Infomotions, Inc.Hippocrates / with an English translation by W. H. S. Jones. / Hippocrates




Author: Hippocrates
Title: Hippocrates / with an English translation by W. H. S. Jones.
Publisher: London : Heinemann ; New York : Putnam, 1923-1995.
Tag(s): medicine, greek and roman; medicine; hippocrates translations into english; koi; urine; hippocratic; littre; epidemics; kara; nutriment; bowels; fever; urine thin; acute fever; crisis; copious; hippocratic collection; symptoms; acute
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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 

EDITED BY 
tT. E. PAGE. C.H.. LITT.D. 

1E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. fW. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. POST, M.A. E. H. WARMINGTON. m.a., f.b.hist.soc. 



HIPPOCRATES 

VOL. I 



HIPPOCRATES 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 

W. H. S. JONES 

BURSAR AND STEWARD OF S. CATHARINE'S COLLEOB, CAMBRIDGE, 

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE HISTORICAL SECTION 

OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF MEDICINK 



VOL. I 





LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

MCMLVII 



Firsl printed 1923 
Reprinted 1939, 1948, 1957 



Printed in Great Britain 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

PREFACE VU 

GENERAL INTRODUCTION . • ix 

ANCIENT MEDICINE 1 

AIRS WATERS PLACES 65 

EPIDEMICS I AND III 139 

THE OATH 289 

PRECEPTS 303 

NUTKIMENT 333 



TREFACE 

The works^ some seventy in all, which in any 
of our manuscripts are assigned to Hippocrates, 
comprise what is called the " Hippocratic collec- 
tion. " During nearly three centuries there appeared 
many editions, of some or of all of these works, 
intended to instruct medical students or practi- 
tioners. The birth of modern medical science 
in the nineteenth century stopped finally this 
long series, but a few scholars still worked at 
the treatises from an historical standj^oint. The 
literary merit, however, of the Hippocratic writings, 
at least of the majority, is not great, and it is 
only within the last few years that they have been 
subjected to the exact scholarship which has thrown 
such a flood of new light upon most of the classical 
authors. Even now very little has been done for 
text, dialect, grammar and style, although the 
realization of the value of the collection for the 
history of philosophy is rapidly improving matters. 
So for the present a translator must also be, in part, 
an editor. He has no scholarly tradition behind 
him upon which to build, but must lay his own 
foundations. 

It will be many years before the task is finished, 
but in the meanwhile there is work for less ambitious 
students. My own endeavour has been to make as 
clear and accurate a translation as the condition of 

vii 



PREFACE 

the text permits, introducing as few novelties of my 
own as possible, and to add such comment as may 
bring out the permanent value of the various treatises. 
They are no longer useful as text-books, but all of 
us, whether medical or lay, may learn a lesson from 
the devotion to truth which marked the school of 
Cos, and from the blunders committed by tlieorizers 
who sought a short cut to knowledge without the 
labour of patient observation and careful experiment. 

The present volume has been in preparation since 
1910, and the actual writing has occupied all my 
leisure for the past three years. The time would 
have been longer, had it not been for the great kind- 
ness of Dr. E. T. Withington, whose name will 
probably appear on the title-page of one of the 
succeeding volumes. 

My thanks are also due to the Rev. H. J. Chaytor 
for his heljiful criticisms. 

W. H. S. Jones. 



viu 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

§ 1. Greek Medicine and "Hippocrates." 

We have learned to associate, almost by instinct, 
the science of medicine with bacteria, with chemistry, 
with clinical thermometers, disinfectants, and all the 
apparatus of careful nursing. All such associations, 
if we wish even dimly to appreciate the work of 
Hippocrates and of his predecessors, we must en- 
deavour to break ; we must unthink the greater part 
of those habits of thought which education has made 
second nature. The Greek knew that there were 
certain collections of morbid phenomena which he 
called diseases ; that tiiese diseases normally ran a 
certain course ; that their origin was not unconnected 
with geographical and atmospheric environment ; 
that the patient, in order to recover his health, must 
modify his ordinary mode of living. Beyond this he 
knew, and could know, nothing, and was compelled 
to fill up the blanks in his knowledge by having 
recourse to conjecture and hypothesis. In doing so 
he was obeying a human instinct which assures us 
that progress requires the use of stop-gaps where 
complete and accurate knowledge is unattainable, 
and that a working hypothesis, although wrong, is 
better than no hypothesis at all. System, an organ- 
ized scheme, is of greater value than chaos. Yet 
however healthy such an instinct may be, it has 

ix 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

added considerably to the difficulties of the historian 
in his attempts so to reconstruct the past as to make 
it intelliffible to modern readers. 

Primitive man regards everything he cannot 
explain as the work of a god. To him the abnormal, 
the unusual, is divine. The uncharted region of 
mysterious phenomena is the peculiar realm of 
supernatural forces."^ " It is the work of heaven" 
is a sufficient answer when the human intelligence 
can give no satisfactory explanation. 

The fifth century b.c. witnessed the supreme effort 
of the Greeks to cast aside this incubus in all spheres 
of thought. They came to realize that to attribute 
an event to the action of a god leaves us just where 
we were, and that to call noi'mal phenomena natural 
and abnormal divine is to introduce an unscientific 
dualism, in that what is divine (because mysterious) 
in one generation may be natural (because under- 
stood) in the next, while, on the other hand, how- 
ever fully we may understand a phenomenon, there 
must always be a mysterious and unexplained element 
in it. All phenomena are equally divine and equally 
natural. 

But this realization did not come all at once, 
and in the science of medicine it was peculiarly 
slow. There is something arresting in the spread of 
an epidemic and in the onset of epilepsy or of a 
pernicious fever. It is hard for most minds, even 
scientific minds, not to see the woi'king of a god in 
them. On the other hand, the efficacy of human 
means to relieve pain is so obvious that even in 
Homer, our first literary authority for Greek 
medicine, rational treatment is fully recognized. 

As the divine origin of disease was gradually 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

discarded, another element, equally disturbing, and 
equally opposed to the progress of scientific medicine, 
asserted itself. Philosoj)hy superseded religion. 
Greek philosophy sought for uniformity in the 
multiplicity of phenomena, and the desire to find 
this uniformity led to guesswork and to neglect of 
fact in the attempt to frame a comprehensive theory. 
The same impulse which made Thales declare that 
all things are water led the writer of a treatise ^ in 
the Hippocratic Corpus to maintain that all diseases 
are caused by air. As Daremberg'^ says, ''the 
philosophers tried to explain nature while shutting 
their eyes." The first philosophers to take a serious 
interest in medicine were the Pythagoreans. 
Alcmaeon^ of Croton, although perhaps not strictly 
a Pythagorean, was closely connected with the sect, 
and appears to have exercised considerable influence 
upon the Hippocratic school. The founder of em- 
pirical psychology and a student of astronomy, he held 
that health consists of a state of balance between 
certain "opposites," and disease an undue pre- 
ponderance of one of them.* Philolaus, who flourished 
about 440 B.C., held that bile, blood, and phlegm 
were the causes of disease. In this case we have a 
Pythagorean philosopher who tried to include medical 

^ The TTfpi (pucrSiv, 

^ Ilistoire iPt; sciences mMicales, p. 82. 

* A young man in the old age of Pythagoras. See Aristotle 
Meta. A 986 a .30. Alcmaeon was more interested in medicine 
than in philosophy, but does not seem to have been a 
"general practitioner." 

* 'A\K/xaiwv rrjr /ulv vytdas ehai avueKTiKT^f ti]V iiroro/.a'ai' 
rSiv Suvafxewt', vypov, ^rjpov, \pvXpov, dep/xov, TTiicpov, y\vKfos, Kal 
Tttiv AonraJc, tV 5' eV avTo7s ixovapxiav vicov TroiriTiKr}v' (pBopo- 
iroihu yap eKUTepov /xovapxiav. — Aetius V. 30. 1. 

XI 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

theory iu his philosophical system.^ Empedocles, 
who flourished somewhat earlier than Philolaus, was 
a "medicine-man " rather than a physician, though 
he is called by Galen the founder of the Italian 
school of medicine. 2 The medical side of his teach- 
ing was partly magic and quackery. 

This combination of medicine and philosophy is 
clearly marked in the Hippocratic collection. There 
are some treatises which seek to explain medical 
phenomena by a priori assumptions, after the manner 
of the philosophers with their method of vTro6icrei<; 
or postulates ; there are others which strongly 
oppose this method. The Roman Celsus in his 
preface ^ asserts that Hippocrates separated medicine 
from philosophy, and it is a fact that the best works 
of the Hippocratic school are as free from philosophic 
assumptions as they are from religious dogma. But 
before attempting to estimate the work of Hippocrates 
it is necessary to consider, not only the doctrine of 
the philosophers, but also the possibly pre-Hippocratic 
books in the Corpus. These are the Prenotions of Cos 
and the First Prorrhetic,^ and perhaps the treatise — in 
Latin and Arabic, the Greek original having mostly 
perished — on the number seven {jTepl e^So^aSwv). 

* For the medical theories of Philolaiis see the extracts 
from the recently discovered latrica of Menon, discussed by 
Diels in Ecrmcs XXVIII., p. 417 foil. 

2 Galen X. 5. 

^ Hippocrates . . . ab studio sapientiae disciplinam hane 
separavit, vir et arte et facundia insignis. 

* Grimm, Ermerins and Adams are convinced of the early 
date of these. Littre seems to have changed his mind. Con- 
trast I. 351 with VIII. xxxix. The writer in Pauly-Wissowa 
is also uncertain. I hope to treat the question fully when I 
come to Prognostic in Vol. II. 

xii 



GENEKAL INTRODUCTION 

The Prejiofions of Cos and the First Prorrhetic (the 
latter being the earlier, although both are supposed 
to be earlier than Hippocrates) show that in the 
medical school of Cos great attention was paid to the 
natural history of diseases, especially to the prob- 
ability of a fatal or not fatal issue, the Treatise on 
Seven, with its marked Pythagorean characteristics, 
proves, if indeed it is as early as Roscher would have 
us believe, that even before Hippocrates disease was 
considered due to a disturbance in the balance of the 
humours, and health to a " coction " of them, while 
the supposed preponderance of seven doubtless exer- 
cised some inHiience on the later doctrine of critical 
days. The work may be taken to be typical of the 
Italian-Sicilian school of medicine, in which a priori 
assumptions of the "philosophic" type were freely 
admitted. Besides these two schools there was also 
a famous one at Cnidos,^ the doctrines of which are 
criticised in the Hippocratic treatise Regimen in Acute 
Diseases. The defects of this school seem to have 
been : — 

(1) the use of too few remedies ; 

(•2) faulty or imperfect prognosis ; 

(3) over-elaboration in classifying diseases.^ 

We may now attempt to summarize the com- 

1 Tiiere are several Cnidian treatises in the Corpuf:. See 
p. xxiii. The Cnidian point of view admits of defence, and 
their desire to classify was a really scientific instinct. I 
hope to treat of the Cnidians fully when I come to translate 
Re<iimen in Acute Diseases. 

2 The Coan school, on the other hand, sought for a unity 
in diseases. Its followers tried to combine, the Cnidians to 
distinguish and to note differences. See Littr^ II. 202-204. 

xiii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

,'ponents of Greek medicine towards the end of the 
fifth century b.c. 

(1) There was a religious element, which, however, 
had been generally discarded. 

(2) There was a philosophic element, still very 
strong, which made free use of unverified postulates 
in discussing the causes and treatment — especially 
the former — of diseases. 

(3) There was a rational element, which relied 
upon accurate observation and accumulated ex- 
perience. This rationalism concluded that disease 
and health depended on environment and on the 
supposed constituents of the human frame. 

Now if we take the Hippocratic collection we find 
that in no treatise is there any superstition,^ in many 
there is much " philosophy " with some sophistic 
rhetoric, and among the others some are merely 
technical handbooks, while others show signs of a 
great mind, dignified and reserved with all the 
severity of the Periclean period, which, without 
being distinctively original, transformed the best 
tendencies in Greek medicine into something which 
has ever since been the admiration of doctors and 
scientific men. It is with the last only that I am 
concerned at present. 

I shall make no attempt to fix with definite pre- 
cision which treatises are to be included in this 
category, and I shall confine myself for the moment 
to three — Prugtiosiic, Regimeii in Acute Diseases, and 
Epidemics I. and ///. These show certain character- 
istics, which, although there is no internal clue to 

' A possible exception is Decorum, which 1 hope to discuss 
in Vol. II. 

xiv 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

either date or authorship, impress upon tlie reader a 
conviction that they were written by the same man, 
and at a time before the great period of Greece had 
passed away. They remind one, in a subtle yet very 
real way, of Thucydides.^ 

The style of each work is grave and austere. 
There is no attempt at " window-dressing." Lan- 
guage is used to express thought, not to adorn it. 
Not a word is thrown away. The first two treatises 
have a literary finish, yet there is no trace in them 
of sophistic rhetoric. Thought, and the expression 
of thought, are evenly balanced. Both are clear, 
dignified — even majestic. 

The matter is even more striking than tlie style. 
The spirit is truly scientific, in the modern and 
strictest sense of the word. There is no superstition, 
and, except perhaps in the doctrine of critical days^ 
no philosophy. 2 Instead, there is close, even minute, 
observation of symptoms and their sequences, acute 
remarks on remedies, and recording, without in- 
ference, of the atmospheric phenomena, which 
preceded or accompanied certain " epidemics." 
Especially noteworthy are the clinical histories, 
admirable for their inclusion of everything that is 
relevant and their exclusion of all that is not. 

The doctrine of these three treatises may be 
summarised as follows : — ^ 

^ The resemblance struck Littre. See Vol. I., pp.474, 475. 

" Of course even in the greatest works of the Hippocratic 
Corpus there is, and could not help being, some theory. But 
the writer does not love the theory for its own sake. Rather 
he is constantly forgetting it in his eagerness to record 
observed fact. 

" There is a clear account of Hippocratic doctrine in Littre, 
Vol. I., pp. 440-464. 

XV 



\ 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

(1) Diseases have a natural course, whicli the 
physician must know thoroughly, ^ so as to decide 
whether the issue will be favourable or fatal. 

(2) Diseases are caused by a disturbance- in the 
composition of the constituents of the body. This 
disturbance is connected with atmospheric and 
climatic conditions. 

(3) Nature tries to bring these irregularities to a 
normal state, apparently by the action of innate heat, 
which " concocts " the " crude " humours of the body. 

(4) There are " critical " days at fixed dates, when 
the battle between nature and disease reaches a crisis. 

(5) Nature may win, in which case the morbid 
matters in the body are either evacuated or carried 
off in an aTrocrrucns, ^ or the " coction " of the morbid 
elements may not take place, in which case the 
patient dies. 

(6) All the physician can do for the patient is to 
give nature a chance, to remove by regimen all that 
may hinder nature in her beneficent work. 

It may be urged that this doctrine is as hypo- 
thetical as the thesis that all diseases come from air. 
In a sense it is. All judgments, however simple, 
attempting to explain sense-perceptions, are hypo- 
theses. But hypotheses may be scientific or philo- 
sophic, the latter term being used to denote the 

^ This knowledge is Trp6yvcvcriS. 

2 It is not clear whether this disturbance is regarded as 
quantitative, qualitative, or both. 

3 This term will be explained later. Rougldy speaking, 
it means the collection and expulsion of morliid elements 
at a fixed point in the body. I translate it " abscession," a 
term which suggests "abscess," perhaps the most common 
form of an " abscession." 

xvi 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

character of early Greek philosophy. A scientific 
hypothesis is a generaHzation framed to explain the 
facts of experience ; it is not a foundation, but is in 
itself a superstructure ; it is constantly being tested 
by appeals to sense-experience, and is kept, modified 
or abandoned, according to the support, or want of 
support, that phenomena give to it. A "philo- 
sophic " hypothesis is a generalization framed with a 
view to unification rather than to accounting for all 
the facts ; it is a foundation for an unsubstantial 
superstructure ; no eflx)rts are made to test it by 
appeals to experience, but its main support is a 
credulous faith. 

Now the doctrine of the Epidemic group is certainly 
not of the philosoj)hic kind. Some of it was un- 
doubtedly derived from early philosophic medicine, 
but in this group of treatises observed phenomena 
are constantly appealed to ; nor must it be forgotten 
that in the then state of knowledge much that would 
now be styled inference was then considered fact, 
e. g. the " coction " of phlegm in a common cold. 
Throughout, theory is in the background, observation 
in the foreground. It is indeed most remarkable 
that Hippocratic theory is hard to disentangle from 
the three works on which my argument turns. It 
is a nebulous framework, implied in the technical 
phraseology — Tresis, KpiVis, Kpaat^ — and often illus- 
trated by appeal to data, but never obtrusively 
insisted upon. 

In 1836 a French doctor, M. S. Houdart,^ violently 
attacked this medical doctrine on the ground that it 

^ Etudes liistoriqucs et critiques siir la vie et la doctrine 
d'Hippocrate, et s%u- I'itat de la nUdecine avant lui. Paris and 
London. 

xvii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

neglected the physician's prime duty,^ which is to 
effect a cure. Diagnosis, he urges, is neglected in 
the cult of prognosis ; no attempt is made to localize 
the seat of disease ; the observations in the Epidemics 
are directed towards superficial symptoms without 
any attempt to trace them to their real cause. The 
writer is an interested but callous spectator who 
looks on unmoved while his patient dies.^ 

In this rather rabid criticism there is a morsel of 
truth. The centre of interest in these treatises is 
certainly the disease rather than the patient. The 
writer is a cold observer of morbid phenomena, who 
has for a moment detached himself from pity for 
suffering. But this restraint is in reality a virtue ; 
concentration on the subject under discussion is 
perhaps the first duty of a scientist. Moreover, we 
must not suppose that the fatally-stricken patients 
of the Epidemics received no treatment or nursing. 
Here and there the treatment is mentioned or hinted 
at,^ but the writer assumes that the usual methods 

^ " Attendre qu'il plaise ^ la nature de nous delivrer de 
nos maux, c'est laisser I'economie en proie h la douleur, c'est 
donner le temps aux alterations dedevorernos visceres, c'est, 
en un mot, nous conduire surement k la mort." — O}^. cit. 
p. 253. M. Houdart was but following the example of 
Asclepiades, the fashionable physician at Rome in the first 
century B.C., who called the Hippocratic treatment a 
"meditation upon death." 

^ " Lisez les Epidemics. Si votre cceur resiste k ceLte 
lecture, vous I'avez de bronze. Qui pent voir en effet de 
sang-froid cette foule d'infortunes conduits k pas lents sur 
les bords de la tombe, oil ils finissent la plupart par tomber, 
apres avoir souffert durant trois ou quatre mois entiers les 
douleurs les plus varices et les plus aigues?" — Op. cit. 
p. 246. 

* E.g. Epid. III. Case viii. (second series): depfj.a.(T/j.aTa 
and o7S($7j ayKuva ero/ioj'. 

xviii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

were followed, and does not mention them because 
they are irrelevant. 

The charge of callousness may be dismissed. More 
serious is the attack on the fundamental principle of 
Hippocratic medicine, that " nature " alone can effect 
a cure, and that the only thing the physician can do 
is to allow nature a chance to work. Modern medical 
science has accepted this principle as an ultimate 
truth, but did the writer of the three treatises under 
discussion do his best to apply it ? Did he really 
try to serve nature, and, by so doing, to conquer 
her ? Houdart says that practically all the author 
of the Epidemics did was " to examine stools, urine, 
sweats, etc., to look therein for signs of coction, to 
announce crises and to pronounce sentences of 
death," i in other words that he looked on and did 
nothing. I have just pointed out that the silence of 
the Epidemics on the subject of treatment must not 
be taken to mean that no treatment was given, but 
it remains to be considered whether all was done 
that could have been done. What remedies were 
used by the author of liegimen in Acute Diseases ? 
They were : — 

(1) Purgatives and, probably, emetics. 

(2) Fomentations and baths. 

(3) (rt) Barley-water and barley-gruel, in the 

preparation and administering of which 
great care was to be taken. 

(b) Wine. 

(c) Hydromel, a mixture of honey and water ; 

and oxymel, a mixture of honey and 



vinegar. 



» Op. cit. p. 247. 

xi.x 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

(4) Venesection. 

(5) Care was taken not to distress the patient.^ 

If we take into account the scientific knowledge 
of the time, it is difficult to see what more the 
physician could have done for the patient. Even 
nowadays a sufferer from measles or influenza can 
have no better advice than to keep warm and com- 
fortable in bed, to take a purge, and to adopt a diet 
of slops. Within the last few years, indeed, chemistry 
has discovered febrifuges and anaesthetics, the micro 
scope has put within our reach prophylactic vaccines, 
and the art of nursing has improved out of all recog- 
nition, but nearly all these things were as unknown 
to M. Houdart as they were in the fifth century b.c. 

This criticism of Hippocratic medicine has been 
considered, not because it is in itself worthy of pro- 
longed attention, but because it shows that underlying 
the three treatises I have mentioned there is a fun- 
damental principle, a unity, a positive characteristic 
implying either a united school of thought or else a 
great personality. All antiquity agreed that they 
were written by the greatest physician of ancient 
times — Hippocrates. Within the last hundred years, 
however, doubts have been expressed whether Hip- 
pocrates wrote anything. Early in the nineteenth 
century a doctor of Lille published a thesis intitled 
Dubitationes de Hippocralis vita, patria, genealogia, 
forsan mythologicis, et de quihusdam eius libris nmllo 

' It should be noticed that in all the Hippocratic collection 
no attention is paid to the pulse. The doctor judged whether 
a patient was feverish, and estimated tlie degree of fever, by 
the touch. I ]iave not translated Trvperhs o^vs by " liigh 
temperature," but by "acute fever," because I wish to 
introduce as few anachronisms as possible. 

XX 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

antiquioribus quam vulgo crediiur. Wellmann and 
VVilamowitz hold similar views nowadays. As the 
Hippocratic writings are all anonymous, such a hypo- 
thesis is not ditiicult to maintain. But it is a matter 
of merely antiquarian interest whether or not the 
shadowy " Hippocrates " of ancient tradition is really 
the writer of the Epidemics. The salient and im- 
portant truth is that in the latter half of the fifth 
century works were written, probably by the same 
author, embodying a consistent doctrine of medical 
theory and practice, free from both superstition and 
philosophy, and setting forth rational empiricism of 
a strictly scientific character. If in future I call the 
spirit from which this doctrine emanated " Hip- 
pocrates " it is for the sake of convenience, and not 
because I identify the author with the shadowy 
physician of tradition. 

Similar in style and in spirit to the three treatises 
discussed above are Aphorisms and Airs Waters Places, 
along Avith two surgical works. Fractures ^ and Wounds 
in the Head. The severely practical character of the 
last is particularly noteworthy, and makes the 
reader wonder to what heights Greek surgery would 
have risen had antiseptics been known. Aphorisms 
is a compilation, but a great part shows a close 
relationship to the Hippocratic group. The least 
scientific of all the seven treatises is Airs Waters 
Places, which, in spite of its sagacity and rejection 
of the supernatural, shows a tendency to facile and 
unwarranted generalization. 

1 With this should be joined the work Articulation'^, which 
is very closely allied to Fracliires, and is supposed by Galen 
to have been originally combined with it as a single work. 
Inst nun ents of Reduction appears to be a compendium of 
Articulations. 

xxi 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

§ 2. The Hii'pocratic Collection. 

