south. Adelaide of Burgundy, widow of Lothair, was 
imprisoned by Berengar of Ivrea. Otto intervened in Italy in 
!i")1, married Adelaide, and became king of Italy. 

3. The creation of the German-Roman empire. Fearful degrada- 
tion of the papacy and the church in Italy. In 961 Otto crossed 
the Alps to restore order. In 962 he was crowned emperor by pope 
John XII. Otto's empire compared with that of Charlemagne. 
Results of the revival of the imperial dignity for Germany and 
Italy, especially the papacy. Otto I relations with the Byzantine 
empire. His son (later Otto II), who had been crowned king of 
the Germans in 961 and emperor on Christmas day 967, was mar- 
ried in 972 to Theophano, daughter of the eastern emperor Romanus 
II. 



170 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PABTII 

4. Otto II, 973-983. He ascended the throne at the age of 
eighteen. Laid more stress on his position as emperor than on his 
position as German king. Crescentius, duke of the Eomans, ca. 
980. Wars with the Greeks in south Italy. Diet of Verona in 983 
to plan a campaign against the Saracens. Otto II died at the age 
of twenty-eight and was buried in St. Peter's church in Rome. 

5. Otto III, 983-1002, the "Wonder of the world." Only three 
years old at his accession. His Greek mother Theophano (died 
991) became regent. Coronation of Otto in 996. Eevolt of the 
second Crescentius. Influence of the clergy on Otto III. His 
dream of a real Roman empire with Rome as its capital. Gerbert 
of Aurillac (pope Sylvester II, 999-1003). Learning at the Ottonian 
court. Otto's loss of hold in Germany and failure in Italy. He 
died in 1002 at the age of twenty-two, and was buried in Aachen. 

6. The legend of the year 1000. 

7. Henry II, (the Saint) 1002-1024, son of Henry the Quarrel- 
some of Bavaria. Wars with the king of Poland, Boleslav, and 
extension of German influence and the Roman church eastward. 
Crowned emperor in Rome in 1014 by pope Benedict VIII. Close 
relations of Henry with the Cluniac reforming monks in Germany. 

8. The empire at its height; Conrad II (1024-1039), and Henry 
III (1039-1056). With Conrad the Saxon line of kings and 
emperors (911-1024) ended, and the Franconian or Salian line 
(1024-1125) began. Conrad's wars with the Poles. Union of Bur- 
gundy with the empire in 1032. Henry III successful foreign 
policy. Comparative order within his empire. His control of the 
German church and his ardor for church reform. The synod at 
Sutri, 1046, and the deposition of three rival popes (Sylvester III, 
Benedict IX, Gregory VI). Henry appointed as pope the German 
Clement II, who crowned him emperor December 25, 1046. 

9. The impending irrepressible conflict between the empire and 
the papacy. 

10. The origin of the name ' ' Holy Roman Empire of the Ger- 
man People. ' ' 

11. Kings of Germany, 887-1056, 

Arnulf, 887-896 Otto III, 983-1002 

Louis, the Child, 899-911 Henry II, the Saint, 1002- 

Conrad I, 911-918 1024 

Henry I, the Fowler, 918- Conrad II, 1024-1039 

936 Henry III, the Black, 1039- 
Otto I, the Great, 936-973 1056 

Otto, II, 973-983 



XIV GERMAN EMPIRE 171 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

General accounts. Best of all is J. BRYCE, Holy Roman Empire, 
chs. vn-ix. EMERTON, Mediaeval Europe, chs. ni-vi. TOUT, The 
empire and the papacy, chs. i-m. LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, His- 
toire generate, I, 542-569. HENDERSON, A history of Germany in 
the middle ages, chs. vin-xil (or a shorter sketch in his, A short 
history of Germany, ch. in). FISHER, The medieval empire, I, chs. 
i-n, passim. Handbuch der deutschen Geschichte, edited by B. GEB- 
HARDT, I, ch. vin. 

Italy in this period. VILLARI, Mediaeval Italy from Charlemagne 
to Henry VII, part I, chs. v-vi. GREGOROVIUS, Rome in the middle 
ages, II, book VI. 

Nature of the German empire. A. KLEINCLAUSZ, L'empire caro- 
lingien, pp. 541-585, "Les origines carolingiennes du Saint-Empire 
romaine germanique. " J. JANSSEN, "International conception 
of the Holy Roman empire, ' ' in his History of the German people, 
translated from the German by M. A. MITCHELL, St. Louis, 1896ff., 
II, 105-17. 

Origin of name, "Holy Roman Empire of the German People." 
K. ZEUMER, Heiliges romisches Reich deutscher Nation. 

Legend of the year 1000. G. L. BURR, "The year 1000," in 
.Imrrican historical review, VI (1901), 429-439. 

Original sources. Among the interesting sources of the period 
is, Der Hrotsuitha Gedicht iiber Gandersheims Griindung und die 
Thatcn Kaiser Oddo I, translated into German by T. G. PFUND, 2nd 
edition, Leipzig, 1891, part of no. 981 above. For short extracts 
from the sources see ROBINSON, Readings, I, 245-265; and THATCHER 
and McNEAL, Source book, 72-81. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 58-59, 62-63. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. See especially the works on the medieval 
empire in the west, nos. 499-507 above, but the general books on 
Germany and Italy, nos. 560-621 above, are equally important. 
See also no. 538 above. 

General accounts. M. MANITIUS, Deutsche Geschichte unter den 
sachsischen und salischen Kaisern, 911-1125, Stuttgart, 1889, part 
of no. 560 above. K. HAMPE, Deutsche Kaiseraeschichte in der Zeit 
der Salier und Staufer, Leipzig, 1909, 2nd edition, 1912, part of no. 
320 above. J. ZELLER, Fondation de I'empirc germanique: Otton 
le Grand et les Ottonides, Paris, 1873. E. ROSENSTOCK, Konighaus 
und Stamme in Deutschland zwischen 911 und 1250, Leipzig, 1914. 



172 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

A. KROENER, Wahl und Kronung der deutschen Kaiser und Konige in 
Italien (Lombardei), Freiburg, 1901. T. LINDNER, Die deutschen 
Konigswahlcn, und die Entstehung des Kurfiirstenthums, Leipzig, 
1893. 

Otto I. E. KOPKE and E. DUMMLER, Jahrbiicher Kaiser Otto der 
Grosse, Leipzig, 1876, part of no. 570 above. The life of the 
empress Adelaide is told in the following two doctoral disserta- 
tions: E. P. WIMMER, Kaiserin Adelheid, Gemahlin Ottos I der 
Grosse, in ihrem Leben und 1>t %r~ken von 931-973, Erlangen, 1897; 
and J. BENTZINGER, Das Leben der Kaiserin Adelheid, Gemahlin 
Ottos I, wdhrend der Eegierung Ottos III, Breslau, 1883. For wars 
with Slavs and especially Hungarians, see outline XI above. 

Otto II. K. UHLIRZ, Jahrbiicher des deutschen Eeiches unter 
Otto II und Otto III, vol. 1, Otto II, Leipzig, 1902, part of no. 
570 above. G. MULLER-MANN, Die auswdrtige PolitiTc Kaiser Ottos 
II, Lorrach, 1898 (dissertation, Gb'ttingen). For the Greek Theo- 
phano, wife of Otto II, see J. MOLTMANN, Theophano, die Gemahlin 
Ottos II, in ihrer Bedeutung fur die Politilc Ottos I und Ottos II, 
Gottingen, 1878 (dissertation). 

Otto III. E. WILMANS, Jahrbiicher des deutschen Eeiches unter 
Otto III, Berlin, 1840. P. KEHR, "Zur Geschichte Ottos III," in 
Historische Zeitschrift, LXVI (1891), 385-443. L. HALPHEN, "La 
cour d'Otto III a Borne (998-1001)," in Melanges d'archeologie 
et d'histoire, XXV. C. Lux, Papst Silvester II Einfluss auf die 
Politik Kaiser Ottos III, Breslau, 1898. W. NORDEN, Erzbishof 
Friedrich von Mains und Otto der Grosse, Berlin, 1912. 

Henry II. S. HIRSCH, Jahrbiicher des deutschen Eeiches unter 
Heinrich II, 3 vols., Leipzig, 1862-1874, part of no. 570 above. 

Conrad II. H. BRESSLAU, Jahrbiicher des deutschen Eeichs unter 
Konrad II, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1879-1884, part of no. 570 above. 
J. v. PFLUGK-HARTTUNG, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Kaiser 
Konrads II, Stuttgart, 1890. 

Henry III. E. STEINDORF, Jahrbiicher des deutschen Eeichs unter 
Heinrich III, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1874-1881, is part of no. 570 above. 

Original sources. All the essential sources are printed in nos. 
978-987 above. 

Bibliographies. DAHLMANN-WAITZ, Quellenkunde, pp. 324-337. 
344-345. See also nos. 29-35 above. 



EARLY MEDIEVAL CHURCH 173 

XV. THE CHUKCH FROM THE EIGHTH TO THE ELEVENTH 

CENTURY 

A. OUTLINE 

1. Eelation of the church and state in Carolingian times. Con"- 
trast between the reigns of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious. 
Beginnings of the struggle between empire and papacy for pre- 
eminence. The question of the crowning of emperors by popes 
and the recognition of popes by emperors. 

2. The papacy in the ninth century. The donations to the 
papacy. The states of the church ("Patrimony of St. Peter"). 
Attacks of Saracens on Rome before and during the pontificate 
of Leo IV, 847-855. The "Leonine City." The pseudo-Isidorian 
Decretals ("False Decretals"). The very real power of pope 
Nicholas I (858-867), illustrated by his action in the Photian 
schism in Constantinople, in the divorce of King Lothair II of 
Lorraine, and by his victory over Hincmar, the defiant archbishop 
of Rheims. 

3. The widening gulf between the Latin and Greek churches. 
The iconoclastic controversy began early in the eighth century, 
when the emperor Leo III, the Isaurian (717-740), declared against 
images. In 754 the Synod of Constantinople condemned images. 
The position of Charlemagne and the empress Irene on this ques- 
tion. Other differences between the eastern and western churches. 
In 863, pope Nicholas I deposed the patriarch Photius in Con- 
stantinople, who in turn deposed the pope in a synod at Constanti- 
nople in 867. In 1054, pope Leo IX had a bull of excommunication 
against the patriarch Michael Cerularius and his church laid upon 
the high altar of St. Sophia. This marks the practical separation 
of the two churches. 

4. Period of utter degradation of the papacy: last quarter of 
the ninth and first half of the tenth century. Practical disap- 
pearance of the empire in the west during this same period. The 
trial of the corpse of pope Formosus, by pope Stephen VI (896- 
897). Local factions in Rome in control of the papacy. Theo- 
dora and her two daughters, Marozia and Theodora. Alberic 
and the papacy, 932-954. The interference of Otto I in Rome. 

5. The monastic (Cluniac) reform movement in the church 
in the ninth and tenth centuries. Foundation of the monastery 
of Cluny in 910. The great abbot Odo of Cluny, 927-941. "The 
Congregation of Cluny." 

6. The papacy and the new German empire. Otto I and pope 
John XII, 955-964, who crowned him emperor in 962. In his 



174 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

time the empire was supreme over the papacy. Bruno, cousin of 
Otto III, was the first German pope, with the title Gregory V, 
996-999. Dependence of Otto III upon the great French scholar 
Gerbert, whom he made pope Sylvester II, 999-1003. Absolute 
control of Henry II over appointment to bishoprics in Germany 
and Italy. Independence of the German clergy and their zeal for 
reform. Pope Benedict VIII, 1012-1024, and his sympathy with 
the Cluniac reform movement. Degradation of the papacy in the 
reign of Conrad II. The boy pope, Benedict IX, 1033-1045. 
Reforming zeal of Henry III. Three popes deposed in the synod at 
Sutri, 1046. Henry's German popes. Gradual rise of power and 
dignity of the papacy. The strength of pope Leo IX, 1048-1054. 
Creation of the college of cardinals by the Lateran council held 
in 1059. Impending struggle between the papacy and empire. 
Peter Damian, 1006-1072. Eomuald. 

7. The expansion of the Latin church, 800-1100. Ansgar, the 
' ' Apostle of the North, ' ' archbishop of Hamburg in 846, effect- 
ually introduced Christianity bjl Denmark and Sweden, 827ff. 
Sweden was not completely Christianized until the middle of the 
twelfth century. Christianity found entrance in Norway in the 
tenth century. Olaf (died 1000) established it firmly, and the 
famous Olaf the Saint (^014-1030) completed the work. Chris- 
tianity in Greenland about 1000. As a missionary center in the 
Slav region of the Elbe, the archbishopric of Magdeburg was 
established in 968. /Adalbert was the first archbishop. For the 
conversion of Moravia by Cyrillus and Methodius see outline XI 
above. In Bohemia the archbishopric of Prague was established in 
973. In Poland, Posen became an important ecclesiastical center. 
King Stephen of Hungary made Latin Christianity the legal 
religion about 1000, and the great archbishopric of Gran was 
established. 

8. The church and society. Increasing wealth of the church 
and the machinery created to take care of it. Mortmain. Tithes. 
The church and feudal conditions. The ' ' Truce of God ' ' and the 
"Peace of God." The life and morals of the clergy. The exten- 
sive social and educational work of the church. The church and 
slavery. The church as a civilizing force in an age of disorgani- 
zation. 

9. The growth of church institutions and practices. The church 
service; preaching, hymns, the mass, the sacraments. Saints and 
relics. 

10. The growth of ecclesiastical jurisdiction and church dis- 
cipline. The beginnings of canon law. Conflicts with secular law. 



XV 



EARLY MEDIEVAL CHURCH 



175 



Attitude of the church towards ordeals. Ecclesiastical courts. 
"Benefit of clergy." Means Of enforcing church discipline; 
spiritual suasion and threat, penance, excommunication and inter- 
dict. Co-operation on the part of the state. 

11. The development of the ecclesiastical hierarchy among the 
secular clergy; pope, archbishop (primate, or metropolitan), bis- 
hop, priest. The cardinals. Ranks and grades among the regular 
clergy or monks. The election of the clergy. Investiture. Simony. 

12. Popes, 816-1054. 



Stephen IV, 816-817 
Paschal I, 817-824 
Eugenius II, 824-827 
Valentinus, 827 
Gregory IV, 827-844 
Sergius II, 844-847 
Leo IV, 847-855 
Benedict III, 855-858 
Nicholas I, 858-867 
Hadrian II, 867-872 
John VIII, 872-882 
Martin II, 882-884 
Hadrian III, 884-885 
Stephen V, 885-891 
Formosus, 891-896 
Boniface VI, 896 
Stephen VI, 896-897 
Romanus, 897 
Theodore II, 897 
John IX, 898-900 
Benedict IV, 900-903 
Leo V, 903 
Christopher, 903-904 
Sergius III, 904-911 
Anastasius III, 911-913 
Lando, 913-914 
John X, 914-928 
Leo VI, 928 
Stephen VII, 929-931 



John XI, 931-936 
Leo VII, 936-939 
Stephen VIII, 939-942 
Martin III, or Marinus II, 

942-946 

Agapitus II, 946-955 
John XII, 955-964 
Benedict V, 964-965 
John XIII, 965-972 
Benedict VI, 972-974 
Benedict VII, 974-983 
John XIV, 983-984 
Boniface VII (antipope, 

974-984), 984-985 
John XV, 985-996 
Gregory V, 996-999 
Sylvester II, 999-1003 
John XVII, 1003 
John XVIH, 1003-1009 
Sergius IV, 1009-1012 
Benedict VIII, 1012-1024 
John XIX, 1024-1033 

"Benedict IX, 1033-1045 
[ Sylvester III, 1044-1045 
antipope] 

Gregory VI, 1045-1046 
Clement II, 1046-1047 
Damasus II, 1048 
Leo IX, 1048-1054 



B. SPECIAL, RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

Brief general accounts. FLICK, The rise of the mediaeval church, 
chs. xv-xvin. EMERTON, Mediaeval Europe, 41-88, 115-209. W. H. 

*Deposed in 1046. 



176 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

BUTTON, The church and the barbarians, London, 1906, chs. xi, xrv- 
xvn. BARRY, The papal monarchy, chs. vm-xii. WELLS, The age of 
Charlemagne, chs. xxm-xxiv, xxxn-xxxiv. 

Longer account. A large portion of this outline is treated 
authoritatively in H. C. LEA, Studies in church history. 

Cluny. LAVISSE, Histoire de France, II, part II, 123-132 (trans- 
lated in MUNRO and SELLERY, Medieval civilization, 137-152). TOUT, 
The empire and the papacy, ch. v. See also the introduction to the 
the book by DUCKETT, under ' ' Original sources ' ' below. 

Pope Nicholas I. J. ROY, St. Nicholas ler, Paris, 1899 (Les 
Saints), translated by MARGARET MAITLAND, London, 1901. 

Gerberb (Pope Sylvester II). MUNRO and SELLERY, Medieval 
civilisation, enlarged edition, 376-405. R. ALLEN, "Pope Sylvester 
II," in English historical review, VII (1892), 625-668. The best 
biography of Gerbert is F. J. PICAVET, Gerbert, un pape philosophe, 
Paris, 1897. 

Interdict. E. B. KREHBIEL, The interdict, its history and its 
operation, with especial attention to the time of pope Innocent III, 
Washington, 1909, pp. 1-85. 

Original sources. The foundation charter of the order of Cluny 
is translated in OGG, Source book, 245-249, and also in HENDERSON, 
Select documents, 329-333. HENDERSON, 361-365, has a translation 
of the Decree of 1059 concerning papal elections, which may also 
be found in THATCHER and McNEAL, Source book, 126-131 (see also 
pp. 109-126 for other interesting documents). There are examples 
of excommunication and interdict in Translations and reprints, vol. 
IV, no. 4, "Ordeals, compurgation, excommunication and inter- 
dict, ' ' pp. 22-32. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 94-95, 97. 

G. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. The general histories of the medieval church 
are listed above, nos. 394-498. See also the encyclopaedias for the 
history of the church and religion, nos. 104-114, and the periodicals 
for church history, nos. 176-180 above. 

General accounts. MILMAN, Latin Christianity, vol. Ill, book V. 
R. H. WRIGHT, The " Sancta Eespublica Eomana," A.D. 395-888, 
2nd edition, London, 1891. 

The papacy in this period. MANN, Lives of the popes, vols. II- 
VI, gives a systematic account of the numerous popes of this period. 
L. DUCHESNE, Les premiers temps de I'etat pontifical. R. BAXMANN, 
Die Politik der Pdpste von Gregor I bis auf Gregor VII. H. DOPFFEL, 
Kaisertum und Papstweschsel unter den Karolingern, Freiburg, 1889. 



EARLY MEDIEVAL CHURCH 177 

M. HEIMBUCHER, Die Papstwahlen unter den Karolingern, Augsburg, 
1889. A. LAPOTRE, L'Europe et la Saint-Siege a I'epoque caro- 
lingienne, vol. I, Le pape Jean VIII (872-882), Paris, 1895. 

Pope Nicholas I. A. GREINACHER, Die Anschauungen des Papstes 
Nikolaus I iiber das Verhaltnis von Staat und Kirche, Berlin, 1909. 
J. RICHTERICH, Papst Nikolaus I, Bern, 1903 (dissertation). F. 
ROCQUAIN, La papaute' au moyen age: Nicolas I r , Gregoire VII, 
Innocent III, Boniface VIII, Paris, 1881. 

Pseudo-Isidorlan Decretals. DOLLINGER, Fables respecting the 
popes in the middle ages; and his The pope and the council. E. H. 
DAVENPORT, The False Decretals, Oxford, 1916. 

The schism between the Greek and Latin churches. The icono- 
clastic controversy. A very convenient summary of the split 
between the churches is in W. NORDEN, Das Papsttum und Byzanz, 
1-31. L. DUCHESNE, The churches separated from Rome, translated 
by A. H. MATHEW, London, 1907. G. B. HOWARD, The schism 
between the oriental and western churches, London, 1892. L. BREHIER, 
Le schisme oriental du XI e siccle, Paris, 1899. A. PICHLER, Geschichte 
der kirchUchen Trennung zwischen Orient und Okzident, vols. I and 
II, Munich, 1864-1865. 

L. BREHIER, La querelle des images, Paris, 1904. K. SCHWARZLOSE, 
Der Bilderstreit, Gotha, 1890. J. HERGENROTHER, Photius: Patriarch 
von Constantinople, 3 vols., Regensburg, 1867-69. For the interest- 
ing monks of the Studium in Constantinople, who braved persecu- 
tion in their resistance to the iconoclasts, see L'ABB E. MARIN, 
De Studio Coenobio Constantinopolitano, Paris, 1897; and his Les 
moines de Constantinople depuis la fondation de la ville jusqu'd la 
mort de Photius (300-898), Paris, 1897. Their leader in the eighth 
century was Theodore, whose biography has been written by 
A. GARDNER, Theodore of Studium: his life and times, London, 1905, 
and G. A. SCHNEIDER, Der hi. Theodor von Studion: sein Leben und 
Wirken, Miinster, 1900, part V of no. 492 above. 

Hincmar. G. C. LEE, Hincmar: an introduction to the study of 
the revolution in the organization of the church in the ninth century, 
Baltimore, 1897 is a doctoral dissertation printed in American 
society of church history, VIII. H. SCHRORS, Hincmar Erzbischof 
von Reims: sein Leben und seine Schriften, Freiburg, 1884. C. VON 
NOORDEN, Hincmar, Erzbischof von Rhcims, Bonn, 1863. 

Cluniac reform. The standard work on this subject is E. SACKUR, 
Die Cluniacenser in ihrrr kirchlivhen und allqemeingeschichtlichc 
Wirksamkeit bis zur Mitte des elften Jahrhunderts, 2 vols., Halle, 
1892-1894. LUCY M. SMITH, "Cluny and Gregory VII," in English 
historical review, XXVI (1911), 20-33. L. CHAUMONT, Histoire de 



178 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Cluny depuis les origines jusqu'd la mine de I'abbaye, 2nd edition, 
enlarged, Paris, 1911. For Saint Odo, the famous abbot of Cluny 
(927-948), see A. Du BOUBG, Saint Odon (879-942), Paris, 1905 (Les 
Saints). Of Saint Odilo, who soon followed Odo, we have two 
biographies: P. JARDET, Saint Odilon, abbe de Cluny: sa vie, son 
temps, ses oeuvres, 962-1049, Lyons, 1898; and O. RINGHOLZ, Der 
heilige Abt Odilo von Cluny, Briinn, 1885. 

The spread of Christianity. G. F. MACLEAR, A history of Chris- 
tian missions during the middle ages, Cambridge, 1863, chs. xi-xiv; 
Apostles of mediaeval Europe, London, 1869; Conversion of the Slavs, 
London, 1879; Conversion of the northern nations, London, 1865. 
C. MERIVALE, The conversion of the northern nations, London, 1865. 
T. SMITH, Mediaeval missions, Edinburgh, 1880. K. MAURER, Bekeh- 
rung des norwegischen Stammes sum Christentum, 2 vols., Munich, 
1855-1856. 

Ecclesiastical elections. Simony. G. WEISE, Konigtum und 
Bischofswahl im frdnTcischen und deutschen Eeich vor dem Investitur- 
streit, Berlin, 1912. J. DREHMANN, Papst Leo IX und die Simonie, 
Leipzig, 1908 (Beitrage zur Kulturgeschiehte, II). A. FLICHE, "Le 
cardinal Humbert de Moyenmoutier: etude sur les origines de la 
reforme gregorieune, " in Eevue historique, CXIX (1915), 41-76. 
H. LEVY-BRUHL, Etudes sur les elections abbatiales en France jusqu'd 
la fin du regne de Charles le Chauve, Paris, 1913 (dissertation). 
P. IMBART DE LA TOUR, Les elections episcopales dans I'eglise de 
France, du IX au XII* siecles (814-1150), Paris, 1890. H. PAHNCKE, 
Geschichte der Bischofe Italiens deutscher Nation von 951-1264, 
I: einleitender Teil; Geschichte der Bischofe Italiens deutscher 
Nation von 951-1004, nebst eine Beilage zur Kritik von P. B. Gams 
Series episcoporum, Berlin, 1913. 

College of Cardinals. G. SCHOBER, Das WahldeTcret vom Jahre 
1059, Breslau, 1914 (dissertation). For additional special litera- 
ture on this subject see DAHLMANN-WAITZ, Quellenkunde, no. 4954; 
and see no. 453 above. 

The church, and feudalism. A. BERR, Die Kirche gegeniiber 
Gewalttaten von Laien (Merovinger- Karolinger- und Ottonenzeit), 
Berlin, 1913 (Historische Studien, 111). P. IMBART DE LA TOUR, 
"Des immunites commerciales accordees aux eglises du VII e au 
IX e siecle, " in no. 939 above. T. SOMMERLAD, Die wirthschaftliche 
Thatiglfeit der Kirche in Deutschland, vols. I-II, Leipzig, 1900- 
1905. 

Evolution of church institutions. H. C. LEA, A history of auri- 
cular confession and indulgences in the Latin church, 3 vols., Phila- 
delphia, 1896. E. HATCH, The growth of church institutions, 4th 



INVESTITURE STRIFE 179 

edition, London, 1895. L. DUCHESNE, Les origines du culte Chretien, 
Paris, 1890, 4th edition, 1910, translated from the 4th edition, 
Christian worship: its origin and evolution, London, 1910. P. IMBART 
DE LA TOUR, Les origines religieuses de la France, les paroisses rurales 
du 4e au ll e siecle, Paris, 1900. W. SCHMITZ, S. Chrodegangi Meten- 
sis episcopi (742-766) Eegula canonicorum, Hannover, 1889. 

The church and society. G. KURTH, Notger de Liege et la civili- 
sation au X e siecle, 2 vols., Paris, 1905. M. DMITREWSKI, Die christ- 
liche freiwillige Armut vom Ursprung bis sum 12 Jahrhundert, Ber- 
lin, 1913 (Abhandlungen zur mittleren und neueren Geschichte, 
53). S. E. MAITLAND, The dark ages. 

Life of the clergy. H. C. LEA, An historical sketch of sacerdotal 
celibacy in the Christian church, 2 vols., 3rd and enlarged edition, 
New York, 1907, ehs. i-xn. A. DRESDNER, Kultur- und Sittenge- 
schichte der italienischen Geistlichkeit, Breslau, 1890. W. E. H. 
LECKY, History of European morals. L. ZOPF, Das Heiligenleben 
im 10 Jahrhundert, Leipzig, 1908 (Beitrage zur Kulturgeschichte, I). 

Romuald, W. FRANKE, Eomuald v. Camaldoli und seine Beform- 
tatigkeit zur Zeit Ottos III, Berlin, 1913. 

Peter Damian. E. BIRON, Saint Pierre Damien (1007-1042), 
Paris, 1908. 

Original sources. The great collections of material are listed 
above, nos. 953-964. See especially the Liber pontificalis, no. 959 
note. The best edition of the famous False Decretals is that by 
P. HINSCHIUS, Decretales pseudo-Isidorianae et capitula Angil- 
ramni, Leipzig, 1863. Charters and records of the ancient Abbey of 
Cluni, 1077-1534, edited by G. DUCKETT, 2 vols., London, 1888, 
has a good historical introduction. Bibliotheca symbolica ecclesiae 
universalis: the creeds of Christendom, with a history and critical 
notes, edited by P. SCHAFF, 3 vols., 4th edition, revised and 
enlarged, New York, 1905, contains the original texts with trans- 
lations into English. Bibliothek der Symbole und Glaubensregeln 
der alien Kirche, edited by A. HAHN, 3rd edition, Breslau, 1897. 

Bibliographies. The general bibliographies for church history 
are listed above, nos. 49-55. 

XVI. THE INVEST1TUEE STE1FE, 1056-1122 

A. OUTLINE 

1. This first phase of the irrepressible conflict between the 
empire and papacy grew out of a sincere and well-nigh universal 
movement to reform the papacy and the church. As soon as the 
papacy became powerful and dignified, its high claims to power 



180 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

clashed with those of the emperor as well as of all other temporal 
rulers. The importance of this dramatic duel between an emperor 
and a pope has been unduly exaggerated in modern books due to 
the painstaking research and the voluminous writings of recent 
German historians. 

2. The grand period of the papal monarchy lay between 1073, the 
accession of Gregory VII, and 1303, the death of Boniface VIII. 

3. The minority of the emperor Henry IV, 1056-1072. Weak- 
ness of the regent, the empress Agnes, 1056-1062. Strength of the 
nobles, especially the ecclesiastical lords, Anno, archbishop of 
Cologne, and Adalbert, archbishop of Bremen. 

4. The youth of Hildebrand. Born between 1120 and 1125 in 
the village of Eovaco near Soana in Tuscany. He was of humble 
origin, probably the son of a peasant, and had a very unprepossess- 
ing personality. Educated in Rome at the time when the papacy 
was utterly degraded. Became the chaplain of pope Gregory VI, 
who was deposed in 1046. Hildebrand never was a monk in Cluny. 

5. Hildebrand the power behind the papal chair. He was a 
cardinal-subdeacon in Rome under pope Leo IX, 1048-1054. In 
1054 he was in France as a papal legate. Victor II, 1054-1057, 
Stephen IX, 1057-1058, and Nicholas II, 1059-1061, were prac- 
tically nominated by him. The alliance with the Normans, by 
the treaty of Melfi, 1059, and the decree of 1059 which placed 
the election of the popes in the hands of a college of cardinals, 
were largely his work. In 1059 Hildebrand was made archdeacon 
of the Roman church, and Alexander II, 1061-1073, made him 
chancellor of the apostolic see. The Patarini in Lombardy, and 
Matilda, countess of Tuscany, strengthened the papacy in the north 
of Italy as did the Normans in the south. 

6. The qhief evils in the churfh which confronted Hildebrand: 
simony, marriage of the clergy, lay investiture. 

7. Hildebrand became pope Gregory VII in 1073. His uncanon- 
\ , ical election. His character and his ideal of papal power. I The 

Dictatus papae. Troubles at the beginning of his pontificate. 
\ 8. The duel between Gregory VII and Henry IV. The general 
decree against simony and lay investiture in the synod of Rome, 
1075. Henry IV and his German bishops deposed the pope at the 
council at Worms in 1076. Thereupon the pope excommunicated 
and deposed the emperor at the Vatican synod of 1076. The 
famous scene at Canossa, 1077, where Henry IV was absolved by 
Gregory VII. Duke Rudolf of Swabia was elected anti-king. 
Henry's excommunication and deposition renewed in 1080. Clement 
III was elected anti-pope in 1080 and crowned Henry IV emperor 



INVESTITURE STRIFE 181 

in Rome in 1084. Upon the death of Rudolf of Swabia, Herman 
of Luxenburg succeeded him as anti-king. Henry IV beseiged 
Gregory VII in Rome. The pope was rescued by Robert Guiscard 
and his Normans, who sacked Rome in 1084. Gregory left Rome 
with the Normans and died in exile at Salerno in 1085. 

9. The relations of Gregory VII with other princes of western 
Europe. His relations with the eastern emperor who feared the 
Turks and addressed Gregory VII for help in 1074. 

10. The continuance of the struggle between Henry IV and 
popes Victor III, 1086-1087, and Urban II, 1088-1099. The preach- 
ing of the first crusade by Urban II at Clermont, in 1095, diverted 
interest from the investiture contest. Paschal II, 1099-1118, 
renewed Henry 's excommunication. Revolt of the Saxons led 
by his rebel son, also named Henry. Sad end of the excommunicated 
Henry IV, who died in Liegej 1106. 

11. Echoes of the investiture strife outside of Germany and 
Italy. Anselm of Canterbury. 

12. Henry V, 1106-1125, and his contests with the papacy. 
The compromise of 1111. Pope Paschal II renounced the tem- 
poralities of the church and crowned Henry V emperor in St. 
Peter's, but soon after repudiated these rash concessions. Finally 
when Calixtus II, 1119-1124, was pope, the great difficulty was 
compromised by the concordat of Worms in 1122. 

13. The inevitable sequel of strife between the empire and 
the papacy. 

14. Popes, 1054-1124. 

Victor II, 1054-1057 Victor III, 1086-1087 

Stephen IX, 1057-1058 Urban II, 1088-1099 

Benedict X, 1058-1059 Paschal II, 1099-1118 

Nicholas II, 1059-1061 Gelasius II, 1118-1119 

Alexander II, 1061-1075 Calixtus II, 1119-1124 
Gregory VII, 1073-1085 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOE READING 

Brief general accounts. EMERTON, Mediaeval Europe, ch. vin. 
TOUT, Empire and papacy, ch. vi. BRYCE, Holy Roman empire, ch. x. 
BARRY, Papal monarchy, chs. xm-xiv. VILLARI, Mediaeval Italy, 
169-203. FLICK, Rise of the mediaeval church, chs. xvm-xix. W. 
MILLER, Mediaeval Rome, ch. i. LEA, History of sacerdotal celibacy, 
I, ch. xiv, treats the subject of celibacy in the time of Hildebrand. 

Longer general accounts. D. J. MEDLEY, The church and the 
empire 100S-1S04, New York, 1910, chs. i-m. LAVISSE and RAM- 



182 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

BAUD, Histoire generale, II, ch. n. MILMAN, Latin Christianity, IV, 
chs. i-m. GREGOROVIUS, History of Rome in the middle ages, IV, 
part I, chs. m-vi. HENDERSON, A history of Germany in the middle 
ages, chs. xn-xiv. STUBBS, Germany in the early middle ages, chs. 

IX-X. 

Biographies of Hildebrand. A. H. MATHEW, The life and times 
of Hildebrand, pope Gregory VII, London, 1910. W. STEPHENS, 
Hildebrand and his times, New York, 1888. M. R. VINCENT, Age 
of Hildebrand, New York, 1896. MANN, Lives of the popes, VII. 

Original sources. All the ' ' source books ' ' contain a good deal 
of illustrative material. DUNCALF and KREY, Parallel source prob- 
lems in medieval history, 29-91, have translated many contempor- 
ary accounts of the famous scene at Canossa. The violent letters 
which passed between pope Gregory VII and the emperor Henry 
IV, along with much additional material, may be found in HENDER- 
SON, Select documents, 351-409; ROBINSON, Readings, I, 266-295; 
THATCHER and McNEAL, Source book, 121-166; and OGG, Source 
book, 261-281. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 62-63, 64, 66-67. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. The general histories of the church are listed 
above, nos. 395-498. The books on the medieval empire, nos. 499- 
507, especially 501, and those on Germany, nos. 560-598, and Italy, 
nos. 599-621 above, are especially useful. 

General accounts. M. MANITIUS, Deutsche Geschichte, 911-1125. 
A. HAUCK, Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands, III. BAXMANN, Die 
Politik der Pdpste, II. Z. N. BROOK, The so-called investiture strug- 
gle of the eleventh century, Rome, 1913. T. GREENWOOD, Cathedra 
Petri, IV, 139-678. J. HERGENROTHER, Katholische Kirche und christ- 
licher Stoat in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwickelung und in Beziehung 
auf die Fragen der Gegenwart, 2nd edition, Freiburg, 1876, trans- 
lated into English, Catholic church and Christian state, I, 380ff. 
J. v. PFLUGK-HARTTUNG, Die Papstwahlen und Eaisertum, 1046- 
1328, Gotha, 1908. 

Gregory VII. W. MARTENS, Gregor VII : sein Leben und Wirken, 
2 vols., Leipzig, 1894. O. L'abbe DELARC, Saint Gregoire VII et la 
reforme de I'eglise au XI e siecle, 3 vols., and an index, Paris, 1889- 
1890. A. F. GFRORER, Papst Gregorius VII und sein Zeitalter, 7 
vols., and index, Schaffhausen, 1859-64, is distinctly Roman 
catholic in tone and very polemical. J. BRUGERETTE, Gregoire VII 
et la reforme du XIe siecle, Paris, 1906. A. F. VILLEMAIN, Histoire 
de Gregoire VII, 2 vols., Paris, 1873; translated into English, The 



XVI INVESTITURE STRIPE 183 

life of Gregory VII, 2 vols., London, 1874. E. LANGERON, Leglise 
au moyen age: Gregoire VII et les o^ignies de la doctrine ultramon- 
taine, 2nd edition, Paris, 1874. The first seriously critical work on 
Gregory VII was J. VOIGT, Hildebrand ah Papst Gregorius VII und 
sein Zeitalter, Weimar, 1815, 2nd edition, 1846, translated into 
French with additions by 1 'abbe JAGER, Histoire du pape Gregoire 
VII et de son siecle, 4th edition, 2 vols., Paris, 1854. C. MIRBT, 
Die Wahl Gregors VII, Marburg, 1892. 

Dictatus papae. The latest word about the register of Gregory 
VII, including the famous Dictatus papae, is in E. L. POOLE, Lec- 
tures on the papal chancery, ch. vi. See the literature quoted in his 
footnotes and in DAHLMANN-WAITZ, Quellenlcunde, no. 4928. 

Canossa. W. SACHSE, Canossa: histdrische Untersuchung, Leip- 
zig, 1896. E. FRIEDRICH, Studien zur Vorgeschichte von Canossa, 2 
parts, Hamburg, 1905-1908. For other special works on the famous 
scene at Canossa see DAHLMANN-WAITZ, Quellenlcunde, no. 5007. 

Gregory VII and the Byzantine empire. W. NORDEN, Das Papst- 
tum und Bysanz, 38-46. 

Henry IV. G. MEYER v. KNONAU, Jahrbucher des deutschen 
Beichs unter Heinrich IV und Heinrich V, 7 vols., Leipzig, 1890- 
1909, part of no. 570 above. E. HOHNE, Kaiser Heinrich IV: sein 
Leben und seine Kampfe 1050-1106, nach dem Urteile seiner deutschen 
Zeitgenossen, Giitersloh, 1906. T. LINDNER, Kaiser Heinrich IV, 
Berlin, 1881. H. FLOTO, Kaiser Heinrich der Vierte und sein Zeit- 
alter, 2 vols., Stuttgart, 1855-56, defends Henry IV against the 
accusations of pope Gregory VII. O. SCHUMANN, Die pdpstlichen 
Legaten in Deutschland zur Zeit Hcinrichs IV und Heinrichs V 
(1056-1125), Marburg, 1912 (dissertation). 

Henry V. G. PEISER, Der deutsche Investiturstreit unter Kaiser 
Heinrich V bis zu dem pdpstlichen Privileg vom 13 April, 1111, 
Berlin, 1883. 

Investiture. F. X. BARTH, Hildebert von Lavardin (1056- 
1183) und das Becht der Jcirchlichen Stellenbesetzung, Stuttgart, 
1906, parts 34-36 of no. 491 above. H. FEIERABEND, Die politische 
Stellung der deutschen Beichsabteien wahrend des Investiturstreites, 
Breslau, 1913 (Historische Untersuchungen, III). 

Investiture strife in France. B. MONOD, Essai sur les rapports 
de Pascal II avec Philippe I, 1099-1108, Paris, 1907, part 164 of no. 
888 above. 

Polemical literature concerning investiture. J. DE GHELLINCK, 
"La litte'rature polSmique durant la querelle des investitures," in 
Bevue des questions historiques, XCIII (1913), 71-89. The funda- 
mental work on the subject is C. MIRBT, Die Publizistik im Zeit- 



184 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

alter Gregors VII, Leipzig, 1894. It should be supplemented by 
L. SALTET, Les reordinations : etude sur le sacrement de I'ordre, Paris, 
1907. A. FLICHE, Etudes sur la polemique religieuse a I'epoque de 
Gregoire VII: les pregregoriens, Paris, 1916. For the vast mass of 
controversial pamphlet literature which has come down to us see 
DAHLMANN-WAITZ, Quellenkunde, no. 4925. See also M. T. STEAD, 
"Manegold of Lautenbach, " in English historical review, XXIX 
(1914), 1-15, and A. SCHARNAGL, Der Begriff der Investitur in den 
Quellen nach der Literatur des Investiturstreits, part 56 of no. 490 
above. 

Concordat of Worms, 1122. E. BERNHEIM, Das Wormser Kon- 
kordat und seine Vorurkunden, Breslau, 1906 (part 81 of Untersuch- 
ungen zur deutschen Staa'ts- und Eechtsgeschichte, edited by O. 
GIEBKE). For special literature on the Concordat of Worms of 
1122 see DAHLMANN-WAITZ, Quellenkunde, no. 5039. 

Matilda of Tuscany. NORA DUFF, Matilda of Tuscany: la Gran 
Donna d' Italia, London, 1909.- E. HUDDY, Matilda, countess of 
Tuscany, London, 1906. A. OVERMANN, Grafin Mathilde von Tuscien, 
ihre Besitzungen, Geschichte ihres Guts, 1115-1230, und Hire Eegesten, 
Innsbruck, 1895. 

Original sources. A very convenient collection of extracts has 
been edited by E. BERNHEIM, Quellen zur Geschichte des Investitur- 
streites, vol. I, 2nd edition, Leipzig, 1913, vol. II, 1907, part of no. 
980 above. A selection of the letters of Hildebrand, edited by G. 
FINCH, London, 1853. 

Bibliographies. By far the best bibliography for both original 
sources and secondary works is in DAHLMANN-WAITZ, Quellenkunde, 
nos. 4872-5039, but the general bibliographies for Germany, nos. 
29-34, Italy, nos. 3741, and the church, nos. 49-55 above, are all 
useful. 



XVII. THE BYZANTINE EMPIEE FEOM THE DEATH OF 

JUSTINIAN, 565, TO THE FIEST CEUSADE, 1095 

A. OUTLINE 

1. The place of Constantinople and the Byzantine empire in 
European history has been indicated in outline III above. 

2. The work of Justinian was ruined by his immediate suc- 
cessors. The Avars established themselves in Pannonia. The Lom- 
bards invaded Italy in 568. The Slavs crossed the Danube and 
moved into the Balkan peninsula. The Persian wars dragged on 
until 591, and were resumed again in 603. The rebellion of the 



BYZANTINE EMPIRE 185 

uncultured cut-throat Phocas in 602 illustrated the utter degrada- 
tion of the empire. He was recognized, however, by Pope Gregory 
the Great. 

3. Heraclius, 610-641, and the Persians. Under Chosroes they 
captured Jerusalem in 614 and in 616 overran Egypt. In 617 Chal- 
cedon fell. The church and the emperor now declared a crusade 
against the Persian fire-worshippers. Persians, Avars, and Slavs 
made a combined but unsuccessful attack on Constantinople in 
626. By the peace of 628 with Persia the boundaries of the empire 
were restored. 

4. The Heraclian dynasty and the Mohammedans, 610-717. In 
this period the Persian menace gave way to a still- greater one, 
namely, Islam. In 637 Jerusalem was taken by the Moslems. Not 
only Syria but Egypt and all northern Africa soon fell into the 
hands of the Mohammedans. Eolations of Constans II and Con- 
stantine IV with Italy and Sicily. The two great sieges of Con- 
stantinople in 673-677, and in 717-718, which formed a turning 
point in the relations between Christians and Mohammedans. 

5. Byzantine civilization and administration under the Hera- 
clian dynasty. Latin practically disappeared in the east and the. 
empire became virtually Greek. Decline of Greek learning co-eval 
with the decline of Latin learning in the west in Merovingian 
times. The new provinces called "themes" of military origin. 
Greek diplomacy. Poor fiscal administration. Reorganization of 
the army. Main stress now laid on the cavalry. Remarkable 
advance of military tactics and theory. Development of a strong 
fleet under Constans II, 642-668. Liquid or marine fire, which we 
call "Greek fire." 

6. The iconoclastic period, 717-867. Image worship among 
Greek Christians was made the mark of taunts of the Moham- 
medans. In 726, the emperor Leo III issued his first edict against 
images. Opposition in both the Latin and Greek churches. Icono- 
elasm sactioned by the council of Constantinople in 753. Reaction 
in favor of images under Constantino and Irene, 780-802. Leo V, 
813-820, again denounced image worship, but those who favored 
images won a final victory in 843 under Theodora and Michael III, 
842-867. Echoes of the iconoclastic controversy in the west. 

7. Political history in the iconoclastic period, 717-867. The 
internal reforms of Leo III, 717-740. Increasing oriental influence. 
Desultory warfare with the .Saracens. The Lombards ended the 
exarchate of Ravenna in 750. Shortly after, the eastern emperors 
definitely lost Rome at the hands of the Franks. Relations of 
Charlemagne with the Byzantine empire in the time of Constantino 



186 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

and Irene. Early in the ninth century the rising power of the 
Bulgarians became a menace. In 826 a band of Moslem adven- 
turers from Spain took Crete. 

8. The Byzantine empire at its height under the Macedonian 
dynasty, 867-1057. Basil I and his successor reconquered southern 
Italy, 875-894, but in 878 Syracuse fell into the hands of the Moors. 
A revival of learning began in the ninth century and Cyrillus and 
Methodius converted the Slavs (outline XI above). In the east, 
Crete was won back in 961, Antioch in 968, and Cyprus about the 
same time. The reign of Basil II, 963-1025, marks the culmination 
of the power and glory of the Byzantine empire. He subdued the 
Bulgarians, hence he is usually called Bulgaroctonus, ' ' Slayer of 
Bulgarians." The Eussians, who under Sviotoslav had seriously 
threatened Constantinople, were checked in 971 by John Zimisces 
and when Vladimir, the Clovis of Eussia, was baptized about 990, 
Eussia was opened to a flood of Byzantine influence. In 1054 
came the practical separation between the Greek and Latin churches. 

9. The rise of the Seljuk Turks. With the end of the Mace- 
donian dynasty in 1057 there came a period of decline and turmoil 

such as that after the death of Justinian. This gave an oppor- 
tunity for conquest to the nomad Seljuk Turks who had become 
Mohammedans and in 1055 occupied Bagdad and in 1076 entered 
Jerusalem. In 1071 the Turks under Alp Arslan defeated and took 
prisoner the emperor Eomanus at the famous battle of Manzikert. 
In the same year the Normans took Bari from the Byzantines. In 
1074 Michael VII appealed to pope Gregory VII for help against 
the Turks. The Turks captured Nicaea in 1080. Constantinople 
seemed to be doomed. 

10. Alexius Comnenus, 1081-1118, saved the empire by his states- 
manship. He kept at bay the Seljuk Turks, the Petchenegs, and 
the Normans, who, under Eobert Guiscard, attacked him, 1081- 
1085, but were beaten back with the help of Venice. Venice was 
granted exceptional commercial privileges in the Levant. In 1095 
Alexius appealed to pope Urban II for aid and that ushered in 
the crusades which completely transformed the Byzantine empire. 

11. Byzantine emperors, 565-1118. 
J.ustinianean dynasty 

(1) Justin II, 565-578 

(2) Tiberius II, 578-582 

(3) Maurice, 582-602 
Phocas, 602-610 



BYZANTINE EMPIRE 187 

Heraclian dynasty, 610-711 

(1) Heraclius, 610-641 

(2) Constantino III, 641 

(3) Heracleonas, 641-642 

(4) Constans II, 642-668 

(5) Constantine IV, 668-685 

(6) Justinian II, 685-695 
[Leontius, 695-698 

Tiberius II, 698-705] 
(6) Justinian II (restored), 705-711 
Philip Bardanes, 711-713 
Anastasius II, 713-716 
Theodosius III, 716-717 
Isaurian (Syrian) dynasty, 717-802 

(1) Leo III, 717-740 

(2) Constantine V, 740-775 

(3) Leo IV, 775-780 

(4) Constantine VI, 780-797 

(5) Irene, 797-802 
Nicephorus I, 802-811 
Stauracius, 811 
Michel I, 811-813 

Leo V (Armenian), 813-820 
Phrygian or Armorian dynasty, 820-867 

(1) Michael II, 820-829 

(2) Theophilus, 829-842 

(3) Michael III, 842-867 
Macedonian dynasty, 867-1057 

(1) Basil I, 867-886 

(2) Leo VI and Alexander, 886-912 

(3) Constantine VII (Porphyrogennetos), 912-959 

(4) Romanus I, 920-944 

(5) Romanus II, 959-963 

(6) Basil II (Bulgaroctonus) and Constantine VIII, 963- 

1025 

Nicephorus II (Phocas), 963-969 
John Zimisces, 969-976 

(7) Constantine VIII (sole ruler), 1025-1028 

(8) Romanua III, 1028-1034 

(9) Michael IV, 1034-1041 

(10) Michael V, 1041-1042 

(11) Constantine IX, 1042-1054 



188 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

(12) Theodora, 1054-1056 

(13) Michael VI, 1056-1057 

Isaac I (Comnenus), 1057-1059 
Constantino X, 1059-1067 

Michael VII, Andronicus, and Constantine XI, 1067 
Eomanus IV, 1067-1071 
Michael VII (sole ruler), 1071-1078 
Nicephorus III, 1078-1081 
Comnenian dynasty, 1081-1204 

(1) Alexius I (nephew of Isaac I), 1081-1118 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 
General surveys. OMAN, Doric ages, chs. ix, xn, xiV, xvm, xxvm, 
together with TOUT, Empire and papacy, eh. vn. LAVISSE and RAM- 
BAUD, Histoire generale, I, 193-203, 625-687 (pp. 672-682 of this 
selection have been translated by MUNRO and SELLERY, Medieval 
civilization, 212-223, under the title "Byzantine civilization" [9th 
to llth centuries]). BRYCE, Holy Eoman empire, 4th edition, eh. 
xvn, "The east Roman empire." A somewhat longer account 
is in OMAN, The Byzantine empire, chs. ix-xx. The period to 717 
is now treated in the Cambridge medieval history, II, eh. ix, "The 
successors of Justinian," and ch. xni, "The successors of Heraclius 
to 717." The article "Roman empire, later" in the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica is written by J. B. BURY, the greatest English authority 
in this field. 

Standard accounts in English. The best and most authoritative 
account of the period to 867 is J. B. BURY, A history of the later 
Eoman empire, vol. II, together with his A history of the eastern 
Eoman empire, 802-867. The first comprehensive history in Eng- 
lish which met the requirement of modern historical scholarship 
was written by G, FINLAY, History of Greece, vol. II (see nos. 645 
and 656 above). Until the time of FINLAY the English-speaking 
world drew its information about this period of Byzantine his- 
tory largely from- GIBBON, Decline and fall, chs. XLV, .XLVI, XLVIII, LII, 
Lin, who was chiefly responsibly for a general misunderstanding 
of the true nature of the history of the eastern empire during 
these centuries when it did much service for western civilization. 
Italy and the Byzantine empire after Justinian. P. VILLARI, 
The barbarian invasions of Italy, II, 274-374. DUDDEN, Gregory the 
Great, I, ch. vi, "Gregory at Constantinople," contains a good 
description of Constantinople at the end of the sixth century; see 
also, II, ch. x, for Gregory's relations with the churches of the 
east. 



BYZANTINE EMPIRE 189 

Byzantine warfare. OMAN, Art of war, 169-226, and H. DEL- 
BRUCK, Geschichte der Kriegskunst, III, 194-209, should be read 
side by side if possible because DELBEUCK differs from OMAN in 
some important points. The great siege of Constantinople in 717 
is told in a popular way by E. A. FOORD, "The repulse of the Sara- 
cens from Europe," in Contemporary review, XCVI (1909), 327- 
341. 

The Byzantine empire at its height. The glorious period about 
the year 1000 is described in a spirited way by J. B. BURY, 
"Roman emperors from Basil II to Isaac Komnenos, " in English 
historical review, IV (1889), 41-64, 251-285. 

Constitutional history. J. B. BURY, The constitution of the later 
Roman empire, Cambridge, 1910 (Creighton memorial lecture). 

Byzantine scholarship. SANDYS, History of classical scholarship, 
I, chs. xxn, xxni. 

Original sources. HENDERSON, Select documents, 441-477, "Liut- 
prand's report of his mission to Constantinople, 968A.D. ". C. H. 
HASKINS, "A Canterbury Monk at Constantinople, c. 1090," in 
English historical review, XXV (1910), 292-295. E. W. BROOKS, 
"Byzantines and Arabs in the time of the early Abbasids,," in 
English historical review, XV (1900), 728-747. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 54-55, 58-59, 66-67. Cambridge 
medieval history, II, maps 18 and 25. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. See nos. 643-679 above, and also the periodicals 
for Byzantine history, nos. 174-175 above, as well as the books 
on Byzantine literature, nos. 800-802 above. 

General survey. The best handbook on things Byzantine is 
K. KRUMBACHER, Geschichte der byzantinischen Literatur, second 
edition, 1897. On pp. 91 Iff. there is a general survey of Byzantine 
history by H. GELZER, ' ' Abriss der byzantinischen Kaisergeschiehte. ' ' 

Sicily and southern Italy and the Byzantine empire. B. PACE, 
I barbari e i bizantini in Sicilia: studi sulla storia dell' itola dal sec. 
V al IX, Palermo, 1911. J. GAY, L'ltalie meridionale et I'empire 
byzantin, 867-1071, Paris, 1904, part 90 of no. 887 above. 

Relations between the Greek East and the Latin West. 
N. JOROA, "Der lateinische W eaten und der byzantinische Osten 
in ihrem Wechselbeziehungen wahrend des Mittelalters: einige 
Gesichtspunkte, " p. 89-99 in Lipsiense: Ehrengabe Karl Lamp- 
recht dargebraoht, Berlin, 1909. G. REVERDY, Lea relations de Childc- 
bert II et de Byzance, Paris, 1913, ia an extract from the Revue his- 
torique, CX1V (1913), 61-86. L. HARTMANN, Bin Kapitel vom 



190 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

spdtantiken und fruhmittelalterlichen Staate, Stuttgart, 1913, is a 
short sketch of 24 pages which contrasts the Byzantine empire 
with the Lombard and Frankish kingdoms. C. TIEDE, Quellen- 
mdssige Darstellung der Beziehungen Carls des Grossen zu Ost-Bom, 
Kostock, 1892. A. GASQUET, tudes byzantines: I' empire byzantin 
et la monarchic franque, Paris, 1888. O. HARNACK, Die Beziehungen 
des frdnkisch-italischen zum byzantinischen Beiche unter der Begier- 
ung Karls des Grossen und der spdteren Kaiser Tcarolingischen Stam- 
mes, Gottingen, 1880. B. MYSTAKIDIS, Byzantinisch-dcutsche Bezieh- 
ungen zur Zeit der Ottonen, Stuttgart, 1891. 

The Greek church. For books on the schism between the Greek 
and Latin churches and the iconoclastic controversy, see above, 
p. 177. A. FORTESCUE, The orthodox eastern church, London, 1907, 
third edition, 1911. A. H. HORE, Eighteen centuries of the orthodox 
Greek church, New York, 1899. J. PARGOIRE, L'eglise byzantine de 
527-847, Paris, 1905. H. F. TOZER, The church and the eastern 
empire, new impression, London, New York, 1904. L. BREHIER, 
"L'hagiographie Byzantine des VHP et IX e siecles a Constanti- 
nople et dans les provinces, ' ' in Journal des savants, August, Octo- 
ber, 1916. A. P. STANLEY, History of the eastern church, 5th edition, 
London, 1883. 

Administration. J. B. BURY, The imperial administrative system 
in the ninth century, with a revised text of the Kletorologion of 
Philotheos, London, 1911, II, part of no. 904 above, Supplementary 
papers, 1. 

Byzantine warfare. J. B. BURY, The naval policy of the Roman 
empire in relation to the western provinces from the seventh to the 
ninth centuries, Palermo, 1910 (Centenario della nascita di M. 
Amari, 2). F. AUSSARESSES, L'armee byzantine d la fin du VI 
siecle, d'apres le Strategicon de I'Empereur Maurice, Bordeaux, 1909 
(Bibliotheque des Universites du Midi, fasc., 14). 

Byzantine scholarship. L. LABORDE, Les ecoles de droit dans 
I'empire d'Orient, Bordeaux, 1912. F. SCHEMMEL, Die Hochschule 
von Konstantinopel vom 5 bis 11 Jahrhundert, Berlin, ca. 1912. 

Histories of various emperors arranged chronologically. K. GROH, 
Geschichte des ostromischen Kaisers Justin II, nebst den Quellen, 
Leipzig, 1889. A. PERNICE, L'imperatore Eraclio: saggio di storia 
bizantina, Florence, 1905. K. SCHENK, Kaiser Leo III, Halle, 1880. 
A. LOMBARD, Etudes d'histoire byzantine: Constantin V, empereur des 
Bomains (740-775), with a preface by C. DIEHL, Paris, 1902, part 
XVI of no. 889 above. A. VOGT, Basile Icr empereur de Byzance et 
la civilisation byzantine d la fin du IXe siecle, Paris, 1908. A. EAM- 
BAUD, L'empire grec au Xe siecle: Constantin Porphyrogenete, Paris, 



xvm EARLY MEDIEVAL CULTURE 191 

1870. G. SCHLUMBERGEB, Un empcrew Byzantin au We siccle: Nic- 
phore Phocas, Paris, 1890. F. GHALANDON, Alexis Comnene (1081- 
1118), Paris, 1900. 

The Byzantine empire at its height. G. SCHLUMBERGER, L'epopec 
byzantine a la fin du dixieme siecle, 3 vols., Paris, 1890-1905, covers 
the period 960-1057 and has excellent illustrations. 

Byzantine history just before the crusades. C. NEUMANN, Die 
Weltstellung den byzantinischen Seiches vor den Kreuzziigen, Leipzig, 
1894 (dissertation). W. FISCHER, Studien zw byzantinischen 
Geschichte des elften Jahrhunderts, Plauen, 1883. 

Seljuk Turks. M. T. HOUTSMA, Histoire des Seljoukides d'Asie 
Mineure d'apres Ibn Bibi, Leyden, 1903. 

Original sources. The large collections of sources for Byzan- 
tine history are listed above, nos. 1002-1003. The important col- 
lection of Byzantine coins in the British Museum is described and 
illustrated in W. WROTH, Catalogue of the imperial Byzantine coins 
in the British Museum, 2 vols., London, 1908. 

Bibliographies. Cambridge medieval history, II, 747-757, 766- 
769. BURY, History of the eastern Roman empire, 493-510. KRUM- 
B AT i IKK. Geschichte der byzantinischen Literatur, 2nd edition, 1068ff. 



XVIII. THE CULTURE OF THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES 
A. OUTLINE 

1. The gradual change from ancient to medieval modes of 
thought and learning. Christianity and the barbarian invaders 
as factors in this change. 

2. The universality of the Latin language in western Europe. 
The decadence of Greek. 

3. "The classical heritage" of the early middle ages. 

4. The Christian ideal of life. 

5. Books that were studied and written during this period. 

6. Medieval schools before the rise of universities. 

7. The illustrious part played by the British Isles in the his- 
tory of learning from the fifth to the eighth centuries. 

8. The age of Charlemagne. 

9. Slow advancement of culture in Christian Europe from the 
ninth to the eleventh century. Contrast with the Mohammedan 
world. 

10. The beginning of a new era towards the end of the eleventh 
century. 



192 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

The best book on the transition from ancient to medieval con- 
ditions is S. DILL, Roman society in the last century of the western 
empire, London, 1898, 2nd edition, revised, 1910. After that, the 
best general guides in English are the two books by H. O. TAYLOR, 
The Mediaeval mind, and The classical heritage of the middle ages, 
New York, 1901, 3rd edition, 1911. MUNRO and SELLERY, Medieval 
civilisation, is a collection of valuable miscellaneous extracts. For 
the period before Charlemagne, M. ROGER, L'enseignement des let- 
tres classiques d'Ausone a Alcuin, Paris, 1905, is extremely useful. 
Much can be gleaned from LAVISSE, Histoire de France (see table of 
contents of each volume). Essential books for reference are 
SANDYS, A history of classical scholarship; and MANITIUS, Geschichte 
der lateinischen Literatur des Mittelalters. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

For detailed outlines and bibliographies see part III, period I, 
below. 



PERIOD II, 1100-1500 



XIX. THE BEGINNING OF A NEW ERA IN THE HISTORY 
OF WESTERN EUROPE ABOUT 1100 

A. OUTLINE 

Introduction. Current misconceptions concerning the middle 
ages. 

"The twelfth century renaissance." The following were the 
main features of the new era: 

1. Political: (1) The struggle for empire. (2) Losing struggle 
of the great feudal nobles with the rising kingdoms. Parliamen- 
tary machinery. 

2. Religious: (1) Conflict between church and state. (2) New 
monastic movement, especially the mendicants. (3) Heresies. 
(4) Crusades. (5) The conciliar movement. 

3. Social and economic: (1) Emancipation of the lower rural 
classes. (2) Growth of cities and commerce. (.3) Geographical 
explorations and discoveries. (4) Crusades. 

4. Intellectual and artistic: (1) Spirit of inquiry. (2) Better 
Latin literature. (3) New interest in classical Latin. (4) Some 
interest in Greek and other languages. (5) Revival of Roman law. 
(6) Revival of medicine. (7) Some interest in natural sciences. 
(8) Systematization of theology and philosophy. (9) Growth of 
universities. (10) Development of vernacular languages and litera- 
tures. (11) Gothic architecture. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 
Re-read the article "Middle ages" by Professor SHOTWELL, 
in the last edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Read LAVISSE, 
Histoire de France, II, part II, 203, and observe the scheme of this 
division called "La renaissance franchise. " See also F. HARRISON, 
The meaning of history, New York, 1908, chs. v, "A survey of the 
13th century," first printed in the Fortnightly review, LVI (1891), 
325-345. 



194 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 



XX. THE NOEMANS 
A. OUTLINE 

1. The transformation of the Northmen in northern France into 
Normans in the tenth and eleventh centuries. The nature of the 
land which Kollo won as a dukedom about 911. Its history under 
the first six dukes. The influence of Frankish customs and insti- 
tutions. The work of the Eoman church and schools in Normandy. 
Mont St. Michel. The monastic school of Bee established in 1042 
by Lanfranc who was followed by Anselm. Striking Norman char- 
acteristics. 

2. The expansion of the duchy of Normandy into a Norman 
empire. Marriage of duke William with Matilda, daughter of the 
count of Flanders. Conquest of Maine, 1063. The famous con- 
quest of England by William the Conqueror in 1066. Battle of 
Hastings. The Bayeux tapestry. Separation of England and 
Normandy at the death of William in 1087. They were reunited in 
1106 under Henry I. His daughter, Matilda, married count Geof- 
frey of Anjou, who wrested Normandy from Stephen of Blois. 
Origin of the name ' ' Angevin empire. ' ' Plantagenets. Geoffrey 's 
son Henry became duke of Normandy in 1150, count of Anjou in 
1151. In 1152 he married Eleanor, duchess of Aquitaine, divorced 
wife of king Louis VII of France, and thus became lord of Poitou, 
Aquitaine and Gascony. In 1154 he became king of England and 
was thus ruler of a large empire which straddled the English chan- 
nel. "Occupying this international position, Henry must not be 
viewed, as he generally is, merely as an English king." Haskins. 

3. Norman administration in England and the continent, espe- 
cially the fiscal and judicial system. The Dialogue on the Exche- 
quer, written by Richard, the treasurer of Henry II, in 1178-1179. 
The Norman jury. 

4. Break-up of the Norman empire. Wars of Henry II with 
king Philip of France and with his faithless sons. His tragic death 
at Chinon in 1189. He was succeeded by his son Kichard the Lion- 
Hearted, 1189-1199. In spite of the fact that he and king Philip 
of France went on the third crusade together, they soon came to 
blows on account of Richard's possessions on the continent which 
Philip coveted. Chateau Gaillard, Richard's strong castle on the 
Seine. King John's quarrel with his suzereign, king Philip of 
France. The murder of Arthur, 1203. Capture of Chateau Gail- 
lard in 1204. In 1204 John lost Normandy and all his lands north 
of the Loire, which now were attached directly to the French 
crown. That marked the end of the Norman empire. 



THE NORMANS 195 

5. The Normans in southern Italy. The roaming spirit of the 
Normans. Norman pilgrims to the Holy Land and other famous 
shrines. The shrine of St. Michael on Monte Gargano in Italy. 
There is a record of Normans at this spot as early as 1016. Their 
dealings with Greeks and Saracens and Latins in southern Italy. 
Aversa founded in 1030. The sons of Tancred of Hauteville in 
Italy, especially Koger and Robert Guiscard (died 1085). Their 
relations with the papacy. The defeat of the papal army at Civi- 
tate, in 1053. The treaty of Melfi between Robert Guiscard and 
pope Nicholas II in 1059. Robert was acknowledged as a duke by 
the papacy. Monte Cassino and the Normans. Gregory VII and 
the Normans. The sack of Rome by the Normans in 1084. Death 
of Gregory VII among the Normans in Salerno in 1085, in which 
year Robert Guiscard also died. 

6. Conquest of Sicily by the Normans, 1061-1091. The island 
under the rule of the Saracens. Count Roger captured Messina 
in 1061, Palermo in 1072. In 1091 Noto, the last Saracen fastness 
fell to Roger (died 1101). Relations of Roger with the papacy. 

7. The Normans as a Mediterranean power. The development 
of a strong fleet. Robert Guiscard and the Byzantine empire. His 
conquests in the Balkan peninsula. The opposition of Venice. The 
Normans on the first crusade, Bohemond (lord of Antioch), and 
Tancred. Normans in Spain and in northern Africa. 

8. The Norman Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. In 1130 Roger II 
had united all the Norman possessions in Italy and Sicily and was 
crowned king by the pope. Palermo became the capital of the 
new kingdom. The Norman power and civilization was at its 
height in the reign of Roger, who died in 1154. Decline under 
his successors, William I, 1154-1166, and William II, 1166-1189. 
Wars of the latter with Frederick Barbarossa. Marriage of the 
heiress of the Norman kingdom, Constance, daughter of Roger II, 
with Henry VI. For the history of the kingdom under the Hohen- 
staufen, see outline XXII below. 

9. Norman administration and culture in Sicily and southern 
Italy. Mingling of Byzantine, Mohammedan, Jewish, and Latin 
civilization in Sicily. The study of Greek, and translations from 
the Greek into Latin. The adaptability of the Norman conquerors. 
Their tolerance. The splendor of Palermo. Relations of the Nor- 
man kingdom in the Mediterranean with the Norman empire in 
the north. Consequent close touch of England with Mediterranean 
civilization. Similarity of institutions in Sicily and England. 

10. The ultimate absorption of the Normans by the native popu- 
lation in all the lands where they ruled in the middle ages. 



196 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

11. Dukes of Normandy. 
Rolf (Bollo), 911-927 
William (Longsword), 927-943 
Richard (The Fearless), 943-996 
Richard (The Good), 996-1026 
Richard III, 1026-1028 

Robert (The Magnificent), 1029-1035 
William the Conqueror, 1035-1087 
Robert II, 1087-1106 

William (Rufus), regent, 1096-1100 
Henry I, 1106-1135 
Stephen of Blois, 1135-1144 
Geoffrey, Count of Anjou and Maine, 1144-1150 
Henry II, 1150-1189 
Richard (The Lion-Hearted), 1189-1199 
John, 1199-1204, when Normandy was conquered by the king 

of France. 

12. Sons of Tancred of Hauteville of Normandy. 

(1) William of the Iron Arm, lord of Apulia, died 1046. 

(2) Drogo, Count of Apulia, died 1051. 

(3) Humphrey, Count of Apulia, died 1057. 

(4) Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia, died 1085. 

(5) Roger I, Count of Sicily, died 1101. 

13. Norman kings of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. 

Roger II, son of Roger I, first king of Sicily, 1130, died 1154. 

William I, 1154-1166. 

William II, 1166-1189. 

Henry VI, the Hohenstaufen, married Constance, daughter 

of Roger II, 1189-1197. 
Frederick II, 1197-1250. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

General surveys. By far the best account in any language is 
C. H. HASKINS, The Normans in European history, Boston and New 
York, 1915. The best brief sketch is in LAVISSE, Histoire de France, 
II, part II, 53-57, 87-106. In TOUT, Empire and papacy, information 
about the Normans is scattered in the following pages, 83-86, 103- 
109, 114-119, 135, 174-175. In the Encyclopaedia Britannica the 
article on "Normandy" is by R. LATOUCHE; that on the "Nor- 
mans" by E. A. FREEMAN. The history of the Normans in Eng- 
land is not treated in detail in this Guide, but attention may be 
called to two general books which treat the subject chiefly from 
that aspect: A. H. JOHNSON, The Normans in Europe, chs. vi-xvii; 



THE NORMANS 197 

and SAKAH O. JEWETT, The Normans: told chiefly in relation to their 
conquest of England. A short popular account in German is H. DON- 
DORPF, "Die Normaunen und ihre Bedeutung fiir das europaische 
Kulturleben im Mittelalter, ' ' in Sammlung gemeinverstdndlicher 
wissenschaftlicher Vortrage, edited by E. VIRCHOW and F. v. HOLT- 
ZENDORFF, Berlin, 1866-1901, X (1875), 259-298. 

Normans in Sicily and southern Italy. In an English translation 
the best short account is P. VILLARI, Mediaeval Italy, 126-133, 150- 
161, 179-203, 241-252. C. H. HASKINS, "England and Sicily in the 
twelfth century," in English historical review, XXVI (1911), 433- 
447. E. A. FREEMAN, "The Normans at Palermo," in his Historical 
essays, third series, 437-476. E. CURTIS, Eager of Sicily and the 
Normans in lower Italy, 1016-1154, New York, 1912. F. M. CRAW- 
FORD, The rulers of the south, Sicily, Calabria, Malta, 2 vols., New 
York, 1901, II, 124-333. COTTERILL, Medieval Italy, 399-412. GIB- 
BON, Decline and fall, ch. LVI. 

Mont St. Michel. H. ADAMS, Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres, 
Boston, 1913. The shrine of Saint Michel on Monte Gargano in 
Italy is described by E. GOTHEIN, Die Culturentwickelung Siid- 
Italiens, Breslau, 1886, pp. 41-111. 

Normans in Spain. E. DOZY, Becherches sur I'histoire et la lit- 
terature de I'Espagne, II, 332-371. 

Original sources. For reproductions of the famous Bayeux tap- 
estry see no. 202 above. The well-known Dialogue of the Exchequer 
is translated in HENDERSON, Select documents, 20-134. CECILIA 
WAERN, Mediaeval Sicily, New York, 1911, is largely devoted to 
Norman Sicily. It is included under this heading because ch. iv 
contains translations from contemporary sources. 

Maps. The only satisfactory map is in MEYERS Historischer 
Handatlas, 25. See also SHEPHERD, Atlas, 61, 65, 66-67, 69; and 
Dow, Atlas, 13 (inset). 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. Information concerning the Normans is almost 
hopelessly scattered in the general books on medieval history. The 
general histories of France, nos. 608-548 above, and Italy, nos. 599- 
621 above are especially useful. See also nos. 360-361 above. 

Normandy. H. PRENTOUT, Essai sur les origines et la fondation 
du duche de Normandie, Paris, 1911; and his, La Normandie, Paris, 
1910 (Les regions de la France, VII, Publications de la Revue de 
synthese historique); and his recent Etude critique sur Dudon de 
Saint-Quentin et son Histoire des premiers dues Normands, Paris, 
1916. A. ALBERT-PETIT, Histoire de Normandie, 6th edition, Paris, 



198 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

1912. G. MONOD, Le role de la Normandie dans I'histoire de France, 
Paris, 1911. F. M. POWICKE, The loss of Normandy, Manchester, 

1913. J. Abbe TOUFLET, Le Millenaire de la Normandie: souvenirs, 
etudes, Rouen, 1913, is an illustrated collection of popular com- 
memorative essays. There is an important introduction in L. 
DELISLE, Eecueil des actes de Henri II, roi d'Angleterre et due de 
Normandie, concernant les provinces fran^aises et les affaires de 
France, Paris, 1909. DELISLE 's Etude sur la condition des classes 
agricoles en Normandie, Evreux, 4851, reprinted 1906, is still our 
most thorough study of life in Normandy. A. LABUTTE, Histoire 
des dues de Normandie jusqu'd la mort de Guillaume le Conquerant, 
2nd edition, Paris, 1866. F. PALGRAVE, The history of Normandy 
and of England, 2 vols., London, 1851-1857, for a long time was 
the standard work in English on Normandy. It was superseded by 
the works of Freeman and others whose books are not listed in this 
Guide and should be sought for in GROSS' Sources and literature of 
English history. H. BOHMER, Kirche und Staat in England und in 
der Normandie im 11 und 12 Jahrhundert, Leipzig, 1899, extends to 
1154. Professor HASKINS called attention to E. N. SAUVAGE, L'ab- 
baye de Saint-Martin de Troarn au diocese Bayeux des origines au 
seizieme siecle, Caen, 1911, as the best study of a Norman monastery. 
T. A. COOK, The story of Rouen, London, 1905. C. ENLART, Eouen, 
Paris, 1910 (Les villes d'art celebres). H. PRENTOUT, Caen et 
Bayeux, Paris, 1909. 

Norman institutions. C. H. HASKINS, Studies in Norman institu- 
tions, Harvard University Press, 1917, incorporates studies on Nor- 
man matters which appeared in the English historical review and the 
American historical review. On Norman law see especially chs. vn- 
ix of H. BRUNNER, Die Entstehung der Schwurgerichte, Berlin, 1872; 
also book I, ch. ni of F. POLLOCK and F. W. MAITLAND, The history 
of English law, 2 vols., Cambridge, 1895, 2nd edition, 1899; and 
L. VALIN, Le due de Normandie et sa cour (913-1204) : etude d 'his- 
toire juridique, Paris, 1910, to be supplemented by E. DE FREVILLE, 
"fitude sur 1 'organisation judiciaire en Normandie au XII* et 
XIII* siecles, " in Nouvelle revue historique de droit, 1912, pp. 681- 
736. The following are recent studies on Norman institutions in 
Sicily and Italy: H. NIESE, Die Gesetzgebung der normanischen 
Dynastic im Eegnum Siciliae, Halle, 1910. EVELYN JAMISON, The 
Norman administration of Apulia and Capua, more especially under 
Eager I and William I, 1127-1166 (Papers of the British school at 
Borne, 1913, VI, no. 6). M. HOFMANN, Die Stellung des Konigs von 
Sizilien nach den Assisen von Ariano (1140), Miinster, 1915. C. A. 
GARUFI, "Sull' ordinamento amministrativo Normanno in Sicilia: 



THE NORMANS 199 

exhiquier o diwan?" in Archivio storico italiano, 5th series, XXVII 
(1901), 225-263. 

Bayeux tapestry. For literature on the Bayeux tapestry see 
C. GROSS, Sources and literature, no. 2139, and, in addition, P. LAUER, 
"Le poeme de Baudri de Bourgueil adresse a Adele, fille de Guil- 
laume le Conquerant, et la date de la tapisserie de Bayeux," in 
Melanges d'histoire offerts a Charles Bemont, 43-58; J. B. BERTRAND, 
Notice historique sur la tapisserie brodee de la reine Mathilde, epouse 
de Guillaume le Conquerant, exposee dans la galerie de la bibliotheque 
de Bayeux, Bayeux, 1914; and C. GARNIER, La tapisserie de la reine 
Mathilde: notice historique et descriptive, textes frangais et anglais, 
Bayeux, 1914. 

Normans in Sicily and southern Italy. On this phase of the 
history of the Normans there is a good deal of literature. The fol- 
lowing are the most important general surveys of large portions of 
the field: F. CHALANDON, Histoire de la domination normande en 
Italic et en Sidle, 1009-1194, 2 vols., Paris, 1907; L. VON HEINEMANN, 
Geschichte der Normannen in Unteritalien und Sicilien bis zum Aus- 
stcrben des jwrmannischen Konigshauses, vol. I, to 1085, Leipzig, 
1894; O. DELARC, Les Normands en Italie, depuis les premieres inva- 
sions jusqu'd I'avenement de S. Gregoire VII (859-862, 1016-1073), 
Paris, 1883; J. W. BARLOW, Short history of the Normans in southern 
Europe, London, 1886; A. F. VON SCHACK, Geschichte der Normannen 
in Sicilien, 2 vols., Stuttgart, 1889; A. PALOMES, La storia di li 
Nurmanni 'n Sicilia, 4 vols., Palermo, 1883-1887; H. OTTENDORFF, 
Die Eegierung der beiden letzten Normannenkonige, Tancreds und 
ll'illiclms III von Sizilien und ihre Kampfe gegen Kaiser Heinrich 
VI, Bonn, 1899; G. B. SIRAGUSA, II regno di Guglielmo I in Sicilia, 
2 vols., Palermo, 1885-1886. 

The standard work on the first Norman king in the south is 
E. CASPAR, Roger II (1101-1154) und die Griindung der norman- 
nixcli-sicilianischen Monarchic, Innsbruck, 1904. R. STRAUS, Die 
Juden im Konigreich Sizilien untcr Normannen und Staufern, Heidel- 
berg, 1910. On Norman art see E. BERTAUX, L'art dans I 'Italic 
nn'ridionale, vol. I, Paris, 1904. C. DlEHL, L'art byzantin dans 
I'ltalie meridionale, Paris, 1894; and his Palcrme et Syracuse, Paris, 
1907. Di GIOVANNI, La topografia antica di Palermo dal secolo 10 
al 15, 2 vols., Palermo, 1889-1890. N. MACCARRONE, La vita del 
latino in Sicilia fino all' eta normanna, Florence, 1915. Popular 
books which attempt to revive interest in Norman Sicily and Italy 
are numerous; the following are examples: M. 8. BRIOOS, In the 
heel of Italy: a study of an unknown citi/ [Lecce], London, 1910; 
and N. DOUGLAS, Old Calabria, London, 1915. 



200 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Monte Cassino and the Normans. E. PALMAROCCHI, L'abbazia 
di Montecassino et la conquista normanna, Eome, 1913. See also the 
short but valuable introduction to E. A. LOEW, The Beneventan 
script. 

The Normans and the papacy. A. WINCKLER, "Gregor VII 
und die Normannen," in vol X (1875), 605-643, of Sammlung 
gemeinverstdndlicher wissenschaftlicher Vortrdge. A. WAGNER, Die 
unteritalischen Normannen und das Papstthum, von Victor III bis 
Hadrian IV (1086-1156), Breslau, 1887. 

The Normans and the Byzantine empire. J. GAY, L'ltalie 
meridionale et I' empire byzantin, Paris, 1904. G. L. F. TAFEL, Kom- 
nenen und Normannen: Beitrage zur Erforschung ihrer Geschichte 
im verdeutschten und erlduterten Urlcunden des swolften und drei- 
zehnten Jahrhunderts aus dem GriecMschen, Ulm, 1852, 2nd edition, 
part II, Stuttgart, 1870. C. SCHWARTZ, Die Feldzilge Robert Guis- 
card's gegen das byzantinische Reich, Fulda, 1854 (Programm). 
W. COHN, Die Geschichte der normannisch-sicilischen Flotte, Breslau, 
1910. G. SCHLTJMBERGER, " Deux chefs normands des armees byzan- 
tines," in Revue historique, XVI (1881), 289-303. See also outline 
XVIII above. 

Normans in Syria, B. KUGLER, Boemund und Tankred, Tubingen, 
1862. G. KEY, in Revue de I- 'Orient latin, IV (1896), 321-407; VIII 
(1900), 116-157. E. KUHNE, Geschichte des Filrstentums Antiochia 
unter normannischen Heerschaft (1098-1130), Berlin, 1897 (Pro- 
gramm). O. VON SYDOW, Tancred: ein Lebensbild aus den Zeiten 
der Kreuzziige, Leipzig, 1880. 

Original sources. The general collections for France and Bel- 
gium, nos. 965-977 above, and for Italy, nos. 988-994 above, espe- 
cially no. 988, contain much material valuable for a study of the 
Normans. Historiae Normannorum scriptores antiqui . . . 838- 
1220, edited by A. DUCHESNE, Paris, 1619. The publications of the 
Societe de 1'histoire de Normandie, Rouen, 1870ff., contain source 
materials; recent publications in this set are: L. MARX, Gesta nor- 
mannorum ducum of WILLIAM of JUMIEGES, Paris, 1914; and L. 
HALPHEN and E. POUPARDIN, Chroniques des comtes d'Anjou et des 
seignieurs d'Amboise, Paris, 1914. A rather important source for 
the Normans in the south is AMATUS (AIME) OF MONTE CASSINO, 
j^'ystoire de li Normant [to 1078], edited by O. DELARC, Eouen, 1892. 
K. A. KEHR, Die Urlcunden der normannisch-sicilischen Konige: eine 
diplomatische Untersuchung, Innsbruck, 1902, is a very careful dip- 
lomatic study of the archive material for the Normans in Sicily. 

Bibliographies. The most serviceable bibliography is that at 
the end of chapters in HASKINS, The Normans in European history. 



THE CRUSADES 201 

GROSS, Sources and literature, part IV. Catalogue des ouvrages nor- 
mands de la Bibliotheque municipale de Caen, Caen, 1910-1912. A. 
MOLINIER, Les sources d I'histoire de France, II, chs. xxv, xxxni. 
U. CHEVALIER, Repertoire: Topo-bibliographie, II, 2140. 

XXI. THE CRUSADES 
A. OUTLINE 

1. After having been more or less on the defensive against its 
foes from the eighth to the eleventh centuries, western Christendom 
was ready to take the offensive towards the end of the eleventh 
century. Compare the ousting of the Mohammedans from Sicily 
by the Normans, 1061-1091. 

2. Nature and causes of the crusades. Contact between Europe 
and Asia in the early middle ages. The "Syrians" in the west. 
Pilgrimages to Jerusalem and other holy places. 

3. Syria and Asia Minor in the eleventh century. The Christian 
state of Armenia. Treatment of Christian pilgrims in Jerusalem 
before and after the capture of the holy city by the Seljuk Turks 
in 1076. 

4. The preaching of the first crusade by pope Urban II at the 
council of Clermont, 1095. The legend of Peter the Hermit. 
Persecutions of the Jews. In the spring of 1096 several unorgan- 
ized bands, mostly peasants, set out under Peter the Hermit, Wal- 
ter the Penniless, and others. Most of them perished miserably 
in Asia Minor. 

5. The first crusading army set out in the fall of 1096. The 
following were some of the prominent leaders: Godfrey of Lor- 
raine (of Bouillon) and his brother Baldwin; Raymond of Saint- 
Gilles, count of Toulouse; Robert, duke of Normandy; Hugh, 
count of Vermandois; Stephen, count of Blois; Bohemund, son of 
Robert Guiscard, and his nephew Tancred; Adhemar, bishop of 
Puy, the legate of the pope. 

6. The crusading hosts in Constantinople. Their relations with 
the emperor Alexius Comnenus. The anomalous position of the 
Norman leaders. The Alexiad of Anna Comnena, the daughter of 
Alexius. 

7. The march through Asia Minor and the conquest of the 
Holy Land. Siege of Nicaea. Battle of Dorylaeum. Capture of 
Edessa and Antioch in 1098. The legend of the holy lance. Fall 
of Jerusalem in 1099. 

8. The organization of the crusaders' conquests in the east. 
The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem. The Assizes of Jerusalem. Feud- 



202 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

alism in Palestine. The county of Tripoli, the principality of 
Antioch, and the county of Edessa. 

9. The religious military orders; Hospitallers, Templars, Teu- 
tonic knights. The Teutonic knights in Prussia in the first half 
of the thirteenth century under their Grand Master, Hermann of 
Salza. 

10. The management of the constant flow of population and 
goods to and from the Holy Land. Passagia. Importance of the 
sea routes. The rapid rise of Italian towns and merchants. 

11. Eesults of the fall of Edessa in 1144. The preaching of St. 
Bernard of Clairvaux. Conrad III of Germany and Louis VII of 
France led armies to Palestine. 

12. The capture of Jerusalem in 1187 by Saladin led to the 
crusade of the three kings, Frederick I (Barbarossa) of Germany, 
Richard the Lion-Hearted of England, and Philip II of France. 
The death of Frederick Barbarossa by drowning in the river 
Saleph, 1190, and the consequent destruction of the German army. 
Capture of Acre by the Christians in 1191. Truce with Saladin, 
1192. The failure of this crusade, which was planned on a very 
large scale, marked the end of the heroic crusading era. 

13. The crusading plans of the emperor Henry VI, 1190-1197. 

14. The ambitions of pope Innocent III to launch an overwhelm- 
ing crusade. The capture of Constantinople by so-called crusaders 
in 1204 and the establishment of the Latin empire of Constan- 
tinople, 1204-1261. The children's crusade, 1212. Innocent 
preached a "crusade" against the Albigensian heretics in south- 
ern France, and aided the Christians against the Mohammedans 
in Spain (Battle of Tolosa, 1212). 

15. The capture of Damietta by the Christians in 1219 under 
John of Brienne. Ultimate loss of the city and failure of this 
expedition into Egypt. St. Francis of Assisi in Egypt. 

16. The emperor Frederick II in the Holy Land. His treaty with 
El-Kamil, the Sultan of Egypt, in 1229, by which he got possession 
of Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth. Frederick assumed the 
crown of Jerusalem. Capture of Jerusalem by the fierce Charis- 
mian Turks in 1244. 

17. The crusading fervor of king Louis IX of France. The 
Life of St. Louis by his friend Joinville. Capture of Damietta in 
Egypt in 1249. Louis did not follow up his first successes and 
finally was taken prisoner. When released he went as a pilgrim 
to Palestine. Fall of Jaffa and Antioch, 1268, into the hands of 
the Sultan Bibars. The second crusade of St. Louis to Tunis 
where he died in 1270. 



XXI 



THE CRUSADES 



203 



18. The fall of Acre in 1291 and the end of the Latin kingdom 
of Jerusalem. 

19. Crusading movements after 1291. The De recuperatione 
Terrae Sanctae of Pierre Dubois (1309). Missionary activities set 
in motion largely by the crusades. Eaymund Lull. 

20. Changes in Europe in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries 
which can in a measure be attributed to the crusades. 

21. Latin emperors in Constantinople. 



Baldwin I, 1204-1205 
Henry of Flanders, 1205- 

1216 
Peter of Courtenay, 1216- 

1219 
22. Kings of Jerusalem. 

Godfrey of Bouillon, 1099- 

1100 (without the title 

of king) 

Baldwin I, 1100-1118 
Baldwin II, 1118-1130 
Fulk of Anjou, 1130-1143 
Baldwin III, 1143-1163 
Amalric I, 1163-1174 
Baldwin IV, 1173-1185 
Baldwin V, 1185-1186 
Guy of Lusignan, 1186- 

1194 



Robert, 1219-1228 
Baldwin II, 1228-1261 



[Conrad of Montferrat, 

1191-1192] 
[Henry of Champagne, 

1192-1197] 
Amalric II of Lusignan, 

1197-1205 

Amalric III, 1205-1206 
John of Brienne, 1210-1225 
lolande of Brienne, 1225- 

1228 

Frederick II, 1228-1250 
Hugh of Lusignan (King 

of Cyprus), 1268-1284 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

Brief surveys. The following are reviews of the subject in a 
more or less elementary fashion. BEMONT and MONOD, Medieval 
Europe, 336-374. EMERTON, Mediaeval Europe, 357-397. ADAMS, 
Civilization, 258-278. MUNRO, A history of the middle ages, 106- 
121. FLICK, Mediaeval church, ch. xx. The article "Crusades'* in 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica was written by E. BARKER, that in 
the Catholic encyclopedia by L. BREHIER; both are excellent and 
contain good bibliographical notes. LANGLOIS, Lectures historiques, 
ch. ix, reprints several famous passages from modern authors on 
the crusades. 

Longer accounts. TOUT, The empire and the papacy, chs. VIM. 
xm, xv, xix. LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire generate, II, ch. vi 
(translated in part by MUNRO and SELLERY, Medieval civilization, 
248-256). LAVISSE, Histoire de France, II, part II, 227-250. GIB- 
BON, Decline and fall, treats of the crusades in chs. LVII-LX. 



204 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PABTII 

Short books on the crusades in English. The best account is 
by T. A. ARCHER and C. L. KINGSFORD, The crusades: the story of 
the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, New York, 1895 (Stories of the 
nations). W. B. STEVENSON, The crusaders in the east: a brief his- 
tory of the wars of Islam with the Latins in Syria during the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries, Cambridge, 1907, presents the subject from 
the eastern point of view. J. M. LUDLOW, The age of the crusades, 
Edinburgh, 1897. J. I. MOMBERT, A short history of the crusades, 
New York, 1894. M. M. C. CALTHROP, The crusades, London, [1913], 
(The peoples books), is a very slight manual for the general reader. 
G. W. Cox, The crusades, New York, 1875 (Epochs of history) is 
very antiquated. 

Speech of Pope Urban II. This speech has been analyzed care- 
fully by D. C. MUNRO, "The speech of pope Urban II at Clermont, 
1095," American historical review, XI (1905-1906), 231-242. 

Pilgrimages. BEAZLEY, Dawn of modern geography, I, 125-175, 
II, 112-217. LACROIX, Military and religious life in the middle ages, 
262-393. 

Original sources. Translations and reprints, vol. I, no. 2, 
"Urban and the crusaders" (contains translations of the speech 
of Urban II); vol. I, no. 4, "Letters of the crusaders"; vol. Ill, 
no. 1, ' ' The fourth crusade. ' ' For translations of several accounts 
of the capture of Jerusalem in 1099 see DUNCALF and KREY, Parallel 
source problems, 95-133. MUNRO and SELLERY, Medieval civilization, 
257-268, "Ibn Jubair's account of his journey through Syria 
(1184)." ROBINSON, Readings, I, 312-345. THATCHER and McNEAL, 
Source book, 510-544. OGG, Source book, 282-296. HENDERSON, 
Documents, 337-344. 

The following are the most available longer accounts in Eng- 
lish: Chronicles of the crusades: being contemporary narratives of 
the crusade of Richard Coeur de Lion by Richard of Devizes and 
Geoffrey de Vinsauf and of the crusade of St. Louis, by Lord John 
de Joinville, London, 1848. T. A. ARCHER, The crusade of Richard I, 
1189-1192, New York, 1889 (English history by contemporary 
writers). VILLEHARDOUIN 's Chronicle of the fourth crusade and 
the conquest of Constantinople, and JOINVILLE 's Chronicle of the 
crusade of St. Lewis, are translated by Sir F. MARZIALS, Memoirs 
of the crusades, London [1908] (Everyman's library). The second 
of these is also translated conveniently in The memoirs of the Lord 
of Joinville: a new English version, by ETHEL WEDGEWOOD, London, 
1906. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 66-67, 68, 70-71, 73. 



xxi THE CRUSADES 205 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. Information on the crusades is widely scattered 
in the general books on medieval history. Those on the church, 
nos. 394498 above, France, Germany, and Italy, nos. 508-621 
above, and the Byzantine empire, nos. 643-679 above, are espe- 
cially useful. 