We are now in a position to attempt a brief 
analysis of the Corpus Hippocralicum, For the 
moment the external evidence of Galen and other 
ancient commentators, for or against the authenticity 
of the various treatises, will be passed over. This 
evidence is of great importance, but may tend to 
obscure the issue, Avhich is the mutual affinities of 
the treatises as shown by their style and content. 

In the first place the heterogeneous character of 
the Corpus should be observed. It contains: — 

(1) Text-books for physicians ; 

(2) Text-books for laymen ; 

(3) Pieces of research or collection of material for 
research. 

(4) Lectures or essays for medical students and 
novices. 

(5) Essays by philosophers who were perhaps not 
practising physicians, but laymen interested in 
medicine and anxious to apply to it the methods of 
philosophy. 

(6) Note-books or scrap-books. 

Even single works often exhibit the most varied 
characteristics. It is as though loose sheets had 
been brought together without any attempt at co- 
ordination or redaction. Epidemics I., for instance, 
jumps with startling abruptness from a "constitu- 
tion " of the diseases prevalent at one period in 
Thasos to the function of the physician in an illness, 
passing on to a few disjointed remarks on pains in the 
head and neck. Then follows another " constitution," 
after which comes an elaborate classification of the 

xxii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

ordinary fevers, with their periods, paroxysms and 
crises. At the end come fourteen clinical histories. 

I have already mentioned a pre-Hippocratic group 
and a Hippocratic group, and it has been noticed 
that the main task of Greek medicine was to free 
science from superstition and from philosophic hypo- 
theses. The Corpus contains two polemical works. 
On Epilepsy and Ancient Medicine, which attack re- 
spectively the " divine " origin of disease and the 
intrusion into medicine of the hypothetical specula- 
tion of philosophers. 

There is another group of works which, while 
they do not display to any marked degree the 
Hippocratic characteristics, are nevertheless practical 
handbooks of medicine, physiology or anatomy. The 
list is a long one, and includes works by different 
authors and of different schools : — 

The Surgerij. 

The Heart. 

Places in Man. 

Gla?ids. 

Anatomy. 

Nature of the Bones. 

Sight. 

Dentition. 

Diseases I. 

Diseases II. and III.^ 

Aj^ections.^ 

Internal Affections?- 

Sores. 

Fistidae. 

Hemorrhoids. 

^ Shows influence of Cnidian school. So possibly do other 
books. 

xxiii 



1 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

Prorrhetic II. 

The Physician, 

Crises. 

Critical Days. 

Purges. 

Use of Liquids. 

Seventh Month Child. 
Eighth Month Child. 
Generatio7t.^ 
Nature oj" the Chi Id. ^ 
Diseases IV ^ 
Diseases of Wornen.^ 
Barrenness.^ 
Diseases of Girls. 
Nature of JVotnen. 
Excision of the Foetus. 
Superfoetation. 

Regimen in Health,"^ 

Regimen II. and ///. witli Dreams, 

Another most important group of works consists 
of those in which the philosophic element predomi- 
nates over the scientific, the writers being anxious, 
not to advance the practice of medicine, but to bring 
medicine under the control of philosophic dogma, 
to achieve in fact the end attacked by the writer of 
Aricient Medicine. These works are Nutriment, Regi- 
men I. and Airs. The first two are Heraclitean ; the 
last is probably derived from Diogenes of ApoUonia. 

* Shows influence of Cnidian school. So possibly do other 
books. 
^ Really a continuation of Nature of Man. 

xxiv 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

Regimen I., however, while strongly Heraclitean, is 
eclectic. Animals are said to be composed of two 
elements, fire and water, fire being a composite of 
the hot and the dry, water of the cold and the 
moist. Certain sentences are strikingly reminiscent 
of Anaxagoras, so much so that it is impossible to 
regard the resemblances as accidental. Take for 
instance the following : — 

(1) a7rdAA.i;Tat /jlIv ovv ovSlv (iTrdvTwv ^prj/xarojv, 
oiSe yiveTai oxt /xy kol irpoaOev rju. fu/x/Atcryo/xei'a Sk 
Kttt ^Lo.KpLvofjLiva aXXoiovTai. — Regimen I. iv. 

(2) ouSei/ yap xprjjxa yLverai, ot'Se aTroAAuTat, dAA airo 
iovTwv '^pYjixd.Tuiv (TVfXfJ.iayiTai re Koi hiaKpLV(.Tai. — 
Anaxagoras, jr. 22 (Schaubach). 

To assign exact dates to these works is impossible, 
but they are probably much later than Heraclitus 
himself. The interesting fact remains that Hera- 
clitus had followers who kept his doctrine alive, 
second-rate thinkers, perhaps, and unknown in the 
history of science, but hearty supporters of a creed, 
and ready to extend it to embrace all new know 
ledge as it was discovered. Particularly interesting 
is the work Nutriment. This not only adopts the 
theory of Heraclitus, but also mimics his sententious 
and mysterious manner of expression. A few examples 
may not be out of place. 

^ucri? i^apKeeL iravTa iracTLV. — Nutriment xv. 
Kpareet yap [sc. 6 ^etos vop,os] . . . kol iiapniei 
Tracrt. — Heraclitus apud Stob. Flo/: III. 84. 
/xia cf)v<TL<; eu'at Kai fxr] eTvai. — Nutriment xxiv. 
dfxiv T€ KoX ovK el/jifv. — Heraclitus A/leg. Horn. 24. 
68os avoi KaTO), fXia. — Nutriment XLV. 

XXV 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

68os avo) Koi KOLToi fxia Kal wvr-q. — Heraclitus apud 
Hippolyt. IX. 10. 

Trpds Ti TTuvTa (f)\avpa Kai iravTa (icTTeta. — A ntriynent 
XLV. 

OaXacraa vowp KaOapwrarov koI /juapwrarov, l)(6vai 
jxh' TTOTtfjiov Koi crwTrjpiov, ai'0p<siTroi% Se awoTov koX 
oXidpLov. — Heraclitus apiid Hippolyt. IX. 10. 

^^copei Se TTavra koX 6ila /cat di/^pcoTreia, a;/o) Koi koltu) 
a.fx€i/36ij.eva. — Regimen I. v. 

Similar to these philosophic treatises are the 
essays, eTrtSei'^eis or displays, which propound theses 
which are not the viroOeaeLs of philosophers. These 
are The Art, the object of which is to show that 
there is an art of medicine, and Nature of Man, 
which combats the monist philosophers, and sets 
forth the doctrine of the four humours as the cause 
of health, by their perfect crasis, and of disease, 
through a disturbance of that crasis. To this group 
we may perhaps add the treatise Decorum, which 
deals (among other things) with bed-side manners, 
and Precepts, a work similar in style and subject. 

The last tAvo works are interesting for their intro- 
ductory remarks. Decorum practically identifies 
medicine and philosophy, which term is used to 
denote the philosophic spirit, with its moral as well 
as its intellectual attributes, and recognises the 
working of an agency not human ; it is in fact 
typical of the ethical science, practical if occasion- 
ally commonplace, which came into vogue towards 
the end of the fourth century b.c. The introduc- 
tion to Precepts is Epicurean. The first chapter, in 
fact, is a summary of Epicurean epistemology, and 
is full of the technical terms of that school. A 
single quotation will suffice : — 

xxvi 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

o yap \oyia-fx6? ixvrjjx-q Tt's e'crrt ^vi'OeTiKr] toiv /act' 
al(T6y<TL0<; Xrjc^OivTtnV i(f>avTaaiw6r] yap ivapyew; r) 
aLO-dfjcri?, TrpoTra0-i]<; koI a.va7rofXTro<; iovaa els Stavotav Twr 
vTroKfi[X€vwv. — Precepts I. 

This definition of Xoyiap-os is practically the same 
as that of the E[)icurean TvpoX-qipis given in Diogenes 
Laertius X. 33. 

A few of the contents of the Corpus Hippocraticum 
remain unclassified. Of these, by far the most 
Hippocratic are Epidemics II., Il\ I'll. It is indeed 
remarkable that in antiquity they were not generally 
assigned to the "great" Hippocrates. The clinical 
histories are invaluable, although they are not so 
severely pertinent as those of Epideinics I. and ///., 
betraying sometimes an eye for picturesque but 
irrelevant detail. 

The treatise curiously misnamed Fleshes contains, 
amid a variety of interesting anatomical and physio- 
logical detail, traces of Pythagoreanism in the virtue 
attached to the number seven, and of Heracliteanism 
in the view put forward that warmth is the spirit 
that pervades the universe. 

Humours deals with tlie relations of humours to 
the seasons and so on. 

The Oath and The Law are small but interesting 
documents throwing light on medical education and 
etiquette. 

Finally, the Epistles'^ and Decree, although merely 
imaginary essays, show what manner of man Hip- 
pocrates was supposed to have been by the Greeks 
of a later age. 

* It is interesting to note that the Platonic collection and 
the New Testament, like the Corpus, end with a series of 
letters. 

xxvii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

The Hippocratic collection is a medley, with no 
inner bond of union except that all the works are 
written in the Ionic dialect and are connected more 
or less closely with medicine or one of its allied 
sciences. There are the widest possible divergences 
of style, and the sharpest possible contradictions in 
doctrine. The questions present themselves, why 
were they united, and when did the union occur.'' 

Littre's problem, "When was the Hippocratic 
collection published ? " ^ cannot be answered, for 
it is more than doubtful whether, as a whole, the 
collection was ever published at all. The publica- 
tion of a modern work must in no way be compared 
with the circulation of a book in ancient times. 
Printing and the law of copyright have created a 
revolution. As soon as an ancient author let go out 
of his possession a single copy of his book, it was, 
to all intents and purposes, "published." Copies 
might be multiplied without permission, and a 
popular and useful work was no doubt often cir- 
culated in this way. Now at least one hundred, 
perhaps three hundred, years separate the writing of 
the earliest work in the Corpus from the writing 
of the latest. Diodes knew the Aphorisms, Ctesias 
probably knew Articulations, and Menon certainly 
knew two or three treatises. Aristotle himself 
quotes from Nature of Man, though he ascribes it 
to Polybus. It is surely impossible to suppose with 
Littre that there was anything approaching a publi- 
cation of the Corpus by the Alexandrian librarians. 
Even if they had published for the first time only 
a large portion of the collection, such a momentous 
event would scarcely have passed unnoticed by the 

^ Vol. I., chap. xi. 
xxviii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

long series of commentators culminating in Galen. 
The librarians of Alexandria could not have done 
more than establish a canon, and if our present 
collection represents their work in this direction 
it was done very badly, as the most superficial critic 
would not fail to notice that a great part of its 
contents is neither by Hippocrates himself nor by 
his school. 

The Hippocratic collection is a library, or rather, 
the remains of a library. What hypothesis is more 
probable than that it represents the library of the 
Hippocratic school at Cos.'' The ancient biographies 
of Hippocrates relate a fable that he destroyed the 
library of the Temj)le of Health at Cnidos (or, 
according to another form of the fable, at Cos) in 
order to enjoy a monopoly of the knowledge it 
contained. The story shows, at least, that such 
libraries existed, and indeed a school of medicine, 
like that which had its home at Cos, could not 
well have done without one. And what would this 
library contain ? The works of the greatest of the 
Asclepiads, whether published or not ; valuable 
works, of various dates and of different schools, 
bearing on medicine and kindred subjects ; medical 
records and notes by distinguished professors of 
the school, for the most part unpublished ; various 
books, of no great interest or value, presented to 
the library or acquired by chance. 

The Hippocratic collection actually corresponds 
to this description. This is nearly all the historian 
is justified in saying. Beyond is mere conjecture. 
We can only guess Avhen this library ceased to be 
the property of the Hippocratic school, and how it 
was transferred to one or other of the great libraries 

xxiy 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

which were collected in Alexandrine times, to be 
re-copied and perhaps increased by volumes which 
did not belong to the original collection. 

It may be urged that if the Hippocratic Corpus 
were originally a library, it is improbable that all the 
treatises composing it would be written in Ionic. But 
it is by no means certain when Ionic ceased to be the 
normal medium for medical science ; for all we 
know the dialect may have been in vogue until long 
after the Koivt] established itself throughout the 
Greek world. Moreover, we do not know what 
levelling forces were at work among copyists and 
librarians, inducing them to assimilate the dialects 
of medical works to a recognized model. VVe do know, 
however, that as centuries passed more and more 
lonisms, most of them spurious, were thrust upon 
the Hippocratic texts. The process we can trace in 
the later history of the text may well have been 
going on, in a different form, in the fourth and third 
centuries b.c. 

It is because I regard the Hippocratic collection 
as merely a library that I do not consider it worth 
while to attempt an elaborate classification, like those 
of Littre, Greenhill, Ermerins, and Adams. A library 
is properly catalogued according to subject matter, 
date, and authorship ; it is of little use to view each 
separate volume in its relationship to a particular 
writer. The Hippocrates of tradition and the Hip- 
pocrates of the commentators may well be left 
buried in obscurity and uncertainty. What we do 
know, what must be our foundation stone, is that 
certain treatises in the Corpus are impressed with 
the marks of an outstanding genius, who inherited 
much but bequeathed much more. He stands for 

XXX 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

science and aa^ainst superstition and hypothetical 
philosophy. The other contents of the Corpus are 
older or later than this nucleus, either in harmony 
with its doctrines or opposed to them. More than 
this we cannot hope to know for certain. 



§ 3. Means of Dating Hippocratic Writings. 

The means of fixin<^ the dates of the treatises 
composing the Hippocratic collection are twofold — 
external and internal. 

The external evidence consists of the statements 
of Galen and other ancient authors. 

The internal tests are : — 

(a) The philosophical tenets stated or implied ; 
(ft) The medical doctrines ; 
(c) The style of the treatise ; 
(cV) The language and grammar. 

(rt) When a philosophic doctrine is adopted, or 
referred to as influential, it is presumptive evidence 
that the treatise was written before that doctrine 
grew out of date. We cannot, however, always be 
sure when a doctrine did grow out of date. It is a 
mistaken idea to suppose that the rise of a fresh 
school meant the death of its predecessors. It is 
certain, for instance, that Heraclitus had followers, 
after the rise of other schools, who developed his 
doctrines without altering their essential character. 

[h) Medical doctrines also are by no me:ins a 
certain test. If we could be sure that a knowledge 

VOL. I. g XXX i 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

of the pulse was unknown to the writers of the chief 
' Hippocratic treatises, we should be more confident 
in dating, e.g., the work called Nutrimeyit, which 
recognizes the existence of a pulse. It is a fact 
that no use is made of this knowledge in any 
treatise of the collection, but we must not infer 
from this that the Hippocratic writers were ignor- 
ant of pulses. We can only infer that they were 
ignorant of their medical importance. 

(c) The style of a treatise is sometimes a sure 
test and sometimes not. Sophistic rhetoric is of 
such a marked character in its most pronounced 
form that a treatise showing it is not likely to be 
much earlier than 427 b.c, nor much later than 
400 B.C., when sophistic extravagances began to be 
modified under the influence of the Attic orators. 
But a work moderately sophistic in general style 
and sentence-structure may be much later. 

There is also a subtle quality about writings later 
than 300 b.c, an unnatiiral verbosity and tortuousness 
of expression, a suspicion of the " baboo," that is as 
unmistakable as it is impalpable. A few of the 
Hippocratic treatises display this charactei-istic. 

{d) In some respects grammar and diction are the 
sui-est tests of all. If the negative jxrj is markedly 
ousting ov it is a sure sign of post-Alexandrine 
date. A preference for compound words with 
abstract meaning, in cases where a simple expres- 
sion would easily have sufficed, is a mark of later 
Greek prose. If any reader wishes for concrete 
evidence to support my rather vague generalisations, 
he has only to read Epidemics I., then The Ait or 
Regimen I., and finally Precepts or Decorum, and try 
to note the differences. 

xxxii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



§ 4. Platu's References to Hippocrates. 

In the Protagoras (311 B) Plato assumes the case 
of a young man who goes to 'l-mroKpaTr] tov KiZov, tuv 
TuJv A.<TK\rjTrLa^uiv, to learn medicine. Tiiis passaiTe 
tells us little except that Hippocrates took pupils 
for a fee. But in the Phaedrits (270 C — E) there is 
another passage which professes to set forth the 
true Hippocratic method. It is as follows : — 



Socrates. Do you think 
it possible, then, satis- 
factorily to comprehend 
the nature of soul apart 
from the nature of the 
universe ? 

Phaedrus. Nay, if we 
are to believe Hippo- 
crates, of the Asclepiad 
family, we cannot learn 
even about the body 
unless we follow this 
method of procedure. 

Socrates. Yes,my friend, 
and he is right. Yet 
besides the doctrine of 
Hipjiocrates, we must 
examine our argument 
and see if it harmonizes 
with it. 

Phaedrus. Yes. 

Socrates. Observe, 
then, what it is that both 
Hippocrates and correct 



2fi. "^vxrjS ovv <jiV(TLy 
dittos \6yov KaTai'O'^crat o'Ui 
^vvaTov ilvai avev t^s tov 
oXov (f}Va'€<j}<; ; 



<J>AI. Et /xev ovv Itttto- 
Kparec ye tw tcov 'ActkAt;- 
TTiaSwv Sei TL TreiOeadaL. ovBk 
Trepi croj/xaros avev Tys jxeOo- 
8oD TavTy]<;. 



2n. K.aXwi;ydp,w eralpe, 
XiyeL. xpr] /xevroL irpo? tw 
linroKpaTet Tor Aov 



jKpc 



r/ov t^era- 



tpvTo. aKOTretv el av/icfxjji'eL. 



4>AI. 4>7y^t. 

20. To Toivvv Trept 

(fivcreu)^ aKoirei tl iroTe 

Aeyet lTnroKpdTrj<; re Koi 6 

xxxiii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



argument mean by an 
examination of nature. 
Surely it is in the follow- 
ing way that we must in- 
quire into the nature of 
anything. In the first 
place we must see whether 
that, in which we shall 
wish to be craftsmen and 
to be able to make others 
so, is simple or complex. 
In the next place, if it 
be simple, we must in- 
quire what power nature 
has given it of acting, 
and of acting upon what ; 
what power of being 
acted upon, and by what. 
If on the other hand it 
be complex, we must 
enumerate its parts, and 
note in the case of each 
what we noted in the 
case of the simple thing, 
through what natural 
power it acts, and upon 
what, or through what 
it is acted upon, and by 
what. 

It is obvious that if we could find passages in the 
Hippocratic collection which clearly maintain the 
doctrine propounded in this part of the Fhaedrus we 
should be able to say with confidence that the 



aXrj6r]<; Xoyos. 5p' ovx 
(uSe Sei Siai'octcr^at irepi 
oTovovv ^ucreojs ; Trpwrov 
fxtv, OLTrXovv rj 7roXTJ€io£9 
ia-TLV, ov Trepi /^ovXr/cro/xe^a 
etvai avTol Tc^riKOt Kat 
aXXov SvvaTol Troictv, eTretra 
8e, eav /xev onrXovv r], 
crKOTTCtv Tyjv Sui'a/xiv avTOv, 
TLva 7rp6? Tt 7re<jf)UK€j' £is to 
8pav ^X^^ ^/ ''"'■'^'^ ^'^ '''° ^'^~ 

Biiv VTTO TOV ; €UI' 0€ TrXcto) 

£1877 ex]], raiJTa apiOfXTjad- 
fxevov, oTvep ((f) cros, tout 
l^etv iff) iKOCTTOv, tw Tt 
TTOLelv ai'TO ■n-e(fiVK€v ■>) to) 
Tt TraOiiv VTTO Toi) ; — Fhae- 
drus 270 C, D. 



xxxiv 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

Hippocrates of history and tradition was the author 
of such and such a treatise. 

Galen maintains that Plato refers to the treatise 
Nature of Ma?i. I believe that few readers of the 
latter will notice any striking resemblances between 
this work^ and the doctrine outlined by Plato. 
More plausible is the view of Littre, that Plato refers 
to Chapter XX of Ancient Medicine, which contains 
the following passage : — 

Itrel TOVTO ye /xot So/cei dvay/catov euai Trai'rl li]Tp(Z Trepl 
(fiVCTio^ eloivai, Koi Trdi'v <JTrov8d(TaL cos euTerat, etTrep ri 
/xe'AAet Twr 8eui'Twv iroiyaeLV, o Tt re ecrTU' diOpwTru<; tt/dos tol 
irrOiOfxei'd re Koi TTivofxiva, Koi o tl 7rpo9 to. aA.Aa intTr^Seij- 
fxara, Kat o n d(ji eKaarov exdaTw av/x/3i'j(TeraL. 

Here the resemblance is closer — close enough to 
show that the author of Ancient Medicine, if he be not 
the Hippocrates of history, at least held views similar 
to his. And here the question must be left. Few 
would maintain with Littre that the resemblance 
between the two jiassages is so striking that they 
must be connected ; few again would deny that 
Plato was thinking of A?icie?it Medicine. Ignorance 
and uncertainty seem to be the final result of most 
of the interesting problems presented by the Hippo- 
cratic collection. 

§ 5. The Commentators and other Ancient 
Authorities. 

About the time of Nero a glossary of unusual 
Hippocratic terms was written by Erotian, which 

^ To my mind the closest resemblances are in Chapters 
VII and VIII, wliich deal with the relations between the 
"four humours" and the four seasons. 

XXXV 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

still survives. Erotian was not the first to compose 
such a work, nor was he the last, the most famous of 
his successors being Galen. An examination of this 
glossary, combined with testimony derived from 
Galen, throws some light on the history of the 
Hippocratic collection. It will be well to quote a 
passage from Erotian's introduction, which contains 
a fairly complete list of commentators. 