General accounts. B. KUGLER, Geschichte der Kreuzziig'e, Berlin, 
1880, 2nd edition, 1891, part of no. 313 above. L. BREHIER, L'eglise 
et I'Orient au moyen age: les croisades, 2nd edition, Paris, 1907. 

E. HEYCK, Die Kreuzziige und das heilige Land, Bielefeld and Leip- 
zig, 1900 (Monographien zur Weltgeschichte). E. ROHRICHT, 
Geschichte der Kreuzziige im Umriss, Innsbr,uck, 1899. 

The two most comprehensive histories of the crusades unfor- 
tunately are antiquated, having been written near the beginning 
of the nineteenth century under the influence of the romantic 
movement. J. F. MICHAUD, Histoire des croisades, 3 vols., Paris, 
1812-1817, in 7 vols., 1824-1829, translated into English by W. 
ROBSON, History of the crusades, 3 vols., [1852] (often reprinted). 

F. WILKEN, Geschichte der Kreuzziige nach morgenldndischen und 
abendlandischen Berichten, 7 vols., Leipzig, 1807-1832. 

Pilgrimages to the Holy Land, A. BAUMSTARK, Abendlandische 
Paldstinerpilger des ersten Jahrtausends und ihre Berichte, Koln, 
1906. P. RIANT, Expeditions et pelerinages des Scandinaves en Terre 
Sainte au temps des croisades, Paris, 1865. 

First crusade. R. ROHRICHT, Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges 
Innsbruck, 1901. H. HAGENMEYER, Chronologic de la premiere croi- 
sade, 1094-1100, Paris, 1902, is taken from Revue de I'Orient Latin, 
VI-VIII. 

Historiography of the first crusades. H. VON SYBEL, Geschichte 
des ersten Kreuzzuges, Leipzig, 1841, 3rd edition, 1881, partly trans- 
lated by Lady DUFF GORDEN, The history and literature of the 
crusades, London, 1861. O. J. THATCHER, "Latin sources of the 
first crusade," Annual report of the American historical association, 
I (1900), 499-509. T. A. ARCHER, "The Council of Clermont and 
the first crusade," Scottish review, XXVI (1895), 274-295. L. DU 
SOMMERARD, Deux princesses d'Orient au 12 siecle: Anne Comnene, 
li'niniii ilcn croisades; Agnes de France, Paris, 1907. C. NEUMANN, 
kische Geschichtschreiber und Gtschichtsquellen im IS Jahr- 
hundert: Studien zu Anna Comnena, Theod. Prodromus, Joh. Cinna- 
mus, Leipzig, 1888. See also MOLINIER, Les sources d I'histoire de 
France, V, pp. xcvff. 

The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem and other Latin states in 
Syria. C. R. CONDER, The Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1291, 



206 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

London, 1897. B. ROHRICHT, Geschichte des Konigreichs Jerusalem 
(1100-1291), 2 vols., Innsbruck, 1898. G. DODU, Histoire des insti- 
tutions monarchiques dans le royaume latin de Jerusalem (1099- 
1291), Paris, 1894; and his Le royaume latin de Jerusalem (Con- 
ference donnee a 1'Universite Nouvelle de Bruxelles). HELEN G. 
PRESTON, Eural conditions in the kingdom of Jerusalem during the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries, Philadelphia, 1903 (dissertation). 
G. KEY, Les colonies franques de Syrie aux XII e et XIII s siecles, 
Paris, 1884. G. SCHLUMBERGER, Les principautes franques dans le 
Levant, Paris, 1879. G. SCHLUMBERGER, Fin de la domination franque 
en Syrie apres les dernieres croisades: prise de Saint-Jean d'Acre en 
I 'an 1291 par I'armee du Soudan d'Egypte, Paris, 1914, is an extract 
from the Revue des deux mondes, July 15, 1913. 

Second crusade. B. KUGLER, Analekten zur Geschichte des zwei- 
ten Kreuzzuges, Tubingen, 1878, 1885; Neue Analekten, 1885. C. 
NEUMANN, Bernard von Clairvaux und die Anfdnge des zweiten 
Kreuzzuges, Heidelberg, 1882. H. COSACK, "Konrads III Ent- 
schluss zum Kreuzzug, ' ' in Milteilungen des Instituts fur osterreich- 
ische Geschichtsforschung, XXXV (1914), 278-296. 

Third crusade. S. L. POOLE, Saladin and the fall of the king- 
dom of Jerusalem, New York, 1898. A. CARTELLIERI, ' ' Richard 
Lowenherz im heiligen Lande, " in Historische Zeitschrift, CI 
(1908), 1-25. G. SCHLUMBERGER, Eenaud de Chdtillon, prince 
d'Antioche, Paris, 1898; and his, Campagnes du roi Amaury I de 
Jerusalem en Egypte, au Xlle siecle, Paris, 1906. A. GRUHN, Der 
Kreuzzug Richards I, Berlin, [1892]. K. FISCHER, Geschichte des 
Kreuszuges Kaiser Friedrichs I, Leipzig, 1870. 

Henry VI plan for a crusade. W. LEONHARDT, Der Kreuzzugs- 
plan Kaiser Heinrichs VI (dissertation, Giessen, ca. 1914). E. 
TRAUB, Der Kreuzzugsplan Kaiser Heinrichs VI im Zusammenhang 
mit der Politik der Jahre 1195-1197, Jena, 1910. 

Capture of Constantinople in 1204 and the Latin Kingdom 
established there 1204-1261. A. LUCHAIRE, Innocent III, 6 vols., 
Paris, 1905-1908, vol. IV, La question d 'Orient. E. PEARS, The 
fall of Constantinople: being the story of the fourth crusade, New 
York, 1886. E. GERLAND, Geschichte des lateinischen Kaiserreiches 
von Konstantinopel, part I, Geschichte der Kaiser Balduin I und 
Heinrich, 1204-1216, Homburg, 1905. W. NORDEN, Der vierte Kreuz- 
zug im Rahmen der Beziehungen des Abendlandes zu Byzanz, Berlin, 
1898. H. MOESER, Gottfried von Villehardouin und der Lateinerzug 
gegen Byzanz, 1899. J. TESSIER, La quatrieme croisade: la diversion 
sur Zara et Constantinople, Paris, 1884. L. STREIT, Beitrdge zur 
Geschichte des vierten Kreuzzuges, Anklam, 1877. Count RIANT, Le 



THE CRUSADES 207 

changement de direction de la quatrieme croisade, Paris, 1878. C. D. 
DU CANGE, Histoire de I' empire de Constantinople sous les empereurs 
Francois, Paris, 1657, new edition by J. A. BUCHON, 2 vols., Paris, 
1826. OMAN, Story of the Byzantine empire, 274-306, is a brief 
summary. 

The Byzantine empire and the crusades. W. NORDEN, Das 
Papsttum und Byzanz, Berlin, 1903. F. CHALANDON, Essai sur le 
regne d' Alexis Comnene (1081-1118); and his Jean II Comnene 
(1118-1143), Paris, 1912. ALICE GARDNER, The Lascarids of Nicaea: 
the story of an empire in exile, London, 1912. W. MILLER, The 
Latins in the Levant. FINLAY, History of Greece, II-IV. Sir R. 
icODD, The princes of Achaia and the chronicles of Morea, a study of 
Greece in the middle ages, London, 1907. J. K. FOTHERINGHAM, 
Marco Sanudo, conqueror of the Archipelago, Oxford, 1915. G. 
SCHLUMBERGER, Eecits de Byzance et des croisades, Paris, 19*16. A. 
GRUHN, Die byzantinische PolitiJc zur Zeit der Kreuzziige, Berlin, 
1904, J. DRASEKE, "Bischof Anselm von Havelberg und seine 
Gesandtschaf tsreisen nach Byzanz, ' ' Zeitschrift fur Kirchenge- 
schichte, XXI (1901), 160-185. For a summary see LAVISSE and 
RAMBAUD, Histoire generale, II, ch. xv. 

The children's crusade. D. C. MUNRO, "The children's cru- 
sade," American historical review, XIX (1914), 516-524. G. E. 
GRAY, The crusade of the children in the thirteenth century, New 
York, 1870. R. ROHRICHT, "Der Kinder Kreuzzug, 1212, *' in His- 
torische Zeitschrift, XXXVI (1876), 1-8. DE JANSSENS, Etienne 
de Cloyes et les croisades d' en fonts au XIII e siccle, Paris, 1890. 
A. DES ESSARTS, La croisade des enfants, Paris, 1852. 

Fifth crusade. R. ROHRICHT, Studien zur Geschichte des fiinften 
Kreuzzuges, Innsbruck, 1891. 

Frederick II and the crusades. W. JACOBS, Patriarch Gerold von 
Jerusalem: ein Beitrag zur Kreuzzugsgeschichte Friedrichs II, 
Aachen, 1905 (dissertation, Bonn). R. ROHRICHT, Die Kreuzfahrt 
Friedrich II, Berlin, 1874. 

Crusades of King Louis IX. E. J. DAVIS, The invasion of Egypt 
in .t.l). 1249 by Louis 9th of France, London, 1898. R. STERNFELD, 
Ludwigs des Heiligen Kreuzzug nach Tunis 1210 and die Politik 
A"fi/-/.s / von Si:ili<'n, Berlin, 1896. H. F. DELABORDE, Jean de Join- 
ville et les seigneurs de Joinville, Paris, 1894. 

Religious military orders. H. PRUTZ, Die gewtliclien Ritter- 
nrili a : ilirt SI/ ih/iii/ ^iir kin-liHi-lu n. politischen, gesellschaftlichen 
und wirtschaftlicliai /,'///// irlclnn n des Mittelalters, Berlin, 1908; and 
his, Der Anted der geistlichcn Ritterordcn an dem geistigen Leben 



208 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

ihrer Zeit, Miinchen, 1908. F. C. WOODHOUSE, The military religious 
orders, London, 1879. 

A. EASTOUL, Les Templiers 1118-1312, 2nd edition, Paris, 1905. 
H. PRUTZ, Entwicklung und Untergang des Templerherrenordens, 
Berlin, 1888. J. GMELIN, Schuld oder Unschuld des Templerordens: 
kritischer Versuch zur Losung der Frage, Stuttgart, 1893. K. SCHOTT- 
MULLER, Der Untergang des Tcmpler-Ordens, 2 vols., Berlin, 1887. L. 
DELISLE, "Operations financieres des Templiers," in Memoires de 
V Academic des Inscriptions, XXXIII (1889). C. G. ADDISON, The 
history of the Knights Templars, London, 1842; 3rd edition, 1852. 
G. LIZERAND, ' ' Les depositions du Grand Maitre Jacques de Molay 
au proces des Templiers, 1307-1314," in Le moyen age, XXVI 
(1913), 81-106. M. SCHUPFERLING, Der Templerherren Orden in 
Deutschland, Bamberg, 1915. F. LUNDGREEN, Wilhelm von Tyrus 
und der Templerorden, part I, Berlin, 1911 (dissertation). V. CAR- 
RIERE, ' ' Les debuts de 1 'Ordre du Temple en France, " in Le moyen 
age, XVIII (1914), 308-335. 

Baron DE DELABRE, Rhodes of the Knights, Oxford, 1909. J. 
DELAVILLE LE EOULX, Les Hospitaliers en Terre Sainte et d Chypre, 
1100-1310, Paris, 1904; Les Hospitaliers a Rhodes jusqu'a la morte 
de Philibert de Nailhac, 1310-1421, Paris, 1914; Melanges sur 
I' Ordre de S. Jean de Jerusalem, Paris, 1910. W. K. E. BEDFORD 
and E. HOLBECHE, The order of the hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, 
London, 1902. W. PORTER, Knights of Malta or the Order of St. 
John of Jerusalem, 2 vols., London, 1858; 3rd edition of vol. I, 
1884. E. PETIET, Contribution d I'histoire de I'Ordre de Saint- 
Lazare de Jerusalem en France, Paris, 1914. 

Crusading movements after 1291. F. HEIDELBERGER, Kreuzzugs- 
versuche um die Wende des 13 Jahrhunderts, Berlin and Leipzig, 
1911 (Abhandlungen zur mittleren und neueren Geschichte, 31). 
A. GOTTRON, Ramon Lulls Kreuzzungsideen, Berlin, 1912. J. DELA- 
VILLE LE EOULX, La France en Orient au XlVe siecle: expeditions 
du marechal Boucicaut, 2 vols., Paris, 1886, parts 44-45 of no. 887 
.above. N. IORGA, Notes et extraits pour servir d I'histoire des croi- 
sades au XVe siecle, 5 vols., Paris, 1899-1915. 

Preaching of crusades. A. LECOY DE LA MARCHE, "La predica- 
tion de la eroisade au XIIP siecle," in Revue des questions his- 
toriques, XL VIII (1890), 5-28. E. EOHRICHT, "Die Kreuzpredigten 
gegen den Islam," in Zeitschrift fur Kirchengeschichte, VI (1884), 
550-572. 

Privileges of the crusaders. E. BRIDREY, La condition juridique 
des croises et le privilege de la croix, Paris, 1901. EDITH BRAMHALL, 



THE CRUSADES 209 

"The privileges of the crusaders," American journal of theology, 
V (1902), 279ff. 

Archaeological evidences of the crusades. G. KEY, Etudes sur 
les monuments de I 'architecture militaire des croisades en Syrie et 
dans I'ile de Chypre, Paris, 1871. C. ENLART, L'art gothique et la 
renaissance en Chypre, 2 vols., Paris, 1899. G. SCHLUMBERGER, 
Numismatique de I'Orient Latin, Paris, 1878. 

Cyprus. B. STEWART, Cyprus: the people, mediaeval cities, 
castles, antiquities, and history of the island, London, 1908. W. 
STUBBS, "The mediaeval kingdoms of Cyprus and Armenia," in 
his Seventeen lectures, ch. vin. 

Culture and the crusades. H. PRUTZ, Kulturgeschichte der 
Kreuzzuqe, Berlin, 1883. O. HENNE AM RHYN, Kulturgeschichte der 
Kreuzziige, Leipzig, 1894. O. HENNE AM RHYN, Die Kreuzziige und 
die Eultur ihrer Zeit, Leipzig, 1886. A. v. KREMER, Culturgeschicht- 
liche Beziehungen zwischen Europa und dem Oriente, Vienna, 1876, 
is a short lecture. 

Legends of the crusades. The classic refutation of the legend 
of Peter the Hermit is H. HAGENMEYER, Peter der Eremite, Leipzig, 
1879. The famous legend of the finding of the holy lance in 
Antioch is treated in full by J. STRAUBINGER, Die Ereuzauffind- 
ungslegende, Paderborn, 1912 (vol. IX, part 3, of no. 489 above). 
B. KUGLER, Albert von Aachen, Stuttgart, 1885; and his Analek- 
ten zur Kritik Alberts von Aachen, Tubingen, 1888 (Albert was the 
author of a "saga" of the first crusade c. 1120). G. PARIS, in 
the introduction of his edition of L'estoire de la guerre sainte, 
Paris, 1897, discussed the legend of the third crusade. H. PIGON- 
NEAU, Le cycle de la croisade et de la famille de Bouillon, Paris, 1877. 

Art of war of the crusaders. O. HEERMANN, Die Gefechtsfiihr- 
ung abendldndischer Heere im Orient in der Epoche des ersten 
Krcuzzugs, Marburg, 1888. See also OMAN, The art of war, 229- 
350; and H. DELBRUCK, Geschichte der Kriegskunst, III, 226-231. 

Miscellaneous books. D. C. MUNRO, H. PRUTZ, and C. DIEHL, 
Essays on the crusades, Burlington, Vermont, 1903. R. ROHRICHT, 
Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Kreuzziige, 2 vols., Berlin, 1874-1878. 
G. DESDEVISES DU DEZERT, Bibliographic du centenaire des croisades, 
Clermont, 1895, and his Les croisades, Clermont, 1895, are publica- 
tions called forth by the octocentenary of the crusades celebrated 
at Clermont-Ferrand in 1895. O. VOLK, Die abendldndischhierarch- 
ische Krcuzzugsidee, Halle, 1911. G. MARCAIS, Les Arabes en Ber- 
berie du XI C au XIV siecle, Paris, 1914. Oriens christianus, rom- 
ische Halbjahrheftc fiir Kunde des christlichen Orients, Leipzig, 
1901ff. C. M. WATSON, The story of Jerusalem, London, 1912 



210 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

(Mediaeval towns). ESTELLE BLYTHE, Jerusalem and the crusades, 
New York, 1914. G. LE STRANGE, Palestine under the Moslems: a 
description of Syria and the Holy Land from A. D. 650 to 1500, Lon- 
don, 1890. 

Original sources. The most comprehensive collection of sources 
for the crusades is the Secueil des historiens des croisades, public 
par les soins de 1 'Academic des inscriptions et belles-lettres, in 14 
huge folio vols., Paris, 1841-1898. This almost entirely super- 
sedes the old collection by J. BONGARS, Gesta dei per Francos sive 
orientalium expeditionum et regni Francorum hierosolimitani his- 
toria, vols. I and II, Hannover, 1612. The Societe de 1 'Orient 
Latin, founded in 1875 by Count Riant, published much source 
material for a history of the crusades in its Publication^, 1879ff., 
in a serie geographique, and a serie historique, the contents of 
which are listed in POTTHAST, Wegweiser, I, p. cxxiii; its Archives, 
2 vols., 1881 and 1884; and its Eevue, 1893-1902, which, besides 
articles, book-reviews, and bibliographies, contains many texts. 

English translations of pilgrimages to the Holy Land are 
collected in great numbers in Palestine pilgrims text society, 13 
vols., London, 1897 (the contents of which is analyzed in J. W. 
THOMPSON, Reference studies in medieval history, second edition, 
Chicago, 1914, pp. 102-104); and in Early travels in Palestine, com- 
prising the narratives of Arculf, etc., edited by T. WRIGHT, London, 
1848. See also Deutsche Pilgerreisen nach dem Heiligen Lande, 
edited by R. ROHRICHT and H. MEISNER, Berlin, 1880, new abridged 
edited by R. ROHRICHT, Innsbruck, 1900. 

French translations of extracts from the sources of the crusades 
were issued long ago by J. MICHAUD, Bibliothcque de croisades, 2nd 
edition, 4 vols., Paris, 1829-1830. GUIZOT'S Collection des memoires, 
no. 971 above, also contains translations of accounts of the cru- 
sades. 

It would carry us too far afield to try to enumerate separate 
editions of original sources of the crusades. It will be serviceable, 
however, to mention the following works edited by H. HAGENMEYER, 
Historia Hierosolymitana, 1095-1127, of FOULCHER OF CHARTRES, 
Heidelberg, 1913; Anonymi gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosoly- 
mitanorum, Heidelberg, 1890; Ekkehardi urangiensis abbatis Hiero- 
solymita nach der Waitzschen Recension, Tubingen, 1877; Die 
Kreuzzugsbriefe aus dem Jahren 1098-1100, mit Erlaiiterungen, Inns- 
bruck, 1901 (RIANT has an Inventaire critique of these letters in 
the Archives de I'Orient latin, I). See also the documentary mate- 
rial for the Kingdom of Jerusalem, edited by R. ROHRICHT, Regesta 
regni Hierosolymitani (1098-1291), Innsbruck, 1893, with an Addi- 



POPES AND HOHENSTAUPEN 211 

tamentum, 1904. Important material has been edited by P. RIANT, 
Excuviae sacrae constantinopolitanae, 2 vols., Geneva, 1877-1878; 
ami an additional volume by F. DE MELY, Paris, 1904. PIERRE 
DUBOIS, De recuperatione Terrae Sanctae, edited by C. V. LANGLOIS, 
Paris, 1891 (part 9 of no. 968 above), written in 1309, is the be'st 
source of information concerning crusading ideas in the four- 
teenth century. Cartulairc general de I'ordre du Temple, 1119-1150, 
edited by MARQUIS D'ALBON, Paris, 1913; and Cartulaire generate 
de I'ordre des Hospitaliers de S. Jean de Jerusalem, 11001310, 
edited by J. DELAVILLE LE ROULX, 4 vols., Paris, 1894ff., are two 
important collections of source material for the study of the 
military religious orders. Chronicle of Morea, edited by J. SCHMITT, 
London, 1904. Naturally much material on the crusades is also 
found scattered in many of the great national collections, such as nos. 
965-971, 978, 986, 988, 995 above. 

Bibliographies. The best bibliography of the sources of the 
crusades, especially the first, is in MOLINIER, Lea sources de I'his- 
toire de France, II, 266-304, III, 25-54, 104-113, 237-244. A great 
amount of bibliographical information may be found in the various 
publications of the Socie'tfi de 1 'Orient Latin (see above). The 
large library of Count RIANT was acquired by Harvard Uni- 
versity in 1899. The catalogue is printed under the title Cata- 
logue de la bibliothPque de feu M. le Comic Riant: redig6 par L. DE 
GERMON et L. POLAIN, 2nd part, 2 vols., Paris, 1899 (for crusades 
see especially nos. 2958-3433); and the collection is described by 
A. C. POTTER, The library of Harvard University, 3rd edition, Har- 
vard University Press, 1915. 

XXII. THE POPES AND THE HOHENSTAUFEN 
A. OUTLINE 

1. A new phase of the irrepressible conflict between the empire 
ami the papacy. The struggle was now almost a purely political 
one, and the immediate bone of contention was the possession of 
Italy. 

2. The truce, 1123-1157. Origin of the quarrel between the 
Hohenstaufen (Waiblingen, Ghibellines) and the Welfs (Guelfs). 
The schism of popes Innocent II and Anaclete in 1130. Harmony 
between Lothair II, 1125-1138, and pope Innocent II. Conrad III 
(1138-1152), the first Hohenataufen emperor, on the second cru- 
sade in 1147. The political influence of St. Bernard of ClairVaux. 
Arnold of Brescia in Rome in 1147. 

3. The emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), of Hohenstaufen, 
1152-1190. His remarkable personality. His exalted position as 



212 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTH 

a German king. Striking advance in German civilization during 
his reign. His reliance on the Eoman law. Henry the Lion and 
the Slavs. 

4. Frederick's imperial policy in Italy renewed the strife 
between empire and papacy. His Roncaglian diets in Italy. The 
astounding rise of Italian cities in Lombardy and Tuscany and 
their resistance to the encroachment of the emperor. Execution 
of Arnold of Brescia and the end of the commune in Rome in 
1155. In that year Frederick was crowned emperor in St. Peter's 
by pope Hadrian IV (an Englishman). Strength of the papacy; its 
alliance with the Normans and its sympathy with the Italian 
cities. The Besanc.on episode in 1158. Destruction of Milan in 

1158. Accession of pope Alexander III (Roland Bandinelli) in 

1159. The founding of Alessandria. The Lombard League, 1167. 
Battle of Legnano, 1176. Peace of Venice, 1177. Peace of Con- 
stance, 1183. The treachery of Henry the Lion. 

5. The last years of Frederick Barbarossa. The fateful mar- 
riage of his son Henry (Henry VI) to Constance, heiress of the 
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1186. Frederick went on the third 
crusade and was drowned in the river Saleph in Asia Minor in 
1190. The legend of Frederick Barbarossa (Kyffhaiiser). 

6. The reign of Henry VI, 1190-1197. His difficulty in main- 
taining a hold on his kingdom of the Two Sicilies. His plans to 
conquer the whole orient. Capture and ransom of king Richard the 
Lion-Hearted. , 

7. The renewed Guelf-Ghibelline struggle in Germany, 1198- 
1215. Disputed election between Philip of Swabia (a Hohen- 
staufen) and Otto IV of Brunswick (a Guelf), the son of Henry 
the Lion. The role of pope Innocent III as king-maker. In 1212 
he put forth his ward, Frederick II, son of Henry VI, as emperor. 
Battle of Bouvines in 1214. 

8. The political power of pope Innocent III, 1198-1216. He 
became pope at the age of 38 years. Educated at the universities 
of Bologna and Paris. The Liber censuum ecclesiae romanae, 1192. 
Innocent's political supremacy in Rome and in Italy. His power 
in Germany has been indicated above. The kings of the Two 
Sicilies, of Sweden, Denmark, Portugal, Aragon, and Poland 
became his vassals. He humbled king Philip Augustus of France. 
England was laid under an interdict in 1208 and in 1213 king John 
became the vassal of the pope. Innocent III condemned the Great 
Charter of 1215. His plans for a vast crusade. The Albigensian 
crusade. The great Christian victory of the Christians in Spain 
at Tolosa, 1212. The Fourth Lateran Council in 1215. 



POPES AND HOHENSTAUPEN 213 

9. The death-struggle between the emperor Frederick II 
(Stupor mundi), the last great Hohenstaufen, and the papacy. His 
peculiar character and his education in the Norman kingdom of 
Sicily. His colony of Saracen soldiers at Lucera in Italy. Excom- 
munication of Frederick II by pope Gregory IX (Cardinal Ugo- 
lino) in 1227. Frederick's crusade, 1228-1229. Acquisition of 
Jerusalem by treaty with El-Kamil, the sultan of Egypt in 1229. 
Frederick 's trouble with the Lombard towns, supported by the 
papacy. Renewed excommunication of the emperor in 1239. Cap- 
ture of a general council, 1241. Deposition of Frederick II at 
the council of Lyons in 1245, in the pontificate of Innocent IV. 
Henry Baspe, landgrave of Thuringia, and after his death, Will- 
iam, count of Holland, were set up as anti-kings. Death of Fred- 
erick II in 1250 near Lucera. 

10. The last of the Hohenstaufen. Conrad IV, 1250-1254, son 
of Frederick II. In 1254 Conrad died leaving an infant son, 
Conradin. Manfred, illegitimate son of Frederick II, became king 
of the Two Sicilies in 1258. In 1266 pope Clement IV made 
Charles of Anjou, brother of king Louis IX, king of Sicily. Man- 
fred was killed in the battle of Grandella in 1267 and the boy 
Conradin, the last Hohenstaufen, was beheaded in Naples in 1268. 

11. The Great Interregnum in Germany, 1254-1273. The period 
of "fist-law" (Faustrecht). 

12. Eastward expansion of Germany, especially in the times 
of the Hohenstaufen. Recent emphasis on the importance of this 
expansion of the German people, which had been obscured by the 
undue prominence given to the struggle between empire and 
papacy. (Compare with the recent appreciation of the importance 
of the "Westward Movement" in American history.) Possible 
avenues of German expansion. The pioneers: missionaries (espe- 
cially Cistercians), adventurous knights, traders, cultivators of 
the soil. The zone of the Elbe: margraves of Brandenburg, ruth- 
less extermination of the Slavs, Czechs of Bohemia. The zone of 
the Oder: Pomerania, Poland, and Silesia. The zone of the Vistula 
and Niemen: Lithuanians, Letts, and Prussians; Knights of the 
Sword (1200) and the Teutonic Knights, 1220. Herman of Salza, 
grand master of the order. The beginnings of the Hanseatic 
League. The nomad Tartars in Russia ca. 1240. Beginnings of 
Prussia and Austria. 

13. Emperors, 1125-1272. 

Lothair IT, 1125-1138 Frederick I (Barbarossa), 

Conrad III, 1138-1152 1152-1190 



214 



GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY 



Henry VI, 1190-1197 
Otto IV, 1197-1212 ) . 
Philip II, 1197-1208 J nval 
Frederick II, 1212-1250 
[Henry Kaspe, 1246-1247; 
and William of Hol- 
land, 1247-1256] anti- 
kings. 
14. Popes, 1124-1276. 

Honorius II, 1124-1130 
Innocent II, 1130-1143 
[Anacletus, 1130-1138, and 
Victor, 1138, anti-popes] 
Celestine II, 1143-1144 
Lucius II, 1144-1145 
Eugenius III, 1145-1153 
Anastasius IV, 1153-1154 
Hadrian IV, 1154-1159 
Alexander III, 1159-1181 
[Victor, 1159-1164; Paschal 
III, 1164-1168; Calixtus 
III, 1168-1178; and 
Lando, 1178-1180, anti- 
popes] 



Conrad IV, 1250-1254 
The Great Interregnum, 
1254-1273, during which 
Richard, Earl of Corn- 
wall, and Alfonso X, 
King of Castile; were 
non-resident rivals. 



Lucius III, 1181-1185 
Urban III, 1185-1187 
Gregory VIII, 1187 
Clement III, 1187-1191 
Celestine III, 1191-1198 
Innocent III, 1198-1216 
Honorius III, 1216-1227 
Gregory IX, 1227-1241 
Celestine IV, 1241 
Innocent IV, 1243-1254 
Alexander IV, 1254-1261 
Urban IV, 1261-1264 
Clement IV, 1265-1268 
Gregory X, 1271-1276 



B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

Short general accounts. EMERTON, Mediaeval Europe, chs. ix-x. 
BRYCE, Holy Roman empire, chs. xi-xm. HENDERSON, A short his- 
tory of Germany, ch. iv. ADAMS, Civilisation, eh. x. 

Longer surveys. TOUT, Empire and papacy, chs. x-xiv, xvi, xxi. 
LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire generate, II, chs. in-iv. VILLARI, 
Mediaeval Italy, 197-286. HENDERSON, A history of Germany in the 
middle ages, chs. xv-xxviii. H. D. SEDGWICK, Italy in the thirteenth 
century, 2 vols., Boston, 1912, I, chs. vi, ix, x, xni, xxn-xxm. E. A. 
FREEMAN has two interesting essays on Frederick I and Frederick 
II in his Historical essays, first series, 257-322. The best summary 
in German is in Handbuch der deutschen Geschichte, edited by B. 
GEBHARDT, I, chs. ix-x. 

Short books in English on the subject. The best is U. BALZANI, 
The popes and the Hohenstaufen, London, 1888. The subject is 
approached from the standpoint of the papacy in D. J. MEDLEY, 
The church and the empire, 1003-1304, chs. vi-x, xv; and in BARRY, 
The papal monarchy, chs.'*xvi-xvin, xxi-xxii. 



xxn POPES AND HOHENSTAUFEN 215 

Lombard communes. W. F. BUTLER, The Lombard communes, 
New York, 1906, chs. v-x, is an important study of the relations 
between the Hohenstaufeu and the Italian cities. See also the 
short sketch in H. FISHER, The medieval empire, II, ch. xm. 

Henry the Lion. A. L. POOLE, Henry the Lion, London, 1912. 

Innocent III. The great standard work on the pontificate of 
Innocent is A. LUCHAIRE, Innocent III, 6 vols., Paris, 1905-1908 
(vol. I, Eome et I 'Italic, 1904, 2nd edition, 1905; II, La croisade des 
Albigeois, 1905, 2nd edition, 1906; III, La papaute et I'empire, 1906; 
IV, La question d'Orient, 1907; V, Les royautes vassales du Saint- 
Siege, 1908; VI, Le concile de Latran et la re forme de I'eglise, with 
an index of the six vols., 1908). C. PIERIE GORDON, Innocent the 
Great, New York, 1907, is a hastily written popular book. For a 
short sketch of the pontificate of Innocent III, see FLICK, Rise of 
the mediaeval church, ch. xxn. 

Frederick II. L. ALLSHORN, Stupor mundi: the life and times 
of Frederick II, London, 1912, is a recent biography for the general 
reader. T. L. KINGTON, History of Frederick II, 2 vols., London, 
1862, is still the most complete biography in English. The most 
thorough examination of the life and times of Frederick II is in 
the introduction of J. L. A. HUILLARD-BREHOLLES, Historia diplo- 
matica Friderici Secundi, 12 vols., Paris, 1852-1861 (the introduc- 
tion is in the last volume). The capture of the council which was 
to meet in Home in 1241 is told by G. C. MACAULAY, "The cap- 
ture of a general council, 1241," in English historical review, VI 
(1891), 1-17. 

Eastward expansion of Germany. A remarkably pithy survey 
was written by the Nestor of French historians, E. LAVISSE, Polit- 
ii-nl History of Europe, 45-57. Other short accounts in English are 
H. FISHER, The medieval empire, II, 1-54; HENDERSON, A history 
of Germany in the middle ages, ch. xxvii; LODGE, The close of the 
in ill die ages, chs. v and xix, passim. A short sketch in German with 
a good bibliography is J. LOSERTH, Geschichte des spdteren Mittel- 
alters, 130-136. For more authoritative accounts in German see K. 
LAMPRECHT, Deutsche Geschichte, III, 330-420; E. MICHAEL, 
Geschichte des deutschen Volkes, I, 3rd edition, Freiburg, 1897, 86- 
128; H. GERDES, Gcschii-htr <l<* <l< nlxi-ln-n Volkcx, 111, 413-440. 

Original sources. A large amount of miscellaneous matter relat- 
ing to this period is translated in THATCHER and McNEAL, Source 
book, 166-259. See also RORINSON, Readings, I, 296-311; OGG, 
Source book, 398-409; and HKXDERSON, Select documents, 211-218, 
410-432. 

The most engaging historian of the twelfth century was OTTO 



216 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PART " 

OF FREISING, whose Gesta Friderici I were edited by G. WAITZ in 
1884, and are translated into German, Die Taten Friedrichs, 2nd 
edition, Leipzig, 1894, in Die Geschichtschreiber, no. 981 above, 
vols., LIX-LX. For the time of the last Hohenstaufen, the most 
entertaining work is the Cronica of SALIMBENE DE ADAM (1221- 
1288), edited by O. HOLDER- EGGEB in no. 978 above (Scriptores, vol. 
XXXII, parts 1 and 2, Hannover, 1905-1908), and recently also 
translated into German in Die Geschichtschreiber, no. 981 above, 
vols. XCIII-XCIV. This famous chronicle has also been translated 
in part into English by G. G. COULTON, From Francis to Dante: 
translations from the chronicle of the Franciscan Salimbene (1221- 
1288), 2nd edition, London, 1907. Another important and interest- 
ing source of information for the time of Frederick is MATTHEW 
PARIS, Chronica majora, translated by J. A. GILES, 4 vols., London, 
1852. 

Sources on the eastward expansion of Germany have been col- 
lected recently by E. KOTZSCHKE, Quellen zur Geschichte der ost- 
deutschen Kolonisation im 12 bis 14 Jahrhundert, Leipzig, 1912 
(Quellensammlung zur deutschen Geschichte). 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 70-73. For the eastward expansion of 
Germany see also 46-47, 57, 62-63, 94-95. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. The general histories of Germany and Italy, 
nos. 560-621 above, and of the church, nos. 394-498 above, are most 
useful. 

General accounts. K. HAMPE, Deutsche Kaiser geschichte in der 
Zeit der Salier und Staufer, Leipzig, 1909, 2nd edition, 1912. I. JAS- 
TROW, and G. WINTER, Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Hohen- 
staufen, 1125-1273, vols. I and II, Berlin, 1893-1901, part of no. 560 
above. F. v. EAUMER, Geschichte der Hohenstaufen und ihrer Zeit, 
6 vols., Leipzig, 1823-1825, 5th edition, 1878. J. LOSERTH, Geschichte 
des spdteren Mittelalters, 1197-1492, pp. 1-148 (contains excellent 
bibliographies). MILMAN, History of Latin Christianity, books 
VIII-X (vols. IV-V). J. LANGEN, Geschichte der romischen Kirche 
von Gregor VII bis Innocenz III, Bonn, 1893. GREGOROVIUS, History 
of the city of Some in the middle ages, books VIII, IX. MRS. W. 
BUSK, Mediaeval popes, emperors, kings, and crusades, from 1125- 
1268, 4 vols., London, 1854-1856. E. EOSENSTOCK, Konighaus und 
Stdmme in Deutschland zwischen 911 und 1250, Leipzig, 1914. H. 
BLOCK, Die staufischen Kaiserwahlen und die Entstehung des Kur- 
fiirstentums, Leipzig, 1911. J. VON PFLUGK-HARTTUNG, Die Papst- 
wahlen und das Kaisertum, 1046-1328, Gotha, 1908. J. ZELLER, 



POPES AND HOHENSTAUFEN 217 

L'empire germanique sous les Hohenstaufen, Paris, 1881. P. SCHEF- 
FER-BOICHORST, Zur Geschichte des 12 und IS Jahrhunderts : diplo- 
mutisclu- Studien, Berlin, 1877 (Historische Studien, edited by E. 
EBERING, 8). 

Conrad III. W. BERNHARDI, honrad III, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1883, 
part of no. 570 above. 

Frederick I (Barbarossa). H. SIMONSFELD, Jahrbucher des 
tl<- ii (when Reichs unter Friedrich I, vol. I (1152-1158), Leipzig, 1908, 
part of no. 570 above. W. v. GIESEBRECHT, Geschichte der deutschen 
Kiiixcreeit, V and VI. A. KUHNE, Das Herrsclier ideal des Mittel- 
alters und Kaiser Friedrich I, Leipzig, 1898, part 5:2 of Leipziger 
Studien. H. PRUTZ, Kaiser Friedrich I, 3 vols., Danzig, 1871-1874. 

Frederick Barbarossa 's relations with the papacy can be 
studied in detail in the following books: H. K. MANN, Nicholas 
Breakspear (Hadrian IV), the only English pope (1154-1159), Lon- 
don, 1914. J. D. MACKIE, Pope Adrian IV, Oxford, 1907 (the 
Lothian essay). O. J. THATCHER, Studies concerning Adrian IV, 
Chicago, 1903 (in the decennial publications of the University of 
Chicago,- first series, vol. IV). H. SCHRORS, Untersuchungen zu dem 
Streite Kaiser Friedrichs I mit Papst Hadrian IV, 1157-1158, Ber- 
lin, 1916. H. EEUTER, Geschichte Alexanders des Dritten und der 
Kirche seiner Zcit, 3 vols., vols. I and II in 2nd edition, Leipzig, 
1860-1864. F. DE LAFORGE, Alexander III ou rapports de ce pape 
avec la France aux debuts de la lutte du Sacerdoce et de I'Empire, 2nd 
edition, Sens, 1905. G. KLEEMANN, Papst Gregor VIII, 1187, Bonn, 
1912. The legends concerning Frederick Barbarossa are collected 
in J. GRIMM, Gedichte des Mittelalters auf Konig Friedrich I, den 
Staufer, Berlin, 1843; and in W. GUNDLACH, Barbarossalieder, Inns- 
bruck, 1899. 

Lombard communes. G. B. TESTA, History of the war of Fred- 
erick I against the communes of Lombardy, translated from the 
Ttalian, revised by author, London, 1877. G. VOLPE, Questioni fon- 
damentali sull' origine e svolgimento dei comuni italiani ( sec. 10- 
14), Pisa, 1905. L. v. HEINEMANN, Zur Entstehung der Stadtver- 
fassung in Italicn, Leipzig, 1896. F. LANZANI, Storia dei comuni 
iltilmni dalle origini al 1313, Milan, 1882. C. VIONATI, Storia diplo- 
matica della lega Lombarda, Milan, 1866. F. GCTERBOCK, Der Friede 
ron Montebello und die Weiterentwicklung des Lombardenbundes, 
Berlin, 1895 (dissertation). M. A. v. BETHMANN-HoLLWEG, Ursprung 
der lombardischen Stddtefreiheit, Bonn, 1846. F. GRAF, Die Griind- 
ung von Alessandria: ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Lombarden- 
bundes, Berlin, 1887 (dissertation). Although largely devoted to 
description and travel the two following books have historical 



218 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

notices: E. HUTTON, The cities of Lombardy, New York and London, 
1912. E. R. WILLIAM, Lombard towns of Italy: or the cities of 
ancient Lombardy, New York and London, 1914. 

Arnold of Brescia. A. HAUSRATH, Arnold von Brescia, Leipzig, 
1891 (also in his Weltverbesserer, vol. II, Leipzig, 1895). E. VACAN- 
DARD, ' ' Arnauld de Brescia, ' ' in Bevue des questions historiques, 
XXXV (1884), 52-114. R. BREYER, "Arnold von Brescia," in 
MAURENBRECHER, Historisches Taschenbuch, 1889, pp. 123ff. G. GAG- 
C;IA, Arnaldo da Brescia, Brescia, 1881. G. GUERZONI, Arnaldo da 
Brescia, Milan, 1882. W. GIESEBRECHT, "tiber Arnold von 
Brescia," Munich, 1873, part of no. 895 above. G. DE CASTRO, 
Arnaldo da Brescia e la rivoluzione romana del XII secolo, Livorno, 
1875. G. GUIBAL, Arnauld de Brescia et les Hohenstauffen, Paris, 
1868. V. CLAVEL, Arnauld de Brescia et les Bomains du XIl e siccle 
(avec une carte de Rome), Paris, 1868 is of little value, but the 
map will be found useful. 

Henry the Lion. J. HALLER, Der Sturz Heinrichs des Lowen, 
Leipzig, 1911 (see the review of it by H. NIESE in the form of a 
Miszelle in Historische Zeitschrift, CXII (1914), 548-561). F. 
GUTERBOCK, Der Prozess Heinrichs des Lowen: kritische Untersuch- 
ungen, Berlin, 1909. M. PHILIPPSON, Geschichte Heinrichs des Lowen, 
2 vols., Leipzig, 1867. H. PRUTZ, Heinrich der Lowe, Herzog von 
Baiern und Sachsen, Leipzig, 1865. 

Henry VI. A. CARTELLIERI, Heinrich VI und der Hohepunkt der 
staufischen Kaiserpolitik, Leipzig, 1914, is a lecture of 20 pages. 
J. HALLER, ' ' Kaiser Heinrich VI, ' ' in Historische Zeitschrift, CXIII 
(1914), 473-504. H. BLOCH, Forschungen zur-Politik Kaiser Hein- 
richs VI in den Jahren 1191-1194, Berlin, 1892. T. TOECHE, Kaiser 
Heinrich, VI, Leipzig, 1867, part of no. 570 above. 

PMlipp and Otto IV. E. WINKELMANN, Philipp von Schwab en 
und Otto IV von Braunschweig, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1873-1878, part of 
no. 570 above. 

Innocent III. F. HURTER, Geschichte Papst Innocenz III und seiner 
Zeitgenossen, 4 vols., Hamburg, 1834-1842 (vol. I in 3rd edition, 
1841; II-IV in 2nd edition, 1842-1844), translated by A. DE SAINT- 
CHERON and J. B. HAIBER, Histoire du Pape Innocent III, 3 vols., 
Paris, 1838, 2nd edition, 1855. F. BAETHGEN, Die Begentschaft 
Papst Innocenz III im Konigreich Sizilien, Heidelberg, 1914 (Heidel- 
berger Abhandlungen 44). J. N. BRISCHAR, Papst Innocenz III und 
seine Zeit, Freiburg, 1883. E. ENGELMANN, Philipp von Schwaben 
und Papst Innocenz III wdhrend des deutschen Thronstreites, 1198- 
1208, Berlin, 1896 (Programm). R. SCIIWEMER, Innocenz III und die 
deutsche Kirche wdhrend des Thronstreites von 1198-1S08, Stras- 
burg, 1882. 



xxn POPES AND HOHENSTAU.FEN 219 

Frederick II. E. WINKELMANN, Kaiser Friedrich II, vols. I and 
II (to 1233), Leipzig, 1889-1897, part of no. 570 above. F. J. 
BIEHRINGER, Kaiser Friedrich II, Berlin, 1912 (Historische Studien, 
102). F. SCHNEIDER, Beitrdge zur Geschichte Friedrichs II und Man- 
freds, Rome, 1912. K. HAMPE, "Kaiser Friedrich II," in His- 
torische Zeitschrift, LXXXIII (1899), 1-42. F. SCKIRMER, Beitrdge 
zur Geschichte Kaiser Friedrichs II, Friedland, 1904 (dissertation, 
Eostock). G. BLONDEL, Etude sur la politique de I'empereur Frederic 
II en Allemagne, Paris, 1892. J. ZELLER, L'empereur Frederic II, 
et la chute de I 'empire germanique au moyen age, Paris, 1885. F. W. 
SCHIRRMACHER, Kaiser Friedrich der Zweite, 4 vols., Gottingen, 1859- 
]865. J. L. A. HUILLARD-BREHOLLES, Vie et correspondence de Pierre 
de la Vigne, ministre de I'empereur Frederic II, Paris, 1865. F. 
STIEVE, Ezzelino von Romano, Leipzig, 1909. C. CANTJ, Ezelino da 
Romano, Milan, 1901. P. REINHOLD, Die Emporung Konig Hein- 
richs (VII) gegen seinen Voter, Leipzig, 1911 (part 25 of Leipziger 
historische Abhandlungen). R. MALSCH, Heinrich Easpe, Landgraf 
von Thuringen und deutscher Konig (-\1247), Halle, 1911. F. 
GRAEFE, Die PublizistiTc in der letzten Epoche Kaiser Friedrichs II, 
1239-1250, Heidelberg, 1909 (part 24 of Heidelberger Abhand- 
lungen). For Frederick's interesting colony of Saracen soldiers at 
Lucera in Italy, see P. EGIDI, La colonia Saracena di Lucera e la 
sua distruzione, Naples, 1915. H. CHONE, Die Handelsbeziehungen 
Kaiser Friedrichs II zu den Seestddten Venedig, Pisa, Genua, Berlin, 
1902. 

Frederick's relations with the papacy can be studied in detail 
in the following books: C. KOHLER, Das Verhdltnis Kaiser Fried- 
richs II zu den Pdpsten seiner Zeit, Breslau, 1888 (part 24 of Gierke's 
Untersuchungen). M. HALBE, Friedrich II und der pdpstliche Stuhl 
Berlin, 1888. F. FEHLING, Kaiser Friedrich II und die romischen 
Cardindle in den Jahren 1227 bis 1239, Berlin, 1901 (part 21 of His- 
torische Studien, edited by E. EBERING). J. CLAUSEN, Papst Hon- 
orius III, Bonn, 1895. E. BREM, Papst Gregor IX bis zum Beginn 
seines Pontifikats, Heidelberg, 1911 (part 32 of Heidelberger 
Abhandlungen). J. FELTEN, Papst Gregor IX, Freiburg, 1886. P. 
DESLANDRES, Innocent IV et la chute des Hohenstaufen, Paris, 1907 
(Science et religion, 429). A. FOLZ, Kaiser Friedrich II und Papst 
Innocenz IV: ihr Kampf in den Jahren 1244 und 1245, Strasburg, 
1905. C. RODENBERG, Innocenz IV und das Konigreich Sizilien 1245- 
1254, Halle, 1892. 

The last Hohenstaufem. F. W. SCHIRRMACHER, Die letzten Hohen- 
staufen, Gottingen, 1871 (on Conrad IV). A. KARST, Geschichte 
Manfrcds vom Tode Friedrichs II bis zu seiner Kronung (1250-1258), 



220 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Berlin, 1897 (part 6 of Historische Studien, edited by E. EBERIXG). 
K. HAMPE, Urban IV und Manfred (1261-1264), Heidelberg, 1905 
(part 11 of Heidelberger Abhandlungen). A. BERGMANN, Konig 
Manfred von Sizilien, 1264-1266, Heidelberg, 1909 (part 23 of Heidel- 
berger Abhandlungen). K. HAMPE, Geschichte Konradins von Hohen- 
staufen, Innsbruck, 1894. E. JORDAN, Les origines de la domination 
angevine en Italic, Paris, 1909. 

The Great Interregnum. J. KEMPF, Geschichte des deutschen 
Eeiches wdhrend des grossen Interregnums, 1254-1273, Wurzburg, 
1893. E. MULLER, Peter von Prezza: ein Publizist der Zeit des Inter- 
regnums, Heidelberg, 1914. J. J. BAPPERT, Sichard von Cornwallis 
1257-1272, Bonn, 1905. G. LEMCKE, Beitrdge zur Geschichte Konigs 
Richard von Cornwall, Berlin, 1909. 

Eastward expansion of Germany. E. KOTZSCHKE, Stoat und 
Kultur im Zeitalter der ostdeutschen Kolonisation, Leipzig, 1910. 
R. SEBICHT, Unsere mittelalterliche Ostmarkenpolitilc: eine Geschichte 
der Besiedelung und Wiedereindeutschung Ostdeutschlands, Bresslau, 
1910. E. KOTZSCHKE, ' ' Neuere Forschungen zur Geschichte der 
ostdeutschen Kolonisation, " in Deutsche Geschichtsbldtter, 11. H. 
WITTE, "Zur Erforschung der Germanisation unseres Ostens, " in 
Hansische Geschichtsbldtter, 1908. H. ERNST, Die Kolonisation von 
Ostdeutschland : Vbersicht und Literatur, erste Halfte, 1888 (Pro- 
gramm). G. WENDT, Die Germanisierung der Lander ostlich der Elbe, 
Liegnitz, 1884-1889 (Programm in two parts). E. O. SCHULZE, 
Die Kolonisierung der Gebiete zwischen Saale und Elbe, Leipzig, 1896. 
A. PUSCHEL, Das Anwachsen der deutschen Stddte in der Zeit der 
mittelalterlichen Kolonialbewegung, Berlin, 1910. F. SCHMIDT, Kolon- 
isation und Besiedelung Mdhrens im 12 und 13 Jahrhunderts, Nentit- 
schein, 1905 (Programm). G. BLUMSCHEIN, i}ber die Germanisierung 
der Lander zwischen Elbe und Oder, Koln, 1895 (Programm). B. 
HEIL, Grundung der norddeutschen Kolonialstadte und ihre Entwick- 
lung bis zum Ende des 13 Jahrhunderts, Wiesbaden, 1896 (Pro- 
gramm). V. HASENOHRL, Deutschlands siidostliche MarTcen im 10, 
11, und 12 Jahrhundert, Vienna, 1895 (also in Archiv fur osterreich- 
ische Geschichte, 82). G. v. EOPP, Deutsche Kolonien im 12 und 13 
Jahrhundert, Giessen, 1886. A. MEITZEN, Die Ausbreitung der 
Deutschen in Deutschland und ihre Besiedelung der Slawengebiete, 
Jena, 1879. W. WATTENBACH, "Die Germanisierung der ostlichen 
Grenzmarken des deutschen Eeichs, " in Historische Zeitschrift, IX 
(1863), 386-417. 

Missionaries in eastern Germany. J. W. THOMPSON, "The Ger- 
man church and the conversion of the Baltic Slavs, I," American 



xxu POPES AND HOHENSTAUFEN 221 

journal of theology, April (1916). H. GROSSLER, Die Begriindung der 
christlichen Kirche in dem Lande zwischen Saale und Elbe, Eisleben, 
1907. L. NOTTROTT, Aus der Wendenmission, Halle, 1897. W. 
WIESENER, Die Geschichte der christlichen Kirche in Pommern zur 
Wendenzeit, Berlin, 1889. SIENIAWSKI, Die Missionsreisen des 
Bischofs Otto v. Bamberg nach dem Lande der heidnischen Pommern 
1125-1121 (1128), Glatz, 1908. G. JURITSCH, Geschichte des Bischofs 
Otto I ron Bamberg, des Pommern-apostels (1102-1139), Gotha, 1889. 
C. MASKUS, Bischof Otto I von Bamberg als Bischof, Bcichsfiirst und 
Missiondr, Breslau, 1889 (dissertation). H. C. VoiGT, Brun von 
Querfurt: Monch, Eremit, Erzbischof, Martyrer, Stuttgart, 1907. 
H. C. VOIGT, Adalbert von Prag, Berlin, 1898. 

The Teutonic Knights in Prussia. M. GHLER, Geschichte des 
deutschcn Ritterordens, vol. I, Elbing, 1908. A. WERMINGHOFF, Der 
deutsche Orden und die Stands in Preussen bis sum 2 Thorner Frieden 
im Jahre 1466, Munich, 1912. W. v. KETRZYNSKI, Die dcutschen 
Orden und Konrad v. Masovien (1225-1235), enlarged German edition, 
Lemberg, 1904. A. KOCH, Hermann von Salza, Meister des deutschen 
Ordens, Leipzig, 1885. K. LOHMEYER, Geschichte von Ost- und West- 
prcussen, vol. I (to 1411), Gotha, 1880, 3rd edition, 1908. A. L. 
KWAI/T, Die Eroberung Preussens durch die Dcutschen, 4 vols., [to 
1283], Halle, 1872-1886. M. PERTBECH, Die Statuten des deutschen 
Ordens, Halle, 1890. 

Original sources. Begesta imperii V: Die Eegesten des Kaiser- 
reichs unter Philipp, Otto IV, Friedrich II, Hcinrich (VII), Konrad 
IV, Heinrich Saspe, Wilhelm und Richard, 1198-1272, edited by J. F. 
BOEHMER, new edition. by J. FICKER and E. WINKELMANN, 5 parts, 
with an index, Innsbruck, 1881-1901. Historia diplomatica Fridcrici 
Secundi, 12 vols., edited by J. L. A. HUILLARD-BREHOLLES. Le liber 
de I'eglise romaine public avec unc introduction et un com- 
, edited by P. FABRE and L. DUCHESNE, vol. I, Paris, 1889- 
1910 (2nd series 6, of no. 959 above, see also 62). Almost all the 
important sources are printed in nos. 978 and 988 above. For the 
registers of the popes of the thirteenth century see no. 959 above. 

Bibliographies. The most useful bibliography is in DAHLMANN- 
WAITZ. QwUt-nkunde, pp. 351-413. Sec also the general bibliogra- 
phies for Germany, nos. 29-35 above, Italy, nos. 37-41 above, and 
the church, nos. 49-65 above. 



222 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 



XXIII. THE NEW MONASTIC MOVEMENT 
A. OUTLINE 

1. The constant succession of revival and decline in monastic 
history. The decline of the Cluniacs in the eleventh century. A 
marked religious revival in the eleventh century was one of the 
manifestations of the new era which ushered in the crusades. 
Much religious ferment preceded and was augmented by the investi- 
ture strife. 

2. The new monastic orders founded in the eleventh century. 
Renewal of the extreme ascetic ideal of the early church. Camal- 
dolites, founded by St. Eomuald at Camaldoli in the Apennines, 
about 1018. Vallombrosians founded by St. John Gualbert, a 
Tuscan lord, about 1038. The monastery of Hirschau in the Black 
Forest under the reform regime of its abbot William of Bavaria 
about 1070. Order of Grammont founded by St. Stephen of Tigerno 
about 1075 near Limoges (removed later to a place nearby called 
Grandmont). Carthusians founded by Bruno of Cologne about 
1085 at Grande Chartreuse, in a desolate valley near Grenoble. 
Charterhouses. Order of Fontevrault founded by the Breton Kobert 
of Abrissel about 1095 between Anjou and Poitou. 

3. The Cistercians, the first great "order" of monks. Founded 
by Kobert of Moleme, in northern Burgundy, about 1100. He soon 
removed to a place called Citeaux (=pools of standing water). 
The great Bernard of Fontaines established a daughter house at 
Clairvaux in 1115. The Carta Caritatis, "Charter of Charity." The 
asceticism of the Cistercians. The abbey of La Trappe (Trap- 
pists). Relations of the military orders of Spain, Calatrava, 1158, 
Alcantara, 1152, with the Cistercians. 

4. The Canons Regular or Austin Canons. The Victorines of 
Paris, 1113. The Premonstratensians founded near Laon in 1120 
by Norbert of Xanten, who had been a secular canon at Cologne 
and Xanten. The relations of the crusading religious military 
orders with the Austin Canons. 

5. Forerunners of the mendicant orders. Arnoldists. The 
Humiliati. "Brotherhoods and sisterhoods of penance." 

6. The attempted check by the fourth Lateran council, 1215, 
upon the formation of new orders. 

7. The mendicant orders of the thirteenth century. Franciscans 
(Fratres Minores, Grey Friars) ; Dominicans (Fratres Praedicatores, 
Black Friars, also called Jacobins in France) ; Carmelites (White 
Friars) ; and Augustinians (Austin Friars or Hermits of St. Augus- 



xxm NEW MONASTIC MOVEMENT 223 

tine). The mendicant ideal. The great needs which called the 
mendicants into being and their great services. The distinction 
between a monk and a friar. 

8. St. Francis, the founder of the Franciscans. He was the son 
of a merchant and was born in 1182 in Assisi. His conversion about 
1209. Santa Maria della Portiuncola Saint Mary of the Little 
Portion. In 1210 Francis went to Borne to interview pope Innocent 
III. In 1217 was held the first general chapter of Franciscans. 
Cardinal Ugolino (afterwards pope Gregory IX). St. Francis in 
Egypt in 1219. The Rules of St. Francis, 1221 and 1223. The stress 
laid upon poverty. The "stigmata" of St. Francis. His death in 
1226. He was canonized in 1228. His body was buried in 1230 in 
the great basilica of San Francesco in Assisi. The wonderful char- 
acter and personal influence of St. Francis. Sources of information 
concerning St. Francis. His own writings. The Vita pnma 
(before 1229) and Vita secunda (1244-1247) of Thomas of Celano. 
The Legenda major, ' ' New legend, ' ' of St. Bonaventura, written 
about 1263. Legenda trium sociorum (Legend of the three com- 
panions, Angelus, Leo, and Rufinus). Speculum perfectionis (Mirror 
of perfection). Sacrum commercium. The Fioretti, or in Latin, 
Floretum S. Francisci Assisiensis (The Little Flowers of St. Francis). 

9. The Franciscans in the thirteenth century. St. Clare and the 
Poor Clares. The Tertiaries of St. Francis. Brother Elias of Cor- 
tona. St. Bonaventura. The bitter conflict between the Spiritual 
Franciscans and the Conventual Franciscans. Fraticelli. The 
great influence of the life and legend of St. Francis on Italian 
literature and art. 

10. The Dominicans. Dominic, the founder of the order, was 
born in 1170 in Calahorra in Spain. He was trained for the priest- 
hood in the university of Valencia. Combated Albigensian heresy 
in Toulouse. He went to Rome in 1215. In 1216 Honorius 111 
recognized the "Preaching Brothers of Toulouse." Dominic's 
interview with Francis. Dominic died in Bologna 1221 and was 
sainted in 1234. 

11. The important part played by the mendicants in the history 
of the thirteenth century. Their rapid spread, especially in the 
cities of all Europe. Their great influence in the rising universities. 
Alexander of Hales, Bonaventura, Roger Bacon and Duns Scotus 
were Franciscans. Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas were 
Dominicans. The mendicants and the inquisition. Their revival of 
popular preaching. The missionary activity of the mendicants in 
the thirteenth century. Their decline in the fourteenth century. 



224 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PABTII 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BEADING 

Brief general surveys. EMERTON, Mediaeval Europe, 555-581. 
TOUT, Empire and papacy, 198-210; 434-449. FLICK, Eise of the 
mediaeval church, ch. xxi. WISHART, Monks and monasteries, chs. iv-v. 
LAVISSE and EAMBAUD, Histoire generate, II, 243-251. Many of the 
topics in this outline are treated authoritatively in the Catholic 
encyclopedia; e.g., the article "Francis of Assisi" was written by 
P. ROBINSON, that on ' ' Preachers, Order of, " by P. MANDONNET. 

Longer accounts. TAYLOR, Mediaeval mind, I, book III. LAVISSE, 
Histoire de France, II, part II, 251-282; III, part I, 346-363. 

St. Bernard and the Cistercians. The best account in English 
of the Cistercians is by J. S. BREWER in the preface to vol. IV of 
the Opera of Giraldus Cambrensis (no. 21 of Rolls Series). See also 
W. A. P. MASON, ' ' Beginnings of the Cistercian order, ' ' in Trans- 
actions of the Eoyal historical society, XIX (1905), 169-207. The 
best short sketch of Bernard of Clairvaux is in MUNRO and SELLERY, 
Medieval civilisation, new edition, 406-431, which is a translation 
from LAVISSE, Histoire de France, II, part II, 266-282. For other 
literature on St. Bernard see outline XIV of part III below. 

The mendicants in general. A. JESSOPP, The coming of the friars, 
ch. I. H. C. LEA, A history of the inquisition, I, ch. vi. The pre- 
face by J. S. BREWER in vol. I of Monumenta Franciscana (no. 4 of 
Rolls Series). MILMAN, Latin Christianity, book IX, chs. ix-x. P. 
SABATIER and others, Franciscan essays, Aberdeen, 1912 (British 
society of Franciscan studies, extra series, I). 

St. Francis of Assisi. The most famous biography is by P. SABA- 
TIER, Vie de S. Francois d'Assise, Paris, 1894, translated by LOUISE 
S. HOUGHTON, Life of St. Francis of Assisi, London, 1894. Both the 
original and the English translation have been reprinted again and 
again. The book has been translated into almost all the European 
languages. Among the many recent biographies, the following are 
the most noteworthy: Father CUTHBERT, Life of St. Francis of Assisi, 
London and New York, 1912; J. .JORGENSEN, Den hellige Frans af 
Assisi, Copenhagen, 1907, authorized translation from the Danish 
by T. O'CONNOR SLOANE, New York, 1912; and N. TAMASSIA, Saint 
Francis of Assisi and his legend, translated from the Italian by L. 
RAGG, London, 1910. There are very good pictures in G. SCHNURER, 
Franz von Assisi, Munich, 1905. 

St. Dominic. J. GUIRAUD, Saint Dominique (1170-1221), Paris, 
1901 (Les saints), translated by KATHERINE DE MATTOS, Saint 
Dominic, London, 1901. 

Original sources. Due to the recent remarkable outburst of 
interest in St. Francis, practically all the salient contemporary 



xxin NEW MONASTIC MOVEMENT 225 

material concerning the saint and the early history of his order 
can now be read in English translation. For translations of his own 
works, well edited by P. BOBINSON, The writings of St. Francis of 
Assisi, Philadelphia, 1906, see The writings of St. Francis of Assisi, 
newly translated into English by CONSTANCE DE LA WARR, London, 
[1907]; and, The words of Saint Francis: from his works and the 
early legends, translated by ANNE MACDONELL, London, 1904. 

The biographies by CELANO may be read in, The lives of St. 
Francis of Assisi by Brother Tnomas of Celano, translated into Eng- 
lish by A. G. FERRERS HOWELL from the new edition of the original 
by o'ALENgoN, Rome, 1906, London, 1908. For BONAVENTURA 's 
official biography, see The life of St. Francis by St. Bonaventure, 
translated by E. G. SALTER, London, 1904. 

The Legenda trium sociorum can now be read in English under 
the title, The legend of Saint Francis by the three companions, now 
first translated into English by E. G. SALTER, London, 1905 (The 
temple classics). For the hotly debated Speculum perfections, see, 
The mirror of perfection, translated from the Cottonian manuscript 
by R. STEELE, London, 1903 (The temple classics). Sacrum com- 
mercium: the converse of Francis and his sons with holy poverty, 
translated by Canon RAWNSLEY, London, 1904 (The temple classics). 
An earlier translation of the Sacrum commercium was made by M. 
CARMICHAEL, The Lady Poverty, London, 1901. 

Naturally the Fioretti, so very popular in Italy in the fourteenth 
century, have attracted most attention. The best Italian text is 
that of CESARE, Verona, 1822 (often reprinted). The Latin text 
was edited by P. SABATIER, Floretum S. Francisci, Paris, 1902. The 
following are some of the most available translations: The Little 
Flowers, and the Life of St. Francis, with The Mifror of Perfection, 
London, 1910 (Everyman *s library) ; The Little Flowers of the 
glorious Messer St. Francis and of his friars, done into English with 
notes by W. HEYWOOD, with an introduction by A. G. FERRERS 
HOWELL, London [1906]; The Little Flowers of St. Francis, trans- 
lated by T. W. ARNOLD, London, 1898 (The temple classics). 

A very unique anthology is Franciscan days: being selections for 
every day in the year from ancient Franciscan writings, translated and 
arranged by A. G. FERRERS HOWELL, London [1906], 

The earliest biography of St. Clare may now be read in two 
English versions: The life of Saint Clare ascribed to Fr. Thomas of 
Celano of the order of Friars minor [1225-1261], translated and 
edited from the earliest MSS. by P. ROBINSON . . . with an 
appendix containing the Bule of Saint Clare, Philadelphia, 1910; 
and, The life and legend of Lady Saint Clare, translated from the 



226 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

French version (1563) of Brother Francis Du Puis, by CHARLOTTE 
BALFOUR, with an introduction by Father CUTHBERT, London, 1910. 

The famous chronicle of THOMAS OF ECCLESTON is translated 
under the title, The friars and how they came to England: being a 
translation of Thomas of Eccleston's " De adventu F.F. Minorum 
in Angliam," with an introduction by Father CUTHBERT, St. Louis, 
1903. The translator revised his work for the critical student under 
the title, The cnronicle of Thomas of Eccleston "De adventu Fratrum 
minorum in Angliam" newly done into English with preface and 
notes by Father CUTHBERT, St. Louis, 1909. 

For translations from the interesting chronicle of the gossipy 
thirteenth century Franciscan, SALIMBENE, see G. G. COULTON, From 
St. Francis to Dante. Eead in connection with it, E. EMERTON, ' ' Fra 
Salimbene and the Franciscan ideal, ' ' Harvard theological review, 
(1915). 

The rule and the will of Francis may also be found in HENDER- 
SON, Select documents, 344-349; OGG, Source book, 362-379; ROBINSON, 
Eeadings, 387-395; and THATCHER and McNEAL, Source book, 497- 
507. 

Monastic conditions in England in the twelfth century are well 
depicted in The Chronicle of Jocelin of Brakelonde, translated by 
L. C. JANE, London, 1907 (Kings classics). 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 94-95, 97. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. See the general histories of the church, nos. 
394-498 above, especially those on monasticism, nos. 479-487 above. 
The encyclopaedias of the history of the church and religion, nos. 
104-114 above, will be found particularly useful. 

Monastic orders in general By far the best general survey of 
monastic orders is HEIMBUCHER, Die Orden und Congregationen der 
katholischen Kirche. The history of the orders in England is 
enshrined in the following old, but famous, works: Monasticon 
Anglicanum: sive, Pandectae Coenobiorum, Benedictinorum, Clunia- 
censium, Cisterciensium, Carthusianorum a primordiis ad eorum usque 
dissolutionem, edited by E. DODSWORTH and Sir W. DUGDALE, 3 vols., 
London, 1655-1677, new edition by J. CALEY, etc., 6 vols. in 8, Lon- 
don, 1817-1830; and T. TANNER, Notitia monastica: or, An account 
of all the abbies, priories, and houses of friers, formerly in England 
and Wales, and also of all the colleges and hospitals founded before 
A.D. 1560, London, 1744, reprinted by J. NASMITH, Cambridge, 1787. 
The former contains many original sources. The following two 
popular books will serve as an introduction to the Monasticon and 



NEW MONASTIC MOVEMENT 227 

TANNER: F. A. GASQUET, English monastic life, 3rd edition, London, 
1905 (The antiquary's books); and A. H. THOMPSON, English mon- 
nut fries, Cambridge University Press, 1913 (The Cambridge manuals). 
M. DEMIMUID, Pierre le Venerable: ou la vie et I 'influence monastique 
au XI Ie siecle, Paris, 1876. P. OPLADEN, Die Stellung der deutschen 
I\iinige zu den Orden im drcizehnten Jahrhundert, Bonn, 1908 (disser- 
tation). G. SCHREIBER, Kurie und Kloster im 12 Jahrhundert, vol. 1, 
Stuttgart, 1910 (Kirchenrechtliche Abhandlungen, 65-66). 

Hirschau. E. TOMEK, Studien zur Be form der deutschen Kloster im 
XI Jahrhundert: I, Die Fruhreformation, Vienna, 1910. P. GISEKE, Die 
Hirsrhauer wdhrend des Investiturstreites, Gotha, 1883. 

Carthusians. H. LOBBEL, Der Stifter des Carthduser-Ordens : der 
In Hige Bruno aus Koln, Miinster, 1899 (Kirchengeschichtliche 
Studien, V, I). F. A. LEFEBVRE, Saint Bruno et I'ordre des Chart- 
reux, 2 vols., Paris, 1884. 

Order of Fontevrault. Histoire de I'Ordre de Fontevrault, 1100- 
1908, by the Religieuses de Sainte-Marie de Fontevrault de Boulaur, 
now located in Vera in Navarre, vols. I-III, Aueh, 1911-1915. J. v. 
WALTER, Die ersten Wanderprediger Frankreichs: Studien zur 
Geschichte des Monchtums; part I, Robert von Abrissel, Leipzig, 1903 
(Studien zur Geschichte der Theologie und der Kirche, TX, part 3). 

Cistercians. H. D'ARBOIS DE JUBAINVILLE, Etat interieur des 
abbayes cisterciennes et en particulier de Clairvaux au XII s et XIII s 
siecles, Paris, 1868. L. JANAUSCHEK, Origines Cistercienses, vol. I, 
Vienna, 1877. F. WINTER, Die Cistercienser des nordostlichen Deutsch- 
lands, 3 vols., Gotha, 1868-1871. G. HODGES, Fountains abbey: the 
story of a mediaeval monastery, London, 1904. F. SCHEVILL, "San 
Galgano: a Cistercian abbey of the middle ages," American his- 
torical review, XIV (1908), 22-37. La Trappe, the cradle of the 
modern Trappists, is described at length by H. C. CHARENCEY 
(Comte de), Histoire de I'abbaye de la Grande-Trappe, 2 vols., 
Mortagne, 1896-1911. The author also edited the Cartulaire de 
I'Abbaye de Notre-damc de La Trappe, Alenc,on, 1889. 

Canons regular. B. WOZASEK, Der hi. Norbert: Stifter des Pra- 
inonxIrdtrnser-Ordens und Erzbischof von Magdeburg, Vienna, 1914. 
MADELATNE, Hixtoire de saint Norbert, 1887. B. ROSENMUND, Die 
dltesten Biographien des heiligen Norbert, Berlin, 1874. F. WINTER, 
Die Prdmonstratenser des 12 Jahrhunderts und ihrc Bcdeutung fiir 
das nordostlichc Ih'nlni-nltnnl. Berlin, 1S65. 

Forerunners of the mendicants. ELLEN SCOTT DAVISON, Some 
fort'ninntrs of SI. l-'nun-is of Assist, Columbia university, 1907 (dis- 
sertation), discusses Apostolic sects allied to the Cathari; Arnold 
of Brescia; and The Humiliati. A. HAUSRATH, Die Arnoldisten, 



228 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Leipzig, 1895 (Weltverbesserer im Mittelalter, III). ROSE GRAHAM, 
S. Gilbert of Sempringham and the Gilbertines: a history of the 
order, London, 1901, reprinted, 1904. 

The mendicants in general. J. HERKLESS, Francis and Dominic 
and the mendicant orders, New York, 1901 (The world's epoch- 
makers, IX). H. HEFELE, Die Bettelorden und das religiose Volks- 
leben Ober- und Mittelitaliens im 13 Jahrhundert, Leipzig and Ber- 
lin, 1910 (part 9 of Beitrage zur Kulturgeschichte des Mittel- 
alters und der Renaissance, edited by W. GOETZ). A series of 
biographies of famous friars has been published under the gen- 
eral title, Lives of the friar saints, New York, 1911ff. The follow- 
ing are some volumes in this series: V. FITZGERALD, Saint John 
Capistran, New York and London, 1911; CATHERINE WOODCOCK, 
Saint Antony of Padua, the miracle-worker, 1195-1231, London, 
1911; and L. COSTELLOE, Saint Bonaventure, the Seraphic doctor: 
Minister-general of the Franciscan order, cardinal bishop of Albano 
[1221-1274], New York, 1911. A. OTT, Thomas von Aquin und das 
MendiTcantentum, Freiburg, 1908. J. WIESCHOPF, Stellung der Bet- 
telorden in den deutschen freien Eeichsstddten im Mittelalter, 
Miinster, 1905 (dissertation). 

Franciscans in general L. WADDING, Annales Minorum sen 
trium ordinum a. S. Francisco institutorum [1208-1540], 8 vols., 
Lyons, 1625-1654, 2nd edition, with a syllabus, 17 vols., Rome, 
1731-1741, vols. XVIII-XXV by J. DE LUCCA and others, Rome, 
1740-1886. K. MULLER, Die Anfdnge des Minoriten-ordens und der 
Bussbruderschaften, Freiburg, 1885. H. HOLZAPFEL, Handbuch der 
Geschichte des Franzislcanerordens, Freiburg, 1909. E. GEBHART, 
L' Italic mystique: histoire de la renaissance religieuse au moyen 
age, Paris, 1890. A. G. LITTLE, The Grey Friars in Oxford, Oxford, 
1892 (Oxford historical society, Publications, XX). W. M. BRYCE, 
The Scottish Grey friars, 2 vols., Edinburgh and London, 1909. 
Father CUTHBERT, The romanticism of St. Francis and other studies 
in the genius of the Franciscans, London, 1915. L. RAURE, Figures 
franciscaines : Saint Frangois d'Assise, Sainte Claire d'Assise, Saint 
Antoine le Padouan, Paris, 1912. A. FRANZ, Drei deutsche Minoriten 
prediger aus dem XIII und XIV Jahrhundert [Konrad von Sachsen, 
Frater Ludovicus, Greculus], Freiburg, 1907. ANNE MACDONELL, 
The sons of St. Francis, London and New York, 1902. V. KYBAL, 
Die Ordensregeln des heiligen Franz von Assisi und die urspriingliche 
Verfassung des Minoritenordens, Leipzig, 1915 (Beitrage zur Kul- 
turgeschichte des Mittelalters und der Renaissance). 

St. Francis. It is entirely beyond the scope of this Guide to 
indicate and evaluate all the biographies of St. Francis. Only 



xxnl NEW MONASTIC MOVEMENT 229 

a few of the most recent or more important attempts in English, 
French, German, Italian, and Spanish are listed below. 

In English. W. J. KNOX LITTLE, St. Francis of Assisi: his times, 
life, and work, lectures delivered in 1896, London, 1897, new edi- 
tion, 1904. O. KUHNS, Saint Francis of Assisi, New York, 1906, 
is a short but interesting essay. E. W. GRIERSON, The story of St. 
Francis of Assisi, London, 1912. ANNA M. STODDARD, Francis of 
Assisi, London, 1903. SOPHIE JEWETT, God's troubadour: the story 
of Saint Francis of Assisi, London and New York, 1910. Mrs. M. 
OLIPHANT (WILSON), Francis of Assisi, London and New York, 
1871. 

In French. L. LE MONNIER, Histoire de St. Francois d'Assise, 
2 vols., Paris, 1889, 6th edition, 1907, English translation by a 
Tertiary, London, 1894. GRATIEN, "S. Francois d'Assise," in 
Etudes Franciscaines, (1907), 359-482. P. HENRY, S. Francois 
d'Assise et son ecole, d'apres les documents originaux, Paris, 1903. 
A. BARINE, St. Francois d'Assise et la legende des trow compagnons, 
6th edition, Paris, 1910. L. DE CHRANCE, Saint Francois d'Assise, 
7th edition, Paris, 1900, translated into English by R. F. O'CONNOR, 
3rd edition, London, 1901. F. MORIN, /Saint Francois et les Fran- 
ciscains, Paris, 1858. 

In German. J. VON WALTER, Franz von Assisi und die Nach- 
ahmung Christi, Gross-Lichterfelde, 1910. B. CHRISTEN, Leben des 
heiligen Franciscus von Assisi, Innsbruck, 1899. K. WENCK, Franz 
von Assisi, Leipzig, 1908. H. TILEMANN, Studien zur Individuality 
des Franziskus von Assisi, Leipzig, 1914 (Beitrage zur Kulturge- 
schichte des Mittelalters und der Eenaissance). W. GOTZ, Quellen 
zur Geschichte des hi. Franz von Assisi, Gotha, 1904. 

In Italian. F. TARDUCCI, Vita di S. Francesco d' Assisi, Mantua, 
1904. PANFILO DA MAGLIANO, Storia compendiosa di S. Francesco 
e dei Francescani, 2 vols., Rome, 1874-1876, was left incomplete due 
to the death of the author. L. PALOMES, Storia di S. Francesco, 
2 vols., Palermo, 1873-1874. S. MINOCCHI, La leggenda antica: 
nuova fonte biografica di San Francesco d' Assisi, Florence, 1905. 

In Spanish. PARDO BAZAN, San Francisco de Assis, new edition, 
Madrid, 1903. 

The social work of St. Francis. L. L. DUBOIS, St. Francis of 
Assisi: social reformer, Washington, D. C., 1904 (dissertation). 
F. GLASER, Die franziskanische Bewegung: ein Beitrag zur Geschichte 
sozialer Beformideen im Mittelalter, Stuttgart and Berlin, 1903 (in 
Munchener Volkswirtschaftliche Studien, 59, pp. 11-45). J. GAPP, 
Der heilige Franciscus von Assisi und die soziale Frage, 2nd edition, 
Trier, 1898, is a short study of 16 pages. G. RATZINGER, "Die 



230 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

soziale Bedeutung des heiligen Franziskus, ' ' iii his Forschungen 
zur bayrischen Geschichte, Kempten, 1898. 

Stigmata of St. Francis. K. HAMPE, "Altes und Neues iiber 
die Stigmatisation des hi. Franz von Assisi," in Archiv fur Kul- 
turgeschichte, VIII (1910), 257-290. F. X. SEPPELT, "Die Wund- 
male des hi. Franz von Assisi, ' ' Vortrag vor der Generalversamm- 
lung der Gorresgesellschaft zu Metz, Koln, 1910, pp. 110-120. J. 
MERKT, Die Wundmale des heiligen Franziskus von Assisi, Leipzig, 
1910, part V of no. 749 above; see the review by M. BIHL, in Archi- 
vum Franciscanum historicum, III (1910), 393-432. K. HASE, Franz 
von Assisi: ein Heiligenbild, Leipzig, 1856, new edition, 1892, devotes 
a large part of his book to the stigmata. 

Tertiaries of St. Francis. E. DESCLOUX, Le tiers ordre de Saint- 
Frangois, Fribourg, 1913. P. MANDONNET, Origines de I'Ordo de 
Poenitentia, Freiburg, 1898. 

Saint Clare. E. GILLIAT-SMITH, Saint Clare of Assisi: her life 
and legislation, London, 1914. U. BEAUFRETON, Salute Claire 
d'Assise, 1194-1253, Paris, 1916 (Les Saints). L. MOISSON, Une 
fille de Saint Frangols: Sainte Claire d'Assise, sa vie et son oeuvre, 
Paris, 1912. P. EOBINSON, The Eule of St. Clare and its observance 
in the light of early documents, Philadelphia, 1912. L. DE CHERANCE, 
Saint Clare of Assisi, New York, 1910. 

Assisi and the home of the early Franciscans. LINA DUFF 
GORDON, The story of Assisi, London, 1900. BERYL D. DE SELIN- 
COURT, Homes of the first Franciscans in Umbria, the borders of 
Tuscany, and the northern marches, London and New York, 1905. 
E. BUTTON, The cities of Umbria, London, 1906. J. JORGENSEN, 
Pilgrim walks in Franciscan Italy, London, 1908. N. CAVANNA, 
L'Umbria serafica illustrata parallels alia vita di S. Francesco, 
Perugia, 1910. 

Spiritual Franciscans. D. S. MUZZEY, The spiritual Franciscans, 
New York, 1907. F. EHRLE, "Die Spiritualen, ihr Verhaltniss 
zum Franziskanerorden und zu den Fraticellen, ' ' in Archiv fur 
Literatur- und Kirchengeschichte, I, 509-569; II, 106-164; III, 553- 
623; IV, 1-190. This fundamental study contains many original 
sources. K. BALTHASER, Geschichte des Armutsstreites im Fran- 
ziskanerorden bis zum Konzil von Vienne, Miinster, 1911 (Vorrefor- 
mationsgeschichtliche Forschungen, 6). 

Franciscan influence on Italian art and literature. H. THODE, 
Franz von Assisi und die Anfdnge der Kunst der Renaissance in 
Italien, Berlin, 1885, 2nd edition, 1904, is a work of fundamental 
importance. EMMA G. SALTER, Franciscan legends in Italian art: 
pictures in Italian churches and galleries, London and New York, 



NEW MONASTIC MOVEMENT 231 

1905. CLARISSA C. GOFP [Mrs. ROBERT], Assist of Saint Francis: 
together with the influence of the Franciscan legend on Italian art, 
London, 1908. B. BERENSON, A' Sienese painter of the Franciscan 
legend [Sassetta], New York, 1909. N. H. J. WESTLAKE, On the 
authentic portraiture of St. Francis of Assist, London, 1897. 

A. F. OZANAM, Les poctes Franciscains en Italic, 6th edition, 
Paris, 1882, translated and annotated by A. E. NELLEN and W. C. 
CRAIG, The Franciscan poets in Italy of the thirteenth century, Lon- 
don, 1914. C. MARIOTTI, S. Francesco, i Francescani e Dante Aligh- 
ii-ri, Quaracchi, 1912. H. HESSE, From von Assist, Berlin [1904] 
(Die Diehtung, 13). 

Periodicals devoted to Franciscan studies. Archivium Fran- 
riscnintm hixtoricum: periodica publicatio trimestris, begun in 1908 
by the Franciscans of Quaracchi near Florence. Etudes Fran- 
cixrnines, Paris, 1894flf. Collection d'etudes et de documents sur 
1'histoire religieuse et litteraire du moyen age, edited by P. SABA- 
TIER, vols. I-V, Paris, 1898-1904, is devoted almost entirely to 
Franciscan studies and texts. Societe Internationale d*etudes Fran- 
ciscaines a Assise, 1902ff. La France Franciscaine : melanges d'arch- 
eologie, d'histoire et de litterature relatifs aux ordres de Saint Fran- 
QOIS en France, du XIII C siccle, Paris, 1912ff. Franziskanische 
Sfiidirii: Quartalschrift, Miinster, 1914ff. Bollettino critico di cose 
Francescane, Florence, 1905ff. Miscellanea Francescana di storia, di 
lettere, di artc, Foligno, 1886ff. 

Dominicans in general. M. C. GANAY, Les bienheuremes Domin- 
icaincs, 11901577, d'aprfis dcs documents inedits, Paris, 1913. R. P. 
MORTIER, Histoire des maltres generaux de I'ordre des Freres Pr$- 
cheurs, vols. I-VI, Paris 1903-1913. A. DANZAS, Etudes sur les 
1<'mj>x jtrimitifs de I'ordre de Saint-Dominique: le bienheureaux Jour- 
dain de Saxe, 4 vols., 1874-1876. AUGUSTA T. DRAKE, The spirit of 
the Dominican order, London, 1896. W. D. G. FLETCHER, The Black 
I<'riars of Oxford, Oxford, 1882. E. BARKER, The Dominican order 
and convocation: a study of the growth of representation in the 
church ditriiif/ the thirteenth century, Oxford, 1913. M. D. CHAPOTIN, 
Histoire dcs Dominicaines de la provinces de France: le nieclc des 
fondations, Paris, 1-898. M. D. SCHOMBURG, Die Dominikaner im 
Kr:bintum Bremen wdhrend des dreizehnten Jahrhunderts, mit einer 
rbenicht fiber die Auxbrcitun<j des Ordens in Deutsch- 
hix 1250, 1910 (dissertation, Jena). Quellen und Forschungen 
~nr (iiwliii-litr deft Dominikancrordenn in Deutschland, Leipzig, 
1907ff. R. MART!NEZ VIGIL, La orden dc Prcdicadorcs : sus glorias 
fii sdiitidotl. uiioxtolado, cienciaa, artes y gobierno de los pueblos, 
seguidos de una biblioteca de Dominicos cspailoles, Madrid, 1884. 



232 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

St. Dominic. AUGUSTA T. DRANE, History of St. Dominic, founder 
of the Friars Preachers, London, 1891. H. D. DE LACORDAIKE, Vie 
de saint Dominique, Paris, 1840, new edition, Paris [1912], trans- 
lated into English by HAZELAND, London, 1883. J. S. ALEMANY, 
The life of St. Dominic and a sketch of the Dominican order, New 
York, 1867. E. CARO, Saint Dominique et les Dominicains, Paris, 
1853. C. M. ANTONY, In St. Dominic's country, New York, 1912. 

Original sources. Only the most important large collections 
of sources on the mendicants are listed below. See the bibli- 
ographical guides below for details. Much material can also be 
found scattered in the large collections for church history, nos. 
953-964 above. Scriptores ordinis minorum, edited by L. WADDING, 
Borne, 1650, a new edition, with supplement by J. H. SBARALEA, 2 
vols., ' Rome, 1806, supplements, 1906-1908. Sullarium Francis- 
canum, edited by J. H. SBARALEA, 4 vols., Rome, 1759-1768, sup- 
plement, 1780, vols. V-VII by C. EUBEL, Rome, 1898-1904, epitome 
and supplement to vols. I-IV by C. EUBEL, Rome, 1908. Analecta 
Franciscana, vols. I-V, Quaracchi, 1885-1912. Documenta antiqua 
Franciscana, edited by LEMMENS, Quaracchi, 1901-1902. Opuscules 
de critique historique, edited by P. SABATIER. British society of 
Franciscan studies, Aberdeen, 1909ff. Monumenta Franciscana, 
edited by J. S. BREWER, 2 vols., London, 1858 (Rolls Series, no. 4), 
for the Franciscans in England. 

The chief collections for the Dominicans are the following: 
Monumenta ordinis Fratrum Praedicatorum historica, edited by B. M. 
REICHERT, vols., I-XIV, Rome, 1896-1904. Scriptores ordinis prae- 
dicatorum recensiti, edited by J. QUETIF and J. ECHARD, 2 vols., 
Paris, 1719-1721, new edition, enlarged, by R. COULON, parts I-VI, 
Paris, 1910-1913. 

Bibliographies. In general consult the bibliographies for the 
history of the church, nos. 49-55 above. Many excellent bibli- 
ographies are appended to articles in the encyclopaedias listed 
above, nos.. 104-144. On the mendicants in general there is a 
valuable bibliography in J. LOSERTH, Geschichte des spdteren Mittel- 
alters, 15-17. 

For Saint Francis we have an admirable bibliography by P. 
ROBINSON, A short introduction to Franciscan literature, New York, 
1907. The author is preparing a life of St. Francis which will 
probably contain a complete guide to the literature on St. Francis 
and the Franciscans. CUTHBERT, Life of St. Francis, in four appen- 
dixes, 393-446, has a full discussion and bibliography of the orig- 
inal sources on St. Francis. ROBINSON, in his bibliography just 
mentioned, pp. 28-29, calls attention to recent summaries of the 



THE MEDIEVAL CHURCH 233 

scholarly work on the history of St. Francis. Add to his refer- 
ences, R. SEEBERG, "Zur Charakteristik des hi. Franz von Assisi," 
in Deutsche Literaturzeitung, XXXII (1911), 1989-1994; 2053-2058. 

XXIV. THE ORGANIZATION AND WORK OF THE CHRIS- 
TIAN CHURCH IN THE TWELFTH AND 
THIRTEENTH CENTURIES 
A. OUTLINE 

1. The character of the church as a state, and the most 
important state of Europe in these two centuries. It was a 
splendidly organized absolute monarchy. Its executive, legisla- 
tive, and judicial powers. Its territorial extent. Conflicts with 
temporal princes. Spiritual and temporal powers. Regular and 
secular clergy. This outline deals with the secular clergy. 

2. The ecclesiastical hierarchy. Influence of the old Roman 
officialism in the development of grades among churchmen. Dis- 
tinctions among the secular clergy, emphasized by titles, dress, 
residence, ceremonial of investment into office, and order of prece- 
dence as well as by differences of duties and incomes. The higher 
ranks of the clergy were classed with the nobles in medieval 
society; its lower ranks, such as the parish priests, were classed 
with the common people. Difficulty of fitting the clergy of all 
ranks into feudal society. Differences between laymen and the 
clergy. The morals of the clergy. The nature of the evidence 
concerning the morals of the clergy. Records of episcopal visi- 
tations. 

3. The pope in Rome. The growth of the theory of papal 
absolutism and infallibility. The Lateran. Disputes about his 
election even after the erection of the College of Cardinals in 1059. 
Institution of the two-thirds vote in 1179. The Conclave (cum 
fin re) of the council of Lyons in 1274. Growth of the dignity of 
(-.inlinals (the red hat bestowed in 1245, and the purple robe in 
1297). Their political influence. The Roman curia. The papal 
rli.'iiicery. Papal bulls. The decretals of the popes. Legates of 
the popes. Papal legations ami papal visitations. 

4. Archbishops and bishops. Provinces and dioceses. Unsuc- 
cessful efforts to make the rank of an archbishop a very distinct 
grade above that of a bishop. Tho pallium. Primates or metro- 
politans. The exalted power of a bishop in his diocese. Episcopal 
elections. The Lateran council of 1215 placed the election in the 
hands of the cathedral chapters. Spiritual and temporal duties 
of a bishop. Episcopal visitations. 



234 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

5. The intermediate clergy. Archdeacons. Canons of the 
cathedral chapter. Officers of the cathedral chapter, such as the 
dean (or provost), chancellor, and chanter. Prebends. Conflict 
between the chapters and archdeacons on the one hand, and the 
bishops on the other. Vicars general and "officials." 

6. The parish priests. The right of presentation or advowson. 
Patrons. Cura animarum (French cure). Elaborate parish churches. 
Social duties of the parish priests. Their work as teachers. Hectors. 
Vicars. Arch -priests. 

7. The legislative bodies of the church. The great universal 
or oecumenical councils, especially the Lateran council of 1215. 
Provincial and diocesan councils. The tendency to hold ' ' national ' ' 
councils, and to limit the absolute poAver of the pope by conciliar 
action. Mansi, Concilia. 

8. The financial system of the church. The papal exchequer 
(camera) in Kome. Some of the sources of papal income were: 
the revenues from the Papal States, feudal dues from vassal states, 
pious gifts and bequests, fees of all kinds, benefice taxes especially 
annates, Peter's pence, special levies on the clergy all over Christ- 
endom, crusading taxes. The income of a bishop. The wealth of 
some cathedral chapters. The income of a parish. Tithes. The 
endless complexity of the expenditures of the church. Abuses due 
to the wealth of the church. Misappropriations by greedy priests. 

9. The law and the jurisdiction of the church. The growth of 
canon law. Gratian's Decretum (1140-1150). The Corpus iuris 
canonici. (For details on canon law see outline XX, part III.) The 
legal status of the clergy. Legal status of university students. 
Ecclesiastical jurisdiction over non-clerical persons. Multiplicity 
of cases judicable in church courts. Ceaseless conflicts with 
secular courts and jurisdiction. The papal curia. The papal 
penitentiary. Apellate jurisdiction of the pope's courts. Delay 
of justice and other abuses in the papal judiciary system. The 
judicial functions of bishops. The judicial work of archdeacons, 
archprie"sts, and cathedral chapters. The episcopal courts. The 
episcopal "officials," and their assistants. Lawyers and notaries. 

10. Church discipline and control. Confession and penances, 
especially pilgrimages. Excommunication and interdict. 

11. Heresies. Conditions which gave rise to heresies. Wal- 
densians and Albigensians. The inquisition. (For details see 
outline XVI, part III, below.) 

12. The Christian cult. The evolution of doctrines and prac- 
tices. In the thirteenth century most of the doctrines and 
practices of the medieval church were crystallized. Use of Latin 



XXIV THE MEDIEVAL CHURCH 235 

in the church service. The sacramental system. The eucharist. 
The revival of preaching. The great l^mns. Organs and church 
music. The ecclesiastical calendar. Saints ' days. Patron saints. 
Canonization of saints. Festivals. Feast of Fools (Festum stul- 
torum). Miracle plays. Relics. 

13. Ecclesiastical buildings, furnishings, vestment and plate. 
Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals. Chapter houses. Baptis- 
teries. The papal palaces. Episcopal residences. Cemeteries. 
Dedication of sacred buildings and places. 

14. The social and educational work of the secular church. 
Charitable work of the clergy, especially of the parish priests. 
The alms of the church. The care of the sick by the secular 
clergy. The Bequines and Bequins (Beghards). Elementary edu- 
cation in the parishes. Cathedral schools. 

15. The missionary work of the church in the East. "Prester 
John." Influence of the crusades, and of the rise of universities. 
The College of Constantinople (or Oriental College), established in 
the time of Innocent III, in Paris. The missionary activity of 
the Franciscans and Dominicans. John of Piano Carpini. Wil- 
liam Rubruck (Rubruquis). Raymond Lull. 

16. Sources of weakness and decay within the church. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

Short general surveys. EMERTON, Mediaeval Europe, 541-555, 
582-592. FLICK, The rise of the mediaeval church, eh. xxm. BEMONT 
and MONOD, Medieval Europe, 488-514. 

Longer general accounts. LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire gent- 
rale, II, 253-291. MEDLEY, The church and the empire, chs. iv, x-xn, 
xiv. MILMAN, Latin Christianity, vol. IX, book XIV, chs. i-n. A. 
LUCHAIRE, Manuel des institutions francaiscs, 1-144. E. MICHAEL, 
Cultur:uxtande des deuttschen Volkcs wiihrend des dreizehnten Jahr- 
Iniiidcrts, II, 1-205. E. L. CuTTS, Scenes and characters of the 
iii'<l,l'r agcn, 1.17-265. 

Financial system of the papacy. W. E. LUNT, "The financial 
system of the mediaeval papacy," in Quarterly journal of economics, 
.\.\III (1909), 251-295. 

Interdict. K. Ii. KKKIIBIEL, The interdict: its history and its 
II/H i-titinit. iritli sin-fial at t< nt inn to tlif linn of /lo/ii' Innocent III. 
See also A. ('. HOWLAND, "The origin of the local interdict, " in 
A n until rejiort of tin A in< riciin historical association. IS'I'I, vol. I, 
431-448. 

Parish life. P. A. GASQUET, Parish life in mediaeval Emjland. 
London and New York, 1906, 2nd edition, 1907. E. L. CUTTS, Parish 
inn! thfir /i>/i/< in the middle ages in England, London, 1891. 



236 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PAETII 

A. H. THOMPSON, The historical growth of the English parish church, 
Cambridge, 1911. 

The Christian cult. Y. HIRN, The sacred shrine: a study of 
the poetry and art of the Christian church, London, 1912 (see the 
important bibliography, pp. 555-570). On the Feast of Fools see 
G. V. HEMMING, "Festum stultorum," in Nineteenth century, LVII 
(1905), 1000-1008. 

Eastern missions. C. E. BBAZLEY, Tlie dawn of modern geog- 
raphy, 3 vols., London, 1897-1906, especially II, ch. v, III, chs. n-ui. 
L. BREHIER, L'eglise et I'orient au moyen age, 211-214, 268-286, is a 
short introductory sketch. 

Inquisition, The standard work on the medieval inquisition 
is by H. C. LEA, History of the inquisition of the middle ages, 3 vols., 
Philadelphia, 1888. E. VACANDARD, The inquisition, translated from 
the 2nd French edition, by B. L. CONWAY, New York, 1908, is a 
recent short sketch by a Eoman catholic. 

Original sources. KOBINSON, Readings, I, 346-387. Transla- 
tions and reprints, II, no. 4, ' ' Medieval sermon stories ' ' ; III, no. 6, 
"Pre-reformation period." G. G. COULTON, A medieval garner, 
passim. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 46-47, 94-95, 97. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. The general works on the medieval church are 
listed above, nos. 394-498. See also the periodicals for church 
history, nos. 176-180 above, and especially the encyclopaedias, nos. 
104-144 above, which are indispensable in studying this outline. 

The pope and the papal curia. E. L. POOLE, Lectures on the 
history of the papal chancery down to the time of Innocent III, 
Cambridge University Press, 1915. P. M. BAUMGARTEN, Aus Eanzlei 
und Kammer: Erorterungen zur Jcurialen Hof- und Verwaltungs- 
geschichte im XII, XIV, und XV Jahrhundert, Freiberg, 1907. E. 
ZOEPFFEL, Die PapstwdMen und die mit ihnen im nachsten Zusam- 
menhange stehenden Ceremonien in ihrer EntwicTcelung vom 11 his 
14 Jahrhundert; nebst einer Beilage: die Doppelwahl des Jahres 
1130, Gb'ttingen, 1871. E. JUNGFER, Die Unterschiede zwischen der 
Papstwahl und den Bischofswahlen nach dem gemeinen Kirchen- 
recht, Borna, 1909 (dissertation, Breslau). F. EOCQUAIN, La cour 
de Rome et I' esprit de reforme avant Luther, vol. I, La theocratic, 
Paris, 1893. 

Cardinals. J. MAUBACH, Die Kardindle und ihre Politik um die 
Mitte des XIII Jahrhunderts, Bonn, 1902 (dissertation). D. SAG- 
MULLER, Tliatigkeit und Stellung der Cardindle bis Papst Bonifaz 
VIII, Freiburg, 1896. 



THE MEDIEVAL CHURCH 237 

Papal legates. H. ZIMMERMANN, Die pdpstliche Legation in der 
ersten Halfte des IS Jahrhunderts, 1198-1241, Paderborn, 1913. 
K. RUESS, Die rechtliche Stellung der pd})stlichen Legaten bis Boni- 
faz VIII, Paderborn, 1912 (GSrresgesellschaft ; Sektion fiir Rechts- 
und Sozialwissenschaft, 13). J. BACHMANN, Die pdpstlichen Legaten 
in Deutschland und Skandinavien (11X5-1159), Berlin, 1913 (His- 
torische Studien, 115). 

Papal Provisions. The situation in Germany may be studied 
in the following books: H. BAIER, PdpstlicJie Provisionen fur niedere 
Pfriinden bis zum Jahre 1304, Miinster, 1911 ; H. KRABBO, Die Beset- 
zung der deutschen Bist timer unter der Regierung Friedrichs II, part 
I (to 1227), Berlin, 1901 (Historische Studien, 25); W. FUCHS, Die 
Besetzung der deutschen Bistiimer unter Papst Gregor IX (1287- 
1841) und bis zum Regierungsan'tritt Papst Innocenz IV (1843), 
Berlin, 1911; P. ALDINGER, Die Neubesetzung der deutschen Bistiimer 
unter Papst Innocenz IV, 1843-1854, Leipzig, 1901. For England 
the same conditions are described by A. L. SMITH, Church and state, 
in the middle ages, Oxford, 1913 (Ford lectures, 1905) ; and F. A. 
GASQUET, Henry the Third and the church: a study of his ecclesiasti- 
cal policy and of the relations between England and Rome, London, 
1905. U. STUTZ, Geschichte des kirchlichen Benefizialwesens bis auf 
Alexander III, part I, Berlin, 1895. 

The bishop and his diocese. EDITH K. LYLE, Tlie office of an 
English bishop in tlie first half of the fourteenth century, Philadelphia, 
1903 (dissertation). J. KRIEO, Der Kampf der Bischofe gegen die 
Archidiakone im Bistum Wiirzburg unter Benutzung ungedruckter 
Urkunden und Akten dargestellt, Stuttgart, 1914 ( Kirehengeschicht- 
liche Abhandlungen, 82). J. MULLER, Die bischoflichen Diozesan- 
behorden, Stuttgart, 1905. A. POSCHL, Bischofsgut und Mensa epis- 
copalis, 2 vols., Bonn, 1908-1909. J. B. SAGMULLER, Die Bischofswahl 
bei Gratien, Cologne, 1908. P. IMBART DE LA TOUR, Lcs flections 
episcopales dans I'eglise de France du IX* ail XII e siede (814- 
1150), Paris, 1891. NIORTET, Maurice de 'Sully (1160-1196) : etude 
sur I 'administration episcopale pendant la deuxieme moitiS du XII e 
stfde, Paris, 1890. A. GREA, "Essai historique sur les archidiacres, " 
in Bibliotheque de I'Ecole des ohartes, XII (1851), 39-67, 215-247. 

Parish life. OLGA DOBIACHE-ROJDESTVENSKY, La vie paroissiale 
en France au XIII 8 siede d'apres les actes cpiscopaux, Paris, 1911. 
G. A. PREVOST, L'cglise et les campagnes au moyen age, Paris, 1892. 
A. JESSOPP, Before the great pillage, London, 1901. 

Church councils. The great authority on the councils is H KKKI.K, 
KonzUiengcschichte, no. 469 above. A. N. BLATCHFORD, Church coun- 
cils and their decrees, London, 1909. J. VON DOLLINOER, The popes 
and the council. 



238 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Financial system of the church. M. TANGL, "Das Taxenwesen 
der papstlichen Kanzlei vom 13ten bis zur Mitte des 15ten 
Jahrhunderts, ' ' in Mittheilungen dcs Instituts fur osterreichischc 
Geschichtsforschung, XIII, 1-106. W. E. LUNT, "Papal taxation 
in England in the reign of Edward I," in English historical review, 
XXX (1915), 398-417; and "The first levy of papal annates," 
American historical review, XVIII (1912), 48-64. P. VIARD, His- 
toire de la dime ecclesiastique dans le royaume de France aux 
Xlle et Xllle siecles, Paris, 1912. W. EASTERBY, The history of the 
law of tithes in England, Cambridge, 1888. A. GOTTLOB, Die papst- 
lichen Kreuzzugssteuern des ISten Jahrhunderts: ihre rechtliche 
Grundlage, politische Geschichte und technisclw Verwaltung, Heiligen- 
stadt, 1892. G. SCHNEIDER, Die finanziellen Beziehungen des Floren- 
tiner Bankiers zur Kirche von 1285-1804, Leipzig, 1899 (Staats- und 
soziahvissenschaftliche Forschungen, 17). 

Ecclesiastical jurisdiction. E. GOLLER, Die pdpstliche Poniten- 
tiarie von ihrem Vrsprung bis zu ihrer Umgestaltung unter Pius V, 
vols. I and II, Rome, 1907-11. H. C. LEA, Formulary of the Papal 
Penitentiary in the thirteenth century, Philadelphia, 1892. See also 
his article, "The taxes of the Papal Penitentiary," in English his- 
torical review, VIII (1893), 424-438. L. BEAUCHET, "Origine de 
la jurisdiction ecclesiastique et son developpement en France jusqu'au 
XIP siecle, " in Nouvelle revue historique de droit franc.aise et 
etrangere, VII (1883), 387-477, 503-536. P. FOURNIER, Les official- 
ites au moyen age, Paris, 1880. 

Preaching. L 'abbe BOURGAIN, La chaire franc,aise au XII e siecle, 
d 'aprcs le manuscrits, Paris, 1879. A. LECOY DE LA MARCHE, La 
chaire fran^aise au mcyen age, specialement au XHIe siecle: d'apres 
les manuscrits contemporains, Paris, 1868, 2nd edition, 1886. F. R. 
ALBERT, Dif Geschichte der Predigt in Deutschland bis Luther, 3 
parts, Giitersloh, 1892-96. A. LINSENMAYER, Geschichte der Predigt 
in Deutschland von Karl dem Grossen bis zum Au^gang des 14 Jahr- 
hunderts, Munich, 1886. R. CRUEL, Geschichte der deutschen Predigt 
im Mittelalter, Detmold, 1879. 

Pilgrim life. S. HEATH, Pilgrim life in the middle ages, Boston, 
1912. J. J. JUSSERAND, Les Anglais au mcyen age: la vie nomade 
et les rcutc.s d'Angleterre au XIV s siede, Paris, 1884, translated by 
L. T. Smith, English wayfaring life in the middle ages, 8th edition, 
London, 1905, part III, "Religious wayfarers." J. JORGENSEX. 
Pelerinages franciscains, translated from the Danish by T. DE 
WYZEWA, Paris, 1910. A. MULLER, Das heUige Deutschland: 
Geschichte und Beschreibung samtlicher im deutschen Beiche be- 
stehender Wallfahrtsorte, 2nd edition, 2 vols., Cologne, 1897. 



THE MEDIEVAL CHURCH 239 

Life and morals of the secular clergy. H. C. LEA, An historical 
sketch of sacerdotal celibacy. E. E. SPERRY, An outline of the history 
of clerical celibacy in western Europe to the council of Trent, New 
York, 1905 (dissertation). S. SCHELER, Sitten und BUdung der 
framosischen Geistlichkeit nach den Briefen Steplians von Tournai 
[died 1203], Berlin, 1915 (Historisehe Studien, 130). 

Christian cult. A. J. DORNER, Die Entstehung der christlichen 
Gldubi'HKlelin'it, Munich, 1906. M. HEBERT, L'evolution de la foi 
catholique, Paris, 1905. F. E. VON HURTER, Tableau des institutions 
et des moeurs de I 'eglise au moyen age, translated from the German 
by J. COHEN, 3 vols., Paris, 1843. 

On confession the standard work in English is H. C. LEA, A his- 
tory of auricular confessicn. G. GROMER, Die Laienbeichte im Mit- 
telaltcr, Munich, 1909. A. M. KOENIGER, Die Beioht nach Casarius 
von Heisterbach, Munich, 1906. F. GANDERT, Das Buss- und Beicht- 
wesen gegen Mitte des 13 Jahrhunderts, Leipzig, 1894. H. J. 
SCHMITZ, Die Bussbitcher und das kanonische Bussverfqhren (nach 
QucUen), 2 vols., Dusseldorf, 1898. 

T. F. MACKEN, The canonisation of saints, London, 1910. H. P. 
BRE\VSTER, Saints and festivals of the Christian church, New York 
[1904]. See also KELLNER, Heortologie, no. 258 above. C. J. Cox, 
The sanctuaries and sanctuary seekers in mediaeval England, Lon- 
don, 1911. F. BOND, Dedications and patron saints of English 
churches, Oxford University Press, 1915. D. H. KERLER, Die Patron- 
ate der HeQigen, Ulm, 1905. M. BENZERATH, Die Kirchenpatrone 
der alien Diozcse Lausanne im Mittelaltcr, Freiburg, 1914. S. 
BEISSEL, Geschiehte der Verehrung Marias in Deutschland wdhrend 
des Mittelalters, Freiburg, 1909. G. HERZOG, La sainte Vierge dans 
I'histmre, Paris, 1908. 

A. FRANZ, Die Messe im deutsohen Mittelalter, Freiburg, 1902. 
P. J. WAGNER, Geschiehte der Messe [to 1600], Leipzig, 1913 (Kleine 
H.-imlbiiclier der Musikgesehichte, XI, 1). A. FRANZ, Die kirchlichen 
'HL-lii.ni'ii im Mittelalter, 2 vols., Freiburg, 1909. A. MEYER, 
Das tl'iiliiKirlitsfest: seine Entstehung und Enturicklung, Tubingen, 
1913. 

Social work of the church. F. SCHAUB, Die katholische Caritas 
nnil di-rt n fi't/iK'r, Freiburg, 1909. L. LALLEMAND, Histoire de la 
clniril,', :{ vols., Paris, 1902-1906. G. UHLHORN, Die christliche 
Li< l t >stiilif/l.-,-il, 3 vols., Stuttgart, 1882-1890, 2nd edition, 1895. 
E. v. MOEU.ER, Die Elendcnbriiderschaften: ein Beitrag zur Gc- 
scliirlili- /I',- Fninilinfiirsiirgc im Mittelalter, Leipzig, 1906. J. 
(SKKVKN. /'" .infiiiiiie der Begincn, Munster, 1912 (Vorreformatische 
Forschungen, 8). 



240 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Missions. Bibliotheca bio-bibliografia della Terra Santa e dell' 
Oriente Francescano, compiled by G. GOLUBOVICH, Quaracehi, 1906- 
1913. P. SCHLAGER, Mongolenfahrten der Fransiskaner, Trier, 1911. 
K. P. MARCELLIN DE CIVEZZA, Histoire universelle des missions fran- 
ciscaines, translated from the Italian by E. P. BERNARDIN, Paris, 
1898. BROTJ, " L 'evangelisation de 1'Inde au moyen age," in Etudes 
des P. P. dc la Compagnie de Jesus, LXXXVII (1901). EUBEL, 
"Die wahrend des XIV Jahrhunderts im Missionsgebiet der Domini- 
kaner und Franziskaner errichteten Bisthiimer, " in Festschrift zum 
Jubttdum des deutsclien Campo Santo in Bom, Freiburg, 1897. P. H. 
KULB, Geschichte der Missionsreisen nach der Mongolei wahrend des 
13 und 14 Jahrhunderts, Kegensburg, 1860. H. MATROD, Le voyage 
de Fr. Guillaume de Rubrouck, Couvin, 1909; and his Notes sur le 
voyage de Fr. Jean de Plan-Carpin (1245-1247), Paris, 1912. F. M. 
SCHMIDT, "tiber Eubrucks Reise von 1253 bis 1255," in Zeitschrift 
der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde zu Berlin, XX (1885), 161-253. L. 
TINTI, Vita... del beato Odorico, Eome, 1901. F. ZARNKE, "Der 
Priester Johannes," in Abhandlungen der phUologischen-historischen 
Klasse der Tconiglichen sdchsichen GesellsoJiaft der Wissenschaften, 
Leipzig, VII (1879), 627-1030; VIII (1883), 1-186. 

W. T. A. BARBER, Raymond Lull, the illuminated doctor: a study 
in mediaeval missions, London, 1903. S. M. ZWEMER, Baymund Lull, 
first missionary to the Moslems, New York, 1902. J. H. PROBST, 
Caractere et origines des idees du bienheureux Kaymond Lulle, 
Toulouse, 1912. M. ANDRE, Le bienheureux Raymond Lulle, 3rd 
edition, Paris, 1900. 

J. A. GINDRAUX, Histoire du Christianisme dans le monde paien : 
les missions en Asie, Geneva, 1909. H. R. A. HENRION, Histoire 
generale des missions catholiques depuis le XIII s siecle, 2 vols., Paris, 
184447. H. HAHN, Geschichte der "katholischen Missionen, 5 vols., 
Cologne, 1857-73. T. SMITH, Mediaeval missions. G. F. MACLEAR, 
A history of Christian missions during the middle ages. The ency- 
clopedia of missions: descriptive, historical, biographical, statistical, 
2nd edition, New York and London, 1904. 

Original sources. The best pictures of the life of the church 
in the thirteenth century are furnished by bishops who recorded 
their experiences gained in visitations in their dioceses. The most 
complete account is by the archbishop of Rouen, EUDE RIGAUD, 
Begistrum visitationum archiepiscopi Bothomagensis [1248-1269], 
edited by T. BONNIN, Rouen, 1852, analyzed by L. DELISLE, in Biblio- 
theque de I'ecole des chartes, VIII (1846), 479-499. Next in im- 
portance is Le livre de Guillaume le Maire, eveque d' Angers, 1291 
(part of no. 965 above, Melanges historiques, II), analyzed in 



MEDIEVAL FRANCE 241 

Lavisse, Histoire de France, III, part II, 355-361. Similar informa- 
tion from England may be gleaned from the letters of ROBERT 
GROSSETESTE, bishop of Lincoln, 1235-1254, Eoberti Grosseteste epis- 
copi Lineolnicnsis Epistolae, edited by H. R. LUARD, London, 1861 
(Rolls series, no. 25). 

For sources on the missionary work in Asia see Cathay and the 
way thither: being a collection of medieval notices of China, edited 
by H. YULE, 2 vols., London, 1866, new edition, revised by H. CORDIER, 
3 vols., London, 1913-15 (Hakluyt society, series 2, vols. XXX, 
XXX VII-XXX VIII) ; Texts and versions of John de Piano Carpini 
and William de Eubruquis [Latin and English texts], edited by 
C. R. BEAZLEY, London, 1903 (Hakluyt society, extra series) ; and 
The journey of William Eubruk to eastern parts of the world, 1%5S- 
1855, as narrated by himself, with two accounts of the earlier jour- 
ney of John of Plan de Carpine, translated and edited, with introduc- 
tory notices, by W. W. ROCKHILL, London, 1900 (Hakluyt society). 
The accounts of Rubruquis and Pordenone are also translated in an 
appendix to the Travels of Sir JOHN MANDEVILLE, edited by POLLARD, 
New York, 1900, which in itself is worthless. 

Enchiridion symbolorum ct dcfinitionum et dcclarationum de 
rebus fidei et morum, edited by H. DENZINGER, Freiburg, 1908. 
Liturgische Bibliotliclc : Sammlung gottesdienstlicher Biicher aus dem 
deutschen Mittelalter, edited by A. SCHONFELDER, vols. I and II, 
Bitualbiicher, Paderborn, 1904-1906. 

For large collections of the sources of church history see nos. 
953-954 above. 

Bibliographies. See the general bibliographies for church his- 
tory, nos. 49-55 above. 

XXV. THE POLITICAL HISTORY 6F FRANCE, 1108-1328 
A. OUTLINE 

1. The undisputed leadership of France in western Europe dur- 
ing this period. The He de France. The importance of Paris. 
Contrast between French and German political history. The 
strength and importance of the Capetian line of kings. Their 
difficulties: feudalism, lack of geographical unity, diversity of 
peoples, languages, and laws. 

2. The real beginning of the French monarchy is the reign of 
Louis VI (le Gros, the Fat), 1108-1137. He had been ntade king 
designate in 1100. His feudal wars. His popularity due largely 
to his liberal economic policy. A protector of the church. His 
relations with England. Etienne de Garlande. Suger, abbot of 
Saint-Denis, the famous minister of Louis VI. 



242 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

3. Retrogression under Louis VII (1137-1180). Weak char- 
acter of the king. The disastrous second crusade. Louis and 
St. Bernard of Clairvaux. The divorce of Louis VII from Eleanor 
of Aquitaine in 1152, and the extension of the Angevin (Norman) 
empire due to the marriage of Eleanor with Henry (later Henry 
II) of England. 

4. Rapid advance under Philip II, Augustus, 1180-1223. His 
supremacy over the great feudal lords. Dismemberment of the 
Norman empire; wars with Henry II, Richard I, and John; fall 
of Chateau-Gaillard and the loss of Normandy by John in 1204. 
The coalition of 1214 and the battle of Bouvines. Philip and 
pope Innocent III. Beginnings of the Albigensian crusade. Cre- 
ation of central machinery of government; baillis and senecliaux, 
improvement of finances, justice, and the army. The communes, 
industry and commerce. The great wall of Philip Augustus around 
Paris. The real beginnings of a university of Paris in this reign. 
The short reign of Louis VIII, 1223-1226, witnessed no great 
changes. Continuance of the Albigensian wars. Appanages. 

5. The minority of Louis IX, 1226-1234. Regency of his 
mother, Blanche of Castille. Failure of a serious feudal reaction. 
The migration of the university of Paris in 1229. 

6. France at the height of her medieval glory under Saint 
Louis (Louis IX), 1226-1270. His character and popularity. His 
foreign policy. Development of central machinery of government. 
Enqueteurs. Beginnings of the differentiation of the curia regis 
into a grand consett, a parlement, and a ohambre des comptes. The 
king's interest in justice. His relations with the mendicants. His 
charitable institutions in Paris. His friends, Joinville and Robert 
de Sorbonne. The Sainte Chapelle. The disastrous crusades of 
Louis in Egypt, 1248-1254, and Tunis, 1270. Death of St. Louis 
in Carthage, 1270. 

7. Philip III (le Hardi, the Bold), 1270-1285. The county of 
Toulouse was annexed to the French crown. His relations with 
the Spanish kingdoms, especially after the Sicilian Vespers in 
1282. 

8. Consolidation of the French absolute monarchy under Philip 
IV (le Bel, the Fair), 1285-1314. Foreign relations with Flanders, 
England, and the empire. Reliance on the Roman law. Relations 
"with pope Boniface VIII. The papal bulls Clericis laicos and 
Unam sanctum. The burning question of taxation. Financial and 
other administrative reforms. Meeting of the Estates General in 
1302 and other internal reforms. The beginning of the ' ' Babylon- 



MEDIEVAL FRANCE 243 

ish Captivity ' ' "of the papacy. Anagni. The suppression of the 
Templars, 1309-1314. 

9. Louis X, 1314-1316, Philip V, 1316-1322, Charles IV, 1316- 
1328. Charles was the last male descendant of Philip IV and with 
his death the direct line of Capetians came to an end. The ante- 
cedents of the Hundred Years' War with England. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BEADING 

Short general accounts. G. B. ADAMS, The growth of the French 
nation, 73-107, together with the same author's Civilization during 
the middle ages, eh. xm. MACKINNON, Growth of the French mon- 
archy, ch. i. See also the first pages in C. V. LANGLOIS, The historic 
role of France among the nations. 

Longer general accounts. LAVISSE and BAMBAUD, Histoire gene- 
rale II, ch. vn, III, ch. i. MASSON, The story of mediaeval France, 
chs. m-viii. TOUT, Empire and papacy, chs. xn, xvn, together with 
LODGE, The close of the middle ages, ch. in. KITCHIN, History of 
France, 4th edition, I, 255-413. MACDONALD, A history of France, 

I, 112-218. J. LOSERTII, GcschicJite des spdteren Mittelalters, 44- 
52, 149-159, 217-246. 

Standard work. LAVI#SE, Histoire de France, II, part II, 311- 
331, and both parts of vol. III. 

The He de France. M. BLOCK, L'lle-de-France (les pays autour 
de Paris), Paris, 1913 (vol. IX of Les regions de la France), 
assembles articles which appeared in the Eevue de synthese his- 
torique. 

Philip Augustus. W. H. HUTTON, Philip Augustus, London, 1896 
(Foreign statesmen). A. LUCHAIRE, La societe francaise au temps 
de PhUippe-Auguste, 2nd edition, Paris, 1909, authorized translation 
by E. B. KREHBIEL, Social France at the time of Philip Augustus, 
New York, 1912. 

Saint Louis. F. PERRY, Saint Louis (Louis IX of France), the 
moxt Christian king, New York, 1901 (Heroes of the nations), is 
a very satisfactory biography. Sec also MUNRO and SELLERY, Medi- 
eral civilization, new edition, 366-375; 491-523 (the latter pages 
being a translation from LAVISSE, Histoire de France, III, part 

II, 18-40). 

Templars. The best general account on the suppression of the 
Templars in I.'i09 is H. C. LEA, History of the inquisition, III, 238- 
334. For other literature see under the outline "Crusades" above. 

Original sources. Translations of JOINVILLE'S famous Life of 
St. Louis have been indicated above in the outline on the crusades. 
Extracts from it may be read in BOBINSON, Beading*, I, 198-221; 
and OGG, Source book, 311-324. 



244 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 69, 70-71, 76. For excellent detailed 
maps see A. LONGNON, Atlas historique de la France. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. The general histories of France are listed 
above, nos. 508-548. 

Louis VL A. LUCHAIRE, Louis VI le Gros: annales de sa vie 
et de son regne, 1081-1137, avec une introduction historique, Paris, 
1890. J. W. THOMPSON, The development of the French monarchy 
under Louis VI le Gros, Chicago, 1895. 

Louis VII. A. LUCHAIRE, Etudes sur les actes de Louis VII, 
Paris, 1885. E. HIRSCH, Studien zur Geschichte Konig Ludwigs VII 
von Frankreich (1119-1160), Leipzig, 1892. O. CARTELLIERI, Abt 
Suger von Saint-Denis, 1081-1115, Berlin, 1898 (Historische Studien, 
11). A. HUGUENIN, Suger et la monarchic frangaise au XII siecle 
(1108-1152), Paris, 1857. A. LUCHAIRE, Histoire des institutions 
monarchiques de la France sous les premiers Capetiens, 987-1180. 
E. VACANDARD, "Le divorce de Louis le Jeune [Louis VII]," in 
Bevue des questions historiques, XLVII (1890), 408-432. E. VACAN- 
DARD, ' ' Saint Bernard et la royaute f ranc.aise, ' ' in Bevue des. ques- 
tions historiques, XLIX (1891), 353-409,. E. DUVERNOY, Le Due 
de Lorraine, Mathieu I r , 1139-1176, Paris, 1904. In his Catalogue 
des actes des dues de Lorraine de 1048 a 1139 et de 1176 a 1220, 
Nancy, 1915, the author has supplemented and completed the work 
begun in the Appendix of the earlier work. 

Louis VIII. C. PETIT-DUTAILLIS, Etude sur la vie et le regne 
de Louis VIII (1187-1226), Paris, 1894, no. 101 of no. 888 above. 

Philip Augustus. A. CARTELLIERI, Philipp II Augustus, Konig 
von Frankreich, vols. I-III, Leipzig, 1899-1910, is the standard 
work on this monarch; his, Philipp II August und der Zusam/men- 
bruch des angevinischen Seiches, Leipzig, 1913, is a short sketch of 
sixteen pages. F. M. POWICKE, The loss of Normandy (1180-1204). 
W. WALKER, On the increase of royal power in France under Philip 
Augustus, Leipzig, 1888 (dissertation). L. DELISLE, Catalogue des 
actes de Philippe Auguste, avec une introduction sur les sources, les 
caracteres et I'vmportance historique de ces documents, Paris, 1856. 
L. L. BORRELLI DE SERRES, La reunion des provinces septentrionales 
a la couronne par Philippe Auguste: Amienois, Artois, Vermandois, 
Valois, Paris, 1899. E. DAVIDSOHN, Philipp II August von Frank- 
reich und Ingeltorg, Stuttgart, 1888 (dissertation). P. SCHEFFER- 
BOICHORST, DeutscMand und Philipp II August von Frankreich 
1180-1214, 1868 (Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte, 8). C. 
BEMONT, De la condemnation de Jean-Sans-Terre par la cour des 
pairs de France en 1202, Paris, 1886. 



MEDIEVAL FRANCE 245 

For the battle of Bouvines see E. ANDOUIN, Essai sur I'armee 
royale au temps de Philippe-Auguste, Paris, 1913; C. BALLHAUSEN, 
Die Sclilacht bei Bouvines 7 VII 1914, Jena, 1907; A. HORTZ- 
SCHANSKY, Die Schlacht an der Briicke von Bouvines, 1883 (disser- 
tation, Halle) ; and H. MALO, Un grand feudataire, Benaud de Dam- 
martin, et la coalition de Bouvines: contribution a I 'etude du regne 
de Philippe- Auguste, Paris, 1898. 

Saint Louis. C. V. LANGLOIS, /Saint Louis, Paris, 1886. A. 
LECOY DE LA MARCHE, France sous St. Louis et sous Philippe le 
Hardi, Paris, 1894. L. S. LE NAIN DE TILLEMONT, Vie de Saint 
Louis, 6 vols., Paris, 1847-1851. H. WALLON, Saint Louis et son 
temps, 2 vols., 4th edition, Paris, 1895. M. SEPET, Saint Louis, 7th 
edition, Paris, 1905 (Les saints), translated by G. TYRRELL, London, 
1899. WINIFRED F. KNOX, The court of a saint, London [1909]. 
E. BERGER, Les dernieres annees de Saint Louis, Paris, 1902. See 
also his Saint Louis et Innocent IV, Paris, 1893 ; and his Histoire 
de Blanche de CastUle, reine de France, Paris, 1895. J. S. DENIEL, 
Histoire de Blanche de Castille, Tours, 1908. M. GAVRILOVITCH, 
Etude sur le traite de Paris de 1259, entre Louis IX, roi de France, 
et Henri HI, roi d'Angleterre, Paris, 1899. E. BOUTARIC, Saint Louis 
et Alphonse de Poitiers, Paris, 1870. A. MOLINIER, "Etude sur 
I'administration de Louis IX et d 'Alphonse de Poitiers (1226-71)" 
in Histoire gencrale de Languedoc, VII, 462 S. C. E. NORTON, St. 
Louis and Joinville, Boston, 1864. 

Philip III. C. V. LANGLOIS, Le regne de PhUippe III le Hardi, 
Paris, 1887. L. LECLERE, Les rapports de la papaute et de la France 
sous Philippe III, 1X70-1X83, Paris, 1889. 

Philip the Fair. E. BOUTARIC, La France sous Philippe le Bel, 
Paris, 1861. F. KERN, Die Anfdnge der framosisohen Ausdehnungs- 
politik bis zum Jahr 1S08, Tubingen, 1910; and his Grundlagen der 
framosischen Ausdehnungspolitik, Leipzig, 1910. JOLLY, Philippe 
le Bel: ses dcssins, ses actes, son influence, Paris, 1889. E. RENAN, 
Politique religieuse du regne de Philippe le Bel, Paris, 1899. F. 
FUNK-BRENTANO, Les origines de la guerre de cent ans: Philippe 
le Bel en Flandre, Paris, 1897. P. FOURNIER, Le royaume d' Aries, 
Paris, 1892. B. HOLTZMANN, Wtihclm von Nogaret: Rat und Gross- 
siegclbewahrcr Philipps des Sohonen von Frankreioh, Freiburg, 1898 
(dissertation). 

Finances in the time of Philip the Fair. L. L. BORRELLI DE 
SERRES, Rcchcrchcs sur divers services publics du XIII' au XVII* 
siecles, 7 vols., Paris, 1895-1909. See also his Les variations mone- 
taires sous Philippe le Bel et les sources de leur histoire, Paris, 1902. 
A. VUTTRY, Etudes sur le regime financier de la France avant la 



246 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PAETII 

revolution de 1789, 2 vols., Paris, 1877-1883. L. LAZARD, Essai sur 
la condition des Juifs dans le domaine royal au XIII e siecle, Paris, 
1887. For the preceding centuries see M. PROU, Esquisse de la poli- 
tique monetaire des rois de France du X c au XII C siecle, Paris, 1901. 

Estates General. G. PICOT, Histoire des etats generaux, 6 vols., 
2nd edition, Paris, 1889. M. ARTONNE, Le mouvement de 1314, et les 
chartes provinciates de 1315, Paris, 1913. G. PICOT, documents rela- 
tifs aux etats generaux et assemblies reunis sous Philippe le Bel, 
Paris, 1901. H. HERVIEU, Eecherches sur les premiers etats generaux 
et les assemblies representatives pendant la premiere moitie du XIV e 
siecle, Paris, 1879. 

The Parlement of Paris. F. AUBERT, Histoire du Parlement de 
Paris de I'origine a Francois ler } 1250-1515, 2 vols., Paris, 1894. 

E. MAUGIS, Histoire du Parlement de Paris, de I'avenement des rois 
Valois a la mart d'Henri IV, vols. I and II, Paris, 1913-1914. C. V. 
LANGLOIS, "Les origines du Parlement de Paris," in Eevue his- 
torique, XLII (1890), 74-114. F. AUBERT, Le Parlement de Paris 
de Philippe le Bel a Charles VII, 1314-1422, Paris, 1890. E. PERROT, 
Les cos royaux: origine et developpement de la theorie aux XIII e et 
XIVe sieoles, Paris, 1910. 

Philip V. P. LEHUGEUR, Histoire de Philippe le Long, Paris, 
1896. 

Original sources. The large collections of sources for the his- 
tory of France are listed above, nos. 965-977. Much material of 
value is in the Bolls Series, no. 995 above. MOLINIER, no. 21 above, 
is the best guide for original sources on French history. 

Special mention may be made of the Oeuvres completes de Suger, 
edited by LECOY DE LA MARCHE, Paris, 1867 ; and the separate edition 
of his book on Louis the Fat, Gesta Ludovici regis cognomento 
Grossi, ou Vie de Louis le Gros, edited by A. MOLINIER, Paris, 1887. 
Ada imperil Angliae et Franciae ab. a. 1267 ad a. 1313, edited by 

F. KERN, Tiibingen, 1910. EtabHssements de Saint Louis, edited 
by P. VIOLLET, 4 vols., Paris, 1881-1886, part of no. 966 above. 
H. F. DELABORDE, "La texte primitif des Enseignements de Saint- 
Louis a son fils," in Bibliotheque de I'Ecole des chartes, LXXIII 
(1912), 73-100, 237-262. 

Bibliographies. See the general bibliographies for the history 
of France, nos. 21-27 above. There are excellent bibliographical 
notes for this period in the footnotes of LAVISSE, Histoire de France, 
vol. III. For the Angevin (Norman) Empire, see GROSS, no. 36 
above. 



ECONOMIC CONDITIONS 247 



XXVI. MEDIEVAL ECONOMIC CONDITIONS 

A. OUTLINE 

1. Importance of economic history. Until recently, economic 
history was unduly neglected; now it has gained such prominence 
that there is some danger of giving it too much emphasis. 

2. Prominent features of medieval economic life. Predominance 
of rural life. Importance of corporations. Comparatively stable 
conditions. The barter system. 

3. Rural life. The manor. The lord of the manor and his 
free and servile tenants. The duties which tenants owed their 
lord. Gradual emancipation of the servile population. Chief 
features of the agricultural system: the demesne land, open fields, 
the strip system, the three-field system. Crude methods of agri- 
culture. Difficulty of keeping animals during the winter. Hous- 
ing and labor conditions, and the amusements of the masses. 
Peasants' revolts; the Jacquerie in France, 1358, and the Peasants' 
Revolt in England in 1381. 

4. Urban life. Origin of medieval towns; their relations with 
feudal lords. Enfranchisement of towns. Town charters. Com- 
munes, boroughs. Differences of town life in different countries. 
The inhabitants of towns and their occupations. Aliens, especially 
Jews. Regulation of manufacture and trade. Merchant gilds and 
craft gilds. Social and religious gilds. Mystery plays. City 
walls, streets, churches, town halls, and markets. Remarkable 
growth and improvement of cities in the thirteenth century. The 
wealthy class in cities. Towns which have preserved their medi- 
eval character, such as Bruges and Niirnberg. 

5. Sufferings from cold, famine, and pestilences. The Black 
Death of 1348-1349. 

6. Money and banking in the middle ages. Disadvantages of 
the barter system. Relatively poor system of coinage. Wide- 
spread privileges of coinage and prevalence of debasement of coin. 
Italian standard coins, banks, and bills of exchange. Money- 
lending Jews and Lombards. Medieval ideas about interest. 

7. Commerce. Hindrances to commerce in the middle ages. 
Just price. Forestalling. Sudden increase of business in the 
twelfth century. The chief Asiatic and European routes. The 
importance of the Mediterranean and the Baltic and North Seas. 
Luxuries from the east and raw materials from the north. Mar- 
kets and fairs. Commercial associations and leagues, especially 
the Hanseatic League. Importance of the Italian cities. Inter- 



248 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

municipal trade. Captains of industry and trade. Jews. In- 
fluence of the rise of the Ottoman Turks on commerce. 

8. The extension of geographical knowledge, due to commerce 
and other causes, such as missionary endeavor. Marco Polo. The 
compass. Medieval geographical knowledge and cartography (the 
portolani). 

B. SPECIAL KECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

Brief general accounts. EMERTON, Mediaeval Europe, ch. xv. 
ADAMS, Civilization, ch. xn. LUCHAIRE, Social France, translated 
by KREHBIEL, ch. xni. See the pictures in nos. 187, 188, and 207 
above. For particular terms, PALGRAVE'S Dictionary, no. 115 above, 
is helpful. 

Longer general accounts. LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire gen- 
erate, II, chs. i, viii, and ix. These three chapters can also be read 
in English. The first, written by C. SEIGNOBOS, was translated by 

E. W. Dow, The feudal regime, New York, Holt, 1906. Chapters 
viii and ix, written by A. GIRY and A. REVILLE, were translated by 

F. G. BATES and P. E. TITSWORTH, under the titles, Emancipation 
of mediaeval towns; and, Medieval commerce and industry, both 
published by Holt in 1908. 

W. CUNNINGHAM, Western civilization in its economic aspects: 
medieval and modern, Cambridge, 1900, book IV. H. F. HELMOLT, 
History of the world, VII, 1-62. LAVISSE, Histoire de France, 
II, part II, 332-357, III, part I, 390-414. LUCHAIRE, Manuel des 
institutions franqaises, part III, "Les institutions populaires. " E. 
MICHAEL, Culturzustdnde des deutschen Volkes wdhrend des drei- 
zehnten Jahrhunderts, I, 1-85, 129-204. 

Medieval commerce. E. P. CHEYNEY, European background to 
American history, New York, 1904 (The American nation series), 
chs. i-m. C. DAY, A history of commerce, New York, 1907, part II. 
A still more elementary account than DAY is H. DE B. GIBBINS, The 
history of commerce in Europe, London, 1891, 2nd edition, 1896, 
27-92. 

The following are interesting special studies. L. HUTCHINSON, 
"Oriental trade and the rise of the Lombard communes," Quarterly 
Journal of economics, XVI (1901-1902), 413-432. H. C. LEA, 
"Ecclesiastical treatment of usury," in Tale review, II (1893- 
1894), 356-385. ALICE LAW, "The English nouveaux-riches in the 
fourteenth century," in Eoyal historical society, Transactions, new 
series, IX (1895), 49-73; and her "Notes on English medieval 
shipping," in Economic review, VIII (1898), 349-385. On medieval 
ships and shipping see also LA RONCIERE, Histoire de la marine 



XXVI ECONOMIC CONDITIONS 249 

francaise, I, 244-298; and ENLAKT, Manuel d'archeologie, II, 568- 
620. 

Hanseatic League. Short accounts are LODGE, Close of the 
middle ages, ch. xvni; HENDERSON, Short history of Germany, 181- 
202; HELMOLT, History of the world, VII, 10-62; and the article 
by E. F. GAY in the Encyclopaedia Britannica. The following are 
two short books on the subject: HELEN ZIMMER, The Hansa towns, 
New York, 1889; and D. SCHAFER, Die deutsche Hanse, Leipzig, 
1903, 2nd edition, revised, 1915, part 19 of no. 326 above. 

The Black Death. F. A. GASQUET, The Black Death of 1348 and 
1S49, London, 1908, is a 2nd edition of his Great Pestilence of 
1348-49, London, 1893. J. F. PALMER, "Pestilences: their influence 
in the destiny of nations, as shown in the history of the plague," 
Royal historical society, new series, I (1884), 242-259. 

Geographical discovery. C. R. BEAZLEY, "Marco Polo and the 
European expansion of the middle ages," in Atlantic monthly, CIV 
(1909), 493-501, will serve as an introduction to his The dawn of 
modern geography, II, ch. vi, III, chs. iv-v. S. HUGE, Gesoliiohte des 
Zeitalters der Entdeckungen, 35-81. J. B. BROWN, "The last great 
dreamer of the crusades," in Nineteenth century, X (1881), 701-722. 

Original sources. Short selections may be found in ROBINSON, 
Readings, I, eh. xviii; THATCHER and McNEAL, Source book, 545- 
612; OGG, Source book, ch. xx; and Translations and reprints, III, 
no. 2, "Statistical documents of the middle ages," and III, no. 5, 
' ' English manorial documents. ' ' 

On geographic discovery the most important source is The book 
of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian, concerning the kingdoms and mar- 
vels of the east, translated and edited by Sir H. YULE, 2 vols., Lon- 
don, 1871, 3rd edition, revised by H. CORDIER, London, 1903. There 
is a translation of MARCO POLO'S book in Everyman's library. A 
rivi-nt Crrman edition of the work is Die Reisen des Venezianers 
MAUCO POLO im IS Jahrhundcrt, bearbeitet von H. LEMCKE, Gross- 
borstel, 1907. Next in importance is a book which has been men- 
tioned before, Cathay and tlu- way thither, also edited by H. YULE. 
Book of the knowledge of all the kingdoms, lands, and lordships that 
arc in the world, and the arms and devices of each land and lord- 
.ilii/i, nlitod by Sir C. M \ICKII A.M. London, 1912 (Hakluyt society, 
2nd series, XXIX) is an account by a fourteenth century Spanish 
Franciscan. CHAN Ju-KuA, his work on th^ Chinese and Arab trade 
in the Jtth and ISth centuries, entitled Chufanchi, translated from 
ihr Chinese and annotated by F. HIRTH and W. W. ROCKHILL, Leip- 
zig, 1912. 



250 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

For a contemporary account of the Black Death read BOCCACCIO'S 
introduction to his Decameron, the essentials of which are printed in 
Source book of the renaissance, edited by M. WHITCOMB, revised 
edition, 21-24. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 76, 98-99, 102-103, 104, 107-110. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General Books. The general histories of civilization, nos. 729- 
738, 751, and 762-781, are especially valuable. Almost all the 
books on the Jews, nos. 850-884 above, lay stress on their place 
in economic history, but see especially nos. 857-861. In addition, 
read H. C. LEA, Inquisition in Spain, I, 81-144. 

General economic history. M. KOVALEWSKY, Die okonomische 
Entwicklung Europas bis sum Beginn der kapitalistischen Wirtschafts- 
form, translated into German from the Eussian by L. MOTZKIN and 
others, vols. I-VII, Berlin, 1901-14. G. D'AVENEL, Histoire eco- 
nomique de la propriete, des salaires, des denrees, et de tous lea 
prix en general, depuis I 'an '1200 jusqu'en I 'an 1800, 6 vols., Paris, 
1894-1912, abridged and altered under the titles, Paysans et ouvriers 
depuis sept cents ans, Paris, 1899; Les riches depuis sept cents 
ans : revenus et benefices, appointments et honoraires, Paris, 1909 ; 
and La fortune privee a travers sept siecles, 3rd edition, Paris, 1895. 
J. STRIEDER, Studien zur Gesohichte kapitalistischer Organisations- 
formen: Monopole, Kartette und Aktiengesellschaften im Mittelalter 
und zu Beginn der Neuzcit, Munich, 1914. H. BIKEL, Die Wirt- 
schaftsverhdltnisse des Klosters St. Gallen von der Grilndung bis zum 
Ende des dreizehnten Jahrhunderts, Freiburg-i-B., 1914. W. T. ASH- 
LEY, Surveys, historic and economic, London and New York, 1900, 
deals with the middle ages in the first chapters. 

Economic history of France. E. LEVASSEUR, Histoire des classes 
ouvneres et de I'industrie en France avant 1789, 2 vols., Paris, 1859, 
2nd edition, 1900. AGNES M. WERGELAND, History of the working 
classes in France : a review of Levasseur 's ' ' Histoire des classes 
ouvrieres et de I'industrie en France avant 1789," Chicago, 1916. 

Economic history of Germany. K. T. v. INAMA-STERNEGG, 
Deutsclie Wirthschaftsgcsohichte, 3 vols. in 4, Leipzig, 1879-1901, 
vol. 1 in 2nd edition, 1909. K. LAMPRECHT, Deutsch.es Wirtschafts- 
leben im Mittelalter, 3 vols. in 4, Leipzig, 1885-1886. R. KOTZSCHKE, 
Deutsche Wirtschaftsgeschichte bis zum 17 Jahrhundert, Leipzig, 
1908, part 2, 1, of no. 331 above. 

Economic History of England. W. J. ASHLEY, An introduction 
to English economic history and theory, 2 vols., London, 1888-1893, 
3rd edition of vol. I, 1894. J. E. T. ROGERS, A history of agriculture 



ECONOMIC CONDITIONS 251 

and prices in England, 1259-1793, 7 vols., Oxford, 1866-1902; his 
Six centuries of work and wages: the history of English labour, 2 
vols., London, 1884, llth edition in 1 vol., 1912, is based on the 
above. See also his The economic interpretation of history, London, 
1888, 7th edition, 1909. F. SEEBOHM, The English village com- 
munity: an essay on economic history, London, 1883, 4th edition, 
1890. E. LIPSON, The economic history of England, I, The middle 
ages, New York, 1915. E. P. CHEYNEY, An introduction to the 
industrial and social history of England, New York, 1901. L. F. 
SALZMANN, English industries of the middle ages, London, 1913. 
See also no. 735 above. 

Agricultural conditions and life of the peasants. L. DELISLE, 
Etudes sur la condition de la classe agricole et sur I 'etat de I 'agri- 
culture en Normandie pendant Ic moyen age, Paris, 1851. H. SEE, 
Les classes rurales et le regime domanial en France au moyen age, 
Paris, 1901. J. M. RICHARD, "Thierri d'Hirec.on, agriculteur arte- 
sian," in Bibhotheque de I'Ecole des chartes, LIII (1892), 383-416, 
571-604. A. THIERRY, Histoire du tiers etat, Paris, 1850, translated 
by F. B. WELLS, The formation and progress of the tiers etat, or 
third estate in France, London, 1859. M. FOURNIER, "Les affran- 
chissements du V* au XIII* siecle, ' ' in Revue historique, XXI 
(1883), 1-58. J. BRAND, Observations on popular antiquities, chiefly 
illiifitrating the origin of our vulgar customs, etc., revised by H. 
ELLIS, 2 vols., London, 1813, reprinted in 184142 and again in 
1849, in 3 vols., with additions, new editions by W. C. HAZLITT, 
3 vols., London, 1870; 2 vols., 1905. 

Popular insurrections. G. DBS MAREZ, Les luttes sociales en 
Flandre au moyen age, Brussells, 1900. L. MlROT, Les insurrections 
urbaines au debut du regne de Charles VI (1S80-8S), Paris, 1905. 
G. v. D. ROPP, Sozialpolitische Bewegungen im Bauernstande vor dem 
Bauernkricge, Marburg, 1899. 

Medieval towns. See the following three series: Mediaeval towns, 
London, Dent, 1898 ff; Historic towns, edited by E. A. FREEMAN and 
W. HUNT, 9 vols., London, 1887-1893 ; and Ancient cities, edited by 
B. G. A. WINDLE, 8 vols., London, 1903-1908. For London see also 
tho profusely illustrated books by Sir W. BESANT, Early London, 
prehistoric, Roman, Saxon, and Norman, London, 1908; and Medi- 
aeval London, 2 vols., vol. I, Historical and social, vol. II, Ecclesi- 
astical, London, 1906. J. M. VINCENT, Municipal problems in 
iiifdiinral Switzerland, Baltimore, 1905 (Johns Hopkins Univcrsiiy 
studies, series XXIII, nos. 11-12). H. PIRENNE, "L'origine des 
constitutions urbaines au moyen age," in Revue historique, LIII 
(1893), 52-83, LVII (1895), 57-98, 293-327. 



252 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PAETII 

French cities. A. LUCHAIRE, Les communes francaises d I'epoque 
des CapStiens directs, Paris, 1890, new edition by L. HALPHEN, 1911. 
G. ESPINAS, La vie urbaine de Douai au moyen-age, 4 vols., Paris, 
1913 (vols. III-IV contain "pieces justificatives"). GENEVIEVE 
ACLOQUE, Les corporations, I'industrie, et le commerce d Chartres 
du Xle siecle d la Bevolution, Paris, 1917. G. BOURGIN, La commune 
de Soissons, et le groupe communal soissonnais, Paris, 1908, part 167 
of no. 888 above. A. GIRY, Les etablissements de Rouen, 2 vols., 
Paris, 1883-1885, parts 55 and 59 of no. 888 above. F. B. MARSH, 
English rule in Gascony, 1199-1259, with special reference to the 
towns, Ann Arbor, 1912 (University of Michigan studies). MARY 
BATESON, "The laws of Breteuil, " in English historical review, XV 
(1900), 73-78, 302-18, 496-523, 754-7; XVI (1901), 92-110, 332^5. 

For a detailed bibliography on medieval Paris see outline XIII 
in part III below. 

German cities. K. HEGEL, Stddte und Gttden der germanischen 
Volker im Mittclalter, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1891 ; and his, Die Ent- 
stehung des deutschen Stddtewesens, Leipzig, 1898. G. VON BELOW, 
Dos dlteste deutsche Stddtewesen und Burgertum, Bielefeld and Leip- 
zig, 1898, part of no. 326 above; and his Der "Ursprung der deutsohen 
Stadtverfassung, Diisseldorf, 1892. E. SOHIT, Die Entstehung des 
deutschen Stddtewesens, Leipzig, 1890. G. L. v. MAURER, Gesohichte 
der Stddteverfassung in Deutschland, 4 vols., Erlangen, 1869-1871. 
F. W. BARTHOLD, Geschichte der deutschen Stddte und des deutschen 
Biirgertums, 4 vols., Leipzig, 1850-1854. B. HEIL, Die deutschen 
Stddte und Burger im Mittelalter, Leipzig, 1903 (Aus Natur und 
Geisteswelt, 43). 

The following are some interesting special studies on individual 
cities: W. KING, Chronicles of three free cities, Hamburg, Bremen, 
Liibeck, London, 1914. W. KEISNER, Die EinwohnersalU deutscher 
Stddte in friiheren Jahrhunderten, mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung 
Liibecks, Jena, 1903. H. KEUSSEN, Topographic der Stadt Koln vm 
Mittelalter, nebst Karten und Beigaben, 2 vols., Bonn, 1910. W. 
BEHAGHEL, Die gewerbliche Stellung der Frau im mittelalterlichen 
Koln, Berlin and Leipzig, 1910. K. BUCHER, Die Berufe der Stadt 
Frankfurt am Main im Mittelalter, Leipzig, 1914. I. KRACATJER, 
Geschichte der Frankfurter Juden im Mittelalter, aus der inneren] 
Geschichte der Juden Frankfurts im 14 Jahrhundert (Judengasse, 
Handel und sonstige Berufe), Frankfurt, 1913. See also his important 
source book, Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte der Juden in Frankfurt- 
am-Main von 1150-1400, vol. I, Frankfurt, 1914. G. SCHMOLLER, 
Strasburgs Blilte, Strasburg, 1875, eulogizes the remarkable growth 
of this city in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. P. SANDER, Die 



XXVI ECONOMIC CONDITIONS 253 

Reichsstddtische Haushaltung Niirnbergs, auf Grund ihres Zustandes 
von 1431-1440 dargestellt, Leipzig, 1902. 

See also the literature on the ' ' Eastward expansion of Ger- 
many, ' ' under outline XXII above. 

Italian cities. F. SCHEVILL, Siena: the story of a mediaeval 
commune, New York, 1909. For other literature on Italian cities 
see outline XXII above and outline XXXII below. 

Gilds. C. GROSS, The gild merchant: a contribution to British 
municipal history, 2 vols., Oxford, 1890. E. R. A. SELIGMAN, Two 
chapters on the mediaeval guilds of England, Baltimore, 1887 (Amer- 
ican economic association monographs, vol. II, no. 5). A. H. JOHN- 
SON, The history of the worshipful company of drapers of London: 
preceded by an introduction on London and her gilds up to the close 
of the XVth century, 2 vols., Oxford, 1914. G. UNWIN, The gilds and 
companies of London, London, 1908. A. F. JACK, An introduction 
to tlie history of life insurance, London and New York, 1912, "The 
gild-system," 15-149. R. EBERSTADT, Der Ursprung des Zunftwesens 
und die dlteren Handwerkerverbande des Mittelalters, Leipzig, 1900; 
see also his Das franzosische Gewerberecht in Frankreich vom XIII ten 
Jahrhundert bis 1581, Leipzig, 1899 (in Staats- und Sozialwissen- 
schaftliche Forschungen, XVII, 2). A. DOREN, Untersuchungen zur 
Geschichte der KaufmannsgUden im Mittelalter, Leipzig, 1893 
(Forschungen, edited by Schmoller, 12). M. SAINT-LEON, Histoire 
des corporations des metiers, Paris, 1897, 2nd edition, 1909. 

Mystery plays. E. K. CHAMBERS, The mediaeval stage, 2 vols., 
Oxford, 1903. S. TUNISON, Dramatic traditions of the dark ages, 
Chicago, 1907. D. C. STUART, Stage decoration in France in tJie 
middle ages, Columbia University Press, 1910. G. COHEN, Histoire 
de la mise en scene dans le tlieatre religieux fran^ais du moyen 
age, Paris, 1906, translated into German in an enlarged and improved 
edition by C. BAUER, Geschichte der Inszenierung im geistlichen 
Sohauspiele des Mittelalters in Frankreich, Leipzig, 1907; see also 
his ' ' Le theatre a Paris et aux environs a la fin du XIV* siecle, ' ' 
in Romania, XXXVIII (1909), 587-595. M. HERMANN, Forschungen 
zur deutsohen Theatergeschichte des Mittelalters und der Renaissance, 
Berlin, 1914. K. YOUNG, "Observations on the medieval passion 
play," in Publications of the modern language association, Baltimore, 
XXV (1910), 309-354. F. J. MONE, Schauspiele des Mittelalters, 
Carlsruhe, 1846. 

Epidemics and famines. J. F. K. HECKER, Der schwarze Tod im 
viereehntcn Jahrhundert, Berlin, 1832, new edition by A. HIRSCH, 
with the title, Die grossen Volkskranklteiten des Mittelalters, 1865, 
translated by B. C. BABINGTON, The epidemics of the middle ages, 



254 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

London, 1844, 3rd edition, 1859. See also his, The Black Death and 
the dancing mania, translated by B. G. BABINGTON, New York [1888] 
(Cassell's national library). R. CRAWFURD, Plague and pestilence in 
literature and art, Oxford University Press, 1914, has interesting 
illustrations. G. STICKER, Abhandlungen aus der SeuchengesohioJitc 
und Seuchenlehre, vol. I, Die Pest, erster Theil: Die GeschicMe der 
Pest, Giesen, 1908; zweiter Theil: Die Pest als Seuohe und als Plage, 
1910. C. CREIGHTON, A history of epidemics in Britain [A.D. 664- 
1866], 2 vols., Cambridge, 1891-94. E. BASCOME, A history of epi- 
demic pestilences from the earliest ages, 1495 years before the birth 
of Our Savior to 1848, London, 1851. K. LECHNER, Das grosse 
Sterben in DeutscMand in der Jahren 1348 bis 1351 und die folgenden 
Pestepidemien bis zum Schlusse des 14 Jahrhunderts, Innsbruck, 
1884; see also his "Die grosse Geisselfahrt des Jahres 1349," in 
Historischcs Jahrbuch, V (1884), 437-462. E. HOENIGER, Der 
schwarzc Tod in Deutschland, Berlin, 1882. W. SEELMANN, Die 
Totentanze des Mittelalters, Norden, 1893 (extract from Jahrbuch 
des Vereins fur niederdeutsche Sprachforschung) . F. CURSCHMANN, 
Hungersnote des Mittelalters (8-13 Jahrhundert), Leipzig, 1900 
(Leipziger Studien, 6, 1). 

Money and banking. W. W. CARLILE, Evolution of modern 
money, London, 1901. W. A. SHAW, The history of currency, 1252 
to 1894, New York, 1896. J. SCHOENHOF, History of money and 
prices: an inquiry into their relations from the 13th century to the 
present time, 2nd edition, New York, 1897. A. DEL MAR, History 
of -monetary systems, London, 1895 ; see also his, Money and civil- 
ization, London, 1886. J. LUBBOCK (Lord Avebury), Short history 
of coins and currency, New York, 1902. A. DIEUDONNE, "Histoire 
monetaire du denier parisis jusqu'a Saint Louis," in Memoires de la 
Societe nationale des antiquaires de France, 1911, pp. 111-147; see 
also his, ' ' La monnaie royale depuis la ref ornie de Charles V, " in 
Bibliotheque de I'ecole des cJiartes, LXXII (1911), 473-499, LXXIII 
(1912), 263-282. F. SCHATJB, Der Kampf gegen den Zinswucher, 
ungerechten -Preis und unlauteren Handel i/m Mittelalter, Freiburg, 
1905. R. J. WHITWELL, "Italian bankers and the English crown," 
in Eoyal historical society, Transactions, new series, XVII (1903), 
173-233. O. MELTZING, Das Bankhaus der Medici und seine Vor- 
Idufer, Jena, 1907. S. L. PERUZZI, Storia del commercio e dei 
banchieri di Firenze, 1200-1345, Florence, 1868. A. v. KOSTANECKI, 
Das offentliche Kreditwesen im Mittelalter, Leipzig, 1889 (Schmollers 
Staats- und Sozialwissenschaftliche Forschungen, 9, i). See also 
nos. 292-298 above. 



XXVI ECONOMIC CONDITIONS 255 

General history of commerce. O. NOEL, Histoire du commerce 
du mondf depuis les temps les plus reculcs, 3 vols., Paris, 1891-1906. 
G. LUZZATTO, Storia del commercio, vol. I, Dall' antichitd al rinasci- 
meiito, Florence, 1914. A. SEGRE, Manuale di storia del commercio, 
vol. I, Dalle origini alia rivoluzione francese, Turin, 1913. A. 
SCHAUBE, Handelsgeschichte der romanischen Volker des Mittelmerr- 
gebifts bis zum Ende der Kreuzziige, Munich, 1906. M. WEBER, Zur 
(ii.^fhicJite der Handelsgesellschaften im Mittelalter nach siidev.ro- 
paischen Quellen, Stuttgart, 1889. H. PIRENNE, "Villes marches et. 
marchauds au moyen age," in Revue historique, LXVII (1898), 59- 
70. K. JIRECEK, "Die Bedeutung von Ragusa in die Handels- 
geschichte des Mittelalters, ' ' in Sitzungsberiohte der kgl. Akademie 
der Wissenschaften zu Wicn, 1899. F. LUDWIG, Untcrsuchungen iiber 
die Beise- und Marschgesclvwindigkeit im XII und XIII Jahrhundert, 
Berlin, 1897 (dissertation). B. HAGENDORN, Die Entwicklung der 
wichtigsten Schiffstypen bis ins 19 Jahrhundert, Berlin, 1914. 

Levant trade. W. HEYD, Geschichte des Levantehandels im 
Mittelalter, 2 vols., Stuttgart, 1879, translated into French, with 
additions by the author, by F. RAYNAUD, Histoire du commerce du 
Levant au mcyen age, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1885-1886. See the review 
of HEYD'S important book by F. HIRSCH, "Die Eroffnung des inneren 
Asiens fiir den europaischen Handelsverkehr im 13 und 14 Jahr- 
hundert," in Historische Zeitschrift, XLIV (1880), 385-408; and 
A. H. LYBYER, ' ' The Ottoman Turks and the routes of oriental 
trade," in English historical review, XXX (1915), 577-588, who 
argues that the success of the Turks was not the cause of the 
discovery of new trade-routes in the fifteenth century. 

Commerce in France. E. LEVASSEUR, Histoire du commerce de 
la France, 2 vols., Paris, 1911-1912. H. PIGEONNEAU, Histoire du 
<-<n m> /<> de la France, 2 vols., Paris, 1887-1889. Memoires et docu- 
ments pour serrir d I'histoire du commerce et de I'industrie en France, 
edited by J. HAYEM, vols. I-IV, Paris, 1911-1916. C. PITON, Les 
Lt.inhards < France et a Paris, 2 vols., Paris, 1891-92. H. D. 
IMBART DE LA TOUR, La liberte commerciale en France aux XII e et 
.V/// p siedes, Paris, 1890. C. D. DE FREVILLE DE LORME, Memoire 
sur le commerce maritime de Rouen, Rouen, 1857. P. M \\TKI.I.IKK, 
Histoire de la communtautf des marchands frequcntant la riri<n 
de Loire, vols. I-III, Orleans, 1867-1869. C. ALENGRY, Lcs foires de 
Champagne, Paris. 1915. F. BOURQUELOT, Etudes sur les foires de 
t'li<n>i /mi/ill it de Brif, sur la nature, I'etenduc et les regies du com- 
w > rre qui s'y fnimiit mis XII' XIV<> siccles, 2 vols., Paris, 1865- 
l^titi (Memoires, Acad6mie <les Inscriptions). J. W. THOMPSON, 
"The conniicrce of France in the ninth century," in Journal of politi- 



256 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PABTH 

cal economy, XXIII (1915), 857-887. A. P. USHER, The history 
of the grain trade in France, 1400-1710, Cambridge, 1913. 

Commerce in the Netherlands. R. HAPKE, Brilgges Entwickelung 
zum mittelalterlichen Weltmarkt, Berlin, 1908. See also his, Der 
deutsche Kaufmann in den Niederianden, Leipzig, 1911. W. STEIN, 
Die Genossenschaft der deutschen Kaufleute zu Brugge in Flandern, 
Berlin, 1890. M. ROOSEBOOM, The Scottish staple in the Netherlands, 
The Hague, 1910. J. FINOT, Etude historique sur les relations com- 
merciales entre la Flandre et la republique de Genes au moyen age, 
Paris, 1906; see also his, Etude historique sur les relations com- 
merciales entre la Flandre et la France au moyen age, Paris, 1894; 
and his, Etude historique sur les relations commerciales entre la 
Flandre et I'Espagne au moyen age, Paris, 1899. T. WILKINS, "Zur 
Gesehiehte des niederlandischen Handels im Mittelalter, " in Han- 
sische Geschichtsbldtter, 1908, 1909. 

Commerce in Italy. G. YVER, Le commerce et les marchands dans 
I 'Italie meridicnale au 13 e et au 14^ siecle, Paris, 1903, part II of 
no. 887 above. See the Introduction, by E. BROWN, to the Calen- 
dar of State Papers, Venetian, I (1864), for a sketch of Venetian 
commerce. W. STIEDA, Hansisch-Venezianische Handelsbeziehungen 
im 15 Jahrhundert, Halle, 1894. A. SCHAUBE, ''Die Anfange der 
venezianischen Galeerenfahrten nach der Nordsee (seit 1314)," in 
HistoriscJie Zeitschrift, CI (1908), 28-89. P. H. SCHEFFEL, Verkehrs- 
gescJiichte der Alpen, vol. II, Berlin, 1914. O. MELTZING, Das Bank- 
haus der Medici und seine Vorlaufer, Jena, 1907. E. FRIEDMANN, 
Der mittelalterlidie Welthandel von Florenz in seiner geographisohen 
Ausdehnung, Vienna, 1912. G. TONIOLO, Dei remoti fattori della 
potenza economica di Firenze nel mcdio evo, Milan, 1882. E. DIXON, 
' ' The Florentine wool trades in the middle ages, ' ' in Royal historical 
society, Transactions, new series, XII (1898), 151-79. A. DOREN, 
Studien aus der Florentiner Wirthscliaftsgesehichte, vols. I-II, Stutt- 
gart and Berlin, 1901-1908. 

Commerce in Germany. W. VOGEL, Gesehiehte der deutschen 
Seeschiffahrt, I, Vcn der Urzeit bis zum Ende des XV Jahrhunderts, 
Berlin, 1915. E. HENNIG, "Zur Verkehrgeschichte Ost- und Nord- 
europas im 8 bis 12 Jahrhundert, " in Historische Zeitschrift, CXV 
(1915), 1-30. H. BACHTOLD, Der norddeutscJie Handel im 12 und 
beginnenden 13 Jahrhundert, Berlin and Leipzig, 1910 (Abhandlungen 
zur mittleren und neueren Gesehiehte 21). A. SCHTJLTE, Gesehiehte 
des mittelalterlichen Handels und Verkehrs zwischen Westdeutschland 
und Italien mit Ausschluss von Venedig, 2 vola., Leipzig, 1900. H. 
SIMONSFELD, Der Fondaeo dei Tcdeschi in Venedig und die deutsch- 
venetianischen Handelsbeziehungcn, 2 vols., Stuttgart, 1887. E. 



XXVI ECONOMIC CONDITIONS 257 

NUBLING, Vim's Handel im Mittelalter, Ulm, 1900. F. RAUEES, Zur 
Geschichte der alien Handdsstrassen in DeutsoMand, Gotha, 1906. 
G. STEINHAUSEN, Der Kaufmann in der deutschen Vergangenheit, 
Leipzig, 1899 ( Monographien zur deutschen Kulturgeschichte, 2). 
T. HAMPE, Die fahrenden Leute in der deutschen Vergangenlieit, 
Leipzig, 1902. H. ECKEBT, Die Kramer in siiddeutschcn Stddten 
bis zum Ausgang des Mittelalters, Berlin, 1910 (Abhandlungen zur 
mittleren und neueren Geschiehte, 4). M. SCHELLER, Zoll und Markt 
im IS und 13 Jahrhundert, Blankenheim, 1903 (dissertation). J. 
FALKE, Die Geschichte des deutschen Handels, Leipzig, 1859. 

Hanseatic League. E. DAENELL, Die Blutezeit der deutschen 
Hanse: hansische Geschichte von der zweiten Halfte des 14 bis zum 
letzten Viertel des 15 Jahrhunderts, 2 vols., Berlin, 1905-06; see 
also his, Geschichte der deutschen Hanse in der zweiten Halfte 
des 14 Jahrhunderts, Leipzig, 1896. T. LINDNER, Die deutsche 
Hanse: ihre Geschichte und Bcdeutung, Leipzig, 1898, 4th edition, 
1911. W. STEIN, Beitrdge zur Geschichte der deutschen Hanse 
bis um die Mitte des 15 Jahrhunderts, Giessen, 1900. A. KIESSEL- 
BACH, Die mrtschaftlichen Grundlagen der deutschen Hanse und 
die Handelstellung Hamburgs bis in die Halfte des 14 Jahr- 
hunderts, Berlin, 1907. A. HOLM, Lubeck, die freie und Hanse- 
stadt, Bielefeld und Leipzig, 1900. F. SCHULZ, Die Hanse und 
England von Edwards III bis auf Heinrichs VIII Zeit, Berlin, 
1911 (Abhandlungen zur Verkehrs- und Seegeschichte, vol. V). 
F. KEUTGEN, Die Bezichungen der Hanse zu England im letzten 
Drittel des 14 JaJirhunderts, Giessen, 1890. K. BAHR, Handel und 
Vcrkehr der deutschen Hanse in Flandern wdhrend des 14 Jahr- 
hunderts, Leipzig, 1911. W. BUCK, Der deutsohe Kaufmann in Nov- t 
gorod bis zur Mitte des 14 Jahrhunderts, Berlin, 1891. A. WINKLER, 
Die deutsche Hanse in Bussland, Berlin, 1886. A. AOATS, Der 
Hansische Baienhandel, Heidelberg, 1904, describes the activities 
of the League in Spain and Portugal. H. HARTMEYER, Der Wein- 
handcl im Gebiete der Hanse im Mittelalter, Jena, 1905. 

Geographical discoveries in the middle ages. J. LELEWEL, 
Geographic du mcyen Age, 4 vols., Brussels, 1850-1852, with an Epi- 
logue, 1857. J. BENSAUDE, L'astronomie nautique en Portugal a 
I'epoque des grandes decouvertes, Bern, 1912, in an appendix gives 
a chronological list of geographical discoveries from 1290 to 1529. A. 
BL.AZQUEZ, Estudio acerca de la cartografia espaiiola en la edad media, 
Madrid, 1906. C. J. BVNDGENS, Was verdankt die Lander- und 
Volkerkunde den mittelalterlichen Monchen und Missiondren, Frank- 
furt, 1889. T. FISCHER, fiber italienische Seekarten und Karto- 
graphen des Mittelalters, Berlin, 1882. O. PESCUEL, Geschichte des 



258 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Zcitlatcrs dcr Entdeckungcn, Stuttgart, 1858. C. ERKERA, L'epoca 
delle grandi scoperte geografiche, 1910. S. GUNTHER, Gesehichte der 
Erdkunde, Leipzig, 1904 (vol. I of Die Erdkunde, edited by M. 
KLAR), see chs. m-iv. F. VICOMTE DE SANTAREM, Essai sur I'his- 
toire de la cosmographie pendant le moyen age, -3 vols., 1849-1852. 
L. SALEMBIER, ' ' Pierre d 'Ailly and the discovery of America, ' ' in 
Historical records and studies of the United States catholic historical 
society, VII (1914). S. P. THOMPSON, "The rose of the winds: 
the origin and development of the compass-card," in Proceedings of 
the British academy, vol. VI (also printed separately by Oxford Uni- 
versity Press, 1916). MARGARET B. SYNGE, A book of discovery: the 
history of the world's exploration from the earliest times to the 
finding of the south pole, London, 1912. S. HUGE, "Die Literatur zur 
Gesehichte der Erdkunde vom Mittelalter an 1900-03, ' ' in Geograph- 
isches Jahrbuoh, XXVI (1903). 

Medieval industries. B. BENNETT and J. ELTON, History of corn- 
milling, 4 vols., London, 1898-1904. L. BECK, Die Gesehichte des 
Eisens, 5 vols., Brunswick, 1884-1903, 2nd edition of vol. I [to 1500], 
1891. 

Original sources. Documents relatifs d I 'histoire de I 'industrie 
et du commerce en France, edited by G. FAGNIEZ, 2 vols., Paris, 1898- 
1900, parts 22 and 31 of no. 968 above. Reglemens sur les arts et 
metiers de Paris, rediges au 13 siecle et connus sous le nom du livre 
des metiers <?'ETIENNE BOILEAU, edited by G. B. DEPPING, Paris, 1837, 
part 31 of no. 965 above (see also part 34), also edited by E. DE 
LESPINASSE and F. BONNARDOT, Paris, 1879, in Histoire generate de 
Paris (Portions of this interesting document are translated in 
Studies in European history, edited by F. M. FLING, II, no. 8). A. 
GIRY, Choix de documents sur les relations de la royaute avec les 
vtiles en France, 1180-1314, Paris, 1895. Cartulaire de I'ancienne 
estaple de Bruges [862-1492}, edited by L. GILLIODTS VAN SEVEREN, 
for the Societe d' emulation de Bruges, Recueil de chroniques, etc., 
4 vols., Bruges, 1904-06. WALTER OF HENLEY'S Husbandry, together 
with an anonymous Husbandry, Scneschaude, and EGBERT GROSS- 
ETESTE'S Rules [with a translation], edited by ELIZABETH LAMOND, 
with an introduction by W. CUNNINGHAM, London, 1890 (Eoyal 
historical society). Recueil des monuments inedits de I'histoire du 
tiers etat, edited by A. THIERRY, 4 vols., Paris, 1850-1870, part 24 
of no. 965 above. For a large collection of medieval chronicles of 
German cities see no. 982 above. 

The chief sources for the Hanseatic League are the following. Die 
Recesse und andere Akten der Hansetage von 1256-1430, 8 vols., Leip- 
zig, 1870-1897; Hanserecesse, 1431-1524, 15 vols., Leipzig, 1876-1910. 



XXVI ECONOMIC CONDITIONS 259 

Hansisches Urkundenbuch, vols. I-X [to 1485], Halle, 1876-1907. 
Hansische Geschichtsquellen, 7 vols., Halle, 1875-94, neue Folge, Ber- 
lin, 1899 ff. Hansisclie Geschiohtsbldttcr, 16 vols., Leipzig, 1871- 
1900. 

The following materials will serve as an introduction to the his- 
tory of geographical discovery in the middle ages. Recueil de 
voyages et memmres public par la Sotiete de geographic, Paris, 1824- 
1866. Eecueil de voyages et de documents pour servir a la geographic, 
Paris, 1890 ff. G. FERRAND, Relations de voyages et textes geograph- 
iques arabes, persons et turc relatifs a I'extreme orient, du VII au 
XVIII siedes, traduits, revus et annotes, vol. I, Paris, 1913. A. E. 
NORDENSKIOLD, Facsimile atlas to the early history of cartography, 
translated from the Swedish by J. A. EKELOF and C. K. MARKHAM, 
Stockholm, 1889; his Periplus: an essay on the early history of charts 
and sailing directions, with an atlas, translated from the Swedish, 
by F. A. BATHER, Stockholm, 1897, is practically a second volume 
of the Facsimile atlas. K. MILLER, Mappae mundi: die dltesten Welt- 
Garten herausgegeben und erldutert, 6 parts, Stuttgart, 1895-98. T. 
FISCHER, Genoese world map, J457, with facsimile and critical text, 
freely translated by E. L. STEVENSON, New York, 1912. E. L. 
STEVENSON, Marine world chart of Nicolo de Conerio Januensis 150t 
(circa), New York, 1908. Sammlung mittelalterlichen Welt- und 
Seekarten italienischen Ursprungs, edited and elucidated by T. 
FISCHER, Venice, 1886 (in his Beitrage zur Geschichte der Erdkunde 
und der Kartographie im Mittelalter). Sine Geographic aus dem 
drcizehnten Jahrhundert, edited by J. V. ZINOERLE [aus RUDOLF VON 
EMS Weltkronik], 1865. Die Ebstorfkarte : cine Weltkarte aus dem 
dreizehnten Jahrhundert, edited by K. MILLER, 3rd edition, Stutt- 
gart, 1900. 

Bibliographies. G. ESPINAS, Une bibliographic de l j histoire 
tconomique de France au moyen age, Paris, 1907. C. GROSS, Bibli- 
ography of British municipal history, including gilds and parliamen- 
tary representation, New York, 1897 (Harvard historical studies, vol. 
V). H. HALL, A select bibliography for the study, sources, and liter- 
ature of English economic history, London, 1914. W. STIEDA, Ueber 
die Quellen der Handelsstatistik im Mittelalter, Berlin, 1903 (Kb'nig- 
lich- proussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin, Abhandlun^fii, 
1902). Biblingraphif der Volkswirtschaftslihrc und Rechtswissen- 
sclmft appears since 1906 as a Supplement to Blotter fur vergleioh- 
ende Rechtsvrissenschaft und Volkswirtschaftslehre. Jahrbiicher fur 
National (>koiiomif und Statistik, Jena, 1863 ff. 



260 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

XXVII. THE LIFE OF THE NOBLES IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

A. OUTLINE 

1. Essential characteristics of nobility and aristocracy. Chief 
classes in the middle ages: (1) clergy (some noble, others not), 
(2) lay nobles, (3) common people (rise of the rich burghers within 
this class). 

2. Origin of a distinct class of nobles in the middle ages. Im- 
portance of cavalry service or knight's service (cdballarius 
clievalerio chivalry Bitter) . 

3. Priviliges and insignia of nobility. Degrees of nobility. The 
study of genealogy. Almanacli de Gotlia. The crusades and the 
origin of heraldry. Orders of knighthood. 

4. Sanctification by the church of many of the customs and 
practices of the nobles. Peace movements in the middle ages. For 
the "Peace of God" and "Truce of God" see pp. 161-163. 

5. The education of the nobles. Stress on athletics, the use of 
arms, the practice of courtesy, and the "gay sciences." Pages 
and squires. The lettered nobility. 

6. Position of women in feudal society. Their free, athletic, 
and often warlike life. Women and chivalry. 

7. Life of the nobles in times of peace. Their luxuries and 
amusements. Importation of spices, rugs, hangings, silks, and other 
luxuries from the east. Furniture and dress. Their amusements. 
Jousts and tournaments, feasting, hunting (falconry), minstrelsy 
and games, especially chess, jongleurs and jesters. Knight-errantry. 
Attitude of nobles toward business and learning. 

8. Homes of the nobles. Manor houses and fortified houses 
in the towns. Strong wooden towers and palisades in the open 
country. The gradual evolution of the stone castle, the stone wall 
and the moat in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Donjons. 
Keeps. Wonderful castles such as Chateau Gaillard. 

9. Feudal warfare. Importance of defence; the armored man 
and the fortified house. Arms, armor, and siegecraft. Influence 
of the crusades on medieval warfare. Changes brought about by 
the rise of the common foot-soldier and the use of gunpowder. 

10. The decline of chivalry. The influence of the rise of cen- 
tralized monarchies, the gradual disappearance of serfdom, the 
rise of a rich merchant and comfortable artisan class in the cities, 
and of a distinct intellectual class in the universities. Ridicule 
and satire directed against the nobles, especially in the rising 
vernacular languages. 



xxv " LIFE OP NOBLES 261 

B. SPECIAL BECOMMENDATIONS TOR BEADING 

Brief general accounts. SEIGNOBOS, The feudal regime, 27-38, 
64-65. D. C. MUNRO, A history of the middle ages, eh. xiu. BEMONT 
and MONOD, Medieval Europe, 257-267. HENDERSON, A short history 
of Germany, I, ch. v. See also the articles "Knighthood and chivalry," 
' ' Castle, ' ' and ' ' Fortification and siegecraf t, ' ' in the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica. 

Longer general accounts. A. LUCHAIRE, Social France, translated 
by E. B. KREHBIEL, chs. vm-xii. .E. L. CUTTS, Scenes and characters 
of the middle ages, 311H160. LAVISSE, Histoire de France, II, part 

II, 14-22, IV, part II, 152-176. 

Chivalry. The standard works on chivalry are: L. GAUTIER, La 
chevalcrie, 3rd edition, Paris, 1895, translated by H. FRITH, Chivalry, 
London, 1891; F. W. CORNISH, Chivalry, New York, 1901; and A. 
SCHULTZ, Das hofische Leben sur Zcit der Minnesinger, 2 vols., 2nd 
edition, Leipzig, 1889. TAYLOR, The mediaeval mind, 2nd edition, 
I, 537-603, attempts to describe the spirit of chivalry. See also 
MUNRO and SELLERY, Medieval civilization, 240-247. 

Feudal warfare. C. W. C. OMAN, A history of the art of war, 
especially book VI. H. DELBRUCK, Geschichte der Kriegskunst, vol. 

III, especially 235 ff. E. VIOLLET-LE-DUC, Annals of a fortress, 
translated from the French by B. BUCKWALL, Boston, 1875. Several 
books listed in this bibliography contain illustrations; see in addi- 
tion, nos. 187, 188, 200, 202, below. Also see "Development of the 
castle in England and Wales, ' ' in History teachers ' magazine, III 
(1912), 191-200. 

Original sources. Studies in European history, edited by F. M. 
FLING, II, no. 4, "Chivalry and the mode of warfare." The best 
picture of chivalry during the Hundred Years ' War is in FROISSART 's 
Chronicles. JOINVILLE, Chronicle of the crusade of St. Lewis, reveals 
the spirit of crusading knights. See in general the literature under 
"Crusades," outline XXI above, and under "Medieval French 
literature," outline XXIV in part III below, for the life of nobles 
iii the middle ages. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. Histories of civilization, nos. '729-738, 749-755, 
762-781 above, are useful. See also the books on genealogy and 
heraldry, nos. 268-291 above. 

Origin and nature of medieval nobility. P. GUILHIERMOZ, 
L'origine de la noblesse en France au moyen age, Paris, 1902. O. 
HENNE-AM-RHYN, Geschichte des Kittertums, Leipzig, 1893. K. H. 
ROTH VON SCHRECKENSTEIN, Die Kittcrwurde und der Ritterstand, 



262 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Freiburg, 1886. W. VEDEL, Mittelalterliche Kulturideale, I, Helden- 
leben, Leipzig, 1910 (Aus Natur und Geisteswelt, 292). A. SCHULTE, 
Der Adel und die deutsclie Kirchc im Mitt el alt er : Studien zur Social-, 
Eechts- und Kirohengeschichte, Stuttgart, 1910 (Kirchenrechtliche 
Abhandluugen, edited by U. STUTZ, 63-64). N. PAULUS, "Die 
Wertung der weltliehen Beruf e im Mittelalter, ' ' in Historiches . Jahr- 
buch, XXXII (1911), 725-755. 

Medieval warfare. G. T. DENISON, A history of cavalry from 
the earliest times: with lessons for the future, London, 1877, 2nd 
edition, 1913, pp. 97-184. G. KOHLER, Die Entwicklung des Kriegs- 
wesens und der Kriegfiihrung in der Eitterzeit von der Mitte des 
11 Jahrhunderts bis zu den Hussitenkriegen, 3 vols., Breslau, 1886- 
90. M. JAHNS, Geschichtc der Kriegswisscnschaften vornehmlicJi in 
Deutschland, 3 vols., Munich, 1889-91 ; and his Handbuch einer 
Geschichte des Kriegswesens von der Urzeit sur Renaissance, 2 vols., 
Leipzig, 1880. In L'armee a travers les ages: conferences faites en 
1898 d I'Ecole speciale militaire de Saint-Cyr, 2nd edition, Paris, 1899, 
see the articles by C. V. LANGLOIS, ' ' Le service militaire en vertu de 
1 'obligation feodale"; and "Le service militaire solde"; and E. 
GEBHART, "Les armees mercenaires de 1 'Italic, du 14 e siecle a 1527." 
O. v. DUNGERN, Der Heerenstand im Mittelalter, Papiermuhle, 1908. 
H. DELPECH, Le tactique au XIII e siede, 2 vols., Paris, 1886, gives 
particular attention to the battles of Bouvines and Muret. E. 
BOUTARIC, Les institutions mHitaires de la France avant les armees 
permanentes, Paris, 1863. H. BELLOC, Warfare in England, London, 
1912 (Home university library). C. FOULKES, Armour and weapons, 
Oxford, 1909. E. PAYNE-GALLWEY, The crossbow, London, 1903, 
appendix, 1907. J. SCHWIETERING, Zur Geschichte von Speer und 
Schwert im 12 Jahrhundert, Hamburg, 1912. 

Medieval castles. The following are some works pertaining 
especially to France. C. ENLART, Manuel d'archeologie fran$aise, 
vol. II, "Architecture civile et militaire." E. E. ViOLLET-LE-Duc, 
L' architecture militaire au moyen age, Paris, 1854, translated by M. 
MACDERMOTT, Military architecture, 2nd edition, Oxford, 1879. See 
also his Cite de Carcassonne (Aude), Paris, 1888. A. DEVILLE, His- 
toire du Chdteau-Gaillard, Rouen, 1829 ; see also his Histoire du 
chateau d' Argues, Eouen, 1839. M. F. MANSFIELD, Castles and 
chateaux of old Burgundy, Boston, 1909. 

For England there are several good books with excellent illustra- 
tions. A. H. THOMPSON, Military architecture in England during the 
middle ages, London, 1912. A. HARVEY, The castles and watted towns 
of England, London, 1911 (The antiquary's books). ELLA S. ARMI- 
TAGE, The early Norman castles of tlie British Isles, New York, 1912. 



LIFE OF NOBLES 263 

H. A. EVANS, Castles of England and Wales, London, 1912. G. T. 
CLARK, Mediaeval military architecture in England, 2 vols., London, 
1884. E. B. D'AuvERGNE, The castles of England, London [1907]. 
J. D. MACKENZIE, The castles of England, London, 1897. 

For Germany the following works of O. PIPER are authoritative, 
Burge nkunde : Forschungen iiber gesammtes Bauwesen und Geschichte 
der Burgen innerhalb des deutschen Sprachgebietes, Munich, 1895, 
3rd edition, revised, 1914; Osterreichische Burgen, 1902; and Abriss 
der Burgenkunde, 2nd edition, Munich and Leipzig, 1904 (Sammlung 
Goschen). P. SALVISBERG, Die deutsche Kriegsarchitektur von der 
Urzeit bis auf die Renaissance, Stuttgart, 1887. H. ZELLER-WERD- 
MULLER, Mittelalterliche Burganlagen der Ostschweiz, Leipzig, 1893 
(extract from Mittheilungen der antiquarischen Gesellschaft in 
Zurich). 

Origin of firearms. Lieutenant-Colonel H. W. L. HIME, The 
origin of artillery, New York, 1915, is a revised edition of a book 
published in 1904 under the title, Gunpowder and amunition. Here 
as in his essay, "Roger Bacon and gunpowder," pp. 321-335 in 
Roger Bacon essays, Oxford, 1914, he gives Bacon credit for the 
invention of gunpowder; but see L. THORNDIKE, "Roger Bacon and 
gunpowder," in Science, XLII (1915), 799-800. T. F. TOUT, "Fire- 
arms in England in the fourteenth century, ' ' in English historical 
review, XXVI (1911), 666-702. F. R. SCHNEIDER, Die Artillerie des 
Mittelalters, Berlin, 1910. E. O. v. LIPPMANN, Zur Geschichte des 
Schiesspulvers und der alteren Feuerwaffen, Stuttgart, 1899. J. F. 
v. REITZENSTEIN, "Die Sage von der Erfindung des Schiesspulvers 
und der deutsche Ursprung des abendlandischen Geschiitzwesens, ' ' 
Allgemeinc Militdrzeitung, 1896, no. 36. L. LACABANE, "De la 
poudre & canon et de son introduction en France," in Bibliotheque 
de I'ecole de chartes, 2nd series, I (1844), 28-57. 

Chivalry. LA CURNE DE SAINTE-PALAYE, Memoires sur I'ancienne 
chevalerie: avec une introduction et des notes historiques par C. 
NODIER, new edition, 2 vols., Paris, 1826. P. LACROIX, L'ancienne 
France: chevalerie et les croisades, feodalite, blason, ordres mUi- 
fitin-x, Paris, 1886. S. LUCE, Histoire de Du Guesclin et de son 
tpoque, 2nd edition, Paris, 1882. KURD'S Letters on chivalry and 
romance, edited by EDITH J. MOKLEY, London, 1911 (the text of the 
letters reprinted from the first edition, 1762). 