Ilapa TavTy]v ye tol ttji' atrtav ttoXXol twv iX.Xoyifj.(av 
ovK larpwv /xovov, dWa koI ypafx/xaTiKwy i<nrov?>a.<Tav 
i^yrjaacrOaL rbv avSpa kol tos Ae'^ei? eVt to KOivoTepov 
T>}s o/xtAias dyayeu'. aevoKpiros yap 6 Kwms, ypa/x- 
/aartKos wv, ws (f>r]crLV 6 Tapavrlvos 'Hpa/<A.€t87^s, Trpwros 
iTrefSdXiTO ras Totavra? i^anXovv t^wvas. ws ok kuI 6 
Kirteus AiroXXwvLO'i Icrropei, Kat KaAAt/xa^^os 6 aTro ttJs 
apocjiLXov oiKias. fJicO' ov <f>a(TL tov Tavaypaiov BaK^ctov 
CTTi/JaAeti' TTj TTpay/xareta Kat 8ta Tptiov crwra^ecov TTXr][)wcraL 
tt;v TvpoOicrjxiav, TroXXa<i TrapaO ifxevov eis tovto p.aprvpLa<; 
TTOirjTuiv, w 8?/ TOV e/XTTCiptKov cTL'y^povjjcrai'Ta <I>tXu/()i' 8ia 
i^a/3i/3\ov TrpayfiaTCLas dvTenrelv, Kaarf.p 'ETriKXeovs toC 
KpT^TOS iiTLTejjiOfJia'ov ras BaK^et'oi; Xe^ei<; 8ta . . . o-i/i'ra- 
^eajv, 'ATToAAwi'tou re tow "0<^ea)s ravTO TrotT^cavTOs, /vui 
Atoo-KopiSou ToC 4>aKa Tracrt tovtois dvTciTroi'Tos 8i eTrra 
/3i/3Xi(])v, 'AttoXXwvlov t€ tov KtTiews OKTw/cat'ScKa n-pos 
TO. To9 Tapai'Tuou Tpta Trpos BaK^etoj/ 8iaypdij/avT0^, Kai 
VXavKiov ToD ifiTreLpiKov Bi' evo<; 7roXvaTi)(ov Trdvv koI 
KttTo. o^TOi^i^ciov TreTTOirjixevov TavTO iirLTrj^evcravTO^ Trpo? tc 
TOUTOt? Avo-tp-di^ou Tou K(uou K /?t/3Atajv £(f7roi'y^(rai'TOs 
7rpayp.aT€tav peTO, Toi) Tpta p.ei' ypaxpat Trpos KvStav tov 
'Hpo^tAetoj', Tpta 8e Trpos Ai^pT^rptov. Toir 8e ypappaTtKwv 
ouAC eo"Tiv oo'Tis cAAdytpo; c^avets TraprjXOe tov avSpa. 
Kat yap 6 dvaSf^dpevos avrov Ev(f>opiwv Trao'av €CT7roi'oacre 
Xi^iv i^rjyyaaadai 8ta (Si/SXtwv s , Trept ojv ye.ypd.<^acriv 

xxxvi 



gp:neral introduction 

ApLaToKXrjs Koi A^otrrrea? ol PoStot. ert r3e 'Ap'<TTap)(^os 
Kai /xera Trdrra? 'Ai'ri'yoi'os kui At'Su/xos ot AXe^ai^peis. — • 
pp. 4, 5 (Naclniianson). 

A good account of the commentators is given by 
Littre, vol. I.^ })p. 83 foil. Heropliiliis (about 300 b.c.) 
appears to have been the first ; Bacchius his pupil 
edited Epideutics III., Avrote notes on three other 
Hippocratic works, and compiled a glossary. A 
great number of sliort fragments of the works of 
Bacchius still survive. The most celebrated com- 
mentator, a medical man as well as a scholar, was 
Heraclides of Tarentum, who lived rather later than 
Bacchius. 

Erotian in his introduction gives the following list 
of Hippocratic works : — 

crrjfXiLWTLKa fiev ovv icrri Tavra' TipoyvuxTTLKOv, Tipop- 
prjTiKov a KOL /3' (a)9 ovk ecrriv 'ImroKpaTov;, iv aAAot? 
oei^OfjLtv), TlepL ■yvjxwv. alrioXoyLKa 8e Koi (fyvaiKo.' Ylepl 
cj>v(Twv, Tlepi c^vtrews av9pwTrov, Ilepi icpSs vocrov, Tlept 
(^I'creojs TTaiOLOv, Tlepl Tonuyv koi wpCov. OeparrevTiKa Se' 
TO))' filv €15 ^eipiivpycav uyrjKovTMV' Uepl dypon', Hepl 
apOpojy, Ilept €A.^(2n^, Ylepl rpav/xaToiv Koi /SiXwv, Hepl twv 
iv KecfiaXfj Tpavp-drwy, Kara lyjTpeioi', 1S1o)(\ik6v, Hepl 
aljxoppoiOMv Kal avpLyyun'. ets Statrar' Ilepl vovcnov a. 
p, riept TTTLcra.vri';, Tlepl tottwv tojv Kara. di'OpwTror, 
VvvaiKetwv a j3 , Ilfpi Tpo0^?, IIcpi acfiOpMV, Ilept vBoltwi'. 
iTTifxiKTa Se ccTTi Tavra' 'A(f>opL(Tixot, 'YiinSrijXLaL t,'. Twr 
o €ts Tov Trepi Te^^vr]<; reivovTwv Xoyov' 'OpKos, Nop.os, 
Ilept T£)(i't]<;, Uepl dp;^atas tarptKr}?. Ilp€crf3evTiKb<i yap 
Kai ETTipco/xto? cftiXo 77 a.TpLi' /idXXov 7] IcTpuv ijxfjiauovai 
TOV diSpa. — p. 9 (Nachmanson). 

The actual glossary, however, refers to more works 
than these, as will appear from the following table. 

xxxvii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



LISTS OF THE HIPPOCRATIC COLLECTION 

[Works known to tlie authors, nob necessarily attributed 
by them to Hippocrates.] 



Littre 
vol. 


Name. 


Bacchius. 


Celsus. 


Erotian. 


1 


■jrepl apxn^'JJ irjrpi/c^s 




X 


X 


2 


Trepi afpoov vSaTaiv roiroiv 


X 


X 


X 


) 5 


TrpoyvciKTTlKOV . 


X 


X 


X 


J J 


irepi SiaiTTjs o^eaiv . 


X 


X 


X 


5 I 


eiriSrjfxiaL 1 . . 


X 


X 


X 


3 


iTnhriiJ.tai 3 


. 


X 


X 


X 


)» 


Trepl TaJj/ eV k€ 


<pa\fi rpav- 










^(XTOIJ/ 




X 


X 


X 


») 


war' ir]Tpi'iov . 




X 


X 


X 


^f 


rrepl ay/xwv 




•> 


X 


X 


4 


irepl apQpStv 




X 


X 


X 


)) 


/xox^'kSv 




X 




X 


>) 


dcpopiff/xoi 




X 


X 


X 


>) 


OpKOS 








X 


?? 


vo/xm 








X 


5 


eVi57]|Uioi 2 




X 


X 


X 


J > 


„ 4 








X 


) i 


5 






X 


X 


; > 


„ 6 




X 




X 


J) 


" J 








X 


) J 


Trepl x^h'-^^ 




X 


X 


X 


) » 


irpupprjTiKhv 1 




X 




X 


)* 


Koja/cai 7rpo7i'aio-eis . 




X 




6 


Trepl Te'x»")S • • 


X 


X 


X 


j> 


Trepi (pvaios avOpwirov 






X 


> > 


Trepl StaiTTjs LiYieifTJs 




X 




>) 


Trepl (pvaHv 




X 


X 


) ' 


Trepl xpV^^os vypwv . 


X 




X 


J' 


Trepl vovcuv 1 


X 




XX 


) J 


Trepl ■KO.Qwv 




X 




)> 


Trepl TOTroir Tajj/ kot' 










avdpwTrov 


X 




X 


») 


Tre,<l iep-^s i/oi^crou 


X 




X 


)> 


Tiepl eAKwv 






X 


5 > 


Trepl ai/xoppoiSaiv . 






X 


J> 


Trepl avpiyywv 


• • 




X 


X 



XXXVIU 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



Littr^ 
vol. 


Name. 


Bacchius. 


Celsus. 


Erotian. 


6 


irepl SioiTr/s 1 






X X 


»» 


'7 






X 


X X 


>> 
) 1 


3 








X X 


7 


irepl vovffuv 2 






X 


X X 


) J 


irepi voi^croii' 3 . 








X X 


) ) 


TTfpl Tajj/ (vros TTddijoV 






X 


XX 


)» 


Trepi yvyaiKfirjs cpvaios 










»> 


wepl (TTTa/j.rii'OV 










>) 


irepl OKTa/XTji'ov 










>> 


irepl yoyrjs 








X X 


)» 


irepl (pvaios TraiSiou 




X 




X 


) 1 


TTfpl vovamv 4 










8 


irepi y\jvai.K^'[.<iiv 1 and 2 








X 


) ) 


Trepl a<p6pwv 








X 


») 


TTfpl Trapdii'io:v 










M 


irepl i-niKvr\aios 










»> 


irep! e'7«aTOTo/xj}s f/j.l3pvoi 










J) 


Trepl dvaTO/iffj 












irfpl dStVojj' 












■Jrepi (TapKoiv 








X X 

X X 


9 


TTpopp1)TlKOV 2, 






X 


X 


)) 


Trep! KapSiris . 




7 


X 




)) 


Trepl Tpo(pi]s . 








X 


J) 


irepl 6\ptos 










) » 


Trepi cxTTfciiv (pvffios . 




X 




X X 


J t 


irepl IrjTpov 










)1 


irepl (vaxvi^oavvrfs . 










5* 


irapayyeXlai . 








X X 


) ) 


irepl Kpiaiwi' . 










i » 


irepl Kpiaifiuiv . 










» J 


iiricnoKai 










)) 


irpea^evTiK6s . 








X 


1 » 


eiri^difiios . 








X 


70 






23? 


25 


49 



Erotian knew also irepl TpavfjLarwv ical ^eXSiv, now lost. 
The double X X means " by quotation, but not in the list." 

xxxix 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

N.B. — The list of Bacchius is made by noting 
Avhere in the Hippocratic collection occur the 
strange words upon which he commented ; that of 
Celsus by a comparison of similar passages ; that 
of Erotian from his list^ by noting where occur the 
yA-wo-crai explained by him, and from fragments in 
scholia (see E. Nachmanson's edition, pp. 99 foil.). 
Of course the list of Celsus is dubious from its 
nature, and Bacchius may have known many more 
treatises than those we are sure he did know. 

The recently discovered history of medicine called 
Menon's latiica ^ contains several references to 
Hippocrates. Diels is of opinion that they are very 
erroneous. 2 

In § V. the writer says that according to Hippo- 
crates diseases are caused by "airs" (^lo-at), a state- 
ment which seems to be taken from irepl (jivcrwv, VI. 
98 foil. Littre, and tlie doctrine is described in §§ V. 
and VI. In § VII. Hi])pocratesis said to hold doctrines 
which are taken from Nature of Man, VI. 52 foil. 
Littre. In § VIII. occur references to Places in Man, 
VI. 276, 294 Littre, and Glanda, VIII. 564 Littre. 
In § XIX. occur references to Nature of Man, VI. 38 
Littre, but the physician named is Polybus. 



Galen 

Galen is the most important of the ancient com- 
mentators on Hippocrates, and of his work a great 
part has survived. 

' Edited by H. Diels, Berlin, 1893. Tiie work was probably 
written by a pupil of Aristotle. 

2 See r3iels, p. xvi, note 1, and iii Hermes XXVIII., pp. 
410 foil. 

Xl 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

His writings are of value for two reasons : — 

(1) They often give us a text superior to that of 
the MSS. of the Corpus. Sometimes this text is 
actually given in Galen's quotations ; sometimes it 
is implied in Galen's commentarv.^ 

(2) They sometimes throw light upon the inter- 
pretation of obscure passages. 

Galen's ideal of a commentator is beyond criticism. 
He prefers ancient readings, even when they are 
the more difficult, and corrects only when tliese give 
no possible sense. In commenting he is of opinion 
that he should first determine the sense of the text 
and then see whether it corresponds with the 
truth.2 

Unfortunately he is not so successful when he 
attempts to put his ideal into practice. He is in- 
tolerably verbose, and what is worse, he is eager so 
to interpret Hippocrates as to gain support there- 
from for his own theories. A good example of this 
fault is his misinterpretation of Epideviics III. xiv. 
Littr6 gives as another fault his neglect of observa- 
tion and observed fact.^ 

Galen wrote commentaries, which still survive, on 
the following : — 

Nature of Man. ) One book in ancient 

Kegi?ne?i of People in Health, j times. 

Regimen in Acute Diseases. 

Proffnoftic. 

Prorrhetic I. 

Aphorisms. 

' On the value of Galen for a reoonstruclion of the text 
see especially I. Ilbcrg in the I'roJ^jomcna to Kuhlewein's 
edition Vol. I., pp. xxxiv-xlix and Iviii-lxii. 

» 8ee Littr^ I. 1'20, 121. 3 j 12I. 

xli 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

Epidemics I., II., III., VI. 

Fracliires. 

Articulations. 

Surgery. 

Humours} 

Nutriment.^ 

Airs, Waters, Places (only fragments survive). 

We also have his Glossary. 

Commentaries on the following are altogether 
lost : — 
Sures. 

Wounds in the Head. 
Diseases. 
AJf'eciions. 

He also wrote (or promised to write) the following, 
none of which survive : — Anatomy of Hippocrates, 
Characters in Epidemics III., Dialect of Hippocrates, 
The Genuine Writings of the Physician of Cos. 

Galen also knew : Coan Prenotions, Epilepsy, Fis- 
tulae, Hemorrhoids, Airs, Places in Man, Regimen, 
Seven Months' Child, Eight Months' Child, Heart, 
Fleshes, Number Seven, Prorrhetic II., Glands, and 
probably Precepts. 

The most important of the Hippocratic treatises 
not mentioned by Galen are Ancient Medicine and 
The Art. 

§ 6. Life of Hippocrates. 

We possess three ancient biographies of Hippo- 
crates : one by Suidas, one by Tzetzes, and one by 
Soranus, a late writer of uncertain date. 

^ These are supposed by the latest criticism nob to be 
genuine. 

xlii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

From these we gather that Hippocrates was born 
in Cos in 460 b.c. ; ^ tliat he belonged to the guild of 
pliysicians called Asclepiadae ; that his father was 
Heraclides, and his teachers were Herodicus and 
his own father; that he travelled all over Greece, 
and was a great friend of Democritus of Abdera; 
that his help was sought by Perdiccas king of Mace- 
donia and by Artaxerxes king of Persia ; that he 
stayed the plague at Athens and in other places ; 
that his life was a long one but of uncertain length, 
the traditions making him live 85, 90, 104 or 109 
years. 

In these accounts there is a certain amount of 
fable, but in the broad outline there is nothing 
improbable except the staying of the Athenian 
plague, which is directly contrary to the testimony 
of Thucydides, who expressly states that medical 
help was generally unsuccessful. 

The Epistles in the Hippocratic collection, and the 
so-called Decree of the Athenians, merely give, with 
fuller picturesqueness of detail, the same sort of 
information as is contained in the biographies. 

Plato refers to Hippocrates in two dialogues — 
the Protagoras ^ and the Phaedrus.^ The former 
passage tells us that Hippocrates was a Coan, an 
Asclepiad, and a professional trainer of medical 
students ; the latter states as a fundamental principle 
of Hippocratic physiology the dogma that an under- 
standing of the body is impossible without an 
understanding of nature as a whole, in modern 

^ Aulus Gelliiis N.A. XVII. 21 says tliat he was older 
than Socrates. This statement, if true, would put his birth 
prior to 470 B.C. 

"SllB.C. 3 270C-E. 

xliii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

language, physiology is inseparable from physics and 
chemistry. 

From Aristotle ^ we learn that Hippocrates was 
already known as " the Great Hippocrates." 

Such is the ancient account of Hippocrates^ a 
name without writings, as Wilamowitz says. There 
is no quotation from any treatise in the Corpus before 
Aristotle,^ and he assigns as the author not Hippo- 
crates but Polybus.^ The Phaedrus passage, indeed, 
has been recognized by Littre as a reference to 
Ancie7it Medicine, but Galen is positive that it refers 
to Nature of Man. 

In fact the connexion between the great physician 
and the collection of writings which bears his name 
cannot with any confidence be carried further back 
than Ctesias the Cnidian,* Diodes of Carystus^ and 
Menon,*" the writer of the recently discovered latrica. 
Ctesias and Diodes belong to the earlier half of the 
fourth century, and Menon was a pupil of Aristotle. 

§ 7. The Asclepiadae. 

Hippocrates was, according to Plato, an Asclepiad. 
This raises the very difficult question, who the 
Asclepiadae were. Its difficulty is typical of several 

1 Politics, VII. 4 (1.326 a). 

2 Who quotes from Nature of Man. 

^ See Littre VI. 58 and Aristotle Hisl. Animal. III. 3 
(512 1>), and compare Galen XV. 11. 

* Ctesias appears to have known the treatise Articulations, 
Littre I. 70. 

° Diocles criticises Aphorisms II. 3.3. See Dietz Scholia in 
Ilippocratem et Galenum 11. 326, and Littre I. 321-323. 

* Menon refers to Airs {irepi (pvaHv), Nature of Man, Places 
in Man, and Glands, Hippocrates being expressly connected 
witli the tirst two. 

xliv 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

Hippocratic problems. Certainty, even approximate 
certainty, is impossible owing to the scantiness of 
the evidence. 

The old view, discarded now by the most com- 
petent authorities, is that the yVsclcpiadae were the 
priests of the temples of Asclepius, combining the 
functions of priest and physician. This view implied 
that Hippocratic medicine had its origin in temple- 
practice. For a thorough refutation of it see 
Dr. E. T. Withington's excursus in my Ma/aria and 
Greek Ilisfori/^ and his own book Medical Hialory 
from Ike Earliest Times.^ 

Another view is that the Asclepiadae were a guild, 
supposed to have been founded by Asclepius, the 
members of which were bound by rules and swore 
the Hippocratic ''Oath." Such is the view of 
Dr. Witliinston himself. It is one which is free from 
all inti'insic objections, but it is supported by the 
scantiest of positive evidence. 

It should be noticed that the term " Asclepiadae " 
means literally "the family of Asclepius," and it is 
at least possible that the Asclepiads were a clan of 
hereditary physicians who claimed to be descended 
from Asclepius. It would be very easy for such a 
family to develop into something like a guild by the 
admission, or rather adoption, of favoured outsiders. 
In this way the term might readily acquire the 
general meaning of medical practitioner, which it 
apparently has in e.g. Theognis 432 : — 

£t 8' ' Ao'KXrjTTLdSai'i TovTo y eowK€ 6eo<;, 
IdaOaL KaKOT-qra koI arrjpa.'; (f)peva<; dv8pu)V, 
TToAAov'S av fxiaOov^ Kat /xeydkov; kcjiepov, 

pp. 1.37-15G. ^ pp. 45, 4f) and 378. 

xlv 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

I do not think that it has been noticed what an 
interesting parallel is afforded by the term " Homer- 
idae." A family of poets tracing their descent from 
Homer finally could give their name to any public 
reciter of the Homeric poems. ^ 



§ 8. The Doctrine of Humours. 

The doctrine of the humours probably had its 
origin 2 in superficial deductions from obvious facts of 
physiology, but it was strongly coloured by philo- 
sophic speculation, in particular by the doctrine of 
opposites. Indeed it is impossible to keep distinct 
the various influences which acted and reacted upon 
one another in the spheres of philosophy and 
medicine ; only the main tendencies can be clearly 
distinguished. 

Even the most superficial observer must notice 
{a) that the animal body requires air, fluid, and solid 
food ; (b) that too great heat and cold are fatal to 
life, and that very many diseases are attended by 
fever; (c) that fluid is a necessary factor in digestion ;3 
(d) that blood is in a peculiar way connected with 
life and health. 

These simple observations were reinforced by the 
speculations of philosophers, particularly when philo- 
sophy took a biological or pliysiological turn, and 

^ See e.g. Pindar, Nemeans II. 1. 

* It is supposed by some that the humoral pathology 
originated in Egypt. See Sir Clifford AUbutt, Greek Medicine 
in Home, p. 133. 

^ See Nutriment. LV. : vypaffir] rpocpris uxnP-'^- See also 
Diseases IV., Littre VII. 568: r)> auifjia . . . airh Tiav PpccTHv 
Kal Tuv iroraiv t^s IkixolSos iTravpiffKfTai, 

xlvi 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

became interested in the organs of man and their 
functions. 1 

The second of the Greek philosophers, Anaxi- 
mander," taught that creation was made up of 
"opposites," though it is not clear how many he 
conceived these opposites to be. Many later 
thinkers, working on lines similar to those of 
Anaximander, made them four in number — the hot, 
the cold, the moist and the dry. These were the 
essential qualities of the four elements, fire, air, 
water, earth. 

There was, however, no uniformity among thinkers 
as to the number of the opposites, and Alcmaeon, a 
younger contemporary of Pythagoras and a native of 
Croton, postulated an indefinite number.^ Alcmaeon 
was a jihysician rather than a philosopher, and 
asserted that health was an L(jovop.[a of these opposites 
and disease a jxovapxLa of one.^ This doctrine had a 

^ Empedocles, Philistion and Pausanias were the chief 
pioneers in this union of philosophy witli medicine wiiich the 
writer of Ancient Medicine so much deplores. See Burnet, 
Early Greek. Philosophy, pp. 234, 235 (also Galen X. 5, ol (k 
Trjs 'IraAias larpol <l>(Aio"Tia)j' re Kal 'E/xTreSoKXris ical Tlavaapia^ Kal 
oi TOVTWV eToipoi.) 

* He was also interested in biology. See Burnet, pp. 72, 
73. 

^ Aristotle Mefa. A 986 a 31 : (prjcrl yap eh-ai Svo ra TroWk 
riiv a.vdp(j)Tiivwv, Keycov ras eVa^TK^TrjTas oi/x Sianep ourot [sc. ol 
Tludaydpfioi] SioiptcTfitpas aWa Tas Tvxoiaas, olov AevKhv ^ue'Aaf, 
y\vKv TTLKp6v, o.yadhv KaKSv, fxiya. /niKpSi'. 

■* Aetius V. 30. 1, and Galen (Kiihn) XIX. .343: 'AXK/xaloov 
tJjs /.Iff vyfias eZfai avviKTiicriv iffovofxiav twv Swa/jLewv vypov, 
dep/xov, ^Tjpov, \l/vXPOV, TTiicpov, yAvKeos Ka\ tSiv Aonriav, Tr)i' 5e eV 
avToTs fiovupx'^i^'' I'diTov TroirirtK-ov. See also .344 : T7)i' 5e vydav 
crv/uiueTpov Toji' iroiiiv rriv Kpaaiv. It would he interesting if tlie 
technical word Kpacrts could be traced back to Alcmaeon 
himself. 

xlvii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

strong influence upon the Coan school of medicine, 
and indeed upon medical theory generally. 

But the opposites are not ^v/xol: they are only 
Suva/Act?. The humoral pathology was not fully 
developed until for Sura'^et? were substituted 
fluid substances.^ In tracing this development the 
historian is much helped by Ancient Medichie. It is 
here insisted that the hot, the cold, the moist and 
the dry are not substances; they are only "powers," 
and, what is more, powers of merely secondary 
importance.^ The body, it is maintained, has certain 
essential x^f^'^h which X'-^l^^^ have properties or 
"powers" with greater influence upon health than 
temperature. The number of the x^f^oi is left 
indefinite. If the body be composed of opposite 
humours, and if health be the harmonious mixture 
or blending (/cpucris) of them, we shall expect to see 
one or other "lording it over the others" (/xovap;(ta) 
in a state of disease. 

The two commonest complaints in ancient Greece, 
chest troubles and malaria, suggested as chief of 
these humours four : phlegm, blood (suggested by 
hemorrhage in fevers), yellow bile and black bile 
(suggested by the vomits, etc., in remittent malaria). 

That the humours are four is first clearly stated in 
Nature of Man, which Aristotle assigns to Polybus, 
though Menon quotes a portion of it as Hippocratic. . 
The passage in question runs : to 8e o-w/Aa tov av6poi7rov 

"^ It is a pit}' that the treatise Ilumoxirs tells us so little 
about the humours themselves. It is merely a series of notes 
for lectures, heads of discourse to medical students. 