Women of chivalry. T. KRABBES, Die Frau im altfranzonisehen 
K(iHn-e/ios, Marburg, 1884. K. WKINHOLD, Die deutschcn Frauen 
in dem Mittelalter, 2 vols., Vienna, 1851, 3rd edition, 1897. E. L. 
LINTON, "The women of chivalry," Fortnightly review, XLVIII 
(1887), 559-579. E. WECHSSLER, " Frauendienst und Vassalitat," 



264 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PABTII 

in Zeitschrift fur franzosische Sprache und Literatur, XXIV (1902), 
159-190. 

Romances of chivalry. J. ASHTON, Eomances of chivalry, New 
York, 1887. J. B. BURY, Eomances of chivalry on Greek soil, Oxford, 
1911 (Eomanes lecture for 1911). 

Sports and pastimes of the nobles, J. J. JUSSERAND, Les sports 
et jeux d' exercise dans I'ancienne France, Paris, 1901. J. STRUTT, 
Glig-gamena Angel-fteod: the sports and pastimes of the people of 
England, London, 1801, another edition, 1810, often reprinted, new 
edition, enlarged by J. C. Cox [1903]. H. J. E. MURRAY, A history 
of chess, Oxford University Press, 1914, is a most excellent book. 
F. NIEDNER, Das deutsche Turnier im 12 und 13 JahrJiundert, Berlin, 
1881. 

Life of nobles in the middle ages. C. V. LANGLOIS, La societe 
frangaise au XIII s siede d'apres dix romans d'aventure, Paris, 1904; 
and his La vie en France au may en age, d'apres quelques moralist es 
du temps, Paris, 1908. E. M. TAPPAN, In feudal times: social life 
in the middle ages, London, 1913. H. OSCHINSKY, Der Eitter unter- 
wegs und die Pfiege der Gastfreundschaft im alten Frankreich, Halle, 
1900 (dissertation). G. EAYNAUD, "La societe et la vie en France 
au moyen age," in Journal des savants, new series, 7th year, 1909, 
pp. 214-223. N. DE PAUW, La vie intime en Flandre au moyen age, 
d'apres des documents inedits, Brussels, 1913 (extract from Bulletin 
de la Commission royale d'histoire de Belgique, LXXXII, 1913). 
L. GARREAU, L'etat social de la France au temps des croisades, Paris, 
1899. J. FALKE, Die ritterliche Gesellschaft im Zeitalter des Frauen- 
cultus, new edition, Berlin [186-?]. L. DELISLE, De I'instruction 
litteraire de la noblesse frangaise au moyen age, Paris, 1855 (extract 
of 8 pp. from Journal de 1 'instruction publique, XXIV, no. 46, June, 
1855, p. 322). T. WRIGHT, A history of domestic manners and 
sentiments in England, London, 1862, new edition, The homes of other 
days, a history of domestic manners, etc., London, 1871. E. E. 
VIOLLET LE-Duc, Dicticnnaire du mobttier, 2nd edition, Paris, 1868- 
1875. C. E. M. LANGLOIS, La vie en France au moyen age, 1" serie: 
la vie seigneuriale au XIII s swde, Paris, 1912 (Enseignement par les 
projections lumineuses). W. MUNCH, Gedanken uber Furstener- 
ziehung aus alter und neuer Zeit, Munich, 1909. 

Bibliography. C. V. LANGLOIS, "Les travaux sur 1'histoire de 
la societe f ranc.aise au moyen age, d 'aprSs les sources litteraires, ' ' in 
Eevue historique, LXIII (1897), 241-265. 



MEDIEVAL CULTURE 265 



XXVIII. CULTURE IN THE TWELFTH AND THIRTEENTH 
CENTURIES 

A. OUTLINE 

1. France was the center of culture during these two centuries. 
The great importance of this era in the history of the culture of 
western Europe has been overshadowed by the subsequent intense 
interest in ancient Greek and Roman literature and art. 

2. Sudden increase in learning and education towards the be- 
ginning of the twelfth century. 

3. Rise of a spirit of inquiry, based on logic (dialectic). Abel- 
ard and Bernard of Clairvaux. 

4. The "New Aristotle." Systematization of scholastic theol- 
ogy and philosophy. Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas. 

5. Rise and decline of interest in the ancient classics. The 
schools of Chartres. John of Salisbury. The schools of Orleans. 
John Garland of Paris. The Rattle of the seven arts. 

6. The ars dictaminis, the "business course" in medieval uni- 
versities. Boncompagno. 

7. Revival of Roman law. Irnerius at Bologna. The systematic 
study of canon law. The Decrctum of Gratian, ca. 1140-1150. The 
Corpus iuris canonici. 

8. Rise and decline of interest in the natural sciences, including 
medicine. Robert Grosseteste and Roger Bacon. 

9. Rise of medieval universities, especially Bologna, Paris, and 
Oxford. Studies and life of medieval students. 

10. The literature of this period: (1) Latin (Goliardic litera- 
ture, sermon stories, etc.) ; (2) Vernacular literature. 

11. The art of the period, especially Gothic architecture. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

General accounts. EMERTON, Mediaeval Europe, ch. XIII, is a 
short survey in English. Much more satisfactory are: LAVISSE and 
RAMBAUD, Histoire generale, II, ch. x; and LAVISSE, Histoire de 
Fran,;-. II, part II, 384-411; III, part I, 323-345; part II, 380-429. 
Portions of the latter, along with other material translated into 
English, will be found in MUNRO and SELLERY, Medieval civilisation, 
riil.-irirr.l rdition, 277-357, 458^490, 524-546. TAYLOR, Mediaeval 
mind, is devoted in large part to the period covered by this outline. 
SANDYS, A history of classical scholarship, I, is valuable as a work 
for reference. 



266 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PAETII 

Medieval universities. For medieval universities, H. EASHDALL, 
The universities of Europe in the middle ages, 2 vols., in 3, Oxford, 
1895, is the standard work; read especially I, ehs. I and II, and II, 
ch. xiv. A. S. BAIT, "Life in the mediaeval university, Cambridge, 
1912, is drawn very largely from this last chapter of EASHDALL. 
For student life, see also C. H. HASKINS, "Life of medieval students 
as seen in their letters," American historical review, III (1897-98), 
203-229, and ' ' The University of Paris in the sermons of the thir- 
teenth century," ibid, X (1904), 1-27; likewise Translations and 
reprints, II, no. 3, "The medieval student." Many additional trans- 
lations from documents are printed with introductions in A. O. 
NORTON, Readings in the history of education: mediaeval universities, 
Harvard University Press, 1909. A readable chapter on the life in 
the university of Paris in the thirteenth century is in A. LUCHAIRE, 
La societe frangaise au temps de Philippe- Auguste, translated by 
E. B. KREHBIEL, ch. in. J. McCABE, Peter Abelard, New York, 1901, 
is an interesting biography. 

Medieval art. For a very brief sketch of the art of the period, 
read S. EEINACH, Apollo: an illustrated manual of the history of art, 
New York, 1907, chs. xii-xm. W. E. LETHABY, Medieval art, London, 
1904, new and revised edition, 1912, is a general popular book. 
C. ENLART, Manuel d'arclieologie franfaise, is a standard book on the 
medieval art of France. 

Original sources. Short extracts, in English translation, of the 
literature of the period are gathered in G. G. COULTON, A medieval 
garner, London, 1910. Excellent translations of some medieval 
students' songs are in J. A. SYMONDS, Wine, women, and song, 
London, 1907. Probably the most interesting old French tale of the 
twelfth century is Aucassin and Nicolette, of which the best transla- 
tion is by A. LANG, London and New York, 1899 (often reprinted). 

It is announced that L. THORNDIKE will edit and translate selec- 
tions from Gerbert, Abelard, Eoger Bacon, and the Scholastics, 
under the title, Medieval thought and culture, in no. 949 above. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

For detailed bibliographies on all the subjects touched upon in 
the above outline, see part III, Medieval Culture, period II, 1100- 
1300, below. 



CHURCH AND COUNCILS 267 



. THE CHURCH FROM ABOUT 1300 TO ABOUT 1450 
A. OUTLINE 

1. Importance of this period in the constitutional history of the 
church and in the history of medieval political thought. 

2. The relations of pope Boniface VIII, 1294-1303, with the 
rising monarchical states, especially England under Edward I 
and France under Philip IV, the Fair. Importance of the question 
of finances. The Papal Jubilee, 1300. The papal bulls, Clericis 
laicos, issued in 1296, Ausculta fili, 1301, and Unam sanctam, 1302. 
Action of the Estates General of France in 1302. The scene at 
Anagni, where Boniface VIII, 86 years of age, was insulted by 
Nogaret and Sciarra Colonna, 1303. 

3. The "Babylonish Captivity" of the papacy, 1305-1377. 
Election of pope Clement V, archbishop of Bordeaux, 1305-1314, 
a creature of king Philip IV of France. Removal of the papacy 
to Avignon. The suppression of the Templars, 1312. Evils of the 
' ' Babylonish Captivity. ' ' The Flagellants. Conflict of the Avignon 
popes with the empire and their peculiar position at the outbreak 
of the Hundred Years' War (see the next two outlines). The Stat- 
utes of Provisors and Praemunire in England, 1351, 1353. 

4. Return of the papacy to Rome. Temporary stay of pope 
Urban V in Rome, 1367-1370. St. Catherine of Sienna, 1347-1380. 
The return of pope Gregory XI to Rome in 1377 where he died 
in 1378. 

5. The great western schism, 1378-1418. Double election in 
1378 : pope Urban VI at Rome, in April, and pope Clement VII at 
Fondi in September, elected by cardinals with French sympathies. 
Political as well as religious division of Europe during the schism. 

6. The conciliar movement. Proposals to heal the schism and 
reform the church. The part played by the university of Paris. 
Jean Gerson, Pierre d 'Ailly, and Conrad of Gelnhausen. The con- 
stitutional crisis in the history of the church. 

7. The council of Pisa, 1409. Attempted deposition of the two 
ii\:il popes and the election of a new pope, Alexander V (succeeded 
by John XXIII in 1410). Now there were three rival popes. 

8. The council of Constance, 1414-1418, was summoned by the 
emperor Sigismund and pope John XXIII. Division of the council 
into "nations." Its chief work: (1) it healed the schism by 
disposing of the three rival popes, John XXIII, Gregory XII, and 
Benedict XIII, and by electing Martin V; (2) it tried to stem 
tin- tide of heresy, which had set in strong since the time of Wiclif, 



268 



GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY 



PART II 



especially in Bohemia, by burning John Huss and Jerome of 
Prague, which resulted in the Hussite wars, 1419 ff (John Ziska, 
Utraquists, Taborites) ; (3) it made futile efforts to reform the 
church in "head and members." The decree Sacrosancta, 1415. 
The decree Frequens, 1417. 

9. The council of Basle, 1431-1449. Conflict between the coun- 
cil and pope Eugenius IV (1431-1447), who summoned a rival 
council at Ferrara (later Florence), 1438-1439, which brought 
about an ineffective union between the Greek and Latin churches. 
Deposition of Eugenius IV by the council of Basle in 1439 and 
the election of an anti-pope, Felix V. Cardinal Cesarini, Nicholas 
Cusa, and Aeneas Sylvius at the council of Basle. Its dissolution, 
1449. 

10. Failure of the conciliar movement. Sporadic efforts to em- 
phasize the idea of national churches by the Pragmatic Sanction 
of Bourges, 1438, and the Pragmatic Sanction of Mainz, 1439. 
The Concordat of Vienna, 1448. The bull Execrabilis, issued by 
pope Pius II, in 1460. The reaction in favor of the papacy dur- 
ing the second half of the fifteenth century. 

11. Popes, 1276-1503. 



Innocent V, 1276 
Hadrian V, 1276 
John XX or XXI, 1276-1277 
Nicholas III, 1277-1280 
Martin IV, 1281-1285 
Honorius IV, 1285-1287 
Nicholas IV, 1288-1292 

(vacancy, 1292-1294) 
Celestine V, 1294 
Boniface VIII, 1294-1303 
Benedict XI, 1303-1304 
Clement V, 1305-1314 

(vacancy, 1314-1316) 
John XXII, 1316-1334 
(Nicholas V, anti-pope, 1328- 

1330) 

Benedict XII, 1334-1342 
Clement VI, 1342-1352 
Innocent VI, 1352-1362 
Urban V, 1362-1370 
Gregory XI, 1370-1378 
Urban VI, 1378-1389 

(Clement VII, anti-pope, 

1378-1394) 



Boniface IX, 1389-1404 

(Benedict XI II, anti-pope, 

1394-1415) 

Innocent VII, 1404-1406 
Gregory XII, 1406-1409 
Alexander V, 1409-1410 
John XXIII, 1410-1415 
(Gregory XII, rival pope to 

1415) 

(vacancy, 1415-1417) 
Martin V, 1417-1431 
Eugenius IV, 1431-1447 

(Felix V, anti-pope, 1439- 

1449) 

Nicholas V, 1447-1455 
Calixtus III, 1455-1458 
Pius II, 1458-1464 
Paul II, 1464-1471 
Sixtus IV, 1471-1484 
Innocent VIII, 1484-1492 
Alexander VI, 1492-1503 



CHURCH AND COUNCILS 269 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

Short general accounts. ADAMS, Civilization, 392-415. HENDER- 
SON, Short history of Germany, I, ch. ix, 203-227. W. BARRY, The 
papacy and modern times: a political sketch, 1803-1870, New York, 
1911 (Home university library), 1-78. R. L. POOLE, Wycliffe and 
movements for reform, London, 1889, chs. vn-XH. 

Longer general accounts. H. BRUCE, The age of scJiism: being 
an outline of the history of the church from A D. 1304 to A D. 1503, 
London, 1907 (The church universal), ehs. l-vin. LODGE, Close of 
the middle ages, chs. n, ix, x, xi. LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire 
generale, III, ch. vi, and ch. xni for the Hussite wars. P. VAN DYKE, 
The age of the renascence: an outline sketch of the history of the 
papacy from the return from Avignon to the sack of Some (1377- 
1527), New York, 1897 (Ten epochs of church history), chs. I-XI. 
LAVISSE, Histoire de France, III, part II, 127-200, IV, part II, 260- 
274. J. LOSERTJI, Gcschichte des spdteren M-ittelalters, 206-243, 
309-312, 385-529 (contains excellent bibliographies). 

Standard surveys of the period. M. CREIGHTON, A history of tlie 
papacy during the period of the reformation, 5 vols., London, 1882- 
1894, new edition, A history of the papacy from the great schism to 
the sack of Rome, 6 vols., London, 1897, vols. I-II. L. PASTOR, 
Cfnt-liii-lite der Papste seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters, vols. I-V 
(to 1549), Leipzig, 1884-1910, translated by F. I. ANTROBUS and 
R. F. KERR, The history of the popes from the close of the middle 
ages, vols. I-XII, St. Louis, 1898-1912, vols. I-II (1305-1458), is 
the work of a Roman catholic. The standard work on the councils 
of this period is HEFELE, Conciliengesdiichte, VI, 266-1042, and all 
of vol. VII. GREGOROVIUS, Rome in the middle ages, VI, and VII, 
pa it I, 1-185. 

Council of Constance. J. H. WYLIE, The council of Constance to 
the death of John Hus, London, 1900, is an interesting popular book. 
E. J. KJTTS, Pope John XXII and Master John Hus of Bohemia, 
London, 1910, is another general history of the council to the death 
of John Huss. A very stimulating short study of the conciliar idea 
is by J. N. FIGGIS, Studies of political thought from Gerson to 
Grotius, 1414-1685, Cambridge University Press, 1907 (The Birk- 
beek lectujjes, 1900), essay -n, "The conciliar movement and the 
papalist reaction." See also W. A. DUNNING, A history of political 
thtori,*: (inciint fiinl nn ,li, ml. New York, 1902, ch. x. 

John Huss. LEA, History of the inquisition, II, 427-567, is a 
well-known and an interesting account of this martyr. The follow- 
ing biographies have appeared recently. D. S. SCHAFF, John Huss: 



270 GENERAL .MEDIEVAL HISTORY PART n 

Ms Ufe, teachings, and death, after five hundred years, New York, 
1915. Count LUTZOW, The life and times of Master John Hus, Lon- 
don, 1909. W. N. SCHWARZE, John Hus, the martyr of Bohemia: 
a study of the dawn of protestantism, New York, 1915. 

Original sources. The papal bulls, Cleriois laicos and Unam 
sanctam, and various other materials, are translated in THATCHER 
and McNEAL, Source book, 309-332; ROBINSON, Readings, I, 488-515 
(contains the decree Sacrosancta and the decree Frequens) ; HENDER- 
SON, Historical documents, 432-439, 349-350 (Jubilee of 1300) ; 
OGG, Source book, 383-397 (includes the Pragmatic Sanction of 
Bourges) ; Translations and reprints, III, no. 6, ' ' The pre-reformation 
period, " 19-33; II, no. 5, "England in the time of Wy cliff e," 5-9 
(Statutes of Provisors and Praemunire). 

The important work of JAN Hus, De ecclesia: the church, has 
been translated, with introduction and notes, by D. S. SCHAFF, New 
York, 1915. The account of POGGIO, who witnessed the trial and 
death of Jerome, is translated in A literary source-book of the renais- 
sance, by M. WHITCOMB, 2nd edition, Philadelphia, 1903, 44-51. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 81, has a map showing the division of 
Europe during the great schism, 1378-1417. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. The general histories of the church, nos. 394- 
498 above, are most useful, although many histories of the Empire, 
of France, Germany, and Italy, nos. 499-621 above, are of almost 
equal value. See also the encyclopaedias for the history of the 
church, nos. 104-114 above. For the Hussite movement the gen- 
eral histories of Bohemia, nos. 699-703 above, should be consulted. 

Church reform in the later middle ages. J. GUIRAUD, L'eglise 
romaine et les origines de la renaissance, 3rd edition, Paris, 1904, 
begins with the pontificate of Boniface VIII. F. THUDICHUM, Papst- 
tum und Reformation im Mittelalter, 1143-1517, Leipzig, 1903. G. 
FICKER, Das ausgehende Mittelalter und sein Verhdltniss zur EC for- 
mation, Leipzig, 1903. F. ROCQUAIN, La cour de Rome et I 'esprit de 
reforme avant Lutlier, vols. I-III, Paris, 1893-97. J. HALLER, 
Papsttum und Kirchenreform : vier Kapitel zur Geschichte des aus- 
gehenden Mittelalters, vol. I, Berlin, 1903. L. CELIER, "L'idee de 
reforme a la cour pontifieale du concile de Bale au concile de Latran, ' ' 
in Revue des questions historiques, LXXXVI (1909), 418-435. 
Vorreformationsgeschiclitliche Forschungen, edited by H. FINKE, 
Miinster, 1900 ff. 

Boniface VIII and Europe. H. FINKE, Aus den Tagen Bonifaz 
VIII: Funde und Forschungen, Miinster, 1902 (Vorreformationsge- 



CHURCH AND COUNCILS 271 

schichtliche Forschungen, 2). J. DEL LUNGO, Da Bonifazio VIII 
ad Arrigo VII, Milan, 1899. L. TOSTI, Storia di Bonifazio VIII, 
2nd edition, Cassino, 1886. K. WENCK, "War Bonifaz VIII ein 
Ketzer?" in Historische Zeitschrift, XCIV (1905), 1-66. E. SCHOLZ, 
"Zur Beurteilung Bonifaz' VIII und seines sittlich-religiosen Char- 
akters," Histcrische Vierteljahrschrift, IX (1906), 470-515. W. 
DRUMANN, Geschichte Bcnifacius VIII, 2 vols., Konigsberg, 1852. 
P. DUPUY, Histcire du different d'entre le pape Boniface VIII et 
Philippe le Bel rcy de France, Paris, 1655, contains the most im- 
portant documents from French archives. L. MOHLER, Die Kardindle 
Jacob und Peter Calcnna: ein Beitrag . zur Geschichte des Zeitalters 
Bonifaz VIII, Paderborn, 1914 (Quellen und Forschungen aus dem 
Gebiete der Geschichte, XVII). R. SCHOLZ, Die Publizistik zur Zeit 
PhUipps dcs Sclwnen und Bonifaz' VIII, Stuttgart, 1903 (Kirchen- 
rechtliche Abhandlungen, 6-8). F. EHRMANN, Die Bulle "Unam 
sanctam ' ' des Papstes Bonifacius VIII nach ihrem authentischen 
Wortlant crklart, Munich, 1896. J. BERCHTOLD, Die Bulle Unam 
sanctam: ihre wahre Bedeutung und Tragweite fur Stoat und Kirche, 
Munich, 1887. 

For a short contemporary account of the scene at Anagni 
see KERVYN DE LETTENHOVE, "Une relation ine'dite de 1'attentat 
d'Anagni," in Revue des questions historiques, XI (1872), 511-520. 
The subject is treated in detail by R. HoLtZMANN, Wilhelm von 
Nogaret, Eat und Grossiegelbewahrer PhiUpps des Schonen von 
Frankreich, Freiburg, 1898 (dissertation). See also C. V. LANGLOIS, 
Les papiers de Guillaume de Nogaret et de Guillaume de Plaisians 
au Tresor des Chartes, Paris, 1908. 

"Babylonish Captivity" of the papacy. G. MOLLAT, Les popes 
d' Avignon (1305-78), Paris, 1912. T. OKEY, The story of Avignon, 
New York, 1911 (Mediaeval towns). M. SOUCHON, Die Papstu-<ilil< n 
von Bcnifaz VIII bis auf Urban VI und, die Entstehung des ScJiismas 
1S78, Braunschweig, 1888. H. FINKE, Papsttum und Untcrgang dcs 
T> nifilertirdcng, 2 vols. in one, Miinater, 1907 (Vorreformations- 
geschichtliche Forschungen, edited by H. FlNKE, IV-V). A. EITEL, 
Der Kirclicnstaat unter Klemcns V [1305-1314], Berlin, 1906 (part 
1 of AKli.-iiiilhmgrn zur mittleren und neueren Geschichte). K. 
JACOB, Studicn iiber Papst Bcncdikt XII (13S4-4X), Berlin, 1910. 
C. BOUVIER, Vv-nnc au temps du conctie, 1S1l-13lg, Paris, 1912. 
K. Mi NT/, "L 'argent et le luxe a la cour pontifical)- <l 'Avignon," in 
il<x tim-tttit.ns lii.ittiri<iiu:<<, LXVI (1899), 5-44, 378-406. 

Saint Catherine of Siena and pope Gregory IX. E. G. GARDNER, 
Saint Catherine of Siena: a study in the religion, literature, and 
history of the fourteenth century in Italy, London, 1907. JERUSHA 



272 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

D. RICHARDSON, The mystic bride: a study of the life-story of Cath- 
erine of Siena, London [1911]. [MARGARET ROBERTS], Saint Cath- 
erine of Siena and her times, London, 1906. P. GAUTHIEZ, Salute 
Catherine de Sienne, 1347-1380, Paris, 1916. K. WENCK, Die Heilige 
Elizabeth und Pabst Gregor IX, Munich, 1908 (extract from the 
review Hochland, November, 1907). F. BLIEMETZRIEDER, "Raimund 
von Capua und Caterina von Siena zu Beginn des grossen abend- 
landischen Schismas, " in Historiches Jahrbuch, XXX(1909), 231- 
273. 

The great western schism, 1378-1417. N. VALOIS, La France 
et le grand schisme d'Occident, 4 vols., Paris, 1896-1902. L. SALEM- 
BIER, Le grand schisme d'Occident, Paris, 1900, 4th edition, 1902 
( Bibliotheque de 1 'enseignement de 1'histoire ecclesiastique), trans- 
lated, The great western schism, London, 1907. L. GAYET, Le grand 
schisme d'Occident, vols. I and II, Paris, 1889-1890 (see the long 
review by E. ALLAIN, in Sevue des questions Jmtoriques, XLVII 
(1890), 582-596). A. RASTOUL, L'unite religieuse pendant le grand 
sohisme d'Occident (1378-1417), Paris, 1904. C. LOCKE, The age 
of the great western schism, Edinburgh, 1897 (Eras of the Christian 
church). 

L. SALEMBIER, Deux conciles inconnus au temps du grand schisms, 
Lille, 1902. M. SOUCHON, Die Papstwahlen in der Zeit des grossen 
Schismas (1378-1417), 2 vols., Braunschweig, 1898-1900. F. J. 
SCHEUFFGEN, Beitrdge zur Geschichte des grossen Schismas, Freiburg, 
1887. L. MIROT, La politique pontificate et le retour du Saint-Siege 
a Some en 1376, Paris, 1899. J. P. KIRSCH, Die EuckTcehr der Pdpste 
Urban V und Gregor XI von Avignon nach Bom, Paderborn, 1898. 
O. HUTTEBRAUKER, Der Minoritenorden zur Zeit des grossen Schismas. 
Berlin, 1893 (dissertation). R. P. FAGES, Histoire de Saint Vincent 
Ferrier, Paris, 1894, 2nd edition, revised, 2 vols., 1901. J. GUIRAUD, 
L'etat pontifical apres le grand schisme: etude de geographic poli- 
tique, Paris, 1896, part 73 of no. 887 above. A. BAYOT, "Un traite 
inconnu sur le grand schisme dans la bibliotheque des Dues de Bour- 
gogne, " in Revue d'liistoire ecclesiastique, Oct. 1908. 

The conciliar movement. N. VALOIS, La crise religieuse du 
XVe siecle: le pape et le concile (1418-50), 2 vols., Paris, 1909. 
F. BLIEMETZRIEDER, Das Generalkonztt im grossen abendldndischen 
Schisma, Paderborn, 1904. A. KNEER, Die Entstehung der "konzilaren 
Theorie, Rome, 1893 (Romische Quartalsehrift, supplement 1). W. 
THEREMIN, Beitrdge zur offentlichen Meinung iiber Kirchc und Staat 
in der stadtisclien Geschichtsschreibung Deutschlands von 1399-1415, 
Berlin, 1909 (part 68 of Historischc Studien, edited by E. Ebering). 
J. H. VON WESSENBERG, Die grossen Kirchenversammlungen des 15 
und 16 Jahrhunderts, 4 vols., Constance, 1840. 



CHURCH AND COUNCILS 273 

Following is some biographical material on men who took a 
prominent part in the movement. A. LAFONTAINE, Jehan Gerson 
(1S6S-14t9), Paris, 1906. A. J. MASSON, Jean Gerson, Lyons, 1894. 
J. B. SCHWAB, Johannes Gerson, Wiirzberg, 1858. L. SALEMBIER, 
Peirus de Alliaco, Lille, 1886. P. TSCHACKERT, Peter von Attli, 
Gotha, 1877. C. SCHMIDT, Kard. Nikolaus Cusanus, Coblenz, 1907 
(for additional literature see DAHLMANN-WAITZ, Quellenkundc, no. 
7024). E. KOXIG, Kardinal Giordano Orsini: ein LebensbUd aus 
dcr Zeit der grossen KonzQien und des Humanisms, Freiburg, 1906. 
A. ROSLER, K ordinal Johannes Dominid 1S57-1419: ein Reformatoren- 
btid aus der Zeit des grossen Schismas, Freiburg, 1893. H. V. 
SAUERLAND, "Cardinal Johannes Dominici und sein Verhalten zu den 
kirchlichen Unionsbestrebungen wahrend der Jahre 1406-1415," in 
ZHtxehift fiir Kirchengeschichte, IX (1888), 240-292, X (1889), 
345-398. P. MANDONNET, "Beitrage zur Geschichte des Kardinals 
Dominici," in Historisches Jahrbuch, XXI (1900), 388-402. K. 
WENCK, ' ' Konrad von Gelnhausen und die Quellen der konziliaren 
Theorie," in Historischc Zeitschrift, LXXVIT (1896), 6-61. 

Council of Pisa. J. LENFANT, Histoire du concile de Pise, 2 vols., 
Amsterdam, 1724-1727. 

Council of Constance. E. J. KITTS, In tlic days of the councils: 
a sketch of UK life and time of Baldassarc Cossa, afterwards pope 
John XXIII, London, 1908. H. FINKE, Forschungcn und Quellen 
zur Gi-xchichte des Konstamcr KonzUs, Paderborn, 1889; and his 
Bildcr vom Konstanzer KonzU, Heidelberg, 1903 (Neujahrblatt der 
badisehen historischen Kommission). H. BLUMENTHAL, Die Vor- 
iiixi-liii-liti <l<s Kuiixtanser KonzUs bis zur Rerufung, Halle, 1897 (dis- 
Bertation). J. KEPPLER, Die Politik des Kardinalkollegiums in Kon- 
stanz, Jan.-Marz 1418, Miinster, 1899. H. DENIFLE, "Les d616gu^s 
ih-s iiiiivorsitfet fran<jaises au ooncile de Constance," in Revue des 
liililiothcques (1892). B. Hi IH.KK, Die Konstanzer Reformation und 
du Ki.nkordate von 1418, Leipzig, 1867. L. TOSTI, Storia del con- 
rilin <H C'onxtansa . . . con document!, 2 vols., Naples, 1853, translated 
into (Ji'rinan by B. ARNOLD, Geschichte des Konzilium's von Konstam, 
Schaffhansen. 1860. J. LENFANT, Histoire du concile de Const nm-i. 
2 vols., Amsterdam, 1714. 

Wyclif. G. M. TREVELYAN, England in the age of Wycliffe, Lon- 
don, 1899, 4th edition, 1909. For other literature on Wyclif and his 
movement see GROSS, no. 36 above. 

John Huss. IT. B. WORKMAN, Tlie dawn of the reformation, 
vol. II, The age of JIus, London, 1902. G. VON LECHLER, Johannes 
Hus, Halle, 1889. J. LOSERTH, Hus und Widif : zur Genesis der 
husitischcn Lchre, Prague and Leipzig, 1884, translated by M. J. 



274 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

EVANS, Wiclif and Hits, London, 1884. E. H. GILLETT, The life and 
time of John Huss: or the Bohemian reformation of the fifteenth 
century, 2 vols., Boston, 1863. W. BERGER, Johannes Hus und Konig 
Sigmund, Augsburg, 1871. C. HOFLER, Magister Johannes Hus und 
der Ausgang der deutschen Professoren und Studenten aus Prag 
1409, Prague, 1864. J. MARTINU, Die Waldesier und die husitische 
Reformation in Bohmen, Wien, 1910. 

Hussite wars. Count LTZOW, The Hussite wars, London and 
New York, 1914. E. DENIS, Huss et la guerre des Hussites, Paris, 
1878, and his Fin de I'independance de la Boheme, 2 vols., Paris, 
1890, which has a full bibliography. J. LENFANT, Histoire de la 
guerre des Hussites et du concile de Basle, Amsterdam, 1731, sup- 
plements by J. DE BEAUSOBRE, 1745. F. v. BEZOLD, Zur GesdiicMe 
des Husitentums, Munich, 1874. F. PALACKY, Urlcundliche Beitrdge 
zur Geschichte des Husitenkrieges, Prague, 1872. W. W. TOMEK, 
Johann Zizlca, translated into German by V. PROCHASKA, Prague, 
1882. 

Council of Basle. P. LAZARUS, Das Basler Konztt, Berlin, 1912. 
G. PEROUSE, Le cardinal Louis Aleman, president du concile de Bale, 
et la fin du grand schisme, Paris, 1905. E. PREISWERK, Der Einfluss 
Aragons auf den Prozess des Basler Konztts gegen Papst Eugen IV, 
Basle, 1902 (dissertation). O. EICHTER, Die Organisation und 
Gcschdftsordnung des Baseler KonzHs, Leipzig, 1877. 

Council of Ferrara-Florence. E. CECCONI, Studi storici sul con- 
cilio di Firenze, part I, Florence, 1869. 

Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges. N. VALOIS, Histoire de la 
Pragmatique Sanction de Bourges sous Charles VII, Paris, 1906. 
See the long review of this book by J. HALLER, "Die Pragmatische 
Sanktion von Bourges," in Historische Zeitschrift, GUI (1909), 
1-51. J. SALVINI, L'application de la Pragmatique Sanction sous 
Charles VII et sous Louis XI au chapitre cathedral de Paris, 
Paris, 1912. A. WERMINGHOFF, Nationalkirchliche Bestrebungen im 
deutschen Mittelalter, Stuttgart, 1910, part 61 of no. 491 above. 

The bull Execrabilis. G. B. PICOTTI, La pubblicazione e i primi 
effetti della Execrabilis di Pio II, Perugia, 1914 (extract from 
Archivio della r. Societa romana di storia patria). 

Papal finances in the 14th and 15th centuries. G. MOLLAT and 
C. SAMARAN, La fiscalite pontificate en France au XIV e siede, Paris, 
1905, part 96 of no. 887 above. E. HENNIG, Die papstliolien Zehnten 
aus DeutscMand im Zeitalter des Avignonesischen Papsttums und 
wdhrend des grossen Schismas, Halle, 1909. J. P. KIRSCH, Die pdpst- 
lichen Annaten in DeutscMand wdhrend des 14 Jahrhunderts, vol. I, 
Paderborn, 1903 (part 9 of Quellen und Forsehungen, Gbrresgesell- 



CHURCH AND COUNCILS 275 

schaft). Die Einnahmen der apostolischen Kammer unter Johann 
XXII [1S16-1334], edited by E. GOLLER, 2 vols., Paderborn, 1910. 
A. ECKSTEIN, Zur Finanzlage Felix V und des Busier Konzils, Berlin, 
1912. A. GOTTLOB, Aus der camera apostolica des 15 Jahrhunderts, 
Innsbruck, 1889. See also under outline XXIV above. 

Original sources. The great collection of sources for the council 
of Constance is Magnum oecumenicum Constantiense concilium, edited 
by H. VAN DEB HARDT, 6 vols., Frankfort, 1700, with an index vol. 
by G. C. BOHNSTEDT, Berlin, 1742 (now also reprinted in MANSI, 
no. 962 above, vols. XXVII-XXVIII). This must be supplemented 
by Ada concilii Constantiensis, edited by H. FINKE, vol. I, Akten 
zur Vorgeschichte des Konstanzer Konzils, 1410-1414, Minister, 1896; 
and ULRICH VON RICHENTAL, Das Conoiliumbuch zu Constanz, edited 
by N. A. and M. R. BUCK, in Bibliothek des literarischen Vereins, 
vol. CLVIII, Stuttgart, 1882. 

For the Council of Basle we have Concilium Basiliense : Studien 
und Quellen zur GescJvichte des Konzils von Basel, vols. I-V, and 
VII, edited by J. HALLER, and others, Basle, 1896-1910. Monumenta 
conciliorum generalvum seculi XV: Soriptorum I, II, HI, edited by 
O. RICHTER, Vienna, 1857-1895; and AENEAS SYLVIUS PICCOLOMINI, 
De rebus Basileae pestis, edited by M. CATALANI, Firmi, 1803, by 
C. FEA, Rome, 1823. 

JOANNIS Hus, Opera omnia, edited by W. FLOJSHAUS, vols. I 
and II, Prague, 1904ff. Beitrdge zur Geschichte der husitischen 
Bcwcgung, edited by J. LOSERTH, 5 parts, Vienna, 1877-95 (Archiv 
fiir ostereichische Geschichte, 55, 57, 60, 75, 82). 

Literarische Polcmik zu Bcginn des grosscn abendlandischen 
Schismas (Kard. Petrus Flandrin, Kard. Pctrus Amelii, Konrad 
von Gelnhausen) : ungedrukte Texte und Vntersuchungen, edited by 
F. P. BLIEMETZRIEDER, Vienna, 1910, vol. 1 of no. 900 above. THEO- 
DORICUS DE NIEM, De schismate libri ires, edited by G. ERLER, Leip- 
zig, 1890. For the works of such men as PIERRE D'AILLY and JEAN 
GERSON, see POTTHAST, Wegweiser, no. 18 above, and MOLINIER, Les 
sources, no. 21 above. See also the great collections of source material 
for the history of the church, nos. 953-964 above, and for the history 
of Bohemia, no. 986 note, above. 

Bibliographies. DAHLMANN-WAITZ, Qucllenkunde, is the most 
serviceable bibliography because of its recent date ; see pp. 420423, 
429-432, 450-452, 456-460, and especially 503-524. The elaborate 
bibliographies at the head of chapters in LOSERTH, GcsoliicMe des 
spdteren Mittclalters, are valuable. See also the bibliographies for 
church history, nos. 49-55 above. 



276 



GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY 



PART II 



XXX. FRANCE DURING THE HUNDRED YEARS' WAR. 
A. OUTLINE 

1. France at the end of the direct line of Capetian kings, 1328. 
The strength of the monarchy. Weakness of the feudal nobility. 
Large extent of the kingdom of France, and the brilliancy of its 
capital, Paris. Effective monarchial institutions. Dominance of 
the French kings over the papacy at Avignon. Loyalty and self- 
effacement of the people. The question of nationality in the 
middle ages. 

2. France under the Valois kings, 1328-1498. A period of 
retrogression from the glorious position of France under the 
Capetians. Weakness of the royal line. Trials and mistakes of 
the period of the Hundred Years' War. Awakening of the bour- 
geoisie. Renewed strength of the feudal nobility leading to civil 
war and almost wrecking the monarchy. The decline and deso- 
lation of the city of Paris an index of the times. 

3. The causes of the war: (1) territorial: the standing menace 
to France of the remnants of the old Norman empire on the con- 
tinent; (2) dynastic: the claim of king Edward III of France to 
the French crown; (3) economic: the English wool-trade with 
Flanders, Jacob van Artevelde of Ghent. Relations of France with 
Scotland. 

4. The succession to the French throne in 1328: 



Philip III, 1270-1285 



I 
Philip IV, 1285-1314 



Charles of 
Valois 

I 

Philip VI 
(1328-1350) 



Louis X Philip V Charles IV Isabella 
1314-1316 1316-1322 1322-1328 m. Edward II 
d. without d. without d. without of England 
a son a son a son 

Edward III 
of England 



5. The periods of the war: (1) 1338-1380, first forty -year period 
of active war ending favorably for France; (2) 1380-1415, thirty- 
five year period of disastrous comparative peace; (3) 1415-1453, 
second forty-year period of active war, ending with the expulsion 
of the English from France. 



HUNDRED YEARS' WAR 277 

6. The war to 1360. English naval victory at Sluys, 1340. The 
war in Brittany. Defeat of the French at Cr6cy, April, 1346. 
Calais captured by the English in 1347. Overwhelming defeat of 
the French at Poitiers, 1356, where the French king, John II, was 
captured. For the Black Death and the Jacquerie see outline XXVI 
above. The treaty of Bretigny, 1360. 

7. Constitutional upheaval in France 1355-1358. The question 
of taxation and mismanagement of funds before the Estates Gen- 
eral. Etienne Marcel, provost of the merchants of Paris, and 
Robert le Coq, bishop of Laon. The "Great Ordinance" of 1357. 
Complications caused by the Jacquerie. Failure of the constitutional 
movement and the execution of Etienne Marcel in 1358. 

8. French successes, 1360-1378. The "Great Company" of 
freebooters in France. Bertrand du Guesclin and the Black Prince. 
Eenewal of the war in 1369. Gradual recovery of territory by 
the French until in 1378 the English held only Bayonne, Bordeaux, 
Brest, Cherbourg, and Calais. 

9. France during the great western schism, 1378-1417. Weak- 
ness of Charles VI, 1380-1422, who became insane in 1392. The 
defeat of the Flemish under Philip van Arteveld at the battle of 
Roosebek, 1382, was an index of the rise of the feudal nobility to 
old-time power. Riots in Paris. The Marmouscts. The Tucliins. 
The struggle for the regency led to civil war between the Bur- 
gundians and Orleanists (Armagnacs). Reign of terror in Paris 
(Cabochiens) . 

10. The English invasion of France under king Henry V, 1415, 
aided by the Burgundian party. His claim to the French crown. 
Victory of the English at Agincourt, 1415. Treaty of Troyes, 1420. 
When Henry V of England and Charles VI of France died in 1422, 
Henry VI, son of Henry V, was proclaimed at Paris king of France 
and ( England, according to the terms of this treaty. Weakness of 
the French king, Charles VII (1422-1461), who was besieged in 
Orleans, 1428. 

11. Joan of Arc. A peasant girl born in Domr6my in Lorraine. 
Her "voices." In 1429 she raised the siege of Orleans and had 
Charles VII crowned at Rheims. Her capture, trial, and death at 
the stake, in the market place of Rouen, May 30, 1431, at about 
nineteen years of age. Her rehabilitation. Joan of Arc and French 
patriotism. 

12. The expulsion of the English from France. The Ecorcheurs. 
Philip of Burgundy became reconciled with Charles VII by the 
treaty of Arras. The English lost Normandy in 1450, Guienne in 
1453, and retained only Calais. 



278 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PABTII 

13. Results of the Hundred Years' War. Eeaction in favor of 
absolutism. Low state of civilization in France at the end of the 
war. The projected crusade against the Turks in 1454. 

14. Louis XI, 1461-1483, and Charles the Bold of Burgundy. 
Leagues of the Public Weal. Death of Charles at Nancy in 1477 
and the dismemberment of the Burgundian possessions. The House 
of Austria in the Netherlands. Autocratic rule of Louis XI. 
Decline of the feudal nobility. 

15. The invasion of Italy by Charles VIII in 1494 began a 
new era in the history of France. 

16. Civilization, learning, and art in France during the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries. 

17. The Valois kings of France, 1328-1498: 

Philip VI, 1328-1350. 
John II. 1350-1364. 
Charles V, 1364-1380. 
Charles VI, 1380-1422. 
Charles VII, 1422-1461. 
Louis XI, 1461-1483. 
Charles VIII, 1483-1498. 

18. Kings of England, 1327-1485: 

Edward III, 1327-1377. 
Richard II, 1377-1399. 
Henry IV, 1399-1413. 
Henry V, 1413-1422. 
Henry VI, 1422-1461. 
Edward IV, 1461-1483. 
Edward V, 1483. 
Richard III, 1483-1485. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

Brief general accounts. ADAMS, Growth of the French nation, 
108-146. A. HASSELL, The French people, ehs. vin-ix. C. HEADLAM, 
France, chs. x-xin. 

For military history, see OMAN, Art of war, book VIII ; and 
MUNBO and SELLERY, Medieval civilization, 547-574, "The French 
army in the time of Charles VII." 

Longer general accounts. KITCHEN, History of France, I, book 
IV, II, book I. MASSON, Mediaeval France, chs. ix-xvi. LODGE, 
Close of the middle ages, ehs. iv, xv-xvi. LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, 
Histoire generale, III, ehs. ii-rv. J. LOSERTH, Gescliiclite des spdteren 
Mittelalters, 324-342, 541-562, 670-683. The standard account in 
French is LAVISSE, Histoire de France, IV, both parts. 



HUNDRED YEARS' WAR 279 

The Black Prince and Bertrand Du Guesclin. R. P. DUNN-PAT- 
TISON, The Black Prince, London, 1910. E. V. STODDARD, Bertrand 
du Guesclin, constable of France: his life and times, New York, 1897. 

Joan of Arc. There is an immense amount of literature on the 
Maid of Orleans. Unfortunately, much of it is marred by bitter 
polemics. A fairly safe course for the English reader is to approach 
the subject through the pages of two American writers, H. C. LEA, 
The inquisition of the middle ages, III, 338-378; and F. C. LOWELL, 
Joan of Arc, Boston, 1896. Following are some of the more recent 
biographies. A. FRANCE, Vie de Jeanne d'Arc, 2 vols., Paris, 1908, 
translated by WINIFRED STEPHENS, Life of Joan of Arc, London, 
1909. A. LANG, The maid of France: being the story of the life and 
death of Jeanne d'Arc, London and New York, 1908, is in large 
measure a review of the book by A. France. G. HANOTAUX, Jeanne 
d'Arc, Paris, 1911. MARY B. BANGS, Jeanne d'Arc, the maid of 
France, Boston, 1910. GRACE JAMES, Joan of Arc, New York, 1910. 

Louis XI and Charles the Bold. A. C. S. HAGGARD, Louis XI 
and Charles the Bold, London, 1913. C. HARE (pseudonym), The 
life of Louis XI, the rebel dauphin and the statesman king, from 
his original letters and other documents, London and New York, 1907. 
E. A. FREEMAN, "Charles the Bold," in his Historical essays, first 
series, 314-372. RUTH PUTNAM, Charles tlie Bold: last duke of Bur- 
gundy, 14SS-1477, New York, 1908. 

Civilization, learning, and art. The best account is in LAVISSE, 
Histoire de France, IV, part II, 115-227, 436-452, where an abund- 
ance of literature is cited, much of which appears in part III below, 
but cannot be given in detail under this outline. 

Original sources. The one inimitable contemporary narrator of 
the first part of the Hundred Years' War is Sir JOHN FROISSART, The 
chronicles of England, France, and tlie adjoining countries, from the 
latter part of the reign of Edward II to the coronation of Henry IV, 
translated from the French by T. JOHNES, 4 vols., London, 1803-1810 
(often reprinted). For a rapid survey, such condensations as the 
volume in Everyman's library, London and New York, 1906; and 
the Globe edition of The clironiclcs of Froissart, edited by G. C. 
MACAULAY, London and New York, 1899, do very well. FROISSART 's 
Chronicles were continued by ENGUERRAND DE MONSTRELET, The 
chronicles of Monstrelet, containing the cruel wars between the houses 
of Orleans and Burgundy, 1400 ff., translated by T. JOHNES, 2 vols., 
London, 1867. For the times of Louis XI and Charles VIII, we have 
Tin- inriniiin-ft nf PHILIP DE COMMINES, to which is added the Scandal- 
ous chronicle, or secret history of Louis XI, by JEAN DE TROYES, 2 
vols., London, 1900. 



280 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

The chief contemporary materials for Joan or Arc are trans- 
lated in Jeanne d'Arc, maid of Orleans, deliverer of France: being 
the story of her life, her achievements, and her death, as attested on 
oath and set forth in original documents, edited by T. D. MURRAY, 
new and revised edition, New York, 1907. 

Interesting extracts from these works, together with some other 
material, will be found in EOBINSON, Readings, I, 466-487; OGG, 
Source book, 418-443; E. P. CHEYNEY, Readings in English history, 
New York, 1908, 225-305; and W. J. ASHLEY, The wars of Edward 
III, London, 1887. 

The best description of the most important contemporary writings 
of this period is by G. MASSON, Early chroniclers of Europe: France. 
chs. xi-xvi. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 76-79, 81, 84. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. The general histories of France, Belgium, and 
the Netherlands are listed above, nos. 508-559. See also nos. 338, 
89, 92-93 above. 

The Hundred Years' War in general. S. LUCE, La France 
pendant la guerre de cent ans, 2 vols., Paris, 1890-94, is the funda- 
mental work. J. LACHAUVELAYE, Guerres des Francois et des Anglais 
du Xle au XV e siecle, Paris, 1875. A. JOUBERT, Les invasions 
anglaises en Anjou au XIV e et XVe siecle, Paris, 1872. The military 
history of the war is treated in E. HARDY, La guerre de cent ans, 
1346-1453, Paris, 1879 (extract from "1'Histoire de la tactique")- 
See also the literature on the art of war, p. 262 above, and for naval 
battles, EONCIERE, no. 546 above. G. GUIBAL, Histoire du sentiment 
national en France pendant la guerre de cent ans, Paris, 1875. E. 
LEVASSEUR, La population frangaise, 3 vols., Paris, 1889-1892, in vol. 
I touches upon the depopulation in France and especially Paris during 
the war. S. B. TERRY, The financing of the Hundred Years' War, 
1337-1360, London, 1914. ELEANOR C. LODGE, The estates of the 
archbishop and chapter of Saint-Andre of Bordeaux under English 
rule, Oxford, 1912. P. FOURNIER, Le rcyaume d' Aries et de Vienne. 

Great battles of the war. H. BELLOC, Crecy, London, 1912 (Brit- 
ish battles); and his Poitiers, London, 1913 (British battles). G. 
WROTTLESLEY, Crecy and Calais, London, 1898. E. CZEPPAN, Die 
Sctilacht bei Crecy, Berlin, 1906 (dissertation). N. H. NICOLAS, 
History of the battle of Agincourt and of the expedition of Henry V, 
London, 1827, 3rd edition, 1833. F. NIETHE, Die Schlacht bei Azin- 
court, 1415, Berlin, 1906 (58 pp.). A. DE LOISNE, La bataille d'Azin- 
ccurt, Paris, 1898 (15 pp.). 



HUNDRED YEARS' WAR 281 

First period, 1338-1380. H. DENIFLE, La desolation des eglises, 
DM.im.'iicrcs et hopitaux en France pendant la guerre de cent ana 
[to 1380], 2 vols., Paris, 1897-99, is by far the best history of this 
period. E. DEPREZ, Les preliminaires de la guerre de cent ans: la 
papaute, la France et I'Angleterre (1328-42), Paris, 1902, part 86 
of no. 887 above. J. CORDEY, Les comtes de Savoie et les rois de 
France pendant la guerre de cent aits (1329-1391), Paris, 1911, part 
189 of no. 888 above. C. PETIT DUTAILLIS and P. COLLIER, "La 
diplomatic franchise et le traite de Br<Jtigny, " in Le moyen age, X 
(1897), 1-35. J. VIARD, "La France sous Philippe de Valois," in 
Revue des questions histcriques, LIX (1896), 337-402. A. LEROUX, 
Kccherches critiques sur les relations politiques de I'Allemagne et 
de la France, 1S9S-1S78, Paris, 1882, part of no. 888 above. F. 
MICHEL, Les Ecossais en France, les Francais en Ecosse, 2 vols., 
London, 1862. 

Flanders. W. J. ASHLEY, James and Philip van Artevelde, Lon- 
don, 1883. H. PIRENNE, Le soulevement de la Flandre maritime de 
13&3-1388 : documents inedits publics avec une introduction, Brussels, 
1900. F. FUNCK-BRENTANO, Les origines de la guerre de cent ans: 
Philippe le Bel en Flandre, Paris, 1897. L. VANDERKINDERE, Le siecle 
des Artevelde, Brussels, 1879, 2nd edition, 1907. Baron KERVYN DE 
LETTENHOVE, Histoire de Flandre, 7 vols., Brussels, 1846-1850, 2nd 
edition, 5 vols., 1853-1854; and his Jacques d' Artevelde, Ghent, 1863. 

Etienne Marcel. F. T. PERRENS, Eticnne Marcel, prevot des 
marchnmls (1354-1358), Paris, 1874 (in Histoire g6ne>ale de Paris) ; 
see also his older work, Eticnne Marcel ct le gouvernement de la 
bourgeoisie au quatorzieme siecle (1356-58), Paris, 1860, and his La 
democratic en France au moyen age, histoire des tendances demo- 
cratiqucs dans les populations urbaines au XIV* et au XV* siecle, 
2 vols., Paris, 1875. L. LAZARD, Un bourgeois de Paris: Etienne 
Marcel, Paris, 1890. J. TESSIER, La mort d'Etienne Marcel, Paris, 
1886. 8. LUCE, Histoire de la Jacquerie, d'aprcs des documents in- 
. '-'ml edition, Paris, 1894. N. VALOIS, Le conseil du rot aux 
.\!\' ( -, XVe et XV1 sicclcs, Paris, 1888. A. DESJARDINS, Les Etats 
i-nux, 1350-1614, Paris, 1873. See also the literature on the 
K-tates General and the Parlement, outline XXV above. 

The Black Prince and Bertrand du Ouesclin. J. MOISANT, L< 
1' '< .Yi.iY n Aquiiaine, 1355-70, Paris, 1894. A. DEUIDOUK, Hit- 
ti.irt- de Du Guw'in, Paris, 1880. D. F. JAMISON, The life and times 
cf Bertrand du Guf satin: a history of the fourteenth century, London, 
1864. S. LUCE, La jcuncssc de Bertrand du Gucsdin, Paris, 1876. 
M. BOUDET, La Jacquerie des Inching (1S6S-1S84), Paris, 1895. 



282 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Charles V, 1364-1380. E. DELACHENAL, Histoire de Charles V, 
vols. I, II, Paris, 1909. M. PROU, Etude sur les relations politiques 
d'Urbain V avec les rois dc France Jean II et Charles V, Paris, 1888, 
part 76 of no. 888 above. E. LAVISSE, "Etude sur le pouvoir royal 
au temps de Charles V," in Revue historique, XXVI (1884), 233-80. 

Intermediate period, 1380-1415. N. VALOIS, La France et le 
grand schisme, is the best general history of France during this 
period. L. JARRY, La vie politique de Louis de France, due d' 'Orleans 
(1372-1408), Paris, 1889. L. MIROT, "Une tentative d 'invasion en 
Angleterre pendant la guerre de cent ans, 1385-86," in Revue des 
etudes historiques. 1915. A. COVILLE, Les Cabochiens et I'ordonnance 
de 1413, Paris, 1888. 

Charles VII, 1422-1461. G. DU FRESNE DE BEAUCOURT, Histoire 
de diaries VII et de son epoque, 6 vols., Paris., 1881-91. A. VALLET 
DE VIRIVILLE, Histoire de Charles VII et son epoque, 3 vols., Paris, 
1862-65. E. GLASSON, Le parlement de Paris: son role politique 
depuis le regne de Charles VII jusqu'd la Revolution, 2 vols., Paris, 
1901. A. LEROUX, Nouvelles recherches critiques sur les relations 
politiques de la France avec rAllcmagne de 1378 a 1461, Paris, 1882. 
A. TUETEY, Les Ecorcheurs sous Charles VII, 2 vols., Paris, 1874. 
H. PRUTZ, Jacques Coeur von Bourges: Geschichte eincs patriotisohen 
Kaufmanns aus dem 15 Jahrhundert, Berlin, 1911 (Historische 
Studien, 93). P. CLEMENT, Jacques Coeur et Charles VII, ou la 
France au XVe siecle, 2 vols., Paris, 1853, 4th edition, 1874. E. 
COSNEAU, Le connetable de Richemont (Arthur de Bretagne, 1393 
1458), Paris, 1886. J. QUICHERAT, Rodrique de Villandrano, I'un des 
combattants pour I 'independance frangaise au quinzieme siecle, Paris, 
1879. P. CHAMPION, Francois Villon, sa vie et son temps, 2 vols., 
Paris, 1913, throws interesting sidelights on life in Paris in the 
fifteenth century. 

Joan of Arc. The bibliography by P. LANERY D'ARC, Le livre 
d'or de Jeanne d'Arc: bibliographic raisonnee et ana'ytique des 
nuvrages relatifs d Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, 1894, has 2102 numbers. 
U. CHEVALIER, Repertoire: bio-bibliographie, II, 2513-2546, fur- 
nished a long alphabetical list which brought the bibliography up to 
the year 1907. Only specialists can use such stupendous lists with 
profit. Helpful criticism of the more recent literature is furnished 
by M. SEPET, "Jeanne d'Arc et ses plus recents historiens, " in Re- 
vue des questions historiques, LXXXVIII (1910), 107-134, who 
-writes from the Eoman catholic point of view. 

The following are some of the most important works by Roman 
catholics. P. H. DUNAND, Etudes critiques, 5 vols., Paris, 1903-09 ; 
and his Histoire complete de Jeanne d'Arc, 3 vols., Paris, 1898-1899. 



HUNDRED YEARS' WAR 283 

J. B. J. AYROLES, La vraie Jeanne d'Arc, 5 vo\s, and two supplements, 
Paris, 1890-1902 (one of the supplements treats L'universitS de 
Paris au temps de Jeanne d'Arc, et la cause de sa haine contre la 
liberatrice) . H. DEBOUT, La Jeanne d'Arc, grande histoire illustrte, 
2 vols., Paris, 1905-06. H. WALLON, Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, 1860, 7th 
edition, Paris, 1901, is also illustrated beautifully. J. QUICHERAT, 
Aperfus nouveaux sur I'histoire de Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, 1850. 

Following is a selection of a few of the more popular or more 
recent biographies. L. PETIT DE JULLEVILLE, La venerable Jeanne 
d'Arc, Paris, 1900 (Les Saints), translated into English, London, 
1907. M. SEPET, Jeanne d'Arc, Tours, 1885, often reprinted; and 
his La bienheureuse Jeanne d'Arc: son vrai caractere, Paris, 1909. 
A. MARTY, L'histoire de Jeanne d'Arc d'apres les documents orig- 
inaux et les oeuvres d'art du XV e au XIX e siecle, Paris, 1907, has 
an introduction by M. SEPET. F. DE BICHEMONT, Jeanne d'Arc 
d'apres les documents contemporains, Paris, 1913. 8. LUCE, Jeanne 
d'Arc d Domremy, Paris, 1886, 2nd edition, 1887. J. FABRE, Jeanne 
d'Arc liberatrice de la France, Paris, 1884. A. FABRE, Etude sur 
Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, 1912. Mrs. MARGARET OLIPHANT, Jeanne d'Arc: 
her life and death, London, 1896 (Heroes of the nations). B. GOWER, 
Jean of Arc, London, 1893. J. MICHELET, Jeanne d'Arc, 141%-SZ, 
Paris, 1890, is practically a reprint from his Histoire de France, vol. 
V. A. M. TONNA-BARTHET, Los dos prccesos de la Ven^ le Juana 
dc Arco, Barcelona, 1904. Lady CHARLOTTE BLENNERHASSETT, Die 
Jungfrau vcn Orleans, Bielefeld, 1906 ( Frauenleben, vol. IX). B. 
MAHKEXHCLTZ, Jeanne Dare in Geschichte, Legende, Dichtung, auf 
Grund ncurrcr F^rschung, Leipzig, 1890. K. II ASK. Die Jungfrau 
von Orleans, Leipzig, 1893. 

On the military career of Joan of Arc see the following: P. 
MAKIN, Jeanne d'Arc: tacticien et stratcgiste, 4 vols., Paris, 1889- 
90. H. BARANDE, Orleans et Jeanne d'Arc: etude critique et strate- 
gique du siege d'OrUans, Paris, 1910. F. CANONGE, Jeanne d'Arc 
guerriere, Paris, 1908. L. JARRY, Compte de I'arme'e anglalse au 
nege d'Orifans, Paris, 1892. BOUCHER DE MOLANDON and A. DE 
BEAUCORPS, L'armt'c anglaise vaincue par Jeanne d'Arc, Orleans, 
1892. P. CHAMPION, Gutilaume de Flavy, capitaine de Compiegne: 
contribution d I'huttoirc de Jeanne d'Arc, Paris, 1906. A. SOREL, 
Ld /'rise de Jeanne d'Arc devant Compiegne, Paris, 1889. 

Some special studies on Joan of Arc. C 1 * C. DE MALEYSSIE, Les 
lilina fit- Jilumne d'Arc et la pretenduc abjuration de Saint-Omn. 
with a preface by G. HANOTAUX, Paris, 1911. IRENE M. BOPE, "The 
Iftt.-rs of Jeanne d'Arc: an epitome," in Dublin review, CLVI 
(1915), 57-72. E. PRUTZ, "Die Briefe Jeanne d'Arcs," in Sitzungs- 



284 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

berichte of the Munich Academy, 1914, I; see also his "Die falsehe 
Jungfrau von Orleans (1436-57)," ibid., 1911; and "Studien zur 
Geschiehte der Jungfrau von Orleans, ' ' ibid , 1913, 2. H. DENIFLE, 
and E. CHATELAIN, "Le proces de Jeanne d'Arc et 1 'universitS de 
Paris," in Memoires de la Scciete de I'histoire de Paris, XXIV 
(1897), 1-32. G. GOYATJ, Jeanne d'Arc devant I'opinion allemande, 
Paris, 1907. M. SEPET, "Observations critiques sur I'histoire de 
Jeanne d'Arc, la relation officielle du proces de condamnation et la 
diplomatic de 1 'Angleterre, " in Eevue des questions historiques, 
XCVI (1914), 420-439. P. A. PIDOUX, Un precurseur de la bien- 
heureuse Jehanne d'Arc, le bienheureux Jehan de Gand: sa vie et 
son culte, Lille, 1912. A. BOULE, Jeans sans Peur et Jeanne d'Arc: 
cu, derniere periode de la guerre de cent ans, 2 vols., Paris, 1901. 
A. SARRAZIN, Jeanne d'Arc et la Normandie au XIV 6 siecle, Paris, 
1896; see also his Pierre Cauchon, Paris, 1901. E. BERGOT, Jeanne 
d'Arc et I'histoire mcdernc, Paris, 1914. 

Louis XI, 1461-1483. P. F. WILLERT, The reign of Louis XI, 
London, 1876 (Historical handbooks). A. DESJARDINS, Louis XI, 
sa politique exterieure, ses rapports avec I'ltalie, Paris, 1874. M. 
THIBAULT, La jeunesse de Louis XI (1423-44), Paris, 1906. E. BEY, 
Louis XI et les etats pontificaux de France au XVe siecle, d'apres 
des documents inedits, Grenoble, 1899. H. SEE, Louis XI et les vttles, 
Paris, 1891. J. COMBET, Louis XI et le saint-siege (1461-1483), 
Paris, 1903. A. GANDILHON, Contribution a I'histoire de la vie 
privee et la cour de Louis XI (1423-1481), Bourges, 1906. 

Burgundy and Charles the Bold. E. PETIT, Dues de Bourgogne 
de la maison Valois, d'apres des documents inedits, vol. I, Philippe 
le Hardi, part I, 1363-1380, Paris, 1909, continues his great work, 
Histoire des dues de Bourgogne de la race capetienne, O. CARTELLIERI, 
Geschichte der Herzoge von Burgund, 1363-1477, vol. I, Philipp der 
Kiihne, Leipzig, 1910. A. G. P. B. DE BARANTE, Histoire des dues de 
Bourgogne, 1364-1477, 13 vols., Paris, 1824 ff., 8th edition, 1858. 
J. F. KIRK, History of Charles the Bold, 3 vols., London, 1863-1868. 
P. FREDERICQ, Le role politique et social des dues de Bourgogne dans 
les Pays-Bas, Ghent, 1875. E. TOUTEY, Charles le Temeraire et la 
ligue de Constance, Paris, 1902. 

Charles VIII, 1483-1498. H. F. DELABORDE, L' 'expedition de 
Charles VIII, Paris, 1888. E. HERBST, Der Zug Karl's VIII nach 
Italien im Urtett der italienisclien Zeitgenossen, Berlin, 1911 (part 
28 of Abhandlungen zur mittleren und neueren Geschichte). 

Original sources. Practically all the essential contemporary 
sources may be found in the large collections on French history, 
nos. 965-979 above. Much may also be found in the Eolls Series, 



xxxi GERMANY IN LATER MIDDLE AGES 285 

no. 995 above, such as nos. 22 and 32, Letters and papers illustrative 
of the wars of the English in France during the reign of Henry VI, 
king of England, 2 vols., London, 1861-4; and Narratives of the 
expulsion of tlie English from Normandy, 1449-50, London, 1863, 
both edited by J. STEVENSON. The treaties of the war are printed 
in RYMER, Foedera, no 996 above, but we have a better collection 
by E. COSNEAU, Les grandes traites de la guerre de cent ans, Paris, 
1889, vol. 7 of no. 968 above. 

Almost everything of importance concerning Joan of Arc is in 
Proces de condamnation et de rehabilitation de Jeanne d'Aro... 
suiris de tcus les documents historiques qu'on a pu reunir et accom- 
IKKjncs de notes, edited by J. QUICHERAT, 5 vols., Paris, 1841-1849, 
part 12 of no. 966 above. The extracts from it, translated into 
English by MURRAY, have been mentioned above. Similar trans- 
lations of extracts into French have been made by J. FABRE, Proces 
de condemnation de Jeanne d'Arc, d'apres les textes authcntiques des 
proces-verbaux offisicls, traduction avec eclaircissements, Paris, 1884, 
and his Proces de rehabilitation de Jeanne d'Arc, raconte et traduit 
d'apres les textes latins officiels, 2 vols., Paris, 1888, new edition, 
Paris, 1913. 

Bibliographies. MOLINIER, Les sources de I'histoire de France, 
IV-V, dissects the original sources for this period in great detail. 
The best practical guide for both sources and secondary works is 
LAVISSE, Histoire de France, IV (bibliographies in footnotes). For 
the general bibliographies on France, see nos. 21-27 above, and for 
Belgium, no. 45 above, which is particularly useful for this period. 



XXXI. GERMANY FROM THE GREAT INTERREGNUM TO 
MAXIMILIAN I, 1273-1493 

A. OUTLINE 

1. Contrast between decentralization in Germany and central- 
ization in France during this period. Persistence of the bond 
between Germany and Italy based on the idea of universal empire. 
Importance of the great feudal princes in Germany. The great 
houses of Ascania, Welf, Wittelsbach, Wettin, and the rising 
houses of Luxemburg, Ilapsburg, and Hohenzollern. The impor- 
tant fcclfsinst icnl princes, especially the archbishop of Mainz, 
Cologne, and Trier (Troves). The independent imperial cities such 
as Liilwck, Bremen, and Rostock in the north, and Nurnberg and 
Augsburg in the south. 



286 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

2. The new empire after the Great Interregnum. Rudolf, count 
of Hapsburg, elected emperor in 1273 chiefly with the aid of his 
cousin, Frederick III of Hohenzollern, Burggraf of Niirnberg. The 
Habichtsburg in Switzerland. Rudolf's German policy. War with 
Ottokar of Bohemia. His failure to have his son succeed him. 
Adolf of Nassau, 1292-1298, intervened between Rudolf and his 
son, Albert I, 1298-1308. 

3. Henry VII of Luxemburg, 1308-1313, and the sporadic re- 
vival of old imperial claims in Italy. John of Luxemburg, king 
of Bohemia in 1310. Henry VII descent into Italy where he died 
in Siena, 1313. Dante's De monarchia. 

4. Origin of the Swiss Confederacy. The league of 1291 be- 
tween the cantons Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden. Recognized by 
Henry VII in 1309. The legend of William Tell and the imperial 
bailiff Gessler. Victory of the Swiss confederates at Morgarten 
in 1315 over Leopold of Austria. Gradual expulsion of Austria 
from Switzerland. Battle of Sempach, 1386. Practical inde- 
pendence of Switzerland, which was finally recognized in the 
Peace of Westphalia, 1648. 

5. Disputed election in 1314 and civil war between Louis of 
Bavaria and Frederick of Austria, son of Albert. The trouble 
with the pope at Avignon, John XXII. Louis was crowned 
emperor in Rome, by the anti-pope Nicholas V. The war of 
pamphlets. Marsiglio of Padua's Defensor pads and the writings 
of other supporters of Louis against the papacy such as William 
of Ockam, John of Jandun, and Michael Cesena, the general of 
the Franciscan order. The Declaration of Rense, 1338. 

6. The development of the electoral college. Gradual emerg- 
ence of the seven electors, three ecclesiastical lords: (1) Arch- 
bishop of Mainz, (2) Archbishop of Trier, (3) Archbishop of 
Cologne; and four lay princes: (4) King of Bohemia, (5) Count 
Palatine of the Rhine, (6) Duke of Saxony, and the (7) Margrave 
of Brandenburg. 

7. Charles IV of Bohemia, 1347-1378, and the Golden Bull of 
1356. The establishment of the university of Prague in 1348. 
The Black Death in Germany. The Flagellants. 

8. Decline of imperial power in the period of the great western 
schism and the conciliar movement. The emperor Sigismund, 1410- 
1437, at the council of Constance. The Hussite wars, 1419-1436. 

9. Private leagues strove to preserve order. The Hanseatic 
League and the Swiss Confederation have been treated elsewhere. 
League of Rhenish cities. The Swabian League of cities. Asso- 
ciations of lesser nobles. 



GERMANY IN LATER MIDDLE AGES 287 

10. The Hapsburgs in the fifteenth century, beginning with 
Albert II in 1438. Frederick III, 1440-1493, and his advisor, 
Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (pope Pius II). Marriage of Fred- 
eri"k 's son, archduke Maximilian, with Mary, the daughter and 
heiress of Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, who died in 1477. 
The Turkish menace. Futile efforts at constitutional reform. 

11. German civilization in the fifteenth century. Conditions 
which prepared for the protestant revolt in the sixteenth century. 

12. German emperors, 1273-1519. 

Rudolf I (of Hapsburg), 1273-1292. 
Adolf (of Nassau), 1292-1298. 
Albert I (of Hapsburg), 1298-1308. 
Henry VII (of Luxemburg), 1308-1314. 
Louis IV (of Bavaria), 1314-1347. 

(Frederick of Austria, rival.) 
Charles IV (of Luxemburg), 1347-1378. 

(Giinther of Schwarzburg, rival.) 
Wenzel (of Luxemburg), 1378-1400. 
Rupert (of the Palatinate), 1400-1410. 
Sigismund (of Luxemburg), 1410-1438. 

(Jobst of Moravia, rival.) 
Albert II (of Hapsburg), 1438-1440. 
Frederick III (of Hapsburg), 1440-1493. 
Maximilian I (of Hapsburg), 1493-1519. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOE READING 

Brief general accounts. BRYCE, Holy Roman empire, chs. xin-xv, 
xvn. HKNDKHSON, A short history of Germany, I, chs. Vl-x. There are 
a few stimulating pages in E. LAVISSE, Political history of Europe, 
45-57. 

Longer general accounts. LODGE, The close of the middle ages, 
chs. i, v-vn, xvn. LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire gentrale, III, 
rh. xii. LOSKKTII. Geschichte de* spdtercn Mittelalters, 177-203, 
246-324, 416-452, 643-670. GEBHARDT, Handbuch dcr deutschen 
Geschichte, I, chs. Xll-xiv. W. STUBBS, Germany in the later middle 
ti'iex, IgOO-lSOO. 

Marsiglio of Padua. R. L. POOLE, Illustrations of the history 
of medieval th( u/ilit. rh. ix, "The opposition to the temporal claims 
of the p:ip:iry. " W. A. DUNNING, A history of political theories, 
ch. ix, "Theories during the <i< dine of the papal hegemony." J. N. 
FIGGIS, The theory of the divine right of Ai/u/.s. Cambridge, 1896, 
Jin I edition, I'.HI. ch. Ill, "The holy Roman empire and tin- papacy." 



GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PART a 

Switzerland. W. D. MCCRACKEN, The rise of the Swiss republic, 
Boston, 1892, 2nd edition, revised and enlarged, New York, 1901 
(see 92-104 for the legend of William Tell). K. DANDLIKEB, A 
short history of Switzerland, translated by E. SALISBURY from the 
2nd edition of his Lehrbuch, revised, New York, 1899, second period, 
pp. 37-125. LINA HUG and R. STEAD, Switzerland, New York, 1890 
(Story of the nations), chs. ix-xv. A. SCHULTE, "Tiber Staaten- 
bildung in der Alpenwelt, " in Historisches Jahrbuch (1901), 1-22. 

Original sources. The Golden Bull is translated in HENDERSON, 
Select documents, 220-261, and also in THATCHER and McNEAL, 
Source book, 283-305, along with other material pertaining to this 
outline on pp. 260-308. A portion of the Golden Bull, showing the 
seal, is reproduced in facsimile in Weltgeschiohte, edited by J. v. 
PFLUGK-HARTTUNG, II, 464. 

The De monarchic of DANTE is translated by AURELIA HENRY, 
Boston, 1904, and also by E. W. CHURCH, Dante and other essays, 
London, 1901, 175-308. F. W. COKER, Readings in political philo- 
sophy, New York, 1914, 139-167, contains some extracts from 
DANTE'S De monarchia and MARSIGLIO'S Defensor pads. There are 
also some brief extracts of the latter in ROBINSON, Readings, I, 
491-497. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 77-79, 85-88, 91. Special maps for 
Switzerland are, Historisch-geographischer Atlas der Schweiz, edited 
by J. C. VOGELIN and others, Zurich (Schulthess) ; and OECHSLI- 
BALDAMUS, Wandkarte zur Schweizergeschichte, 2nd edition, Leipzig, 
1902. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. The general histories of Germany are listed 
above, nos. 560-598. See also those of Bohemia, nos. 699-703 
above. 

General surveys. T. LINDNER, Deutsche Geschichte under den 
Habsburgern und Luxemburgern, 1273-1437, 2 vols., Stuttgart, 
1888-1893, is continued by V. VON KRAUS, Deutsche Geschichte im 
Ausgange des Mittelalters, 1438-1517, vol. I (1438-1493), Stuttgart, 
1888-1905, both parts of no. 560 above. W. COXE, History of the 
house of Austria, 1278-1792, 3 vols., London, 1882. O. LORENZ, 
Deutsche Geschichte im 13 und 14 Jahrhundert, 2 vols., Vienna, 
1863-1867. A. SCHULTZ, Deutsches Leben im 14 und 15 Jahrhundert, 
Leipzig, 1892. K. ZEUMER, Heiliges romisches Reich deutscher 
Nation, discusses the titles applied to the empire during this and 
earlier periods. W. SCHEFFLER, Die Portrats der deutschen Kaiser 
und Konige im spdteren Mittelalter von Adolf von Nassau bis Max- 
imilian I, 12921519 (in Repertorium fur Kunstwissenschaft, 33). 



xxxi GERMANY IN LATER MIDDLE AGES 289 

Eudolf I, 1273-1292. O. REDLICH, Budolf von Habsburg: das 
ilf a (ache Eeich nach dem Untergange des alien Kaisertums, Inns- 
bruck, 1903. H. OTTO, Die Beziehungcn Rudolfs von Habsburg zu 
Papst Gregor X, Innsbruck, 1894. J. HELLER, Deutschland und 
Frankreich in ihren politischen Beziehungen vom Ende des Inter- 
regnums bis zum Tode Budolfs von Habsburg, Gottingen, 1874. 

Adolf, 1292-1298, and Albert I, 1298-1308. F. W. E. BOTH, 
Geschichte des romischen Konigs Adolf I von Nassau, Wiesbaden, 
1879. A. BERGENGRUN, Die politischen Beziehungen Deutschlands zu 
Frankrcich wiihrend der Eegierung Adolf s von Nassau, Strasburg, 
1884. H. HENNEBERG, Die politischen Beziehungen zwischen Deutsch- 
land und Fnuikrcich unter Konig Albrecht I, 1298-1308, Strasburg, 
1891 (dissertation). 

Henry VII, 1308-1314. K. GRAPE, Die Persohnlichkeit Kaiser 
Heinrichs VII, Leipzig, 1911. M. KRAUSSOLD, Die politischen Bezie- 
hungen zwischen Deutschland und Frankreich wdhrend der Eegierung 
llfinrichs VII, Munich, 1900 (dissertation). G. SOMMERFELDT, Die 
Somfahrt Kaiser Heinrichs VII (1310-1313), Konigsberg, 1888. 
K. WENCK, Clemens V und Heinrich VII, Halle, 1882. 

Louis of Bavaria, 1314-1347. R. MOELLER, Ludwig der Bayer 
und die Kurie im Kampf um das Eeich: Forschungen, Berlin, 1914. 
J. v. DOLLINGER, ' ' Deutschlands Kampf mit dem Papstthum unter 
Kaiser Ludwig dem Bayer" (in his Akademische Vortrdge, I), 
translated into English, "The struggle of Germany with the 
papacy under the emperor Ludwig of Bavaria," in his Studies in 
European history, London, 1890. K. MULLER, Der Kampf Ludwigs 
des Bayern mit der romischen Kurie, 2 vols., Tubingen, 1879-1880. 
G. SIEVERS, Die politischen Beziehungen Kaiser Ludwigs des Bayern 
zu Frankreich, 1S14-1347, Berlin, 1896 (part 2 of Historische 
Studien). W. ALTMANN, Der Edmerzug Ludwigs des Baiern, Berlin, 
1886. K. HOHLBAUM, "Der Kurverein zu Rense, 1338," in Abhand- 
lungen der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaftcn zu Gottingen, VII, 1903. 

Marsiglio of Padua and political thought in the fourteenth 
century. S. RIEZLER, Die litcrarischen Wiedersacher der Papste tur 
/ill I.iiilii'n/ ilcs Bayers, Leipzig, 1874. J. SULLIVAN, "Marsiglio of 
I'mliia :ui<l Willinin of Ockam," in American historical review, II 
(1896-1897), 409-426, 593-610. N. VALOIS, "Jean de Jandun et 
Marsile de Padoue: auteurs du 'Defensor pacis, ' " in Hixtoirr 
litii'raire de la Frm; , .\\MI1 (1906), 528-623. R. SCHOLZ, Studien 
nhi / il-i /lolilixi-ln n SI nitschriften des 14 und 15 Jahrhundcrts, Rome, 
1909 (part 12 of Quellen und Forschungen aus italienischen 
An-liivni und Bibliotheken), and his "Marsilius von Padua und 
die Idee der Dcmokratic," in Zcitschrift fiir Politik, I. L. STIEGLITZ, 



290 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Die Staatstheorie des Marsilius von Padua: ein Beitrag zur Kennt- 
niss der Staatslehre im Mittelalter, Leipzig, 1914 (Beitrage zur 
Kulturgeschichte des Mittelalters und der Eenaissance, edited by 
GOETZ, 19). M. GUGGENHEIM, "Marsilius von Padua und die 
Staatslehre des Aristoteles, " in Historische Fierteljahrschrift, VII 
(1904), 343-362. H. FINKE, "Zu Dietrich von Niem und Marsilius 
von Padua," in Edmische Quartal-Schrift, VII. A. BAUDRILLABD, 
' ' Les idees qu 'on se f aisait au XIV* siecle sur le droit d 'inter- 
vention du Souverain Pontif dans les affaires politiques, " in Eevue 
d'histoire et de litterature religieuse (1898). B. LABANCA, Marsilio 
da Padova, Padua, 1882. G. VON LECHLER, Der Kirchenstaat -und die 
Opposition gegen den pdbstlichen Absolutismus im Anfange des 14 
Jahrhunderts, Leipzig, 1870. A. FRANK, Eeformateurs et publicistes 
de I'Europe: moyen age Eenaissance, Paris, 1864, discusses Dante 
and MarsigHo of Padua on pp. 108-151. J. SILBERNAGL, "Wilhelms 
von Occam Ansichten iiber Kirche und Staat, " in Historisches 
Jahrbuch, VII (1886), 423-433. 

Switzerland. K. DANDLIKER, Geschichte der Schweiz, 3 vols., 
Zurich, 1884-1887, vol I, 4th edition, 1901, vols. II and III, 3rd 
edition, 1902-1903. There is an abridgment of this work under 
the title, Auszug aus der Schweizergeschichte, Zurich, 1910. The 
same author's Schweizerische Geschichte, Leipzig, 1904 (Sammlung 
Goschen), is an earlier abridgment. J. DIERAUER, Geschichte der 
schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft, vols. I-IV, Gotha, 1887-1912, 
part of no. 332 above. H. VULLIETY, La Suisse d travers les ages: 
histoire de la civilisation depuis les temps prehfetoriques jusqu'd la 
fin du XVIlIe siecle, Paris, 1902, has many illustrations. J. VON 
MULLER, Geschichte schweizerischer Eidgenossenschaft mit alien 
Fortsetzungen, 26 vols., Leipzig, 1806-1855, translated into French 
by C. MONNARD and L. VULLIEMIN, Histoire de la confederation 
suisse, 18 vols., Paris, 1837-1851. Archiv fur Schweizergeschichte, 
20 vols., extends to 1875; followed by Jahrbuch fur Schweizerge- 
schichte, 1876ff. 

F. G. BAKER, The model republic: a history of the rise and 
progress of the Swiss people, London, 1895, is disappointing. W. 
OCHSLI, Die Anfange der schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft, Bern, 
1891, and his Bausteine zur Schweizergeschichte, Zurich, 1891. W. 
PLATTNER, Die Entstehung des Freistaats der drei Biinde und sein 
Verhaltnis zur alien Eidgenossenschaft, Davos, 1895. J. HURBIN, 
Handbuch der Schweizergeschichte, 2 vols., Stans, 1901-1909. M. 
DE LA RIVE, Histoire abregee de la confederation suisse, 2 vols., 2nd 
edition, Geneva, 1907. B. VAN MUYDEN, Histoire de la nation )/.''. 
3 vols., Lausanne, 1899-1901. A. DAQUET, Histoire de la confedera- 
tion suisse, 7th edition, revised, 2 vols., Geneva and Paris, 1879. 



xxxi GERMANY IN LATER MIDDLE AGES 291 

A. HUBER, Die Waldstatte Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden bis zur ersten 
Begriindung ihrer Eiagenossenschaft, Innsbruck, 1861. A. RILLIET, 
Les origines de la confederation suisse: histoire et legende, Geneva, 
1868, 2nd edition, 1869. L. VULLIEMIN, Histoire de la confedera- 
tion suisse, 2 vols., revised edition, Lausanne, 1879. O. HENNE-AM- 
RHYN, Geschichte des Schweizervolkes und seiner Kultur, 3 vols., 
Leipzig, 1865-1866. 

Special books on the Tell legend are: A. BERNOULLI, Die Sagen 
von Tell und Stauffacher: eine kritwche Untersuchung, Basle, 1899; 
and E. L. ROCHOLZ, Tell und Gessler in Sage una Geschichte, Heil- 
bronn, 1877. 

Charles IV, 1347-1378, and the Golden Bull. E. WERUNSKY, 
Geschichte Kaiser Karls IF und seiner Zeit, vols. I-III (1316-1368), 
Innsbruck, 1880-1892. K. ZEUMER, Die Goldene Bulle Kaiser Karls 
IV, 2 vols., Weimar, 1908. O. HALM, Ursprung und Bedeutung der 
goldenen Bulle Karls IF, Breslau, 1902 (dissertation). W. SCHEFF- 
LER, Karl IF und Innocenz VI: Beitrdge zur Geschichte ihrer Bezie- 
hungen (1355-1360), Berlin, 1912 (part 101 of Historische Studien). 
8. GROTEFEND, Die Erwcrbungspolitik Kaiser Karls IF, Berlin, 1909. 

Wenzel, 1378-1400, and Rupert, 1400-1410. T. LINDNER, Ge- 
xchichte des deutschen Eeichs unter Konig Wenzel, 2 vols., Braun- 
schweig, 1875-1880. C. HOEFLER, Euprecht von der Pfalz, genannt 
Clem, romischer Konig, 1400-1410, Freiburg, 1861. 

Sigismund. J. ASCHBACH, Geschichte Kaiser Sigmunds, 4 vols., 
Hamburg, 1838-1845. O. SCHIFF, Konig Sigmunds italienische Politik 
bis zur Somfahrt (1410-1431), Frankfurt, 1909. E. GOLLER, Konig 
Sigismunds Kirchenpolitik vom Tode Bonifaz' IX bis zur Berufung 
des Konstanzer Konzils (1404-1413), Freiburg, 1901. 

Habsburgs in the fifteenth century. W. WOSTRY, Konig Albrecht 
II (14S7-14S9), 2 parts, Prague, 1906-1907. A. BACHMANN, Deutsche 
Beichsgeschichte im Zeitalter Friedrichs III und Maximilian I, vol. I 
(1461-1468), vol. II, parts I and II (1467-1486), Leipzig, 1884- 
1894. K. KASER, Deutsche Geschichte zur Zeit Maximilians I, U86- 
1519, Berlin, 1912, part of no. 560 above. C. HARE, Maximilian the 
dreamer, hohj Roman emperor, 1459-1519, London, 1913. 

Constitutional history of Germany. O. EBERBACH, Die deutsche 
lit ii-lixritti-rxi-lm/t in ihrer staatsrechtlich-politischen Entwicklung von 
den Anfangcn bis zum Jahre 1495, Leipzig, 1913 (in Beitriige 
/.nr Kulturgeschichte des Mittelalters und der RenaisHance). M. 
KRAMMER, Das Kurfiirstenkolleg von seinen Anfiingen bis zum 
/iixiitiinit'iifsrlihtits im Kcnscr Kurverein des Jahres 1S38, Weimar, 
191.3 (in Quellen und Studien). T. LINDNER, Die deutschen Konigs- 
iraltliii and die Entstehung des Kurfiirstcnthums, Leipzig, 1893. O. 
HARNACK, Das Kurfiirstencollegium bis zur Mitte des viersehnten 



292 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PAKTII 

Jahrhunderts, Giessen, 1883. F. SCHONHERR, Die Lehre vom Beichs- 
fiirtenstande des Mittelalters, Leipzig, 1914 (dissertation). H. 
SPANGENBERG, Vom Lehnstaat zum Standestaat, Munich, 1912. G. 
SEELIGER, Das deutsche Hofmeisteramt im spateren Mittelalter, Inns- 
bruck, 1885. T. LINDNER, Die Feme, Minister und Paderborn, 1888; 
and his Der angebliche Ursprung der Vemgerichte aus der Inquisition, 
Paderborn, 1890. 

Original sources. The general collections of source materials 
for this period are listed above, nos. 980-987. To these should be 
added, Deutsche BeichstagsaTcten, herausgegeben durch die histor- 
ische Kommission bei der kgl. Akademie der Wissenschaften, vols. 
I-XIII, Munich, 1867fL; and Acta imperil Angliae et Franciae ab 
anno 1267 ad annum 1313: Dolcumente vornehmlich zur Geschichte 
der auswartigen Beziehungen Deutschlands, edited by F. KERN, 
Tubingen, 1911. 

Extracts from the sources for the study of Switzerland may be 
found in Quellenbuch zur Schweizergeschichte, edited by W. OECHSLI, 
2 vols., 1893, vol. I, in 2nd edition, 1902 ; and E. GAGLIARDI, Geschichte 
der schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft bis zum Abschluss der mailand- 
ischen Kriege (1516) : Darstellung und Quellenberichte, Leipzig, 
1914 (Voigtlander's Quellenbiicher, 67). For large collections see 
no. 987 above; and Amtliche Sammlung der dlteren eidgenossischen 
Abschiede 1245 bis 1798, 8 vols., Luzern, Basle, and Zurich, 1839- 
1884. 

MARSIGLIO OF PADUA, Defensor pads, first printed in Basle, 1522, 
also in Monarchia romani imperil, edited by M. GOLDAST, 3 parts, 
Hannover and Frankfurt, 1611-1613, part II; in this same publica- 
tion are the principal works of WILLIAM of OCKAM in which he 
assails the papacy. Portions of MARSIGLIO 's work have been edited 
for class use in the following source books: MARSILIUS VON PADUA, 
Defensor pads, fur tibungszwecke, edited by K. SCHOLZ, Leipzig, 
1914 (Quellensammlung zur deutschen Geschichte) ; and MARSILIUS 
VON PADUA, "Defensor pads" : erstes Buch nach dem Erstdruck fiir 
Seminarubungen, edited by A. CARTELLIERI, Leipzig, 1913. See also 
Unbekannte kirchenpolitische Streitschriften aus der Zeit Ludwigs 
des Bayern (1327-1354), 2 vols., edited by E. SCHOLZ, Eome, 1911- 
1914, parts of no. 899 above. 

. Bibliographies. The standard bibliography for this subject is 
DAHLMANN-WAITZ, Quellerikunde, pp. 413-542. The other bibli- 
ographies for German history are listed above, nos. 29-35. For 
Bohemia see no. 47 above, and for Switzerland, see nos. 43-44 
above. For the Tell legend there is a special bibliography by F. 
HEINEMANN, TeU-Bibliographie, Bern, 1907. 



xxxn ITALY IN LATER MIDDLE AGES 293 

XXXII. ITALY IN THE FOURTEENTH AND FIFTEENTH 
CENTURIES 

A. OUTLINE 

1. Italy a "geographical expression," not a political entity in 
this period. Importance of the papacy and the empire in Italian 
history. Guelphs and Ghibellines. Predominance of Italian cities 
which developed a culture as marvellous as the world has ever 
seen. In this period Italy was the center of European civilization, 
whereas in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries that center was 
in France. Italy became the preceptress of modern Europe in 
politics. "Europe would certainly have learned political knavery 
without a master, but she profited by the lessons which she received 
from Italy. She fervently meditated the gospel according to 
Machiavelli. " E. Lavisse, General view, 82-83. 

2. The great states of Italy were the republics of Venice and 
Florence, the duchy of Milan, the kingdom of Naples, and the 
Papal States, but there were also many important minor states 
such as Genoa, Ferrara, Verona, Mantua, Urbino, and Rimini. 

3. The Sicilian Vespers, 1282. The misrule of Charles of Anjou 
in Sicily. The massacre of over 4000 French men, women and 
children in Sicily on Easter Monday, 1282. Peter III of Aragon, 
who had married Constance, a daughter of Manfred, became king 
of Sicily. Sicily and Naples had separate rulers until 1435, when 
they were united under the king of Aragon, Alfonso V, who was 
formally recognized as Alfonso I of Aragon in 1442. 

4. Rome during the "Babylonish Captivity" of the papacy. 
The Roman nobility, especially the Orsini and the Calonna. Cola 
di Rienzo and his buona stato, 1347. His exile and his return and 
execution in 1354. Cardinal Albornoz saved the Papal States for 
the papacy, 1353-1360. 

5. The age of the despots in Italy. The peculiar political con- 
ditions which created the podesta, the captain of the people, and 
the condottiere, also gave rise to the tyrant. The condottiere Sir 
John Hawkwood. Characteristics of typical tyrants. Their role 
as patrons of scholars and artists. Ezzelino da Romano (died 
1259). 

6. Milan. Its struggles with the Hohenstaufen. The rise of 
the Visconti family. Matteo Visconti, a vicar of the emperor, 
usurped authority in 1311. Gian Galeazzo, 1378-1402, duke of 
Milan. Filippo Maria, 1412-1447, the last of the Visconti. 
Attempt to establish a republic, 1447. In 1450, the successful con- 



294 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

dottiere, Francesco Sforza, became duke of Milan. War with 
Venice. His relations with France. Galeazzo Maria Sforza, 1466- 
1478. Ludovico il Moro called in the French king, Charles VIII, 
against Naples. This led finally to the expulsion of the Sforzas 
from Milan by Louis of Orleans. 

7. The remarkable growth of Venice in the time of the cru- 
sades. Her influence and her possessions in the Levant. The com- 
ing of the Ottoman Turks. Wars with Genoa (war of Chioggia, 
1378-1381), Padua and Milan. The constitution of Venice. Grad- 
ual development of an oligarchy. The doge and the Great Council. 
The Council of Ten in 1310. Eivalry between Venice and Milan 
in the fifteenth century (execution of Carmagnola, 1432). Wars 
with the Turks, 1463-1479, and the subsequent decline of Venice. 