2 See especially Chapters XIV-XVII, in particular 
XVII : aAA. tari nai iriiipov koCi. dipjjibv rh avro, koX o|u Ka\ 6epix6v, 
K0.\ aXixuphv Koi d(p/j.6v . . . to. ixif oiiv \vfxaip6fjieva toOt' iarl. 

xlviii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

€X^i- €•' iwvTw at/xa /cai cftXeyna kol ^^oXtjv L,avOrjv re /cat 
fxeXaLvav, kol ravra ecrriv avTw i] ^icrts . . . tiytairei fxkv 
ovv ,uaAioTa OKorav /xerpto)? €;^ry Tafra tyj^ Trpo<; dWijXa 
Kprjawi KoX ^vvdp.LO<; koI tov ttAt^^co?, koX /xaAicrTa /Ac/xiy- 
/AeVa ^ K.T.X. (Littre VI. 38 and 40). 

Some thinkers, belonging to the school of Empe- 
docles, and being more inclined towards philosophy 
than towards medicine, made the four chief oppo- 
sites, materialized into fire, air, water and earth, 
the components of the body, and disease, or at 
any rate some of the chief diseases, an excess of one 
or other. We see this doctrine fairly plainly in 
Menon's account of Philistion,^ and it is copied by 
Plato in the Timaeus.^ 

The doctrines I have described admitted many 
variations, and in Menon's latrica, which is chieHy 
an account of the origins of disease as given by 
various physicians, the most diverse views are set 
forth. Petron of Aegina, while holding that the 
body is composed of the four opposites, stated that 
disease was due to faulty diet, and that bile was 
the result and not the cause of disease.^ Hippon 
thought that a suitable quantity of moisture was the 
cause of health ; * Philolaus that disease was due to 
bile, blood and phlegm;'^ Thrasymachus of Sardis 
that blood, diiferentiated by excess of cold or heat 
into phlegm, bile, or to cjco-r^Tros (matter or pus), was 

^ latrica XX. : ^iXi.(ni(i:v 5' oXerai ere 5 ISeHv ffwearavai rifxa^, 
tovt' ecTiv ere 5 ctoix^''^''" '"'vpSs, ae'pos, vSaros, yris. elvai 5e 
Kol tKaffTov 5wdu€is, Toil fiev irvpos rh 6^pfji6v, ToD 5e aepos rh 
^pvxpov K.T.A.. 

^ 86 A: rh /j.iv ovv e're iruphs vTTfpBoKijS /naKicTTa voarjcrav cSiixa 
^vvsx^ KavfjLUTa koI Trvperous anepydi^eTai, rh 5' e'| aepos 
a/xcpriixepivovs K.r.K. 

» latrica, XX. * Ibid., XI. * Ibid., XVIII. 

xlix 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

the cause ; ^ Menecrates that the body is composed 
of blood, bile, breath and phlegm, and that health is 
a harmony of these. ^ 

The Hippocratic collection shows similar diver- 
sity of opinion. Diseases IV. 51, gives as the 
four humours bile, blood, phlegm and vSpwif/ (not 
water, but a watery humour).^ A[f'ections I. ascribes 
all diseases to bile and phlegm.* Ancient Medicine 
recognizes an indefinite number of humours. 

The great Hippocratic group imply the doctrine 
of humours in its phraseology and outlook on 
symptoms, but it is in the background, and nowhere 
are the humours described. It is clt-ar, however, 
that bile and phlegm are the most prominent, and 
bilious and phlegmatic temperaments are often 
mentioned in Airs Waters Places and Epidemics I. 
and ///. There are signs of subdivision in ircKpo- 
)^oXoL ^ and AevKoc^Xey/xaTt'ai.® 

Amid all these differences, which by their very 
variety indicate that tliey belonged to theory with- 
out seriously affecting practice, there is one common 
principle — that health is a harmonious mingling of 
the constituents of the body. What these constitu- 
ents are is not agreed, nor is it clear what exactly 
is meant by " mingling." 

The word aKpqro<;, which I have translated "un- 
mixed " or " uncompounded," is said by Galen to 
mean "consisting of one humour only." It is more 

^ latrica, XI. (end). 

2 md., XIX. 

3 Liltre VII. 584. 

4 Ibid., VI. 208. 

^ Regimen in Acute Diseases, XXXIII. : ol inKp6xo\oi ra 
&VOD : Epidemics HI. xiv. (end). 
® E^tidemics III. xiv. 

1 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

likely that the word means properly " showing signs 
that crasis has not taken place." 

Coction 

The course of our inquiry has brouglit us to the 
doctrine of " coction " {jriipi^). Familiar as a 
modern is with the difference between chemical 
blending and mechanical mixture, it is difficult for 
him to appreciate fairly theories put forward when 
this difierence was unknown, and the human mind 
was struggling with phenomena it had not the 
power to analyse, and trying to ex{)ress what was 
really beyond its reach. We must try to see things 
as the Greek physician saw them. 

We have in Ciiapters XVIII and XIX of Ancieiit 
Medicine the most complete account of coction as 
the ancient physician conceived of it. It is really 
the process which leads to K-pSm? as its result. It 
is neither purely mechanical nor yet wliat we should 
call chemical ; it is the action which so combines 
the opposing humours that there results a perfect 
fusion of them all. No one is left in excess so as to 
cause trouble or pain to the human individual. The 
writer takes three types of illnesses— the common 
cold, ophthalmia and pneumonia — and shows that 
as they grow better the discharges become less acrid 
and thicker as the result of Tre'i/zf;. 

In one respect the writer of Ancient Medicine is 
not a trustworthy guide to the common conception 
of Tre'i/zt?. He attached but little importance to heat, 
and it can scarcely be doubted that the action of 
heat upon the digestibility of foods, and the heat 
which accompanies the process of digestion itself, 

li 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

must have coloured the notion of Triipi<; as generally 
held. It is true that we read little about innate 
heat in the Hijipocratic collection, but that is an 
accident, and it certainly was thought to liave a 
powerful influence upon the bodily functions.^ 

A disease was supposed to result when the equili- 
brium of the humours, from some "exciting cause" 
or other (Trpoc^acris), was disturbed, and then nature, 
that is the constitution of the individual ((^wcrts), 
made every effort she could through coction to 
restore the necessary KpScris. 



Crisis 

The battle between nature and the disease was 
decided on the day that coction actually took place 
or failed to take place. The result was recovery, 
partial or complete, aggravation of the disease, or 
death. The crisis (Kpto-ts) is " the determination of 
the disease as it were by a judicial verdict." "^ 

After a crisis there might, or might not, be a 
relapse (vTroaTpo<fiT^'), which would be followed in due 
course by another crisis. 

The crisis, if favourable, was accompanied by the 
expulsion of the residue remaining after coction 
and KpScris of the humours had occurred. This expul- 

^ See Aphirisms, § I. 14 : to ou^afduei'o irXuaTov ex*' '''^ 
il.L(pvrov Btpfxov TTKeiarrjs ovv 5e?Tai rpocpyjs' el Se /j.ri, rh awp-a 
a.va\iaK€Tai k.t.\. 

^ See Dr. E. T. Withington, Classical Review, May-June 
1920, p. 65. Tliere is a good definition of Kpla-is in Ajfec- 
tions VIII. (Littre VI. 216) : Kplvfadai St ecmv iv toIj voiaois, 
orav av^iDvrai ai fovaoi ?) fxapalvwvTa.i fi ueTaTriirTU'criv is '^rtpnv 

lii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

sion might take place tlirough any of the ordinary 
means of evacuation — moiitli, bowels, urine, pores — 
and the evacuated matters were said to be concocted 
(jriTTova), that is to say, they presented signs that 
coction had taken place. ^ 

But nature was not always able to use the 
ordinary means of evacuation. In this case there 
would be an abscession (aTroo-Tacris). When the 
morbid residue failed to be normally evacuated, it 
was gathered together to one part of the body and 
eliminated, sometimes as an eruption or inflamma- 
tion, sometimes as a gangrene or tumour, sometimes 
as a swelling at the joints. 

An abscession did not necessarily mean recovery ; 
it might merely be a change from one disease to 
another. The Hippocratic writers are not clear 
about the point, but apparently the abscession might 
fail to accomplish its purpose, and so the disease 
continued in an altered form.- In other words there 
was abscission without real crisis. 

To trace the course of a disease through its various 
stages, and to be able to see what is portended by 
symptoms in different diseases and at different stages 
of those diseases, was an art upon which Hippocrates 
laid great stress. He called it TrpoyvojcrLs, and it 
included at least half of the physician's work. 

^ The chief signs of coction were greater consistency, 
darker colour, anil " rijjeness " or "mellowness." 

- The most important passages are : — 

((',) ovSe yap ai yiyi'Sfj.fvai tovtois a-n-offraffifs ^Kpivov utrvep 
i-rrl rols aWois [Epidrjidcs III. XII.). 

(h) awoffTaaies iyivovro, i) jxi^ovi wcrre v-n-ccpe^tiv fir] Svuaadai, 
1] iJLfious ix'ffii fJL'nh'kv uKpfKelv aWa raxi) TraMfSpoiJ.e'iv K.r.A. 

{Epidemics I. vni. ). 

liii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

Critical Days 

Crises took place on what wei-e called critical days. 
It is a commonplace that a disease tends to reach a 
crisis on a fixed day from the commencement, 
although the day is not absolutely fixed, nor is it 
the same for all diseases. The writer of Prosnostic 
and Epideviics I. lays it down as a general law that 
acute diseases have crises on one or more fixed days 
in a series. 

In Prognostic Chapter XX the series for fevers is 
given thus: — 4th day, 7th, 11th, 14th, 17th, 20th, 
34th, 40th, 60th. 

In Epidemics I. xxvi. two series are given : — 

(«) diseases which have exacerbations on even 
days have crises on these even days : 4th, 6th, 8th, 
10th, 14th, 20th, 24th, 30th, 4bth, 60th, 80th, 
120th. 

(b) diseases which have exacerbations on odd days 
have crises on these odd days : 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 
11th, 17th, 21st, 27th, 31st. 

A crisis on any other than a normal day was 
su()posed to indicate a probably fatal relapse, 

Galen thought that Hippocrates was the first to 
discuss the critical days, and there is no evidence 
against this view, though it seems more likely that 
it gradually grew up in the Coan school.^ 

What was the origin of this doctrine ? Possibly 
it may in part be a survival of Pythagorean magic, 
numbers being supposed to have mystical powers, 
which affected medicine through the Sicilian-Italian 

^ On the other hand, critical days are not discussed at all 
in Coan Prcyiotions, the supposed repository of pre-Hippocratic 
Coan medicine. 

liv 



genp:ral introduction 

school. But a man so free from superstition as the 
author of Epidemics I. was unhkely to be inHuenced 
by mysticism, particularly by a mysticism which left 
his contemporaries appai*ently untouched. More 
probably there is an effort to express a medical 
truth. In malarious countries, all diseases, and not 
malaria only, tend to grow more severe periodically ; 
latent malaria, in fact, colours all otlier complaints. 
May it not be that severe exacerbations and normal 
crises were sometimes confused by Hippocrates, or 
perhaps a series of malarial exacerbations attracted 
the crisis to one of the days composing it ? The 
sentence in Epidemics I. xxvi. is very definitely to 
the effect that when exacerbations are on even days, 
crises are on even days ; when exacerbations are 
on odd days, crises are on odd days. Evidently 
the critical days are not entirely independent of 
the periodicity of malaria. 

§ 9. Chief Diseases Mentioned in the Hippocratic 

Collection. 

Diseases were classified by ancient physicians 
according to their symptoms ; they are now classified 
according to the micro-organisms which cause them. 
Accordingly it often happens that no exact equivalent 
in Greek corresponds to an English medical term 
and vice versa. The name of a Greek disease 
denotes merely a syndrome of symptoms. 

Perhaps the most remarkable point arising in a 
discussion of Greek diseases is the ajiparent absence 
of most infectious fevers. Plagues, vaguely referred 
to by the term Xoi/xos,^ occurred at intervals, but the 

^ For the common Greek conception of Koij-ds see pseudo- 
Aristotle Problems I. 7. 

Iv 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

medical writings in tlie Hippocratic collection are 
occupied almost entirely with endemic disease and 
do not describe plagues, not even the great plague 
at Athens. There is no mention of smallpox or 
measles ; no certain reference occurs to diphtheria, 
scarlet fever, bubonic plague or syphilis. It is 
extremely doubtful whether typhoid was present in 
Greece, for although it is similar to severe cases of 
Kai'cros and (^psrtTts, the latter were certainly in most 
cases pernicious malaria, which is often so like 
typhoid that only the microscope can distinguish 
them. It is expressly stated by pseudo-Aristotle ^ 
that fevers were not infectious, and it is difficult to 
reconcile this statement with the prevalence of 
tvphoid. The question must be left open, as the 
evidence is not clear enough to warrant a confident 
decision."^ 

Colds, "with and without fever," ^ were common 
enough in ancient times, but whether influenza 
prevailed cannot be stated for certain. Its all too 
frequent result, pneumonia, was indeed well known, 
but it is puzzling that in the description of epidemic 
cough at Perinthus,"* the nearest approach to an 
influenza wave in the Hippocratic collection, it is 
expressly stated that relapses into pneumonia were 
rare.^ 

Consumption (<^^t'o-is) is one of the diseases most 
frequently mentioned in the Corpus, and it is re- 
markable that in the very passage where we are told 

1 Problems, VII. 8. 

- See Stephanos, La Grece, p 502. 

3 See Ejndemics IV., Uitih V., p. 149. 

' Eindemics VI., Littre, pp. 331-337. 

5 Loc. cit.,]). 333. 

Ivi 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

that fevers are not infectious it is also stated that 
consumption is so. To consumption are added 
" ophthalmias," which term will therefore include 
all contagious inflammations of the eyes.^ 

The greatest plague of the Greek and of the 
ancient world generally was malaria, both mild and 
malignant, both intermittent and remittent. 

The intermittents (SiaAetVovTes irvpeToc) are : — 

dfX(fi7)iJi€pivo<i TTuperos (quotidians) 
Tpiratos TTvpero's (tertians) 

T€TapTaLo<; Truperos (quartans) ^ 

The remittents (often o-we^^ei^ irvpeToi.) included : — 

KttCcro?, so called because of the intense heat felt 
by the patient, a remittent tertian often mentioned 
in the Corpus. 

(^pevtrts, characterized by pain in the hypo- 
chondria and by delirium. It generally had a 
tertian periodicity. 

X-qOapyo';, characterized by irresistible coma. It 
bore a strong likeness to what is now known as the 
comatose form of pernicious malaria. 

7]lxLTpiTaio%, semitertian, was pernicious remittent 
malaria with tertian periodicity.^ 

Tv^os or T2(i>o<;, of which five different kinds are 
mentioned in the Cnidian treatise -n-epl toiv cVto? TraOwv 

^ P.seudo- Aristotle ProUnns VII. 8 : 5ia ri aTrh (pdlirews koI 
otpQaKfxias Kol xpwpas ot Tv\r]aid(oi'r(S aKicTKOVraf airo 5e ySpcoTTOS 
Kai TtvpiTwv KOl a.TTOTT\riiias ovx a.Ki(TKovrai, ouSi tSiv aKKwv ; 

^ See e.g. Ejjidemics I. xxiv,, where quintans, septans 
and nonans also are mentioned. In the fourtli century the 
existence of these fevers was denied. 

^ 1 have discussed these diseases more fully in my Malaria 
and Greek History, pp. 63-68. 

Ivii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

(Littre VII. 260 foil.), was in at least two cases a 
species of remittent malaria. 

In connexion with the question of malaria it should 
be noticed that malarial cachexia, the symptoms of 
which are anaemia, weakness, dark comj)lexion and 
enlarged spleen, is often described in the Hippocratic 
collection. Especially vivid is the description in 
Airs IVaters Places. This is further evidence of 
the malarious condition of the ancient Greek world. 

This word is closely connected both with the 
doctrine of the humours and with the prevalence 
of malaria. It is fully discussed in Malaria and 
Greek History, pp. 98-101. Generally it means our 
"melancholia," but sometimes merely "biliousness." 
In popular speech yu,eA.ay;!(oA.t'a and its cognates some- 
times apj)roximate in meaning to " nervous break- 
down." Probably the name was given to anv 
condition resembling the prostration, physical and 
mental, produced by malaria, one form of which 
(the quartan) was su])posed to be caused by " black 
bile" [fjiiXaua ^oA>y). 

epv(TL'ire\a<; 

See Foes' Oeconomia, p. 148, where quotations are 
given which enable us to distinguish ipvo-L-nreXa? from 
(j)X(.yjxovrj. Both exhibit swelling (oy/cos) and heat 
(depfxacria), but whereas ipva-iweXa^ is superficial and 
yellowish, ^Aey/xoir/ is internal also and red. 

Sidppoia and SvcrevTepla 

The former is local, and causes merely the passing 
of unhealthy excreta. The latter is accompanied by 

Iviii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

fever, and is a dangerous disease, in which the bowel 
is ulcerated, with the passing of blood. See -n-epl 
7ra6l(I)v 23 and 25 (Littre VI. 234, 235), and more 
especially Trept StatrTjs 74 (Littre IV. 616) : — 

TOVTO yap (oidppoLa) oi'o/xct^eTai c'ws av avrr] fiovrj 
aaTreicra ij Tpoffir] v7ro)(^wpr]. oKorav Sc dep/xaivofjierov tov 
crw/xaro? Kudapai'^ Sptfiea ylvqTai, to re evrepov ^verai 
Koi eXKOVTai /cat hLa)(<j}pu.TaL al/uLaTOiSea, tovto 5e hv- 
(TerT(pL)] KaXeLTUL, j'ocro? ^^aXeirij kol cTriKt'rSuros. 

"Dysentery" would include what is now called 
by this name and any severe intestinal trouble, 
perhaps typhoid and paratyphoid if these were 
diseases of the Greek world, while "^diarrhoea" 
means merely undue laxity of the bowels. 

Delirium 

The Hippocratic collection is rich in words 
meaning delirium of various kinds. It is probable, 
if not certain, that each of them had its own 
associations and its own shade of meaning, but 
these are now to a great extent lost. Only the 
broad outlines of the diderences between them can 
be discerned by the modern reader. The words fall 
into two main classes : — 

(1) Those in which the mental derangement of 
delirium is the dominant idea ; e. g. Trapa^jSepo/xai, 
7rapa(f>pova) (the word common in Prognostic), Trapuvoio, 
irapaKpovw (the most common word in Epidemics /. 
and III.), irapaKOTrr], iKfiaivofxai, fxavia. 

(2) Those in which stress is laid upon delirious 
talk ; e. g. \rjpo<;, TrapaAr^pos, irapaXrjpui, TrapaXeyo), Aoyoi 
TToXXoC. 

lix 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

It is moi'e difficult to say exactly which words in 
each class signify the greater degree of delirium. 
Of class (1) iKfxatvofjiaL is obviously the most vigorous 
word, meaning " wild raving," ^itavta comes next to 
it, and ■jvapaKo-n-q is apparently slightly stronger than 
the others. Of class (2) Xrjpo? or Trapa.Xy]po<; seems to 
be the strongest, then irapaXiyiD, and finally Aoyot 

TToXXoL. 

Pain 

There are two common words for pain in the 
Corpus, TTovo'i and oSuVt/. They seem practically 
synonymous. Perhaps ttovos is more commonly used 
of violent pains, and ohvvt] of dull, gnawing pains, 
but I think that no reader would care to pronounce 
a confident opinion on the mattei*. 

Ague 

There are two words commonly used to describe 
the chilly feeling experienced in fevers, especially in 
malarial fevers. These are («) ptyos and its deriv- 
atives, and (6) <^pt/o; and its derivatives. The former 
lays stress upon the chilly feeling, the latter upon 
the shivering accompanying it. But in this case also 
it is possible to discriminate too finely ; see e. g. in 
Epidemics III. Case ii. (second series), (^ptKwS-^s is 
followed by /xcto. to yev6/ji.evov ptyos, referring ap- 
parently to the same occasion. 

The reader should note the extreme care with 
which symptoms are described in the Hippocratic 
group of treatises. It has been pointed out, for 
instance, that in Epidemics I. Case i., and Epidemics 
III. Case XV. (second series), there are possibly 

Ix 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

instances of Chevne-Stokes breathinij. Noticed bv 
the writer of these works, this important symj^tom 
was overlooked until the eighteenth century. 



§ 10. 7roAl'$ AND oXtyos IN THE PLURAL. 

It is at least curious that one of the translator's 
greatest difficulties is to decide Avhat are the 
meanings of ttoAi!? and oAtyos (also of crjxiKpd) when 
used in the plural. The reader is at first sight 
inclined to think that pevpara rroXXd {Epidemics III. 
IV.) means "many flu.xes,' and so possibly it may. 
But just above we have piZpa ttoXv, "a copious flux," 
and so the plural may well mean "copious fluxes." 
The ambiguity becomes more serious when the 
words are applied to the excreta. Is frequency or 
quantity the more dominant idea ? It seems im- 
possible to say for certain, but tlie evidence tends 
towards the latter view. From Prognostic Cha})ter XI 
it seems that quantity is the more important thing, 
and in the same passage ttvkvov is the word used 
to denote frequency. The usage in Epidemics /. and 
///. bears out this view. "Frequently shivering" is 
<^piKwSe«s TTVKvd {Epid. III. XIII.). In the same chapter 
occui's the sentence, at Se f^vx^'' ^^W"-^ f^^^ ^'o"- TeA«os 
noXXai, Ktti TToXXa dvayovaat Trinova, where TroAAat 
means "many" and ttoAAoi "copious." In Epid. III. 
Case II. (second series) ^^x^s crri'e;^ees vypal TroAAat' 
means " continued coughing with watery and copious 
sputa." In Case ix. of the same series "frequent, 
slight epistaxis " is r/'/xoppayei .... ttukj/o. Kar' oAiyor. 
After long consideration of this difficult question I 
contlude that ttoAi-'s and oAiyos in the plural, when 

Ixi 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

used of excreta, etc., should be translated "copious" 
or "abundant" unless the context makes the other 
meaning absolutely necessary. 

The case is somewhat similar with the word a-jxiKpa. 
Used adverbially this word means "slightly," "a. 
little," more often than it does " in small quantities." 
ajXLKpa. Karei/dct is almost certainly " lucid intervals," 
and (jfjLiKpa. iKoi/x-ijOr) is "snatches of sleep," but I do 
not feel sure that cr/xi/cpa irapsKpovae means more 
than "slight delirium," nor a-fxiKpa. iirvpe^e [Epid. 
III. XIII.) more than "slightly feverish." 

§ 11. The Ionic Dialect of the Hippocratic 
Collection. 

The later MSS. of the Corpus exhibit a mass of 
pseudo-ionic forms which are not to be found, or are 
only rarely found, in the earlier MSS. The uncon- 
tracted forms, too, are more common in the later 
authorities. If we follow closely the earlier MSS. 
we have a text which is very like Attic, with a mild 
sprinkling of Ionic forms. These facts seem to show 
that, when Ionic became the medium of scientific 
prose, it lost touch gradually with the spoken speech 
and assimilated itself to the predominant Attic, 
and later on possibly to the Koivrj. It retained 
just enough Ionic to keep up the tradition and to 
conform to convention. The later scribes, under the 
mistaken impression that the texts before them had 
been atticized, restored what they considered to be 
the ancient forms, often with disastrous results. 
Many of their ionisms are sheer monstrosities. 

In 1804 A. W. Smyth discussed the dialect of the 
Corpus in his work The Sounds and Infections of the 

Ixii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

Greek Dialects : Ionic}- He pointed out, however, 
that the labours of Littre - had left much to be 
done in this department of Hippocratic study, and 
that the material for a sound judgment was not 
vet available. 