8. Florence. Her rise in the time of Matilda of Tuscany 
(died 1115). Rivalry between the feudal nobles or grandi (Ghibel- 
lines), and the prosperous burghers (Guelfs). The burghers organ- 
ized in gilds (arti). Later a distinction between greater and 
lesser gilds (arti maggiore and arti minore). The clash of the 
Buondelmonte and the Amidei families in 1215. The first com- 
monwealth (il primo popolo) in 1251. The Captain of the People. 
The Parte Guelfa, 1267. The glory of the Trecento (about 1266- 
1378). Ordinances of Justice, 1293. Rivalry between two Guelf 
factions, the Whites and the Blacks (Bianchi and Neri). Exile 
of Dante (a White) in 1302. The tyrant, Walter of Brienne, duke 
of Athens, 1342-1343. The Black Death in Florence, 1348. Strife 
between the old Parte Guelfa and the Signory of Priors, 1378. The 
rising of the Ciompi, 1378. Oligarchial tendency in Florence which 
prepared for the rise of the rich Medici family (Giovanni 
de' Medici, which favored the lesser gilds. Cosimo de' Medici, 
1434-1464. Piero de' Medici, 1464-1469. Lorenzo de' Medici, 
"The Magnificent," 1464-1492. 

9. Naples. Endless dynastic rivalries in the southern kingdom 
which did much to retard its development. In the fourteenth cen- 
tury, the rivalry between Angevins and Aragonese finally made 
Alfonso V of Aragon king of Naples and Sicily in 1442 (he was 
Alfonso I of Naples). Lorenzo Valla at the court of Alfonso. 
Naples under the rule of Ferrante, 1458-1494. The claims of the 
second house of Anjou on the crown of Aragon became a prime 
factor in the invasion of Italy by Charles VIII in 1494. 

10. The papal states in the fifteenth century. In this period the 
history of the papacy is largely that of a petty Italian principality. 
Martin V, 1417-1431, the pope elected at Constance, regained con- 
trol in Rome and over the Papal States. The unsuccessful plot 



XXXH ITALY IN LATER MIDDLE AGES 295 

of Stefano Porcaro in 1453. Nicholas V, 1447-1455, the humanist 
pope. Pius II, 1458-1464, the famous Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, 
who issued the bull Execrabilis in 1460, was another typical human- 
ist pope. Sixtus IV, 1471-1484, was hardly more than a secular 
prince. His attempt to overthrow the Medici in Florence. The 
papacy in the hands of the Borgias with the accession of Rodrigo 
Borgia, pope Alexander VI, 1492. 

11. Savonarola (burned 1498) in Florence, and the beginning 
of foreign domination in Italy, with the invasion of Charles VIII 
of France in 1494. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

General introductory accounts. J. A. SYMONDS, A short his- 
tory of the renaissance in Italy, New York, [1893], ch. n-vi. H. D. 
SEDGWICK, A short history of Italy, chs. xvn, xx, xxii-xxm. For 
the period up to the second decade of the fourteenth century, see 
P. VILLARI, Mediaeval Italy from Charlemagne to Henry VII, book 
III; and H. B. COTTERILL, Medieval Italy, part V. A good short 
survey of Italy in the fifteenth century may be found in P. VILLARI, 
Niccolo Machiavelli e i suoi tempi, 3 vols., Florence, 1877-1882, tran- 
slated by LINDA VILLARI, The life and times of Niccolo Machiavelli, 
2 vols., London, 1898, 1-62. H. D. SEDGWICK, Italy in the thirteenth 
century, I, chs. xin, xiv, xv, xvm, vol. II, chs. n-iv, ix-xi. E. A. 
FREEMAN, "Ancient Greece and mediaeval Italy," in his Historical 
essays, series II, 1-52. 

More r dvanced general accounts. LODGE, The close of the middle 
ages, ehs. ir, vin, xn-xiv. LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire gSnerale, 
III, ch. x. J. BURCKHARDT, The civilization of the renaissance in 
Italy, part I. J. LOSERTH, Geschichte des spdteren Mittelalters, 203- 
206, 250-255, 306-317. 

Standard works. J. A. SYMONDS, Renaissance in Italy, vol. I, 
The age of the despots. SIMONDE DE SISMONDI, History of the 
Italian republics in the middle ages, entirely recast and supple- 
mented by W. BOULTING, London, 1905, see no. 613 above. 

Cola di Rienzo. M. E. COSENZA, Francesco Petrarca and the revo- 
lution of Cola di Rienzo: a study in the history of Rome during the 
middle ages, Chicago, 1913. 

Borne, the Papal States, and the Papacy. W. MILLER, Mediaeval 
Rome, chs. v-vin. P. VAN DYKE, Tne age of tin- renascence, 90-261. 
GREGOROVIUS, History of the city of Row, VII. part I. H. C. LEA, 
"The eve of the reformation," in Cambridge modern history. I, ch. 
xix. BRYCE, Holy Roman empire, ch. xvi, "Rome in the 
ages. ' ' 



296 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY FARTII 

The standard works on the humanist popes are CREIGHTON, A 
history of the papacy, III-IV; and PASTOR, History of the popes, 
III-V. 

Pope Pius II (Aeneas Sylvius). W. BOULTING, Aeneas Sylvius 
(Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini Pius II) orator, man of letters, states- 
man, and pope, London, 1908. CECILIA M. ADY, Pius II (Aeneas 
Silvius Piccolomini) the humanist pope, London, 1913. G. VOIGT, 
Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini, als Papst Pius II, und sein Zeitalter, 
3 vols., Berlin, 1856-1863. A. WEISS, Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini als 
Papst Pius II, Graz, 1897. 

Florence. For the early history see P. VILLARI, I primi due 
secoli della storia di Firenze, Florence, 1893, translated by LINDA 
VILLARI, The two first centuries of Florentine history: the republic 
and parties at the time of Dante, 2 vols., London, 1894-1895. A 
good single volume on Florence is E. G. GARDNER, The story of 
Florence, London, 1901. A satisfactory book on the most brilliant 
ruler of Florence is E. ARMSTRONG, Lorenzo de' Medici and Florence 
in the fifteenth century, New York, 1896 (Heroes of the nations). 

Venice. For a short general survey see the Cambridge modern 
history, I, 253-287. A standard work on Venice is W. C. HAZLITT, 
The Venetian republic: its rise, its growth, and its fall, 409-1797, 
2 vols., 4th edition, London, 1915. W. E. THAYER, A short history 
of Venice, London and New York, 1905. H. BROWN, Venice: an 
historical sketch, of the republic, London, 1893, 2nd, revised, edition, 
1895; and his still briefer The Venetian republic, New York, 1902 
(Temple primers). ALETHEA J. WIEL, The navy of Venice, London, 
1910. 

Savonarola. For short sketches see the Cambridge modern his- 
tory, I, 144-189 ; or LEA, Inquisition of the middle ages, III, 209-237. 
The standard work is by P. VILLARI, La storia di G. Savonarola e de' 
suoi tempi, 2 vols., Florence, 1859-1861, 2nd edition, 1887-1888, 
translated by LINDA VILLARI, Life and times of Girolamo Savonarola, 
2 vols., London, 1888. 

Invasion of Charles VIII. Cambridge modern history, I, 104- 
117, has a good summary of this event so momentous in the history 
of Italy. 

Original sources. For the sources on the coronation of Cola 
di Eienzo, see DUNCALF and KREY, Parallel source problems, 177- 
237. 

For the history of Florence we have the following in English: 
Selections from the first nine boolcs of the Chroniche Florentine of 
GIOVANNI VILLANI, edited by P. H. WICKSTEED and translated by 
EOSE E. SELFE, London, 1906. The Chronicle of DINO COMPAGNI 



xxxu ITALY IN LATER MIDDLE AGES 297 

[about 1260-1324], translated by ELSE C. M. BENECKE and A. G. 
FERRERS HOWELL, London, 1906 (Temple classics). NICOLO MACHIA- 
VELLI, History of Florence together with The Prince, London, Bohn 
Library (many editions). Another convenient translation of his 
Florentine history is in Everyman's library, London [1909]. Lives 
of the early Medici as told in their correspondence, translated and 
edited by JANET Ross, Boston, 1911. 

For an insight into the thought of G. SAVONAROLA, see his Triumph 
of the cross, translated from the Italian, with an introduction, by 
J. PROCTOR, London, 1901. M. WHITCOMB, A literary source-book of 
the renaissance, 66-92, prints various excerpts. AENEAS SYLVIUS 
(Pius II), "How I became pope," translated in Nineteenth century, 
XLI (1897), 538-546, is extracted from this pope's autobiographical 
commentaries. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 90, 96. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. The general books on Italy are listed above, 
nos. 599-621. See also the literature on the Normans in Sicily and 
southern Italy, outline XX above, on the Lombard communes, out- 
line XXII above, and on Italian cities and commerce in Italy, out- 
lino XXVI above. 

General surveys. C. CIPOLLA, Storia delle signorie italiane dal 
ISIS al 1530, Milan, 1881, vol. IV of no. 599 above. P. ORSI, 
Signorie e principati (1300-1530), Milan, 1901. E. SALZER, Vbcr 
die Anfdnge der Signorie in Oberitalien, Berlin, 1900. A. FRANCH- 
ETTI, I primordi delle signorie e dclle compagnie di vcntura: la vita 
italiana nel Trecento, Milan, 1892. G. ARIAS, II sistema delta con- 
stitv -omica e socialc italiana nell' etd dei comuni, Turin, 

1905. G. B. FANUCCI, Storia dei tre cclcbri popoli marittimi dell' 
Italia, rrni':iain. t/cnovesi e pisani, 4 vols., Livorno, 1853-1855. E. 
MKMLLO, Le paste italiane nel media evo, alia e media Italia (476- 
1600), Rome, 1904. 

Cola di Rienzo and Borne. E. RODOCANACHI, Cola di Bienzo: 
Instoire de Some dc 1342 a 1S54, Paris, 1888; see also his "L 'organ- 
isation rnunicipale de Rome au XIV* siecle, " in Le moyen Age, VIII 
(1895), 73-82. F. KUHN, Die Enttcicklung der Biindnissplane Cola 
di Ricnzos im Jahre 1S47, Berlin, 1905 (dissertation). F. HER- 
MANNI, Die Stadt Rom im 15 und 16 Jahrhnndcrt, Leipzig, 1911. 
II. .1. Wt'RM. Kardinal Albonm: . ,1, r :n,il, Iii ; /riin<lir tits h'irchen- 
staatcs, Paderborn, 1892. A. EITEL, Der Kin-ln nxtunt untcr Klcmcns 
V, Berlin, 1907 (Abhandlungen zur mittleren und neueren Ge- 
schichte, 1). 



298 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Condottieri. W. BLOCK, Die Condottieri: Studien iiber die soge- 
nannten unblutigen Shlachten, Berlin, 1913. A. SEMERAN, Die Con- 
dottieri, Jena, 1909. F. H. JACKSON, True stories of the condottieri, 
London, 1904 (for Sir John Hawkwood see ch. iv). G. TEMPLE- 
LEADER, and G. MARCOTTI, Giovanni Acuto (Sir John Hawkwood) : 
storia d'un condottiere, Florence, 1889. 

Milan. CECILIA M. ADY, A history of Milan under the Sforza, 
London, 1907. ELLA NOYES, The story of Milan, London, 1908 
(Mediaeval towns). W. P. URQUHART, Life and times of Francesco 
Sforza, duke of Milan, 2 vols., Edinburgh and London, 1852. JULIA 
CARTWRIGHT, Beatrice d'Este, Duchess of Milan, 1475-1497: a study 
of the renaissance, London, 1912. 

Among the Italian works G. GIULINI, Memorie spettanti alia 
storia di Milano, 12 vols., Milan, 1760-1775, new edition, 7 vols., 
1854-1857, is still the most important. F. CUSANI, Storia di Milano, 
8 vols., Milan, 1862-1884. M. FORMENTINI, II ducato di Milano, 
Milan, 1877. P. VERRI, Storia di Milano, Florence, 1851ff. 

Venice. P. G. MOLMENTI, La storia di Venezia nella vita privata, 
3rd edition, 3 vols., Bergamo, 1903-1908, translated by H. F. 
BROWN, Venice: its individual growth, from the earliest beginnings 
to the fall of the republic, 6 vols., London and Chicago, 1906-1908. 
C. DIEHL, Une republique patricienne: Venise, Paris, 1915. F. C. 
HODGSON, The early history of Venice from the foundation to the 
conquest of Constantinople, London, 1901; and his Venice .in the 
13th and 14th centuries (1204-1400), London, 1910. F. M. CRAW- 
FORD, Salve Venetia: gleanings from Venetian history, 2 vols., New 
York, 1906. J. K. FOTHERINGHAM, Marco Sanudo, conqueror of the 
Archipelago, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1915. T. OKEY, Venice and 
its story, revised edition, New York, 1910. H. F. BROWN, Studies 
in the history of Venice, 2 vols., New York, 1907. H. KRETSCHMAYR, 
Geschichte von Venedig, vol. 1 (to 1204), Gotha, 1905, part 35 of 
no. 332 above. H. v. ZWIEDINECK-SUDENHORST, Venedig als Welt- 
macht und Weltstadt, Leipzig, 1899. E. MUSATTI, La storia politica 
di Venezia secondo le ultimi ricerche, Padua, 1897. Mrs. MARGARET 
OLIPHANT, Malcers of Venice: doges, conquerors, painters, .and men 
of letters, London, 1889. Mrs. AUBREY EICHARDSON, The doges of 
Venice, London [1914]. G. B. MCCLELLAN, The oligarchy of Venice: 
an essay, Boston, 1904. A. BATTISTELLA, La repubblica di Venezia, 
Bologna, 1897. 

Of the old monumental works the following still have value. 
S. ROMANIN, Storia documentata di Venezia, 10 vols., Venice, 1853- 
1861. P. DARU, Histoire de la republique de Venise, 9 vols., 4th 
edition, Paris, 1853. 



xxxn ITALY IN LATER MIDDLE AGES 299 

Following is a selection of some special studies: W. LENEL, 
Die Entstehung der Vorherrschaft Venedigs an der Adria, Stras- 
burg, 1897. B. SCHMEIDLER, Der Dux und die commune Venetiarum 
von 1141-1229, Berlin, 1902. P. M. FERRET, Histoire des relations 
de France avec Venise du XIII s siecle a Charles VIII, 2 vols., Paris, 
1896. M. CLAAR, Die Entwickelung der venetianischen Verfassung 
von der Einsetzung bis zur Schliessung des grossen Bats (1172-1297 ), 
Munich, 1895 (Historische Abhandlungen). A. SORESINA, II Banco 
Giro di Venezia, Venice, 1889. E. LATTES, La libertd delle banche 
a Venezia dal secolo XIII a XVII, Milan, 1869. A. BASCHET, Les 
archives de Venise: Histoire de la chancellerie secrete, Paris, 1870. 
W. ANDREAS, Die Venezianischen Bclazionen und ihr Verhdltnis zu 
Kultur der Eenaissance, Leipzig, 1908 (dissertation). 

Genoa. M. G. CANALE, Nuova istoria della repubblica di Genova, 
vols. I-IV (to 1528), Florence, 1858-1864. C. VARESE, Storia della 
repubblica di Genova, 7 vols., Genua, 1835-1837. F. DONOWER, Storia 
di Genova, Genua, 1890. 

J. T. BENT, uenoa: how the republic rose and fell, London, 1881. 
R. W. GARDEN, The city of Genoa, London, 1908, has an historical 
sketch of the city. G. CARO, Studien zur Geschichte von Genua 1190- 
1257, Strasburg, 1891; and his Genua und die Mdchte am Mittel- 
meer, 1X57-1311, 2 vols., Halle, 1895-1899. E. JARRY, Les origines 
de la domination frangaise a Genes (1392-1402), Paris, 1896. E. 
HEYCK, Genua und seine Marine im Zeitalter der Kreuzziige, Inns- 
bruck, 1886. 

Florence. The most important book is by K. DAVIDSOHN, 
Geschichte von Florenz, vol. I-III [to about 1330], Berlin, 1896- 
1912, translated into Italian, with many fine illustrations, Storia 
di Firenze, vols. I-II, Florence, 1907-1909 (see especially the plan 
of Florence in the thirteenth century, near the end of vol. II, which 
is also in vol. I of the original German edition). This great work 
is supplemented by his Forschungen zur Geschichte von Florenz, 
vols. I-IV, Berlin, 1896-1908; and "Florenz zur Zeit Dantes," in 
Deutsche Rundschau, July, 1912. In French the best work is by 

F. T. PERREXS, Histoire de Florence jusqu'd la domination des 
Medici*, 6 vols., Paris, 1877-1884; continued by his Histoire de 
Florence depuis la domination des Medicis jusqu'd la chute de la' 
republique, 1434-15S1, 2 vols., Paris, 1888, translated by HANNAH 
LYNCH, The history of Florence under the domination of Cosimo, 
Piero, Lorenzo di Medicis, 14S4-149S, London, 1892. G. CAPPONI, 
Storia della repubblica di Firenze, 3 vols., Florence, 1875-1888. 

G. THOMAS, Les revolutions politiques de Florence 1177-1530, Paris, 
1887. T. A. TROLLOPE, History of the commonwealth of Florence. 



300 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

4 vols., London, 1865. H. E. NAPIER, Florentine history, 6 vols., 
London, 1846-1847. 

Shorter books. F. A. HYETT, Florence: her history and art to 
the fall of the republic, London and New York, 1903. J. W. BROWN, 
The builders of Florence, New York, 1907; and his Florence, past 
and present, New York, 1911. C. E. YRIARTE, Florence, 3rd. edition, 
Paris, 1881, translated by C. B. PITMAN, Florence: its history, the 
Medici, the humanists, letters, arts, New York, 1882, new edition, 
Philadelphia, 1897. Mrs. MARGARET OLIPHANT, Makers of Florence: 
Dante, Giotto, Savonarola and their city, 3rd edition, London, 1889. 
BELLA DUFFY, The Tuscan republics: (Florence, Siena, Pisa, Lucca) 
with Genoa, London, 1892. 

Special studies. E. STALEY, The guilds of Florence, London, 
1906. A. DOREN, Entwickelung und Organisation der Florentiner 
Ziinfte im 13 und 14 Jahrhundert, Leipzig, 1897. F. SMITH, Beitrage 
zur fiorentinischen Verfassungs- und Heeresgeschichte, Leipzig, 1914. 
E. GAGGESE, Firenze dalla decadenza di Roma al risorgimento d'ltalia, 
Florence, 1913, is on the fourteenth century. G. SALVEMINI, La 
dignitd cavelleresca nel comune di Firenze, Florence, 1896; and his, 
Magnati e popolani in Firenze dal 1280 al 1S95, Florence, 1899. C. 
FALLETTI-FOSSATI, II tumulto dei Ciompi, Florence, 1882. 

The Medici. G. F. YOUNG, The Medici, London, 1909. W. H. O. 
SMEATON, The Medici and the Italian renaissance, New York, 1901 
(The world's epoch-makers, XII). E. HEYCK, Florenz und die 
Mediceer, Bielefeld and Leipzig, 1897 (Monographien zur Weltge- 
schichte). A. CASTELNAU, Les Medicis, 2 vols., Paris, 1879. K. 
DOROTHEA EWART, (Mrs. H. M. VERNON), Cosimo de' Medici, New 
York, 1899 (Foreign statesmen). F. KNAPP, Piero di Cosimo, Halle, 
1899. , - 

Lorenzo the Magnificent. E. L. S. HORSBURGH, Lorenzo the 
Magnificent and Florence in her golden age, London, 1908. W. 
EOSCOE, Life of Lorenzo de' Medici, 2 vols., Liverpool, 1795, 10th 
edition, London, 1851, new edition by HAZLITT, 2 vols., London, 
1890. A. v. KEUMONT, Lorenzo de 'Medici und seine Zeit, 2 vols., 2nd, 
revised, edition, Leipzig, 1883, translated by E. HARRISON, Lorenzo 
the Magnificent, 1883. B. BUSER, Lorenzo de Medici als italianischer 
Staatsmann, Leipzig, 1879; and his Die Beziehungen der Mediceer zu 
Frankreich 1434-1494, Leipzig, 1879. 

Savonarola. E. L. S. HORSBURGH, Girolamo Savonarola, London, 
1901, 4th edition, revised and enlarged [1911]. H. LUCAS, Fra 
Girolamo Savonarola: a biographical study based on contemporary 
documents, London, 1899, 2nd edition, 1906. G. McHARDY, Savona- 
rola, New York, 1901 (The world's epoch-makers, XIV). J 



xxxn ITALY IN LATER MIDDLE AGES 301 

SCHNITZER, Quellen und Forschungen zur Geschichte Savonarolas, vols. 
I-IV, Munich and Leipzig, 1902-1910. J. A. GOBINEAU, The 
renaissance: Savonarola, Cesare Borgia, Julius II, Leo X, Michael 
Angela, English edition by O. LEVY, London, 1913. F. T. PERRENS, 
Jerome Savonarole, sa vie, ses predications, ses ccrits, 2 vols., Paris, 
1856. L. v. RANKE, Savonarola und die florentinische Bepublik gegen 
Ende des 15 Jahrhunderts, Leipzig, 1877 (Collected works, 40-41). 

Sicilian Vespers. M. AMARI, La guerre del Vespro Siciliano, 3 
vols., 9th edition, Milan, 1886, translated by the Earl of ELLES- 
MERE, History of the war of the Sicilian Vespers, 3 vols., London, 
1850; see also his Altre narrazioni del Vespro Siciliano, Milan, 1887; 
and his Eacconie popolare del Vespro Siciliano, Rome, 1882. O. 
CARTELLIERI, Peter von Aragon und die Sizilianische Vesper, Heidel- 
berg, 1904 (in Heidelberger Abhandlungen zur mittleren und neueren 
Geschichte, 7). 

Naples and Sicily. The following old works are still valuable: 
P. GIANNONE, Storia civile del regno di Napoli, Naples, 1723, new 
edition, 5 vols., Milan, 1844-1847, translated in part by J. OGILVIE, 
Civil history of the kingdom of Naples, 2 vols., London, 1729-1731. 
A. DI MEO, Annali critico-diplomatichi del regno di Napoli, 13 vols., 
Naples, 1785-1819. E. DI BLASI, Storia civile del regno di Sicilia, 
16 vols., Palermo, 1811, new edition, 22 vols., 1830; see also his 
Storia del regno di Sicilia, 3 vols., Palermo, 1844-1847. SAN FILIPPO, 
Compendia della storia di Sicilia, 7th edition, Palermo, 1859. 

Special works. E. JORDAN, Les orvgines de la domination Ange- 
vine en Italic, Paris, 1909. H. E. ROHDE, Der Kampf um Sizilien in 
il> n Jahren 1S91-1SOS, vol. I, Berlin, 1913 (in Abhandlungen zur 
mittleren und neueren Geschichte, 42). D. SCARPETTA, Giovanna I 
di Napoli, Naples, 1903. W. ST. CLAIR BADDELEY, Queen Johana I 
of Naples, Sicily, and Jerusalem, London, 1892; and his Robert the 
Wise and his heirs 1278-1352, London, 1897. A. D. MESSER, Le 
codice aragonese, etude gcnirale, publication du manuscrit de Paris: 
contribution d I'histoire dcs Aragonais de Naples, Paris, 1912 (in 
UiMiotheque du XV* siocle, vol. XVII). M. SCHIPA, Contese sociali 
iiii/iulctane nel medio evo, Naples, 1908. P. DURRIEU, Les archives 
(mill-vines de Naples: etude sur les rcgistres du roi Charles 7 r (1S65- 
1985), 2 vols., Paris, 1886-1887, parts 46, 51 of no. 887 above. L. 
CADIER, Essai sur I 'administration du royaume de Naples sous Charles 
Ir et Charles II d'Anjou, Paris, 1891, part 59 of no. 887 above. 
\V. F.SRAEL, Konig Sobert von Neapel und Kaiser Heinrich VII, Hers- 
feld, 1903. D. J. AMETLLER Y VINYAS, Alfonso V de Aragon en 
Italia y la crisis rclii/iosa del siglo 15, vol. I, Gerona, 1903. F. 
SCADUTO, Stato e chicsa nclle due Sicilie dai Normanni ai tempi nostri, 



302 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Palermo, 1886. S. V. Bozzo, Note storiche siciliane del secolo XIV, 
Palermo, 1882. 

Other states of Italy. E. G. GARDNER, The story of Siena and 
San Gemignano, London, 1902. E. HUTTON, Siena and southern 
Tuscany, New York, 1910. ELLA NOYES, The story of Ferrara, Lon- 
don, 1904 (Mediaeval towns). M. ALLEN, A history of Verona, 
New York, 1910. ALETHEA WIEL, The story of Verona, 2nd edition, 
London, 1904. C. CIPOLLO, Compendia di storia politica di Verona, 
1900. Mrs. JANET A. Ross and NELLY BRICHSEN, The story of Pisa, 
London, 1909 (Mediaeval towns). KATHERINE JAMES, The city of 
contrasts: a story of old Perugia, London, 1915. MARGARET SYMONDS 
and LINA D. GORDON, The story of Perugia, London, 1900 (Mediaeval 
towns). VICINI, / podesta di Modena, part I (1156-1336), Eome, 
1914. E. HUTTON, Sigismundo Pandolfo Malatesta, lord of Eimini: 
a story of a XV century Italian despot, New York, 1906. JULIA 
CARTWRIGHT, Isabella D'Este, Marchioness of Mantua, 1474-1539, 
New York, 1903. H. SPANGENBERG, Can Grande della Scala, 2 vols., 
Berlin, 1892-1895. J. DENNISTOUN, Memoirs of the dukes of Urbino, 
illustrating the arms, arts, and literature of Italy, 1440-1639, 3 vols., 
London, 1853-1854, new edition, 1909. ALETHEA WIEL, The romance 
of the house of Savoy 1003-1519, 2 vols., New York, 1898. 

Corsica. A. AMBROSI, Histoire des Corses et de leur civilisation, 
Bastia, 1914. L. CAIRO, The history of Corsica, London, 1899. 

Original sources. The large collections of sources for Italian 
history are listed above, nos. 988-994 above; see also vols. XII- 
XIV of no. 986 above. For Italy, the special collections for indi- 
vidual states are especially important, but no attempt can be made 
here to list even the most important ones. For details, see the 
special bibliographies listed below. 

The letters of COLA DI EIENZO have been edited and studied 
anew by K. and P. PIUR, Briefwechsel des Cola di Eienzo, Berlin, 
1912 (vol. II of no. 750 above). Epistolario di Cola di Eienzo, edited 
by A. GABRIELLI, Rome, 1890, is an older collection. 

For Venice, special mention may be made of Calendar of State 
Papers: Venetian, vol. I, 1202-1607, edited by R. BROWN, London, 
1864. 

For SAVONAROLA, see Scelta di prediche e scritta di Fra Girolamo 
Savonarola con nuovi documenti intorno alia sua vita, edited by P. 
VILLARI and E. CASANOVA, Florence, 1898. 

Bibliographies. The general bibliographies for Italy are listed 
above, nos. 37-41. See also no. 19 above, 447-449 (a very con- 
venient summary of the most essential source material), and 479- 
503. 



RENAISSANCE IN ITALY 303 

Special bibliographies. PEDONE LAURIEL, Bibliografia del 6 
c<-iitrnario del Vespro Siciliano, Palermo, 1882; see also C. CIPOLLA, 
"Les Vepres Siciliennes: compte-remlu des principales publications 
historiques parues a propos du septieme oentenaire c616bre a 
Palerme le 31 mars 1882," in Revue historique, XXI (1883), 135- 
147. G. SORANZO, Bibliografia Veneziana, Venice, 1885 (see also 
the bibliography for ch. vm of the Cambridge modern history, I). 
L. S. OLSCHKI, Bibliotheca Savonarohana, Florence and Venice, 
about 1902 (see also the bibliography for ch. v of the Cambridge 
modern history, I). L. FONTANA, Bibliografia degli statuti dei comuni 
dell' Italia superiore, 3 vols., Turin, 1907. 



XXXTTT. THE REMARKABLE INTEREST IN ANCIENT 

CLASSICAL LITERATURE, ART, AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

IN ITALY DURING THE FOURTEENTH AND 

FIFTEENTH CENTURIES 

A. OUTLINE 

1. The meaning of "Renaissance" and "Revival of learning." 
As general historical terms these expressions are rapidly losing the 
definiteness and color which was given to them by such writers 
as Burckhardt, Voigt, and Symonds, however useful they may still 
be in the history of certain branches of literature and art in west- 
ern Europe. Humanism. Litterae humaniores. The "discovery 
of man" and the "discovery of the world." Controversies be- 
tween "ancients and moderns." "Battles of books." 

2. Retrospect: interest in these subjects during the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries. For details see outline XVIII in part III 
below. 

3. Dante, 1265-1321, and the ancient world. For details con- 
cerning the scholarship of Dante see outline XXVIII in part III 
below. 

4. The place of Petrarch, 1304-1376, in the history of culture. 
Tin- growth of his interest in the Latin classics. Means by which 
h> interested others in them. His slight knowledge of Greek. 
Hi- ^i-.-irch for manuscripts. The retreat at Vaucluse. His popu- 
larity as a poet. His famous Letttrn ami other writings, especially 
the Africa. The influence of the Latin revival on Italian. 

5. The feverish search in i lieval libraries for the manuscripts 

of ancient classical belles lefties. I'oggio Braccioliui, 13SO- 1 -!."!. 
:it the council of Constam-e and his subsequent travels. The col- 



304 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

lection of Greek books by Aurispa (died 1459) and Filelfo, 1398- 
1481. 

6. Interest in ancient classical epigraphy and archaeology. 
Ciriaco, about 1391-1450, "the Schliemann of his time." Flavio 
Biondo, 1388-1463, and his four great works on the antiquities and 
history of Rome and Italy. 

7. Interest in Greek. The share of Petrarch and Boccaccio, 
1313-1375, in creating this interest. Greek scholars from Con- 
stantinople in Italy. Manuel Chrysoloras (about 1350-1415) in 
Florence 1396. Gemistos Plethon, about 1356-1450, and Bessarion, 
1395 or 1403-1472, at the council of Ferrara-Florence, 1438-1439. 
Theodorus Gaza, about 1400-1475. Controversies over the merits 
of Plato and Aristotle. The fall of Constantinople in 1453 did 
little or nothing to encourage the study of Greek in the west. 

8. Florence was the center of humanism. The monastery of 
Santo Spirito and Luigi de' Marsigli (died 1394). Coluccio Salu- 
tati, 1330-1406. The Medici as patrons of literature. Niccolo de' 
Niccoli, 1363-1437, Leonardo Bruni, 1369-1444, in the time of 
Cosimo de' Medici. The brilliant circle of Lorenzo de' Medici. 
The Platonic Academy of Florence. Ficino, 1433-1499. Pico della 
Mirandola, 1463-1494. Politian, 1454-1494. 

9. Humanism in Rome. Its effect upon the papacy and on the 
Christian religion. Popularity of pagan ideas and rites. The 
humanist popes Nicolas V, 1447-1455, and Pius II (Eneas Sylvius), 
1458-1464. The Academy of Rome and Pomponius Laetus, 1425- 
1498. 

10. The Academy of Naples in the time of Alfonso of Aragon, 
1442-1458. Laurentius Valla, 1407-1457, and his criticism of the 
Donation of Constantine. His famous book On the elegancies of 
Latin language. Beccadelli, 1394-1471. Pontano, 1426-1503. San- 
nazaro, 1458-1530. 

11. Aldus Manutius, 1449-1515, the printer of Greek texts in 
Venice. In 1500 he founded the New Academy of Hellenists in 
Venice. 

12. Other centers of humanism. The Visconti and Sforza as 
patrons of letters in Milan. Cangrande della Scala of Verona. 
Federigo, count of Montefeltro, and his famous library at Urbino. 
The humanism of the fierce Sigismondo Malatesta of Rimini. 

13. In the schools, humanism brought about a revolution the 
effects of which have lasted down to this day. Vittorino da Felt re, 
1378-1446, in Mantua. Guarino da Verona, 1370-1460, in Ferrara. 
The De ordine docendi et studendi (1459) of "his son, Battista 
Guarino. Comparative lack of interest in humanism in universities. 



RENAISSANCE IN ITALY 305 

14. Renaissance art contrasted with medieval art. The wonder- 
ful development of painting which culminated in the first half of 
the sixteenth century. Important painters: Cimabue, 1240-about 
1302; Giotto, 1276-1336; Masaccio, 1402-1429; Fra Angelico, 1387- 
1455; Filippo Lippi, 1406-1469; Botticelli, 1447-1510; Ghirlandajo, 
1449-1498; Leonardo da Vinci, 1452-1519; Raphael, 1483-1520; 
Titian, 1477-1576; Correggio, 1494-1534. Important architects: 
Brunelleschi, 1377-1446; Leo Battista Alberti, 1404-1472; Bramante, 
about 1444-1514. Important sculptors: Orcagna, 1308-1368, Ghi- 
berti, 1378-1455; Donatello, 1386-1466; Luca della Robbia, 1400- 
1482. The genius of Michael Angelo Buonarroti, 1475-1564. 

15. The invention of printing, about 1450. The Gutenberg con- 
troversy. 

16. The spread and influence of the Italian culture of this 
period. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

Brief general surveys. ADAMS, Civilization, ch. xv. LODGE, The 
close of the middle ages, ch. xxil. 

Longer accounts. P. VILLARI, The life and times of Niccolb 
Machiurtlli. I, 63-167. Cambridge modern history, I, chs. xvi-xvu. 
I,. \\ISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire gencrale, III, ch. xi. J. LOSERTH, 
I'usfhirhtr dix sjiiittrcn Mittdaltcrs, 613-643. 

Short books on the subject. J. A. SYMONDS, A short history of 
tin n iHii.xtnince, abridged by A. PEARSON, New York, 1894. J. E. 
SANDYS, Harvard lectures on the revival of learning, Cambridge, 
1905. EDITH SICHEL, The renaissance, New York, 1914 (Home uni- 
versity library). W. H. HUDSON, The story of the renaissance, New 
York, 1912. J. B. OLDHAM, The renaissance, New York, 1912 
(Temple primers). Mrs. LILIAN F. FIELD, An introduction to the 
study of the renaissance, London, 1898. P. SCHAFF, The renaissance, 
New York, 1891 (also in vol. Ill of the Papers of the American 
1 1/ of i-lnirch hixlnry) is scarcely more than a syllabus with 
copious references. J. E. SANDYS, A history of classical scholarship, 
II, is a handy volume for reference. 

Meaning of "Renaissance." The easiest introduction to the 
present rontn>\ er-sy roiicerning the "Renaissance" may be got 
by reading in juxtaposition two articles in the /,'< i/<7o/;//<i 
nriiiiiuiica, "Renaissance" by J. A. SYMONDS, and "Middle ages" 
liy Professor SmmvKM, of Columbia university. 

Standard works. The popular conceptions of "Renaissance" 
and "Revival of Learning" were stereotyped chiefly by the follow- 
ing books. J. BURCKHARDT, Die Ktiltur dcr Renaissance in Union. 



306 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

I860, 10th edition, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1908, translated by S. G. C. 
MIDDLEMORE, The civilization of the renaissance in Italy, 2 vols., 
London, 1878, 7th edition in one volume, 1914. G. VOIGT, Die 
Wiederbelebung des classischen Alterthums, Berlin, 1859, 3rd edition, 
edited by M. LEHNERDT, 2 vols., 1893. J. A. SYMONDS, The renais- 
sance in Italy, 5 parts in 7 vols., London, 1875-1881, new edition, 
1897-1898, vol. I, The age of the despots; vol. II, The revival of 
learning; vol. Ill, The fine arts; vols. IV and V, Italian literature; 
vols. VI and VII, The catholic reaction. L. GEIGER, Renaissance und 
Humanismns in Italien und Deutschland, Berlin, 1882, part of no. 
313 above. 

Dante. TAYLOR, The mediaeval mind, II, ch. XLJV. For details 
about the literature on Dante see outline XXVIII of part III 
below. 

Petrarch. The best introduction is J. H. ROBINSON and H. W. 
ROLFE, Petrarch: the first modern scholar and man of letters, New 
York, 1898, new edition, 1914, which contains many of his letters 
in good English translation. Following are some other biographies 
in English: H. C. HOLLWAY-CALTHROP, Petrarch: his life and times, 
New York, 1907. Mrs. MAUD F. JERROLD, Francesco Petrarca: poet 
and humanist, New York, 1909. MAY A. WARD, Petrarch: a sketch 
of his life and works, Boston, 1891. H. REEVE, Petrarch, London, 
1878. ' 

P. DE NOLHAC, Petrarch and the ancient world, Boston, 1908, is a 
translation of an interesting portion of his French work listed 
below. G. B. ADAMS, ' ' Petrarch and the beginning of modern 
science," in Yale review, I (1892), 146-161, is a study of Petrarch's 
historical criticism; the author, indeed, thinks it possible that the 
renaissance acted as a check on the natural sciences. 

Greek. LOUISE R. LOOMIS, "The Greek renaissance in Italy," 
in American historical review, XIII (1908), 246-258. 

Humanism and education. For a general survey see F. P. 
GRAVES, A history of education during the middle ages and the transi- 
tion to modern times, 106-139. W. H. WOODWARD, Vittorino da Feltre 
and other humanist educators, Cambridge, 1897; and his Studies in 
education during the age of the renaissance, 1400-1600, Cambridge, 
1907. R. C. JEBB, Humanism in education, London and New York, 
1899 (Romanes lectures, 1899). 

Renaissance art. Readers who have not specialized in the art 
of this period will find the following guides good introductions to 
the subject: 8. REINACH, Apollo, translated from the French, new 
edition, New York, 1914; and J. BURCKHARDT, Der Cicerone: < </" 
Einleitung zum Genuss der Kunstiverke Italiens, 9th edition in two 



RENAISSANCE IN ITALY 307 

parts in 4 volumes., Leipzig, 1904, translated by Mrs. A. H. CLOUGH, 
The cicerone: or, Art guide to painting in Italy, London, 1873, new 
and illustrated impression, New York, 1908. 

The following college text-books are useful: J. C. VAN DYKE, 
A text-book of the history of painting, New York, 1899, new, revised, 
edition, 1915. A. D. F. HAMLIN, A text-book of the history of archi- 
tecture, 8th edition, New York, 1911. A. MABQUAND and A. L. 
FROTHINGHAM, A text-book of the history of sculpture, New York, 
1896. 

J. A. SYMONDS, The fine arts (vol. Ill of his Renaissance in Italy) 
gives details. 

Invention of printing. J. H. HESSELS, The Gutenberg fiction, 
London, 1912; and his article "Typography" in the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, furnish a good bibliography. Excellent work in this 
field was done by the American scholar T. L. DE VINNE, Invention 
of printing, 2nd edition, New York, 1878; and his Notable printers 
of Italy during the fifteenth century, New York, 1910. 

Original sources. M. WHITCOMB, A literary source book of the 
renaissance, 2nd edition, Philadelphia, 1903, part I, The Italian 
renaissance, translates many extracts. See also ROBINSON, Readings, 
I, ch. xxn; and Oco, Source book, ch. xxvi. 

Petrarch's letters to classical authors, translated from the Latin 
by M. E. COSENZA, Chicago, 1910. Petrarch's secret: or the soul's 
conflict with passion, translated from the Latin by W. H. DRAPER, 
London, 1911. The Triumph of Francesco Petrarch, Florentine poet 
laureate, translated by H. BOYD, London, 1906. Some love songs of 
Petrarch, translated and annotated, with a biographical introduc- 
tion, by W. D. FOULKE, Oxford University Press, 1915. BOCCACCIO'S 
Decameron. 

G. VASARI (1512-1574), Vite de' pi& eccellenti pittori, scultori 
e architi t ton, new edition with a summary of the latest researches 
in the notes, by K. FREY, vol. I, Munich, 1911ff., translated by Mrs. 
J. FOSTER, Lives of seventy of the most eminent painters, sculptors 
and architects, complete in 5 vols., London, 1850-1864 (Bohn 
library); another edition of selected lives, by E. W. BLASHFJEU> 
and A. A. HOPKINS, 4 vols., New York, 1902 (Temple classics) ; the 
first volume of a new English translation by G. DE VERB, to be com- 
plete in 10 vols., was published by the Medici society of London 
in 1911, in commemoration of Vasari 's fourth centenary. VIT- 
Krvirs (first century A.D.), The ten books on nn-liiti dnrc, translated 
by the late M. H. MORGAN, Harvard University Press, 1914, )i.i<l 
such a profound influence on the artists of the renaissance period 
that it must be read in order to understand their art. BALDASSARE 



308 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

CASTIGLIONE, The book of the courtier, translated by L. E. OPDYCKE, 
New York, 1903. The life of Benvenuto Cellini, written by himself, 
translated out of the Italian by J. A-. SYMONDS, 5th edition, New 
York, 1911; a new version by E. H. H. GUST, 2 vols., London, 1910. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. Among the books on the history of civilization 
listed above, see especially nos. 729-750. Of the general histories 
of literature, see especially nos. 782-786, 808-811 above. Many of 
the histories of education, nos. 836-843 above, are useful. See also 
the literature mentioned under the preceding outline on Italy, . 
especially that on Florence. 

Meaning of renaissance. At least as early as 1885, with the 
appearance of the first edition of H. THODE, Franz von Assisi und 
die Anfdnge der Kunst der Renaissance in Italien, 2nd edition, 
revised, Berlin, 1904, a reaction set in against the conception of the 
renaissance which was popularized especially by BURKHASDT. The 
controversy may be pursued in the following booklets and articles, 
arranged according to date of publication: C. NEUMANN, "Byzan- 
tinische Kultur and Eenaissancekultur, ' ' in Historische Zeitschrift, 
XCI (1903), 215-232 (translated in part by MUNRO and SELLERY, 
Medieval civilization, enlarged edition, 524-546). W. GOETZ, "Mittel- 
alter und Renaissance," ibid., XCVIII (1907), 30-54. K. BRANDI, 
Das Werden des Renaissance, Gottingen, 1908. K. BURDACH, "Sinn 
und Ursprung der Worte 'Renaissance' und 'Reformation,' " in 
Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1910, I, 
595ff. P. WERNLE, Renaissance und Reformation: sechs Vortrage, 
Tubingen, 1912. A. PHILIPPI, Der Begriff der Renaissance: Daten zu 
seiner Geschichte, Leipzig, 1912. E. HEYFELDER, "Die Ausdriicke 
'Renaissance' und ' Humanismus, ' " in Deutsche Literaturzeitung, 
September 6, 1913. E. TROELTSCH, ' ' Renaissance und Reformation, ' ' 
in Historische Zeitschrift, CX (1913), 519-556. K. BURDACH, " Tiber 
den Ursprung des Humanismus," in Deutsche Rundschau, CLVIII, 
CLIX, 1914. K. FRANCKE, Personality in German literature before 
Luther, Harvard University Press, 1916. See also the Literatur- 
bericht of P. FUNK, "Geschichte der geistigen Kultur: Renais- 
sance," in Archiv fur Kulturgeschichte, XI, (1913-1914), 377-388. 

Renaissance in general J. D. SYMON and S. L. BENSTJSAN, The 
renaissance and its makers, London, 1913, say in their preface, ' ' this 
book is intended for the general reader." J. P. HERV^S, Historia 
del renacimiento, 2 vols., Barcelona, 1916. P. VAN DYKE, Renascence 
portraits, New York, 1905. C. HARE, Courts and camps of the Italian 
renaissance: being a mirror of the life and times of the ideal gentle- 



RENAISSANCE IN ITALY 309 

man, Count Baldassare Castiglione, London, 1908. R. SAITSCHICK, 
Menschen und Kunst der italienischen Renaissance, 2 vols., Berlin, 
1903-1904. E. RODOCANACHI, La femme italienne a I'epoque de la 
renaissance, Paris, 1907. G. MAZZONI, Vita italiana nel rinascimento, 
Milan, 1899. H. JANITSCHEK, Die Gesellschaft der Renaissance in 
It alien und die Kunst: vier Vortrdge, Stuttgart, 1879. E. GEBHART, 
Les origines de la renaissance en Italic, Paris, 1879; and his La 
renaissance italienne et la philosophic de I'histoire, Paris, 1887. O. 
SCHVTZ, Der grosse Mensch der Renaissance, Bonn, 1906 (disserta- 
tion, Jena). H. HETTNER, Geschichte der Renaissance: Italienische 
Studicn, Braunschweig, 1879. W. DILTHEY, "Uber die Auffassung 
und Analyse des Menschen im 15 und 16 Jahrhundert, " in Archiv 
fiir Geschichte der Philosophic, IV (1891), 604-651, V (1892), 337- 
400 (also reprinted in his Gesammelte Schriften, I, Leipzig, 1913). 
E. GOTHEIN, "Die Weltanschauung der Renaissance," Jahrbueh 
des freien deutschen Hochstifts in Frankfurt, 1904, 95-131. 

Renaissance and Reformation, E. M. HULME, The renaissance, 
the protestant revolution, and the catholic reformation in continental 
Europe, New York, 1914. JEAN M. STONE, Reformation and renais- 
sance (circa 1377-1610), London, 1904. MARY A. ROLLINGS, Europe 
iiix.--un<-f and reformation, 1453-1659, London, 1909. 

Humanism in general R. SABBADINI, Le scoperte dei codici latini 
e greci ne' secoli XIV e XV, Florence, 1905; and his Storia del 
ciceronianismo e di altre questione letterarie nell' eta della rinascema, 
Turin, 1885. G. FIORETTO, Gli umanisti o lo studio del latino e del 
fjrcro nel seculo XV in Italia, Verona, 1881. A. ROERSCH, L'hu- 
manisme beige a I'epoque de la renaissance, Brussels, 1910. T. ZIE- 
LINSKI, Die Antike und wir, translated into German by E. SCHOLER, 
-inl edition, Leipzig, 1909; and his Cicero im Wandel der Jahrhun- 
derte, :tnl o<lition, Leipzig, 1912. 

Renaissance literature in general. J. E. SPINOARN, .1 history of 
litirnii/ </ r,;si IH the renaissance, New York, 1899, 2nd edition, 
I. 1908. G. KORTINO, Die Anfdnge der Renaissanceliteratur (vol. 
Ill of his Geschichte der Literatur Italiens), Leipzig, 1884. M. 
MONNIER, La renaissance de Dante d Luther, Paris, 1884; and his Le 
quattrocento: essai sur I'histoire litttraire du XV siecle italien, new 
edition, Paris, 1908. W. EVERETT, Italian poets since Dante, New 
York, 1904. O. KUHNS, The great poets of Italy, Boston, 1904. 
KNCE TRAIL, A history of Italian literature, 2 vols., New York, 
1903-1904. F. J. SNELL, The fourteenth ontnry, New York, 1899 
(Periods of European literature). G. G. SMITH, The transition period 
[15th and 16th centuries], New York, 1900 (Periods of European 
literature). The renaissance library, New York, Dutton. 



310 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Petrarch. P. DE NOLHAC, Petrarque et I'humanisme, Paris, 1892, 
new edition, revised, 2 vols., 1907. G. KORTING, Petrarca's Leben 
und Werke (vol. I of Geschichte der Literatur Italiens im Zeitalter 
der Eenaissance) , Leipzig, 1878. G. BOLOGNA, Note e studi sul 
Petrarca, Berlin, 1913 (Die Eeligion der Klassiker, 3). G. FINZI, 
Petrarca, Florence, 1900. A. MEZIERES, Petrarque: etude d'apres de 
nouveaux documents, Paris, 1868, new edition, 1895. A. GRAF, 
" Petrarchismo ed antipetrarchismo, " pp. 3-86 in his Attraverso il 
cinquecento, Turin, 1888. B. ZUMBINI, Studi sul Petrarca, Naples, 
1878, new edition, Florence, 1895. 

Following are a few special studies on Petrarch: J. H. ROBIN- 
SON, "Petrarch's Confessions," in Eomanic review, I (1910), 231- 
246, 347-356. F. Lo PORCO, Francesco Petrarca allo studio di Mont- 
pellier, Eome, 1915 (extract from Kendiconti della r. Accademia 
dei Lincei: scienze morali). F. Petrarca e la Lombardia, by A. 
ANTON, H. COCHIN, and others, Milan, 1904, is a collection of mis- 
cellaneous articles on Petrarch collected and printed by the Societa 
storica Lombarda. E. F. FUZET, Petrarque a Vaucluse, Rouen, 1904. 
A. FIORVANTI, F. Petrarca e Eoma, Modena, 1905, is a lecture. H. 
COCHIN, La frere de Petrarque et le lime du repos des religieux, Paris, 
1903; see also his Un ami de Petrarque: lettres de Francesco Nelli 
a Petrarch, Paris, 1892. G. O. CORAZZINI, La madre di Francesco 
Petrarca, Florence, 1903. C. SEGRE, Studi Petrarcheschi, Florence, 
1903. F. WULFF, Preoccupations de Petrarque, 1359-1369, Lund, 
1907. L. MASCETTA-CARACCI, Dante e il dedala petrarchesco : con uno 
studio sulle malattie di Francesco Petrarca, Lanciano, 1910. H. 
SCHMELZER, Petrarcas Verhdltnis zur vorausgehenden christlichen 
Philosophic des Abendlandes, Bonn, 1912. A. CARLINI, Studio su 
"T Africa" di Francesco Petrarca, Florence, 1902. G. P. BUTLER, 
Echoes of Petrarch, Chicago, 1911. A. FARINELLI, Sulla fortune del 
Petrarca in Spagna nel quattrocento, Turin, 1904. 

Boccaccio. E. HUTTON, Giovanni Boccaccio: a biographical study, 
London, 1910. E. RODOCANACHI, Boccace: poete, conteur, moraliste, 
homme politique, Paris, 1908. J. A. SYMONDS, Giovanni Boccaccio 
as man and author, London, 1895. G. KORTING, Boccaccio's Leben 
und Werke (vol. II of his Geschichte der Literatur Italiens im Zeit- 
alter der Eenaissance) , Leipzig, 1880. M. LANDAU, Giovanni Boc- 
caccio: sein Leben und seine Werke, Stuttgart, 1877. A. HORTIS, 
Studi sulle opere Latine del Boccaccio, Trieste, 1879. 

Poggio. W. SHEPHERD, The life of Poggio Bracoiolini, Liverpool, 
1802, 2nd edition, 1837. E. WALSER, Poggius Florentinus : 
und Werke, Leipzig, 1914. 



RENAISSANCE IN ITALY 311 

Greek. T. KLETTE, Bcitrdge zur Geschichte und Literatur der 
en Gelchrtenrcnaissance, 3 vols., Greifswald, 1888-1890, is 
important for its studies oil Greek scholars ; also contains documen- 
tary material. H. VAST, Le cardinal Bessarion, Paris, 1878. E. 
LEGRAND, Bibliographic Hellenique, XV e et XVl e siecles, 3 vols., 
Paris, 1884-1885. 

Florence. C. HARE (pseudonym), Life and letters in the Italian 
renaissance, London, 1915. G. S. GODKIN, Monastery of San Marco, 
London, 1901. K. BRANDT, Die Renaissance in Florenz und Bom, 
4th edition, Leipzig, 1913. F. T. PERRENS, La civilisation florentine 
du 13 au 16 siede, Paris, 1893. W. B. SCAIFE, Florentine life during 
the renaissance, Baltimore, 1893. A. DELLA TORRE, Storia dell' 
Accademia platonica di Firenze, Florence, 1902. G. M. BORDEN, 
Syllabus of a course of twelve lectures on Florence during the renais- 
sance: its history, literature, and art, Berkeley, University of Califor- 
nia Press, 1903, gives selected lists of books for each lecture. 

Coluccio. A. MARTIN, Mittclaltcrliche Welt- und Lebensan- 
schauung im Spiegel der Schriften Coluccio Salutatis, Munich and 
Berlin, 1913 (Historische Bibliothek, XXXIII), and his Coluccio 
Salutatis Traktat "Vom Tyrannen" : cine kulturgesohichtliche Unter- 
suchung nebst Textedition, mit einer Einleitung iiber Salutatis Leben 
und Sdiriften und cinem Exkurs iibcr seine philologisch-historische 
Methode, Berlin und Leipzig, 1913 (Abhandlungen zur mittleren und 
neueren Geschichte, 47). 

Marslgli of Florence (died 1394). S. BELLANDI, /.///'/// Marsili 
degli Agostiniani apostoio ed anima del rinascimento letterario in 
:e, 1S4S-1S94, Florence, 1911. 

Borne. GREGOROVIUS, Some in t]\e middle ages, book XII, eh. vii, 
book XIII, passim. J. STRZYGOWSKI, Cimabue und Bom: Funde 
und Forschungen zur Kunstgcschichte und zur Topographic der Stadt 
Bom, Vienna, 1888. C. v. CHLEDOWSKI, Bom: die Mcnschen der 
Renaissance, translated from the Polish by ROSA SCHAPIRO, Munich, 
1912. E. STEINMANN, Bom in der Renaissance von Nicolaus V bis 
Leo X, 3rd edition, Leipzig, 1908 (Beriihmte Kunststatten). J. 
K i. AS/ KM, Borne and the renaissance: The pontificate of Julius II, 
translated from the French by J. DENNIE, New York, 1903. B. 
LANCIANI, The golden days of the renaissance in Borne: from the 
l>i,iitific(iti' of Julius II to that of Paul III, Boston and New York, 
1906. 

Naples. W. GOETZ, Konig Robert von Neapel (1S09-1S4S) : 
seine Persohnlichkcit und sein Vcrhaltnis zum Humanismus, Tubingen, 
1910. 



312 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Laurentius Valla. L. BAROZZI and E. SABBADINI, Studi sul Panor- 
mita e sul Valla, Florence, 1891 (the portion on Laurentius Valla 
is by SABBADINI). G. MANCINI, Vita 'di Lorenzo Valla, Florence, 
1891. M. v. WOLFF, Lorenzo Valla: sein Leben und seine Werlce, 
Leipzig, 1893. W. SCHWAHN, Lorenzo Valla: ein Bcitrag zur Ge- 
schichte des Humanism/us, Berlin, 1896 (dissertation, Rostock). 

Aldus Manutius. A. F. DIDOT, Aide Manuce et I'hellenisme a 
Venise, Paris, 1875. 

Religion and humanism. J. OWEN, The skeptics of the Italian 
renaissance, 2nd edition, London, 1893. E. WALSER, ' ' Christentum 
und Antike in der Auff assung der italienischen Friihrenaissance, ' ' in 
Archiv fur Kulturgeschichte, XI (1913), 273-288. C. DEJOB, La foi 
religieuse en Italic au XIV 6 siecle, Paris, 1905. 

Education. E. SABBADINI, La scuola e gli studi di Guarini, 
Catania, 1896; see also his recent edition of the Letters of Guarino 
of Verona, vol. I, Venice, 1915. 

Renaissance art in general. E. MUNTZ, Histoire de I'art pendant 
la renaissance, 3 vols., Paris, 1889-95 (contains good bibliographies) ; 
see also his Les precurseurs de la renaissance, Paris, 1882; Les arts 
d la cour des papes pendant le XV 6 et le XVI e siecte, 3 vols., Paris, 
1878-1882, parts 4 and 9 of no. 887 above; La renaissance en Italic 
et en France d I'epoque de Charles VIII, Paris, 1885. A. VENTURI, 
Storia dell' arte italiana, vols. I-VII, Milan, 1901-1915 (vols. IV- 
VII treat the art of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries). A. 
PHILIPPI. Die Eunst der Renaissance in Italien, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1905. 
H. WOLFFLIN, Die Tdassische Kunst: Einfuhrung in die italienisclie 
Renaissance, Munich, 1901, translated by W. ARMSTRONG, The art of 
the Italian renaissance: a handbook for students and travellers, New 
York, 1903. Mrs. LUCY E. BAXTER, The renaissance of art in Italy: 
an illustrated sketch, New York, 1883, new edition, 1888. W. H. 
GOODYEAR, Renaissance and modern art, Meadville, Pennsylvania, 
1894. 

Many books listed under outline XXVII in part III below, on 
medieval art, also treat renaissance art. 

Criticism of renaissance art. W. PATER, The renaissance: studies 
in art and poetry, London, 1873, newest edition, 1910. J. EUSKIN 
Mornings in Florence, New York, 1876; and his Modern painters, 
4 vols., New York, 1858-1859; and his Stones of Venice, 3 vols., 
New York, 1860. H. TAINE, Philosophic de I 'art en Italic, Paris, 
1866, 3rd edition, 1880. VIOLET PAGET (VERNON LEE, pseudonym), 
Euphorion: studies of the antique and the mediaeval in the renais- 
sance, 2nd edition, revised, London, 1885 ; and her Renaissance fancies 
and studies, 1895, 2nd edition, London, 1909. M. CARRIERS, Die Kunst 



RENAISSANCE IN ITALY 313 

im Zu-sammfnhang der Culiurentwicklung, 3rd, revised, edition, 5 
vols., Leipzig, 1877-86, vol. IV, Renaissance und Reformation. 

Renaissance painting. B. BERENSON, The Florentine painters of 
the renaissance, New York, 1896, 3rd edition, revised, 1909; and his 
The Venetian painters of the renaissance, New York, 1895, 3rd edi- 
tion, 1897; The north Italian painters of the renaissance, New York 
[1907]; and The central Italian painters of the renaissance, 2nd 
edition, revised, New York, 1909. J. A. CROWE and G. B. CAVAL- 
CASELLE, A history of painting in north Italy from the fourteenth to 
the sixteenth century, edited by T. BORENIUS, 3 vols., London, 1912; 
and their A new history of painting in Italy, 3 vols., London and 
New York, 1908-1909. A. WOLTMANN and K. WOERMANN, Geschichte 
der Malerei, Leipzig, 1879-1888, translated by CLARA BELL, History 
of painting, vol. II, The painting of the renaissance. B. MUTIIEH, 
The history of painting from the fourth to the early nineteenth 
a ictury, translated from German by G. KRIEHN, 2 vols., New York, 
1907. Sir W. BAYLISS, Seven angels of the renascence: the story 
of art from Cimabue to Claude, London, 1905. JULIA ADY, The 
painters of Florence from the 13th to the 16th century, New York, 
1901. M. G. ZIMMERMANN, Giotto und die Kuiist Italiens im Mittel- 
alter, vol. I, Leipzig, 1899. ALICE V. V. BROWN, A short history of 
Italian painting, London and New York, 1914. C. H. CAJTIN, How 
to study pictures by means of a series of comparisons of paintings 
and painters from Cimabue to Monet, New York, 1906. L. VENTURI, 
Le origini delta pittura veneziana, 1300-1500, Venice, 1907. M. 
BRYAN, Dictionary of painters and engravers: biographical and 
critical, I vols., London, 1903-1908. 

Renaissance architecture. W. J. ANDERSON, The architecture of 
tin- r< iinissancc in Italy, 4th edition, London, 1909. G. SCOTT, The 
architecture of humanism, Boston, 1914. A. SCHUETZ, Die Renais- 
stincc in Italian: cine Sammlung der werthvollsten Monumente, 4 
\ol-i., Hamburg, 1893-96. L. PALUSTRE, L 'architecture de la renais- 
Paris, 1892. R. KEDTENBACHER, Die Architectur der italten- 
I!< in i i nuance: Entwickelungsgeschichte und Formcnlehre der- 
, Frankfurt, 1886. 

Renaissance sculpture. LUCY J. FREEMAN, Italian sculpture of 
the renaissance, New York, 1901. G. 8. DA VIES, Renascence: the 
sculptured tombs of the fifteenth century in Rome, London, 1910. 
D. A. E. L. BALCARRES, The evolution of Italian sculpture, London, 
1909. W. BODE, Florentine sculptors of the renaissance, New York, 
1909. W. BODE, Die italicnisclien Bildhaucr- der Renaissance, Ber- 
lin, 1887. 



314 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PAKTII 

Leonardo da Vinci. O. SIREN, Leonardo da Vinci: the artist 
and the man, Yale University Press, 1915. P. DUHEM, Etudes sur 
Leonardo de Vinci, ccux qu'il a lus et ceux qui I'ont lu, 2 vols., Paris, 
1906-09. E. MUNTZ, Leonardo Da Vinci, 2 vols., London, 1898. 

Michael Angelo. E. KOLLAND, Michaelangelo, translated from 
the French by F. STREET, New York, 1915, another translation by 
F. LEES, The life of Michael Angelo, London, 1912. H. THODE, 
Michelangelo und das Ende der Renaissance, 3 vols., in 4, Berlin, 
1902-1912. H. F. GRIMM, Life of MicJiael Angelo, translated by 
BUNNETT, new edition, 2 vols., Boston, 1896. Individual biographies 
of other artists may be found in such series as: Great artists series; 
Great masters in painting and sculpture, edited by G. C. WILLIAM- 
SON ; Masters in art, Boston, Bates, 1900 ff . ; and Kiinstlermono- 
graphien, edited by H. KNACKFUSS, Bielefeld, 1899 ff., translated 
as Monograplis on artists. 

Original sources. Das Zeitalter der Renaissance: ausgewdhlte 
Quellen zur Geschiohte der italienisclien Kultur, edited by MARIE 
HERZFELD, Jena, 1911 ff. Die Renaissance in Brief en von Dichtern, 
Kiinstlern, Staatsmanner, Gelehrten und Frauen, edited by L. 
SCHMIDT, vol. I, Leipzig, 1908, is an uncritical collection for the 
general public. VESPASIANO DA BISTICCI [died 1498] Vite di uomini 
Ulustri del secolo XV, Florence, 1849, new edition in 3 vols., Bologna, 
1892. 

F. PETRARCH, Epistolae de rebus famttiaribus et variae, 3 vols., 
edited by G. FRACASSETTI, 3 vols., Florence, 1859-1863. These famous 
letters were also translated into Italian by the same editor, with 
notes, Lettere di Francesco Petrarca delle cose familiari libri venti- 
quattro, lettere varie libro unico, 5 vols., Florence, 1892; and Lettere 
senile, 2 vols., Florence, 1892. 

The most serviceable edition of the famous work of LAURENTIUS 
VALLA on the Donation of Constantine, De falso credita et ementita 
Donatione Conslantini, with a French translation, is by A. BONNEAU, 
La donation de Constantin, Paris, 1879. For a general survey of 
this question of historical criticism, see C. B. COLEMAN, Constantine 
the Great and Christianity, New York, 1914, who will publish an 
English translation of Valla's work on the Donation in no. 949 
above. 

Thoughts on art and life by LEONARDO DA VINCI, translated by 
M. BARING, Boston, 1906. Epistolario di COLUCCIO SALUTATI, edited 
by F. NOVATI, vols. I-III, Eome, 1891-1896, vols. XV-XVII of no. 
990 above. Briefwechsel des ENEAS SILVIUS PICCOLOMINI, edited by 
E. WOLKAN, Vienna, 1909. AusgewaMte Schriften von GIOVANNI 



CHRISTIAN SPAIN 315 

Pico DELLA MIRANDOLA, edited, with an introduction, by A. LIEBERT, 
Jena and Leipzig, 1905. 

Large collections of sources for the history of Italy in general 
are listed above, nos. 988-994. 

Bibliographies. There are general bibliographies in VOIGT, Die 
Wiederbelebung, II, 511-525, which is especially valuable for original 
sources; SANDYS, A history of classical scholarship, II, xv-xix; and 
Cambridge modern history, I, 779-783. E. CALVI, Bibliografia an- 
iilitica Petrarchese, 1877-1904, Rome, 1904, is a very valuable critical 
bibliography on Petrarch. Now see also the Catalogue of the 
Petrarch collection bequeathed by Willard Fiske to the Cornell uni- 
ii-raity library, compiled by MARY FOWLER, Oxford University Press, 
1916. 



XXXIV. CHRISTIAN SPAIN IN THE LATER MIDDLE AGES 

A. OUTLINE 

1. The protracted crusade against the Moors was the chief 
factor which molded the life of Christian Spain in the middle 
ages. Its effect upon political and social institutions and upon 
the character of the people. 

2. The nuclei of Christian states in northern Spain: (1) Asturias 
(capital Oviedo), with Cantabria, developed into Leon and Castile 
(Alfonso III, the Great, 866-910); (2) Navarre (Basques); (3) 
Aragon; (4) Barcelona (Spanish mark of Charlemagne) developed 
into the kingdom Catalonia; (5) Galicia (St. James of Compo- 
stella) gave rise to Portugal, but was itself won by Castile. 

3. The breakup of the Ommiad Caliphate of Cordova. Death 
of the great minister and general Almansor in 1002. The division 
of the Caliphate into several small states between 1002 and 1031. 

4. Union of Castile and Aragon under Ferdinand I of Castile, 
1033-1065. The reconquest of Spain. In 1085 Alfonso VI, 1065- 
1109, captured Toledo. His famous condottiere, Ruy Diaz, the Cid 
Campeador (died 1099). The Moors invited the Almoravides from 
Africa, who, under Yussuf, defeated Alfonso at the battle of 
Zallaca, 1086. Rivalry between the Almoravides and the Almo- 
hades during the twelfth century. 

5. The rise of Aragon. Alfonso I, cl Batallador, 1104-1134, took 
Saragossa in 1118. Union of Aragon with Catalonia or Barcelona, 
thus giving Aragon access to the Mediterranean and wresting 
Catalonia from French influence. In 1283 Aragon took Valencia 
and soon developed a Mediterranean policy under James I, 1213- 
1276, the first step being the conquest of the Balearic Islands. 



316 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

6. The papacy and the Eoman church in Spain. Influence of 
the crusades in drawing the attention of the papacy to Spain. 
The Cistercians in Spain. The Cistercian military monastic orders 
of Calatrava and Alcantara. The order of St. James (Santiago). 
The great interest of pope Innocent III, 1198-1216, in Spain. In 
his pontificate was fought the decisive battle of Las Navas de 
Tolosa, 1212, which finally gave the Christians the upper hand in 
the peninsula. 

7. The constitutional history of Spain. Importance of the 
burgher class in the struggle against the Moors. The cortes in the 
twelfth century. The hermandades, or brotherhoods of cities, and 
the nobles. The peculiar office of the jitsticia in Aragon. Strength 
of royalty in Spain. The Siete Partidas of Alfonso X of Castille. 

8. The predominance of Castile under Saint Ferdinand III, 
1214-1252 (a contemporary of Saint Louis IX of France). Final 
union between Leon and Castile in 1230. The winning of Anda- 
lusia. Capture of Cordova in 1236, of Seville in 1244, and of 
Xeres and Cadiz in 1250. The Moors were now confined to Granada, 
but there they were allowed to remain until 1492. The castles 
of Alhambra and Generalife. 

9. After 1250 interest centers in the balance of power between 
the Christian states in the peninsula and in their relations with 
the states of Europe. 

10. Castile, 1252-1469. Alfonso X, the Wise, 1252-1284, and 
Eichard of Cornwall became rival Holy Eoman emperors during 
the Great Interregnum. Anarchy after his death. Under Alfonso 
XI, the Moors laid siege to Tarifa in 1340, but they were badly 
defeated in the battle of Salado. Alfonso took Algeciras in 1344. 
The rivalry between Peter I, the Cruel, 1350-1369, and his half- 
brother Henry of Trastamara led to the battle between Du Guesclin 
and the Black Prince on Spanish soil, at Najara, in 1367. Castile 
had a very troublous century under the rule of the house of Trasta- 
mara, 1369-1468. Marriage of Isabella, with Ferdinand, the heir 
of Aragon, in 1469. 

11. Aragon, 1276-1469. Peter III, 1276-1285, secured Sicily 
after the Sicilian Vespers, 1282. In the reign of James III, 1327- 
1336, Sardinia was taken from Genoa and Pisa and annexed to 
Aragon. Alfonso V, 1416-1458, wrested Naples from the second 
house of Anjou. The union with Castile, 1469. 

12. Union of Aragon and Castile under Ferdinand II, 1479- 
1516, and Isabella, 1474-1504, "the Catholic kings," and the 
foundation of the kingdom of Spain. The fall of Granada, the 
expulsion of the Jews, and the discovery of America in 1492. 



CHRISTIAN SPAIN 317 

13. Spanish culture in the later middle ages, especially in 
Catalonia. Heresy and the inquisition. The Jews in Spain. 

14. Portugal. Early growth of Portugal around Oporto (Porto 
Calle) and Coimbra, included in 1064. Establishment of the 
county of Portugal, 1095. In 1140 count Alfonso became king of 
Portugal and in 1147, with the help of German and Dutch adven- 
turers, took Lisbon from the Moors. Thus by 1250 Portugal had 
reached its present limits. Development of a navy in the twelfth 
century. Internal organization of Portugal under king Diniz 
(Dionysius, 1279-1325), "Denis the Laborer." Prince Henry the 
Navigator, 1394-1460, and the beginnings of Portugal's heroic 
age. In 1486 Vasco Da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope, 
and in 1598 he reached Calicut, India. In 1500 the Portuguese 
discovered Brazil. 

15. Kings of Castile, 1214-1504. 

Saint Ferdinand III, 1214-1252. 

Alfonso X, 1252-1284. 

Sancho IV, 1284-1295. 

Ferdinand IV, 1295-1312. 

Alfonso XI, 1312-1350. 

Peter I (the Cruel), 1350-1369. 

Henry II, of Trastamara, 1369-1379. 

John I, 1379-1390. 

Henry III, 1390-1406. 

John II, 1406-1454. 

Henry IV. 1454-1474. 

Isabella, 1474-1504. 

16. Kings of Aragon, 1213-1516. 

James I, 1213-1276. 
Peter III, 1276-1285. 
Alfonso III, 1285-1291. 
James II, 1291-1327. 
Alfonso IV, 1327-1336. 
Peter IV, 1336-1387. 
John I, 1387-1395. 
Martin, 1395-1410. 
Ferdinand I, 1412-1416. 
Alfonso V, 1416-1458. 
John II, 1458-1479. 
Fer.linan.l II, 1479-1516. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS F-OR READING 

Brief general accounts. HELMOLT, History of the world, IV, 
510-540. TOUT, Empire and papacy, 464-477; together with LODGE, 



318 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Close of the middle ages, 468-493. History of aU nations, X, 336- 
357. CLARA C. PERKINS, Builders of Spain, 118-151. LEES, The 
central period of the middle ages, 239-244, together with ELEANOR 
C. LODGE, The end of the middle age, 240-254. LOSERTH, Geschichte 
des spateren Mittelalters, 52-57, 345-359, 693-707. 

Longer accounts. M. A. S. HUME, The Spanish people, 103-305. 
LAVISSE and BAMBAUD, Histoire generale, II, eh. xn, and III, eh. ix. 
H. E. WATTS, The Christian recovery of Spain: being the story of 
Spain from the Moorish conquest to the fall of Granada (711-1492 
A.D.J, New York, 1893 (Story of the nations). 

Standard works. U. K. BURKE, A history of Spain, I, 133-141, 
152-162, 178-388, and all of vol. II. ALTAMIRA, Historia de Espana, 
I, 351-646, and all of vol. II. 

The Cid. H. B. CLARK, The Cid Campeador and the waning of 
the crescent in the west, New York, 1897 (Heroes of the nations). 
J. ORMSBY, The poem of the Cid, London, 1879. 

The cortes. R. B. MERRIMAN, "The cortes of the Spanish king- 
doms in the later middle ages, ' ' in American historical review, XVI 
(1910-1911), 476-495, contains important bibliographical notes. 

James the First of Aragon, 1213-1270. F. D. SWIFT, The life 
and times of James the First tlte conqueror, king of Aragon, Valencia, 
and Majorca, Oxford, 1894. C. B. BEAZLEY, James 1 of Aragon, 
Oxford. 1890. 

Heresy and inquisition in Spain. H. C. LEA, A history of tin 1 
inquisition of Spain, 4 vols., New York, 1906-1907, I, 1-288; and 
his The Moriscos of Spain: their conversion and expulsion, Philadel- 
phia, 1901, chs. l-n; to which may be added his History of the 
inquisition of the middle ages, II, ch. in. 

Portugal and Spain in the age of discovery. E. P. CHEYNEY, 
European background, 60-103. Cambridge modern history, I ch. I. 

Portugal. H. M. STEPHENS, Portugal, New York, 1891 (Story 
of the nations), chs. i-vin, is the best account. V. DE BRAGAXTA 
CUNHA, Eight centuries of Portuguese monarchy: a political study, 
London, 1911, has a very slight sketch on medieval Portugal in ch. I, 
but he appends a long list of books, pp. 255-265. 

Henry the Navigator. E. G. BOURNE, Essays in historical criti- 
cism, New York, 1901, "Prince Henry the Navigator," 173-189, is 
a good short sketch. J. P. OLIVEIRA MARTINS, Os filhos de Dom Jodo 
I, Lisbon, 1891, translated from the 1901 edition by J. J. ABRAHAM 
and W. E. REYNOLDS, The golden age of Prince Henry the Navigator, 
London, 1914. C. R. BEAZLEY, Prince Henry the Navigator, London, 
1895. 



CHRISTIAN SPAIN 319 

Ferdinand and Isabella. Cambridge modern history, I, ch. xi, 
" The catholic kings, " will serve as a short introductory sketch. 
IRENE L. PLUNKET, Isabel of CasiUe and t)ie making of the Spanish 
natii.n, 1451-1504, New York, 1915. Mrs. JULIA (CARTWRIGHT) ADY, 
Isabella the Catholic, New York, 1914 (Heroes of the nations). C. 
HARE, A queen of queens and the making of Spain, London and New 
York, 1906. W. H. PRESCOTT, History of the reign of Ferdinand 
and Isabella tlie Catholic, 3 vols., London, 1838 (often reprinted). 

Original sources. The chronicle of James I, king of Aragon 
[1213-1276], translated, with an historical introduction, by P. DE 
GAYANOOS, London, 1883. The chronicle of the Cid, translated from 
the Spanish by R. SOUTHEY, London, 1883 (Morley's universal 
library), is "based partly upon an Arab contemporary original now 
lost ' ' BURKE. 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 82-83. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. The general histories of Spain and Portugal 
are listed above, nos. 622-642. See the books on the church in 
Spain, nos. 467-468 above. See also nos. 813 and 103 above. For 
the publications of the Seal academia de la historia of Madrid, see 
no. 907 above. 

General and miscellaneous accounts. M. COLMEIRO, Reyes cris- 
titiiKis desde Alfonso VI hasta Alfonso XI en CastUla, Aragdn, 
\ai-arra y Portut/al (1072-131$), vol. I, Madrid, 1891, part of no. 
622 above. .1. DE DIGS DE LA RADA Y DELOADO, La Espana cristiana 
(970-1072), Madrid, 1890, part of no. 622 above, is incomplete. L. 
DOLLFUS, />/ KsiHianea au XI" siccte, Paris, 1903. A. SALCEDO Y 
Ruiz, Historia de Espana: resumen critico, Madrid [1914], is illus- 
trated profusely. A. PAZ Y MELIA, Espana dc la cdad media, Madrid, 
1898. CONDE DE TORREANAZ, Los conscjos del rey durantc la edad 
media, 2 vols., Madrid, 1884-1892. E. E. HALE and SUSAN HALE, 
Spain, New York, 1886 (Story of the nations), is far below the level 
of other works in this series. DEL CASTILLO, Gran diccionario geo- 
grdfico, estadistico y histdrico dc Espana, Barcelona, 1890 ff. G. 
CARO, "Aus der spanischcn Gewhiohte im Mittelalter, " in Historische 
ri,rt,-lj,ilir.i-l,rift, XVI (1913), 161-180. H. FlNKE, ' ' Das Auf- 

bliilirn ill r Qeschichtaforwhung in Spanien," in Historische Zeit- 
xrln-ift, CXIII (1914), 70-82, sees ho|>eful signs of improvement 
in the study and writing of history in Spain. 

The Cid. WII.I.KMAKKS. Le Cid: m>n hixloire, ses Icyendet, Mt 
imitm. Brussels, 1873. R. P. A. DOZY, Le Cid d'aprcs de nouveaux 
ilnrii im nts, new edition, Loyden, 1860. 



320 GENERAL MEDIEVAL. HISTORY P ART n 

Castile. J. CATALINA Y GARCIA, Castitta y Leon durante los rein- 
ados de Pedro I, Enrique II, Juan I, y Enrique III, vols. I-II, 
Madrid, 1891-1901, part of no. 622 above. G. DAUMET, Etude sur 
I'alliance de la France ct de la Castiile au 14-15 siecles, Paris, 1898, 
contains important original sources. C. FERNANDEZ DURO, La marina 
de Castilla, Madrid, 1894, part of no. 622 above. J. LAURENTIE, 
Saint Ferdinand III (1198?-1252), Paris, 1910 (Les saints). W. 
HERRMANN, Alfons X von Castilien als romischer Konig, Berlin 
[1897] (dissertation). 

Peter I, the Cruel, 1350-1369, has attracted considerable atten- 
tion and some attempts have been made to vindicate him, e.g., 
J. GUICHOT, D. Pedro Primero de Castilla: cnsayo de vindicacion 
critico-historica de su reinado, Seville, 1878. FERNANDEZ GUERRA, 
El rey D. Pedro de Castilla, Madrid, 1868. P. MERIMEE, Histoire de 
Don Pedre I er roi de Castiile, Paris, 1848, new edition, 1865. A. 
FERRER DEL Rfo, Examen historico-critico del reinado de Don Pedro de 
Castilla, Madrid, 1851. 

Aragon and Catalonia. V. BALAGUER, Historia de Cataluna y de 
la corona de Aragon, 2nd edition, 11 vols., Madrid, 1885-1887. J. 
EIBERA, Origen del Justicia Mayor de Aragon, Saragossa, 1897. E. 
DE HINOJOSA, El regimen senorial y la cuestion agraria en Cataluna 
durante la edad media, Madrid, 1905 (Biblioteca de derecho). J. 
BALARI Y JOVANY, Origenes histdricos de Cataluna, Barcelona, 1899. 
L. KLUPFEL, Die dussere Politik Alfonsos III von Aragonien (1285- 
1391), Berlin and Leipzig, 1911-12 (Abhandlungen zur mittleren und 
neueren Geschichte, 35) ; and his Verwaltungsgeschichte des Konig - 
reiclis Aragon zu Ende des 13 Jahrhunderts, Stuttgart, 1915 (post- 
humous work, edited by H. E. ROHDE). K. SCHWARZ, Aragonisclie 
Hofordnungen im IS und 14 Jahrhundert, Berlin and Leipzig, 1914. 
G. DESDEVISES DU DEZERT, Don Carlos d' Aragon, Prince de Viane: 
etude sur I'Espagne du nord au XV siecle, Paris, 1889. E. L. 
MIRON, The queens of Aragon: their li-ves and times [1035-1468 
A.D.], London [1913]. 

Navarre. J. DE JAURGAIN, La Vasconie: etude historique et 
critique sur les origincs du rcyaume de Navarre, etc., vols. I-II, 
Pau, 1898-1902. 

Cortes of Spain. M. DANVILA, Estudios e investigaciones his- 
torico-criticos acerca . de las cartes y parlamentos del antiguo reino 
de Valencia, Madrid, 1906 (ALTAMIRA says it must be used with 
caution). V. DE LA FTJENTE, Estudios criticos sobre la historia y el 
derecho de Aragon, 3 vols., Madrid, 1884-1886, is especially impor- 
tant for the early cortes in Aragon. J. COROLEU and D. J. PELLA Y 







CHRISTIAN SPAIN 321 

FORGAS, Las Cortes catalanas, Barcelona, 1876, contains important 
original sources. 

Henuandad.es. J. PUYOL Y ALONSO, Las hcrmandades dc CastUla 
y Leon, Madrid, 1913. K. HAEBLER, "t)ber die alteren Hermandades 
in Kastilion," in Historische Zeitschrift, LIU (1885), 385-401, and 
his "Die kastilischen Hermandades zur Zeit Heinrich's IV (1454- 
1474)," ibid., LVI (1886), 40-50. A. SACRISTAN Y MARTINEZ, Muni- 
cipalidades de Cast ilia y Leon, Madrid, 1878. 

Spanish church. M. MENNDEZ PELAYO, Historia de los hetero- 
doxos espaiioles, 3 vols., Madrid, 1880-1881, new edition, 1912ff. M. 
VAN HENCKELUM, Spiritualist ische Stromungen an den Hofen von 
Aragon und Anjou wahrend der Hohe des Armustsstreites, Berlin, 
1912, is a study on the spiritual Franciscans. Q. MORALEDA, El rito 
mozarabe, su antigiiedad, vicisitudes, costumbres mozdrabes, Toledo, 
1904. K. J. v. HEFELE, Der Cardinal Ximenes, Tubingen, 1851, trans- 
lated into English, The life of cardinal Ximenez, London, 1860, there 
is also a French translation, Le cardinal Ximenez, Paris, 1856. 

Jews in Spain. J. AMADOR DE LOS Rfos, Historia social, politico 
y religiosa de los judios de Espana y Portugal, 3 vols., Madrid, 
1875-1876. M. KAYSEBLINO, Geschichte der Juden in Spanien und 
Portugal, 2 vols., Berlin, 1861-1867. See also the general histories 
of the Jews, nos. 850-884 above, especially 876 and 878. 

Culture in Spain in the later middle ages. R. P. A. DOZY, 
Hi i-lterches sur I'histoirc et la litterature de I'Espagne pendant le 
mi .1/1/1 Age, 2 vols., 3rd edition, Leyden, 1881. J. P. OLIVEIRA MAR- 
TINS, Hintoria de la civilizacidn iberica, Madrid, 1894. Estado de 
In cultura espaiiola y principalmente catalana en el siglo XV, by 
various authors, Barcelona, 1893. H. FlNKE, "Die Beziehungen der 
aragonesischen Konige zur Literatur, Wissenschaft, und Kunst im 
13 und 14 Jahrhundert, " in Archiv fur Kulturgcschichte, VIII 
(1910), 20-42. L. COMENGE, La mcdicina en el reinado de Alfonso 
V de Aragdn, Barcelona, 1903. M. MENENDEZ Y PELAYO, Antologia 
de poetas liricos cantcllanos, Madrid, 1890, contains introductions 
which constitute a general history of learning and society in Spain 
in tin- later middle ages. See also no. 813 above. 

Portugal. C. R. PEPPER, Le Portugal: scs originea, son histoirc, 
Paris, 1879. F. KoRTH, "Per Antril NirderdeutBcher Kreuzfahrer 
an den Kainpfeii der I'ortugiesen gegen die Mauren, " in Mittcilun- 
gen des 1 us' Huts fiir ostcrreichische Gcschichtsforschung, VIII, 
Brgftncongsband, I, 1909. 

Prince Henry the Navigator. M. BARRADAS, Infante Dom 
Henrique, Lisdon, 1894. A. ALVES, Dom Henrique o Infante, Oporto, 



322 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

1894. E. H. MAJOR, Life of Prince Henry of Portugal surnamcd 
the Navigator, London, 1868, condensed edition, 1874. 

Expulsion of the Moors. F. CODERA, Decadencia y desaparicion 
de los Almoravides en Espana, Saragossa, 1899 (Coleccion de estudios 
arabes, 3) ; and his Estudios crlticos de historia drabe espanola, Sara- 
gossa, 1903. D. L. EQUILAZ YANGUAS, Resena historica de la con- 
quista del reino de Granada, 2nd edition, Granada, 1894. M. GASPAR, 
Granada en poder de los Reyes Catolicos, Granada, 1912. V. BALA- 
GUER, Las guerras de Granada, Madrid, 1898. 

Ferdinand and Isabella. V. BALAGUER, Los reyes catolicos, vols. 
I and II, Madrid, 1891-1898, part of no. 622 above. P. BOISSONADE, 
Histoire de la reunion de la Navarre a la Castille, 1479-1521, Paris, 
1893. D. F. BUANO-PRIETO, Anexion del reino de Navarra en tiempo 
del Rey Catolico, Madrid, 1899. J. H. MARIEJOL, L'Espagne sous 
Ferdinand et Isabelle: le gouvcrnement, les institutions, les moeurs, 
Paris [1892]. G. SELA, PoUtica international de los Reyes Cato- 
licos, Madrid, 1905. K. HAULER, Geschichte Spaniens unter den 
Habsburgern, vol. I, Hamburg, 1907, part of no. 332 above. 

Original sources. General collections of sources for the history of 
Spain and Portugal are listed above, nos. 997-1001. Acta Aragonen- 
sia: Quellen zur deutschen, ilalienischen, franzosischen, spanischen, 
zur KircJien- und Kulturgeschichte, aus der diplomatischen Korre- 
spondenz Jaymes II, 1291-1327, edited by H. FINKE, Berlin, 1908, 
is a well-edited collection of documents from the time of Dante 
which bear some resemblances to the famous Venetian Relations. 
Documents per I'historia de le cultura catalana mig-eval, edited by 
A. EuBi6 Y LLUCH for the Institut d'Estudis Catalans, vol. I, Bar- 
celona, 1908, throws much new light on the important Catalan culture 
of the middle ages. See H. FINKE, "Die katalanische Eenaissance, " 
in Internationale Wochenschrift (1910), 209 ff. See also the article 
oil Catalan language and literature in the Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

Primera cronica general : Estoria de Espana que mando componer 
Alfonso el Sabio y se continuaba bajo Sancho IV en 1289, edited by 
E. MENENDEZ PIDAL, vol. I, text, Madrid, 1906. Codigos de Espana: 
coleccion completa desde el Fuero Juzgo hasta la novisima recopila- 
cion, edited by M. MARTINEZ ALCUBILLA, 2 vols., Madrid, 1885-1886, 
is especially valuable for the study of Eoman law in Spain since 
Visigothic days. Fuentes para la historia de CastUla, edited by L. 
SERRANO, vol. I, Valladolid, 1906, contains archive material, 1068- 
1500. Histoire de I'Afrique et de I'Espagne intitulee Al Baguano 
'I Mogrib [of IBNAL IDHARI], translated and annotated by E. 
FAGNAN, Algiers, 1901. GOMES EANNES DE AZURARA, Chronicle of 
the discovery and conquest of Guinea, 2 vols., 1896-1899 (Hakluyt 
society), is an important source for early Portuguese explorations. 



EASTERN AND NORTHERN EUROPE 323 

Bibliographies. For general bibliographies see no. 42 above. 
Owing to the lack of adequate bibliographies for the history of 
Spain, additional information about books must be sought in the 
bibliographical notes in BURKE and in lists such as those in the 
Cambridge modern history, I, 749-753 ; LOSERTH, Geschichte des 
spdteren Mittelalters, 52, 345, 693; HUME, Tlie Spanish people, 517- 
524; and LAVISSE and BAMBAUD, Histoire generate, II, 719-720, III, 
504-506. See also the reports in the Jahresberichte der Geschichts- 
wissenschaft, no. 13 above. The bibliographies on Mohammedan 
Spain, outline IX above and outline X in part III below, contain 
references to some books which are important for Christian Spain. 



XXXV. EASTERN AND NORTHERN EUROPE IN THE LATER 
MIDDLE AGES 

A. OUTLINE 

1. The crusades widened the sphere of action of Latin Christen- 
dom which began to develop world interests and policies in the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The chief factors with which 
it had to deal in the later middle ages were the Slavs belonging 
to the Greek church, the Asiatic nomads, the Byzantine Greeks, 
and the Mohammedan Ottoman Turks in the east and the Moors 
in Spain and northern Africa. 

2. The invasion of Russia, Poland, and Hungary by Asiatic 
nomads in the thirteenth century. A new wave of ' ' Mongols, Tar- 
tars or Tatars ' ' from the steppes of Asia. Rise of these nomads 
in Asia under Temujin, 1162-1227, better known as Jenghiz Khan 
(Genghis Khan), or great Khan, which title he obtained in 1206. 
He penetrated beyond the great wall of China. His son turned 
westward and defeated the Russian princes in 1223. His grandson, 
Batu, took Kiev in 1240, and devastated Hungary and Poland most 
frightfully. Some bands of nomads came into the neighborhood 
of Vienna. Batu's realm was called the realm of the "Golden 
1 1 in de" (from ordu, the camp of the leader, Avho had a "golden" 
tent). Most of the nomads returned to Asia, but southern Russia 
remained in thoir clutch until 1480, when Ivan III, the Great, 
overthrew thorn and united the Russian monarchy. Isolation of 
Russia from both the Latin West and tin- Greek East, due to this 
invasion. Growth of Moscow. 

3. The greatness of Poland. Conflict between the Teutonic 
Order and Poland. Dominance of the order during the grand- 



324 GENERAL, MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTU 

mastership of Winzig of Kniprode, 1351-1382. End of the rule of 
the Piasts in Poland, 1370. Union of Poland and Lithuania under 
the house of Jagello, 1386-1572. Now there arose a strong anti- 
German movement in Poland, similar to that in Bohemia (Huss- 
ites). Defeat of the Teutonic Order by Poland at the battle of 
Tannenberg, 1410. Peace of Thorn, 1411. The treaty of Thorn, 
1466, marked the triumph of Poland over the Teutonic Order. 
Under Casimir IV, Jagello, 1477-1492, Poland reached the height 
of her glory. His younger son Ladislas was elected king of 
Bohemia in 1471 and king of Hungary in 1490. Fatal weakness 
of the Polish constitution, due to the excessive power of the great 
nobles. 

4. The rise and decline of Hungary. The Golden Bull of 1222, 
the "Magna Carta" of Hungary. Devastation of Hungary by the 
nomads, 1241-1242. End of the Arpad dynasty, 1301. Dominance 
of turbulent nobles. Regeneration under the house of Anjou 
(Charles I, 1310-1342, and Louis I, 1342-1382). The coming of 
the Ottoman Turks. Sigismund, of the house of Luxemburg, king 
of Hungary, 1387-1437. His successful warfare with the Turks, 
after his defeat by Bayezid at Nicopolis in 1396. John Hunyadi 
(ca. 1387-1456), the hero in the struggle against the Turks. The 
succession of his house to the throne in the person of his son Ma- 
thias I (Corvinus), 1458-1490, in whose reign Hungary reached the 
pinnacle of her power. Union of Hungary with Bohemia in 1490 
under Ladislas II of the house of Jagello. Sudden decline of Hun- 
gary. 

5. The Greek empire under the Palaeologi, 1261-1453. Restora- 
tion of the Byzantine rule with the accession of Michael Palae- 
ologus, 1261, a prince who had ruled Nicaea. Weakness of his 
empire. Its diminished territories. Inroads made upon them by 
the Latins of the west in the Balkan peninsula and the Aegean. 
The ' ' Grand Company of the Catalans. ' ' In 1333, Stephen Dushan, 
king of Serbia, 1331-1355, was on the point of taking Constan- 
tinople. Dependence of the empire on the west. Continuous nego- 
tiations with the papacy concerning the union of the two churches. 
Council of Ferrara Florence, 1438-1439. The Turkish menace. 
The coming of the gipsies into Europe. 

6. The Ottoman Turks in Europe. The rise of the Ottoman 
Turks or Osmanlis under Othman, 1307-1326. Nicaea was in their 
hands in 1330. The Janissaries. In 1354 the Turks took Gallipoli, 
their first foothold on European soil. In 1361 Murad I took Adria- 
nople. Emperor John V went to Rome to appeal to pope Urban V 
for help in 1369. Bayezid I, 1389-1403, actually besieged Con- 
stantinople when- he was diverted by the great nomad hero Timur, 



EASTERN AND NORTHERN EUROPE 325 

or Tamerlane, who defeated him and made him captive in the battle 
of Angora in 1402. 

7. The fall of Constantinople, 1453. Weakness of the Palaeologi 
and gradual recovery of the Ottoman Turks. They were checked 
temporarily by the genius of the Hungarian John Hunyadi and 
by the guerilla warfare of the Albanians under their famous leader, 
Ireorge Castriot, or Scanderbeg (Iskender Bey, Prince Alexander, a 
complimentary name given him by the Turks in reference to Alex- 
ander the Great). Negotiations between the Greek and Latin 
churches due to .the pressure of the Turks. In 1453, Mohammed II 
<: ;i ] -til red Constantinople. Importance of this event in the history 
of Europe. The "Eastern Question." The fall of Constantinople 
had little or nothing to do with the revival of the study of Greek 
in Italy. Did the advance of the Turks lead to the discovery of 
America and of a new route to India? Decline of the importance 
of the Mediterranean at the close of the fifteenth century. 

8. Palaeologian dynasty in Constantinople, 1259-1453. 

Michael VIII, 1259-1282 (in Constantinople,, 1261ff.) 

Andronicus II (Elder), 1282-1328. 

Andronicus III (Younger), 1328-1341. 

John V, 1341-1391 (non-dynastic). 

John (Cantacuzenus), 1347-1355. 

Manuel II, 1391-1425. 

John VI, 1425-1448. 

Const an tine XI or XII (Dragases), 1448-1453. 

9. Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Denmark was the leading 
state during this period. Its expansion and prosperity under Walde- 
mar I, the Great, 1137-1182, Knut VI, 1182-1202, and Waldemar II, 
the Conqueror, 1202-1241. Importance of Norway under Hakon IV, 
1217-1262. The Speculum regale, "The king's mirror," written 
about 1250-1260, gives a splendid picture of civilization in the 
north. Conquest of Iceland (1260) and the submission of Green- 
land. Relations of the Teutonic Knights, the Sword Bearers, and 
tin- llansi-at ic League with the northern states. Waldemar III 
of Denmark, 1340-1375. Treaty of Stralsuml, 1370. The Union of 
Kalmar, 1397, which united the three Scandinavian kingdoms, and 
lasted formally till 1~>L'4, although actually it was dissolved with 
the election of Christian I of Oldenburg in 1448. Decline of the 
importance of the Baltic in the fifteenth century. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 
Brief general surveys. IX>DGK. Tin dime of the middle atic*, 430- 
t". 1, 457^467, 494-514. ELEANOR IAMMJK. Tin nd of the middle age, 

dis. XI, XIII. 



326 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

Longer general accounts. LAVISSE and EAMBAUD, Histoirc gen- 
crale, II, chs. xiv, xvi; III, chs. xiv-xvin. HELMOLT, History of the 
u-orld, II, passim, III, 363-376, V, 106-147, 224-226, 243-268, 288- 
302, 338-348, 355-359, 363-367, 380-387, 409-412, 415-424, 461-518, 
VI, 446-452, 466-471, 478-484. LOSERTH, Geschichte des spdteren 
Mittelalters, 57-67, 359-365, 563-567, 107-112, 575-581, 199-203, 
369-375, 581-612. 

Europe and Asia. BEAZLEY, Dawn of modern geography, III, eh. 
n, "The great Asiatic travellers, 1260-1420." 

Russia and the nomad Mongols. A. RAMBAUD, History of Eussia, 
I, chs. x-xm; or V. O. KLUCHEVSKY, History of Eussia, I, chs. xn- 
XX, furnish a general survey of the history of Eussia during this 
period. J. CURTIN, The Mongols in Eussia, London, 1908, which is 
a companion volume to the same author's The Mongols: a history, 
with a foreword by T. ROOSEVELT, Boston, 1908. See also GIBBON, 
Decline and fall, ch. Lxrv. L. v. RANKE, Weltgeschichte, 9 vols., Leip- 
zig, 1883ff., VIII, 417-454, " tiberfluthung der asiatischen und 
osteuropaischen Welt durch die Mongolen." C. R. BEAZLEY, "Rus- 
sian expansion toward Asia and the Arctic in the middle ages (to 
1500)," in American historical review, XIII (1907-1908), 731-741. 

Hungary. A. VAMBERY, The story of Hungary, chs. vn-xi. C. M. 
KNATCHBULL-HUGESSEN, The political evolution of the Hungarian 
nation, 2 vols., London, 1908. G. G. ZERFFI, ' ' Hungary under Mathias 
Hunyady, surnamed Corvinus, 1458-1490," in Eoyal historical 
society, new series, I (1884), 260-272. 

A confirmation of the Golden Bull of 1222, the "magna carta" 
of Hungary, is reproduced in facsimile in HELMOLT, History of the 
world, V, 380; compare this with the Articles of the Barons of Eng- 
land, the original draft of the Magna Carta, 1215, reproduced in fac- 
simile in Weltgeschichte, edited by J. v. PFLUGK-HARTTUNG, II, 208. 

E. HANTOS, The Magna carta of the English and Hungarian consti- 
tution, London, 1914. 

Balkans. W. MILLER, The Balkans, 35-61, 167-193, 272-298, 353- 
382. N. FORBES, The Balkans, 41-46, 89-101, 175-181, 256-263, 319- 
332. 

Serbia. W. MILLER, "The mediaeval Serbian empire," in 
Quarterly review, CCXXVI (1916), 488-507. 

Latins in the Levant. J. B. BURY, "The Lombards and Vene- 
tians in Euboia, 1205-1470," in Journal of Hellenic studies, VII 
(1886), 309-352, VIII (1887), 194-213, IX (1888), 91-117. W. 
MILLER, "The Genoese in Chios, 1346-1566," in English historical 
review, XXX (1915), 418-432. E. A. FREEMAN, "Mediaeval and 
modern Greece," in his Historical essays, third series, 303-378. H. 

F. TOZER, "The Franks in the Peloponnesus," in Journal of Hel- 



EASTERN AND NORTHERN EUROPE 327 

lenic studies, IV (1883), 165-236. J. T. BENT, "The lords of Chios," 
in K/iiilish historical review, IV (1889), 467-480. See also the 
literature under "The Byzantine empire and the crusades," in 
outline XXI above, especially MILLER, FINLEY. and ROOD. 

Byzantine Empire, 1261-1453. OMAN, Story of the Byzantine 
i mi>ire, 307-350. GIBBON, Decline and fall, chs. LXI-LXVIII. W. H. 
HUTTON, Constantinople, 119-153. W. NOBDEN, Das Papsttum und 
Hi/: an:: die Trennung der beiden Machte und das Problem ihrer 
ll'inli n; n inii/ung bis zum Untergange des byzantinischen Eeichs 
(1453), books III and IV, is the best authority on the attempts 
made in this period to unite the Greek and Latin churches. A. 
WACHTER, Der V erf all des Griechentums in Kleinasien im 14 Jahr- 
huiultrt, Leipzig, 1903. 

Ottoman Turks. S. POOLE, The story of Turkey, London, 1888 
(Story of the nations), 1-139. 

Gipsies. See the article "Gipsies" in the Encyclopaedia 
lirititnnica; and HELMOLT, History of the world, V, 415-424. 

Fall of Constantinople, 1453. J. B. BURY, "The fall of Con- 
stantinople," in Yale review, new series, III (1913-1914), 56-77, is 
a good short summary. The standard work is E. PEARS, The 
ili st riii't on of the Greek empire and the story of the capture of Con- 
stiiiitin<>i>lc by the Turks, London and New York, 1903. H. VAST, 
!.- siege et la prise de Constantinople par les Turcs, " in Kevue 
liisti,!-ii,ni; XIII (1880), 1-40. Cambridge modern history, I, ch. Ill, 
.|"si lilies the Ottoman conquests after the fall of Constantinople. 
See also BURY 's Appendix to his edition of GIBBON, Decline and 
faH. 

Ottoman Turks and oriental trade routes. A. H. LYBYER, "The 
Ottoman Turks and the routes of oriental trade," in English Ins 
ti>ri,;il r, ,',,. \\X (1915), 577-588. See also W. HEYD, Gechichtc 

lIl'S I.I I'lll/tl Illllllll Is. 

Scandinavia. GJERSET, History of the Norwegian people, I, 410- 
492, II, I In.; (in I, 448-451, there is a good description of the 
S/in iihnn n mill <>r l\uifi's mirror). BoYESON, The story of Norirnii. 
400-480. L. M. LARSON, "Household of the Norwegian kings in 
the thirteenth century," in American historical review, XIII (1907- 
1908), 459-479. 

Original sources. The chronicle of Novgorod, 1016-1471, trans- 
lated from the Russian by R. Mi< IIKII. and N. FORBES, London, 
1914 (Camden third series, XXV). Mcilmiml researches from east- 
< rn .\sinlii- mmrci-s (13th to 17th century), 2 vols., with a map of 
middle Asia, edited by K. BKKTSCIINKIDKR. London, 1910 (the work 
u.-i-, roni|iletei| in 1H87, and incorporates the nuiterial in three or 
four of his older works). A history of the Moghuls of central Asia: 



328 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

being the Tarikh-i-Eashidi of MIRZA MUHAMMAD HAIDAR, Dughlat, 
an English version by N. ELIAS, London, 1895. Life and acts of the 
great Tamerlane: narrative of the Castilian embassy to the court of 
Timur at Samarcand, by EOY GONSALES DE CLAVIJO, 1403-1406, tran- 
slated, with notes, by C. E. MARKHAM, London, 1859 (Hakluyt 
Society). The Mulfuz al Timury: or Autobiographical memoirs of 
the Moghul emperor Timur, translated into English by C. STEWART, 
London, 1830. MATTHEW PARIS' English history from the year 1235 
to 1273, translated from the Latin by J. A. GILES, 3 vols., London, 
1852, vol. I, 467-473, "A shocking letter about the cruelty of the 
Tartars." "An eastern embassy to Europe, 1287-1288," tran- 
slated by N. McLEAN, in English historical review, XIV (1899), 299- 
318. The fall of Constantinople, by THEODORA PHRANZA, translated 
by J. M. NEALE, and reprinted, London, 1913 (Everyman's library). 
The first nine books of the Danish history of SAXO GRAMMATICUS, 
translated and edited by O. ELTON and F. Y. POWELL, London, 
1894 (The history was written about 1208). 

Maps. SHEPHERD, Atlas, 2-3, 77, 87, 88, 89, 92, 93, 102-103, 107- 
110. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. The general works oo the Byzantine empire and 
on eastern and northern Europe generally are listed above, nos. 
643-728. See also the periodicals for the history of the Byzantine 
empire, nos. 174-175 above, and the Encyclopaedia of Islam, no. 120 
above. For histories of literature see nos. 800-802, and 814 above. 

Mongol nomads from Asia. L. CAHUN, Introduction a I'histoire 
de I'Asie: Turcs et Mongols, des origines d 1405, Paris, 1896. G. 
STRAKOSCH-GRASSMANN, Der Einfall der Mongolen in Mitteleuropa 
in den Jahren 1241 und 1242, Innsbruck, 1893. H. H. HOWORTH, 
History of the Mongols from the 9th to the 19th century, 2 vols., in 
3, London, 1876-1880; and his The northern frontages of China, 4 
vols., London, 1875-1877 (Journal of the royal Asiatic society of 
Great Britain, new series, VII-IX). N. ELIAS, A history of ilic 
Moghuls of central Asia, London, 1898. E. STUBE, "Tschinghizchan: 
seine Staatsbildung und seine Persohnlichkeit, " in Neue Jahr- 
biicher fur das klassische Altertum, 1908. O. WOLFF, Geschichte 
der Mongolen oder Tataren, Breslau, 1872. G. BACHFELD, Die 
Mongolen in Polen, Innsbruck, 1889. J. v. HAMMER-PURGSTALL, 
Geschichte der Goldenen Horde in Kiptschack, das ist: der Montjoh/i 
in Eussland, Budapest, 1840. M. DE GUIGNES, Histoire generale des 
Huns, des Turcs, des Mongols, 5 vols., Paris 1766. KOUNIK, Eenseig- 
nements sur les sources et recherches relatives a la premiere invasion 
des Tatars en Bussie, Petersburg, 1856 (in Melanges asiatiques). F. 



EASTERN AND NORTHERN EUROPE 329 

P6TIS DE LA CROIX, Histoire du grand Genghizcan, Paris, 1710, tran- 
slated into English, The history of Genghizcan the Great, London, 
1722. See also the literature on the early history of the Asiatic 
nomads, outline XI above. 

Hungary. J. ANDRASSY, The development of Hungarian consti- 
tutional liberty, translated by C. ARTHUR and ILNOA GINEVER, Lon- 
don, 1908, extends to 1619. G. BECHMANN, Der Kampf Konig 
Sigmunds gegen die werdende Weltmacht der Osmanen, 1S92-14S7, 
Gotha, 1902. L. KUPELWIESER, Die Kdmpfe Ungarns mit den 
Osmanen bis zur Schlacht bei Mohdcs, Vienna, 1895. W. FRAKN6i, 
Mathias Corvinus, Konig von Ungarn, 1458-1490, a German transla- 
tion, Freiburg, 1891. 

Serbia. Prince and Princess LAZAROVICH-HREBELIANOVICH, The 
<in people: their past glory and their destiny, 2 vols., New York, 
1910. K. JIRECEK, Staat und Gesclhchaft im mittelalterlichen Serbien: 
Studien zur Kulturgeschichte des 13-15 Jahrhundert, part I, Vienna, 
1912 (Denkschriften der k. Ak. der Wissenschaften in Wien, phil.- 
hist. Klasse, 56, vols. II-III).- 

Latins in the Levant. G. SCHLUMBEROER, Expeditions des Almu- 
gavares ou routiers Catalans en Orient de I'an 1302-1311, Paris, 1902. 
C. BUCHON, Histoire des conquetes et de I'etablissements des Fran- 
fais dans Ics provinces de I'ancienne Grece au moyen Age, Paris, 1846. 

Scanderbeg. J. PISKO, Scanderbeg, Vienna, 1894. G. T. PETRO- 
VITCH, Scandcr-beg (Georges Castriota), Paris, 1881. C. PAGANEL, 
Histoire de Scanderbeg: ou Turcs et Chretiens au XP e siccle, Paris, 
1855 (see review of this and other books on Albania and Scander- 
beg, in Edinburgh review, CLTV (1881), 325-366). 

Ottoman Turks. N. JOROA, Geschichte des Osmanischen Seiches 

nach den Quellen dargestellt, 5 vols., Gotha, 1908-1913, part of no. 

332 above, is now the standard work. Tt supersedes the following 

two old standard work on the subject: J. v. IlAMMER-PURGSTALL, 

lichtc des osmanischen Seiches, 2nd edition, 4 vols., Pesth, 1834- 

1S36, translated into French by J. J. HELLERT, 18 vols., and an 

atlas, Paris, 1835-1843; and J. W. ZlNKElSEN, Geschichte des osman- 

n Seichs in Europa, 1 vols., Gotha, 1840-1863, part of no. 332 

above. 

H. A. GIBBONS, The foundation of the Ottoman empire: a history of 
tin Oxmiinli.* up to the death of Bayczid I (1300-1403), New York, 
]!]<>. E. A. FREEMAN, The Ottoman power in Europe: its nature, 
its iirrnrtli. nml its tin-Inn. London, 1877. E. 8. CREASY, History of 
tin Ottoman Turku, mw and n-visod edition, London, 1878. C. 
KI.II.T, Tnrl-iii in Europe, London, 1907, new edition, 1908. Sir M. 
SYKES, The caliphs' last heritage: a short history of the Turkish 



330 GENERAL MEDIEVAL HISTORY PARTII 

empire, London, 1915. Journal of the Royal Asiatic society, London, 
1834ff. 

A. DE LA JONQUIERE, Histoire de I'empire Ottoman depuis les 
origines jusqu'd nos jours, Paris, 1881, new edition, revised, 2 vols., 
Paris, 1914. H. GANEM, Les sultans Ottomans, 2 vols., in one, Paris, 
1901-1902. T. G. DJUVABA, Cent projets de portage de la Turquie 
(1281-1913), Paris, 1914. Y. FEHMI, Histoire de la Turquie, with 
a preface by A. BAUMANN, Paris, 1909. T. LAVALLEE, Histoire de la 
Turquie, 2nd edition, vols. I and II, Paris, 1859. A. VAMBERY, Das 
Tiirkenvolk in seinen ethnologischen und ethnographischen Bezieh- 
ungen geschildert, Leipzig, 1885. 

Fall of Constantinople, 1453. C. MIJATOVICH, Constantine, the 
last emperor of the Greeks: or the conquest of Constantinople "by the 
Turks (A.D. 1453) after the latest historical researches, London, 1892. 
E. A. VLASTO, Les derniers jours de Constantinople, Paris, 1883. 
J. H. KRAUSE, Die Eroberungen von Konstantinopel im 13 und 15 
Jahrhundert, Halle, 1870. A. D. MORDTMANN, Belagerung und Ero- 
berung von Konstantinopel durch die Tilrken im Jahre 1.453, Stutt- 
gart, 1858. 

Scandinavia. P. GIRGENSOHN, Die skandinavische Politik der 
Hanse 1375-1395, Upsala, 1899. H. DENICKE, Die Hansestadte, 
Ddnemark und Norwegen 1369-1376, Halle, 1880. M. OEHLER, Die 
Bezichungen Deutschlands zu Ddnemark von der Kolner Konfodera- 
tion bis sum Tode Karls IV, Halle, 1892. E. USINGER, Deutsch- 
Danische Geschichte 1189-1S27, Berlin, 1863. D. SCHAFER, Ddnische 
Annalen und Chroniken von der Mitte des XIII bis zum XV Jahr- 
hundert, Hannover, 1872; and his, Die Hansestadte und Konig 
Waldemar von Denmark: Hansische Geschichte bis 1376, Jena, 1879. 
P. ZORN, Stoat und Kirche in Norwegen bis zum Schluss des XIII 
Jahrhunderts, Munich, 1873. 

Original sources. The general collections of sources for the east 
and north of Europe in the middle ages are listed above, nos. 1002- 
1011. See also no. 986 above. 

Documents inedits relativs a I'histoire de la Grece au moyen age, 
edited by C. N. SATHAS, first series, 9 vols., Paris, 1880-1890. Ada 
et diplomata graeca medii aevi sacri et profana, edited by F. MIK- 
LOSICH and J. MULLER, 6 vols., Vienna, 1860-1890. Urkunden zur 
Geschichte der veneto-byzantinischen Beziehungen, edited by G. L. 
TAFEL and G. M. THOMAS, Vienna, 1858, in Fontes rerum Au*1ri<i- 
carum, 2, XII-XIV. Monumenta spectanta ad unionum ecclesianini 
Graecae* et Somanae, Vienna, 1872, edited by A. THEINER and F. 
MIKLOSICH, contains documents from 1124-1582. Chroniqni'* (ii'f'co- 
Bomanes inedites, edited by K. HOPF, Berlin, 1873. Becueil de duett- 






EASTERN AND NORTHERN EUROPE 331 

incut* ,sr /'.l.sie ccntrale d'aprcs les ccrivains chlnois, Paris, 1881, 
edited by C. IMBAULT-HUART, in Bibliothcque de I'ecole des langues 
orientates, XVI. The tale of the armament of IGOE, A.D. 1185; a 
Russian historical epic, edited and translated by L. A. MAGNUS, 
London, 1915. 

Thf main manuscript of Konung skuggsjd [king's mirror] in 
phutittfipi reproduction with diplomatic text, edited for the university 
t' Illinois by Ci. T. PLOM, Urbana, 111., 1915. Professor L. M. LARSON, 
of the same university, has just finished an English translation 
of the Kini/'fi mirror, New York, 1917. 

Bibliography. The general bibliographies for eastern and 
northern Europe are listed above, nos. 46-48. For the Byzantine 
empire K. KRUMBACHER, Geschichte der Byzantinischen Literatur, 
no. 800 above, is our great store house of learning, including his- 
torical bibliography. 

Good general bibliographies are also to be found at the end 
of chapters in LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire generate, and the 
head of the paragraphs indicated above in LOSERTH, Geschichte des 
.\l'iiti nil .\fHt('litlt(rs. There is a very good bibliography on the 
early Ottoman empire in H. A. GIBBONS, The foundation of the 
ottoman > in/iire, 319-368. See also the bibliographies under out- 
lines XI, XVII, XXI, XXII (eastward expansion of Germany), 
XXIV (missions), XXVI (Levant trade and Hanseatic League) 
above. 



PART III 
MEDIEVAL CULTURE 



PERIOD I. 500-1100 



I. THE TRANSITION FROM ANCIENT TO MEDIEVAL 
CULTURE 

A. OUTLINE 

1. Meaning of "history of culture." How it differs from the 
German conception of Kulturgeschichte. Current notions about 
the culture of the middle ages. 

2. The transformation of the ancient Graeco-Roman World 
into the Greek Christian East and the Latin Christian West. On 
the difficulty of finding definite lines of division in history see out- 
line I, part II above. Importance of dwelling long on the stability 
of the Roman empire and on its permanent contributions to civil- 
ization. Relative importance of the various factors which produced 
change from the fourth to the sixth century. Pagan and Chris- 
tian moralists of the time, especially the pagan AMMIANUS MAR- 
CELLINUS (ca. 320-ca. 395), and the Christians ST. JEROME (331- 
420) and SALVIAN (died ca. 484), a presbyter of Marseilles, who 
wrote the De gubcrnatione Dei. Danger of resorting to sweeping 
explanations of the decline of the Roman empire. 

3. The victory of the Latin language in the west. Its introduc- 
tion and spread in the provinces by soldiers, colons, slaves, officials, 
teachers, and priests. Difference between spoken and written 
Latin. The Vulgate of St. Jerome. The relation of Latin to the 
romanic languages. 

4. The decline of the study of Greek in the west and of Latin 
in the east. Neither one nor the other of these interesting phe- 
nomena lias been investigated thoroughly. Gradual evolution of 
two clear-cut spheres of Christian culture, the Greek East and 
the Latin West. Waning interest in the Greek and the Latin 
lassie* and in learning in general about 500 A.D. The closing of 
the School of Athens in 529. 

5. Tin* rliaii^iiig Roman civilization is illustrated best in south- 
ern Gaul, in the fourth and fifth centuries. Famous schools in 
Bordeaux, Toulouse, Narbonne, Poitiers, and Angouleme. (Imperial 
Treves). The program of studies. The study of oratory. Influ- 
ence of the Iiixtitiitts of Quintilian (ca. 35-95 A.D.). Increase 



334 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PARTIII 

of formalism in education. State support of schools. Ausonius 
(ca. 310-ca. 393) and his circle. His acquaintance with the Latin 
classics. His famous poem entitled Mosella. The coming of the 
barbarians into this region. 

6. Prominent Roman nobles in this time of change. Q. Aurelius 
Symmachus (ca. 345-ca. 405); praefect of Rome in 384-385, and 
consul in 391. His literary learning. Apollinaris Sidoriius (ca. 
431-ca. 484), a provincial noble of Lyons, bishop of Clermont- 
Ferrand. His enthusiasm for classical learning in a land over- 
run by the Visigoths. 

7. The conflict of religions. Conflict between Christianity and 
the worship of Isis, Mithraism (Taurobolium), Manichaeism, and 
Neo-platonism. Heresies within the church. Arianism and 
Donatism. The lingering death of paganism. Christian proscrip- 
tion of paganism. The edicts concerning paganism in the Theo- 
dosian Code, 438. The emperor Julian, "the Apostate," 361-363. 
The appeal of Symmachus in 384 for the restoration of the Altar 
of Victory in Rome. Pagan revivals, especially that after the 
sack of Rome in 410. 

8. Christianity and Graeco-Roman culture. Attitude of the 
church fathers towards the ancient classics. The fundamental dif- 
ference of ideals in ancient classical and Christian life and litera- 
ture. The conversion of Ausonius' pupil Paulinus (353-431), who 
became bishop of Nola in 409. 

9. The barbarians and Graeco-Roman culture. Comparatively 
small number of invading barbarians. Exaggerated notion of the 
destruction which they wrought. Their respect for the culture 
of the Graeco-Roman world. Evidence concerning the sack of 
Rome in 410 and 455. For the behavior of Theodoric and his Ostro- 
goths see outline II, part II, above. The Life of Saint Severinus 
(died ca. 482 in Noricum) by Eugippius. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 
Short general surveys. H. O. TAYLOR, The classical heritage of 

the middle ages, New York, 1901, 3rd edition, 1911, 1-43. J. B. 

BURY, Later Eoman empire, I, 1-36. Cambridge medieval history, 

I, 452-597. W. L. WESTERMANN, "The economic basis of the 

decline of ancient culture," in American historical review, XX 

(1915), 723-743. 

Longer general accounts. H. O. TAYLOR, The mediaeval miml, 

I, 1-123. M. GUIZOT, History of civilisation in Europe, lectures I- 

III. See also nos. 753 and 763 above. 



TRANSITION PERIOD 335 

Standard book. By far the best treatment of the subject of 
this outline is S. DILL, Roman society in the last century of the 
iristtni i-mpire, London, 1898, second, revised, edition, 1899 (often 
reprinted). 

Latin language and literature. MUNRO and SELLERY, Medieval 
civilization, 3-17, "Victory of the Latin language," which is a 
translation of a portion of a chapter in LAVISSE, Histoire de France, 
I, part II, 385-423. SANDYS, A history of classical scholarship, I, 
ch. xill. E. NORDEN, "Die lateinische Literatur im Cbergang vom 
Alterthum zum Mittelalter, " in Kultur der Gegenwart, 1905, 1:8, 
374-411, 2nd edition (1907), 401-438, 3rd edition (1912), 483-522. 
M. ROGER, L'enseignement dcs lettres classiqucs d'Ausone d Alcuin, 
Paris, 1905, 1-88. D. COMPARETTI, Virgilio nel media evo, 2 vols., 
Leghorn, 1872, 2nd edition, Florence, 1896, translated from the first 
edition by E. F. M. BENECKE, Vergil in the middle ages, London, 
1895, chs. iv-v. GRISAR, History of Borne, III, 239-249, "Vulgar 
Latin." 

The triumph of Christianity. Cambridge medieval history, I, ch. 
iv. E. EMERTON, "The religious environment of early Christian- 
ity," in Harvard theological review, III, (1910), 181-208. J. B. 
CARTER, '/'/ religious life of ancient Borne, Boston, 1911, 95-158. 
GIBBON. Dtdinc and fall, chs. xx-xxi, xxm, xxvin. 

Original sources. Short extracts in J. C. AVER, Source book for 
tiiii-nnt church history, 297429. The life of Saint Severinus by 
EUOIPPIUS, translated by G. W. ROBINSON, Harvard University 
Press, 1914. The letters of Sidonius, translated by O. M. DALTON, 
Oxford University Press, 1914. Some of his letters are also trans- 
lated in TIoDGKiN, Italy and her invaders, IT, 314^-371. The more 
interesting writings of St. Jerome are translated in Nicene and 
post-Nicene fathers, 2nd series, vol VI. Extracts from the Insti- 
tiiti'x of QUINTILIAN may be read in English translation in P. 
MIINKOK. Sniircc book of the history of education for the Greek 
inn! Hum, in ]>i riod. New York, 1901, 445-509. 

Maps. Study SHEPHERD, Atlas, 38-39 ; 42-43. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. See the bibliographies under outlines I and II 
nf part IF above. Many histories of the church, nos. 394-478 
above, are useful. 

Intellectual history. J. H. ROBINSON, "Some reflections on 
intellectual history, " in his The new history, 101-131. 

General accounts. T. R. GLOVER, Life and letters in the fourth 
cfntiir>i. Cambridge, 1901. A. F. OZANAM, La civilisation au cin- 



336 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PABTIH 

quicme siccle, vols. I and II of his Oeuvres completes, Paris, 1855, 
5th edition, 1894, translated by A. C. GLYN, History of civilization in 
the fifth century, 2 vols., London, 1868. O. SEECK, Geschichte des 
Untergangs der antikcn Welt, vols. I-V, Berlin, 1895-1913 (see espe- 
cially V, 217-259, "Die letzte Erhebung des Heidentums"). 

Latin language and literature. W. S. TEUFFEL, Geschichte der 
romischen Literatur, 6th edition, 3 vols., Leipzig and Berlin, 1910- 
1913, translated from the 5th German edition by G. C. W. WARR, 
2 vols., London, 1900. M. SCHANZ, Geschichte der romischen Literatur 
bis zum Gesetzgebungswerk des Kaisers Justinian, 4 vols., Munich, 
1890-1904 (in I. MULLER, Handbuch der klassischen Altertumswissen- 
schaft, VIII), 2nd edition, 1898-1914 (vol. IV extends from Con- 
'stantine to Justinian, but is not complete in the latest edition). 
A. BAUMGARTNER, Geschichte der Weltliteratur, IV, 84-203, see also 
229-241, "Die Erhaltung des Lateins als lebendige Sprache. " A. 
EBERT, Allgemeine Geschichte der Literatur des Mittelalters, I, book 
II. E. NORDEN, Die antike Eunstprosa, II, 573-656. F. CUMONT, 
"Pourquoi le latin fut le seule langue liturgique de 1 'Occident?" 
in Melanges Paul Fredericq, Brussels, 1904, 63ff. L. HAHN, "Zum 
Gebrauch der lateinischen Sprache in Konstantinopel, ' ' in Fest- 
gdbe fur Martin von Schanz, Wiirzburg, 1912, 173-183. F. A. BELIN, 
Histoire de la latinite de Constantinople, 2nd edition, Paris, 1894. L. 
VALENTIN, Saint Prosper d'Aquitaine: etude sur la litterature latine 
au 5 e siecle en Gaule, Paris, 1900. H. GOELZER, Etude lexicographique 
et grammatical de la latinite de Saint Jerome, Paris, 1884; and his 
Le latin de S. Avit, -eveque de Vienne (450-526), Paris, 1909. A. 
DUBOIS, La latinite d'Ennodius, Paris, 1903. L. BERGMULLER, Bemer- 
kungen zur Latinitdt des Jordanes, Augsburg, 1903 (Programm). 
C. H. GRANDGENT, An introduction to vulgar Latin, Boston, 1907. 
F. G. MOHL, Introduction a la chronologic du latin vulgaire, Paris, 
1899. 

Greek. K. KRUMBACHER, "Die griechische Literatur des Mittel- 
alters (324-1453A.D.)," in Kultur der Gegenwart, 1:8 (1905), 237- 
285, 2nd edition (1907), 239-290 (see also pp. 200-238). SANDYS, 
A history of classical scholarship, I, chs. xx-xxi. A. and M. CROISET, 
Histoire de la litterature grecque, 5 vols., Paris, 1887-1900, 2nd and 
3rd editions, 1899-1914, V, last two chapters. See also ch. xxix 
of their, An abridged history of Greek literature, translated by G. F. 
HEFFELBOWEB, New York, 1904. H. STEINACHER, "Die romische 
Kirche und die griechischen Sprachkenntnisse des Friihmittelal- 
ters," in Festschrift fiir Theodor Gomperz, Vienna, 1902, 324-341. 

Saint Jerome. G. GRUTZMACHER, Hieronymus: eine biogra/iliix 
Studie zur alien Kirchengeschichte, 3 vols., Leipzig, 1901-1908. E. 



TRANSITION PERIOD 337 

CUTTS, Saint Jerome, 4th edition, London, 1897 (The fathers for 
English readers). Mrs. C. MARTIN, The life of St. Jerome, London, 
1888. J. DE SiGi'ENZA, The life of Saint Jerome, the great doctor of 
the church, in six books, from the original Spanish . . . 15'J5, 
by M. MONTEIRO, London, 1907. A. LARGENT, Saint Jerome, 6th 
edition, Paris, 1907 (Les saints). J. BROCKET, S. Jerome et sea 
(i.x, Paris, 1906. J. TURMEL, St. Jtrome, Paris, 1906. L. 
SANDERS, Etudts sur St. Jerome, Paris, 1903. 

Later Roman education. P. R. COLE, Later Roman education in 
Ausonius, Capella and the Thcodosian Code, New York, 1909. G. 
RAUSCHEN, Das gricchisch-romische Schulwesen zur Zeit des aus- 
gehenden Heidentum, Bonn, 1901. O. DENK, Geschichte dcs Gallo- 
frdnkischen Unterrichts- und Bildungswesens, Mainz, 1892, chs. i-v. 
<;. KAUFMAN, Bhetorenschulen und Klosterschulen oder heidnische und 
Christliche Cultur in Gallien wdhrend dcs 5 und 6 Jahrhunderts, Leip- 
zig, 1869 (Historisches Tascheubuch). 

Ausonius. MARIE J. BVRNE, Prolegomena to an edition of the 
u-tirktt of I>i i-'iini.'i Magnus Auionius, Columbia University Press, 
1917. R. Pirnns. Lea derniers tcrivains profanes: les Pant-gyristes; 
Ausone; le Querolu* Kutiliuji Namatianus, Paris, 1906 (Etudes sur 
1'histoire 'Ic la literature latino dans les Gaules) ; see also book 
IV of his Histoirt dc la litterature latine, 3rd edition, Paris, 1903. 
1'. DE LAHKIOLLE, Une episode de la fin du paganisme: la correspond- 
I'. Insane et de Paulin de Nola, Paris, 1910, contains transla- 
tions into French together with studies. C. JULLIAN, An/tone et 
Bordeaux: i'ln,l<s *ur les derniers temps de la Gaule romaine, Paris, 
1893. 

Apollinarls Sidonlus. P. Au.un>. Saint Sidoine Apollinaris (413- 
489), I'aris. 1909 (Les saints). T. MOMMSKN, "Apollinaris 
Siilonius und seine Zeit," Rede zum Geburstsag des Kaisers, 1885, 
in his l;..l,n <ul .tuf.nit;!', Berlin, 1905, 132-143. 

Conflict of religions in the Roman empire. The fundamental 
books are those by F. CUMONT, Les religions orientalcs dans le 
l><ifHi ins m rmiKiiii, Paris, 1906, 2nd edition, 1909, translated by G. 
SiinwEKM AS. Orii ntnl nlii/ions in Roman paganism, Chicago, 1911; 
ami his 1. >.< nn/.t,n.\ ./- .Mi I lira. Paris, 1900, 3rl edition, 1913, trans- 
lated from the second edition by J. M. McCoRMACK, The mysteries 
of Mithra, Chicago, 1910. F. LEOOE, Forerunners and rivals of Chrit- 
';/: Ilium A/I/J/KX in nJiiiniii.1 lu*tory from 3.10 B.C. to 330 A. D., 
_' \uls.. Cambriilgi- I'lm.-rsity Prw, 15H." >t II, ch. XII, "The wor- 
ship of Mithras," ch. xni, "Millies ami the Manichaeans. " T. R. 
GLOVER, The conflict of rcliiiinn* in tin mrlii ]>'i>man empire, London, 
1910. C. ELSEE, .%" i-'nt' mxin in nlntii.n In <'hri*fianity : an 



338 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

Cambridge University Press, 1908. C. BIGG, Neoplatonism, London. 
1895. 

The end of paganism. G. BOISSIER, La fin du paganisms, 2 vols., 
Paris, 1891, 5th edition, 1907. MAUDE A. HUTTMANN, The establish- 
ment of Christianity and the proscription of paganism, New York, 
1914 (Columbia University studies). W. K. BOYD, The ecclesiastical 
edicts of the Theodosian Code, New York, 1905 (Columbia Uni- 
versity studies). G. UHLHORN, Der Kampf des Christentums mit dem 
Heidentum, Stuttgart, 1875, translated from the 3rd German edi- 
tion by E. C. SMYTH and C. J. EOPES, The conflict of Christianity 
with heathenism, New York, 1879, revised edition, 1908. P. D. 
SCOTT-MONCRIEFF, Paganism and Christianity in Egypt, Cambridge 
University Press, 1913. V. SCHULTZE, Geschichte des Untergangs des 
griechisch-romischen Heidentums, Jena, 1887. G. E. A. GRINDLE, 
The destruction of paganism in the Eoman empire, Oxford, 1892. 
C. BIGG, The church's task in the Eoman empire, Oxford, 1905. 

Julian the Apostate. P. ALLARD, Julien I'Apostat, 2 vols., Paris, 
1900-1903. ALICE GARDNER, Julian, philosopher and emperor, and 
the last struggle of paganism against Christianity, London, 1901. 
G. MAU, Die religionsphilosophie Kaiser Julians in seinen Reden auf 
Konig Helios und die Goiter-Mutter, Leipzig, 1907, contains trans- 
lations of the two speeches. G. NEGRI, L'imperatore Giuliano 
I'Apostata, Florence, 1902, translated by the Duchess LiTTA-Vis- 
CONTI-ARESE, 2 vols., London, 1905. 

Arianism. H. M. GWATKIN, Studies of Arianism, 2nd edition, 
Cambridge, 1900; see also his Arian controversy, London, 1889 
(Epochs of church history) ; and his The knowledge of God, 2 vols., 
Edinburgh, 1906. E. L. WOODWARD, Christianity and nationalism 
in the later Eoman empire, London and New York, 1916. 

Paulinus of Nola and Paulinus of Pella. J. S. PHILLIMORE, ' ' St. 
Paulinus of Nola," in Dublin review, CXLVII (1910), 288-305. J. 
BROCKET, La correspondance de Saint Paulin de Nole et de Sulpice 
Severe, Paris, 1906. P. REINELT, Studien uber die Briefe des hi. 
Paulinus von Nola, Breslau, 1903 (dissertation). J. EOCAFORT, Un 
type gallo-romain, Paulin de Pella: sa vie, son poeme, Paris, 1896. 

The church and ancient culture. E. HATCH, The influence of 
Greek ideas and usages upon the Christian church, edited by A. M. 
FAIRBAIRN, 4th edition, London, 1892. G. HODGES, The early church 
from Ignatius to Augustine, Boston, 1915. A. H. LEWIS, Paganism 
surviving in Christianity, New York, 1892. H. v. EICKEN, Geschichte 
und System der mittelalterlichen Weltanschauung, 109-14,7. J. A. 
LALANNE, Influence des peres de I'eglise sur I' education publiqu- 
pendant les cinq premiers siecles de I' ere chretienne, Paris, 1850. 



ie 



TYPES OP THE TRANSITION 339 

A. HARNACK, History of dogma, vol. I. G. LOESCHCKE, Jildisches und 
heidnisch.es im christlichen Kult, Bonn, 1910. P. WENDLAND, Die 
hellenistisch-romische Kultur in ihren Beziehungen zu Judentum und 
Christentum, Tubingen, 1907 (Handbuch zum neuen Testament, vol. 
I, part II). E. RENAN, Lectures on the influence of the institutions, 
thought and culture of Borne on Christianity and on the development 
of the catholic church, translated by C. BEARD, London, 1880 (Hib- 
bert lectures, 1880). U. BENIONI, Storia sociale della chiesa, Milan, 
1912. 

The barbarians and ancient culture. F. LAURENT, Les barbares 
et le catholicixme, Ghent, 1857, 2nd edition, Brussels, 1864 (Etudes 
sur 1'histoire de I'humanit6, 5). See also FUSTEL DE COULANGES, 
".<it it ut ions de I'ancienne France, vols. I-II. 

Saint Severinus. ANDR BAUDRILLART, Saint Stverin, Paris, 1908 
(Les saints). T. SOMMERLAD, Die Lebensbeschreibung Severing als 
kiilturgrttrhichtliche Quelle, Leipzig, 1903. 

Bibliographies. Cambridge medieval history, I, 624-641, 691- 
695. M. ROGER, L'enseignement, pp. ix-xviii. Bibliographical notes 
in DILL, Roman society; TAYLOR, Mediaeval mind, I, 1-123; SANDYS, 
Classical scholarship, I, ch. xni; BAUMGARTNER, Geschichte der Welt- 
literatur, IV, 84-203; W. 8. TEUPPEL, Geschichte der romischen 
'itiir. III (1913), 210-472; and M. SCHANZ, Bomische Literatur- 
geschichte, IV (1914ff.). The vast literature on the early church 
is beyond the scope of the above outline. 

II. TYPES OF THE TRANSITION PERIOD, ABOUT 
400-600 

A. OUTLINE 

1. Necessity of choosing a few guiding threads in a maze of 
change. The value of biography. 

2. St. Augustine (354-430). Born in Tagaste, in Numidia. 
The Africa of Augustine's youth. His mother Monica. His Con- 
fessions. His search for the true religion (Neo-platonism, Mith- 
raism, Manichaeism). Influenced by St. Ambrose in Milan. The 
"conversion," in 386. Bishop of Hippo and religious arbiter of 
the west. His City of God (De civitate Dei). OROSIUS' Seven books 
of history against 1li< //</"-''< ( Ilixturiarum adversum paganos libri 
I'll, sometimes culled Ormista or Ormexta, the moaning of which is 
unknown). Augustine's attitude toward classical learning, espe- 
cially Greek. His attitude toward the barbarians and his Welt' 
anschauung in his old age. He died in Hippo in 430 when the 
Vandals were before its gates. 



340 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

3. Boethius (ca. 475-524). A type of the old Roman nobility, 
more or less unwillingly in the court of a barbarian king (Theo- 
doric), and scarcely touched by Christianity. His great contribu- 
tion to the cause of learning. Translations from the Greek. His 
Consolation of philosophy ( Philosophiae consolatio), composed in 
prison. His execution by Theodoric. 

4. Cassiodorus (ca. 480-490 ca. 575-585; about 95 years old). 
Contrast with Boethius. Also of old Roman noble stock, but a 
willing servant of Theodoric, and, in old age, a pious monk, in 
Vivarium at Squillace in Calabria, his birthplace. His Variae and 
Institutiones, especially part IT, De artibus ac disciplines liberalium 
litterarum. His great services for monastic learning. 

5. Pope Gregory I, the Great (ca. 540-604). Also a Roman 
noble, born in Rome; the lord of western Europe as pope. He 
foresaw the future of the barbarians as faithful sons of the 
church. His discouragement of secular learning. His very popular 
works. Gregory's Weltanschauung indicative of a great change in 
the world since the birth of Augustine. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

St. Augustine. The following are good short biographies in 
English. L. BERTRAND, Saint Augustin, Paris, 1913, translated by 
V. O 'SULLIVAN, The life of St. Augustin, New York, 1914. J. 
McCABE, St. Augustine and his age, New York, 1903. E. L. CUTTS, 
Saint Augustine, London, 1909 (The fathers for English readers). 
HARXACK, History of dogma, V, 1-240. 

For shorter surveys see FARRAR, Lives of the Fathers, II, ch. 
xvii ; CARTER, The religious life of ancient Eome, eh. vi; R. EUCKEN, 
Die Lebensanschauungen der grossen DenTcer, translated by W. S. 
HOUGH, The problem of human life as viewed by the great thinkers, 
London, 1909, new edition, 1912, 172-248; W. DILTHEY, Einleitung 
in die. Geisteswissenschaften, Leipzig, 1883, I, 315-337; and M. 
GRABMANN, Die Geschichte der scholastischen Methode, I, 125-143. 
For his City of God read BOISSIER, "La cit6 de Dieu de Saint 
Augustin," in his Fin du paganisme, II, 339-390; and A. ROBERTSON, 
Eegnum Dei, London, 1901 (Bampton lectures). A short apprecia- 
tion of his Confessions is in F. DRAKE, Masters of the spiritual life, 
London, 1916, ch. I, "S. Augustine and the Confessions." C. 
DOUAIS, Les Confessions de St. Augustin, Paris, 1893. 

Boethius. HODGKIN, Italy and her invaders, III, ch. xn; and his 
Theodoric the Goth, ch. xm. SANDYS, A history of classical scholar- 
ship, I, 2nd edition, 251-258. MANITIUS, Geschichte der latdnischen 
Literatur des Mittelalters, I, 22-36. M. GRABMANN, Geschichte der 



TYPES OP THE TRANSITION 341 

scholastischen Mcthode, I, 148-177. L. M. HARTMANN, Geschichte 
Haiti us im M it tt latter, Leipzig, 1897, vol. I, ch. IV "Riimische Kul- 
tur im Gotenlaiule." 

Cassiodonis. R. W. CHURCH, ' ' Cassiodorus, ' ' in his Miscellaneous 
essays, London, 1888, 155-204. SANDYS, History of classical scholar- 
ship, I, 2nd edition, 258-270. HODGKIN, The letters of Cassiodorus, 
introduction. ROGER, L'cnseigncment des lettres dassiques, 175-187. 
MAXITIUS, Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur, I, 36-52. O. BARD- 
KN n EWER, Patrologie, 3rd edition, 120. T. HODGKIN, Theodoric 
the Goth, ch. ix. G. PFEILSCHIFTER, Theodorich der Grosse, ch. vi. 

Gregory the Great. DUDDEN, Gregory the Great, II, 285-443. 
ROGER. L Y/IAVI//H< mcnt, 187-195. MANITIUS, Geschichte der latein 
ischen Literatur, I, 92-106. For general literature on Gregory the 
Great see outline V in part II above. 

Original sources. All the important works of St. Augustine 
are translated into English. For our purposes the most essential 
work is his Confessions, of which there is a good translation in the 
Nicene and post-Nicene fathers, first series, vol. I. The original 
Latin of the Confessions, together with the English translation by 
W. WATTS (1631), is now in the Loeb classical library, 2 vols., 
London, 1912. The Confessions are also translated in Everyman's 
library, London and New York, 1907. 

The famous City of God (De civitate Dei) is best read in the 

English translation of J. HEALEY (1610), 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1909. 

It may also be found in the Nicene and post-Nicene fathers, first 

-, vol. 1 1 ; and is also translated by M. DUDS. 2 vols., London, 

1871. 

Other works of St. Augustine are translated in Nicene and post- 

< futhirx, first series, vols. I-VIII; and in his Works, by M. 

Dons, 15 vols., Edinburgh, 1872-1882. See also the translation of his 

SoUlix/niis, by ROSE E. CLEVELAND, Boston, 1910; and AYER, Source 

429-463. 

King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version of OROSIUS' Seven books 
of history mininst the pagans is translated into English in G. R. 
I'AII.I. //(/ Ufc of Alfred the Great, 1853, 238-582. The best -!! 
tion of the Latin original is edited by C. ZANUEMEISTER, 18S-. in 
no. 954 above, vol. V. It is also in Migm', no 953 abo've, vol. .\.\.\. 
A translation of OROSIUS, by C. J. OODEN, will appear in no. 949 
above. 

The Consolations of philosophy of BOETIIIUS have been translated 
into good English by II. K. JAMES, London, 1897; and also by W. V. 
COOPER, London, 1902 (Temple classics). 



342 MEDIEVAL CULTURE ' PABTIII 

For translations of some works of pope GREGORY see Nicene and 
post-Nicene fathers, second series, vols. XII-XIII. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. See the bibliographies under outlines II and 
V of part II above. 

Saint Augustine. The following are a few of the more general 
works. W. THIMME, Augustin: ein Lebens- und Charakterbild auf 
Grund seiner Brief e, Gottingen, 1910; see also his Augustins geistige 
Entwickelung in den ersten Jaliren nach seiner " Bekehrung," 386- 
391, Berlin, 1908 (Neue Studien edited by N. BONWETSCH, 3). 
P. GEROSA, Sant' Agostino e la decadenza dell' impero Romano, 
Turin, 1916. G. v. HERTLING, Der Untergang der antiken Kultur: 
Augustin, Mainz, 1902 (Weltgeschichte in Karakterbildern). E. F. 
HUMPHREY, Politics and religion in the days of Augustine, New York, 
1912 (dissertation, Columbia University). A. DORNER, Augustinus, 
Leipzig, 1908. A. HATZPELD, Saint Augustin, 6th edition, Paris, 1902. 
J. MARTIN, Saint Augustin, Paris, 1901 (Grands philosophes). C. 
WOLFSGRUBER, Augustinus, Paderborn, 1898. 

Among the many books which treat of the spiritual develop- 
ment of Augustine are the following: II. BECKER, Augustin: 
Studien zu seiner geistigen Entwicklung, Leipzig, 1908. J. MAUS- 
BACH, Die Ethik des heiligen Augustinus, 2 vols., Freiburg, 1909. 
M. L. BURTON, The problem of evil: a criticism of the Augustinian 
point of view, Chicago, 1909. W. CUNNINGHAM, S. Austin and his 
place in the history of Christian thought, London, 1886 (Hulsean lec- 
tures, 1885). W. MONTGOMERY, St. Augustine: aspects of his life and 
thought, London, 1914. L. GRANDGEORGE, Saint Augustin et le neo- 
Platonisme, Paris, 1896, part of no. 888 above. ELLA H. STOKES, 
The conception of a "kingdom of ends in Augustine, Aquinas, and 
Leibniz, Chicago, 1912 (dissertation). H. EEUTER, Augustinische 
Studien, Gotha, 1887. W. J. S. SIMPSON, St. Augustine and African 
church divisions, London and New York, 1910. 

Augustine's De civitate Dei. E. TROELTSCH, Augustin: die 
christliche Antike und das Mittelalter im AnscMuss an die Schrift 
" De civitate Dei," Munich and Berlin, 1915 (Historische Biblio- 
thek, 36). H. SCHOLZ, Glaube und Unglaube in der Weltgeschichte: 
ein Kommentar su Augustins De civitate Dei, Leipzig, 1911. B. 
SEIDEL, Die Lehre des heiligen Augustinus vom Staate, Breslau, 1909 
(Kirchengeschichtliche Abhandlungen, 9, 1). O. SCHILLING, Die 
Stoats- und Soziallehre des hi. Augustinus, Freiburg, 1910. S. ANGUS 
The sources of the first ten books of Augustine's De civitate Dei 
Princeton, 1906. T. KOLDE, Das Staatsideal des Mittelalters : I. Seine 



ei, 
ne 



TYPES OP THE TRANSITION 343 

Begriindung durch Augustin; wissenschaftliche Beilage zum Jahres- 
boricht der ersten stadtischen Realschule zu Berlin, Ostern, 1902. 
A. NIEMANN, Augustins Geschichtsphilosophie, Griefswald, 1895. 

Africa in the time of St. Augustine. J. MESNAGE, Le christian- 
isme en Afrique, .'? vols., Paris, 1915; see also his L'Afrique chre- 
tienne, Paris, 1912. L. R. HOLME, The extinction of the Christian 
churches in north Africa, London, 1898. H. LECLEBCQ, L'Afrique 
chrttienne, 2 vols., Paris, 1904. F. FERRERE, La situation religieuse 
de I' Afrique Eomaine, depuis la fin du IF siecle jusqu'd I'invasion 
des Vandales, 419, Paris, 1897. 

Boethius. H. F. STEWART, Boethius, Edinburgh and London, 
1891 (Hulsean essay). E. K. RAND, "On the composition of 
Boethius' Consolatio philosophiae, " in Harvard studies in classical 
philology, XV (1904), 1-28. V. DI GIOVANNI, Boezio filosofo ed i 
suoi imitatori, Palermo, 1880. J. G. SUTTERER, Der letzte Bomer, 
Kit-hstiidt, 1852. G. A. L. BAUR, Boetius und Dante, Leipzig, 1873. 

On the question of Boethius' attitude towards Christianity, see 
GIOVANNI SEMERIA, 11 christianesimo di Scverino Boezio rivendi- 
cato, Rome, 1900; G. BOISSIER, "Le Christianisme de Boece, " in 
Journal des savants, (1889), 449-462; and A. HILDEBRAND, Boethius 
und seine Stdlnnti :um Christentum, Regensburg, 1886. 

Cassiodorus. H. USENEB, Anecdoton Holderi: ein Beitrag zur 
Geschichte Boms in ostgothischer Zeit, Bonn, 1877, is a short but 
fundamental study on Cassiodorus, Boethius, and Symmachus. V. 
MORTET, Notes sur la texte des Institutiones de Cassiodore, d'aprcs 
1 nuiinisrrits: recherches critiques sur la tradition des arts liber- 
inij- ill 1'iintiiiiiiti' tm moyen age, Paris, 1904 (in part, a reprint from 
Revue de philologie, 1900-1904). A. OLLERIS, Cassiodore: conser- 
r- ,//.s Hrrcs de I'antiquitc latinc, Paris, 1841. G. MINASI, M. A. 
Cassiodoro . . . riccrche storico-critiche, Naples, 1895. A. M. 
FRANZ, Aurelius Casrivdorus Senator, Breslau, 1872. I. CIAMPI, / 
Cassiodori ncl V e nel VI secolo, Rome, 1877. A. THORBECKE, Cassio- 
tnnix Simitar. 1 1 'i , Id I icrg, 1867. 

Original sources. Almost all the works of these men may be 
found in nos. 953, 954 and 978 above. They are too numerous to 
mention in detail. Ample directions for the works of Augustine 
niiiy l>e found in TEUKFEL, Geschichte der r<nixi -In n I.itrratur, 6th 
eilition, III, 3filff., and for Boethius, Cassiodorus and Gregory in 
MANITIUS, GesrJiirhti- drr lateiniscln n Litiratur, I, and in SANDYS, 
A history of rlasxiral nrhnlnrnhip, I. 

See also A uaust in 's Enchiridion, edited by O. SciiEEL, Tiibingcn 
.iii'l I.-i|./.ig, 1903 (Sammlung ausgewiililter kirchen- und 
gcsehichtlicher Quellenschriften, 2nd series, vol. IV). 



344 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PARTIH 

Bibliographies. CHEVALIER, no. 16 above, will be found useful. 
For classified lists of the best recent literature see TEUFFEL, MANI- 
TITJS and SANDYS just mentioned. For Gregory the Great the best 
bibliographical guide is DUDDEN, Gregory the Great. 



III. THE TEANSFOEMATION OF ANCIENT EOME INTO A 
MEDIEVAL CITY 

A. OUTLINE 

1. The enchantment of Borne in the middle ages and in modern 
times. 

"O Eoma nobilis, orbis et domina, 
Cunctarum urbium excellentissima, 
Eoseo martyrum sanguine rubea, 
Albis et virginum liliis Candida: 
Salutem dicimus tibi per omnia, 
Te benedicimus: salve per secula. " 

(This is the first stanza of a poem written between the ninth and 
eleventh centuries, probably in Verona. See under "TRAUBE" 
below.) The sentiments which Borne aroused in Poggio Bacciolini, 
Petrarch, and Bienzo. GIBBON, the author of The decline and fall 
of the Boman empire, wrote in his Autobiography: "I must not 
forget the day, the hour, the m'ost interesting in my literary life. 
It was on the fifteenth of October [1764], in the gloom of evening, 
as I sat musing on the Capitol, while the barefooted fryers were 
chanting their litanies in the temple of Jupiter, that I conceived 
the first thought of my history." 

2. The transformation of pagan into Christian Borne. Gradual 
disuse of pagan temples and other buildings, especially libraries. 
The rapid decline of the city in the later days of the empire, after 
it had ceased to be the capital of the world. Causes of the decay 
of Eome. Lord Byron's line, "The Goth, the Christian, Time, 
War, Flood, and Fire. ' ' The following saying of St. Benedict 
was reported by Gregory the Great in his Dialogues, II, 15: "Borne 
shall never be destroyed by the gentiles, but it shall be shaken 
by tempests, lightnings, and earthquakes, and shall decay of 
itself. ' ' 

3. Borne and the barbarian invaders. The sack of Borne in 410 
by Alaric the Visigoth, in 455 by the Vandal Gaiseric, and in 472 
by Bicimer. Comparatively little injury done to buildings and 
statuary. - 



TRANSFORMATION OP ROME 345 

4. The rejuvenescence of the city in the "golden days" of 
Theodoric the Great. Archaeological evidence from the works of 
Cassiodorus. His plan to make Rome a great seat of Christian 
learning. 

5. Her subsequent desolation in the period of the Gothic wars, 
535-555. Rome was taken by force of arms in 536, 546, 547, 549, 
and 552. Depopulation of the city. The threat of Totila to destroy 
her utterly. The destruction of aqueducts. In this dread period 
Gregory the Great spent his childhood in Rome. 

6. Consequences of the Byzantine restoration in 553. Although 
there was close connection between Rome and Constantinople, the 
study of Greek in the former city declined very rapidly. 

7. The terror of the Lombards who came in 568. Rome now began 
to look for succor across the Alps. Weakness of the Byzantine hold 
upon the city. Gradual rise of the pope as real lord of Rome. 

8. Topography of Rome at the accession of pope Gregory the 
Great in 590. Pagan buildings, especially the forums, temples, 
arches, baths, theatres, the Circus Maximus, Colosseum, Pantheon, 
the tombs of Hadrian and Augustus, the buildings of the Capitol, 
the aqueducts and bridges. Christian buildings, especially the five 
patriarchal churches, the basilicas of St. John Lateran, of St. 
Peter, of St. Paul outside the wall, of 8. Maria Maggiore, and of 
St. Lawrence. These, together with the basilicas of St. Sebastian 
and 8. Croce in Gerusalemme, were the famous ' ' seven churches 
of Rome." The "regions" of the city. The Notitia and Curiosum 
in-hit regionum XIV of the fourth century. The Itinerary of the 
Anonymous of Einsiedeln, the Mirabilia Eomae, and the Graphia 
aureae urbis Eomae. 

9. Restoration of Rome in the pontificate of Gregory the 
Great, 590-604. At his death it was "The Rome of the church, 
of the popes, of the middle ages." DUDDEN. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS TOR READING 
The fame of Borne. J. BEYCE, Holy Roman empire, ch. xvi, ' ' The 

city of Rome in the middle ages." GIBBON, Decline and fall, the last 

chapter of the work, LXXI. F. HARRISON, "Rome revisited," in 

his The mcaninfj of history. London, 1894, 252-283. 

General short surveys of medieval Borne. N. YOUNG, The ttory 

of Some, London, 1905 (Mediaeval towns), especially C!IH. ni-v. 

See also the article "Rome" in the Catholic < //n/<-/o///</i,/. :unl tin- 

Km-yi-lopaedia Britinniint. 

Borne in the sixth century. The best brief introductory sketch 

is in DUDDEN, Gregory the Great, I, ch. II, "The worl^ of Gregory's 



346 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

childhood," especially 42-58. R. LANCIANI, Destruction of ancient 
Home: a sketch of the history of the monuments, New York, 1899, 
especially chs. i, iv-x; and his Pagan and Christian Borne, Boston, 
1893 ; also his Wanderings in the Boman Campagna, New York, 1909, 
ch. iv, "The land of Gregory the Great." On the disappearance 
of the great libraries see his Ancient Bome in the light of recent 
discoveries, Boston, 1899, ch. vn, ' ' The public libraries of ancient 
and mediaeval Eome. ' ' W. G. HOLMES, Age of Justinian and Theo- 
dora, II, ch. x, "Eome in the sixth century: war with the Goths in 
Italy/' 

Standard works on medieval Bome. GREGOROVIUS, History of 
the city of Bome in the middle ages, especially I (entire), II, 1-69. 
This work is now being superseded by H. GRISAR, History of Bome 
and the popes in the middle ages, see especially I, chs. rv-v. 

Original sources. There are practically no contemporary arch- 
aeological writings concerning Eome about the time of Gregory 
the Great. We must content ourselves with written evidence 
before and after his time, and with the present-day archaeological 
finds which more or less incidentally have revealed a good deal of 
indisputable evidence concerning the Eome of the popes. 

The Notitia and Curiosum of the fourth century, the Itinerary 
of the ANONYMOUS OF EINSIEDELN (ninth century), and the Mirabilia 
Bomae (twelfth century), are edited by H. JORDAN, Topographie 
der Stadt Bom im Alterthum, 2 vols., Berlin, 1871, II, 539-670. For- 
tunately we have an English translation of the latter, Mirabilia 
urbis Bomae, the marvels of Bome: or, A picture of the golden city, 
an English version of the medieval guide-booTc, with a supplement, by 
F. M. NICHOLS, London, 1889. The Mirabilia were drawn from an 
older guide book, probably of the tenth century. The same book 
probably furnished material for the Graphia aureae urbis Bomae 
(thirteenth century?), which is published by A. OZANAM, Documents 
inedits pour servir a I'histoire litteraire de I' Italic, Paris, 1850, 155ff. 

All of these old descriptions are very difficult for the ordinary 
student of history. For elucidations see GREGOROVIUS, Bome in the 
middle ages, III, 516-562; JORDAN, Topographie, II, 313-536 (see 
also I, 37-104); and E. LANCIANI, Pagan and Christian Bome, ch. 
xin, "The Eome of the Einsiedeln Itinerary"; see also his 
L'itineraria di Einsiedeln e I'ordine di Benedetto: memoria, Milan, 
1891. On the regions of Eome see E. L. POOLE, Papal chancery, 
6-12, 170-177. 

For the poem of which the first of three stanzas is printed at the 
head of this outline, see L. TRAUBE, "O Eoma nobilis: philologische 
Untersuchungen aus dem Mittelalter, " in Abhandlungen der philo- 



TRANSFORMATION OF ROME 347 

sophist'h-philologischen Classe der Bayrischen Akademie der Wis- 
senschaften, XIX (Munich, 1892), 299-395. 

Some evidence concerning pontifical Rome may be found in 
the Liber pontificalis, the first portion of which is now translated 
into English by L. B. LOOMIS, see no. 949 note, above. 

Maps. The best map for our purposes is in H. KIEPERT and 
C. HUELSEN, Formae urbis Romae antiquae, Berlin, 1912, chart III, 
"Rome from Constantino to Gregory the Great." See also the 
fine plan of Rome in GRISAR, History of Rome, I. For the interpre- 
tation of these plans some help will be derived from the following 
panoramic restoration of Rome in the time of Constantine, by 
J. Bfm.MANN and A. WAGNER, Das alte Bom mit dem Triumphzuge 
Kaiser Constantins im Jahre 312 nach Christo, Munich, 1903. See 
also SHEPHERD, Atlas, 22-23, 24, and 96. For a detailed study the 
famous Forma urbis Bomae, edited by R. LANCIANI in 46 sheets and 
published by the Academy of the Lincei, Milan, 1893-1902, is 
essential for all periods of old Rome. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. See especially the books on the history of the 
papacy, nos. 439454 above. In the bibliography below no attempt 
has been made to include either the innumerable travellers' guide- 
books or the special treatises on the topography of ancient Rome, 
some of which are valuable for our purposes, especially for their 
illustrations. It may be well, however, to call attention to the 
following guidebook: J. W. and A. M. CRUICKSHANK, Christian 
Rome, 2nd edition, revised, New York, 1911. 

General works on medieval Borne. O. ROSSLER, Grundriss einer 
Geschichte Boms im Mittelalter, vol. I, Berlin, 1909. P. ADINOLFI,' 
Roma nell' eta di mezzo, 2 vols., Rome, 1881-1882. A. VON REUMONT, 
Geschichte der Stadt Rom. F. PAPENCORDT, Geschichte der Stadt 
Rom, Paderborn, 1857. A. PARAVICINI, II senato romano dal 6 al 12 
secolo, Rome, 1901. L. POMPILI-OLIVIERI, II senato romano, J14S- 
1870, Rome, 1886. O. TOMMASINI, "Delia storia medievale della 
i-itta di Roma e dei piu recenti raccontatori di essa, " in Archivio 
deUa SocietA Romano di storia patria, I (1877). 

Catacombs and early Christians. M. BESNIER, Les catacombcs 
de Ronif, I'.-iris, 1909. A. KUHN, Roma: ancient, subterranean, and 
nin,l,r" L'nitii. in work and picture, New York, 1916, is especially 
valuable for its pictures of the catacombs, pp. 203-310. J. S. 
NORTHCOTE and W. R. B. BROWNLOW, 1,'niiKi sottcrranea: or, An 
<:,;;>itnt of the Roman catacombs, compiled from the works of Com- 
inriidatorc DE Rossi, 2nd edition, 2 vols., London, 1879. H. D. M. 



348 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PARTIII 

SPENCE-JONES, The early Christians in Eome, London, 1910. ETHEL 
R. BARKER, Eome of the pilgrims and martyrs: a study in the mar- 
tyrologies, itineraries, syllogae, and other contemporary documents^ 
London, 1913. 

Churches of Borne. M. ARMELLINI, Le chiese di Soma dal secolo 
IV al XIX, 2nd edition, Eome, 1891. 

The Lateran. P. LAUER, Le palais de Lateran: etude historique 
et archeologique, Paris, 1911. 

Monuments of Christian Borne. E. BODOCANACHI, Les monu- 
ments de Borne aprcs la chute de I' empire, Paris, 1914; and his The 
Eoman capital in ancient and modern times, translated from the 
French by F. LAWTON, New York, 1906. A. L. FROTHINGHAM, The 
monuments of Christian Some from Constantine to the renaissance, 
New York and London, 1908. E. BERTAUX, Eome: de I' ere des cata- 
combes a I'avenement de Jules II, 2nd edition, Paris, 1908 (Les 
Villes d'art celebres). H. BERGNER, Eom im Mittelalter, Leipzig, 
1913 (Beruhmte Kunststatten, 39). T. H. DYER, The city of Eome, 
its vicissitudes and monuments from its foundation to the end of the 
middle ages, London, 1883. 

Boman Campagna. G. TOMASSETTI, La Campagna romana antica, 
medioevale e moderna, vols. I-III, Borne, 1910-1913. O. KAEMMEL, 
Eom und die Campagna, Leipzig, 1902 (Land und Leute: Monogra- 
phien zur Erdkunde, XII). 

Periodicals for Christian archaeology of Borne. Bullettino di 
archeologia cristiana, edited by G. B. DE Bossr, 13 vols., Borne, 1863- 
1895; followed by the Nuovo bullettino, 1895ff. Bullettino della 
Commissione archeologica comunale di Eoma, Borne, 1873ff. Edm- 
ische Quartalschrift fur Christliche AltertumsJcunde, Bome, 1887ff. 

Original sources. Inscriptiones Christianae urbis Eomae VII 
saeculo antiquiores, edited by G. B. DE Bossi, vols. I-II, Bome 1857- 
1888. Iscrizione delle chiese e di altri edifici di Eoma dal secolo XI 
ai nostri giorni, edited by V. FORCELLA, 14 vols., Bome, 1869-1880. 

Bibliographies. E. CALVI, Bibliografta di Soma' nel medio evo 
(476-1499), Eome, 1906, with an appendix, 1908. F. CERROTI and 
E. CELANI, Bibliografia di Eoma medievale e moderna, vol. I, Bome, 
1893. 

IV. THE CLASSICAL HEEITAGE OF THE EABLY MIDDLE 

AGES 
A. OUTLINE 

1. The three great waves in the continuous flow of classical 
influences during the middle ages: (1) early middle ages, chiefly 
language and political and social institutions; (2) twelfth and 



IV CLASSICAL HERITAGE 349 

thirteenth centuries, chiefly Roman law and Greek philosophy; 
(3) fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, chiefly Roman and Greek 
literature and art. 

2. Survival of classical forms and ideas of government and 
social order in church and state. 

3. Graeco-Roman influence in art and the crafts of the early mid- 
dle ages. The importance of medieval archaeology. 

4. The seven liberal arts (artes liberates) : trivium grammar, 
rhetoric, and dialectic; quadrivium arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, 
and music. The Greek origin and the Roman elaboration of the 
idea of liberal arts. The Disciplinarium libri novem (not extant 
now) of Varro, 116-27 B.C. The De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii 
of Martianus Capella who wrote in Africa before 330 A.D. Cassio- 
dorus, in his DC artibus, was the first Christian who used the expres- 
sion "seven liberal arts." Changing conception of liberal arts, 
and differences of meaning and content of each of the arts from 
age to age. Variation in the popularity of the various arts, e.g., 
dialectic or logic. 

.">. Tin- stucly and use of classical language and literature. Almost 
total neglect of Greek in the west. Decline of interest in the 
Latin classics of pagan times. Popularity of the works of Chris- 
tian poets and of theologians. The text books of Latin grammar. 
The An grammatica minor and Ars grammatica major of Donatus 
who lived about 350 A.D., and was the teacher of St. Jerome. The 
Barbarism us. The In&titutionum grammaticorum libri XVIII of 
I'riscan who flourished in Constantinople about 500 A.D. The first 
sixteen of those books were known as the Prlscianus major and the 
last two books as the Priscianus minor. Elementary Latin readers 
such as Cato (Distichia), Aesopiw, and Avianiu. 

6. Transmission of ancient knowledge of natural sciences, medi- 
cine, :ind mathematics. Pliny's Natural history. The Physiologus. 
Bestiaries and lapidaries. 

7. The tiny stream of Roman law in the early middle ages. 
Neglect of the Corpus turn civilis in the west. Roman influence in 
the law of the church. 

8. Transmission of ancient philosophy. The services of Boethius 
as a translator of Aristotle and Plato. Predominance of theo- 
logical learning, based largely on Jewish thought, but modified 
decidedly by Greek speculation and Latin practical sense. 

9. The encyclopaedia of Isidore of Seville (ca. 570-636), known 
as the Etymologiac or Orif/ine*, in 20 books which were frequently 
abridged. Isidore's attitude towards the Latin classics. 

10. Monastery and cathedral schools in the early middle ages. 



350 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PARTIII 

Contrast with the Koman schools in the time of Ausonius. The 
monastic scriptorium and the transmission of classical texts. Ele- 
mentary instruction by parish priests. 

11. Early medieval libraries. The armarium. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

Short general surveys. H. O. TAYLOR, The classical heritage of 
the middle ages, especially 44-70, and portions of chs. vm-x; see 
also his Mediaeval mind, I, eh. v. E. NORDEN, ' ' Die lateinische 
Literatur im Vbergang vom Altertum zum Mittelalter, " in Die 
Kultur der Gegenwart, I, part 8, (1905), 374-411, 2nd edition (1907), 
401-438, 3rd edition (1912), 483-522. M. MANITIUS, Geschichte der 
lateinischen Literatur des Mittelalters, I, 3-21. 

For details concerning Donatus, Priscian, Martianus Capella, 
Cato, etc., see the index of TEUFFEL, Geschichte der romischen 
Literatur, III, M. SCHANZ, Geschichte der romischen Literatur, IV; 
as well as SANDYS, A history of classical scholarship, I. 

The seven liberal arts. P. ABELSON, The seven liberal arts, New 
York, 1906 (dissertation). H. PARKER, "The seven liberal arts," 
in English historical review, V (1890), 417-461. A. F. WEST, Alcuin 
and the rise of the Christian schools, New York, 1892, ch. I, ' ' The 
seven liberal arts." The article "Arts, the seven liberal," by 
O. WILLMANN, in the Catholic encyclopedia. 

Attitude towards the Latin classics. D. C. MUNRO, "The atti- 
tude of the western church towards the study of the Latin classics 
in the early middle ages," reprinted from vol. VIII of the American 
society of church history, 1897. D. COMPARETTI, Vergil in the middle 
ages, especially chs. v and vi. 

Isidore of Seville. An easy introduction is E. BREHAUT, An 
encyclopedist of the dark ages: Isidore of Seville, New York, 1912 
(dissertation), who translates freely from the Etymologiae. For 
precise details concerning his life and work consult, MANITIUS, 
Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur, I, 52-70. See also M. ROGER, 
L'enseignement des lettres classiques d'Ausone a Alcuin, 195-201. 

Natural sciences and mathematics. F. LAUCHERT, Geschichte 
des Physiologus, Strassburg, 1889, edited this famous book in the 
Greek version, with a paraphrase in German, but most of his 
book consists of introduction and elucidations. M. GOLDSTAUB, 
"Der Physiologus," in Philologus, Supplementband VIII, 3, Leipzig, 
1901. On mathematics see W. R. BALL, A short account of the his- 
tory of mathematics, 4th edition, London, 1908, ch. viii ; or M. CANTOR, 
Vorlesungen iiber Geschichte der Mathematik, 4 vols., 3rd edition, 
Leipzig, 1898-1908, ch. xxxvm. For details concerning natural 



CLASSICAL HERITAGE 351 

sciences and mathematics see outline XXI below. For law see outline 
X.\ In-low. 

Original sources. The \nturnl history of PLINY, 6 vols., London, 
1855-1857. SAN ISIDOBO DE SKVII.I.A, Mapa-Mundi, translated into 
Spanish by A. BLAZQUEZ v DELGADO AQUILERA, Madrid, 1908. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. See especially the general books on literature, 
nos. 782-814 above. Much general literature will also be found 
under outlines XVIII and XXIII below. 

General surveys. L. FRIEDLANDER, "Das Nachleben der Antike 
iin Mittelalter, " in his Erinnerungen, Beden, und Schriften, 2 vols., 
Strasburg, 1905, I, 272-391, is the best systematic account we 
have at present, but see also G. KORTING, Anfange der Renaissance- 
litiratur in Itdlicn (vol. Ill of his (Icxchichte der Literatur Italiens), 
I.-i|./.ig, 1884, 1-75, "Die Cultur des spateren Altertums und die 
Ku'.tur des Mittelalters. " A. GRAF, Roma /-<//</ memoria e nelle 
immagina:i<nn del media evo, 2 vols., Turin, 1882-1883. 

Seven liberal arts. A. APPUHN, Das Trivium und Quadrivium 

in Tlnorie und Praxis, part I, Das Trivium, Erlangen, 1900. G. 

K, Die sieben freien Kunste im Mittelalter, Einsiedeln, 1886. 

FERREKE, "De la division des sept arts liberaux, " in Annalcs de 

philosophic chr> ti> nnc, June, 1900. 

Heritage of classics. K. BORINSKI, Die Antike in Poetik und 
nli, ,,rn, I. Mittelalter, Renaissance, Barock, Leipzig, 1914 (Das 
Erbe der Alten, IX). J. STIGLMAYB, Kirchenvdter und Klassizi- 
mus, Freiburg, 1913. H. J. LcBLANC, Essai hixtoriijue et critique sur 
I'etudc et I'enscigncment des lettres profanes dans les premiers siecles 
I- I'eglisc, Paris, 1852. J. W. THOMPSON, "Vergil in mediaeval 
culture," in African journal of theology, X (1906), 648-662. T. 
XIKI.INSKI, Cirrro im If'andel der Jahrhundcrte, 3rd edition, Berlin, 
1912, chs. vn VIM. G. ZAPPERT, Virgil's Fotilcbcn im Mittclaltir, 
ViiMiiia. l*~il ( reprint'-,! from Denkschriften of the Vienna academy.) 

Natural science. M. P. E. BERTHELOT, "Ensai snr la trimsniis 
sion .|i> l.-i M, i ( .|i.-i- antique au moyen Age," in vol. I of his Histoire 
La chimie au moyen Age, 3 vols., I'arin, 1893. P. 
STRrN7., {iixrhichtr der Natuncissenschaften im Mittelalter, Stutt- 
gart, 1910, rh. ii. F. DANNEMANN, Dir \titnrn i*.i,i--li<if ten, vol. I, 
I..-ij./.ig, 1910. '2\:>, '2-2-2. K. RUCK, "Die Naturalis historia des 
Plinins im Mittelalter." in Sit :iiii<i.iln nclitt of the Munich Academy, 
philos. philol. <'lasne, 1898, 20.". 

Isidore of Seville. <'. H. BEEHON, Isidor-Studien, Munich, 1913 
(Quellen un<l rntorsiirlinn^fii /.ur latcinisrhrn i'hilologie des 



352 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

Mittelalters, IV, 2). C. CANAL, San Isidoro: exposition de *t obras 
c indicaciones acerca de la influencia que han cjercido en la ci'rili- 
zacion Espanola, Seville, 1897. M. MICHEL, "La livre des Origines 
d 'Isidore de Seville," in Eevue Internationale de I'enseignemcnt, 
1891, 198. H. PHILIPP, Die historisch-geographischen Quellen in den 
Etymologiae des Isidorus von Sevilla, 2 vols., Berlin, 1912-1913 
(Quellen und Forschungen zur alten Geschichte und Geographic, 
edited by SIEGLIN, 25, 26). 

Heritage of classical art. H. SEMPER, Das Fortleben der Antike 
in der Kunst des Abendlandes, Essling, 1908. A. SPRINGER, Das 
Nachleben der Antike im Mittelalter: Bilder aus der neueren Kunst- 
geschichte, 2nd edition, Bonn, 1886. See also in general nos. 299- 
302 above. 

Original sources. MARTIANUS CAPELLA, De nuptiis Phitologiae et 
Mercurii, is edited rather poorly by F. EYSSENHARDT, Leipzig, 1866. 
The grammatical works of Donatus and Priscian may be found in 
Grammatici latini, edited by H. KEIL, 7 vols., Leipzig, 1855-1880, 
Donatus in vol. IV, 355-403; and Priscian in vols. II-III. The 
best edition of the Etymologiae is ISIDORI HISPALENSIS EPISCOPI 
Etymologiarum sive originum libri XX, edited by W. M. LINDSAY, 
2 vols., Oxford, 1911. 

Bibliographies. TAYLOR, Classical heritage, 359-392. EOGER, 
L'enseignement, ix-xviii. The bibliographical notes in TEUFFEL, 
Geschichte der romischen Literatur, III; SCHANZ, Geschichte der 
romischen Literatur, IV; and, for Isidore of Seville, MANITIUS, 
Geschichte der lateini-schen Literatur, I, 52-70, and BREHATJT, An 
encyclopaedist of the darlc ages (bibliography appended). 



V. MEDIEVAL "WELTANSCHAUUNG" 
A. OUTLINE 

1. Contrast between ancient (pagan) and medieval (Christian) 
views of life and the universe. 

2. Medieval " otherworldliness " was the dominant factor in 
the intellectual and spiritual life of the time. The preoccupation 
of the medieval mind with eschatology. Man's pilgrimage from 
the cradle to the grave was conceived of as merely a fateful period 
of probation, which terminated in eternal bliss or everlasting woe. 

3. Medieval assurance of definite and detailed knowledge about 
essential temporal and eternal things. Eeliance upon written evi- 
dence which for the most part had been transmitted by the Jews. 
Keliance upon authority in general. 



MKIHKVAL WELTANSCHAUUNG 

4. "The Christian epic." Conception of the universe, with 
the earth, the home of man, God's creature, at the center. The 
elaboration of lore concerning heaven and its denizens. Ideas of 
the beginning of all things and the creation of man. His first 
home. The chronology of man 's existence upon earth. The expect- 
ation of a not far distant day of doom and of the rolling up of the 
heavens. Medieval ideas of human progress and of the ends of 
learning. Dominance of theology. 

5. The medieval solution of the problem of evil. Man 's state 
of innocence. His temptation and fall. His redemption and recon- 
ciliation with God. The Prince of Darkness, and his Kingdom of 
Darkness and its denizens. Elaboration of the idea of evil personi- 
fied in the devil. Antichrist. The "powers of the air." Purga- 
tory. 

6. Belief in the speedy triumph of Christianity throughout the 
whole world. Consequent development of the idea of the brother- 
hood of all men. The writing of universal histories. Remarkable 
importance of ancient Hebrew history. 

7. Asceticism and mysticism flourished in the midst of such 
ideas. Their embodiment in monasticism. Religious ecstasy. 

8. Love of allegory and symbolism. Allegorical interpretation 
of the bible and other books. The Moralia of Gregory the Great. 
Symbolism in the sacraments of the church. Miracles. Saints. 
K.-lic*. Witchcraft. 

9. The church and the world. The notions of temporal and 
spiritual things. The Church Militant ami the Church Triumphant. 
The church versus the state. The organization of the powers of 
the church and the definition of its sphere of action. The impor- 
tant political and social consequences of a marked distinction 
between clergy and laymen. 

10. The Christian cult and Christian iconography as sources 
for the study of medieval ideas. Pagan survivals in the Christian 

CUlt. 

11. The writings of the so-called "Dionysius the Areopagite" 
(composed about 500 A.D. and spread in western Europe in the 
ninth century in the Latin translation of John Scotus), M ft source 
of medieval ideas about the celestial realms. 

I-ECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS rog READING 

General surveys. MII.MAN. llit,trii <>f Latin Christianity, IX, 
7. will serve in a l>rief introduction. HAKNACK. History of 

,l,/ni,i. es| ially I. I.'." '2'2\ ; II. 1M7 .",1v III. I'M 315; IV, 268- 

330. (Those who know German should read the corresponding 



354 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

pages in the 4th German edition.) The beginnings of all chapters 
in A. D. WHITE, A history of the warfare of science with theology 
in Christendom. H. O. TAYLOR, Classical heritage, especially chs. 
V-VH. R. EUCKEN, The problem of human life as viewed by the great 
thinkers, 131-252. V. RYDBERG, The magic of the middle ages, trans- 
lated from the Swedish by A. H. EDGREN, New York, 1879, see 
especially ch. i, "The cosmic philosophy of the middle ages, and 
its historical development." LAVISSE, Histoire de France, II, part 
I, 237-242. H. v. EICKEN, Geschichte und System der mittelalter- 
liclien Weltanschauung, is not so good for our purposes as its title 
would indicate; see especially 63-147, 311-325, 589-671. See the 
note under no. 816 above. J. WATSON, Christianity and idealism, 
new edition, New York, 1897, ch. v, "Medieval Christianity." 

Asceticism. W. JAMES, The varieties of religious experiences, 
New York, 1902 (Gifford lectures), 296ff., on saintliness. For litera- 
ture on monasticism see outline IV in part II above. 

The Christian epic. G. SANTA YANA, Eeason in religion, New 
York, 1905, ch. vi. See also his Interpretations of poetry and re- 
ligion, New York, 1905, chs. in-iv. 

The legends of the saints. H. DELEHAYE, Les legendes hagi- 
ographiques, 2nd edition, Brussels, 1906, translated by Mrs. V. M. 
CRAWFORD, The legends of the saints: an introduction to hagiography, 
London and New York, 1907. 

Medieval ideas reflected in art and poetry. Y. HIRN, The sacred 
shrine: a study of the poetry and art of the catholic church (the 
bibliography on pp. 555-570 is very valuable). 

Dionysius the Areopagite. R. F. WESTCOTT, "Dionysius the 
Areopagite, " in Contemporary review, V (1867), 1-28. See also 
the articles on Dionysius in nos. 104, 106, 108 and 112 above, and 
MANITIUS, Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur, I, 325-328. 

Original sources. Practically all the writings of the middle ages 
are of value in this study. The writings of the church fathers 
which are translated in the Nicene and post-Nicene fathers, will be 
found most useful. Add to these especially BEDE'S famous Eccles- 
iastical history of England, revised translation by A. M. SELLAR, 
London, 1912 (see especially the account of Drythelm's visit to 
the underworld with its graphic picture of hell and purgatory). 

The celestial and ecclesiastical hierarchy of DIONYSIUS THE AREO- 
PAGITE are translated by J. PARKER, London, 1894, his remaining 
Works, by the same translator, London, 1897. 

The revelations to the monk of Evesham Abbey in the year of 
our Lord eleven hundred ninety-six concerning the places of purgatory 
and paradise, are rendered into modern English by V. PAGET, New 



MKDIEVAL WELTANSCHAUUNG 355 

York, 1909. C. S. BOSWELL, Irish precursor of Dante: study on the 
vision of heaven and hell ascribed to the 8th century Irish S. Adam- 
nan, with translation, London, 1908. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. See especially the books on the "History of 
freedom of thought, ' ' nos. 739-748 above, and those on ' ' Medieval 
Weltanschauung," nos. 815-821 above; but almost all general books 
on the church, nos. 394-498 above, and on the history of culture 
and civilization, iios. 729-849 above, bear upon the subject of this 
outline more or less directly. The encyclopaedias for the history 
of the rhurrh, nos. 104114 above, are absolutely indispensable, 
and even the general encyclopaedias, nos. 96-103 above, will be 
found very useful. See also the periodicals for church history, 
philosophy, and education, nos. 176-182 above (also nos. 169-170). 

For additional general books on the church see outlines IV-VI, 
XV, and XXIV of part II above. For medieval science in general 
see outline XXI below. 

Demonology, devil-lore, hell, and purgatory. G. ROSKOFP, (' - 
schichte des Tcufels, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1869. A. R^VILLE, Histotre 
ilu diable, Strasburg, 1870, translated by A. B., The devil: his great- 
new and decadence, London, 1871. P. CARUS, The history of the 
mill ilu idea of evil, Chicago, 1900, is quite inadequate, at 
least for the middle ages. J. BAISSAC, Histoire de la diablerie, 
I, Le diable, Paris, 1882. M. J. RUDWIN, Der Teufel in den deutsolien 
geistliohen Spiclcn des Mittelaltcrs und dcr Reformationszeit: ein 
Beitrag zur Literatur-, Kuitur-, und Kirchengcschichte Deutscfilands, 
(iuttingen and Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1915 (Hesperia: 
Schriften zur germanischen Philologie, VI). H. WIECK, Die Teufel 
auf dcr mittrlalterlichen ttysterU-nbiihne Frankrcichs, Leipzig, IMS? 

>ertation, Marburg). W. MICHEL, Das Teuflische und Groteske I'M 
der Kit nut, Munich, 1911. M. D. CONWAY, Demonoloyy and ilt <il 
lore, 2 vols., 3rd edition, New York, 1889. A. JAULMES, Etsai sur 
le satanismc et la superstition au moycn dgc, precede d'une introduc- 
tion sur leurs origines: etude historique, Paris, 1901. J. Bois, Le 
satanisme et la magie, 4th edition, Paris, 1895. M. LANDAI . Hull' 
und Fegefeuer im Volksglaubcn, Dirhtung und Kirchenlehre, Hvidrl- 
berg, 1909. J. BAUTZ, Die Hollc, Mainz, 1882; see also his Das 
Fegefeuer, Mainz, 1883. 

Antichrist. II. PREUSS, Die Vorstellumn n mm Antichrist im 
spdteren Mittclalter bis I.ittlr. Leipzig, 190(1. \V. BOUS8ET, The 
Antichrist legend: chnptir in Christian and .// KI.S/I f<,il.li>r< . trims 
l:it>><l from the (MTMIUII, L')ii'l'>n, 1896. Cardinal NEWMAN, "The 



356 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART m 

patristic idea of Antichrist," in his Discussions and arguments on 
various subjects, London, 1897. W. MEYER, "Ludus de Anti- 
christo, " in Sitsungsberichte der Miinchener Akademie, phil.-hist. 
Klasse, 1882, no. 1. E. WADSTEIN, Die eschatologische Ideengruppe: 
Antichrist, Weltsabbat, Weltende und Weltgericht, Leipzig, 1896. 

Asceticism. H. STRATHMAN, Geschichte der friihchristlichen 
Askese bis zur Entstehung des Monchtums im religionsgeschichtlichen 
Zusammenhange, vol. I, Leipzig, 1914. F. MARTINEZ, L'asceticisme 
Chretien pendant les trois premiers siecles de I'eglise, Paris, 1913 
(Etudes de theologie historique publiees sous la direction des pro- 
fesseurs de theologie a 1'Institut catholique, no. 6). H. JOLY, The 
psychology of the saints, translated by G. TYRELL, London, 1898. 

Mysteries, miracles, and relics. S. CHEETHAM, The mysteries, 
pagan and Christian, London, 1897 (Hulsean lectures). G. ANRICH, 
Das antike Mysterienwesen in seinem Einfluss auf das Christentum, 
Gottingen, 1894. A. E. HABERSHON, The study of the miracles, Lon- 
don, 1910. P. SAINTYVES, Le miracle et la critique historique, Paris, 
1907; and his Les reliques et les images legendaires, Paris, 1912. 

Myths, legends, and superstitions. H. A. GUERBER, Myths and 
legends of the middle ages: their origin and influence on literature 
and art, London, 1909. L. F. A. MAURY, Croyances et legendes du 
may en age, new edition, Paris, 1896. K. MEYER, Der Aberglaube 
des Mittelalters und der ndchstfolgenden Jahrhunderte, Basle, 1884. 
A. GRAF, Miti, leggende e superstizioni del medio evo, 2 vols., Turin, 
1892. F. W. HACKWOOD, Christ-lore: legends, traditions, myths, 
symbols, customs, superstitions of the Christian church, London, 1902. 

Saints. M. and W. DRAKE, Saints and their emblems, New York, 
1914. H. DELEHAYE, Les origines du culte des martyrs, Brussels, 
1912. E. Lucius, Die Anfdnge des Heiligenkults in der Christlichen 
Kirche, Tubingen, 1904. H. QUENTIN, Les martyrologes historiques 
du moyen age: etude sur la formation du martyrologe romain, Paris, 
1906 (Etudes d'histoire des dogmes et d'aneienne litterature eccles- 
iastique). P. SAINTYVES, Les saints successeurs des dieux, Paris, 
1907. J. P. KIRSCH, The doctrine of the communion of saints in 
the ancient church, English translation, Edinburgh, 1910. See also no. 
258 above. 