The collection of this material is not yet com- 
plete, but a good start was made by Kiihlewein, 
who in Chapter III of the Prolegomena to the first 
volume of the Teubner Hippocrates (cle dialeclo 
Hippocratica) ^ laid down the principles followed in 
the present edition. 

§ 12. Manuscripts. 

None of our MSS. are very old, but the oldest 
are far superior to the later, both in readings and 
in dialect. There is no regular canon, and no 
recognized order ; each independent MS. seems to 
represent a different " collection " of Hippocratic 
works. This fact fits in well with the theory that 
the nucleus of the Corpus was the library (or the 
remains of it) of the Hippocratic medical school 
at Cos. 

Vindobonensis med. IV., tenth century. Our 
oldest MS., containing : nepl twv cvtos naOwv. inpl 
TraOwv. TTfpl L€prj<; vovcrov. -jvepl vovawva. Trepi voucron' 
y TTcpi vovawv (3. Trepl StaiVr^s «. Trepi otatrr/s y3. 
irepl 8iatrr;s y (with Trept ivvTrviayv). irepL yu;/atK€twv 
a. TTfpl yvvaiKeiuiv (3. Trepl yvvaiKurj<; (jiV(rio<;. Of 
some books parts are missing. 

A Parisinus 2253, eleventh century. It contains : 

1 See §§ 94-103, pp. 100-110. 

« See Vol. I., 479-502. 

' pp. Ixv-cxxviii. 
VOL. I. C Ixiii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

KwttKat 7r/3oyi'cij(Te/.s. Trepi rpo^rj'i. irepL TTTLcrdvTjs. nepl 
^v/xCjv- Trepi vypijiv ^/jcrios- e7rt/3wyu,ios. Trept re^vr]';. 
Trepi c/)i'(Tios dvBpiDirov. Trepl (jivcrwv. inpX rotriav rwv 
Kara dvOpiHTTOv. Trepi dp)(aLy}<; IrjrpLKT]^. €TTihrjixLihv u. 
An excellent MS., the use of which has transformed 
our Hippocratic text. There are four or five cor- 
recting hands. 

B Laurentianus 74, 7, eleventh or twelfth century. 
It contains : Kar' ir/Tpciov. Trepi ayfxwv. irepl dpHpwv. 
Trepi Twf iv K((f)akrj rpw/xarwi'. Two correcting hands. 

V Vaticanus graecus 276, twelfth century. It 
contains : opKO?. ro/xos. d(^opicrp.ot'. TrpoyvwariKov. 
Trepl Siat'rTjs o^e'tui'. kut IrjTpilov. Trepl dy/xwv. Trepi 
dpdpwv. Trepi twv ev KefpaXfj Tpco/xttTcor. Trepi de'pojv, 
iioiiTOJi', TOTTtiJi'. eTTihrjixmv djSySlS^. Trepl ^t'crecos avOpdf 
TTov. Trepi <f)vcrews TraiSt'ou. Trept yoi'Ty?. Trtpi tTTiKUT/- 
crews. Trepi eTrrafJirjvov. Trepl OKTap.-qvov. Trepl TrapOerwv. 
Trepi yvvaiKeiTj'i <^u(rios. Trepi 68ovTO(f>via'i. Trepl tuttoh' 
Twv Kara dvOpwirov. yvvaiKelwy dfS. Trepl d(f)6pwv. Trepl 
liTiKvrjaLO^ (again). Trepi iyKaraToprj'i TratSiou. Trepi 
Irjrpov. Trepi Kpiaewv. Trepl KpaSt?;?. Trepi crapK-wi'. 
Trepi doevu)v ov\ofj.eXir]<;. Trepl di'aTOfxrjs. CTricrroAai. 
8oy/xa 'A67]i'ai<Dv. eTri^w/xtos. Trpecrf^evriKos. 

M Marcianus Venetus 269, eleventh century. It 
contanis : opKO^. vo/u.os. Trepi Te)(vrj<;. Trepl np^ai7/s 
h]TpiKrjS- TTapayyeXCai. Trepl eva)(r]po(Tvvr]'i. Trepl 
cf)vae<i)S dvopwTTOv. Trepl yoi'TJs. Trepl (f)vcreM<; TraiOiov. 
Trepl dpOptav. Trepl ^^vfxwv. Trepl rpo^^s- Trepi eAKWi'. 
Trepi iep^9 vovcrov. Trepl vovawv a. Trepl vovawv /3. 
Trepi vovcrcov y. Trepi vovamv 8. Trepi Tra^wv. Trepi twv 
evTos TraO(ji)v. Trepl SiaiT7/s a. Trepi SiaiTT;? /?. Trepi 
8iaiT>7s y. Trepi e'vtiTrv/wi'. Trepi oi/zios. Trepi Kpiaip-oyv. 
a<f)Opiap.oi. TrpoyvwariKov. Trepi hiaiTr]s ofewr. Trept 
<f>v(Tix)v. fJiO)(XiKuv. Trepi ocrrecov (jivaLos- Trepi dy/jiwv. 

Ixiv 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

KUT IrjTpuov. Trepl iyKaTaToixrjs i/Jif3pvov. Trepl yvvat- 
Keiuiv a. TTfpi yvvaiK(Lwv (3. Trepl a(f)op(DU. Trepl eVi- 
Kvr]cno<;. Trept eTTTafxrjiov. Trepl 6KTap.rjvov. Trepl 
TTapOevLiDV. Trepl ywaiKCiT^s ^u'crew?. Part of €7rtSr;/u'cov e. 
eTTLorjfXiwv S. eTrihiipiCov ^. eTTicFToXaL 6 TrepJ, pavir}s 
Aoyos. Soyfia 'AOrjvatuiv. 7rpecr/3curtKo§ (mutilated). 

C Paris 446 suppl. Tenth century. 

D Paris -2254] 

E Paris 2255 [. Fourteenth century. 

F Paris 2144) 

H Paris 2142. Thirteenth century. 

I Paris 2140^ 



J Paris 2143, ^ , ,, 

K Paris 2145 | ' ^oa^teenth century. 

S' Paris 2276 J 

R' Paris 2 105. Sixteenth century. 

JS Barberinus I. 5. Fifteenth century. 

§ 13. Chief Editions and Translations^ etc., of 

THE HiPPOCRATIC CoRPUS. 

1525 Hippocratis Coi medicorum longe principis 
octoginta volumina, quibus maxima ex parte an- 
norum circiter duo millia latina caruit lingua, Graeci 
vero, Arabes et prisci nostri medici, plurimis tamen 
utilibus praetermissis, scripta sua illustrarunt, nunc 
tandem per M. Fabium Calvum, Rhavennatem, 
virum undecumque doctissimum, latinitate donata, 
dementi VII pont. max. dicata, ac nunc primum 
in lucem edita, quo nihil humano generi salubrius 
fieri potuit. 

Romae ex aedibus Francisci Minitii Calvi Novo- 
comensis. 1 vol. fol. 

1526 "ATravra to. tov 'iTnTOKparov;. Omnia opera 

Ixv 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

Hippocratis. Venetiis in aedibus Aldi et Andreae 
Ansulani soceri. Fol. 

1538 iTTTTo/cpaTors Kwow larpov TraXaioTaTov TravTwv 
aA.A.wv KopvffiaLov fSifSXia airavTa. Hippocratis Coi 
medici vetustissimi, et omnium aliorum principis, 
libri omnes ad vetustos codices summo studio collati 
et restaurati. Froben, Basileae. Fol. 

This edition was edited by Janus Cornarius. 

1545 Hippocratis Coi medicorum omnium facile 
principis opera quae extant omnia. lano Cornario 
medico physico interprete. Venet. Oct. Apud I. 
Gryphium. 

1588 Hippocratis Coi opera quae extant, graece 
et latine veterum codicum coUatione i*estituta, novo 
ordine in quatuor classes digesta, interpretationis 
latinae emendatione et scholiis illustrata ab Hieron. 
Mercuriali Foroliviensi. Venetiis industria ac sump- 
tibus Juntarum. Fol. 

1588 Oeconomia Hippocratis alphabet! serie dis- 
tincta, Anutio Foesio authore. Francofurti. Fol. 

1595 ToC /xeyaAou iTnroKpdTovs TrctvTwv twv iarpwv 
Kopvcf)aiov ra evpLO-Ko/xeva. 

Magni Hippocratis medicorum omnium facile prin- 
cipis opera omnia quae extant in VIII sectiones ex 
Erotiani mente distributa, nunc recens latina inter- 
pretatione et annotationibus illustrata, Anutio Foesio 
Mediomatrico medico authore. Francofurti apud 
Andreae Wecheli haeredes. Fol. 

Reprinted 1621, 1624, 1645 and at Geneva 1657. 

1665 Magni Hippocratis Coi opera omnia graece 
et latine edita et ad omnes alias editiones accom- 
modata industria et diligentia Joan. Antonidae van 
der Linden. Lugduno-Batav. 1665. 2 vol. octavo. 

1679 Hippocratis Coi et Claudii Galeni Pergameni 

Ixvi 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

dpxi-aTpQv opera. Renatus Charterius Vindocinensis, 
plurima interpretatus, universa emendavit, instaur- 
avit, notavit, auxit . . . Lutetiae Pai'isiorum, apud 
Jacobuni Villery. 13 vol. fol. 

1743 To. 'iTTTTO/cpdrous airavTa . . . studio et opera 
Stephani Mackii. Viennae. 2 vol. fol. 

1825 To5 fxeyaXov lTnroKpa.Tov<; aTraira. Magni 
Hippocratis opera omnia. Editionem curavit D. 
Carol us Gottlob Kiihn. Lipsiae. 3 vol. octavo. 

1834 Scholia in Hippocratem et Galenum, F. R. 
Dietz. 2 vols. 

1839—1861 G^uvres completes d'Hippocrate, tra- 
duction nouvelle, avec le texte grec en regard . . . 
Par. IE. Littre. Paris. 10 vol. 

1846 Article " Hippocrates " in Smith's Dictumnrij 
of Greek and Roman Biography and Mylkology, by 
Dr. W. A. Greenhill. 

1849 The genuine works of Hippocrates trans- 
lated from the Greek with a preliminary Discourse 
and Annotations by Francis Adams. London. 2 vol. 

1859—1864 Hippocratis et aliorum medicorum 
veterum reliquiae. Edidit Franciscus Zacharias 
Ermerins. Trajecti ad Rhenum. 3 vol. 

1864-1866 'IrTTTOKpaTT^s KOfxiSfj Car. H. Th. Rein- 
hold. 'A6y]vr](rL. 2 vol. 

1877, 1878 Chirurgie d'Hippocrate, par J. E. 
Petrequin. 2 vols. 

1894 Hippocratis opera quae geruntur omnia. 
Recensuit Hugo Kiihlewein. Prolegomena con- 
scripserunt loannes Ilberg et Hugo Kiihlewein. 

The second volume appeared in 1902. 

1913 Article " Hippokrates (16)" in Pauly- 
Wissowa Real-Encyclop'ddie der classischen Allertum- 
swissenschaft. 

Ixvii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

The early editions are learned but uncritical, 
being stronger on the medical side than in scholar- 
ship. Special mention should be made of the 
Oeco7iomia of Foes, a perfect mine of medical lore, 
and it is supplemented by the excellent notes in 
Foes' edition. Such a work could have appeared 
only in an age when Hippocrates was a real force 
in medical practice.^ 

The first scholarly edition was that of Littr^, and 
only those who have seriously studied the works of 
Hippocrates can appreciate the debt we owe to his 
diligence, or understand why the task occupied 
twenty-two years. Unfortunately Littre is diffuse, 
and not always accurate. His opinions, too, changed 
during the long period of preparation, and the 
additional notes in the later volumes must be con- 
sulted in order to correct the views expressed in the 
earlier. 

As a textual critic he shows much common sense, 
but his notes are awkward to read, and his know- 
ledge was practically confined to the Paris MSS. 

He is at his best as a medical commentator, and 
he was the first to explain Hippocratic pathology 
by proving that the endemic diseases of the Hippo- 
cratic writings must be identified, not with the 
fevers of our climate, but with the remittent forms 
of malaria common in hot climates. It is not too 
much to say that without keeping this fact in view 
we cannot understand a great part of the Corpus. 
It is curious to note that Hippocrates was a medical 
text-book almost down to the time (about 1840) 

^ This is in a way a defect. Foes, like Galen, is not 
sufiBciently "fletached" from Hippocratic teaching to judge 
Hippocrates impartially. 

Ixviii 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

when malaria ceased to be a real danger to northern 
Europe. 

The most useful critical edition of Hijipocrates is 
that of Ex-merins. He was a scholar with a lucid 
and precise mind, and his critical notes are a pleasure 
to read Tlie introductions^ too, are stimulating, 
instructive and interesting, written in a style full 
of life and charm. As a philologist he was very 
deficient. 

The edition in the Teubner series, edited by 
Kiihlewein, of which two volumes have appeared, 
marks a distinct advance. Fresh manuscripts have 
been collated, and the text has been purged of the 
pseudo-ionisms which have so long disfigured it. 

A word should perhaps be said about Reinhold, 
whose two volumes of text give us more plausible 
conjectures than the work of any other scholar. 

Of the scholars who have worked at parts of the 
Corpus mention should be made of Gomperz and 
Wilamowitz, but especial praise is due to the remark- 
able acuteness of Coray, whose intellect was like 
a sword. He always instructs and inspires, even 
when the reader cannot accept his emendations. 

Adams' well-known translation is the Avork of a 
man of sense, who loved his author and was not 
without some of the qualifications of a scholar. 
The translation is literal and generally good, but 
is occasionally misleading. The medical annotation 
is far superior to the scholarship displayed in the 
work. 



Ixix 



HIPPOCRATES 

ANCIENT MEDICINE 



INTRODUCTION 

Among ancient writers Erotian is the only one 
who expressly ascribes this little treatise to Hippo- 
crates himself. Modern critics generall}- regard it as 
old, but as not by Hippocrates, the chief exception 
being liittre. Adams is uncertain, but is inclined to 
think that Hippocrates was not the author. 

Thus the external evidence in support of the view 
that Hippocrates was the author of this treatise is very 
slight indeed. The internal evidence is considerably 
stronger. 

(1) The writer, like Hippocrates,^ holds that 
health is caused by a " coction " of tlie "humours." 

(2) He recognises the importance of " critical " 
days in an illness. 

(3) He holds that medical science is founded on 
observation and reasoning, not on speculation. 

(4) He attaches great importance to the use of 
" slops " of various degi'ees of consistency. 

All these doctrines are in conformity with the 
views expounded in the works assigned to Hi})po- 
crates. On the other hand, no stress is laid upon 
prognosis, which Hippocrates considered of primary 
importance. Again, it would be impossible to show 
from the works of Hippocrates that the father of 



* By "Hippocrates" is meant the writer of rrognodie, 
of Regimen in Amte Diseases, and of Epidemics, I., III. 



INTRODUCTION 

medicine thought little of the power of heat and 
cold in producing health or disease ; our author, 
however, rates them very low. Moreover, like the 
Pythagorean physician Alcmaeon, he holds that 
there is an indefinite number of "opposites," the 
harmony or crasis of which produces health. The 
historical Hippocrates is said to have reduced the 
number of the humours to four, although I can find 
no trace of this limitation to four in any treatise 
earlier than the one on the Nature of Man, which 
is not generally considered authentic. 

It may be said that, were the external evidence 
stronger, the treatise would be accepted as an 
authentic work of Hippocrates. 

Littre ^ argues that the well-known passage in the 
P/iaediiis,^ where "^ Hippocrates the Asclepi.id " is 
mentioned as holding a theory that a knowledge 
of the human body is impossible without a know- 
ledge of the universe — interpreted to mean an ex- 
amination of the 8i'vayu.ts (or 8ui'a/x€i?) of a body 
according to its inter-relations with other things 
—refers to Chapter XX of the -n-epl ap^alr]^ 'ryTptNi}?, 
and not, as Galen maintains, to the treatise On the 
Nature of Man. Littre ^ also points out that a passage 
in our treatise * is very similar to one in Resmen iji 
Acute Diseases, the authenticity of which is un- 
doubted. 

^ i. pp. 294-310. Goniperz is inclined to support tliis view. 

"^ 270, C. D. Littre's discussion of the sentence t^ toIvw 
■nepl (pvaeais crK6irfi rl noTf Ae7€i 'iTnroKpdrrjs re Kal 6 ofOhs 
\6yos, to show that it does not refer to any actual words of 
Hippocrates, is, of course, quite beside the mark. The 
sentence means "what H. and right reason mean by Trepl 
(pvcrews." 

3 pp. 314, 315. « Chapter X. 

4 



INTRODUCTION 

Littre may have shown that there is a resemblance 
to our author in the Phacdrus passage. Resem- 
blances, however, sliow merely that the writer was 
Hippocratic, not that he was Hipjjocrates. 

The reference, in Chapter XV, to participation 
(^Koivvweu) in ciSt; and to "■ absolute existences " [avro 
Tt e<^' IwvTov) might lead a critic to infer that the 
writer lived in the age of Plato. But there are two 
insuperable difficulties to this hypothesis. One is 
that in Chapter XX the word (ro^tcrTijs is used in its 
early sense of "philosopher," which implies that 
the writer lived before Plato attached to the word 
the dishonourable meaning it has in later Greek. 
The other is that the writer attacks the intrusion of 
philosophic speculation into the science of medicine, 
and the speculation he has constantly in mind, as 
being, apparently, the most influential in his day, is 
that of Empedocles,^ who is actually mentioned in 
Chapter XX as a typical writer irun <^ucr«ws. There is 
a sentence in Chapter XIV which closely resembles, 
in both thought and diction, the fragments of Anaxa- 
goras." It certainly looks as though the writer of 
Ancieiit Medicine was not unfamiliar with the works 
of this philosopher. All this evidence tends to fix 
the date as approximately 430-420 B.C., and to 
suggest as the writer either Hippocrates or a very 
capable supporter of the medical school of which 
Hippocrates was a contemporary member. 

The author of Ancient Medicine in Chapter II asserts 

^ Or possibly that of the Milesian school with its doctrine of 
opposites, of which opposites the Empedocleau " roots " are 
four, definitely corporealised. 

" orav 5e ri tovtoov anoKpidy Kal avrh e(p' iocvTov yivrjTai, tJt6 
Koi (payfpov icTi koI A-t/Tre? rhv &vdpooTTov. 



INTRODUCTION 

that empiric medicine was in his day an old art, and 
that the attemjit to foist the method of philosophy 
upon it was comparatively modern. He is obviously 
correct. Hippocratic science must have been the 
ripe fruit of a long period of active inquiry ; 
philosophy began early in the sixth century b.c, 
and it was late in that century that medicine 
and philosophy were combined in the persons of 
prominent Pythagoreans.^ It was only natural that, 
as the main interest of philosophy shifted from 
cosmology to biology, philosophy should occupy 
itself with medical problems. The union was closest 
in Empedocles, thinker, seer, and " medicine-man," 
but by the end of the fifth century philosophy 
had discarded medicine, although to its great loss 
medicine did not discard philosophy.^ 

Several recent critics, notably Professor A, E. 
Taylor,^ have pointed out the importance of this 
little work in the history of thought. It has even 
been urged that it proves that the technical phrases, 
and perhaj)s the doctrine also, of the theory of 
Ideas, usually ascribed to Plato, were well-known 
to educated men a generation at least before Plato. 
The language used in Chapter XV is, indeed, 
strikingly like the terminology of Plato, far too 
much so to be a mere coincidence. 

However this may be, it is plain that in the fifth 
century B.C. there were thinkers, holding principles 
nearly akin to those of modern science, who were 
violently opposed to the application of philosophic 

^ See Burnet, Early Greek riiilosophy, pp. 223-226 for 
Alciiiaeon, and pp. 339-341 for the later Pythagoreans, 
* See especially Burnet, op. cit. pp. 2.34-235. 
' Varia Socratica, pp. 74-78 and 2I4-21S. 

6 



INTRODUCTION 

procedure to science. This procedure the writer 
calls the method of viroOiaei';. The student of Plato 
is at once reminded of the Phaedo, Republic, and 
Sophist, in which dialoojues a theory of knowledge 
is expounded which is stated to be the best possible 
method of inquiry until the Ideas have been appre- 
hended. It should be noticed that a virodio-is is 
something very different from a modern scientific 
hypothesis. The latter is a summary of observed 
phenomena, intended to explain them by pointing 
out their causal relationship. The former is not a 
summai-y of phenomena ; it is a postulate, intended 
to be accepted, not as an exj)lanation, but as a foun- 
dation (i'Tro-TiOrjiJLi) upon which to build a super- 
structure. An hypothesis must by tested by further 
appeals to sense-experience ; a v-n-oOeais must not be 
so tested, it must be taken for granted as an obvious 
truth. Plato would have nothing to do with appeals 
to sense- experience. According to him, if a vTrd^eo-i? 
is not accepted, it must be abandoned, and a more 
general vwoOicn^ postulated, until one is reached to 
which the opponent agrees. ^ The writer of Ancient 
Medicine suggests,^ as the proper sphere of vTrodiaus, 
the celestial regions and those beneath the eai'th. 
Here, among ra dc^ai ea t£ nal a7rope6fj.ei'a, where we 
have no means of applj-ing a satisfactory test, where 
in fact sense-perception fails us, is the proper place 
for v7ro6'eo-€ts. He would exclude them all from 
medicine, but he is constantly suggesting what we 
moderns call "hypotheses." The best examples of 
vTToOeaeis are the axioms and postulates of geometry. 

1 Phaedo, 101 D, E. 

- Chapter I. The language of the author is more than a 
little sarcastic. 



INTRODUCTION 

These are not tested or proved ; they are assumed, 
and upon the assumptions a whole science is built. 

In place of vnoBia-tL<i the author of Ancient Medicine 
relies, as a modern scientific thinker relies, on careful 
observation and critical examination ^ of phenomena, 
hoping thereby to reach, not the complete and per- 
fect knowledge Plato hoped to attain through his 
Ideas, but an approximation to truth. ^ 

So the two methods, that of Greek philosophy and 
that of modern science, stand face to face. The 
struggle between them was, for the time being, short. 
Medicine, almost the only branch of Greek science 
scientifically studied, was worsted in the fight, and 
medical science gradually degenerated iVom rational 
treatment to wild speculation and even quackery 
and superstition.^ The transcendant genius of Plato, 
strong in that very power of persuasion the use of 
which he so much deprecated, won the day. The 
philosophic fervour which longed with passionate 
desire for unchangeable reality, that felt a lofty con- 
tempt for the material world with its ever-shifting 
phenomena, that aspired to rise to a heavenly region 
where changeless Ideas might be appi-ehended by pure 
intelligence purged from every bodily taint, was more 
than a match for the humble researches of men who 
wished to relieve human suffering by a patient study 
of those very phenomena that Plato held of no account. 

^ \oyiffjx<S, Chapter XII. 

^ et /J.7; ex^' ""sp^ trdyTa aKpifieiav, aWa iroXv fxuWov 5ia rh 
^yyvs oifxai rod arpeKeaTaTov SuracrOai riKeiv. Ibid. Tlie fort}'- 
two clinical histories, given in the Epidemics of Hippocrates, 
are excellent examples of the observation which the Hip- 
pocratic school considered the only foundation of science. 