Christian iconography. A. BELL, Saints in Christian art, 3 vol 
London, 1901-1904. S. HEATH, The romance of symbolism and 
relation to church ornament and architecture, London, 1909. J. 
NEALE and B. WEBB, The symbolism of churches and church on 
ments, 3rd edition, London, 1906. F. E. HULME, Symbolism 
Christian art, London, 1899. C. E. CLEMENT, A handbook of Chr 
tian symbols and stories of the saints, as illustrated in art, 5th edi- 



FRANKS AND VISIGOTHS 357 

ti;ii, Boston, 1895. H. V. D. GABELENTZ, Die kirchliche Kunst im 
it<iln aim-lit a .\f itttlalter: ihre Beziehungen zu Kultur und Glaubens- 
It-hrc, Strasburg, 1907. A. MuSoz, Iconografia della Madonna, Rome, 
1905. R. PFI.EIDERER, Die Attribute der Heiligen: ein alphabetisches 
Nachticli!(iy< bitch sum Verstdndnis kirchliclicr Kunstwerke, Ulm, 1898. 
J. E. WESSELY, Ikcnt graphic Gottes und der Heiligen, Leipzig, 1874. 
See also the literature under outline XXVII below. 

"Dionysius the Areopaglte." J. STIGLMAYR, Das Aufkommen 
ili r pseudo-dicnysischen Sctiriftcn und ihr Eindringen in die chrixt- 
liche Literatur bw zum Laterankomil, Feldkirch, 1895; see also his 
"Die Eschatologie des Pseudo-Dionysius, " in Zcitschrift fur 
katholisrhe Theologie, Innsbruck (1899), 1-21. H. KOCH, Pseudo- 
iK Areopagita in seincn Beziehungen zum Neuplatonismus und 
i/.^tt r u in: .-;(, Mainz, 1900, vol. I, 2-3 of no. 489 above. 

Original sources. For large general collections of sources for 
cliun-h history set- nos. 953-964 above. When no. 949 is completed 
as planned it will be a most valuable collection for the study 
of the subjects of this outline. 



VI. THK FAITH, MORALS, AND LEARNING OF THE 

MKHOVINGIAN FRANKS AND OF THE 

VISIGOTHS IN SPAIN 

A. OUTLFNE 

1. Tin- phenomenal decline of learning and civilization espe- 
cially in southern Gaul. The fate of the famous Roman schools in 
the fifth ainl sixth centuries. The problem of weighing the impor- 
tance of CMTIIIMIMI- influences in the civilization of Spain and Gaul. 
Tin- religious differences: the Visigoths were Arians until about 
thi- arrrssion of pope Gregory the Great, 590, whereas the Franks 
\VITI- com crtfil dirrrtly to orthodox Christianity in 496. 

'2. The comparatively advanced civilization of Visigothic Spain. 
The By/antine influences due to Justinian's conquest in the south. 
The legal turn of mind of the inhabitants of Spain. Church and 
state. The faith and the learning of Isidore of Seville who wrote 
his KttimtiliifiiiK' between 622 and 623. Scant archaeological remains 
of Visigothic <-i\ ili/ation. The transformation wrought in Spain 
by the Mohammedans. 

.".. Merovingian (iaul and the Roman church and Italian culture 
from the time of <'lovis to the death of Gregory the Great. The 
pope's correspondence with Brunhild. The "Syrians" in Gaul. 

4. The learning of Gregory of Tours (ca. 538-594), bishop of 



358 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

Tours, 573-594. The Latin style of his famous History of the 
Franks. His attitude toward classical learning. His attitude 
toward the barbarians and the church. His poet friend Venantius 
Fortunatus (ca. 535-ca. 600). 

5. Low state of faith, morals and learning among the clergy as 
well as laymen even in the time of Gregory of Tours. Persistence 
of pagan practices. The superstition and violence depicted in 
the pages of the History of the Franks. 

6. The reforms by Irish missionaries, especially Columban 
(see next outline). 

7. The nadir of culture in Gaul was reached in the seventh cen- 
tury. Almost total lack of communication between the Franks 
and the papacy in that century. The laments of the so-called 
Fredegarius Scholasticus about the learning of his time. The 
ignorance of the grammarian "Virgilius Maro. " The deplorable 
Merovingian script. Very scanty sources of information for the 
history of the seventh century. The lack of schools. The utter 
decline of art. 

8. The Merovingian saints. Hagiography was the only species 
of literature which flourished in the sixth and seventh centuries 
in Gaul. 

9. The Mohammedan menace in the eighth century. 

10. The renewed relations of Gaul with Italy in the eighth cen- 
tury ushered in a new era. Light from the British Isles. Chrode- 
gang, archbishop of Metz, 742-766. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 
Brief general surveys. MUNRO and SELLERY, Medieval civiliza- 
tion, 60-86, ' ' Faith and morals of the Franks, ' ' which is adapted 
from E. LAVISSE, "Etudes sur 1'histoire d'Allemagne: la foi et 
la morale des Francs," in Bevue des deux mondes, 3rd series, 
LXXIV (1886), 366-396; see also his "La decadence meroving- 
ienne," ibid., LXXII (1885), 796-820. There are a few pages in 
TAYLOR, Mediaeval mind, I, 191-204. A. RAMBAUD, Histoire de la 
civilisation franfaise, I, 89-116, includes the Carolingian period in 
this short survey. 

Longer standard accounts. ROGER, L'enseignement des lettres 
classiques, 89-169. LAVISSE, Histoire de France, II, part I, 216-255. 
F. GUIZOT, Lectures on the history of civilization in France, first 
course, lectures 'XII-XIII, XVI-XVIII. 

Culture of Visigothic Spain. U. R. BURKE, A history of Spain, 
I, 85-107. R. ALTAMIRA, Historia de Espana, 3rd edition, I, 213-223. 
For Isidore of Seville see outline IV above. 



FRANKS \.\n VISIGOTHS 359 

Merovingian learning. A. S. WILDE, "The decline of learning 
in Gaul in the seventh and eighth centuries based on the lives 
of the saints," in American journal of theology, VII (1903). E. 
VACANDARD, ' ' La scola du palais merovigien, ' ' in Revue des ques- 
tions histories, LXI (1897), 490-502, LXII (1897), 546-551, 
I. XXVI (1904), 549-553. A. S. WILDE, "Les ecoles du palais aux 
temps merovigiens, " ibid., LXXIV (1903), 553-556. 

Gregory of Tours as a historian. S. HELLMANN, "Studien zur 
mittelalterlirhen Geschichtschreibung, I, Gregor von Tours," in 
Historische Zeitschrift, CVII (1911), 1-43. Precise facts about 
Gregory may be found in MANITIUS, Geschichte der lateinischen 
Li'tratur. I, 216-223; and MOLINIER, Lea sources, I, 55-63. 

"Syrians" in GauL L. BRHIER, "Les colonies d'orientaux 
en occi'h-iit an commencement du moyen age," in Byzantinische Zeit- 
schrift. XII (1903), 1-39. 

Idolatry in GauL E. VACANDARD, "L'idolatrie en Gaule au VI* 
et au VII* siecle, " in Revue des questions historiques, LXV (1899), 
424-; 

Original sources. The all important work is GREGORY OF TOURS, 
Historiae Francorum libri X, for an English translation of which 
see outline VII of part II above. 

Maps and geography. A. LOXGNON, Geographic de la Gaule au 
VI giccle, Paris, 1878, is indispensable to a student of Gregory 
of Tours; see also his Atlas historique de la France, plates III-IV. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. See the literature under outlines VII and VI 
in part II above and the cross-references given there to still more 
general books. See also especially nos. 29, 461, and 788 above. 

Visigothic civilization. R. P. A. DOZY, Recherche* sur I'histoire 
it In litti'rntnrt ilt I'Kxpagne pendant le moyen Age. A. BONILI.A Y 
MARTIN, Historia de la filosofia Kspanola, I, 207-268. E. BOUB- 
RET, I.'i'rol, rlin'tirnne de Seville sous la monarchic des Visigoths, 
I'aris, is.".".. J. AMADOR DE LOS Rios, El arte latino-bisantino y las 
ri.vi'f/o/i'.vi.v <lc Guarrazar, Madrid, 1861. J. TARDIF, Kitraits ft 
jiiritlniiiis des Etymologies d'lsidore dc Seville, Paris, 1896. 
K. XEUMER, "Geschichte der westgothischen Gesetzgebung, " in 
tfmiM .liv/nY. XXIII (1898), 419-516; XXIV (1899), 39-122, 571- 
See also the literature on Isidore of Seville in outline IV 
above, and for Visigothic Spain in general, nee outline II in part 
I ! :ilove. 

Gregory of Tours. J. W. LOEBKI.I.. <',r<<ir >,, Tiim t<-i 
/tit. L>ip/iy, 1S.'iJ>, 2n-l editifui. with a-1'litions l.y K. Hr.RNHARDT, 



360 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

Leipzig, 1869. M. BONNET, Le latin de Grcgoire de Tours, Paris, 
1890. B. KRUSCH, "Zu M. Bonnet's Untersuchungen iiber Gregor 
von Tours," in Neues Archiv, XVI (1891), 432-434. R. URBAT, 
Beitrage zu einer Darstellung der romanischen Elemente im Latein 
der Historic Francorum des Gregor von Tours, KSnigsberg, 1890. 
G. KURTH, ' ' Saint Gregoire de Tours et les etudes classiques au 
VP siecle, " in Eevue des questions historiques, XXIV (1878), 586- 
593. 

Venantius Fortunatus. R. KOEBNER, Venantius Fortunatus, Leip- 
zig, 1915. See also MANITIUS, Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur, 
I, 170-181. 

Merovingian Latin. H. D'ARBOIS DE JUBAINVILLE, Etudes sur la 
langue des Francs a I'epoque merovingienne, Paris, 1900; see also his 
La declinalson latine en Gaule a I'epoque merovingienne, Paris, 1872. 
E. ERNAULT, De Virgilio Marone: grammatico tolosano, Paris, 1886. 
O. HAAG, "Die Latinitat Fredegars, " in Zeitschrift filr romanische 
Forschungen, X (1899), 835ff. B. KRUSCH, "Die Sprache Frede- 
gars," in Neues Archiv, VII (1882), 486-494. J. PIRSON, "Le latin 
de f ormules merovingiennes et carolingiennes, ' ' in Eomanische For- 
schungen, XXVI (1909), 837-944. 

Merovingian civilization. A. MARIGNAN, Etudes sur la civili- 
sation francaise, vol. I, La societe merovingienne, vol. II, Le culte 
des saints sous les merovingiens, Paris, 1899. A. F. OZANAM, La 
civilisation chretienne chez les Francs: recherches sur I'histoire 
ecclesiastique, politique et litteraire des temps merovingiens et sur 
le regne de Charlemagne, in vol. IV of his Oeuvres completes, 11 
vols., Paris, 1872-1881. C. GALY, La famille a I'epoque mero- 
vingienne, Paris, 1901. K. WEIMANN, Die sittliche Begriffe in Gregors 
von Tours " Historica Francorum,'' Duisburg, 1900 (dissertation, 
Leipzig). H. RUCKERT, Kulturgeschichte des deutschen Voiles in der 
Zeit des ttbergangs aus dem Heidentum in das Christentum, 2 vols., 
Leipzig, 1853-1854. L. LINDENSCHMIT, Die Alterthumer der merov- 
ingischen Zeit, Braunschweig, 1880. For Merovingian archaeology 
see also nos. 299-301 above. 

Learning in Merovingian Gaul O. DENK, Geschichte des gallo- 
frdnlcischen Unterrichts- und Bildungswesens, chs. vi-vm. G. KURTH. 
Histoire poetique des merovingiens, Paris, 1893. J. J. AMPERE, Hix- 
toire litteraire de la France avant Charlemagne, 3 vols,, Paris, 1870. 
P. LAHARGOU, De scholis Lerinensi aetate merovingiaca, Paris, 1892. 
See also especially vol. Ill of no. 803 above. 

Merovingian saints and churchmen. C. A. BERNOUILLI, Die 
Heiligen der Merovinger, Tubingen, 1900. L. VAN DER ESSEN, Etude 
critique et litteraire sur les Vitae des saints merovingiens de I'ancienne 






THE BRITISH ISLES 361 

Belgiquc, Louvain, 1907. E. VACANDABD, Vie de Saint Ouen, eveque 
de Eouen (641-684): etude d'histoire mcrovingienne, Paris, 1902. 
G. KUBTH, Sainte Clotilde, Paris, 1897, 8th edition, 1905 (Les 
saints), translated by V. M. CRAWFORD, London, 1906. P. PARSY, 
Saint Eloi (590-659), Paris, 1907. R. P. CAMERLINCK, Saint Leger, 

,<ie de Autun, 616-678, Paris, 1910. A. HAUDECOEUR, Saint Bemi, 
ne de Bheims, Rheims, 1896. A. MALNORY, St. Cesaire, eveque 
d' Aries, 50S-54S, Paris, 1894, vol. CHI of no. 888 above. F. ARNOLD, 
Cdsarius von Arelate und die Gallische Kirche seiner Zeit, Leipzig, 
1894. E. R. VAUCELLE, La collegiale de saint Martin de Tours (397- 
1SS8), Paris, 1908. H. v. SCHUBERT, Stoat und Kirche in den arian- 
ischen Konigreichen und im Beiche Chlodwigs mit Exkursen iiber das 
iilttxtt Kii/fiikin-ht-mcesen, Munich and Berlin, 1912. 

Original sources. Inscriptions chretiennes de la Gaule anterieures 
au Vllle siecle, edited by E. LE BLANT, 2 vols., Paris, 1856-1865, 
supplemented by a Nouveau recueil des inscriptions chretiennes, Paris, 
1892. 

Bibliography. MOLINIER, Les sources de I'histoire de France, 
I, 1-180. 



VII. LKAHMNG IN THE BRITISH ISLES FROM THE FIFTH 

TO THE EIGHTH CENTURY 

A. OUTLINE 

1. The peculiar place of the British isles, especially Ireland, 
in the history of medieval culture. Relations of the islands with 
the Mediterranean world, especially southern Gaul, before the 
Anglo-Saxon invasion. The introduction of Christianity. Rela- 
tions of the western fringe of England with Ireland before and 
after the Anglo-Saxon conquest. Brittany and the British isles. 
Celtic versus Roman Christianity. 

2. Nature of the remarkable Irish learning after the Anglo- 
Saxon conquest of England. The knowledge of Greek. Irish 
han<l\vriting and illumination of manuscripts. The Hujiirirn 
famiiia. Foreign scholars in Ireland. 

3. The spread of this culture on the continent largely through 
Irish missionaries like St. Columban. Its effect upon the ignorance 
in (i.-iul and (JiTinany during Merovingian times. The libraries 
of the monasteries of Bobbio and St. Gall. 

4. Mingling of the Irish and Roman streams of culture in Eng- 
land. Theodore of Tarsus, archbishop of Canterbury, 668-690, and 
his friend Hadrian established schools for the study of Latin ami 



362 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

Greek at Canterbury and elsewhere. Benedict Biscop, died ca. 
690. The Greek and Latin learning of Aldhelm, abbot of Malmes- 
bury, ca. 650-709. 

5. Bede, the Venerable, 672-735, the first English savant. 
' ' Semper aut diseere aut doeere aut scribere dulce habui. ' ' A pro- 
duct of both Irish and Eoman training. All his life spent in the 
monastery of Jarrow. His voluminous writings of which the most 
remarkable is the Historia ecclesiastica. 

6. The early spread of English culture on the continent. Wini- 
fred (Boniface), ca. 680-755, the "Apostle of Germany." His 
classical learning. 

7. The school of York. Egbert, archbishop of York, 732-766, 
a disciple of Bede, was a patron of learning. His successor Ael- 
bert was the master of Alcuin. The famous library of York. 

8. Alcuin, ca. 735-804, born in Northumbria about the time 
when Bede died, was the most distinguished product of the school 
of York. He became the connecting link between the culture of 
the British isles and the continent in the time of Charlemagne 
(see next outline). 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

Brief general accounts. POOLE, Illustrations of the history of 
medieval thought, 1-26. DRANE, Christian schools and scholars, chs. 
n-iv. Cambridge history of English literature, I, ch. v, "Latin 
writings in England to the time of Alfred." A. BAUMGARTKER, 
Geschichie der Weltliteratur, IV, 268-291. F. A. SPECHT, Geschichte 
des Unterrichtswesens in Deutschland, Stuttgart, 1885, 1-14. 

For literary details, see MANITIUS, Geschichte der lateinischen 
Literatur, I, 70-87 (Bede), 134-152 (Aldhelm and Boniface), 156- 
160 (Hisperica famina), 181-187, 236-239 (Adamnan of Hy); and 
SANDYS, A history of classical scholarship, I, 451-470. 

Standard account. ROGER, L'enseignement des lettres classiques, 
chs. vi-xn. 

Irish learning. For short surveys see P. W. JOYCE, The story 
of ancient Irish civilization, London, 1907, ch. i-xin; H. ZIMMER, 
The Irish element in mediaeval culture; and K. MEYER, Learning in 
Ireland in the fifth century, and the transmission of letters: a lecture, 
Dublin, 1912. 

Standard works on the subject are: J. HEALY, Insula sanctorum 
et doctorum: or Ireland's ancient schools and scholars, Dublin, 1890, 
5th edition, 1908; P. W. JOYCE, A social history of ancient Ireland 
2 vote., London, 1903, 2nd edition, 1914, vol. I, part II. 






THE BRITISH ISLES 363 

Learning in England. MARGARETE ROSLER, "Erziehung in Eng- 
land vor der iiormannischen Eroberung, " in Englischc Studien, 
XI, VIII (1914), 1-114, is a very valuable recent study. 

Greek learning in the British isles. G. T. STOKES, "The knowl- 
edge of Greek in Ireland between A.D. 500 and 900," in Proceedings 
of the royal Irish academy, third series, II (1891-1893), 187-202. 
T. E. BOWLING and E. W. FLETCHER, Helleni&m in England, London, 
1915. J. E. LUMBY, Greek learning in tlie western church during 
the seventh and eighth centuries, Cambridge, 1878. 

Original sources. Complete works of Bede, with a translation, 
edited by J. A. GILES, 12 vols., London, 1843-1844 (Patres ecelesiae) ; 
the best edition of the Historia ecclesiastica is in vol. I of VENER- 
ABILIS BAEDAE Opera historica, edited by C. PLUMMER, 2 vols., 
Oxford, 1896; the best translation is by A. M. SELLAR, London, 
1912. It is announced that a volume entitled The sources of Irish 
history in the middle ages will appear in no. 949 above. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. See outline VI of part II above. See also noa. 
89, 94, 735 and 788 above. 

Irish element in medieval culture. H. ZIMMER, "ttber direkte 
ll:uiili>ls\ erbindungen Westgal liens mit Irland im Altertum und 
friihen Mittelalter, " in Sitzungsberichte der k. Preuss. Adakemie 
der Wissenschaften (1909), 365ff. (answered by F. HAVERFIELD, 
"Ancient Rome and Ireland," in English historical review, XXVIII 
(1913), 1-12, who claims that Zimmer is wrong when he says that 
there was active trade between Ireland and Rome, 50-350 A.D.). 
H. XIMMKK. Der kulturgeschichtliche Hintergrund in den Erzahlungcn 
der altcn iriscJicn Heldensage, Berlin, 1911; see also his Keltischc 
Stiulii-n, 2 vols., Berlin, 1881-84; and his "Ober die friihesten 
Beriihrungen der Iren mit den Nordgermauen," in Sitzungsberichte 
der Aka.l. d.-r Wiss. /.u Herlin (1891), 279-317. W. SCHULTZE, "Die 
itiiiij; <lrr irosi hott isdicn Mb'nche fiir die Erhaltung und Fort- 
'|<T mittcl.-ilicrlichen Wissenschaft, " in Cent nil blatt fiir 
, VI (1884), 185, 233, 281. L. TRAUBE, "Perrona 
Scottorum: cin Hritrag zur Ueberlieferungsgr.si'liirlitr mid /nr I'alae- 
ographie ties Mittclaltrr.s," in Sitzungsbcriclit< drr k. k. Akad. /u 
Munrlifii, phil. hist. Classe (1900), 469; see also his "O Roma 
noliilis. " H. n \\RiiOIS DE JUBAINVILLE, Introduction d I'ttudc de 
la lit t>' ni tun ////)//. I'.-iri.s, 1883, book II, rli. ix. 

Brittany and the British isles. B. I'I.AINK, La colonisation de 
j r l< s Jin tunx inttttJaii \. I'm is, 1899. J. LOTH, L'fmi- 
hntoiiitt ,n .tntoriquc du V e au VII sude de notre &re, 
Bonnes, 1883. 



364 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PARTIII 

Theodore of Tarus. G. F. BROWNE, Theodore [of Tarsus] and 
Wilfrith, London, 1897. 

Aldhelm. G. F. BROWNE, Aldhelm: his life and times, London, 
1903. L. BONHOFF, Aldlielm von Malmesbury : ein Beitrag zur 
Kirchengeschichte, Dresden, 1894. 

Bede. G. F. BROWNE, The Venerable Bede, London, 1887, is a 
book for the general reader. K. WERNER, Beda der Ehrwiirdige und 
seine Zeit, Vienna, 1875, 2nd edition, 1881. M. MANITIUS, (< Zu 
Aldhelm und Beda, ' ' in Sitzungsberichte der Wiener Akademie, CXII 
(1886), 535ff. 

Bonif ace^ and learning. H. KOCH, Die Stellung des heiligen Boni- 
fatius zur BUdung und Wissenschaft, Brannsberg, 1905. 

Original sources. Councils and ecclesiastical documents relating 
to Great Britain and Ireland, edited by A. W. HADDAN and W. 
STUBBS, 3 vols., Oxford, 1869-1878. The Hisperica famina, edited 
by F. J. H. JENKINSON, with three facsimile plates, Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press, 1908. 

Bibliographies. ROGER, L'enscignement, ix-xviii. Cambridge 
history of English literature, bibliography for ch. v. MANITIUS, Ge- 
schichte der lateinischen Literatur, use index. See also no. 36 above. 



VIII. THE AGE OF CHAELEMAGNE 
A. OUTLINE 

1. The medieval tendency to look back with admiration to the 
glorious period of imperial Borne found striking expression in the 
reign of Charlemagne. Contrast between the culture of the Mero- 
vingian and Carolingian periods. 

2. Learning at the court of Charlemagne. His own intellectual 
accomplishments and limitations. His patronage of learning and 
art. Importation of scholars to grace his court. Most important 
of all, Alcuin from York, England. Paul the Deacon (died ca. 
800), Peter of Pisa (died before 799) from Italy, and probably 
Pauliuus of Aquileia (died 802). Theodulf (died 821), bishop of 
Orleans, from Spain. Two famous native scholars were Angilbert 
(died 814) and Einhard (died 840). Three periods in the intellect- 
ual life at the court of Charlemagne: (1) 773-786, when the 
Italian scholars were most influential; (2) 786-800, the period 
of Alcuin, the high-water mark of Fraukish learning; (3) 800-814, 
a period of gradual decline when Theodulf, Angilbert, and Eiu- 
hard were the chief figures. 







AGE OP CHARLEMAGNE 365 

.'5. The palace school at Aix-la-Chapelle. In no sense a uni- 
versity, hut rather an informal and heterogeneous academy. 
Puerility of much of the learning in this school. Its importance 
lies not in its achievements but in the promise which it held forth. 

4. Alcuin as head of the palace school and as abbot of St. 
Martin 's of Tours, where he died in 804. The wide scope of his 
literary efforts. His pedagogical genius. Limitations of his 
scholarship. His scriptorium in Tours. Disciples of Alcuin, 
especially Rabanus Maurus. 

5. Educational reform. The letter to Baugulf, abbot of Fulda, 
written in 787, probably by Alcuin. Charlemagne's capitularies 
concerning education. Reorganization of monastery and cathedral 
schools. The elevation of the clergy to the position of a learned 
class. 

6. Enthusiasm for the ancient Latin classics. Its connection 
with the revival of the empire. The classical learning of Alcuin. 
Claesiciem in Carolingian poetry, especially that of Theodulf, and 
in history writing, especially in that of Einhard. Interest in 
classical archaeology. The Einsiedeln Itinerary, ca. 900. 

7. Revival of historiography. The Vita Karoli of Einhard and 
rli.- lli.ttoria Langobardorum of Paul the Deacon. The famous Caro- 
lingian annals, especially the Annales rcyales. 

8. The reform in calligraphy. The evolution of the Caroline 
minuscule which eventually became the pattern for our modern 
"Roman" letters. The importance of the scriptorium of Tours in 
this development. 

9. The revival in art, especially architecture and the illum- 
ination of manuscripts. The royal chapel at Aix-la-Chapelle, and 
the royal palaces at Nimwegen, Ingelheim, and Aix-la-Chapelle. 
Byzantine influences. 

10. Interest in native Teutonic song and story. 

11. The apparent sudden decline of Carolingian culture. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOK READING 

Brief general surveys. LAVISSE, Histoirc de France, II, part I, 
:\4~ :;."i7. TAYLOR, Mediaeval mind, I, ch. x. DRANE, Christian 
M'/mfj/x mill xi'lmltirx, ch. v. W. J. TowNSEND, The great school/in n. 
ch. 11. W. P. KKK, Tin dark age*, New York, 1904 (Periods of Euro- 
pean literature), ch. in. A. BAUMGARTNER, Gcxehichtc der ll'ilt- 
lUi-rniur. IV, 292-306. F. A. 8PECHT, Geschichte des Untcrrichta- 

9, 1">-30. 

Authoritative general surveys. .1. H. Mr LUNGER, The schools 
(,/ Clmrlfti tin (in at, London, 1877, ahastatic reprints, New York, 



366 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART HI 

1904 and 1911. G. MONOD, Etudes critiques sur les sources de 
I 'Mstoire carolingienne, Paris, 1898, part 119 of no. 888 above, 37- 
67, ' ' La renaissance carolingienne ' ' (his ' ' La renaissance earo- 
lingienne, " in Seances et travaux de I' Academic de sciences morales 
et politiques, CLII (1899), 137-166, corresponds almost word for 
word with pp. 37-59 of the publication just mentioned). MANITIUS, 
Gescliiclite der lateini-schen Literatur, I, 243-288, "Der carolingische 
Humanismus und sein Verfall"; see also 368-370 (Paulinus of 
Aquileia), 452-456 (Peter of Pisa), 537-547 (Theodolf of Orleans 
and Angilbert), 639-646 (Einhard). MOLINIER, Lcs sources, I, 181- 
227, "Renaissance carolingienne." 

Alcuin. A. F. WEST, Alcuin and the rise of the Christian schools, 
New York, 1892. C. J. B. GASKOIN, Alcuin: his life and his work, 
London, 1904. G. F. BROWNE, Alcuin of York, London, 1908. ROGER, 
L'enseignement, 313-328, 440-448. 

Latin classics. L. HA VET, "Que doivent a Charlemagne les 
classiques latins?" in Sevue bleue, fifth series, V (1906), 129-133. 
SANDYS, A history of classical scholarship, I, 471-482. 

Carolingian calligraphy. PUTNAM, Books and their makers, I, 
106-117. A. MOLINIER, Les manuscrits et les miniatures, Paris, 1892, 
107-139 (an extract from these pages may be found- in C. V. LANG- 
LOIS, Lectures historiques, 5th edition, 171-180). E. M. THOMPSON, 
An introduction to Greek and Latin palaeography, 367-370, 403ff. 
M. PROU, Manuel de paleographie, 3rd edition, 169-191. F. DELISLE, 
"Memoire sur 1'ecole calligraphique de Tours au IX e siecle, " in 
Memoires de I' Academic des inscriptions, XXXII (1885), part I, 
29-56. See also in general outline XXVI below. 

Original sources. History of the Langobards, by PAUL, THE 
DEACON, translated by W. D. FOULKE. For Einhard see outline 
VIII of part II above. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. See outline VIII of part II above. See also 
especially nos. 29, 788 and 803 above. 

General and miscellaneous accounts. G. KURTH, Les origines 
de la civilisation moderne, 2 vols., 5th edition, Brussels, 1903. A. 
HAUCK, Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands, vol. II, Die Karolingerzcit. 
H. BASTGEN, "Alkuin und Karl der Grosse in ihren wissenschaft- 
lichen und Kirchenpolitischen Ansehauungen, ' ' in Historisches Jahr- 
buch, XXXII (1911), 809-825. W. TURNER, "Irish teachers in the 
carolingian revival," in The Catholic university bulletin, XII 
(1907), 382, 567. G. PARIS, Histoire poetique de Charlemagne, Paris. 
1865, new edition by P. MEYER, 1905. L. MA!TRE, Les ecoles epis- 
copales et monastiques de I'occident depuis Charlemagne jusqu'a 
Philippe- Auguste, Paris, 1865. G. BRUHNES, La foi chretienne 



VUI AGE OP CHARLEMAGNE 367 

la philosophic au temps de la renaissance carolingienne, Paris, 1903. 
H. BLOCK, Geistesleben im Elsass zur Karolingerzeit, Strassburg, 1901 
(Separatabdruck aus der illustrierten Elsassischen Rundschau, III, 
4). J. PHILIPPE, Lucrcce dans la theologie chrctienne du 3 e au 13^ 
.s-fVr/r ct spi'i-iellement dans les Scales carolingiennes, I, Paris, 1895. 

Alculn. F. MONNIER, Alcuin et son influence chez les Franks, Paris, 
1853, 2nd edition, Alcuin et Charlemagne, Paris, 1864. K. WERNER, 
Alcuin und sein Jahrhundert, Paderborn, 1876, 2nd edition, Vienna, 
1881. F. LORENZ, Alcuin' s Leben, Halle, 1829, translated by JANE 
M. SLEE, The life of Alcuin, London, 1837. R. B. PAGE, The letters 
of Alcuin, New York, 1909 (dissertation). E. DUMMLER, "Zur 
Lebensgesehichte Alchvins, " in Neues Archiv, XVIII (1893), 51- 
70. W. SCHMITZ, Alcuins ars grammatica, die lateinische Schulgram- 
nidlik der karolingischen Renaissance, Ratingen, 1908 (dissertation, 
Greifswald). J. B. LAFORET, Hi&toire d' Alcuin, Paris, 1898. F. 
HAMELIN, Essai sur les oeuvres d' Alcuin, Paris, 1873. A. DUPUY, 
iii it \';<-<>\c dc St. Martin de Tours, Tours, 1876. 

Theodulf. C. CUISSARD, Theodulfe, cveque d 'Orleans, (Orleans, 1892. 

Einhard. F. KURZE, Einhard, Berlin, 1899. A. SCHMIDT, Die 
Kinhards, Greifswald, 1904 (dissertation). 

Carolingian art. In general see no. 299 above, I, ch. II. F. v. 
REBER, Der karolingische Palastbau, 2 parts, Munich, 1892, in 
.thliaiulliniiii n of the Academy of Munich. G. HUMANN, Zur 
(lixfhichte der karolingischen Bankunst, Strasburg, 1909 (Studien 
znr deutschen Kunstgeschichte). C. RHOEN, Die karolingische Pfalz 
zu Aachen, Aachen, 1889. K. PLATH, Nimwegen: ein Kaiserpalast 
Karl's des Grossen in den Niederlanden, Berlin, 1895; see also his 
Die Konigspfalzen der Merovinger und Karolinger, Leipzig, 1892. 
W. EKKMAXN, Centula St. Biguier : eine Untersuchung zur Ge- 
fidiirlitr der kirchlichen Baukunst in der Karolingerzeit, Miinster, 
1912 (Forschungen und Funde). F. LEITSCHUH, Geschirhte der 
karolinfiixclirn Malerci, Berlin, 1894. P. CLEMEN, Mcrovingische 
in,,! kartiliiifiixrhe Plastik, Bonn, 1892. J. R. RAHN, Das Psaltcrium 
annum >;,n Sanrt-Gallen : ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der karoling- 
isi-ln n Miniahtrmalerei, St. Gall, 1878, contains reproductions and 
text. 

Original sources. Almost all the writings of Alcuin and his 
eont<Mii|.or;irios are found in nos. 978, 983, and 963 above. For 
detailed references to individual authors and works consult the 
bibliographies listed below. For a critical discussion of the edi- 
tions of the works of Alcuin see also A. F. WEST, Alcuin, 183-191. 
.tiixii' iriililtr Xrhrifti-n ron Columbia*. .-Hi-iiin, HrabaintJt Maurus etc. 
edited by P. G. MF.IKR, in vol. Ill of Bibliothrk der katholischen 
Pddagogik, Freiburg, 1890. Historians of the church of York and 



368 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

its archbishops, edited by J. RAINE, 3 vols., London, 1879-1894, part 
71 of no. 995 above (for Alcuin). Schriftquellen zur Geschichte der 
Karolingischen Kunst, edited by J. v. SCHLOSSER, Vienna, 1896. 

Bibliographies. MOLINIER, Les sources, I, 181-227; and MANI- 
TIUS, Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur, I (use table of contents, 
index, and the chronological table at the end of the volume). 

IX. LEARNING IN AND ABOUT THE IMPERIAL COURT 
DURING THE NINTH AND TENTH CENTURIES 

A. OUTLINE 

1. A period of disorder and very slow advancement of culture, 
due largely to foes from without and political disorganization 
within western Christendom. 

2. Perpetuation of learning in the larger monastery and cathe- 
dral schools. In France: Tours, Ferrieres, Cluny, Bee, Fleury, 
Auxerre, Paris (St. Germain, Ste. Genevieve, and the cathedral 
school), Chartres, Laon, Rheims, and Lyons. In Germany: Fulda, 
St. Gall, and Reichenau. In the Netherlands: Liege and Tournai. 
In England: York and Canterbury. 

3. The generation after Charlemagne and Alcuin. Rabanus 
Maurus, 784-856, the pupil of Alcuin and abbot of Fulda, and later 
archbishop of Mainz, called primus praeceptor Germaniae. His 
encyclopaedia De rerum naturis, and his popular book De institu- 
tione clericorum. His position as a thinker. Walafrid Strabo, ca. 
809-849. The famous Letters of Servatus Lupus of Ferrieres, 805- 
862, and his knowledge of the classics. Gottschalk (Godescalc), ca. 
805-ca. 869. Hincmar of Rheims, ca. 806-882. Remi of Auxerre, 
ca. 841-ca. 908. 

4. A Carolingian aftermath at the court of Charles the Bald. 
About 845 John Scotus Eriugena came to this court, probably from 
Ireland. He was the enfant terrible of his time. His knowledge 
of Greek. About 858 he completed a Latin translation of the 
Caelestis hierarchia of the so-called Greek Dionysius the Areopagite. 
His daring De divisione naturae, which marked a turning point in 
the history of medieval thought. 

5. Comparatively low state of culture on the continent about 
900, when there was a somewhat brighter period in England, under 
king Alfred the Great (died 901). Translations into Anglo-Saxon 
connected with the name of Alfred: Bede's Ecclesiastical history, 
Boethius' Consolations of philosophy, Pope Gregory the Great's 
Dialogues and Pastoral care, Orosius' Seven books of history against 
the pagans, and probably Augustine 's Soliloquies. Asser 's Life of 
Alfred. 



NINTH AND TENTH CENTURIES 369 

6. The court of the Ottos. Bruno, archbishop of Cologne (died 
965), a brother of Otto the Great. The plays of the nun Roswitha 
of Gandersheim (born about 935). Hedwig, daughter of Henry of 
Bavaria, the brother of Otto I. Ekkehard I and Ekkehard II of 
St. Gall. 

7. Gerbert, pope Silvester II, (999-1003) and Otto III. Gerbert's 
visit to Barcelona, Spain. Mohammedan influences (see next out- 
line). His interest in mathematics and the natural sciences, and 
in the Latin classics. 

8. Renewed interest in Greek due to the close relations of the 
Ottonian court with the Byzantine empire. 

9. The pursuit of learning in the great monasteries such as 
St. Gall (Notger the Stammerer, ca. 840-912), Cluny (Odo of 
Cluny, died 942), St. Germain des Pr6s of Paris (Abbo, flourished 
about 900, wrote a poem on Bella Parisiacae urbis describing the 
wars with the Normans), and Monte Cassino before and after the 
ravages of the Saracens in south Italy. 

10. The legend of the year 1000. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

Short general surveys. TAYLOR, Mediaeval mind, I, 221-243. 
WEST. A train, chs. vn-viii. KER, The dark ages, 159-227. SANDYS, 
A history of classical scholarship, I, 483-514. M. DE WULF, A history 
of medieval philosophy, 149-162, 167-173. M. GRABMANN, Die Ge- 
xcliiclitt dir st-holaatischen Methode, I, 192-214. 

Longer accounts. A. T. DRANE, Christian schools and scholars, 
i-li^. vi- x. (irizoT, History of civilization in France, first course, 
lectures 28-29. For accurate details see MANITUTS, Gcschichtc der 
lateinischen Literatur, I, 288-314 (Rabanus Maurus and Walafrid 
Strabo), 323-367 (John Scotua, Hincmar, and Notger), 483-490 
(Lupus), 504-519 (Remi), 568-574 (Gottschalk), 585-588 (Abbo), 
609-614 (Ekkehard I), 619-632 (Roswitha). A. BAUMOARTNER, 
dix.-lii.-ht, <l.r Weltliteratur, IV, 306-353. A. EBERT, Allgemeine 
Geschichte der Literatur dcs Mittelalters, II, 120^169 (Rabanus 
Maurus, Walafrid Strabo, Gottschalk), 203-209 (Servatus Lupus), 
III, .ill :529 (Roswitha). For historical works see also WATTEN- 
BACH, Dmtsclilands Gcschichtsqucllen, I, 256ff. G. KURTH, Notger 
de Lif'i/i 't In civilisation au X e siecle, see especially I, rh. xiv. 

John Scotus Eriugena. POOLE, Illitxtrntimis f tin' history of 
an <lit rul tliniifiht, ch. II (see also the beginning of ch. in). W. 
TURNER, "John the Scot," in Catholic I'mm-siti/ bulletin. Feb., 
1912; or see his article in the Catholic rm-i/rloi,, ,1m. \\. .1. TOWN- 
SEND, The great schoolmen of the middle ages, ch. HI. ALICE GARD- 



370 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PARTIII 

NER, Studies in John the Scot (Erigena) : a philosopher of the dark 
ages, London, 1900. PICA VET, Esquisse d'une histoire generate et 
comparee des philosophies medievales, ch. vi, ' ' La renaissance de 
la philosophie avec Alcuin et Jean Scot Erigene. " 

King Alfred the Great. Cambridge history of English literature, 
I, ch. vi. C. PLUMMEB, The life and times of Alfred the Great, 
Oxford, 1902. S. A. BROOKS, King Alfred as educator of his people 
and man of letters, London, 1901. 

Roswitha. W. H. JUDSON, "Hrosvitha of Gandersheim, " in 
English historical review, III (1888), 431-457. ALICE K. WELCH, 
Of six mediaeval women, London, 1913, ch. i, "Boswitha. " See 
also no. 482 above. J. S. TUNISON, Dramatic traditions of the dark 
ages, 137ff. 

Gerbert. C. PFISTER, Etudes sur le regne de Robert le Pieux, 
1-40, on Gerbert 's scholarly training. For additional reading on 
Gerbert see under outline XV, part II above, to which may be 
added TOWNSEND, Great schoolmen, ch. iv. 

Legend of the year 1000. G. L. BURR, "The year 1000 and 
the antecedents of the crusades," in American historical review, VI 
(1900-1901), 429-439, has been mentioned before. It is the best 
introduction to the following books and articles which Professor 
BURR mentions in his article. P. ORSI, L'anno mille: saggio di 
critica storica, Turin, 1887 (reprinted from the Rivista storica 
italiana, IV, 1887); his Le paure del finimondo nell' anno 1000, 
Turin, 1891, 31 pp., is the same argument in a popular form. J. 
EOY, L'an mille: formation de la legende de I'an mille, etat de la 
France de I'an 950 a I'an 1050, Paris, 1885, contains a bibliography. 
H. v. EICKEN, "Die Legende von der Erwartung des Weltunter- 
ganges und der Wiederkehr Christi im Jahre 1000, ' ' in Forschungen 
zur deutschen Geschichte, XXIII (1883), 303-318. E. BOSIERES, 
"Etudes nouvelles sur 1'ancienne France: la legende de I'an mille," 
in Revue politique et litteraire, 2nd series, XIV (1878), 919-924. 

F. PLAINE, "Les pretendues terreurs de I'an mille," in Revue des 
questions historiques, XIII (1873), 145-164. The famous passage 
of Ealph Glaber (died ca. 1044) on the year 1000, is translated by 

G. G. COULTON, A medieval garner, 4-11. 

Original sources. J. HAVET, Lettres de Gerbert, Paris, 1889, part 
6 of no. 968 above, contains a very valuable introduction on the 
life and work of Gerbert. ASSER'S Life of Alfred is trans- 
lated in Six English chronicles, new edition by W. H. STEVENSON, 
Oxford, 1904. Der Hrotsuitha Gedicht iiber Gander sheims Griindung 
und die Thaten Kaiser Oddo I, translated by T. G. PFUND, 2nd edi- 
tion, Leipzig, 1891, part of no. 981 above. "The school life of 



NINTH AND TENTH CENTURIES 371 

Walafriil Strabo, " translated by J. D. BUTLER, in Bibliotheca sacra, 
XL (1883), 152-172, is a translation of a portion of Strabo 's own 
works. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Famous cathedral and monastery schools. L. MAITRE. Les 6coles 
Gpiscopales et monastiques de I'Occident depuis Charlemagne jusqu'd 
Philippe Auguste, Paris, 1866. A. CLERVAL, Les> Scales de Chartres 
an moyen dge du V* au XFI e siecle, Chartres, 1895 (MSmoires de 
la Societ6 arch^ologique d'Eure-et-Loir, XI). W. B. ASPINWALL, 
Les ecoles episcopates et monastiques de I'ancienne province eccUs- 
iastique de Sens du VI au XII e siecle, Paris, 1904 (dissertation). 
G. SALVIOLI, L'istruzione pubblica in Italia nei secoli VIII, IX, X, 
Florence, 1898. A. OZANAM, "Des Ecoles et de 1 'instruction publique 
en Italic aux temps barbares, " in his Documents inSdits, 1850. W. 
(JiKSEBRECHT, De litterarum studiis apud Italos, 1845, translated into 
Italian by C. PASCAL, L 'istruzioni pubblica in Italia nei primi secoli 
</- / mi'i-n evo, Florence, 1895. F. A. SPECHT, Geschichte des Unter- 
rict>t.<nresens in Deutschland. R. GRAHAM, "The intellectual influ- 
ences of English monasteries between the tenth and twelfth cen- 
turies," in Royal historical society. Transactions, new series, XVII 
(190.3), 23-64. E. A. LOEW, Beneventan script, introduction, for 
learning in Monte Cassino. 

Rabanus Maurus. D. TURNAU, Rabanus Maurus, der praeceptor 
a lieitrag sur Geschichte der Pddagogik des Mittel- 
dltir.i, Munich, 1900. J. B. HABLITZEL, "Hrabanus Maurus und 
Claudius von Turin," in Historisches Jahrbuch. XXVII (1906), 74- 
85. E. DUMMLER, "Hrabanstudien," in Sitzungsberichtc of the 
Berlin Academy, 1898, 24-42. F. KUNSTMANN, Rhabanus Magnen- 
tins Maurus, Mainz, 1841. 

Lupus of Ferrieres. A. LEVILLAIN, "Etude sur les lettres de 
Loup de Ferrieres," in Bibliothfique de I'Ecole des chartes, LXII 
(1901), 445-509, LXIII (1902), 69-118, 289-330, 537-586; see also 
his article "Une nou voile edition des lettres de Loup de Fer- 
rieres," ibid., LXIV (1903), 259-283 (the article refers to the new 
edition of the letters edited by E. DC'MMLER in 1902 as part of 
no. 978 above). IT. BERLIERE, "Un bibliophile du IX* siecle: Loup 
de Ferriores," Mons, 1912, 14 pp. (extract of the Bulletin <l-s 
Hit. liup I,;!,., t.olgos seant a Mons, 1912). E. NOBDEN, Die antike 
IpfPM, II, 698-705. 

John Scotus Eriugena, E. K. RAND, Johannes Scotus, Munich, 
1906 (Quellen und Untersuchungen zur Intoinischon Philologio <los 
^fittelalters, I, 2). C. C. J. WEBB, "Scotus Erigena De divisione 



372 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

naturae," in Proceedings of the Aristotelian society, II (1892- 
1894), 121-137. J. DRASEKE, Johannes Scotus Erigena, Leipzig, 1902 
(Studien zur Geschichte der Theologie und der Kirche, IX, 2). L. 
NOACK, Johannes Scotus Erigena, Leipzig, 1876. SAINT-RENE TAIL- 
LANDIER, Scot Erigene et le philosophic scholastique, Paris, 1843. 
N. MOLLER, Johannes Scotus Erigena und seine Irrtiimer, Mainz, 1844. 
F. STAUDENMAIER, Johannes Scotus Erigena und die Wissenschaft 
seiner Zeit, Frankfurt, 1834. 

Walafrid Strabo. L. EIGL, Walahfried Strabo, Vienna, 1908. 
A. JUNDT, Walafrid Strabon: I'homme et le theologien, Cahors, 1900 
(dissertation). 

Roswitha. J. SCHNEIDERHAN, Eosu-itha von Gandersheim die erste 
deutsche Dichterin, Paderborn, 1912. P. v. WINTERFELD, "Hrotsvits 
literarische Stellung, " in Arch.iv fur das Studium der neueren 
Sprachen, CXIV (1905), 25-75. 

Gerbert. K. WERNER, Gerbert von Aurillac: die Kirche und ITis- 
senschaft seiner Zeit, Vienna, 1878. A. FRANCK, Gerbert: etat de 
la philosophic et des sciences au X e siecle, Paris, 1872 (Moralistes 
et philosophes). K. T. SCHLOCKWERDER, Das Konzil zu St. Basle: 
ein Beitrag zur Lebensgeschichte Gerberts von Aurillac, Madeburg, 
1907 (Programm). K. SCHTJLTESS, Papst Silvester II (Gerbert) 
als Lehrer und Staatsmann, Hamburg, 1891 (Programm). On Ger- 
bert 's place in the history of mathematics see A. NAGL, "Gerbert 
und die Rechenkunst des lOten Jahrhundert, " in Sitzungsberichte 
der philologisch-historischen Classe der kaiserlichen Akademie der 
Wissenschaften, Vienna, CXVI (1888), 861-922, with four plates. 
F. WEISSENBORN, Gerbert: Beitrdge zur Kenntniss der Mathematik 
des Mittelalters, Berlin, 1888; and his Zur Geschichte der Einfiihr- 
ung der jetzigen Ziffern in Europa durch Gerbert, Berlin, 1892. M. 
CANTOR, Vorlesungen iiber Geschichte der Mathematik, ch. xxxvm. 

Original sources. Most of the works of writers mentioned in 
this outline are printed in nos. 953 and 978 above, to which the 
works mentioned under "Bibliographies" below will serve as 
guides. Special mention may be made of the following: Oeuvres 
de Gerbert, pape sous le nom de Sylvestre II, edited by A. OLLERIS, 
Paris, 1867. Gerberti postea Silvestri II papae opera mathematica 
97Z-1003, edited by N. BUBNOV, Berlin, 1900. Hrotsvithae opera, 
edited by P. v. WINTERFELD, Berlin, 1902, part of no. 979 above; 
another edition by K. STRECKER, Leipzig, 1906. 

Bibliographies. Scattered references will be found in MANI- 
TIUS, Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur, I; SANDYS,.^ history of 
classical scholarship, I; and WATTENBACH, Deutschlands Geschicht- 
schreiber, I. 



MOHAMMEDAN CULTURE 373 

X. MOHAMMEDAN CULTURE IN THE WEST 
A. OUTLINE 

1. The necessity of studying Mediterranean culture as a whole 
in medieval as well as in ancient times. Mingling of oriental, 
Byzantine, Mohammedan, and Latin Christian civilization. Rela- 
tions between Christians and Mohammedans throughout the length 
of southern Europe. 

2. The intellectual and artistic development of the Moham- 
medans. Influence of Hellenic civilization largely through the 
Syrian Nestorian Christians and the Persians. Comparatively 
small part played by Arabs in Mohammedan culture. The influ- 
ence of Aristotle. Interest in theology, philosophy, philology, his- 
tory, law, mathematics, medicine, and natural sciences. Predilec- 
tion for literature, especially poetry. Beginning with the ninth 
century there was remarkable activity in translating ancient books 
into Arabic. The height of cultured life in Damascus and Bag- 
dad. The Thousand and one nights. 

3. The binding force of Mohammedan culture kept Islam united 
even after the political disruption of the Caliphate. This is evi- 
dent especially in Sicily and Spain. 

4. The Jews as intermediaries between Mohammedans and 
Christians especially in Spain. Activity of the Jews as translators 
and commentators. Parallelism of Islamic and Jewish philosophy 
in the middle ages. Avicebron or Avicebrol (Solomon Ibn 
Gabirol), 1020-1070, born in Malaga. The great Moses Maimon- 

born in Cordova in 1135. He died in Egypt in 1204. 

5. Centers of Mohammedan culture in Spain. Cordova was 
the Bagdad of the west. The ninth and tenth centuries were the 
periods of its greatest bloom. The famous library of Al Hakam 
in Cordova in the tenth century. Seville became the center of 
luxurious life especially after the decline of Cordova. Toledo was 
a famous seat of learning. Even before its capture by the Chris- 
tians in 1085 it had been a center of intellectual influence upon 
Latin Christendom. The higher schools in these centers. 

6. The natural sciences and medicine among the Mohammedans. 
The experimental method. Achievements in astronomy, chemistry, 
physics (especially optics), geography. Inventions and discoveries. 
See outline XXI below. 

7. Mathematics. The vexed question of the so-called Arabic 
numerals and their introduction into Latin Christendom. The 
zero. Algebra and geometry. 



874 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PARTHI 

8. The great Aristotelians among the Mohammedans. Alfarabi 
(died 950) of Bagdad. Avicenna, 980-1036, born in the district 
of Bokhara. Averroes, born in Cordova in 1126. He died in 1198. 
Mohammedan respect for the teaching of Aristotle. Efforts to 
reconcile the dogma of Islam with Mohammedan philosophy based 
on Aristotle. 

9. The question of freedom of thought and the warfare between 
theology and science in Islam. Orthodox theologians and mystics 
among the Mohammedans. Gazali (Algazel), 1058-1111. 

10. Mohammedan literature and art in Sicily and Spain. Princely 
patrons. Decorative art and architecture. The great Mosque 
(Mesquita) at Cordova (begun in the eighth century) ; the Giralda 
(twelfth century) and Alcazar (thirteenth century) of Seville, 
and the Alhambra of Granada (fourteenth century). The old 
palace in Palermo. 

11. Influence of Mohammedan culture in Latin Christendom. 
Early Christian scholars in close touch with Mohammedan learn- 
ing: Gerbert (pope Sylvester II, 999-1003); Constantinus Afri- 
canus (eleventh century), and Adelard of Bath and Daniel Morley 
from England (twelfth century). Danger of ascribing too much 
to Mohammedan influence in the Latin west and of minimizing 
the Byzantine influence. See outline XV below. 

12. Eather sudden decline of Mohammedan culture in the eleventh 
and twelfth centuries when Latin Christendom witnessed a remark- 
able outburst of intellectual activity which laid the basis of 
modern civilization. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOB READING 

Brief general surveys. There is very little satisfactory litera- 
ture on this subject. An immense amount of research work must 
still be done, especially in the Arabic sources, before the true 
character of Mohammedan culture in the middle ages can be stated 
in a sure and systematic fashion. K. ALTAMIRA, Historia de Espana, 
3rd edition, 1, 261-300. LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire generate, 
I, 773-793. E. HUNGERFOBD, ' ' The rise of Arab learning, ' ' in 
Atlantic monthly, LVIII (1886), 539-555, 817-829. J. W. DRAPER, 
Intellectual development of Europe, ch. xin. HELMOLT, History of 
the world, III, 332-342, 347-349. E. EENAN, L'Islamisme et la 
science, Paris, 1893, is a lecture. S. GUYARD, La civilisation musul- 
mane, Paris, 1884 (Lec.on d'ouverture au College de France). 

Longer accounts. C. HUART, Histoire des Arabs, II, chs. xxxv- 
xxxvi. J. HELL, Die Kultur der Araber, Leipzig, 1909 (Wissen- 
schaft und Bildung, 64). G. LE BON, La civilisation des Arabes, 



MOHAMMEDAN CULTURE 375 

Paris, 1884, especially 465-632. S. P. SCOTT, History of the Moorish 
cnt/iift in Europe, especially vol. III. H. SUTER, Die Araber als Ver- 
mitthr ili r II 'i.\.<n nxchaften in ihrem Vbergang rom Orient in den 
Oi-i-idi nt. I'M.) cilition, Aarau, 1897. H. COPPE, History of the con- 
<in<xt of Spain, 11, 275-449. 

The so-called Arabic numerals. D. E. SMITH and L. C. KARP- 
JNSKI, The Hindu-Arabic numerals, Boston and London, 1911. G. 
F. HILL, The development of Arabic numerals in Europe, exhibited in 
sisty-four tables, Oxford, 1915. A. CLERVAL, Les ecoles des Chartres, 
236-238, has some important information on the "Boethius ques- 
tion" and the zero, which seems to have escaped the notice of 
the authors of the above two books. See also the literature under 
Gerbert in the previous outline. 

Geography. C. R. BEAZLEY, Dawn of modern geography, I, ch. vn. 
"The non-Christian geography of the early middle ages," III, ch. 
vii, "Later Moslem and other non-Christian geography." 

Mohammedan philosophy. M. DE WULF, History of medieval 
philosophy, 226-239. I. GOLDZIHER, "Die Islamische und die Jiid- 
isrlu' Philosophic," in Kultur der Gegenwart, I, ch. v (1909), 45-77. 

Medieval Jewish philosophy. I. HUSIK, A history of medieval 
Jewish philosophy, New York, 1916. See also nos. 850, 862-868 
above. 

Islamic libraries. S. KUUDA BUKHSH, "Islamic libraries," in 
Ninetiinih i-miiir,,, LII (1902), 125-139. 

Mohammedan art in Spain. A. F. CALVERT, The Alhambra: 

i a brief record of the Arabian conquest of the Peninsula with a 

particular m-i-mtnt uf the Mohammedan architecture and decoration, 

London, 1907; and his Moorish remains in Spain: being a brief 

n, !,!, I i,f Hi, Arabian conquest of the Peninsula with a particular 

"it nf tin Mnlia mint-dan architecture and decoration in Cordova, 

' . inn! Tnl, iln, London, 1906, contain remarkable illustrations. 

('. <:. HARTI.KV (Mrs. \V. GALLICHAN), Moorish cities in Spain, Lon- 

ilon, 1906, is a brief readable sketch with illustrations. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. See outlines IX an. I XXXIV in part II above. 
See also the literature on the Normans in Sicily under outline XX 
in part II above. For all that concerns the natural sciences see 
outline XXI below. 

General surveys. A. v. KREMER, r/fMrr/r.sr/iiV/;//iVA<- Mrdfziiuc 
auf il' in fiiltiitr ties Islams, L>'ip/i^. 1>7.'!. translate! by S. KHUDA 
HrKiisii. ('niilnhutions to the history of Islamic ririli;<itiim, Cal- 
cutta, 1905; see also his Kulturgcschichte des Orients unter den 



376 MEDIEVAL CI/LTURE PARTIII 

Chalifen, 2 vols., Vienna, 1875-1877, II, 396-484, " Wissenschaft 
und Literatur. " E. W. LANE, Arabian society in the middle ages, 
edited by 8. L. POOLE, London, 1883. F. DIERKS, Die Araber im 
Mittelalter und ihr Einfluss auf die Cultur Europas, 2nd edition, Leip- 
zig, 1882. A. BEBEL, Die mohamedanisch-arabische Kulturperiode, 
2nd edition, Stuttgart, 1889. 

Nestorius. F. LOOFS, Nestorius and his place in the history of 
Christian doctrine, New York, 1914, will serve as an introduction 
to the history of the Nestorian Christians who did much to intro- 
duce western civilization into the Mohammedan world. 

Moslem theology. D. B. MACDONALD, The development of Muslim 
theology, jurisprudence, and constitutional theory, New York, 1903. 
B. CARRA DE VAUX, Gazali, Paris, 1902. M. AsfN PALACIOS, Algazel: 
dogmatica moral ascetica, Saragossa, 1901 (Coleccion de estudios 
arabes, VI); see also his Abenmasarra y su escuela, Madrid, 1914. 
L. GAUTHIER, La theorie d'Ibn Eochd (Averroes) sur les rapports 
de la religion et de la philosophic, Paris, 1909. J. B. BULING, Bei- 
trdge zur Eschatologie des Islam, Leipzig, 1895. J. GOLDZIHER has 
a section on Moslem theology in Kultur der Gegenwart, I, in, 1. 

Islamic philosophy. T. J. DE BOER, Geschichte der Philosophic 
im Islam, Stuttgart, 1901, translated by E. E. JONES, The history 
of philosophy in Islam, London, 1903. J. POLLAK, ' ' Entwicklung 
der arabischen und jiidischen Philosophic im Mittelalter, ' ' in 
Archiv fur Geschichte der Philosophic, XVII (1903-1904), 196-236, 
433-459. C. SAUTER, "Die peripatetische Philosophic bei den 
Syrern und Arabern, " ibid., 516-533. A. MULLER, Die griechischen 
Philosophen in der arabischen ffberlieferung, Halle, 1873. A. v. 
KREMER, Geschichte der herrschenden Ideen des Islams, Leipzig, 
1868. S. MUNK, Melanges de philosophic juive et arabe, Paris, 1857- 
1859. M. WITTMANN, Die Stellung Avencebrol's (Ibn Gebirol's) im 
Entwicklungsgang der arabischen Philosophic, Miinster, 1905 (Bei- 
trage zur Geschichte der Philosophic des Mittelalters, vol. V, 1). 
F. DIETERICI, Die Philosophic der Araber im X Jahrhundert, Berlin, 
1861. 

Averroes. E. EENAN, Averroes et I'Averroisme, Paris, 1852, 4t 
edition, 1882. 

Avicenna. B. CARRA DE VAUX, Avicenne, Paris, 1900. C. SAUTE 
Avicennas Bearbeitung der Aristotelischen Metaphysik, Freiburg 
1912. M. HORTEN, Die Metaphysik Avicennas, Halle, 1907. 

Moses Maimonides. W. BACKER and others, Moses ben Maimon: 
sein Leben, seine Werke und sein Einfluss, vol. I, Leipzig. 1908. J. 
MUNZ, Moses ben Maimon (Maimonides) : sein Leben und seine Werl 
Frankfurt, 1912. See also no. 867 above. 



MOHAMMEDAN CULTURE 377 

Translations from and into Arabic. M. STEINSCHNEIDER, "Die 
europaischen t*bersetzungen aus dem Arabischen bis Mitte des 17 
Jahrhunderts, " in Sitzungsberichte der k. k. Akademie zu Wien, 
philos.-hist. Klasse, CXLIX (1905), no. 4; CLI (1906), no. 1 (see 
also Anzeiger, XLI (1904), no. 2, 16-25); also his Die Arabischen 
Ubersetzungen aus dem Griechischen, Leipzig, 1897. F. WUSTENFELD, 
' ' Die Uebersetzungen arabischer Werke in das Lateinische seit 
dem XI Jahrhundert, " in Abhandlungen der koniglichen Gesell- 
schaft der Wissenschaften zii Gottingen, XXII (1877), no. 2. C. H. 
HASKINS, "The translations of Hugo Sanctelliensis, " in Romanic 
rtrit-w, II (1911), 1-15. 

Natural sciences among the Mohammedans. F. DANNEMANN, Die 
Naturwissenschaften, 1, 223-257. F. STRUNZ, Geschichte der Natur- 
wissenschaften, 48-80; see also his Die Vergangenheit der Natur- 
forschung, Jena, 1913, 86-118, which has good bibliographical notes. 
M. HERTHELOT, La chimie au moyen dge, vol. IV, L'alchimie arabe, 
with the collaboration of M. O. HOUDAS, Paris, 1893. E. WIEDE- 
MANN. "Ueber die Naturwissenschaften bei den Arabern," in 
Sammlung gemeinverstdndlicher wissenschaftlichen Fortrdge, series 
11. vol. V, Hamburg, 1890, was but a promise of the important 
monographic work which he has since done in this field ; see e.g., his 
"Zur Chemie bei den Arabern," in Sitzungsberichte der physikal- 
isch inedizinischen Societat in Erlangen, XLIII (1911); "Die 
Alrhemie bei den Arabern," in Journal fiir praktische Chemie 
LXXVI (1907), 85-87, 105-123; and "Zur Geschichte des Kom- 
passes bei den Arabern," in Verhandlungen der deutschen physikal- 
ischeii Gesellschaft zu Berlin, IX (1907), 764-773. M. STEIN- 
SCHNEIDER, Al Farabi, des arabischen Philosophen Leben und 
Srhriften, in Mi-moires de 1 'Academic Imperiale des sciences de 
St. PStersbourg, series VII, vol. XIII, 4 (1869). L. LECLERC, His- 
toire de la medecine arabe, 2 vols., Paris, 1876. F. W(JSTENFELD, 
Geschichte der Arabischen Xrzte und Naturf orach er, Gottingen, 1840. 
J. J. SEDILLOT, Memoires sur les instruments astronomiques des 
Arabcs, Paris, 1841-1845. 

Mathematics. W. W. R. BALL, A short account of the history of 
mii/ln i/Hiti<'s, 4th edition, London, 1908, 144-163; in the French 
edition, translated by L. FREUND, Histoire des mathfmatique*, 2 vote., 
Paris, 1906, I, 152-171. M. CANTOR, Vorlesungen iiber Geschichte 
der Mathcmatik, 4 vols., 3rd edition, Leipzig, 1898-1908, I, chs. 
xxxu xxxvu. S. GtiNTHER, Geschichtc der Mathematik, I, Leipzig, 
1908, chs. XII-XHI. F. CAJORI, A history of mathematics, Now York, 
1895, 100-117. H. SUTER, "Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der 
Araber und ihre Werke," in Abhan<ilnn<i< n :ur (ieschichte der mathe- 



378 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

matischen Wissenschaften, Leipzig, X (1900), also XIV (1902), 155- 
185. L. JORDAN, "Materialien zur Geschichte der arabischen Zahl- 
zeichen in Frankreich," in Archiv zur Kulturgeschichte, III (1905), 
155-195, contends that the so-called Arabic numerals are of 
Egyptian origin. A. HUEMER, "Die Einfiihrung des dt.-arab. 
Zahlensystems in Frankreich und Deutschland, ' ' in Zeitschrift fur 
die osterreichischen Gymnasien, 1904. M. SEDILLOT, Materiaux pour 
servir a I'histoire des sciences mathematiques chez les Grecs et les 
Orientaux, 2 vols., Paris, 1845-1849. 

Mohammedan education. J. EIBERA, La ensenanza entre los 
Musulmanes Espaiioles, Saragossa, 1893; see also his Bibliofilos y 
bibliotecas en la Espana musulmana, 2nd edition, Saragossa, 1896. 
K. A. SCHMID, in Geschichte der Erziehung, II, part I, pp. 549-611. 
F. WUSTENFELD, Die Academien der Araber und ihre Lehrer, Gb't- 
tingen, 1837. D. HANEBERG, Abhandlungen ilber das Schul- und Lehr- 
wesen der Muhamedaner im Mittelalter, Munich, 1850. 

Mohammedan literature. E. A. NICHOLSON, A literary history 
of the Arabs, London, 1907, especially chs. vn-ix. C. HUART, Lit- 
terature arabe, Paris, 1902, 2nd edition, 1912, translated by Lady 
MARY LOYD, A history of Arab literature, London, 1903. I. PIZZI, 
Letteratura araba, Milan, 1903 (Manuels Hoepli). C. BROCKEL- 
MANN, Geschichte der arabischen Literatur, 2 vols., and index, Ber- 
lin, 1898-1902; he has condensed his material in a good popular, 
sketch, Geschichte der arabischen Literatur, Leipzig, 1901 (Die 
.uiteraturen des Ostens, vol. VI, part 2). M. J. DE GOEJE, "Geschichte 
der arabischen Literatur," in Kultur der Gegenwart, I, VII, 5. 
J. C. L. S. DE SISMONDI, Literature of the south of Europe, I, ehs. li 
and in. A. F. v. SCHACK, Poesie und Kunst der Araber in Spanien 
und Sizilien, 2 vols., 2nd edition, Stuttgart, 1877, translated into 
Spanish by J. VALERA, 3 vols., Madrid, 1893. J. v. HAMMER-PUKG- 
STALL, Literaturgeschichte der Araber bis zum Ende des 12 Jahr- 
hunderts, 7 vols., Vienna, 1850-1856. E. DOZY and W. H. ENGEL- 
MANN, Glossaire des mots espanols derives de I 'arabe, 2nd edition, 
Leyden, 1869. 

Mohammedan historiography. F. WUSTENFELD, "Die Geschicht- 
schreiber der Araber und ihre Werke, " in Abhandlungen der k. 
Gesellschaft zu Gottingen, XXVIII (1881); XXIX (1882). F. 
PONS BOIGUES, Ensayo bio-bibliogrdfico sobre los historiadores y 
geografos ardbigo-espanoles, Madrid, 1898. 

Mohammedan art. Monumentos arquitectonicos de Espana, 
Madrid, 1877. H. SALADIN and G. MIGEON, Manuel d'art musulman, 
2 vols., Paris, 1907. M. JUNGHANDEL, Die Baukunst Spaniens in 
ihren hervorragenden Werlcen, Dresden, 1889-1893. W. and G. 



MOHAMMEDAN CULTURE 379 

MABCAIS, Les monuments Arabes de Tlemc,en, Paris, 1903. B. and 
ELLEN M. WHISHAW, Arabic Spain: sidelights on her history and 
art, London, 1912. A. GAYET, L'Art arabe, Paris, [n. d.]. C. UHDE, 
Baudt-nkmtiltr in Spanien und Portugal, Berlin, 1889-1893. J. 
FRAXZ-PASCHA, Die Baukunst des Islam, Darmstadt, 1896. R. BORR- 
MANN and J. XEUWIRTH, Geschichte der Baukunst, I, 319-375. See 
also other general histories of art under outline XXVII below. 

Original sources. For translations of the Thousand and one 
nights sec MACDOXALD, Muslim theology, 359. Die Hauptlehren des 
'oes nach seiner Schrift: Die Wiederlegung des Gazali, trans- 
lated into German from the Arabic original, with commentaries, 
liy M. HORTEN. Bonn, 1913. Texte zu dem Streite zwischen Glauben 
mill 1 1'/.- .\</i mi Islam: die Lehre rom Prophcten und der Offenbarung 
'I'll ifiltiinHisrhen Philosophen Farabi, Avicenna und Averroes, 
edited by M. HORTEX, Bonn, 1913 (Kleine Texte fiir Vorlesungen 
iiml I'Mmngen, 119). Philosophic und Thcologie von Averroes, trans- 
lated from the Arabic by M. J. Mt'LLER, Munich, 1875. Alfarabi's 
philosophische Abhandlungen aus Londoner, Leidener und Berliner 
isrhriftt n. edited by F. DiETERici, Leyden, 1890, German edi- 
tion, 1892. C. BAUMKER, Avencebroli* fans vitae ex arabico in 
liiinnim tranxlatus ab Johanne Hixpano et Dominica Gundissalino, 
Minister, 1895 (Beitriige zur Geschichte der Philosophic im Mittel- 
alter, I, nos. 2-4). Lc guide des egarfs: trade de thfologie et de 
liliilosophic par MOI'SE BEX MAIMOUM dit MAEMOXIDE, publi6 pour 
la prcmirrc t'ois dans 1 'original arabe et accompagn^ d 'une tra- 
durtion franraisc par 8. MiTNK, 3 vols., Paris, 1856-1866. Guide 
to tin j,iri>l,jrl. l.y MoSES BEX MAIMOX, called MAIMOXIDES, trans- 
late. I l,\ M. FRIEDLAXDER, 3 vols., London, 1886. 

Bibliographies. Short serviceable bibliographies will be found 
in MACIMINAI.D. Minimi tlnnloay, 358-367; NlCHOLSOX, A 
history of the Arabs, 471-480; G. LE BON, La civilisation des 
679-686, ALTAMIRA, Historia dc Espana, IV, 3rd elition, 600-608. 
For ilotaili-cl information consult V. CHAUVix, Bibliographic des 
fiiirrntitx unities ou rclatifs aux Arabcs, publics dans I'Europe din'- 
c de 1810 d 1885, vols. I -XI, Liege and Leipzig, 1892-1909; and 
Oricnttilim-hi /?i7>/i'i/r<j/i/iir. litt-.l by A. Mi'l.i.KK and others, Berlin, 
1887ff. 



380 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 



XI. THE EVE OF A NEW ERA IN MEDIEVAL CULTUEE. 

THE ELEVENTH CENTURY 

A. OUTLINE 

1. The very sharp contrast usually drawn between the tenth 
and the eleventh centuries due largely to the legend of the year 
1000. 

2. Rapid growth of cathedral and monastery schools, especially 
in France. The rise of the famous schools of Chartres. Bishop Ful- 
bert of Chartres (died 1028). Bishop Ivo of Chartres, the famous 
canonist (died 1115). The importance of the monastery of Bee, 
where both Lanfranc and Anselm lived before they became arch- 
bishops of Canterbury. Odo of Tournai (died 1113). 

3. The conflict between faith and learning, authority and reason, 
due to the religious revival in this century on the one hand, and 
the quickening intellectual life on the other. Lanfranc, born ca. 
1005 in Pavia, and died in 1089 as archbishop of Canterbury. 
Peter Damian (1006-1072), the hermit of Ravenna. Othloh of 
St. Emmeran, of Regensburg (died about 1073). Manegold of 
Lautenbach (died after 1103). 

4. Anselm of Canterbury, the ' ' Father of scholasticism. ' ' Born 
in 1033 in Aosta in Piedmont, abbot of Bee, 1078-1093, and arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, 10931109. The meaning of Anselm 's motto, 
' ' Nequo enim quaero intelligere, ut credam ; sed credo, ut intelligam. 
Nam et hoc credo, quia nisi credidero non intelligam." Proslogiitm, 
prooemium. c. 1, in MIGNE, CLVIII, 227. 

5. Champions of rationalism in the eleventh century. Berengar 
of Tours (999-1088), a product of the schools of Chartres, and his 
position on transubstantiation. Roscelin of Compiegne (died 1106). 
His trial at the council of Soissons in 1093 on a charge of tritheism. 

6. Byzantine influences in the west in the eleventh century. 
Michael Psellos, 1018-1079, the famous savant of Constantinople. 
Interest in Greek in the west. 

7. The end of the eleventh century is the most important turn- 
ing point in the intellectual history of the middle ages. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

General surveys. TAYLOR, Mediaeval mind-, I, chs. xi-xni. 
SANDYS, A history of classical scholarship, I, ch. xxvn. LAVISSE, 
Histoire de France, II, part II, 184-198. M. GRABMANN, Die Ge- 
schichte der scholastischen Methode, I, 215-339. H. REUTER, Ge- 
schichte der religiosen Aufklarung im Mittelalter, I, 5-136. A. 



THE ELEVENTH CENTURY 381 

HARNACK, Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichtc, 4th edition, 111, 363- 
367, 379-410 (vol. VI, 32-36, 45-83 in the English translation, 
.1 hi* ton/ of do 1 1 ma). 

Schools of Chartres, CLERVAL, Les ecoles des Chartres, 30-142, 
is the standard account. 

Anselm. The best short account is in C. C. J. WEBB, Studies 
in the history of natural religion, part III, no. 2. GRABMANN, 
Geschichte des scholastischen Methode, I, 258-339, is a very authori- 
tative analysis. Following are some biographies in English. R. W. 
( IH-RCH, Life of St. Anselm, New York, 1905. A. C. WELCH, Anselm 
and his work, New York, 1901. J. M. RIGO, S. Anselm of Canterbury, 
London, 1896. M. RULE, Life and times of St. Anselm of Canter- 
bury, London, 1883. 

Michael Psellos. KRUMBACHER, Geschichte der byzantinischen 
I.itirntur. lind edition, 433-444 (see also 79-80). SANDYS, A his- 
tory of classical .scholarship, I, ch. xxm. 

Original sources. ST. ANSELM, Proslogium, etc., translated by 
S. N. DEANE, Chicago, 1903. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. The general histories of philosophy, nos. 822- 
836, above are especially useful. Among the books on the church, 
the encyclopaedias, nos. 104-114 above, and the histories of dogma, 
nos. 472-478 above, are the most serviceable. See also outline XV, 
of part II, above. 

General accounts. C. PFISTER, Etudes sur le regne de Robert le 
Pieux, 300-350, "Histoire de l'6glise sous le regne de Robert"; to 
be followed by A. FLICHE, Le regne de Philippe I er roi de France 
(1060-1108). A. DRESDNER, Kultur- und Sittengeschichte der itdlien- 
(lfi.itli<-lik-i it. J. A. ENDRES, "Ueber den Ursprung und die 
Kut wicki'liing <ler schblastischen Lehrmethode, " in Philosophisches 
Jiihrhiicli, II, 1. K. A. SCHMID, Geschichte der Erziehung, I, part I, 
J:;L' 258. 

Ivo of Chartres. P. FOURNIER, "Les collections canoniques 
attributes a Yves de Chartres," in Bibliothhjue de I'fcolc de 
chartes, LVII (1896), 645-698; LVIII (1897), 26-77, 293-326, 410- 
444, 624-676 (also printed separately, Paris, 1897). See also 
his "Yves de Chartres et le droit canonique, " in Sevue den 
question* lii'.-turn/m'tt, LXIII (1898), 51-98, 384-405. A. FOUCAULT, 
Essai sur Yves de Chartres </'<//" >'* .>! <-orrtxi>oit<l<i<cr, Chnrtres, 1883. 
These letters have been translated into French, Lettres de xnint 
Iri-x. ';",///, <lr ciiiii-tns. trailiiitcs et . annote'es, by L. MKKI.KT. 
Chartres, 1 vs.',. I,. SCHMIDT, !><r Inili,/, Ivo, Bischof von Chartrea, 
Vienna, 1911. 



:1M MEDIEVAL CULTURE PABTIII 

Bee. A. POREE, L'abbaye du Bee et ses ecoles (1045-1790), 
Paris, 1892; see also his article, "L'ecole du Bee et Saint Anselme, " 
in Eevue de philosophic, XV (1909), 618-638. 

Reason versus faith. J. A. ENDRES, "Die Dialektiker und ihre 
Gegner in 11 Jahrhundert, " in Philosophisches Jahrbuch, (1906), 
20-33. E. BEURLIER, ' ' Les rapports de la raison et de la f oi dans 
la philosophic de Saint Anselme, ' ' in Eevue de philosophic, XV 
(1909), 692-723. C. MOLINIER, "L'hSresie et la persecution au XI 6 
siecle, " in Eevue des Pyrenees, IV (1894). 

Peter Damian. B. BIRON, St. Pierre Damien. J. A. ENDRES, 
Petrus Damiani und die weltliche Wissenschaft, in Beitrage zur 
Geschichte der Philosophic des Mittelalters, VIII (1910), no. 3. 
L. KUHN, Petrus Damiani und seine Anschauungen iiber Staat und 
Kirche, Karlsruhe, 1913 (dissertation). 

Othloh of St. Emmeran, J. A. ENDRES, " Otloh's von St. Em- 
meran Verhaltniss zu den freien Kiinsten, insbesondere zur Dia- 
lektik," in Philosophisches Jahrbuch, XVII (1904), 44, 72, and XIX 
(1906). 

Manegold of Lautenbach. J. A. ENDRES, "Manegold von Lau- 
tenbach modernorum magister magistrorum," in Historisches Jahr- 
buch, XXV (1904), 168-176. 

Lanfranc. J. DE CROZALS, Lanfranc archeveque de Cantorbery: 
sa me, son enseignement, sa politique, Paris, 1877. N. TAMASSIA, 
' ' Lanfranc arcivescovo di Canterbury e la scuola Pavese, ' ' in 
Melanges Fitting, vol. II. P. MOIRAGHI, Lanfranco da Pavia, 
Padua, 1889. 

Anselm. E. C. E. DOMET DE VORGES, Saint Anselme, Paris, 1901 
(Les grandes philosophes) ; see also his article, "Le milieu philo- 
sophique a 1'epoque de Saint Anselme," in Eevue de philosophic, 
XV (1909), 605-617. A. DUFOURCQ, "Saint Anselme: son temps, 
son role," ibid., 593-604. L. VIGNA, San Anselmo filosofo, Milan, 
1899. P. EAGEY, Histoire de St. Anselme, 2 vols., Paris, 1890. A. 
VAN WEDDINGEN, Essai critique sur la philosophic de St. Anselme 
Cantorbery, Brussels, 1875. E. DUMMLER, Anselm der Peripatetiker, 
Halle, 1872. C. DE BEMUSAT, Saint Anselme de Cantorbery, Paris, 
1853. The issue of December, 1909, of the Eevue de Philosophic 
was devoted entirely to Anselm on the occasion of the eighth cen- 
tenary of his death. 

Roscelin. F. PICAVET, Eoscelin philosophe et theologien d'apres 
la legende et d'apres I'histoire, Paris, 1896, 2nd edition, 1911. ALD- 
HOCH, "Eoscelin und St. Anselme," in Philosophisches Jahrbucl 
(1907), 422-456, 



THE ELEVENTH CENTURY 383 

Berengar. R. HEURTEVENT, Durand de Troarn et les origines 
de I'heresie berengarienne, Paris, 1912. J. EBERSOLT, Essai sur 
KI i- ,l> Tours et la contravene sacramentaire au XI e siccle, 
Paris, 1903 (extract from the Revue de I'histoire des religions). 
.1. S< IIMTZER, Berengar von Tours, Munich, 1891. W. BROECKINO, 
Bischof Eusebius Bruno von Angers uml Berengar von Tours," in 
I>> titxrht /titxchrift fiir Geschichtstcussenschaft, XII (1895), 344. 

Original sources. Most of the works of authors mentioned in 
this outline are to be found in no. 953 above. Berengarius Tv.ro- 
doi.M.v, nder eine Sammlung ihn betreffender Briefe, edited by H. 

SlDK.NDOKK. Cutha, 1850. 

Bibliographies. The best bibliography will be found in the 
footnotes of GRABMANN, Geschichte der scholastischen Methode, I, 
215-339. 



PERIOD II. 1100-1300 



XII. THE TWELFTH AND THIRTEENTH CENTURIES IN 

THE HISTORY OF CULTURE 

A. OUTLINE 

1. The recent appreciation of the sudden advancement of civili- 
zation in western Europe beginning with the close of the eleventh 
century. Unfortunately this movement is now quite generally 
called "The twelfth century renaissance." 

2. Relations of the culture of the twelfth and thirteenth cen- 
turies to that of the "renaissance" of the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries. See outline XXXIII in part II above. 

3. In the twelfth century the chief movements which mark 
the beginning of a new era in European history were well under 
way. See outline XIX of part II above. 

4. The importance of the thirteenth century in the history of 
culture. Recent glorification of that century. Comparison with 
the nineteenth century. 

5. Importance of the medieval university as the embodiment 
of a new intellectual era. 

6. France, especially northern France, was the center of this 
progressive movement which laid the basis of modern European 
civilization. In this era Paris was beginning to be the metropolis 
of Europe. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 
"The twelfth century renaissance." H. RASHDALL, The universi- 
ties of Europe in the middle ages, 2 vols., Oxford, 1895, I, ch. II, 
' ' Abelard and the renaissance of the twelfth century. " D. C. 
MUNRO, "The renaissance of the twelfth century," in the Annual 
report of the American historical association, 1906, vol. I, 43-50. 
H. O. TAYLOR, "Antecedents of the quattrocento," ibid., 1912, 89- 
94. MUNRO and SELLERY, Medieval civilization, enlarged edition, 
474-490. C. V. LANGLOIS, Questions d'histoire et d'enseignement, 
Paris, 1902, 13-17. A. O. NORTON, Eeadings in the history of edu- 
cation: mediaeval universities, 4-12. M. GRABMANN, Die Geschichte 
der scholastischen Methode, vol. II, Einleituhg, "Die Signatur des 



PARIS 

12 Jahrhunderts. " G. ROBERT, Les Scales et I'enseignement de la 
thtologie pendant la premiere moitie du XII e siecle, Paris, 1909, 1-7. 
B. GROCHE, Beitrage zur Geschichte einer Renaissancebewegung bei 
den deutschen Schrifstellern im IS Jahrhundert, Halle, 1910. Similar 
conditions in the Byzantine empire are described by K. KRUM- 
BACHER, Geschichte der byzantinischen Literatur, 2nd edition, 15ff. 
The thirteenth century. F. HARRISON, The meaning of history, 
ch. v, "A survey of the thirteenth century." MUNRO and SELLERY, 
Medieval civilization, enlarged edition, 458-473, "The intellectual 
movement of the thirteenth century," adapted from LAVISSE, Hi- 
toire de France, III, part II, 387-416. LECOY DE LA MARCHE, La 
chaire franc,aise au moyen age, specialement au XIHe sifde, Paris, 
1886, 467-492. P. MANDONNET, "La crise scolaire au d6but du XIII* 
siecle," in Revue d'histoire ecclesiastique, XV (1914), 3449. J. J. 
WALSH, The thirteenth, greatest of centuries, New York, 1907, 4th 
edition, reprinted with additions, 1912, is addressed to Roman 
Catholics and not to the world of scholarship as a whole. 



XIII. THE CITY OF PARIS IN THE MIDDLE AGES 
A. OUTLINE 

1. Saccrdotium, Imperium, Studium. During the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries Paris was par excellence the seat of the 
Stndium. Recent transformations in Paris which have almost 
entirely obliterated the monuments of the medieval city. 

2. The site of Paris. Physical geography of the region. The 
Seine and its islands. St. Denis. 

3. The development of Paris into the capital of France. Ancient 
Roman Lutetia. Caesar 's presence there in 53 B.C. The revolt of 
the Parixii. Julian, "the Apostate," spent the winters 357-868 
and 359-360 in Lutetia. Remains of Roman buildings, especially 
the Thermae (H&tel de Cluny). Clovis made Paris his capital. 
During Merovingian times Paris remained the chief city in Neu- 
stria, and maintained its importance even under Charles Martel 
and Pepin. Charlemagne made Aix-la-Chapelle his capital. With 
the Norman sicgi- in 885, and the elevation of Odo as king, Paris 
again became important. Since the accession of Hugh Capet in 
987 Paris has been, without interruption, the capital of France. 

4. Topography of mriliovnl Paris. The grand divisions: Ville, 
Cite 1 , University. The Petit Pont and the Grand Pont. The wall 
of Philip Augustus, built about 1210. 



386 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART m 

5. The Cite. The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris. Parvis 
Notre Dame. Palais Episcopal. Hotel-Dieu. Palais Eoyal. Sainte 
Chapelle. The Jewry. 

6. The right bank of the Seine. Louvre. Grand Chatelet. St. 
Germain 1'Auxerrois. St. Jacques. St. Martin des Champs. The 
Temple. St. Antoine. Place de Greve. 

7. The left bank. The Latin Quarter. St. Genevieve ("the 
hill"). Saint-Germain-des Pres. Pre-aux-Clercs. St. Victor. Les 
Bernardins. Houses of the Jacobins (Dominicans) and the Fran- 
ciscans. St. Severin. St. Julian le Pauvre. Petit Chatelet. Rue 
du Fouarre. The Sorbonne. 

8. The business and social life of Paris in the middle ages. 

9. Aspect of Paris in the time of Abelard 'and William of Cham- 
peaux, at the beginning of the twelfth century. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

Paris as an historic city. F. HARRISON, The meaning of history, 
368-436, "Paris as an historic city" and "The transformation of 
Paris. ' ' G. MONOD, ' ' Le role de Paris dans la France du moyen 
age," in Revue historique, CXIX (1915), 77-85. 

General accounts. M. POETE, L'enfance de Paris, Paris, 1908, 
chs. ix-xm; see also his "Les sources de 1'histoire de Paris et les 
historiens de Paris," in Bevue bleue, 5th series, IV (1905), 657- 
660, 693-695. T. OKEY, The story of Paris, London, 1906 (Mediaeval 
towns). P. CORNU, Histoire de Paris, I, Paris depuis la periode gallo- 
romaine jusqu'd la fin du XlVe siecle, Paris, 1901, is a series of 24 
lantern slides with descriptive text. See also the articles on Paris 
in nos. 96, 98 and 104 above, which is especially good for the 
churches in Paris. 

Pictorial history of Paris, T. J. H. HOFFBAUER, Paris a trovers 
les ages, 2 vols., 2nd edition, Paris, 1885. 

Paris in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. L. HALPHEN, Paris 
soils les premiers Capetiens (987-1223) : etude de topographie histori- 
que, Paris, 1909, with an Album de planches, in which see espe- 
cially plate II, ' ' Plan de Paris sous Philippe Auguste. ' ' L. BOUTIE, 
Paris au temps de saint Louis, Paris, 1911. L. OLSCHKI, Paris nach 
den altfranzosischen nationalen Epen: Topographie, StadtgeschirJite 
und locale Sagen, Heidelberg, 1913, with 4 plans; see also his Der 
ideale Mittelpunlct Franlcreichs im Mittelalter in Wirl'lichkeit und 
Dichtung, Heidelberg, 1913. A. SPRINGER, Paris im 13 Jahrhundert, 
Leipzig, 1856 (contains a plan), translated freely into French by 
V. FOUCHER, Paris au XHIe siecle, Paris, 1860. See also the few 
pages of description in J. McCABE, Peter Abelard, New York, 1901, 
20-25. 



PARIS 387 

Guide-books for Paris. K. BAEDEKER, Paris and environs: hand- 
book for travellers, 18th revised edition, Leipzig and New York, 
1913. MARQUIS DE ROCHEGUDE, Guide pratique a trovers le vieux 
Paris, 4th edition, Paris, 1907. A. J. C. HARE, Paris, 2 vols., Lon- 
don [n. d.]. MARIA H. LANSDALE, Paris: its sites, monuments and 
history, compiled from the principal secondary authorities, Phila- 
delphia, 1898. MABELL S. C. SMITH, Twenty centuries of Paris, New- 
York, 1913. 

Paris in fiction. H. DE BALZAC, Les Proscrits (written 1831), 
in his Oeuvres completes XVI, Paris, 1870, 657-687 (a story about 
Dante in Paris in 1308) ; and VICTOR HUGO, Notre Dame de Paris 
(written 1830), book III (an attempt to picture Paris as it was in 
1482). 

Original sources. ' ' Deux 61oges de la ville de Paris, ' ' composed 
in 1323 by JEAN DE JANDUN and an anonymous called "DICTATOR," 
Latin text with a French translation on opposite pages, in Paris 
et sat liifitnrii us aux XIV* et XV e siecles, edited by A. J. V. LE Roux 
DE LINCY and L. M. TISSERAND, Paris, 1867 (Histoire gene>ale de 
Paris), pp. 1-79. 

Plans. SHKI-HERD, Atlas, 149. P. VIDAL DE LA BLACHE, Atlas 
generale, new edition, 46b. More detailed maps and plans are 
indicated in the bibliography below. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. See the bibliography under outline XXV in 
part II above. The special literature on 'the university of Paris, 
midrr outline XXII below, is essential for a knowledge of Paris 
in the middle ages. 

General histories of Paris. Histoire generale de Parti, published 
by authority of the municipality, Paris, 1866ff. (about 40 large 
vols.. in 1917), is the fundamental work on the history of Paris. 
Next in importance are the publications of the Socite' de 1'histoire 
ilc Paris et de 1'Ile de France, namely, the Bulletin, Paris, 1874ff.; 
the Memoires, Paris, 1874ff.; and the Documents, Paris, 1874ff., 
which are not numbered (vol. XVI appeared in 1909). Abb6 
LEBEUF, Histoire de la ville et de tout le diocese de Paris, 15 vols., 
I'uris, 1754-1758, new edition in 3 vols. by H. COCHERIS, Paris, 
1865-1867 (incomplete, but valuable for its notes), another edition 
by A. AUUIER, 6 vols., Paris, 1883; to be supplemented by Rectifica- 
tions et additions by F. BOURNOU, Paris, 1890-1901, and by Dom 
BEAUNIER, La France monastique, vol. I, Paris, 1905. JAILLOT, 
/,'< , //. ;</( .s criUqnrx, historiques et topoarapliiques sur la ville de 
Paris, 5 vols., Paris, 1772-1774, new edition, 1782. H. SAUVAL, 



388 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

Histoire et recherches des antiquites de la ville de Paris, 3 vols., 
Paris, 1724. M. FELIBIEN and G. A. LOBINEAU, Histoire de la ville 
de Paris, 5 vols., Paris, 1725. A. CHRISTIAN, Etudes sur le Paris 
d'autrefois, 6 vols., Paris, 1904-1907, are interesting popular 
volumes. H. RAMIN, Notre tres vieux Paris, Paris, 1909. E. DE 
MENORVAL, Ports [des origines a 1715], 3 vols., Paris, 1889-1897. 
E. FOURNIER, Paris-capitale, Paris, 1881. E. CLOUZOT, "Les inonda- 
tions a Paris du VP au XX* siecle, " in La Geographic, XXIII 
(1911), 81-100. G. PESSARD, Nouveau dictionnaire historique de 
Paris, Paris, 1904, is not as accurate as it should be. 

Topography and archaeology of medieval Paris. A. BERTY, 
H. LEGRAND, and others, Topographic historique du vieux Paris, 6 
vols., Paris, 1866-1897, in Histoire generale de Paris. Statistique 
monumentale de Paris, edited by A. LENOIR, 2 folio vols., and 1 
quarto volume containing explanation of plates, Paris, 1867, part 
of no. 965 above. C. NORMAND, Nouvel itineraire guide artistique 
et archeologique de Paris, published by the Societe des amis des 
monuments Parisiens, vols. I-II, Paris, 1889-1894. F. DE GUIL- 
HERMY, Description archeologique des monuments de Paris, 2nd edi- 
tion, Paris, 1856. J. Du BREUL, Le theatre des antiquites de Paris, 
Paris, 1612. A. BONNARDOT, "Iconographie du vieux Paris," in 
Sevue universelle des arts, vols. II-XII and XIX, Paris 1855-1860 
and 1864. G. EIAT, Paris, Paris, 1907 (Les villes d'art celebres). 
G. SCHMIDT and G. EIAT, Paris: eine Geschichte seiner Kunstdenk- 
mdler, vom Altertum bis auf unsere Tage, Leipzig, 1912 (Beriihmte 
Kunststatten, 6). E. HESSLING, Le vieux Paris: recueil de vues de 
ses monuments, vol. I, Moyen age, Berlin, [1906]. ,See also no. 299 
above. 