' See E. T. Withington, in Malaria and Greek History, by 
W. H. S. Jones and E. T. Withington. 

8 



INTRODUCTION 

So for centuries philosophy flourished and science 
languished, in spite of Aristotle, Euclid and Archi- 
medes. 

Analysis. 

(1) The rejection of vTroOecrei? and the defence of 
the old method in medicine (Ch. I-III). 

(2) The origin of medicine, and its connection 
with the art of dieting (III-XII). 

(3) The comparative unimportance of the four 
" opposites " in health and disease (XIII-XV). 

(4) The importance of certain secretions as com- 
pared with heat and cold (XV^I-XIX). 

(5) The correct method of studying medicine 
(XX-XXIV). 

Text, etc. 

There has never been publislied any separate 
edition of this treatise, but of course it is included 
in all the great editions of Hippocrates. Not much 
was done to improve the text before Littre, who 
seems to have bestowed care and thought upon the 
little book. The edition of Kiihlewein introduced 
a radical reformation of the pseudo-ionic forms that 
disfigured earlier texts, and also several improvements 
in detail, but his changes are not always happy. 

The chief manuscript authority is A,^ which seems 
infinitely superior to all the others. The next most 
important manuscript is M, the others being of very 
little help. 

In this edition I have kept closely to the spelling 
of Kiihlewein, but the text itself is my own. It 

1 Called by Littr6 2253. 



INTRODUCTION 

follows the MS. A very closely, but on several 
occasions I have accepted (with acknowledgements) 
the emendations of Coray, Reinhold, Ermerins, 
Littre, Diels and Kiihlewein. One passage I have 
rejected on my own authority, and in another I 
have presented a new combination of readings which 
I think restores sense out of nonsense. I have 
generallv noted readings only when the choice makes 
a decided difference to the translation. 

The translator is often j)erplexed how to render 
semi-technical words which belong to a time when 
the ideas underlying them were in a transition stage, 
or when ideas were current which the progress of 
time has destroyed. "Hot" and "cold" were no 
longer bodies, but they were not yet qualities. As 
Professor Taylor ^ shows, the word tlSos is most 
elusive, referring to the form, appearance, structure 
of a thing, the physique of persons, etc., and yet it is 
becoming capable of being applied to immaterial 
reality. There are about half a dozen words to 
describe the process which we describe by the single 
word " digestion." ^ These nice distinctions must be 
lost in an English version. The most difficult word 
of all is perhaps Suva/j-ts. Scientific thought in the 
fifth century u.c. held that certain constituents of 
the body, and indeed of the material world generally, 
manifested themselves to our senses and feelings in 
certain ways. These are their Sum/Lteis, "powers," 
or, as we may sometimes translate, " properties," 

^ Loc. cit. 

* In deference to authority I translate aTraX\acT<reiv in 
Chapters X and XX " come off" well or ill. Bat I am almost 
convinced that in both cases the word means " to get rid of 
food," "to digest." Compare Chapter III, p. 18, 1. 32. 

lO 



INTRODUCTION 

"characteristics," "effects." Almost equally difficult 
is the word cf)va-i<;. This appears sometimes to have 
the meaning which Professor Burnet shows it has in 
early phiIosoj)l)y, "primordial matter/' "primitive 
element or elements," the "stuff" of which the 
world is made. Often, again, it has its later mean- 
ing, " nature," while sometimes the two senses are 
combined or confused. In all these cases perfect 
consistency of rendering can only be achieved by 
sacrificing the thought. In my work I have been 
constantly imj)ressed, and depressed, by the truth 
of the proverb, "Translators are traitors." 



II 



nEPI APXAIH2 IHTPIKH2 

I. OiToaoi fxev €7T€)(^eLpr](Tav rrepX lr]rpLKr]<^ \eyeiv 
rj jpdcfieiv, uTTuOecriv aurol avTOi<i invoOep^evoL ro) 
Xoyrp, Oep/xov i) -^vy^pov rj vypov i) ^>ipoi> t) aWo 
TO av 6e\(oaiv, e? i2pa')(v ayoine'? r-qv apxv^ '^'1^ 
atVi?/? Tolat avOpdoTTOiai vovcrav re koX Oavarov, 
Kul irdai TTjv auT)]v, ev y) 8vo vTTodep^evoi, iv 
TToWolai /xev Kal^ olori Xeyorxrt /carac^ai^ee? elcrl 
a/jLaprdvovTe^, /xaXcara Se d^tov p^ep^-^acrOai, on 
d/jL(f)l Te)(vt](; iova)]<;, fj 'y^peovrai re TravTa eVi 

10 rolai fieyiaToicTL koX TipLoxri /^dXicrTa tgv<; dyaOov<; 
')^€t,pore')(ya<i koI Stjp.ioupyov'i, elalv Se hi]piiovpyo\ 
ol fiev (paOXoi, ol he ttoWov Siacpepovre'i' oirep, et, 
fiT} r^v IrjTpiKr] oXo)?, p,>]8' ev auTj} eaKCTTTO fjurfh 
evprjTO p,rfSev, ovk dv rjv, dX\d TraVre? o/J,oico<; 
avTr]<; direipoL re kuI dveiriaTi^piOve'i rjaav, TV)(r] 
8' dv irdvra rd tmv Kafivovrcov SioiKeiro. vvv S' 
ovj( ovTa)<; ey^i, aX,V coairep Kal tcov dXXcov rey^vewv 
iraaewv ol hrjpbiovpyoX iroWov dWrfKoiV Bia(pe- 
povaiv Kara ^elpa kol Kara yvcop^riv, ovtco Be Kal 

20 eVt Ir]rpi/C7]<;. Bib ovk tj^lovv avrrjv eycoye Kevrj<i' 

^ Kal MSS. : Kaivo'icyi Kiihlewein after Schone. 
^ «€V7Js M : Kaivris A. 

X2 



ANCIENT MEDICINE 



I. All wlio, on attein[)tin<T to speak or to write 
on medicine, have assunitd fur themselves a postulate 
as a basis for their discussion — heat, cold, moisture, 
dryness, or anythini^ else that they may fancy — 
who narrow down the causal [)rinciple of diseases 
and of death a.nonjj men, and make it the same 
in all cases, postulating^ one thing or two, all these 
obviously bhnider in many points even of their state- 
ments,' but they are most open to censure because 
they blunder in what is an art, and one which all 
men use on the most important occasions, and give 
the greatest honours to the good craftsmen and 
practitioners in it. Some practitioners are poor, 
others very excellent ; this would not be the case if 
an art of medicine did not exist at all, and had not 
been the subject of any research and discovery, but 
all would be equally inexperienced and unlearned 
therein, and the treatment of the sick would be 
in all respects haphazard. But it is not so ; just 
as in all other arts the workers vary much in skill 
and in knowledge,^ so also is it in the case of 
medicine. Wherefore I have deemed that it has 



^ Or, reading Kaivolai k.t.\., " of tlieir novelties." 
' Or "manual skill" and "intelligence." 



O 



13 



nEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKIIS 

v'lroOeaco'i SelaOat oiairep ra dcpavea re Kal diro- 
peofMCua, irepl wv dvajKi], i]v Ti? i-nix^ipfi rt Xeyeiv, 
VTTodeaei XP'^I^^^"-'-' °'^^ '^^P'' '^^^^' /"-ereaj/owi/ 7) tmv 
vTTo <yrjv a eP Ti9 Xeyoi kuI 'yivaxTKOt to? e^e^ 
ovT^ dv avTw TM \eyovTi ovre roU dKovovai Bi]Xa 
dv eh], etVe dXi-jOea iariv etre /j-rj. ov yap can 
27 7r/309 o Ti %p^ dveveyKavra elBevai to aa(f)€<i. 

II. 'Ir]TpiKfj Be irdXat iravra virdpxet, nal dpxv 
Kol 68b<i eh pr) p^evt-j , kuO' fjv ra euprjp.eva jroXXd re 
Kal /caXco? exovra evprjTUL ev ttoWCo ^j^poi^w, Kal 
rd Xonrd evped/jaerai, ■)]vti<; lKav6<i re eoiv Kat ra 
evpyjp-eva elSax; eK tovtwv 6ppaipevo<; ^rjrfj. b(rrL<; 
8e ravra aTro/SaXoov Kal d7ToBoKip,daa<i rravra, 
erepr] 6Sa> Kal ereprp axvP'a.Ti eTTtx^ipel l^rjrelv, 
Kai ^i]ai tl e^evpi-jKevai, e^}]7TdT'>]Tat "^ Kal i^aira- 
Tarar dSvvarov yap' 8l a<f Be dvdyKa^ dBvvaTov, 
iyo) Treiptjaop-ai e-mBei^ai, \ey(ov Kal eTTLBeiKvvwi' 
Ti]V rexv^jv b ri eVrtV.^ e« Be rovrov Karacpave'i 
earai dBuvara eovra dWccx; ttw? tovtcov evpi- 
(TKeaOai. p^dXiara Be p.oi BoksI irepl raint]^ Belv 
XeyovTa t?}? rex^V'i yvcoard Xeyeiv rolat Br^poryai. 
ov yap irepl dXXwv rivwv out€ ^i]Telv ovre Xeyecv 
irpoarjKet rj irepl rcov TTaOrjpLdrwv 0)V avTol ovTOi 

^ & el suggested by Littre : aei A. 

* So the MSS. i^airara t€ has been suggested. See Diels 
in Henries XLV. 125. 

3 2 Tj ecTTlv M : oTt A and tariv Kiihlcwein. 



10 



1 Or, reading K-oii/^s, "a novel postulate." But the writer's 
objection is not that the postulate is novel, but that it is a 
postulate. A postulate, he says, is "empty" in a .sphere 
where accurate and veriliable knowledge is possible. Only 

H 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, i.-ii. 

no need of an empty postulate,^ as do insoluble 
mysteries, about which any exponent must use a 
postulate, for example, things in the sky or below 
the earth. If a man were to learn and declare the 
state of these, neither to the speaker himself nor to 
his audience would it be clear whether his state- 
ments were true or not. For there is no test the 
application of which would give certainty. 

II. But medicine has long had all its means to 
hand, and has discovered both a principle and a 
method, through which the discoveries made during 
a long period are many and excellent, while full dis- 
covery will be made, if the inquirer be competent, 
conduct his researches with knowledge of the dis- 
coveries already made, and make them his starting- 
point. But anyone who, casting aside and rejecting 
all these means, attempts to conduct research in 
any other way or after another fashion, and asserts 
that he has found out anything, is and has been the 
victim of deception.2 His assertion is impossible ; 
the causes of its impossibility I will endeavour to 
expound by a statement and exposition of what the 
art is.3 In this way it will be manifest that by any 
other means discoveries are impossible. But it is 
particularly necessary, in my opinion, for one who 
discusses this art to discuss things familiar to ordin- 
ary folk. For the subject of inquiry and discussion 
is simply and solely the sufferings of these same 

in regions where science cannot penetrate are viroBfcreis 
legitimate. For this reason I read Kevris. 

2 Or, with the reading suggested, " both deceives and is 
deceived." 

3 Or, reading on tcTiv, " that the art rer.'.'.y is an art, 
really exists."' 

»5 



nEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKHS 

vocreovcri re koI iroveovai. avrov<i fiev ovv ra 
(T(})60}v auTMV Tradjj/jLara Kara/xadelv, co? yiverat, 
Kol TraveTUL /cal Bi o'las 7rpo(f)daia'i av^eral re 

20 Kal (f>9ivet, h-q^ioTw; eovrwi ou p'TjlSiov vtt' aWov 
8e €vpr]fx€va Kal Xeyo/Jieva, euTrere?. ovBep yap 
erepov rj dva/xifivijaKeTUL e/vacrro? aKOvcov roiv 
avTO) ^ crvfxjSaLvovTwv. el he Ti? t?}? tmv ISicoTecov 
yv(i)fiy<i aTroTeu^erai koI fir] SiaBi]aet rovq clkov- 
ovTa^ ovT(o<;, rod eovTO<; dTrorev^eraL. Kal 8id 

26 Tavra ovv ravra ovhev Sec vtv o9 ea LO<i . 

111. l7]V yap ap')(^>]i' ovr av eupeai] r; Te')(yri »; 
irjTpiKr] ovr av e^yjTijUT] — ovoev yap avT))<i eoei — 
el Tolai Kcifivovai rwv dvOpcoircov ra avra Btaira)- 
fievoiai re Kal Trpoat^epopLevoLcri, direp ol vyiaiv^v- 
re? iadlovai re Kal rrivovaL kuI TaWa SLaiTeovrai, 
avve(f)epev, Kal /nr] i]v erepa rovroiv /SeXrlo). vvv 
he avTr) rj dvdyKij IrirpiKrjv errou^aev ^r]Ti]0 fjval re 
Kal evpeOrjvaL dvOpcoTTOicri, on rolcri Kdp,vovaL 
Tavra 7rpo(T(f)epop.evoiai, drrep ol vyialvovrt'i, ov 

10 crvvecf)epev, &>? ovhe vvv avp^cjiepet. erL he dvcoOev 
67(076 d^ib) ovh av ry-jv roiv vyiaivovrcov hlatrdv 
re Kal roo(f)t]v, ^ vvv ')(^peovraL, eupeOi'ivai, el 
e^yjpKei rw dvOpMirw ravrd iadlovri Kal rrivovri 
/3ot re Kal Ittttw Kal irdaiv iKro^ dvOpooTTOv, olov 
rd eK r)i<; yrj'i (f)v6/j.€va, Kap7rov<i re Kal vXrjv Kal 
')(^oprov. diTO rovrcov yap Kal rpecfyovrai Kal 
av^ovrai Kal cittovol hidyovaiv ovhev rrpoaheo/xevoi 
dXX^]<i hialrrjf;. Kal roi ri^v ye dp)(riv eycoye hoKeco 
Kal rov dvO pcoTTov roiavrrj rpocpfj Ke)(^pi]aOai. rd 

20 Be vvv hiair)]/jLara evprj/neva Kal rere')(yTOP-^va ev 

* koivT^ most MSS. 
16 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, ii.-iii. 

ordinary folk when they are sick or in pain. Now 
to learn by themselves how their own sufferings 
come about and cease, and the reasons why they get 
worse or better, is not an easy task for ordinary 
folk ; but when these things have been discovered 
and are set forth by another, it is simple. For 
merely an effort of memory is required of each man 
when he listens to a statement of his experiences. 
But if you miss being understood by laymen, 
and fail to put your hearers in this condition, you 
will miss reality. Therefore for this reason also 
medicine has no need of any postulate. 

III. For the art of medicine would never have been 
discovered to begin with, nor would any medical re- 
search have been conducted — for there would have 
been no need for medicine — if sick men had profited 
by the same mode of living and regimen as the food, 
drink and mode of living of men in health, and if 
there had been no other things for the sick better 
than these. But the fact is that sheer necessity has 
caused men to seek and to find medicine, because 
sick men did not, and do not, profit by the same 
regimen as do men in health. To trace the matter 
yet further back, I hold that not even the mode of 
living and nourishment enjoyed at the present time 
by men in health would have been discovered, had a 
man been satisfied with the same food and drink as 
satisfy an ox, a horse, and every animal save man, 
for example the products of the earth — fruits, wood 
and grass. For on these they are nourished, grow, 
and live without pain, having no need at all of any 
other kind of living. Yet I am of opinion that to 
begin with man also used this sort of nourishment. 
Our present ways of living have, I think, been 

17 



HEPI APXAIHE IHTPIKHS 

TToWw 'x^povM yeyevTjaOai fio* SoKel. w? yap 
€7r a o"^GV TToWci re /cal 8eiva viro ia'^vprj<; re Kal 
OrjpiioSeo'i StaiT?;? co/xd re Kal aKpi^ra Kal ixeyd\a<; 
8vvdp.ia^ e^ovra ecr^epop^evoi. old Trep civ Kal 
vvv VTT avroyv 7rdo-)(0Lev Trovoiai re la')(ypolcn koI 
vovaoi'i TTepi7rLTTrovre<i Kal 8id rdy^eo<; Oavdroiai. 
ijcxaov p,ev ovv raura rore eiKO^ yv 7rdcr')(eiv hid 
rrjv avvTJdeiav, la')(yp(Jd<; 8e Kal rore. Kal tou? 
fiev TrXelarov^ re Kal dcrOeveareprjv cjivatv e)(ovra<; 

30 uTToWvaOaL €iKO<;, tov<; 8e rourwv v'irepe')(ovra<i 
7r\eiu> ■y^povov dvreyeiv Mcrirep Kal vvv drro ro)v 
la')(vpo)v ^prnpidrcdv ol fiev pr]i8L(o^ drraWdcrcrovrai, 
ol 8e /xerd iroWwv ttovcov re Kal KaKcov. 8id 8rj 
ravrrjv rrjV alrujv Kal ovroi p.oi 8oKeouac l^rjrriaai 
rpocpr/v dpp,6^ovaav rfj (f)vcrei Kal evpelv ravrrjv, 
fj vvv ■^(^pecofieda. €k /.lev ovv rcov irvpcov ^pe^avre^ 
acpa'i Kal Tmcravre^ Kal KaraXeaavre<i re Kal 
8ia(T)']aavr€<i Kal (f)opv^avr€<; Kal oirrtjaavre^ dire- 
rekeaav dprov, eK 8e rwv KpiOecov fid^av dWa re 

40 TToWa rrepl ravra 7rp'>]y/xarevadp,€voi 7]\^)]adv re 
Kal u>7rry]aav Kal epn^av, Kal eKepacrav rd la')(ypd 
re Kal aKpiira toI<; da6evearepoL<;, TrXdacrovra 
irdvra rrpo^ rrjv rov dvdpcoTrou (pvatv re Kal 
8vvafiiv, rjyevp.evoi, oaa p,ev dv ia)^vp6repa y i)^ 
8vvi]aerat Kparelv rj (f)vai<;, rjv ificfyepyjrai, diro 
rovrcov S' avrcov rrovovi re Kal vovaov<i Kal 6avd- 
rov<; eaeaOai, oiroawv 8' dv 8vvy]rai iiriKparelv, 
drrb rovrcov rpo(f)tiv re Kal av^rjaw Kal vyielriv. 
TO) 8e evp>]fLari rovrw Kal ^r]r7]p,ari ri dv ri? 

^ So Littr6, but he does not admit the conjecture into hi3 
text. The MSS. show a great variety of readings, giving thq 
same sense but Irregular conbtructions, 

i8 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, iii. 

discovered and elaborated during a long period ot 
time. For many and terrible were the sufferings 
of men from strong and brutish living when they 
partook of crude foods, uncompounded and possess- 
ing great powers ^ — the same in fact as men would 
suffer at the present day, falling into violent pains and 
diseases quickly followed by death. Formerly indeed 
they probably suffered less, because they were used to 
it, but they suffered severely even then. The majority 
naturally perished, having too weak a constitution, 
while the stronger resisted longer, just as at the 
present time some men easily deal with strong foods, 
while others do so only with many severe pains. 
For this reason the ancients too seem to me to 
have sought for nourishment that harmonised with 
their constitution, and to have discovered that which 
we use now. So from wheat, after steeping it, 
winnowing, grinding and sifting, kneading, baking, 
they produced bread, and from barley they produced 
cake. Experimenting with food they boiled or 
baked, after mixing, many other things, combining 
the strong and uncompounded with the weaker 
components so as to adapt all to the constitution and 
power of man, thinking that from foods which, being 
too strong, the human constitution cannot assimi- 
late when eaten, will come pain, disease, and death, 
while from such as can be assimilated will come 
nourishment, growth and health. To this discovery 
and research what juster or more appropriate name 

^Or "strong qualities." 

19 



HEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKHE 

50 ovofia SiKaiorepov rj irpoarjKov fxaXkov deirj rj 
vj]TptK)]v; on ye evprjraL iirl rfj rou avOpoyrrov 
vyici)] re kol acoTijpuj Kal rpoc^fj, aWayfia iKeLvri<; 

T?79 8iaiT7]<;, i^ 7/9 01 TTOVOt Kol VOVCTOi KoX OdvuToi 
54 ijLVOVTO. 

IV. Et 8e fii] re')(yi] avrrj vop,i^€Tai elvai, ouk 
aireoiKO'i' 179 yap /i?;8et9 iariv lBi(i)T')]<i, dXXa 
rrrdvre'i 67ri(TT7]/j.ov€<; Sid tt}v ')(^pr}criv re koX dvdyKrjv, 
ov 7rpocT)'jK6L TavTT]^ ovSevu Te)(ylTr)v KaXeiaOaf 
eirei to ye evprjfia p,eya re kcli TroWij'i aKe\\rLO'=; 
re Kal Te)(vy]'i. en yovv Kal vvv ol royv yvfivaaioiv 
re Kai aaKijaicoi' eTTifieXo/xevoL alei n rrpoae^ev- 
pLaKovcTiv Kara rrjv avrtjv o86v ^r]reovTe<i 6 n 
eaOicov re Kal ttlvmv eTTiKparyjcret re avrov fidXicrra 

10 Kal l(T-)(yp6repo<i avro^ ecovrov earai. 

V. 'S,Ke\lrcofX€Oa 8e Kal rrjv 6fio\oyeo/xevQ}<i Irjrpi- 
K7]v, rr^v dp.(f)l T0j)9 Kd/Jivovra<i €upr]fieur)v, rj Kal 
ovo/jia Kal re)(i>Lra^ ^X^^' VP^'- '^'' '^'^^ avrrj rtov 
avrCov eOeXei, Kal rrodev rrore rjpKrat. efxal /xev 
yap, orrep ev dp^fj eL7rov,ovB civ t,ijrr)aai lijrpiKrjv 
ooKec ovSei<i, el raurd hiatri'jpiara rolai re Kafivovcrt 
Kal rolai vyialvovaiv ijpp.ol^ev. en yovv Kal vvv 
oaoi iijrpiKT] /ii7] y^peovrai, o'l re ^up^apoi Kal 
rcov KWijvcov eviot, rov avrov rpoirov, ovrrep ol 

10 vyiatvovre<i, Siaireovrai rrpcx; rjBov^v, Kal ovr dv 
diroa-y^oivro ov8evo<; wv e'Tn6vp,eovcnv ov9^ vrro- 
areiXaivro dv. ol he ^ijrrjcravre'i Kal evpovra 
ir]rptK7]v rrjv avrrjv eKeivoicn Sidvoiav eyovTe'i, 
irepl S)v fjioi 6 7rporepo<i A.6709 eipy]rai, rrpSyrov 
fiev, OLfiai, v(^el\ov rov irXijOeo^ roiv airiayv avroiv 
rovrcdv, Kal dvrl rrXeiovav oXijiara erroirjaav, 
iirel he avroiai rovro ean pev ore rrpo<; nva<i 
20 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, iii.-v. 

could be given than medicine, seeing that it has 
been discovered with a view to the Ileal th, savinjr 
and nourishment of man, in the place of that 
mode of living from which came the 2)ain, disease and 
death ? 

IV. That it is not commonly considered an art is 
not unnatural, for it is inappropriate to call anyone 
an artist in a craft in which none are laymen, but 
all possess knowledge through being compelled to 
use it. Nevertheless the discovery was a great one, 
implying nnich investigation and art. At any rate 
even at the present day those who study gymnastics 
and athletic exercises are constantly making some 
fresh discovery by investigating on the same method 
what food and what drink are best assimilated and 
make a man grow stronger. 