Plans of old Paris. The essential publication is the Atlas des 
anciens plans, de Paris, Paris, 1880, 3rd edition, 3 vols., 1900, in 
Histoire generale de Paris. A. FRANKLIN, Les anciennes plans de 
Paris: notices historiques et topographiques, 2 vols., Paris, 1878- 
1880. A. BONNARDOT, Etudes archeologiques sur les anciens plans 
de Paris des XVI*, XVII* et XVIIIe siecles, Paris, 1851; see also 
his Dissertations archeologiques sur les anciennes enceintes de Paris, 
3 vols., Paris, 1852-1877. 

Streets of Paris, E. FOURNIER, Promenade historique dans les 
rues de Paris, new edition, Paris, 1894; see also his Chroniques et 
legendes des rues de Paris, new edition, Paris, 1893; his Enigmes 
des rues de Paris, new edition, Paris, 1892; and his Histoire des 
enseignes de Paris, Paris, 1884. E. BEAUREPAIRE, Paris d'hier et d'au- 
jourd'hui: la chronique des rues de Paris, Paris, 1900. E. DE MEXOR- 
VAL, Promenades a travers Paris, Paris [1897]. 



PARIS 389 

Notre Dame. A. MARTY, L'histoire de Notre-Dame de Paris 
d'apres les estampes, Paris, 1907, contains 100 plates together with 
an introduction and bibliographical notes. M. AUBERT, La cathe- 
drale Notre-Dame-de-Paris, Paris, 1909. C. HIATT, Notre Dame de 
Paris: a short history and description of the cathedral, with some 
account of the churches which preceded it, London, 1902. V. MORTET, 
Etude historique et archeologique sur la cathedrale et le palais epis- 
copale de Paris du VI? au XI I e siecle, Paris, 1888; see also his Notes 
historiques et archeologiques sur la cathedrale et de palais episcopal 
de Paris, Paris, 1903-1905 (three pamphlets). F. L. CHARTIER, 
L'ancien chapitre de Notre-Dame-de-Paris et sa maitrise, d'apres des 
documents capitulaires (1326-1790), Paris, 1897. G. D'AVENEL, Les 
eveqa.es et archeveques de Paris, depuis saint Denis jusqu'd, nos jours, 
avec des documents inedits, 2 vols., Paris, 1876, is untrustworthy. 

Other ecclesiastical establishments. W. LOUERGAN, Historic 
churches of Paris, London, 1896. 8. SOPHIA BEALE, The churches of 
Paris from Clovis to Charles X, London, 1893. G. DUBOIS, Historia 
ecclesiae Parisiensis', 2 vols., Paris, 1690-1710. H. L. BORDIER (ed.), 
Les eglises et monastcres de Paris: pieces en prose et en vers des IX e , 
Mil*- et XlVe siecles, Paris, 1856. C. DESMAZE, La Sainte Chapelle 
du Palais de Justice de Paris, Paris, 1873. 8. J. MORAND, Histoire 
de la Sainte Chapt-he royale du Palais, Paris, 1790. A. LE BRUN, 
L'eglise Naiiil-.lnlicn le Pauvre : d'apres les historiens et des docu- 
ini'iitH inedits, Paris, 1889. P. FERET, L'abbaye de Sainte-Genevieve 
et la congregation de France, 2 vols., Paris, 1883; see also GIARD, 
' ' Etude sur 1 'histoire de 1 'abbaye de Sainte-Genevieve de Paris 
jusqu'a la fin du XIII' siecle," in Memoires de la Societe de I'his- 
toire de Paris, XXX (1903), 41-126. J. BOUILLART, Histoire de 
I'abbaye royale de Saint-Germain-des-Pres, Paris, 1724. FOURIER- 
BONNARD, Histoire de I'abbaye royale et de I'ordre des chanoines 
ri'iitliers de Saint-Victor de Paris, first period (1113-1500), Paris 
[1904]. See also no. 460 above. 

Hospitals. Hotel Dieu. E. COYECQUE, L'Hotel-Dieu de Paris 
au moycn age: histoire et documents, Paris, 1889-1891 (Documents 
de la Soci6t6 de 1'histoire de Paris). Archives tic l'Hot<-l-IHi u <l> 
Paris (1157-1SOO), edited by L. BRIELE and E. COYECQUE. Paris, 
1894, part of no. 966 above. A. CHEVAUER, L'Hotcl-Dieu de Paris 
et les soeurs Augustine* (650-1810), Paris, 1901. L. BRIELE, Notes 
pour servir d 1'histoire de l'H6tel-Dieu de Paris, Paris, 1870 (extract 
from 1 'Union me'dicale). L. BRIELE, L'Hopital de Sainte -Catherine 
en la rue Saint-Denis (1184-1790), Paris, 1890. 

Chatelet. L. BATIFFOL, "Le Chatelet de Paris vers 1400," in 
historique, LX1 (1896), 225-264; LX1I (1896), 225-235, 



390 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

LXIII (1897), 42-55, 266-283, treats of the period from the 
eleventh to the fifteenth century. A. DE BOUARD, Etudes de diplo- 
matique sur les actes des notaires du Chdtclet de Paris, Paris, 1911, 
part 186 of no. 888 above. 

Economic and social life in Paris. A. FRANKLIN, La vie privee 
au temps des premiers Capetiens, 2 vols., 2nd edition., Paris, 1911, 
in particular; and in general, La vie privee d'autrefois: arts et 
metiers, modes, moeurs, usages des Parisiens du XI I e au XVIII s 
siecle, 27 vols., Paris, 1887-1902. A. FRANKLIN, Dictionnaire his- 
torique des arts, metiers et professions exerces dans Paris depuis le 
treizieme siecle, with a preface by E. LEVASSETJE, Paris, 1906. G. 
HUISMAN, La jurisdiction de la municipality Parisienne de Saint 
Louis a Charles VII, Paris, 1912 (Bibliotheque d'histoire de Paris), 
see the bibliography, pp. vii-xiii. A. FRANKLIN, Les corporations 
ouvrieres de Paris du XII s au XVIII s siecle, Paris, 1885. W. GALLION, 
Der Ursprung der Ziinfte in Paris, Berlin and Leipzig, 1910 
(Abhandlungen zur mittleren und neueren Geschichte, 24). E. 
PICARDA, Les marchands de I'eau: Hanse Parisienne et compagnie 
frangaise, Paris, 1901, part 134 of no. 888 above. G. GUILMOTO, 
Etudes sur les droits de navigation de la Seine de Paris a la Boche- 
Guyon au XI au XVIIIe siecle, Paris, 1889. See also the literature 
which pertains to France under outline XXVI in part II above, 
where the editions of the Lime des metiers of ETIENNE BOILEAU 
are indicated under "Original sources." 

Jews in Paris. L. KAHN, Les juifs a Paris depuis le VI p - siecle, 
Paris, 1889. For general histories on the Jews see nos. 850-884 
above. 

Original sources. Most of the printed source material for the 
history of Paris is to be found in the Histoire general de Paris, the 
Publications of the Societe de 1'histoire de Paris, and in nos. 965 
and 966 above. The following collections deserve particular men- 
tion. Cartulaire generale de Paris, 528-1180, edited by E. DE LAS- 
TEYRIE, vol. I (528-1180), Paris, 1887, in Histoire generale de Paris. 
Documents inedits sur 1'histoire de France Paris sous Philippe le 
Bel, edited by H. GERAUD, Paris, 1837, contains a good plan by the 
architect LENOIR, part 34 of no. 965 above. Cartulaire de Notre- 
Dame de Paris, 4 vols., edited by B. GUERARD, Paris, 1850, part of 
no. 965 above. Eecueil des chartes de I'abbaye de Saint-Germain- 
des-Pres, des origines au debut du XHIe siecle, edited by E. Pou- 
PARDIN, vol. I, Paris, 1909, vol. XVI part I of Documents of the 
Societe de 1'histoire de Paris. Eecueil de chartes et documents de 
Saint-M artin-les-Champs : monastere Parisien, edited by J. DEPOIN, 
vol. I-II, Paris, 1912-1913 (Archives de la France monastique, 



ABELAKD AND BERNARD 391 



XI II- XI V.i. Hi'-ni'l </.s chartes de I'abbaye royalc de Monlmartre, 
edited liv E. DE BARTHLEMY, Paris, 1883. Inscriptions de la France 
du F siecle au XVIII e ancien diocese de Paris, edited by F. DE 
(irn.MERMY and R. DE LASTEYRIE, 5 vols., Paris, 1873-1863. For the 
important Chartularium unirersitatis Parisiensis see outline XXII 
below. 

Bibliographies. M. BAKROUX, Kssai de biblioflraphie critique des 

nilitt'x ili- I'hititoire de Paris, Paris, 1908, is the most essential 

bibliography, to be supplemented by the "Bibliographic" pub- 

lished since 1898 in the Bulletin of the Societ6 de 1'histoire de 

Paris. Bibliotheque historique de la ville de Paris, at no. 29 Rue 

de 8e\'ign6, is a large public library exclusively for books and 

materials on the history of Paris. The activity of the municipality 

of Paris in furthering the study of the history of the city is 

report oil in HuUttin de la bibliothequc et des travaux historiques, 

published by the Ville de Paris under the direction of M. POETE, 

i, I'.Hiiitr. s,.,. especially G. HENRIOT and J. DE LA MONXERAYE, 

rtoirc <li'.<< trnraux publics par les sociltts d'hi&toire de Paris 

ili'imix loir foinliition jtutqu'au SI d6cembre 1911, Paris, 1914, in 

vols. VIII IX of this bulletin. E. CLOUZOT, Dtpouillcment d'inven- 

faircs et de catalogues, 3 vols., Paris, 1916, prepared for the Rtper- 

des sources manuscrits de I 'histoire de Paris, edited by M. 

POETE. See also nos. 17, 21 and 26 above, and the Subject-index 

by FORTESCUE under no. 3 above. 



xiv. <;K<)\\TII OF A SPIRIT OF INQUIRY BASED ON LOGIC. 

ABELARD AND BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX 
A. OUTLINE 

1. Remark. -i Me interest in the twelfth century in logic or dia- 
lei tic, which had Keen comparatively unimportant in the schools 
of the early middle a^'es. It served as a stimulus to investigation 
and to independent thinking. 

2. Abelanl mid Bernard are types respectively of radical and 
rvative thought in the twelfth century. 

:: lYter Abelanl wjn born at Pallet in llrittany in 1079. His 
quest for knowledge led him to the school of Koscelin and then 
to Paris about linn. 

I. His checkered scholastic career. The encounter with William 

liampeaiix, 107(1 ll-'n, in the cathedral school of Paris. The 

ijiiestion of univcrsals. Nominalism and realism. A!>olard at 

Melun and Corbel I. lli> teaching on the hill of St. (Senevleve. He 



392 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

studied theology under Anselm of Laon. His love affair with 
Heloise about 1118. He became a monk at St. Denis. Popularity 
of his teaching in his hermitage near Rheinis. His trial for heresy 
at the council of Soissons, 1121. His hermitage near Troyes 
(-Paraclete). He aroused the antagonism of St. Norbert and St. 
Bernard of Clairvaux. Abelard as abbot of St. Gildas in Brittany. 
Back to Paris about 1136. Second trial for heresy at the council 
of Sens, 1141. Befriended by Peter the Venerable (died 1156), 
abbot of Cluny. Abelard died at St. Marcel lez Chalons, 1142. 

5. Abelard 's works. His famous Sic et non. The Scito te ipsum 
sen Ethica. Dialogus inter philosophum, judaeum et christianum. 
Theological and dialectical works. The Historia calamitatum. 

6. Abelard 's method and the degree of his rationalism. The 
question of the originality and influence of his sic-et-non method. 
"By doubting we are led to inquire; by inquiry we perceive the 
truth ' ' Sic et non, preface. 

7. The life and work of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, ca. 1090- 
1153, who embodied the ascetic spirit of the new monastic move- 
ment, and at the same time was a practical active statesman. His 
book On Consideration, and his Letters. His attitude towards secular 
learning, and his reliance on faith. 

8. The clash between Abelard and Bernard of Clairvaux. Bern- 
ard combatted heresy in all its forms. His visit to Aquitaine. 
His denunciation of Gilbert de la Porree and Arnold of Brescia as 
well as of Abelard. His diplomacy in connection with the trial 
of Abelard at Sens in 1141. The greatness of Bernard in his 
day contrasted with the ultimate failure of his ideals. 

9. Mysticism in this age of reason. The school of St. Victor. 
The mystic strain in Bernard of Clairvaux and his influence upon 
Hugh (1096-1141) and Richard of St. Victor (prior, 1162-1173). 

10. Conflicting opinions concerning the character and influence 
of Abelard who is popularly renowned as the founder of the 
university of Paris. The need of a new critical edition of his 
works. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 
Short general surveys. TAYLOR, Mediaeval mind, 2nd edition, I, 
ch. xvii, II, ch. xxxvu. LAVISSE, Histoire de France, II, part II, 
366-383. S. SWEETSER, ' ' Church theology and free inquiry in the 
twelfth century," in Bibliotheca sacra, XVII (1860), 43-64. 

Standard accounts. G. ROBERT, Les ecoles et I'enseignt mint <1>- 
la theologie pendant la premiere moitie au XII C siecle, Paris, 1909 
(ch. vn on Abelard). GRABMANN, Geschichte der scholastic / " 
Methode, vol. II (168-229 on Abelard). 



ABELARD AND BERNARD 393 

Abelard. Excellent short sketches of Abelanl are in POOLE, 
Illustration*, eh. v; and C. C. J. WEBB, Studies in the history of 
iintiinil religion, part III, no 3, "Abelanl." J. McCABE, Peter 
Abelard, New York, 1901, is the most stimulating biography. See 
also G. COMPAYRE, Abelard and the origin and early history of uni- 
i-irsities, London, 1893 (The great educators, 3). A. HOFMEISTER, 
"Studien iiber Otto von Freising, " in Neues Archiv, XXXVII 
(1912), 635-640, is a valuable contribution to our knowledge about 
Abelard. 

Is the Abelard-Heloise correspondence genuine? B. SCHMEIDLER, 
"Der Briefweehael zwischen Abalard und Heloise eine Falschung?" 
in Archie fiir Kulturgeschichte, XI (1913), 1-30 (see the references 
to the opinions of ORELLI, COUSIN, LALANNE, and PETRELLA in his 
notes). 

Bernard of Clalrvaux. The best short sketch is in LAVISSE, 
Uitttnin ill France, II, part II, 266-282 (translated in MUNRO and 
SELLERY, Medieval civilization, new edition, 406-431). The best 
authority on Bernard is E. VACANDARD, Vie de St. Bernard, abbe 
de Clairvaux, Paris, 1895, 4th edition, 2 vols., 1910; see also his 
.s'*M;i/ Bernard, Paris, 1904 (La Pensee chr6tienne). B. S. STORRS, 
lit ntard of Clairvaux, New York, 1892. J. C. MORISON, The life 
and time* of St. Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux, London, 1884, 2nd edi- 
tion, 1901. 

Original sources. For brief extracts from Abelard 's works see 
ROBINSON. licniliinis', I, 446-452. The Abelard-Heloise correspond- 
ence is analyzed and translated in pa/t by TAYLOR, Mediaeval mind, 
II, ch. xxv; see also Love letters of Abelard and Heloise in the 
Temple classics series. There is a recent German translation of 
the letters, including the Historia calamitatum, by W. FRED, Die 
Briefs von Abalard und Heloise, Leipzig, 1911. 

Some letters of St. Bernard, from the translation of Dr. EALES, 
sfli-i-ti-.l, with a preface, by F. A. GASQUET, London, 1904, furnish 
a convriiirtit introduction to the thought of Bernard and the 
reasons for his antagonism to Abelard. The complete works of S. 
Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux, translated into English from the edi- 
tion of I'om JOANNES MABILLON (Paris, 1690), by 8. J. EALES, 
vols., London, 1889-1896. Saint BERNARD'S work On Consideration 
has been translated by G. LEWIS, Oxford University Press, 1908. 

C. BIBLIOGRAIMIY 

General books. The general histories of philosophy, nos. 882- 
835 above, are most useful. See -[.<, i.-illy nos. 822, 829 and 833. 
The encyclopaedias for church history, nos. 104-114 above, are 
very helpful. See also no. 472 above. 



394 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PARTIH 

Abelard. The following are well-known biographies. E. KAISER, 
Pierre Abelard critique, Fribourg, 1901. S. M. DEUTSCH, Peter 
Abdlard: ein kritischer Theologe des 12 Jahrhunderts, Leipzig, 1883. 
A. HAUSRATH, Peter Abdlard, Leipzig, 1895 (Weltverbesserer, vol. 
1). C. F. M. DE REMUSAT, Abelard, 2 vols., Paris, 1845 (do not 
confuse with his drama, Abelard, 1877). The article by E. POR- 
TALIE, "Abelard," in I, 35-55 of no. 109 above, is noteworthy. 

Among the special studies the following deserve mention. R. 
DAHMEN, Darstellung der Abdlardschen Ethik, Munster, 1906 (dis- 
sertation). F. THANER, Abdlard und das canonische Becht, Graz, 
1900. B. HILLER, Abdlard als Ethiker, Erlangen, 1900 (disserta- 
tion). H. DENIFLE, "Die Sentenzen Abalards und die Bearbei- 
tungen seiner Theologia vor Mitte des 12 Jahrhunderts, ' ' in Archiv 
fur Literatur- und Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters, I (1885), 402- 
469, 484-624. F. PICAVET, Abelard et Alexandre de Hales: createurs 
de la methode scolastique, Paris, 1896 (Bibliotheque de 1'Ecole des 
hautes etudes, sciences religieuses, vol. VII, 1). F. v. BEZOLD, Cber 
die Anfdnge der Selbstbiographie im Mittelalter, Erlangen, 1893. B. 
GEYER, ' ' Die Stellung Abaelards in der Universalienf rage, ' ' in 
Supplementband (1913), 101-127, of no. 826 above. 

Bernard of Clairvaux. S. J. BALES, St. Bernard, abbot of 
Clairvaux, London, 1890 (Fathers for English readers). A. 
STEIGER, Der hi. Bernhard von Clairvaux: sein Urteil uber die Zeit- 
zustdnde, seine geschichtsphilosophische und kirchenpolitische An- 
schauung, Briinn, 1908. Comte D'HASSONVILLE, Saint Bernard, Paris, 
1906. A. NEANDER, Der heilige Bernhard und seine Zeitalter, new 
edition, Gotha, 1889, translated by M. WRENCH, The life and times of 
St. Bernard, London, 1843. G. HUFFER, Der heilige Bernhard von 
Clairvaux: eine Darstellung seines Lebens und Wirkens, vol. I, 
Munster, 1886. G. SALVAYRE, Saint Bernard: maitre de vie spiritu- 
elle, Avignon, 1910. G. CHEVALIER, Histoire de Saint Bernard, 2 
vols., Lille, 1888. G. HOFMEISTER, Bernhard von Clairvaux, Berlin, 
1889-1890 (Programm). J. RIES, Das geistliche Leben in seinen 
Entwicklungsstufen nach der Lehre des hi. Bernhard, Freiburg, 1906. 
C. NEUMANN, Bernhard von Clairvaux und die Anfdnge des sweiten 
Ereuzzuges, Heidelberg, 1882 (dissertation). J. THIEL, Die polit- 
ische Thdtigkeit des Bernhard von Clairvaux, Konigsberg, 1885 (dis- 
sertation). 

Abelard and Bernard. E. VACANDARD, Abelard: sa lutte urn- 
saint Bernard, sa doctrine, sa methode, Paris, 1881. RAGNISCO, "P. 
Abelardo e S. Bernardo di Chiaravalle: la cattedra ed il pulpito, 
esame di alcuni guidizi su Abelardo, come logico, moralista e 
teologo, " in Atti di. r. istit. Veneto di scieme, VIII, Venice, 1905. 



ABELARD AND BERNARD 395 

W. MEYER, "Die Anklagesatze des heiligen Bernhard gegen Aba- 
lard," in Nachrichtcn der kgl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften 
zu Gottingen, philol.-histor. Klasse, 1898, 397-468. S. M. DEUTSCH, 
Die Synode von Sens 1141, und die Verurteilung Abiilards, Berlin, 
1880. 

Faith and reason. T. HEITZ, Essai historique sur les rapports 
entre la philosophic et la foi de Berengar de Tours d S. Thomas 
d'Aquin, Paris, 1909. REUTER, Geschichte der religiosen Aufklarung, 
1, 183-259. 

William of Champeaux. G. LEFEVRE, Les variations de Guillaume 
de Champeaux et la question des universaux: etude suivie de docu- 
- originaux, Lille, 1898 (Travaux et m^moires de 1 'Universit6 
Lille, VI, iiH-nioire no. 20). E. MICHAUD, Guillaume de Champeaux 
et les ecoles de Paris, au XII siecle, 2nd edition, Paris, 1867. F. 
PICAVET, "Note sur 1'enseiguement de G. de Champeaux d'apres 
1'llistoria calamitatum d'AbSlard, " in Revue Internationale d'en- 
seignement, October, 1910. 

Peter the Venerable. M. DEMIMUID, Pierre le Venerable, Paris, 
1876, 2nd edition, 1895. 

Hugo of St. Victor. B. HAUREAU, Les oeuvres de Hugues de 
St.-Victor: essai critique, 2nd edition, Paris, 1886. A. MIQNON, Les 
oriiiines de la scolastique ct Hugues de Saint-Victor, 2 vols., Paris, 
1895. J. KIUJENSTEIN, Die Gotteslehre des Hugo von Saint-Victor, 
\Viir/burg, 1897 (dissertation). H. OSTLER, Die Psychologic des 
Hugo von St. Viktor, Miinster, 1906, part VI, 1, of no. 826 above. 
O. SCHMIDT, Hugo von St.-Victor als Pddagog, Meissen, 1893. Mgr. 
HUGONIN, Essai sur la fondation de I'ecote de St. Victor de Paris, 
Paris, 1879; also in MIGNE, P. L., CLXXV. See also TAYLOR, 
Mediaeval mind, 2nd edition, II, ch. xxix. 

Original sources. The works of Abelard are printed in MK.NK. 
no. 953 above. P. L., CLXXVI1I (a reprint of Petri Abelardi opera, 
edited by F. AMBOESIUS, Paris, 1616). Petri Abelardi Opera, 2 vols., 
I'uris, 1849-1859; and Outrages inedits d'Abelard, Paris, 1836, part 
of no. 965 above, both edited by V. COUSIN, whose introduction to 
tin- luttrr is valuable. Abaclards 1121 v Soissons verutheilter Trac- 
t at >i* ili \m\tntr it triintate divina: mit ciinr Kinleitung edited 
by R. HTMLZI.K, Freiburg, 1891. ABELARD 's Sic et non is edited 
separately by E. L. T. HENKE and G. 3. LINDENKOHL, Marburg, 1851. 
Tin- works of Bernhard are in vols. CLXXXII-CLXXXV of 
MKJNK. /'. /... no. 953 above. 

Bibliographies. Sut1i<-i<>nt bibliographical guidance will be found 
in nos. 822, 827, 830 above, nii'l in HKITZ, Essai historique 169-174; 
and ROBERT, Les ecolcs, ix-xvi. L. .IANACSCHKK, Bibliographia Ber- 
nardino, Vienna, 1891 (in Xenia Bernardino, 4). 



396 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PARTIII 

XV. THE NEW ARISTOTLE 
A. OUTLINE 

1. A momentous intellectual revolution was caused by the intro- 
duction of all the works of Aristotle into western Europe in the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Compare with Darwinism in 
the nineteenth century. 

2. The transmission of Aristotle's works to the twelfth century. 
The life and work of Aristotle (born at Stageirus in 384 B.C., and 
died at Chalcis in 322). History of the Aristotelian books to the 
time of Boethius. The translations and commentaries of Boethius. 
Knowledge of Aristotle in the Latin west during the early middle 
ages. Works of Aristotle known to Abelard. A good history of 
Aristotle ' ' a travers les ages ' ' unfortunately is still a desideratum. 

3. Mohammedans and Jews as transmitters of Greek philosophy 
to the west (see outline X above). Their famous commentaries. 
Byzantine influences (Michael Psellos and John Italos). 

4. Schools of translators in the west, especially in Sicily and 
Spain (Toledo). Eelative importance of translations from the 
Greek and Arabic. Value of these Latin translations. Decline 
of interest in Plato as Aristotle became more popular. 

5. The "New Logic." In the thirteenth century the curricula 
of universities distinguished between the "New" and "Old 
Logic." The "Old Logic" comprised the texts on logic which 
were in use in the schools before ca. 1128, namely, the Categories 
and On interpretation of Aristotle, the Isagoge of Porphyry and 
sometimes the Divisions and Topics of Boethius (the Six principles 
of Gilbert de la Porree are sometimes included). About 1128 the 
whole Organon of Aristotle became known in Latin translations. 
The "New Logic" comprised his Prior and Posterior analytics, the 
Topics and the Sophistical refutations. Even these new logical 
books of Aristotle created a great stir in the schools. James of 
Venice. Henricus Aristippus of Catania (died 1162). 

6. The New Aristotle par excellence was introduced towards the 
close of the twelfth and in the beginning of the thirteenth century 
and consisted of Aristotle 's books on moral and natural philosophy 
and metaphysics, namely, the Ethics, Physics, Meteorics, On the 
heavens and the earth, On generation and destruction, On animals, 
the "Parva naturalia," and the Metaphysics. 

7. Famous translators of the New Aristotle. From the Arabic: 
Gerard of Cremona (died 1187), Michael Scot (died before 1235), 
Hermann the German (ca. 1250). From the Greek: William of 
Moerbeke (ca. 1215-1286), archbishop of Corinth, 1278-1286, trans- 
lated for St. Thomas Aquinas. 






THE NEW ARISTOTLE 397 

8. Reception of the New Aristotle in the universities, especially 
the university of Paris. The prohibitions of 1210 and 1215. In 
!_". 1 pope Gregory IX appointed a committee of three to purge 
the condemned books of Aristotle. Evidence that the books were 
read quite openly in Paris, 1230-1255, in spite of the ban. In 
lL'."i") the faculty of arts in Paris prescribed the forbidden books. 

9. Various ways in which Aristotle was regarded in the thir- 
teenth century. Mental ferment caused by his writings. Tendency 
toward heresies. Averroism. 

10. Unconditional acceptance of Aristotle as presented to the 
scholastic world by Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas (see 
outline XVII above). Aristotle became "The Philosopher" among 
the Christians as he was among the Mohammedans. Ineffective 
protests of the "Oxford school" (see outline XXI below). 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

Life and works of Aristotle. For brief sketches see nos. 96, 
98, 104 above. UEBERWEG, no. 822 above, and CROISSET, Histoire 
<li la litfi'nitiire greque, IV, ch. XI (or the Abridged history, 335- 
349), furnish accurate details. 

K. ZELLER. Aristotle and the earlier Peripatetics, translated from 
the German, 2 vols., London, 1897. G. GROTE, Aristotle, 2 vols., 
London, 1872, new edition, 1880. R. SHUTE, On the history of the 
firm-ixx hi/ u-liifh the Aristotelian writings arrived at their present 
form: an ixsay, Oxford, 1883, is a post-humous work. C. PIAT, 
f. Paris, 1903 (Les grands philosophes). H. SlEBECK, Aris- 
x. Stuttgart, 1899 (Frommanns Klassiker der Philosophic, 8). 
A. K. TAYLOK. .In.-iullr. London [n.d.] (The peoples' books). 

Short surveys of Aristotle in the middle ages. KASHDAU.. Tin 
iininrxitiix of Knropi . 1, 351-368. TAYLOR, Mediaeval mind, II, ch. 
xxxviii. SANDYS, A history of classical scholarship, T, ch. XXX. DE 
Wn.K. //>>/. ./)/ i,f nnili'iiil philosophy, 243-253. NORTON, Eeadimjx 
in (In hixtnrtf <>f i iliii'otinn : mediacral iinirt rxitii \. 4049. G. II. 
Li'QfKT. .Iriatnli- it l'nnivcrsit de Paris pendant !< XIII 1 ' 
l':iris. HUH (;ilsn in HililiothiVnio do 1'Kcolo dos hnutes eludes, 
rolijjioiisrs. XVI, 2). Brother AzARIAS. Aristotle and thr Christian 
church: tm issnii. London, 1888. P. FERKT. I.a faciiltt' ,1, tln'-ilni/i, ,h- 
/VM-I.V: ninii'ii u-n. 4 vols.. I'aris, 1S94 1K<7, II, 107 l'J9. L. TRATHK. 
l-'inli iiiniii in ili lull nnxi In riiili'lniiii ih .s M itttliiltirs. Munii'h. I'.Ml. 
vol. II of his K : nli itiinii in <lii Inti ini.iche Philoloii" ilix .\filti lulti rx. 
T. 1 1 KIT/.. l-'.xMii liixtttrii/iii xiir lix rui>i>nrts iiitn In philo- 
sophic et la foi, especially, 87-91. 



398 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PARTIII 

Standard accounts on the New Aristotle. The best treatment 
is in P. MANDONNET, Siger de Brabant et L'Averroisme latin au 
XHIe siccle, Fribourg, 1899, second edition, Louvain, vol. I (1911), 
vol. II (1908), I, chs. i-n. It should be supplemented by C. H. 
HASKINS, "A list of text-books from the close of the twelfth cen- 
tury," in Harvard studies in classical philology, XX (1909), 75- 
94; C. H. HASKINS and D. P. LOCKWOOD, "The Sicilian translators 
of the twelfth century and the first Latin versions of Ptolemy's 
Almagest," ibid., XXI (1910), 75-102; C. H. HASKINS, "Further 
notes on Sicilian translators of the twelfth century," ibid., XXIII 
(1913), 155-166; and his "Mediaeval versions of the Posterior 
analytics," ibid., XXV (1914), 87-105; P. DUHEM, "Du temps 
ou la scolastique latine a connu la physique d'Aristote," in 
Revue de philosophic, XV (1909), 163-178; and, for the "New 
Logic," M. GRABMANN, Die Geschichte der scholastischen Methode, 
I, 64-81; A. HOFMEISTER, "Studien iiber Otto von Freising, " in 
Neues Archiv, XXXVII (1912), 654-681; and CLERVAL, Les ecoles 
des Chartres, 222, 244ff., and see his index under "Aristote. " 

Michael Scot. J. W. BROWN, An inquiry into the life and legend 
of Michael Scot, Edinburgh, 1897. 

Original sources. Aristotle's Works, translated into English 
under the editorship of J. A. SMITH and W. D. Boss, London, 
1910ff. (in progress), deserve particular mention among the numer- 
ous translations of Aristotle. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. See the histories of philosophy, nos. 822-835 
above, and the literature under outline XVII below. 

Aristotle in scholasticism. CHOLLET'S article on " L 'aristotel- 
isme de la scolastique, ' ' in no. 109 above, I, 1869-1887, sums up 
recent research. A. SCHNEIDER, Die abendldndische Speculation des 
12 Jahrhunderts in ihrem Verhdltnis zur aristotelischen und judisch- 
ardbischen Philosophie, Miinster, 1915, vol. XVII, 4, of no. 826 
above. S. TALAMO, L'aristotelismo della scolastica, Naples, 1873, 
3rd edition, Siena, 1881, translated into French, Paris, 1876. F. 
EHRLE, "Der Augustinismus und der Aristotelismus in der Scho- 
lastik gegen Ende des 13 Jahrhunderts," in Archiv fur Literatur 
und Kirchengeschichte, V (1889), 603ff.; see also his "John Peck- 
ham iiber den Kampf des Augustinismus und Aristotelismus in der 
zweiten Halfte des 13 Jahrhunderts," in Zeitschrift fur Tcatholische 
Theologie, XIII (1889), 172ff. M. SCHNEID, Aristoteles in der Scho- 
lastik, Eichstadt, 1876. F. NITSCH, " Tiber die TJrsachen des 
Umschwungs und Aufschwungs der Scholastik im 13 Jahrhundert, " 
in Jahrbucher fur protestantische Theologie, II (1876), 532ff. 



XVI HERESIES AND INQUISITION 399 

Latin translations of Aristotle. A. JOURDAIN, Becherches criti- 
ques sur I'dge et I'origine des traductions latines d'Ari$tote, et sur 
les commentaires grecs ou arabes employes par les docteurs scolasti- 
ques, Paris, 1819, 2nd edition, 1843, was the pioneer work in this 
interesting but difficult field of research. V. ROSE, "Die Liicke 
im Diogenes Laertius und der alte tfbersetzer, " in Hermes, I 
(1866); 367-397; and his "Ptolomaus und die ttbersetzer-Schule 
von Toledo," ibid., VIII (1874), 327-349. O. HARTWIG, "Die 
tfbersetzungsliteratur Unteritaliens in der normannisch-staufischen 
Epoche," in Centralblalt fur Bibliothekswesen, III (1886), 161-190, 
223-225, 505. E. MOORE, Studies in Dante, first series, Oxford, 
1896, 305-318, "On the translations of Aristotle used by Dante." 
G. H. LUQUET, "Hermann 1'Allemand, " in Revue de I'histoire des 
T( Unions, XLII (1901), 407-422. C. MARCHESI, L'Etica Nicomachea 
iH'lla Iradizione latino medievale, Messina, 1904. A. VACANT, Les 
versions latines de la morale a Nicomaque, Paris, 1885. A. MULLER, 
Die griechischen Philosophen in der arabischen Vberlieferung, Halle, 
1873. B. BONCOMPAGNI, Delia vita e delle opere de Gherardo Cre- 
monese, Rome, 1851. For translations from the Arabic see outline 
X above. 

Aristotle's natural science. T. E. LONES, Aristotle's researches 
in natural science, London, 1912. T. W. THOMPSON, On Aristotle as 
a biologist, Oxford, 1913 (Herbert Spencer lecture). C. HUIT, La 
philosophic de la nature ches les anciens, Paris, 1901. C. B. JOUR- 
DAIN, Influence d'Aristote et de ses interpretes sur la decouverte du 
nouveau-monde, Paris, 1861. 

Bibliographies. The best bibliography is in the notes of MAN- 
DONNET, Siger de Brabant; but see also the bibliographical notes 
in the articles by HA'SKINS, HOFMEISTER, and in GRABMANN, Ge- 
Ki-h'fhtc der scholastwchen Methode. M. SCHWAB, Bibliographic 
d'Aristote, Paris, 1896. 



XVI. HERESIES AND THE INQUISITION 
A. OUTLINE 

1. The connection between heresy and the pronounced intellect- 
ual activity and religious revival in the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries. 

2. Purely speculative novelties of the intellectual class. Notions 
about the Trinity and transubstantiation which disturbed the 
church. The trials of Abelard in 1121 and 1141. The trials at 
Paris in 1147 of Gilbert de la Porr^e, 1076-1154, scholasticus in 



400 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

Paris in 1141, bishop of Poitiers in 1142, author of the Liber sex 
principiorum. The pantheism of Chartres. Amalric (Amaury) of 
Bene and David of Dinant whose doctrines were condemned at 
Paris in 1210. Roger Bacon. The trial of Siger de Brabant in 
Paris in 1277. Siger de Brabant and Averroism. The censorship 
of books. The degree of intellectual freedom in the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries. 

-3. Demented innnovators such as Tanchelm in Belgium and 
Eon de 1'Etoile (Eudes de Stella) in Brittany in the first half of 
the twelfth century. 

4. Antisacerdotal heresies in southern France in the twelfth 
century. Criticism of the practices of the church and of the lives 
of the clergy. Peter of Bruys (burned 1126) and the Petrobrusians. 
Henry of Lausanne (died in prison about 1149), and the Henricians. 
St. Bernard of Clairvaux in southern France to stem the tide of 
heresy. Peter Waldo of Lyons (died in Bohemia in 1197) and 
the Poor Men of Lyons or Waldensians, who were excommunicated 
by the pope in 1184, and driven from Aragon by Alphonse II in 
1194. 

5. Manichaens (Cathari or Albigensians, from Albi, near Toul- 
ouse). Theories about the origin of this sect. Possible connec- 
tion with Paulicians and the Bogomiles of Bulgaria (Bougre). 
Their dualistic beliefs and ascetic practices. Spread of the heresy 
in the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries. The Albigen- 
sian crusades (see outline XXV in part II above). 

6. The suppression of heresy. The theory and practice of per- 
secution in the early middle ages. The canon law and heresy. 
Gradual development of inquisitorial machinery and punishments 
and the gradual growth of intolerance. Desultory efforts of bishops 
to stem the tide of heresy. Special papal legates sent into Langue- 
doc by Innocent III. Gregory IX, 1227-1241, organized the inquisi- 
tion as a definite and permanent piece of machinery for the sup- 
pression of heresy (inquisitio hereticae pravitatis). The mendicants, 
especially the Dominicans, and the inquisition. 

7. The inquisition. Co-operation of the state with the church. 
Legislation of Frederick II against heretics. The use of torture 
and secret and questionable legal procedure. Punishments: public 
recantation, fines, confiscation, penance, imprisonment, and abandon- 
ment of the prisoner to the secular arm. Auto-da-fe (act of faith). 
Attitude of canonists and theologians, especially St. Thomas 
Aquinas, towards the death penalty. Burning at the stake. Com- 
parison of the medieval inquisition with the Spanish inquisition 
in the sixteenth century. The Jews and the inquisition. 



HERESIES AND INQUISITION 401 

8. The beginnings of persecutions for witchcraft by the papal 
inquisition in the second half of the thirteenth century. The great 
days of witch persecution did not come until the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. 

9. Influence of the inquisition on the intellectual life of the 
thirteenth century. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

Short general surveys. LAVISSE and RAMBAUD, Histoire generate, 
II, 265-279. MILMAN, History of Latin Christianity, vol. V, book 
IX, ch. VIH. C. V. LANGLOIS, L'inquisition d'apres des travaux recents, 
Paris, 1901. TRENCH, Lectures in church history, eh. xv, "Heresies 
in the middle ages." HOLLAND, Ewe of intellectual liberty, chs. 
v-vn. 

Standard works. "The most extensive, the most profound, and 
the most thorough history of the inquisition which we possess" 
(FREDERICQ) was written by a Philadelphian, the late H. C. LEA, 
A history of the inquisition of the middle ages, 3 vols., New York, 
1888, translated into French by S. REINACH, Histoire de Vinquisition 
au moyen age, with a valuable introduction, entitled "Historio- 
graphie de 1 'inquisition," by P. FREDERICQ, 3 vols., Paris, 1900- 
1902, also translated into German by J. HANSEN, Geschichte der 
Iniinixitinii i MI Mittelalter, Bonn, 1905ff. LEA'S work is supplemented 
by C. H. 11 ASK INS, "Robert le Bougre and the beginnings of the 
inquisition in northern France," in American historical review, VII 
(1901-1902), 437-457, 631-652. In the first six chapters of vol. I, 
LEA gives a good account of the heresies and the general condi- 
tions which gave rise to the inquisition. Much has been written 
about LEA'S books, especially by Roman Catholics; see e.g., P. M. 
BAUMOARTKN, DK Werke von Henry Charles Lea und verwandte 
liiiflnr. Minister, 1908, translated into English, Henry Charles 
Lea's hifitorii-nl irritin/is, New York, 1909. The best introduction 
to the position of modern Roman Catholic scholars on the question 
of medieval non-sirs and the inquisition is E. VANCANDARD, L'inqui- 
ide historiquc ct critique sur le pouvmr cocrcitif de I'tglise, 
Paris, 1906, 5th edition, 1909, translated by P. L. CONWAY, from 
the 2n<l Frt-m-h edition, / /" inquisition: a critical and historical 
.st ml n <>f tin ,-t,,rrn-, \\n\rcr of the church, New York, 1908. See also 
the article "Inquisition," in the Catholic r/ici/' 1 /"/"'/"'. 

Albigensian crusade. LAVISSK. lltxtnire dc France, III, part I, 
259-268. The standard work is by A. LUCMAIRE, Innocent III, vol. 
II, Lii crnifiiuli ili.t Albigcois, the first pages of which have been 
translated in MCNRO and SELLERY, Medieval civilisation, enlarged 
edition, 432-457. 



402 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

Gilbert de la Porree. POOLE, Illustrations of the history of 
medieval thought, ch. vi, see also ch. iv. For opposition to the doc- 
trines of the church in the beginning of the thirteenth century 
see LAVISSE, Histoire de France, III, part I, 313-318. 

Averroism. MANDONNET, Siger de Brabant et I'Averroisme. 
EENAN, Averroes et Averroisme. C. V. LANGLOIS, Questions d'his- 
toire et d'enseignement, 51-103, "Siger de Brabant." 

Original sources. Translations and reprints, vol. Ill, no. 6, pp. 
8-19. ROBINSON, Readings, I, ch. xvn. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. All general histories of the church, nos. 394- 
498 above, and the encyclopaedias and periodicals for church his- 
tory, nos. 104-114, and 176-180 above, are useful; but see especially 
the general histories of freedom of thought, nos. 739-748 above. 
See also 540 above. 

General surveys. H. EEUTER, Geschichte der religiosen Aufklar- 
ung im Mittelalter, vol. II, books V-VIII. F. THUDICHUM, Papsttum 
und Keformation im Mittelalter. 

Heresies. J. v. DOLLINGER, Beitrdge zur Sectengeschichte des 
Mittelalters, Munich, 2 vols., 1890 (vol. II contains source material). 
J. HAVET, "L'heresie et le bras seculier au moyen age jusqu'au 
XIII e siecle, " in Bibliotheque de I'ecole des chartes, XLI (1880), 
488-517, 570-607, 670 (or Oeuvres completes, Paris, 1896, II, 117-180). 
F. Tocco, L'eresia ne} medio evo, Florence, 1884. P. BEUZART, Les 
heresies pendant le moyen age et le reforme jusqu'a la mort de Phil- 
ippe II, 1598, dans la region de Douais, d' Arras, et au pays de I'Alleu, 
Le Puy, 1912. P. ALPHANDERY, Les idees morales chez les hete- 
rodoxes latins au debut du XIII s siecle, Paris, 1903 (Bibliotheque 
de 1'Ecole des hautes etudes, sciences religieuses, XVI, 1); see also 
his Note's sur le messianisme medieval latin, Xle-XIIe siecles, Paris, 
1912 (ibid.). P. HINSCHIUS, Kirchenrecht, V, 449^92. E. CONY- 
BEABE, Key of truth, London, 1898. C. U. HAHN, Geschichte der 
Ketzer im Mittelalter, 3 vols., Stuttgart, 1845-1850. 

Gilbert de la Porree. Abbe BERTHAUD, Gilbert de la Porree, 
eveque de Poitiers et sa philosophic, Poitiers, 1892. CLERVAL, Les 
ecoles des Chartres, 163ff. GRABMANN, Geschichte der scholastischen 
Methode, II, 407-438. 

Al marie, and David of Dinant. C. JOURDAIN, "Memoire sur les 
sources philosophiques des heresies d'Amaury de Chartres et de 
David de Dinan," in his Excursions historiques, 101-128. B. 
HAUREAU, ' ' Memoire sur le vraie source des erreurs attributes a 
David de Dinan, ' ' in Memoires de I 'Academic des inscriptions, XXIX, 



HERESIES AND INQUISITION 403 

part II (1879), 319-330. C. BAEUMKER, "Bin Tractat gegen die 
Amalricaner aus dem Anfange des XIII Jahrhundert, " in Jahr- 
buch fiir Philosophic und speculative Theologie, 1893, 346ff. 

Waldensians. T. DE CAUZONS, Les Vaudois et I' inquisition, 3rd 
edition, Paris, 1908. E. COMBA, Histoire des Vaudois, new edition, 
Lausanne, 1901. K. MULLER, Die Waldenser und ihre einzelnen 
Gruppen bis zum Anfang des 14 Jahrhunderts, Gotha, 1886. W. 
PREGER, "Beitrage zur Geschichte der Waldesier im Mittelalter, " 
in Konigliche bay. Ak. der Wiss., phil.-hist. Classe, XIII (1877), 181- 
250; see also his "ttber die Verfassung der franzosischen Walde- 
sier in der altesten Zeit," ibid., XIX (1891), 639-711. H. HAUPT, 
Waldensertum und Inquisition im siidostlichen Deutschland, Freiburg, 
1890. HERZOO (II.), Die romanische Waldenser, Halle, 1853. A. 
DIECKHOFP, Die Waldenser im Mittelalter, Gottingen, 1851. 

Albigensians. T. DE CAUZONS, Les Albigeois et I 'inquisition, 2nd 
edition, Paris, 1908. C. SCHMIDT, Histoire et doctrine de la secte 
des Cathares ou Albigeois, 2 vols., Paris, 1849. C. DOUAIS, L'Albi- 
geisme et les Freres precheurs d, Narbonne au XIII e siecle, Paris, 
1894. N. PEYRAT, Histoire des Albigeois, 3 vols., Paris, 1870-1872. 
C. DOUAIS, Les Albigeois, Paris, 1879. E. DULAURIER, Les Albigeois 
ou les Cathares du Midi de la France, in Le Cabinet historique, XXVI 
(1880). J. GUIRAUD, Questions d'histoire et d'archeologie chr6tienne, 
Paris, 1906. VERNET'S article "Cathares," in no. 109 above, is 
important. 

Inquisition. T. DE CAUZONS, Histoire de V 'inquisition en France, 
vols. I-II, Paris, 1909-1912. C. DOUAIS, L' inquisition: ses origines, 
sa procedure, Paris, 1906. L. TANON, Histoire des tribunaux de 
I'inquisition en France, Paris, 1893. C. HENNER, Beitrage zur 
Organisation und Kompetenz des pdpstlichen Ketzergericht, Leipzig, 
1890. C. MOLINIER, L'inquisition dans le Midi de la France au XIII* 
au XIV* siecle: elude sur les sources de son histoire, Paris, 1880. J. M. 
VIDAL, liullairr de I'inquisition fran^aise au XIV' siecle et jusqu'a 
la fin du Grand Schisme, Paris, 1913; see also his Un inquisiteur 
juge par ses victimes: Jean Galland et les Carcassonnais, Paris, 1903. 
H. THELOE, Die Ketzerverfolgungen im 11 und IS Jahrhundert: ein 
Jiiitrag zur Geschichte der Entstehung des pdpstlichen Ketzerinquisi- 
tionsgericht, Berlin, 1913 (Abhandlungen zur mittleren und neueren 
Geschichte, 48). H. MAILLET, L'eglise et la repression sanglante 
de I'he're'sie, Liege and Paris, 1909 (Bibliotheque de la Facultfi de 
philosophie et lettres de Liege, XVI). P. FREDKRICQ, Geschiedenis 
der inquisitie in de Nedcrlanden, iOS5-15fO t 2 vols., Ghent, 1892 
1897. J. MARX, L'inquisition en Dauphine: etude sur le dfveloppe- 
mcnt et la repression de I'htresie et de la sorcellerie du XIV sitcle 



404 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

au debut du regne de Francois l er , Paris, 1914. H. KOHLER, Die 
Ketzerpolitik der deutschen Kaiser und Konige in den Jahren 1152- 
1254, Bonn, 1913 (lenaer historische Arbeiten, VI). F. ZECHBAUER, 
Dber Herlcunft und Wesen des sizilischen Inquisitionsverfahrens, Ber- 
lin, 1908 (dissertation). E. SCHMIDT, Die Herlcunft des Inquisitions- 
prosesses, Freiburg, 1902. P. FLADE, Das romische Inquisitionsver- 
fahren in DeutscMand bis zu den Hexenprozessen, Leipzig, 1902 
(Studien zur Geschichte der Theologie und der Kirche, vol. IX, 1). 

Witch persecutions. J. HANSEN, Quellen und Untersuchungen zur 
Geschichte des Hexenwahns und der Hexenverfolgung im Mittclalter: 
mit einer Untersuchung der Geschichte des Wortes "Hexe." von J. 
FRANCK, Bonn, 1901; and his Zauberwahn, Inquisition und Hexen- 
prozess im Mittelalter und die Entstehung der grossen Hexenver- 
folgung, Munich and Leipzig, 1900 (vol. XII of Historische 
Bibliothek). J. BAISSAC, Les grands jours de la sorcellerie, Paris, 
1890. T. DE CAUZONS, La magie en France, 4 vols., Paris, 1909. 
W. G. SOLDAN, Geschichte der Hexenprozesse, Stuttgart, 1843, new edi- 
tion by H. HEPPE, 2 vols., 1880; there is also an illustrated edition 
by M. BAUER. 

Original sources. Corpus documentorum inquisitionis haereticae 
pravitatis Neerlandicae (1035-1528), edited by P. FREDERICQ, 5 vols., 
Ghent, 1889-1902. Documents pour servir a I'histoire de I'inquisition 
dans le Languedoc, Paris, 1900, edited by C. DOUAIS, part of no. 966 
above. BERNARD GUIDO (d. 1331), Practica inquisitionis heretice 
pravitatis, edited by C. DOUAIS, Paris, 1886. Professor G. L. BURR 
of Cornell University has announced that he will edit Sources for 
a projected history of witchcraft, gathered and translated into 
English by the late H. C. LEA. 

Bibliographies. MOLINIER, Les sources, III, pp. 54-82. H. 
HAUPT, " Literaturberichte iiber Inquisition, Aberglauben, Ketz- 
erei und Sekten im Mittelalter, ' ' in Zeitschrift fiir Kirchengeschichte, 
XVI (1896), 512-536, XVII (1897), 270-287. P. FREDERICQ, "Les 
recents histoires catholique de I'inquisition en France," in Bevue 
historique, CIX (1912), 307-334. G. L. BURR, "The literature of 
witchcraft," in Papers of the American historical association, IV 
(1890), 237-266. Professor BURR has announced that a special 
catalogue of the collection in Cornell University on the inquisition, 
torture, and witch-persecution is in preparation. The collection in 
Cornell University of books on witchcraft is the most complete in 
the world. 



PHILOSOPHY AND THEOLOGY 405 

XVII. SYSTEM ATI ZATION OF MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY 
AND THEOLOGY 

A. OUTLINE 

1. The word "scholasticism" in intellectual history. Strange 
definitions of this peculiar word. Intimate relations between phil- 
osophy and theology in the middle ages. The dependence of both 
upon logic. The so-called scholastic method. 

2. Old and new books which served as a basis for instruction in 
these subjects. The bible and patristic writings. Graeco-Roman, 
Hebrew, Arabic, and Byzantine literature. Importance of reputed 
authoritative texts. Lack of a critical attitude towards these texts, 
many of which were current only in faulty Latin translations. 

3. Peter Lombard, born in Novara in Lombardy, master in 
Paris from about 1140, died as bishop of Paris in 1160, the "Master 
of the Sentences." His Libri quattuor sententiarum. Their place 
and influence in the development of the scholastic method. 

4. Alexander of Hales, an Englishman who became a Fran- 
ciscan in Paris about 1231 and died there in 1245. His great fame 
as a Franciscan master of theology. His voluminous Summa theo- 
logica which was the first successful attempt to utilize the New 
Aristotle for theology. 

5. Albert the Great, born about 1193 in Swabia, a Dominican 
in 1223, master of theology in Paris, 1245-1248, died in Cologne 
in 1280. His paraphrase of the works of Aristotle for the use of 
the Latins. His acquaintance with Jewish and Arabic books. 

6. Thomas Aquinas, born about 1225 near Monte Cassino, in 
the vicinity of ancient Aquinum, became a Dominican in 1243, 
the pupil of Albert in Cologne, whom he followed to Paris in 1245, 
died in 1274. His voluminous works, especially the great Summa 
theologica and his commentary on the literal Latin text of Aristotle, 
procured dinvtly from the Greek with the help of William of 
Moerbeke. His skill in welding Aristotelianism with Christian 
doctripe. The exalted place of Thomas Aquinas in the history of 
thought. 

7. Attacks upon the apparently perfect philosophical and theo- 
logical system of Thomas by scholars from the British Isles. John 
Duns Scotus, a Franciscan master of theology in Oxford and Paris, 
died 1308 at the early age of about thirty-four. William of Ockam, 
renowned as a master of theology in Paris about 1320, died about 
1347. 

8. Scholastic mysticism. The inllucuce of the writings of the 
so-called Dionysius the Areopagite, and of the Introductorius ad 



406 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PARTHI 

evangelium aeternum falsely attributed to Joachim of Flora, died 
1202. St. Bonaventura of Tuscany, 1221-1274, and Franciscan 
mysticism. Mechthild of Magdeburg, died 1277. The phenomenal 
development of mysticism in the fourteenth century, especially in 
Germany. 

9. The organization of instruction in philosophy and theology 
in the rising universities (see outline XXII below). 

10. Neo-scholasticism. The Encyclical Aeterni Patris of pope 
Leo XIII, 1879. Its influence in drawing attention to the intellect- 
ual history of the thirteenth century. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 

Short general surveys. The article "Scholasticism" in nos. 96 
and 104 above. J. RICKABY, Scholasticism, London, 1911. W. 
TURNER, History of philosophy, 237420. R. EUCKEN, The problem 
of human life, 248-269. H. B. WORKMAN, Christian thought to the 
reformation, 188-243. See also M. R. JAMES, "The Christian 
renaissance," in Cambridge modern history, I, 585-593. 

Longer accounts. M. DE WULF, History of medieval philosophy, 
second period, "Medieval philosophy in the thirteenth century." 
TAYLOR, Medieval mind, 2nd edition, II, chs. xxxv-xxxvi, xxxix- 
XLI, XLIII. W. J. TOWNSEND, The great schoolmen, chs. vnr-xvi. E. 
MICHAEL, Culturzustiinde des deutschen Volkes, III, 63-211. H. 
REUTER, Geschichte der religidsen Aufkldrung, vol. II. 

Peter Lombard. J. DE GHELLINCK, "The Liber sententiarum, " 
in Dublin review, CXLVI (1910), 139-166. M. GRABMANN, Die Ge- 
schichte der scholastischen Methode, II, 359-407. 

Alexander of Hales. H. FELDER, Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen 
Studien im FranzisTcanerorden, Freiburg, 1904, 177-211. J. A. 
ENDRES, "Des Alexander von Hales' Leben und psychologische 
Lehre, " in Philosophisches Jahrbuch, 1888. See also the biogra- 
phical article on Alexander of Hales in no. 89 above. 

Thomas Aquinas. C. C. J. WEBB, Studies in the history of natural 
religion, part III, no. 4. SEDGWICK, Italy in the thirteenth century, 
II, ch. vi. R. W. B. VAUGHAN, The life and labours of Saint Thomas 
of Aquin, 2 vols., London, 1871-1872, abridged edition with the 
same title, London, 1872, 2nd edition, 1890. PLACID CONWAY, Saint 
Thomas Aquinas, of the Order of Preachers (1225-1274) : a bio- 
graphical study of the angelic doctor, New York, 1911. 

Bonaventura. L. COSTELLOE, Saint Sonaventure. SEDGWICK, Italy 
in' the thirteenth century, II, ch. vn. 

Neo-scholasticism. M. DE WULF, -Introduction a la philosophic 
neo-scolastique, Paris, 1904, translated by P. COFFEY, Scholasticism 



PHILOSOPHY AND THEOLOGY 407 

old and new, London, 1907 (see ch. I for definitions of scholasticism). 
For a short sketch, see his article "Neo-scholasticism, " in the 
Catholic encyclopedia. J. L. PERKIER, The revival of scholastic phil- 
osophy in the nineteenth century, New York, 1909. F. PICAVET, 
Esquisse, ch. IX. 

Original sources. THOMAS AQUINAS, Of God and his creatures, 
a translation of the Summa contra gentiles, by J. RICKABY, St. 
Louis, 1905. THOMAS AQUINAS, The Summa theologica, literally 
translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province, vols. I- 
XI, London, 1911-1917. A translation of the Book of Sentences, 
part IV, of PETER LOMBARD, by J. T SHOTWELL, is announced to 
appear in no. 949 above. 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. Almost all church histories, nos. 394-498 above, 
especially nos. 472-478, touch upon the subjects of this outline. 
The general histories of philosophy, nos. 822-835 above, are most 
useful, particularly nos. 827-835. See also nos. 104-116, and 176- 
181 above. The general literature on the church in the twelfth 
and thirteenth century is listed under outline XXIV in part II 
above. 

Scholasticism in general. J. DE GHELLINCK, Le mouvement thto- 
logique du XIl e siecle, Paris, 1914. F. PICAVET, Essais sur I'his- 
toire generale et comparee dcs theologies et des philosophies medie- 
vales, Paris, 1913, contains many essays previously published in 
various places. G. SORTAIS, Histoire de la philosophic ancienne, 
Paris, 1912, 156-252, is a good summary with excellent bibliograph- 
ies. E. KREBS, Theologie und Wissenschaft nach der Lehre der Hoch- 
scholastik, Minister, 1913, part XI, 3, 4, of no. 826 above. T. HEITZ, 
Essai hintorique sur les rapports entre la philosophic et la foi. FERET, 
La farulte de the"ologic de Paris. G. v. HERTLINO, Wissenschaftliche 
Hit-lit iiniii-ii und philosophische Probleme im XIII Jahrhundert, 
Munich, 1910 (Festrede). R. v. LILIENCRON, Vber den Inhalt der 
iilli/tiin iiKu Hililtuifi in der Zcit der Scholastik, Munich, 1876 (Fest- 
rede). J. MARITAN, Le probleme de la classification des sciences 
d'Aristote d Saint Thomas, Paris, 1901. 8. REINSTADLER, Elementa 
philosophiae scholanticae, 2 vols., Freiburg, 1901, 5th and 6th edi- 
tions, 1911. G. M. MANSER, Ueber Umfang und Charakter der 
mittelalterlichen Scholastik," in Historische-politische Blatter, 
( 'XXXIX (1907), also printed separately. H. DELACROIX, "La 
m6di6vale latine jusqu 'au XIV* siecle," in. Revue de 
hixtorujue, V (1902), 96-124. C. HoLZHEY, Die Inspiration 
der hciligen Schrift in der Anschauung des Mittclaltcrs von Karl dem 



408 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

Grossen bis zum Konzil von Trient, Munich, 1895. M. MAYWALD, 
Die Lehre von der sweifachen Wahrheit: ein Versuch der Trennung 
von Theologie und Philosophic im Mittelalter, Berlin, 1871. J. GUTT- 
MANN, Die Scholastik des XIII Jahrhunderts in ihren Beziehungen 
zu Judentum und zur jiidischen Literatur, Breslau, 1902. M. GRAB- 
MANN, Der Gegenwartswert der geschichtlichen Erforschung der mit- 
telalterlichen Philosophic, Vienna, 1913. F. X. PPEIFER, Harmonische 
Beziehungen zwischen Scholastik und moderner Naturwissenschaft, 
Augsburg, 1881. 

Peter Lombard. O. BALTZER, Die Sentenzen des Petrus Lom- 
bardus: ihre Quellen und ihre dogmengeschichtliche Bedeutung, Leip- 
zig, 1902, part VIII, 3, of no. 495 above. J. DE GHELLINCK, Le 
traite de Pierre Lombard sur les sept ordres ecclesiastiques, Louvain, 
1910 (extract from the Eevue d'histoire ecclesiastique, X-XI). 
J. N. ESPENBERGER, Die Philosophic des Petrus Lombardus und ihre 
Stellung im XII Jahrhundert, Miinster, 1901, part III, 5 of no. 826 
above. F. PROTOIS, Pierre Lombard, eveque de Paris, dit le Maitre 
des sentences: son epoque, sa vie, ses ecrits, son influence, Paris, 1881. 

Albert the Great. P. MANDONNET, "Albert le Grand," in no. 
109 above. F. v. HERTLING, Albertus Magnus: Beitrdge zu seiner 
Wiirdigung, Cologne, 1880. N. THOEMES, Albertus Magnus in 
Geschichte und Sage, Cologne, 1880. J. BACH, Des Albertus Magnus 
Verhdltniss zu der Erkenntnisslehre der Griechen, Lateiner, Araber, 
und Juden, Vienna, 1881. L. GAUL, Alberts des Grossen Verhdltnis 
zu Plato, Miinster, 1913, part XII, 1, of no. 826 above. A. SCHNEIDER, 
Die Psychologic Alberts des Grossen, Miinster, 1903, part of no. 826 
above. For literature on Albert 's interest in natural science see 
outline XXI below. 

Thomas Aquinas. M. GRABMANN, Thomas von Aquin: eine Ein- 
fiihrung in seine Personlichkeit und Gedankenwelt, Munich, 1912. 
A. D. SERTILLANGES, Saint Thomas d' Aquin, 2 vols., Paris, 1910. 
J. A. ENDRES, Die Zeit des Hochscholastik: Thomas von Aquin, Mainz, 
1910; see also his article, "Die Bedeutung des hi. Thomas fur das 
wissenschaftliche Leben seiner Zeit," in Historische-politische 
Blatter, CXLVII (1911), 801-824. P. MANDONNET, Des ecrits authen- 
tiques de S. Thomas d' Aquin, 2nd edition, Fribourg, 1910. E. 
TROELTSCH, Die Soziallehren der christlichen Kirchen, Tubingen, 
1912, 286-358. P. EOUSSELOT, L'intellectualisme de Saint-Thomas, 
Paris, 1908 (Les grands philosophes). A. ROHNER, Das Schopfungs- 
problem bei Moses Maimonides, Albertus Magnus und Thomas von 
Aquin, Miinster, 1913. M. WITTMANN, Die Stellung des hi. Thomas 
von Aquin zu Avencebrol, Miinster, 1900, part III, 3, of no. 826 
above. M. CHOSSAT, "Saint Thomas d 'Aquin et Siger de Bra- 



PHILOSOPHY AND THEOLOGY 409 

bant," in Bevue de philosophic, XXIV (1914), 553-575; XXV 
(1914), 25-52. M. AsfN PALACIOS, "El averroismo de Santo Tomas 
de Aquino," in Homenaje a D. Francisco Codera, Saragossa, 1904, 
271-331, also printed separately. 

Bonaventura. L. LEMMENS, Der M. Bonaventura, Kardinal und 
Kirchenlehrer aus dem Franziskanerorden, Kempten, 1909. G. PAL- 
HORIES, Saint Bonaventure, Paris, 1913 (La PensSe chrStienne, 
textes et etudes). 

John Duns Scotus. R. SEEBERG, Die Theologie des Johannes Duns 

Scotus, Leipzig, 1900; see also his Verhdltniss zwischen Glauben und 

', Theologie und Philosophic, nach Duns Scotus, Paderborn, 

1908. K. WERNER, J. Duns Scotus, Vienna, 1881. See also the 

article on John Duns Scotus in no. 89 above. 

Mysticism. W. K. FLEMING, Mysticism in Christianity, London, 
1913 (Library of historic theology). W. R. INGE, Christian 
mysticism, London, 1899 (Bampton lectures). R. M. JONES, Studies 
in mystical religion, New York, 1909. E. LEHMANN, Mysticism in 
heathendom and Christendom, translated by G. M. G. HUNT, London, 
1910. EVELYN UNDERBILL, Mysticism: a study in the nature and 
development of man 's spiritual consciousness, 4th edition, New York, 
1912. R. A. VAUGHAN, Hours with the mystics, 2 vols., 5th edition, 
London, 1888. E. GEBHARDT, L'ltalie mystique. C. OULMONT, Le 
r, le temple et la cellule: essai sur la sensualite dans les oeuvres 
ill nnffitiqne religieuse, Paris, 1912. A. LECLERE, Le mysticisme 
i-<itltrili<,iic et I'dme de Dante, Paris, 1906. W. PREGER, Geschichte 
der diutschm Mystik im Mittelalter, 3 vols., Leipzig, 1874-1893. 
J. v. OnRRKs, J)i> christliche Mystik, new edition, 5 vols., Regens- 
burg [1879-1880]. W. OHL, Deutsche Mystiker, vol. I, Munich, 1910. 
l\. I.ANf.KXBERG, Quellen und Forschungen zur Geschichte der deutschen 
Mystik, Bonn, 1901. P. FOURNIER, Etudes sur Joachim de Flore et 
sen doctrines, Paris, 1909. For a short sketch of Joachim see SEDG- 
u ICK, Italy in the thirteenth century, I, ch. iv. FRANCESCA M. STEELE, 
The life ami rixifms of St. Hildegarde, London, 1914. L. ZOEPF, Die 
Mystikerin Margaretha Ebner (c. 1S91-IS51), Leipzig, 1914, part 
16 of no. 749 above. V. SCULLY, A medieval mystic: a short account 
of the life and writings of blessed John Buysbroeck, canon regular 
of Grcnendael, A.D. 11193-1381, London, 1910. See also the literature 
on the Spiritual Franciscans under outline XXIII in part II above, 
ami for books on the German mystics in the fourteenth century 
.-in. I tin- !> imitations Chrixti of THOMAS A KKMIMS see DAHLMANN- 
WAITZ. Vn,ll,;,k-n>i<l<; nos. 6973-6982, 7099-7107. 

Special reviews of scholasticism and neo-scholasticism. Revue 
nto-scolastique dc philosophic, Louvain, 1894ff. Rcruc Thomiste, 



410 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

Paris, 1893ff. Kevista italiana di filosofia neo-scolastica, Florence, 
1909ff. 

Original sources. THOMAS AQUINAS, Opera omnia, iussu impen- 
saque Leonis XIII, vols. I-XII, Rome, 1882-1906, sometimes referred 
to as the "Vatican edition." ALBERT THE GREAT, Opera omnia,, 
edited by A. BORGNET, 38 vols., Paris, 1890. SAINT BONAVENTURA, 
Opera omnia, 11 vols., Quaracchi, 1882-1902. JOHN DUNS SCOTUS, 
Opera, new edition, 26 vols., Paris, 1891-1895. PETER LOMBARD, 
Libri quattuor sententiarum, a critical edition in vols. I-IV of the 
Opera of St. Bonaventura, Quaracchi, 1882ff. See also no. 826 above. 

Bibliographies. For general bibliographies on church history and 
history of philosophy see nos. 49-57 above. CHEVALIER, no. 16 above, is 
particularly useful for this outline. The fourth French edition 
of M. DE WULF, Histoire de la philosophic, and G. SORTAIS, Histoire 
de la philosophic ancienne, furnish the best practical bibliographies. 
For Albert the Great see P. MANDONNET, Siger de Brabant, I (1911), 
37, note. A. NOYEN, Inventaire des ecrits theologiques du XII e 
siecle non inseres dans la Patrologie latine de Migne, fascicule I, 
Paris, 1912 (extract from the Eevue des bibliotheques). 



XVIII. EISE AND DECLINE OF INTEREST IN THE ANCIENT 

CLASSICS 
A. OUTLINE 

1. Current misconceptions about the so-called "revival of 
learning" and the neglect of the ancient classics in the middle 
ages (see outline XXXIII of part II above). Resume: the ancient 
classics in the early middle ages (see especially outlines IV, VII- 
IX above). 

2. The increasing interest in the Latin classics, taught as a 
part of grammar, in the beginning of the twelfth century. North- 
ern France was the center of this growing interest. 

3. The schools of Chartres. Bernard of Chartres, chancellor 
there from 1119 to 1126. William of Conches (died 1154). Gilbert 
de la Porre'e. Theoderic of Chartres, chancellor from 1141 to about 
1150. The famous Eptateuchon, or manual of the seven arts, of 
Theoderic. His stress on the Latin classics. The English colony 
of students in Chartres. Decline of the schools of Chartres in 
the latter half of the twelfth and in the thirteenth century. 

4. John of Salisbury, 1110-1180, and humanistic studies. In 
1136 he heard Abelard in Paris, but in 1138 went to Chartres to 
study "grammar." His denunciation of the narrow-minded 



THE ANCIENT CLASSICS 411 

students of logic (Cornificians) . His Entheticus, Policraticus and 
Metalogicus. His enthusiasm for classical studies as taught in 
Chartres. He was bishop of Chartres when he died in 1180. 

5. Classical studies in the schools of Orleans towards the begin- 
ning of the thirteenth century, before it became a famous seat for 
the study of law. The evidence of Matthew of Vendome (died 
ca. 1200), Goeffrey of Vinsauf, and the monk Helinand. 

6. The decline of the study of the classics in Paris about 1200- 
1250. Evidence from Peter of Blois, ca. 1140-1212, Alexander 
X<>. kam, 1157-1217, Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald of Barri), 1147- 
ca. 1222, and from an anonymous list of text-books. Vincent of 
Beauvais, died 1264, and his Speculum mundi, divided into three 
parts: natural?, doctrinale, historiale. Unavailing efforts made by 
John Garland (died ca. 1259) to check the decline (see outline 
XXIII below). The "Oxford school" of scholars, especially 
Robert Grosseteste and Roger Bacon (see outline XXI below). 

7. Neglect of the ancient classics in the universities, especially 
the university of Paris. There is no mention of them in the 
statutes of this university. Causes of this neglect. 

8. The Battle of the seven artu, a French poem written by the 
trouvere Henri d 'Andeli in the second quarter of the thirteenth 
century. 

S>. Interest in Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic, in the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries (Robert Grosseteste, Roger Bacon, William of 
M<>rbeke, and Thomas Aquinas). Greek in southern Italy and 
Sicily (see outline^XV above). Importance of Byzantine influ- 
rix-cs. The oriental college of Paris in the time of pope Innocent 
III. 1198-1216. The study of languages for missionary purposes. 
Raymund Lull, 1235-1315, a Franciscan, born in Majorca. The 
legislation of the council of Vienne, 1311, on the compulsory teach- 
ing of languages. 

10. Textual criticism in the thirteenth century, concerned 
chiefly with the Vulgate. The efforts of Roger Bacon. 

11. Sporadic interest in the ancient classics during the century 
preceding Petrarch. For Dante see outline XXVIII below. Petr- 
arch, railed the "morning star of the renaissance," shone forth 
so brightly in his advocacy of the Latin classics because it hap- 

I to be darkest just before the dawn. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR READING 
Brief general surveys. TAYLOR, Mcnincrnl mind, 2nd edition, 
II, ch. xxxi. See also his "Antecedents of the quattrocento," in 
Annual report of the American historical cumociation, 1912, 89-94. 



412 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PARTIII 

SANDYS, A history of classical scholarship, I, chs. xxvm-xxxii, 
passim. MUNEO and SELLERY, Medieval civilization, 285-309. H. 
FELDER, Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Studien im Franziskaner- 
orden, 402-417. NORDEN, Die antike Kunstprosa, II, 688-731. E. 
MICHAEL, Culturzustande des deutschen Volkes, III, 279-319. EGBERT, 
Les ecoles, ch. iv. GRABMANN, Geschichte der scholastischen Methode, 
II, 59-64. B. HAUREAU, ' ' De 1 'enseignement des langues anciennes, ' ' 
in Journal des savants, 1891, 502-508. 

Classics in European culture. E. K. BAND, "The classics in 
European education," pp. 260-282 in Latin and Greek in American 
education: with symposia on the value of humanistic studies, edited 
by F. W. KELSEY, New York, 1911. 

Schools of Chartres. A. CLERVAL, " L 'enseignement des arts 
liberaux a Chartres et a Paris dans la premiere moitie du XIP 
siecle d'apres 1'Heptateuchon de Thierry de Chartres," in Congres 
scientifique Internationale des catholiques tenu a Paris, 1888, II, 277- 
296; see also his Les ecoles de Chartres, 144-272. POOLE, Illustra- 
tions, eh. iv. GRABMANN, Geschichte der scholastischen Methode, II, 
407-476, ' ' Die Schule von Chartres, ' ' lays special stress on its 
influence in philosophy and theology rather than humanistic 
studies. 

John of Salisbury. POOLE, Illustrations of the history of medieval 
thought, ch. vn; see also his article in no. 89 above. A. C. KREY, 
"John of Salisbury's knowledge of the classics," in Transactions 
of the Wisconsin academy of sciences, arts and letters, XVI, 2 (1909- 
1910), 948-987. C. C. J. WEBB, "John of Salisbury," in Proceed- 
ings of the Aristotelian society, II, no. 2 (1893), 91-107. 

Schools of Orleans. L. DELISLE, "Les ecoles d 'Orleans au XIP 
et au XIII 8 siecle, ' ' in Annaire-Bulletin de la Societe de I 'histoire 
de France, VII (1869), 139-154. Mile. A. DE FOULQUES DE VILLARET, 
L 'enseignement des lettres et des sciences dans I'Orleanais depuis les 
premiers siecles du Christianisme jusqu'd la fondation de I'universite 
d' Orleans, Orleans, 1875. 

Vincent of Beauvais. E. BOUTARIC, Vincent de Beauvais et la 
connaissance de I'antiquite classique au treizieme siecle, Paris, 1875 
(also in Revue des questions historiques, XVII [1875], 5-57). 
BAUMGARTNER, Geschichte der Weltliteratur, IV, 468-475. 

Neglect of classics in universities, L. J. PAETOW, The arts 
course at medieval universities with special reference to grammar and 
rhetoric, Urbana, 111., 1910 (University of Illinois Studies, II, no. 
7), ch. i. 

Study of languages, especially Greek. A. LEFRANC, Histoire du 
College de France, Paris, 1S93, ch. I. LOUISE R. LOOMIS, Medieval 






THE ANCIENT CLASSICS 413 



, Lancaster, Pa., 1906 (dissertation, Columbia). C. JOUR- 
DAIN, "Un college oriental a Paris au XIII' siecle, " in his Excur- 
sions histuriiiiies, 221-229. K. KRUMBACHER, "Die griechische 
Literatur des Mittelalters, " in Die Kultur dcr Gegenwart, 1:8 
(1905), 237-288, 2nd ed. (1907), 239-290. 

Textual criticism. F. A. GASQUET, ."Roger Bacon and the Latin 
Vulgate, ' ' in Roger Bacon essays, edited by A. G. LITTLE, Oxford, 
1914, 89-99; and in his The last abbot of Glastonbury and other 
essays, London, 1908, pp. 113-140, "English biblical criticism in 
the thirteenth century," first published in Dublin review, 1898. 
S. A. HIRSCH, "Roger Bacon and philology," in Eoger Bacon essays, 
101-151. B. JARRETT, "A thirteenth century revision committee 
of the bible," in Irish theological quarterly, IV (1910), 56ff. For 
a description of the present revision committee of the Vulgate 
see the article "Vulgate, revision of," in the Catholic encyclopedia. 
E. FLVGEL, ' ' Roger Bacon 's Stellung in der Geschichte der Philo- 
logie," in Philoxophinche Studien, XIX (1902), 164-191. 

Original sources. The battle of the seven arts, by HENRI o'AN- 
DELI, edited ami translated, with introduction and notes and fac- 
similes of the two extant manuscripts, by L. J. PAETOW, University 
of California Press, 1914 (Memoirs of the University of Cali- 
fornia, IV, no. 1). C. H. HASKINS, "A list of text-books from 
the close of the twelfth century, ' ' in Harvard studies in classical 
philology, (1909), 75-94. NORTON, Readings, 25-35, translates some 
extracts from the works of John of Salisbury, and pp. 60-75 trans- 
lates the section from GRATIAN'S Decretum entitled "Shall priests 
be acquainted with profane literature or not" , 

C. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

General books. Some of the general histories of literature, nos. 
782-814 above, will be found useful, see e.g., no. 790. 

General accounts. A. MARIOO, ' ' Cultura letteraria e preumanis- 
tica nelle inaggiori encidopedie del dugento, lo 'Speculum' ed il 
' Tremirs. ' " in (iiornale storico dclla letteratura italiana, LXVIII 
(1916), 1-42, 289-326. B. GROCHE, Beitraae zur Geschichte einer 
H, (K//.SM//II lii ii -i <miig bci den dcutschen Schrij tutillirn im IS Jahr- 
liiiiulirt. F. NOVATI, L'influsso del pensiero latino sopra la civiltd 
italiana del mcdio rco. 2nd edition, Milan, 1899. J. L. HEIBERO, "Et 
mislykket Krn:ii>*.-im-etill0b," in Studier fra Sprog- og Oltidsfor- 
>tkitiii</. <'o|. t-iili.-i^en, 1892. G. KoRTING, Geschichte eft,/' Literatur 
Ittilifiifi im y.iiiiiltrr der Renaissance, III, 1-75. A. GRAF, .Roma 
ni'lln nit nun-id i mill i nitntit/i /ui: iaiii ilil innlin evo. A. BARTOLI, I pre- 
<l<l i iiinsrinn ntn, Florence, 1877. C. DANIEL, Des etudes 



414 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART m 

classiques dans la societ6 chretienne, Paris, 1853, lays special stress 
on conditions in France in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. 
W. GIESEBRECHT, De litterarum studiis apud Italos, Berlin, 1845, 
translated into Italian by C. PASCAL, Florence, 1895. A. H. L. 
HEEREN, Geschichte der classischen Literatur im Mittelalter [to 1400], 
2 vols., Gottingen, 1822. 

Individual Latin classical authors in the middle ages. D. COM- 
PARETTI, Vergil in the middle ages. G. ZAPPERT, Virgils Fortleben im 
Mittelalter. N. CREIZENACH, Die Aeneis, die vierte Ecloge und die 
Pharsalia im Mittelalter, Frankfurt, 1864 (Programm). T. ZIEL- 
INSKI, Cicero im Wandel der Jahrhunderten, is very poor for the 
middle ages. G. CUECIO, Q. Orazio Flacco studiato in Italia dal 
secolo XIII al XVIII, Catania, 1913. C. PASCAL, Letteratura latino 
medievale, Catania, 1909, 117-174, on Seneca, Lucretius, and Ovid 
in the middle ages. M. MANITIUS, Analekten zur Geschichte des 
Horaz im Mittelalter [to 1300], Gottingen, 1893; see also his "Bei- 
triige zur Geschichte romischer Dichter im Mittelalter," in Philo- 
logus, XLVII (1889), 710-720; XLIX (1890), 554-564; L (1891), 
354-372; LI (1892), 156-171, 530-535, 704-719; LIT (1894), 536- 
552; LVI (1897), 535-541; his "Beitrage zur Geschichte romischer 
Prosaiker im Mittelalter," ibid., XLVII (1889), 562-568; XLVIII 
(1889), 564-573; XLIX (1890), 191-192, 380-384; and his Philo- 
logisches aus alten BibliotheJcskatalogen bis 1300, Frankfurt, 1892 
(extract from Kheinisches Museum, neue Folge, XLVIII, 1892, 
Erganzungsheft). The above studies of Manitius will be super- 
seded when vol. II of no. 787 above, appears. K. DZIATZKO, "Zu 
Terentius im Mittelalter," in Neue Jahrbiicher fur Philologie und 
Pddagogik, GIL (1894), 465-477. A. COLLIGNON, Petrone au moyen 
age et dans la litterature frangaise, Paris, 1893. 

John of Salisbury. C. SCHAARSCHMIDT, Johannes Saresberiensis 
nach Leben und Studien, Schriften und Philosophic, Leipzig, 1862. 
P. GENNRICH, "Zur Chronologic des Lebens Johanns von Salis- 
bury," in Zeitschrift fur Kirchengeschichte, XIII (1892), 544-551. 
M. DEMIMUID, Jean de Salisbury, Paris, 1873 (dissertation). 

Vincent of Beauvais. J. B. BOURGEAT, Etudes sur Vincent de 
Beauvais,- Paris, 1856. 

Greek in the middle ages. L. TRAUBE, Eoma nobilis; and his 
Vorlesungen, 83ff. J. J. v. DOLLINGER, "Einfluss der griechischen 
Literatur und Cultur auf die abendlandische Welt im Mittelalter," 
translated into English in no. 913 above. M. R. JAMES, "A Greek- 
Latin lexicon of the XIII century, perhaps by Grosseteste, " in 
Melanges offerts a M. Emile Chatelain, Paris, 1909. J. L. HEIBEBG, 
' ' Die griechische Grammatik Eoger Bacons, ' ' in Byzantinische 



xvni "\ THE ANCIENT CLASSICS 415 

Zeitschrift, IX (1900), 479-491. L. SCHUTZ, "Der hi. Thomas von 
Aquin und sein Verstandnis des Griechischen, " in Philosophisches 
Jahrbuch, VIII (1895), 271-283. A. TOUGARD, L'hellenisme dans les 
ecrivains du moyen age du septicme au douzieme siecle, Paris, 1886. 
C. CUISSARD, L 'etude du grec a Orleans depuis le IXe siecle jusqu 'au 
milieu- du XVIII siecle, Orleans, 1883. E. EGGER, L'hellenisme en 
France, 2 vols., Paris, 1869, is superficial in its treatment of the 
middle ages. M. VOGEL, and V. GARDTHAUSEN, Die griechischen 
Schreiber des Mittelalters und der Eenaissance, Leipzig, 1909. D. 
BIKELAS, Die Griechen des Mittelalters und ihr Einfluss auf die europd- 
ische Cultur, translated from the Greek by W. WAGNER, Giitersloh, 
1878. C. GIDEL, Les etudes grecques en Europe [fourth century to 
1453], Paris, 1878, in Nouvelles etudes sur la litterature greque 
moderne, pp. 1-289. J. F. CRAMER, De Graecis medii aevi studiis, 
Stralsund, 1849-1853. 

For Greek in Sicily and southern Italy see outline XV above, 
and the following: GOTHEIN, Die Kultur-Entwickelung Sild-Italiens. 
H. F. TOZER, ' ' The Greek-speaking population of southern Italy, ' ' 
in Journal of Hellenic studies, X (1889), 11-42. P. BATIFFOL, L'ab- 
baye de Eossano, Paris, 1891; his "Inscriptions byzantines de St. 
George au velabre, " and "Librairies byzantines a Rome," in 
Melanges d'archeologie et d'histoire, VII (1887), 419-431; VIII 
(1888), 297ff, are studies on Greek emigrants from Byzantium to 
Rome in the seventh and eighth centuries. J. L. HEIBERG, "Eine 
mittelalterliche ubersetzung der Syntaxis des Ptolemaios, " in 
Hermes, XLV (1910), 57-66; see also XLVI (1911), 207-216. C. H. 
HASKINS, ' ' Moses of Bergamo, ' ' in Byzantinische Zeitschrift, XXIII 
(1914), 133-142. 

Hebrew. S. A. HIRSCH, "Early English Hebraists: Roger Bacon 
and his predecessors," in Jewish quarterly review, XII (1899), 34 
88, reprinted in his Book of essays, London, 1905, 1-72. S. BERGER, 
Quam notitiam linguae Hebraicae habuerint Christiani medii aevi 
temporibus in Gallia, Paris, 1893. K. NEUMANN, Vber die oriental- 
ischen Sprachstudien seit dem 13 Jahrhundert, mit besonderer Euk- 
sicht auf Wien, Vienna, 1899. 

Textual criticism in the thirteenth century- P- J- WITZEL, ' ' De 
Fr. Rogero Bacon eiusque sententia de rebus biblicis, " in Archivum 
Franciscanum historicum, III (1910), 1-22, 185-213, contains the 
best bibliography. H. DENIFLE, "Die Handschriften der Bibel- 
Correctorien des 13 Jahrhunderts, " in Archiv fur Literatur- und 
Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters, IV (1888), 263-311, 471-601. S. 
BERGER, De I'histoire de la Vulgate en France, Paris, 1887; see also 
his ' ' Les essais qui ont ete faits & Paris au treizieme siecle pour 



416 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

corriger le texte de la Vulgate," in Sevue de theologie et de philo- 
sophic (Lausanne) XVI (1883), 41-66; and his Histoire de la Vul- 
gate, Paris, 1893. P. MARTIN, "La Vulgate latine au XIIP siec-le 
d'apres Eoger Bacon," in Museon, VII (1888), 88-107; 169-196, 
278-291, 381-393; and his "Le texte Parisien et la Vulgate latine," 
ibid., VIII (1889), 444-466; IX (1890), 301-316. SALEMBIER, Une 
page inedite de I'histoire de la Vulgate, Amiens, 1890. F. KAULEN, 
Geschichte der Vulgata, Mainz, 1868; and his Handbuch der Vul- 
gata, Mainz, 1870, 2nd edition, Freiburg, 1904. H. A. A. KENNEDY, 
"The old Latin versions of the Bible," in Dictionary of the Bible, 
III (1902), 47-62; and H. J. WHITE, "Vulgate," ibid., IV, 872-890. 

Original sources. JOHANNIS SARESBERIENSIS, Opera omnia, edited 
by J. A. GILES, 5 vols., Oxford, 1848, reprinted in no. 953 above, 
P. L. vol. CXCIX. There is now a good new edition of the Poli- 
craticus, JOANNIS SARESBERIENSIS Episcopi Carnotensis Policratici 
sive de Nugis, edited by C. C. J. WEBB, 2 vols., Oxford, 1909. 
GIRALDUS CAMBRENSIS Opera, edited by J. ri. BREWER, 8 vols., Lon- 
don, 1861 (Kolls series, 21). De bibliorum sacrorum textibus original- 
ibus, versionibus graeca et latino vulgata, edited by H. HODY, Oxford, 
1705, published the portions of the works of Eoger Bacon referring 
to the revision of the Vulgate; note that his book dates before 
JEBB'S edition of the Opus majus of BACON. EOGER BACON, Opus 
ma jus, part III, on the study of language, is the best source of 
information on textual criticism in the thirteenth century. The 
Greek grammar of Eoger Bacon and a fragment of his Hebrew gram- 
mar, edited by E. NOLAN and S. A. HIRSCH, Cambridge, 1902. 
For Eoger Bacon and Eobert Grosseteste in general see also out- 
line XXI below. Hebrdische Grammatik aus dem 13 Jahrhundert, 
edited by S. POZNANSKI, Berlin, 1894. CONRADI HIRSAUGENSIS, Dia- 
logus super auctores sive Didascalon, edited by G. SCHEPSS, Wiirz- 
burg, 1889. HUGO OF TRIMBERG, Registrum multorum auctorum, 
edited by J. H. HUEMER, Vienna, 1888. NICOLAI DE BIBERA, Carmen 
satiricum, edited by T. FISCHER, Halle, 1870, translated into German 
by A. EEINACKER, Erfurt, 1871. 

Bibliographies. There are no systematic bibliographies of this 
subject which has been sadly neglected until a short time ago. 
See bibliographies and bibliographical footnotes in the works men- 
tioned above. 



ARS DICTAMINIS 417 



XIX. THE ARS DICTAMINIS AND THE ARS NOTARIA 

A. OUTLINE 

1. The transformation of rhetoric in medieval universities. For 
the importance of rhetoric in the Roman schools see outline I 
above. The comparative unimportance of rhetoric in the early 
middle ages, when the study of the elements of Roman law was 
often a part of it. 

2. The art of writing formal letters and legal documents in 
the middle ages. This art, which had been a very subordinate 
part of rhetoric in the early middle ages, became an independent 
branch of learning in some universities, especially those which 
stressed the study of law. In its earliest form it was called ars 
dictaminis or dictamen prosaicum. In some places it usurped the 
whole field of rhetoric and was called rhetorica. 

3. The ars dictaminis as a separate branch of instruction origin- 
ated in Italy. The Formularius tabellionum of Irnerius. Alberich 
of Monte-Cassino (second half of the eleventh century) was the 
founder of the art. His Eationes dictandi. Manuals consisting of 
explanatory text and illustrative material. Formularies and letter- 
books. Collections of model letters for students and their parents. 
The cursus. 

4. The ars dictaminis in Bologna. Close association with the 
study of law. Tendency to make the art more and more practical. 
The famous Boncompagno (ca. 1165-ca. 1240). His ETietorica 
antiqua, Novissima rhetorica, Mirrha, Oliva, and Cedrus. Beiie of 
Lucca's Candelabrum (1220-1223). Guido Faba, who wrote about 
1225, systematized the art in his Summa dictaminis and Dictamen. 

5. The transient character of the ars dictaminis and its trans- 
formation into the ars notaria in Bologna. Raynerius, master of 
the ars notaria in 1219. Degrees in notaria. Rolandinus Passager- 
ius (died 1300), the most famous doctor of the art. His Summa 
artis notariae. The faculty of notaria in Bologna in the thirteenth 
century. The art in other Italian universities. 

6. The ars dictaminis and the ars notaria beyond the Alps. The 
Parisiana of John Garland of Paris. The "Lombard dame, Rhe- 
toric," mentioned in the Battle of the seven arts. Laurentius of 
Aquileia in Paris towards the close of the thirteenth century. The 
important school of the ars dictaminis in Orleans. The Summa 
dictaminum of Bernard Silvester of Tours (ca. 1153). Itinerant 
dictatores such as Ponce of Provence who wrote his Summa de 
dictamine about 1250. The art in Chartres, Toulouse, Montpellier, 
and in England and Germany. 



418 MEDIEVAL CULTURE PART in 

7. Changes brought about in the curricula of medieval schools 
and universities by the popularity of this short-lived "business 
course. ' ' Rivalry of the art- with the ancient classics. Causes of 
its decline in the universities in the fourteenth century. 

8. The business world of the graduates of the ars dictaminis 
and ars notaria. Secretaries and notaries in the chanceries of state 
and church, especially the papal chancery. 

B. SPECIAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOB READING 

Brief general surveys. P. ABELSON, The seven liberal arts, 52-71. 
PAETOW, The arts course, 67-91, treats the subject with special 
reference to medieval universities. 

Fundamental works. L. ROCKINGER, Briefsteller und Formel- 
biicher des XI bis XIV Jahrhunderts, in Quellen und Erorterungen 
zur bayerischen und deutschen Geschichte, IX, in 2 parts, Munich, 
1863-1864; see also his "Ueber die ars dictandi und die summae 
dictaminium in Italien, ' ' in Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der 
Wissenschaften zu Miinchen, 1861, I, 98-151. C. V. LANGLOIS, "For- 
mulaires de lettres du XIP, du