V. Let us consider also whether the acknowledged 
art of medicine, that was discovered for the treat- 
ment of the sick and has both a name and artists, 
has the same object as the other art,^ and what its 
origin was. In my opinion, as I said at the begin- 
ning, nobody would have even sought for medicine, 
if the same ways of life had suited both the sick and 
those in health. At any rate even at the present day 
such as do not use medical science, foreigners and 
some Greeks, live as do those in health, just as they 
please, and would neither forgo nor restrict the satis- 
faction of any of their desires. But those who sought 
for and discovered medicine, having the same inten- 
tion as the men I discussed above, in the first place, 
I think, lessened the bulk of the foods, and, without 
altering their character, greatly diminished their 
quantity. But they found that this treatment was 

* /. e. that of dieting in health. See Chapter VII. 

21 



nEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKHS 

T(ov Kaixvoinoiv ypxeae Kal (f)avepov ijeveTO oocpe- 
\rjaav, ov fievroi iraai ye, aXX i)aav Tive<i oOtco? 

20 e'Yot'Te?, &>? /u,r] oXlycov atTLcov huvaaOai eTriKparetv, 
aadevearepov Se ht] Tivo'i ol roLoihe eSoKeov Sel- 
adai, evpov ra pv^i]p,ara /jLi,^avT€<; oXiya twv 
l(T)(^vpQ)v TToWu) ru) vhari Kal cK^aipeoixevoi to 
la')(^upov rfi Kpi'jaeL re koI e^^rjaei. ocrot Be fM7]Bk 
TO)v pv(f)')'ip,dT(OP eSvvavTo emKpareiv, a(pelXov Kal 
ravra, Kal acfuKovTO e? irofMara, Kal ravra rfjai 
Te Kpijaeai Kal tw irX/jOei 8ia<pv\daaovT€<; od^ 
/xeTpioyi e^ot, /a?;t6 TrXetco tmv heovrwv fxi'^Te aKprj- 

29 Tearepa Trpoaffiepopevoi p-tjSe evheearepa. 

VI. Eu he ■xpv TOVTO elhevai, on ricrl to. 
pv(f)}jp,aTa ev r^at vovaoiaw ov avp.(f)epei, aW' 
dvTiKpu<;,^ orav ravra rrpoaaipcovrai, Trapo^v- 
vovrai a(f)C<TL ol re irvperol Kal ra a\,yr]p,ara- Kal 
8i]\ov TO 7rpoa€ve-)(^dev rfj p,ev vovao) rpocpi] re 
Kal av^'>]cn<; yev6p.eyov, ra> he aco/xart (f}OLai<i re 
Kal dppcocrrL-t]. oaoL he dv rcov dvOpcoircov ev 
ravrrj rfj hiaOeaet iovre<i rrpoaeveyKwvraL ^rjpov 
(TLriov rj fid^av i) dprov, Kal rjv rrdw afiiKpov, 

10 heKaTrXaalw^ dv p^aXXov Kal eirKpavecrrepov kukco- 
ueiev )] pv(peovre<i, ol ovoev axXo i) OLa rrjv ccr^^vv 
rov /3pcop,aro^ 7rpo<i rijv hiddecnv Kal orcp pvc^yelv 
fxev av/uL(f)epeL, eadieLV S' ou, el TrXeLco (pdyoi, rroXv 
dv pdXXov KaKcoOeiy], r] el oXiya-^ Kal el oXlya 
he, TTOvijaeiev dv. rrdvra hrj rd alria rov irovov 
69 TO avro dvdyerai, rd Icr^vporara fj,dXiard re 
Kal e7rL(f)avearara XvfiaivecrOai rov dvOpwnov Kal 

18 rov vyLa iovra Kal rov Kapbvovra. 

1 iivri.Kpvs M : (pavtpu>s A : Hesychius gives <pauepu>s as an 
explanation of &vTiKpvs. 

22 



ANCIEN'I' MEDICINE, v.-vi. 

siiHicient only occasionally, and although clearly 
beneficial with some patients, it was not so in all 
cases, as some were in such a condition that they 
could not assimilate even small quantities of food. 
As such patients were thought to need weaker nutri- 
ment, slops were invented by mixing with much 
water small quantities of strong foods, and by taking 
away from their strength by compounding and 
boiling. Those that were not able to assimilate them 
were re(used even these slops, and were reduced to 
taking liquids, these moreover being so regulated in 
composition and quantity as to be moderate, and 
nothing was administered that was either more or 
less, or less compounded, than it ought to be. 

VI. It must be clearl}^ understood that some are 
not benefited in disease by slops, but when they 
take them, their fever and pain grow manifestly 
worse, and it is plain that what is taken proves 
nourishment and increase to the disease, but wears 
away and enfeebjes the body. Any men who in this 
condition take dry food, barley-cake or bread, even 
though it be very little, will be hurt ten times 
more, and more obviously, than if they take slo2:)S, 
simply and solely because the food is too strong 
for their condition ; and a man to whom slops are 
beneficial, but not solid food, will suffer much more 
harm if he eat more than if he eat little, though 
he will feel pain even if he eat little. Now all the 
causes of the pain can be reduced to one, namely, 
it is the strongest foods that hurt a man most and 
most obviously, whether he be well or ill. 



^ f) ei oKiya iMinerins : ^ 6\iya A : the words are generally 
omitted in MSS. 

23 



nEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKH2 

VII. Tt ovv ^aiveraL erepolov hiavoridel<; 6 
Ka\ev/j.€vo<i i,7]Tpo'i Kol ofjLoXoyeo/ii6V(io<i ')^€ipoT6-)(vr]<;, 
09 i^evpe rrjv apLcfil tou? Kd/j,vovra<; hiandv re koI 
Tpo(f)7]v, rj eKeivo'i 6 an dpxV'^ Tolat irdcnv dvOpoa- 
TTOiaiv Tpo(f}7]v, fi vvv ■y^poofieda, i^ eKelvrjq Trj<i 
d'ypL7]'i T€ Kal dr]pi(oBeo<; SiaLTrj<; eupcov re Kol 
irapacTKevacrafxevo'i; e/mol fxev jdp (patverai 6 auTO? 
\ojQ<i KUi hp Kal b/jLOiov TO evprjfjLU. 6 fiev, oacov 
/mi] ihvvaro 1) (f)vaL<; rj dv6 pwrrivrj vyiatvovaa 

10 eTTLKparelv epLTrnnovTwv Sid ttjv OijpioTTjrd re kol 
rt-jv dKpy]aL}]v, 8e, oacov t] 8idde(n.<i, iv olr) av 
eKaarore eKaarof ru-^i] hiaKeLpLevo<i, /xt] Svprjrai 
eTTLKparelv, ravra e^ijr T](Tev d(peXelv. ri Sij rovro 
eKeivov Stacfiepet dW' 7) t ttXcov t ^ to 76 elSo'i, Kal 
ore TToiKiXcorepov Kac irXeiovo'^ irpTjy par i7]<;, dp-)^fj 

16 Be iKeiV7j 7) rrporepov yevopevrj; 

VIII. Et 8e Tt? aKeTTToiro rrjv tmv Kapvovrcov 
Oiacrav irpo'i rrjv roov vyiaivovrcov, evpoi dv rrjv 
rcbv Orjpiwv re Kal rwv dWcov ^(pcov ov ySXaySe- 
p(t)rep7]v 7rpb<i rrjv rwv vyiaivovrcov. dvrjp yap 
Kapvcov voarjpari p7jre rwv ^aXe7^c5^' re Kal dirb- 
pwv pijre av rcov Travrdiraaiv evrjOeoiv, aW' 6 ri 
avru) e^apaprdvovTi peWei e7TiS7j\oi> eaeaOai, el 
edeXoi Karacjiayelv dprov Kal Kpea^ rj dWo ri mv 
ol vyiaivovre<; eaOiovre<i w^eXeovrai, prj iroWov, 

10 aWa TToWcp eXacraov rj vyialvcov dv eSvvaro, 
dWo<i re rSiv vyiaivovrcov (f)vaiv €)(^o)v prjre 

^ irKfov M8S. : omitted by Reinhold. Was irxiov a misread 
gloss (ttAt;;') on aW fj ? 

^ Ol- "appearance." The two pursuits are really one, but 
thej' appear to a superficial observer to differ. 

24 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, vii.-viii. 

VII. What difference then can be seen between 
the purpose of him we call physician, who is an 
acknowledged handicraftsman, the discoverer of the 
mode of life and of the nourishment suitable for the 
sick, and his who discovered and prepared originally 
nourishment for all men, which we now use, instead 
of the old savage and brutish mode of living ? My 
own view is that their reasoning was identical and the 
discovery one and the same. The one sought to 
do away with those things which, when taken, the 
constitution of man in health could not assimilate 
because of their brutish and uncompounded character, 
the other those things which the temporary condi- 
tion of an individual prevented him from assimilating. 
How do the two pursuits differ, except in their scope ^ 
and in that the latter is more complex and requires 
the greater application, while the former is the 
starting point and came first in time .'' 

VIII. A consideration of the diet of the sick, as 
compared with that of men in health, would show 
that the diet of wild beasts and of animals generally 
is not more harmful, as compared with that of men 
in health. 2 Take a man sick of a disease which is 
neither severe and desperate nor yet altogether mild, 
but likely to be pronounced under wrong treatment, 
and suppose that he resolved to eat bread, and meat, 
or any other food that is beneficial to men in health, 
not much of it, but far less than he could have taken 
had he been well ; take again a man in health, with 
a constitution neither altoijether weak nor altogether 

^ The text here is very uncertain ; I have combined that 
of Littr6 with that of Kiihlewein so as to give a good sense: 
" The diet of men in health is as injurious to the sick as tlie 
diet of wild beasts is to men in health." 



VOL. I. 



D 25 



nEPI APXAIHL IHTPIKHS 

iravrdiracnv aaOevea ixrjre av Icr-^vpriv (f)dyoi ti 
o)v /SoO? rf 'iTTTTOS (payoyv av axpeXolro re Kal 
i(T')(^voL, opo^ov<; i) KpiOd'i rj dWo to tmv toiovtwv, 
/jlt] ttoXv, aWa ttoXXu) /xelov i) hvvaiTO, ovk ai' 
rjaaov o vyiaivayv rovro Trotijaa^ TTovi'^aete re Kal 
KivhwevaeLe Keivov rov voa€ovTo<i, o? tov ciprov r) 
Trjv fxd^av aKaipw'^ irpocrrivkyKaTO. ravra 8r] 
TTCLvra T€Kfxi]pia, oti avTrj rj Te')(vri irdaa i) IrjTpiKt] 

20 T^^ avT^ o8u) ^T]T€op.evT] evplcTKOLTO dv. 

IX. Kat el fiev rjv dirXovv, Mcnrep v<f)7Jyy]T0, 
oaa pkv rjv Icrx^porepa, e/SXaTrrev, ocra S' rjv 
dadevecTTepa, (i)(peXei re Kal erpecfyev Kal tov Kafi- 
voina Kal rov vytaivovra, ei^TreTe? dv rjv to Trprjypa' 
TToXXov yap rov dcrcfyaXeo^ dv eBei TtepcXafM^d- 
vovTa<; dyeiv eirl to dadeveaTepov, vvv 8e ovk 
eXaaaov dfidpT7]/j,a, ov8e rjcrcrov XvfiaiveTai tov 
dvdpcoTTov, i)v iXdcraova Kal ivSeeaTepa tcov iKa- 
vwv 7rpocr(f)epr]Tai. to yap tov Xipov p.evo<i ^vva- 

10 Tai Icrxvpco^; ev tj) (pvcrei tov dvOpcoirov Kal yvicoaai 
Kal daOevea TTOirjcrai Kal diroKTelvai. iroXXd Be 
Kal dXXa KaKa eTepola tcov diro 7rXT}pcoaio<i, ov-)(^ 
rjaaov Se heivd, Kal diro KevcixjLo^. hioTi ttoXXov 
TTOiKiXcoTepd re Kal Std 7rXeiovo<i dKpi^elrj'i eVr/. 
Be? yap fxeTpov Tivo<i aToxdcraadai. ficTpov Be 
ovTe dpidp^ov ovT€ (TTa6p,6v dXXov, irpo^ o dvacpe- 
pwv elar) TO dKpij3e<i, ovk dv evpoi,<; dXX r/ tov 
acopaTO^ TrjV aiaOrjaiv. Bio epyov ovto) KaTa- 
paOelv dKpiSea)<i, wure crpiKpd dpapTdveiv evOa 

20 17 evOa. Kav 670) tovtov tov IrjTpov iVt^u/jo)? 
eiraiveoLpii tov ap^LKpa dpapTdvovTa. to Be dTpe- 
Ke<; oXiyaKi'i eaTi KaTiBeiv. eVel ol ttoXXol ye 
TMV IrjTpcov Ta avTa /xoi BoKeovatv Tolai KaKolcn 
26 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, viii.-ix. 

strong, and suppose he were to eat one of the foods 
that would be beneficial and strength-giving to an ox 
or a horse, vetches or barley or something similar, 
not much of it, but far less than he could take. If 
the man in health did tliis he would suffer no less 
pain and danger than that sick man who took bread 
or barley-cake at a time when he ought not. All this 
goes to prove that this art of medicine, if research be 
continued on the same method, can all be discovered. 
IX. If the matter were simple, as in these in- 
stances, and both sick and well were hurt by too 
strong foods, benefited and nourished by weaker 
foods, there would be no difficulty. For recourse to 
weaker food must have secured a great degree of 
safety. But as it is, if a man takes insufficient food, 
the mistake is as great as that of excess, and harms 
the man just as much. For abstinence has upon 
the human constitution a most powerful effect, to 
enervate, to weaken and to kill. Depletion produces 
many other evils, different from those of repletion, but 
just as severe. Wherefore the greater com}ile.\'ity of 
these ills requires a more exact method of treatment. 
For it is necessary to aim at some measure. But no 
measure, neither number nor weiglit, by reference to 
which knowledge can be made exact, can be found 
except bodily feeling. Wherefore it is laborious to 
make knowledge so exact that only small mistakes 
are made here and there. And that physician who 
makes only small mistakes would win my hearty 
praise. Perfectly exact truth is but rarely to be seen. 
For most physicians seem to me to be in the same 

27 



nEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKHS 

KV^€pv7]Tr]ai TrdcryeLv. koI yap eKelvoi orav ev 
yaXi'^VT] Kvj3epvMvre<i ajxapTavwaiv, ov KaTacf}ave€<; 
elalv orav he auTOv<; Kareia^rj -^ei/j-cov re /leyci'; 
KoX ave/xo'i e'^oocTTT;?, (jiovepM^; irdaip i]8r] av6pu>- 
iroi'i hi ayvQ)(Tii]v Kal a/iapTiijv BrjXoL elcriv arro- 
\ecravre<; tijv vavv. ovtq) hr] koI ol KaKoi re Kal 

30 oi TrXela-TOL IrjTpoi, orav /xev depairevwaiv dvOpco- 
7Tov<i iJii]hev heivov e^ovTa<;, e? ous dv Ti<i ra 
p.eyicna e^ajxaprdvayv ovZev heiiop epydaairo — 
TToWd he Toiavra voa)]paTa koI iroXkov n TrXetw 
TMV heivoyv dv6pd>TToi<i av/x/Satvei — ev jxev rolai 
TOiovTOL<; dfiapTdvovTa ov KUTacpavee^ eialv rolaiv 
IhidnTrjCTLV' orav 8' evrv')(coaiv fieydXip re Kac 
IcTYupu) Kal eTTiacfiaXel voajjp,aTi, rore a(f)ecov rd 
re djxaprrjiJba'Ta Kal rj dreyi'irj irdai KaTucfyavi']^' 
ov yap e? fxaKpov avTcov eKarepov al rifxcopiai, 

40 dWd hid Ta;!^609 irdpeccnv. 

X. "Ort S' ouhev ekdcraov; diro Kepcoaic; aKatpov 
KaKOirdOecai yivovrai t&) dvdpcoTTW r) utto rr\i]pd}- 
aio'i, KaTapai'Odveiv /^aXco? ex^i eirava^epovTa^ 
iirl rov<i vyiaivovra^. ecrrc yap o'lctlv avroiv 
avpcpepei /xovoanelv, Kal tovto hia ro avfxcpepoj' 
OVTQ)'; avjol erd^avro, dWotai he dpiaryv hid 
rrjv avT7]V uvdyKijv ovtco yap avrolai avfKpepei. 
KUi firjv TOUT eiat oc ^ oi ijooi'rjv rj oi aKKr^v riva 
avyKvpcTjv e7r€T)']h€vaav oiroTepov avTow. rol'; 

10 p,ev yap irXeiaroicn tcov dvOpcoircov ovhev hiacpepei, 
OTTOTepov dv eTrtTTjhevacoaiv, elre fiovocnreli' eire 
dpicrrrjv, tovtw rw eOei ')(^prja6aL. elal he Tive<; 
at ovK dv hvvaiVTO e^w rov crv/x(f)€povTO<; iroteovre'i 
f)r]thla)<; diraXXdaaetv, dXXd av/x/3aivei avroyv 

^ Ka\ ix7}v tovt' (la\ ot Reinhold : fx^ tovtoioiv o1 MSS. 
28 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, ix.-x. 

case as bad pilots ; the mistakes of tlie latter are 
unnoticed so long as they are steering in a calm, but, 
when a great storm overtakes them with a violent 
gale, all men realise clearly then that it is their 
ignorance and blundering which have lost the ship. 
So also when bad physicians, who comprise the great 
majority, treat men who are suffering from no serious 
complaint, so that the greatest blunders would not 
affect them seriously — such illnesses occur very often, 
being far more common than serious disease — they 
are not shown up in their true colours to laymen if 
their errors are confined to such cases ; but when 
they meet with a severe, violent and dangerous 
illness, then it is that their errors and want of skill 
are manifest to all. The punishment of the impostor, 
whether sailor or doctor, is not postponed, but follows 
speedily. 

X. That the discomforts a man feels after un- 
seasonable abstinence are no less than those of 
unseasonable re])letion, it were well to learn by a 
reference to men in health. For some of them 
benefit by taking one meal only each day, and 
because of this benefit they make a rule of having 
only one meal ; others again, because of the same 
reason, that they are benefited thereby, take lunch 
also. Moreover some have adopted one or other of 
these two practices for the sake of pleasure or for 
some other chance reason. For the great majority 
of men can follow indifferently either the one habit or 
the other, and can take lunch or only one daily meal. 
Others again, if they were to do anything outside what 
is beneficial, would not get oft easily, but if they 



29 



nEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKHS 

€KaT6poiai Trap' i)fiept]v fiiav naX ravrijv ouy^ oXtju 
fiera^aXKovcnv vTrep(pu7)<; vaKOTrddeia. ol pev yap 
r]v dpicTTijacoaiv p'q avp,^epovTO<i avrolai, eu^eo)? 
j3apee<i kuI vcodpol koX to acopa kuI rrjv yvcop.tjv 
'^dap,ij'i re Kal vvaraypiov koX hiy\rr)<i 7rXr]pe€<i' rjv 

20 he Kol iiriSecTrvyja-coai, Kal <puaa Kal aTpoipo^ Kal 
rj KOiXlrj KaTapprj^vvTai. Kal TToWolacv dp)(^r) 
vovaov avrrj pejdXij^; ejevero, Kal rjv rd crirla, d 
pep,a6iJKeaav dira^ dva\iaK6iv, ravra Bl<; Trpoa- 
eveyKcovrai Kal p.7]8ev 7rA,e/cu. tovto Se, rjv dpi- 
arrjv p.epaOrjKoi'i rt? — Kal ovt(o<; avrw crvpcfiepov 
rjv — p^rj dpianjar], orav rd-x^iara TTapeXQrj r) copr], 
ev6v<i dSwapLLTj SeiVTj, t/Oo/xo?, d'^v'xiiy errl tov- 
Tot? 6<^0a\pol KolXoi, ovpov ^(XwpoTepov kol 
deppLorepov, aropa iriKpov, Kal rd a7r\dy)^va 

30 hoK€t ol Kpepaadai, (XKOTohivu'i, SvaOvpir), Suaep- 
yeir). ravTa 8e irdvTa, Kal orav henrvelv €7TL)(^6i- 
prjar), urjSeaTepo'i pev a crtT09, dvaXicTKCiv Se ov 
hvvarai oaa dpiaTi^opevo'i nrporepov iSecTrvei. 
ravTa Be avrd perd arpocpov Kal 'yjroffyov Kara- 
^aivovra auyKaiet, ttjv kolXlijv, hvaKoneoval re 
Kal ivvTTi'id^ovcn Terapaypeva re Kal OopvQiohea. 

37 TToWolac Se Kal tovtcov avrrj dpyrj vovaov iyevero. 
XI. 1,Keyp^aaOaL Be XPV> ^''^ riva alTirjv avrolaiv 
Tavra awe/Si], tm p.ev, olpiai, pepaOrjKori povo- 
(TiTelv, oTi ovK dvep,eLvev rov 'y^povov tov Ikuvov, 
pe)(_pt avTov 7] KoiXiTj rcov rrj TrpoTepatr) irpoaevr}- 
veypevoiv aniwv diroXavar] reXew? Kal eTTLKpa- 
rrjarj Kal XaTra^dy re Kal ijcrv^darj, dW eirl 

3° 



ANCIEiNT MEDICINE, x.-xi. 

change their respective ways for a single day, na), 
for a part of a single day, they suffer excessive dis- 
comfort. Some, who lunch although lunch does not 
suit them, forthwith become heavy and sluggish in 
body and in mind, a prey to yawning, drowsiness and 
thirst ; while, if they go on to eat dinner as well, 
flatulence follows with colic and violent diarrhoea. 
Many have found such action to result in a serious 
illness, even if the quantity of food they take twice 
a day be no greater than that which they have 
grown accustomed to digest once a day. On the 
other hand, if a man who has grown accustomed, 
and has found it beneficial, to take lunch, should 
miss taking it, he suffers, as soon as the lunch-hour 
is passed, from prostrating weakness, trembling and 
faintness. Hollowness of the eyes follows ; urine 
becomes paler and hotter, and the mouth bitter ; his 
bowels seem to hang ; there come dizziness, depres- 
sion and listlessness. Besides all this, when he 
attempts to dine, he has the following troubles : 
his food is less pleasant, and he cannot digest what 
formerly he used to dine on when he had lunch. 
The mere food, descending into the bowels with 
colic and noise, burns them, and disturbed sleep 
follows, accompanied by wild and troubled dreams. 
Many such sufferers also have found these symptoms 
the beginning of an illness. 

XI. It is necessary to inquire into the cause why 
such symptoms come to these men. The one who 
had grown accustomed to one meal suffered, I think, 
because he did not wait sufficient time, until his 
digestive organs had completely digested and assimi- 
lated the food taken the day before, and until they 
had become empty and quiet, but had taken fresh 

31 



nEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKH2 

^eovadv^ re Kal i^v/u(o/jievi]v Kaiva iTrearjueyKaro. 
at he roiavrai KoiXiai ttoWw re /BpaBvrepov 
TTCcraovai Kal TrXe/oi^o? Seovrai arairavaio'; re kul 

10 i)crv-)(Lrj(;. o he fie/Lia6i]Ka}^ apta-ri^eaOai, Siotl, 
€7reLor] Ttt^fcrra ehei]0)] to aco/xa rpocpiii; koI ra 
irporepa KUTavuXcoTo Kal ovk el')(^ev ovhepnav 
uTToXavcnv, ovk evOeo)^ avrCo irpoaeyeuero Kaivq 
Tpo(})')], (pOlvei hr] Kal avvTi']K6TaL vtto Xi/xov. TTavra 
•yap, a Xe'yoo 7rda--)(ei,v rov toloutov dvdpoiiTov, 
\l/uLU) dvarWripbi. <f)T]/j.l he Kal roi)? dWou^i dvdpco- 
TTOf? diravra'^, oiTii'e? civ vyiaivovre'; dacroi Bvo 
i)p.epa<i i) rpel's yevcovrai, ravra TreLcreadai, otairep 

19 eVt TMV dvapiaTwv yevofievcov eLpijKa. 

XII. Trt? he TOiavra<i (pvcria^ ejwye (f)7]/xi rd'; 
ra^^eft)? re Kal L(j-)(ypoi<i roi)v dixapnipidTOiv diro- 
\avovaa<i dadevearepa'i elvat t(oi' erepcov. iyyv- 
rara he rov dcrdeveovr6<; ecniv 6 daOevi]<i, en he 
da6evecTT6po^ o dadevecov, Kal pbdWov avrw irpoa- 
y]Kei 6 ri dv tov Kaipov d7rorvy)(^di>r] TTovelv. 
^aXeirov he- TOiavTi]<i dKpi/3ety]<; eouai]'; irepl ttjv 
Te'^vrjv Tvy^^dveLV alel rod drpeKeardrov. TroWa 
he ethea Kar IrjrpiKrjv e? roaavniv uKpt^eiav ijKei, 

10 TTepl &v elpi'jcrerai. ou (pi]pLi he helv hid rovro 
ri]V re')(^pi]v &)9 ovk eovaav ovhe Ka\,M<i ^r)r€0/j,ev7]V 
rr)v dp)(^avi]v diro/SdWeaOai, el pLt] e^ei TTepl Trdvra 
aKpl/Seiav, dWd ttoXv fidWov hid ro €771)9 olfiat 
TOV drpeKeardrov hvvaaOai yKeiv Xoyto-fiu)^ e'/c 
TToW?}? dyp(vaiij<; Oavp.d^eiv rd i^evpyj/xeva, ox? 

16 KaX(b<i Kal opdoyt; e^evpt]Tai Kal ovk diro rv')(ii'i. 

^ «7rl ^iovtrav Zwinger: iirt^eovtrau MSS. 
- Littre with some MSS. reads ,u); here. 
^ After Koyicfxif in a MS. now lost occurred the words 
TTpoffleadai Koi. 

32 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, xi.-xii. 

food while the organs were still in a state of hot 
turmoil and ferment. Such organs digest much more 
slowly than others, and need longer rest and quiet. 
The man accustomed to take lunch, since no 
fresh nourishment was given him as soon as his 
body needed nourishment, when the previous meal 
was digested and there was nothing to sustain him, 
naturally wastes and pines away through want. For 
I put down to want all the symptoms which I have 
said such a man shows. And I assert furthermore 
that all other men besides, who when in good health 
fast for two or three days, will show the same 
symptoms as I have said those exhibit who do not 
take their lunch. 

XII. Such constitutions, I contend, that rapidly 
and severely feel the effects of errors, are weaker 
than the others. A weak man is but one step 
removed from a sickly man, but a sickly man is 
weaker still, and is more apt to suffer distress w^hen- 
ever he misses the due season. And, while the art 
can admit of such nice exactness, it is difficult always 
to attain perfect accuracy. But many departments of 
medicine have reached such a pitch of exactness, 
and I will speak about them later. I declare, how- 
ever, that Ave ought not to reject the ancient art as 
non-existent, or on the ground that its method of 
inquiry is faulty, just because it has not attained 
exactness in every detail, but much rather, because 
it has been able by reasoning to rise from deep 
ignorance to approximately perfect accuracv, I think 
we ought to admire the discoveries as the work, not 
of chance, but of inquiry rightly and correctly con- 
ducted. 



33 



HEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKH2 

XIII. 'EttI 8e Twv TOP KULVov rpoTTov Trjv rixvrjv 
^r]T€vvTQ)V i^ vTToOeaio'i top Xoyov errraveXOelv 
^ovXo/xai. el yap rl eariv Oeppov rj ■\^v)(^pov rj 
^rjpov fj vypov to Xv/xaii'Ofievov rov avdpwnov, Koi 
Set TOP opOSi^ IrjTpevovra ^orjOelv rw pev 6epp,(f) 
eTTL TO y\rvxp6v, Tu> he yp^vxpo) eirl to deppov, tw 
he ^i]pu) errl to vypov, tu> he vypco eVt to ^rjpov. 
ecTTO) poL avOpcoTTd prj TOiv Lcrx^poiv (f)V(rei, aWa 
TMv aaOeveaTepcov ovTa he rrvpov<i eaOLeTW, ov^ 

10 av aTTO tt}? aXco avekr], wp-oii^ Kal apyom, kuI 
Kpea Q)p,a Kal inveTco vhcop. TavTrj ^^pecu/Liet'o? t^ 
hiaiTj] ev olh' oti Tretcrerai TroWa Kal heivd' Kal 
yap TTOvov; Trovrjcrei Kal to acopa daOei'e<; ecTTai 
Kal rj KoiXir} cpOapy'jaeTai Kal ^rjv jroXvv ^P^^ov 
ov hvvr]a€Tai. tl ht] ^PV ^orjOrjpa irapecTKevdaOai 
bih' e^ovTi; deppov rj yjrvxpov rj ^ijpov rj vypov; 
hfjXov yhp OTt tovtcov tl. el yap to Xvpaiv6p,ev6v 
iaTLV TOVTWV TO eTepov, tS> vTrevavTiw TrpoaijKei 
\vaai, o)? 6 eKeivoiv X0709 e'x"* '^^ P'^^ J^P 

20 /Se^aioTaTov re Kal irpo^aveaTaTOV (f)dpp,aK0v 
d(f)e\6vTa ra hian7]paTa, ol? exprjTo, uvtI pev 
T(t)V TTvpcov apTov hihovai, dvTi he tmv wpdv Kpeoiv 
e(f)0d, TTietv Te errl tovtoktlv otvov. tuutu p,eTa- 
l3a\6vTa ovx olov re prj ov^ vyia yeveaOai, rjv 
ye pLr] TravTdiraa-iv rj hie(f)6ap/.i,evo<; viro ^povov Te 
Kal tt}? hiaiTt]^. tC hrj c^rjcropiev; TToTepov avTw 
aTTO ^jrvxpou KaKOTTaOeovTL Oeppa TauTa irpocre- 
veyKavTe^ dx^eKrjaav rj TavavTia; olpac yap eycoye 
7roWr)v dTTopirjv TU) epcoTrjdevTi irapaaxelv. 6 yap 

SO Tov apTov TrapaaKevd^cov twv irvpaiv to deppov 
rj TO ^jrvxpov rj to ^rjpov rj to vypov d(f)€L\aTO ; 

34 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, xui. 

XIII. But 1 want to return to the theory of those 
who prosecute their researches in the art after 
the novel fashion, building on a postulate. For if 
there be such a thing as heat, or cold, or dryness, 
or moistness, which injures a man, it necessarily 
follows that the scientific healer will counteract cold 
with hot, hot with cold, moist with dry and dry 
with moist. Now suppose we have a man whose 
constitution is not strong, but weaker than the 
average. Let this man's food be wheat straight 
from the threshing-floor, unworked and uncooked, 
and raw meat, and let his drink be water. The use 
of this diet will assuredly cause him nmch severe 
suffering ; he will experience pains and physical 
weakness, his digestion will be ruined and he will 
not be able to live long. Well, what remedy should 
be prepared for a man in this condition.'' Heat or 
cold or dryness or moistness ? One of these, plainly ; 
for, according to the theory of the new school, if < 
the injury was caused by one of the opposites, the 
other opposite ought to be a specific. Of course the 
most obvious as well as the most reliable medicine 
would be to abandon his old diet, and to give him 
bread instead of wheat, boiled meat instead of raw 
meat, and besides these things, a little wine to 
drink. This change must restore him to his health, 
unless indeed it has been entirely ruined by long 
continuance of the diet. What then shall we say ? 
That he was suffering from cold, and that the taking 
of these hot things benefited him ? Or shall we say 
the opposite ? I think that I have nonplussed my 
opponent. For is it the heat of the wheat, or the • 
cold, or the dryness, or the moistness, that the baker 
took away from it ? For a thing which has been 

35 



nEPI APXAIHE IHTPIKHS 

f^ap Koi TTvpl Koi vSari SeSorai Kal dXXoi<i 
•rroWotaL i^pyacrrat, cov eKacnov ISli-jv Svi'a/xiv Kal 
(f)vcnv €)(^ei, TO, /xev tcov vTrap^ovTcov a7ro,3e^Xr]Ke, 

85 aWocai 8k KeKpT^rai re Kal fxep-LKTai. 

XIV. Olha fxkv <yap Kal TaSe hrjirov, on 8t,a- 
(^epcL e? TO aojjjLa tov dvOpwrrov Kadapo^ apTO<i rj 
avyKO/j,i(7r6<i, ?) dirrLCTTCov irvpcov rj eTTTtapivcov, 
rj TToWu) vBaTL 7re(f)up')]/u,evo<i rj oXlycp, rj la)(ypSi'i 
irec^vp-qpievo^ rj dcftvprjTO^, rj e^oTTTO? rj eva)jio<i, 
dXXa T6 77/30? TovToiai /xupia. co? S' avT(o<; Kal 
irepl /j,d^T]<;. Kal a'l 8vvdp,L€<; jxeydXaL re eKdarov 
Kal ovSev 1) kreprj rfj ereprj eoiKuJa. 6ari<i 8e 
ravra ovk eireaKeTrraL rj aKe'Trr6fievo<; ovk olhev, 

10 TTco? dv ri ouTo? Svvairo roiv Kar dvOpwirov 
iraOrifjidrcov elSevai,; vtto yap evo^ cKdarov rovrwv 
rrdayeL re Kal erepoiovrai 6 dv6pa)Tro<i rj rolov rj 
rolov. Kal hid rovrwv Tra? 6 /9to? Kal vyiaivovri 
Kal eK vovaov dvarpe^ojievco Kal Kup^vovrL. ovk 
dv ovv erepa rovrwv j^^pyiaifxwrepa ovSe dvayKai- 
orepa elr] elSevai 8)]7Tov, go? Se /<-a\&>? Kal 'Xnyiap.w 
irpoa/jKOvri ^r]rj]aavr€<i tt/Oo? r)]v rov dvOpwrrov 
4>vaiv evpov avrd ol rrpwroi evpovre^ Kalo})']0i](7av 
d^irjv rijv re~)(yriv 6ew rrpoaOelvai, warrep Kal 

20 vopL^erai. ov yap to ^tjpov ovSe to vypov ovSe 
TO Oepfiov ov8e ro yp-v^^^pbv ovSe dXXo rovrwv 
rjyrjcrdfievoi ovSev ovre \vp,aivea0ai ovre irpoahel- 
aOat ovhevo'i rovrwv rov dvBpwirov, dXXa to 
i(T)(^vpov eKdarov Kal ro Kpeaaov t?;? (puaia t/;? 
dv6 pwirelrj^ , ov /u,i] t)hvvaro Kpareiv, rovro /3A.a- 



^ Ol' "power." * Or "powers. 

36 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, xin.-xiv. 

exposed to fire and to water, and has been made by 
many other things, each of which has its own indivi- 
dual property ^ and nature, has lost some of its qualities 
and has been mixed and combined with others. 

XIV. Of course I know also that it makes a differ- 
ence to a man's body whether bread be of bolted or 
of unbolted flour, whether it be of winnowed or of 
unwinnowed wheat, whether it be kneaded with 
much water or witli little, whether it be thoroughly 
kneaded or unkneaded, whether it be thoroughly 
baked or underbaked, and there are countless other 
differences. Barley-cake varies in just the same 
way. The properties ^ too of each variety are 
powerful, and no one is like to any other. But how 
could he who has not considered these truths, or 
who considers them without learning, know anything 
about human ailments ? For each of these differences 
produces in a human being an effect and a change of 
one sort or another, and upon these differences is 
based all the dieting of a man, whether he be in 
health, recovering from an illness, or suffering from 
one. Accordingly there could surely be notfiing 
more useful or more necessary to know than these 
things, and how the first discoverers, pursuing their 
inquiries excellently and with suitable application 
of reason to the nature of man, made their dis- 
coveries, and thought the art worthy to be ascribed 
to a god, as in fact is the usual belief. For they did^ 
not consider that the dry or the moist or the hot or 
the cold or anything else of the kind injures a man, 
or that he has need of any such thing, but they 
considered that it is the strength of each thing, that 
which, being too powerful for the human constitu- 
tion, it cannot assimilate, which causes liarm, and 

37 



nEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKH2 

7TT€iv rjy)]aavTO koX tovto e^^jrrjaav a(f)ai,pecp. 
lay^vpoTarov S' earl rov fiep jXvKeo'; to yXvKv- 
rarov, rov he rriKpov to TTLKporarov, tov he 6^eo<; 
TO o^vraTov, eKcicTTOv he irdvTwv twv iveovTcop i) 
30 aK/xij. Tavra yap eoopcov Koi iv tm civdpcoTTM 
eveovra koX Xv/iaivo/xeva rov avdpcoirov. evi yap 
iv avdpcoTTO) Kal ciX/JLvpov /cal rnKpov Kal yXvKu 
Kal o^u Kal aTpv(f)vov Kal irXahapov Kal ciWa 
/j.vpia 7ravT0ia<i hvvdp.ia<i €)(^ovTa 7r\rj66<i re Kal 
la-)(^vv. ravra /j,ev pepiy/xeva Kal KeKprjfxiva 
dWrjXoiatv oure (jiavepd e<TTiv ovre Xvirel rov 

dvdpCOTTOV. OTaV he TL TOVTWV UTTOKpiOf) Kal avTO 

e</)' kdivrov yevijrai, Tore Kal (pavepov eari Kal 
Xvirel rov dvOproirov rovro he, tmv /Bpcopdrcov 

■to oan ?;/x?i' dveTTirtjheid ecrriv Kal Xvpa'iverai rov 
dvdpcoTTov efxrreaovra, rovrwv ev eKaarov rj iriKpov 
eariv rj dXfjivpov t) o^v rj ciXXo ri aKprjrov 
re Kal la'^vpov, Kal hid rovro rapaaaopeOa 
VTT avrcov, warrep Kat vrro ro)v ev ru) acopnri 
diTOKpiTopevcov. rrdvra he baa dv9pu)TT0<^ eaOlei 
rj TTivei, rd roiavra /Spoopara I'lKtara roiovrov 
■)(^vpov aKpy'jrov re Kal hia(pepovro<; htjXd eariv 
pere'\(ovra, olov dpro'^ re Kai pd^a Kai ra eiropeva 
rovroL's, oi<i eWiarat o dvOpa)7ro<; rrXeiaroiai re 

50 Kal alel ^(^pijaOai, e^co rwv rrpo^ rjhov/jv re Kal Kopov 
7)prvpev(ov re Kal eaKevaafxevwv. . Kal diro rovrcov 
rrXeiaroyv eai6vro)v e? rov dvOpcoirov rdpa\o'^ Kal 
diroKpiai^ rwv dp^l ro acopa hvvapLwv rjKiara 
yiverai, laj(^v<i he Kal av^yjai'i Kal rpo(f)7j pdXiara 
ht ovhev erepov y'lverai rj on ev re KeKprjrai Kal 
ovhev ex^t- ovre aKprjrov ovre la^vpov, dXX oXov 

57 €v re yeyove Kal dirXovv. 

38 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, xiv. 

this they sought to take away. The strongest 
part of the sweet is the sweetest, of the bitter 
the most bitter, of the acid the most acid, and 
each of all the component parts of man has its 
extreme. For these they saw are component 
parts of man, and that they are injurious to 
him ; for there is in man salt and bitter, sweet 
and acid, astringent and insipid, ^ and a vast number 
of other things, possessing properties of all sorts, 
both in number and in strength. These, when 
mixed and compounded with one another are neither 
apparent nor do they hurt a man ; but when one of 
them is separated off, and stands alone, then it is 
apparent and hurts a man. Moreover, of the foods 
that are unsuitable for us and hurt a man when 
taken, each one of them is either bitter, or salt, 
or acid, or something else uncompounded and 
strong, and for this reason we are disordered by 
them, just as we are by the secretions separated 
off in the body. But all things that a man eats 
or drinks are plainly altogether free from such an 
uncompounded and potent humour, e.g. bread, cake, 
and suchlike, which men are accustomed constantly 
to use in great quantity, except the highly seasoned 
delicacies which gratify his appetite and greed. 
And from such foods, when plentifully partaken of 
by a man, there arises no disorder at all or isolation 
of the powers ^ resident in the body, but strength, 
growth and nourishment in great measure arise from 
them, for no other reason except that they are 
well compounded, and have nothing undiluted and 
strong, but form a single, simple whole. 

1 Or " flat," the opposite of " sharp. " « Or " properties." 

39 



nEPI APXAIHS IliTPIKHS 

XV. 'ATTOyoew S' e'ywye, ol tov Xojov €K€IV0v 
\€yoi>Te<i Koi ayovTe<i €k TainT]<i t^? oBov iirl 
vTTodecrcv ttjv re)(yt)v Tiva ttotg rpoTrov Oepairev- 
ovcn Tov<i avOpcoTTOVi, axnrep inroTldevTai. ou 
<ydp ecrriv avTol<i, olfxai, e^evpiffievov avro ri e(p 
ewurov dep/xov i) -^u-^^^pov i) ^i^pov i) vypov /jii]8tvl 
dWo) eiSet KOLVcoveoi', a\,A,' oloixai eywye ravra 
iSpco/J^ara Kal Tropiara avrolcTL virdp-^^eiv, oiat 
TTcivre^ '^peoop-eOa. irpoaTideaat 8e tw pev etvai 

10 Oeppifh, rep Se yj/uxpfp, to) Se ^y]p(p, tm 8e vypa>, 
eVet eKelvo ye ciTTopov irpoard^ai jw KupLvovTt 
Oeppiov Ti irpoaeveyKaaOat,. euOu yap ip(i}T)']aeL' 
tI; Mare X')]peiv dvdyKrj ij e? tovtmv ti tcov yivw- 
aKopievcov KaTa(f)€vy€iv. el 8e Si] rvy-^dvei ri 
Oepfxov ioi> arpv^vov, dXXo Be 0epp.ov iop ttXo.- 
Sapov, dXXo Be Oeppiov dpaSov e-^ov — ecrri yap Kai 
dXXa. TToWd Oepp^a Kal aWa? 8uvd/iiia<; e')(^ovra 
eojfTOi? virevavTia^ — rj Bioiaei ri^ avrcov irpocre- 
veyKelv to 9epp.ov Kal aTpv(pvbi' rj to Oeppov Kac 

20 irXaBapov rj dp.a ro ■v/ru^pof Kal aTpvcpi'ov — ecrTi 
yap Kal tolovto — P] to -yjrv^^^pov re Kal irXaSapov 
wairep yap eyco olSa, irdv Tovvavnov dcp eKarepov 
auTMV aTTo/Saivei, ou piovvov ev dvOpayirw, dXXa 
Kal iv aKvrei Kal ev ^vXw Kal ev dXXoi'i 7roXA,ot?, 
a i(TTiv dvOpcoTTOV dvaiadrjTOTepa. ov yap to 
9epp.6v eoTLV TO ttjv pueydXijv hvvapiv e)(^ov, aXXa 
TO aTpv(f)vbv Kal to irXaBapbi' Kal TciXXa oaa puoi 
etpyjTai Kal ev tw drOpconfo Kal e^co tov dvO poiirov , 
Kal eadiopieva Kal irivop^eva Kal e^codev eTri^pco- 

30 p.€vd Te Kal TrpoairXaacropieva. 

^ ?l SioiVei Ti M: €1 5eo/(rei ri A: ei Seii(7ii ti most MSS.: 
5er}a€i St ti Littre : ?j jxt] Siolcrei ti ; Goniperz. 

40 



ANC1P:NT medicine, xv. 

XV. I am at a loss to understand how those who 
maintain tlie other view, and abandon the old method 
to rest the art on a postulate, treat their patients 
on the lines of their postulate. For they have 
not discovered, I think, an absolute hot or cold, 
dry or moist, that participates in no other form. 
But 1 think that they have at their disposal the 
same foods and the same drinks as we all use, 
and to one they add the attribute of being hot, to 
anothei-, cold, to another, dry, to another, moist, 
since it would be futile to order a patient to take 
something hot, as he would at once ask, " What hot 
thing?" So that they must either talk nonsense 
or have recourse to one of these known substances. 
And if one hot thing happens to be astringent, and 
another hot thing insipid, and a third hot thing 
causes flatulence (for there are many various kinds 
of hot things, possessing many opposite powers), 
surely it will make a difference whether he adminis- 
ters the hot astringent thing, or the hot insipid 
thing, or that which is cold and astringent at the 
same time (for there is such a thing), or the cold 
insipid thing. For I am sure that each of these 
pairs produces exactly the opposite of that produced 
by the other, not only in a man, but in a leathern 
or wooden vessel, and in many other things less 
sensitive than man. For it is not the heat which 
possesses the great power, but the astringent and 
the insipid, and the other qualities I have mentioned, 
both in man and out of man, whether eaten or 
drunk, whether applied externally as ointment or as 
plaster. 



41 



HEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKHS 

XVI. "^vxporrjTa S' eyw kuI OepfxorrjTa iracrian 
rjKKTTa Tcbv hwafxiMV vo/jii^w hvvaareveiv iv rQ> 
acofiari 8ia rdaBe tu^; alria^' ov fxev av hi']TT0U 
y^povov /xefMiy/jLeva avra ewurot? a/xa ro Oep/xov 
re Kal yp-vxpov ivfj, ov Xvirel. KpijcrL^ lyap koX 
fierpcoTiji; tm p-ev Oeppbw jiveTai airo rod ^{rv^pov, 
TO) 8e ■^vy^pS) diro tov Oepp-ou. orav h' diro- 
Kpidfj ■)(copl^ eKurepov, t6t€ XvTrei. ev 8e Srj 
TOVTQ) Tw KaipS), orav to yjrv^pov eTriyevrjrai. 

10 KUi Ti \v7rt']ar} tov dvOpcoirov, Bid rd'^eo^ 
TrpMTov St' avTO TOVTO Trdpeariv to depp^ov 
avToOev 6« TOV dvdpcoTrov, ovSep,iT}<i ^orjdetrj'i ouSe 
7rapaafcevr}<i heop-evov. koI ravTU Kal iv vyiai- 
vovcn Tot? dvdpcoTToi'i drrepy altera I kol iv Kdp.vovai. 
TOVTO p,ev, et Ti? deXeo vyiaivcov ■y^eip,o)vo<i Bia-ylrv^ai 
TO ao)p.a rj \ovadp.evo<i -^vxpu) y) dW(p T(p Tpoirw, 
oaw dv inl irXetov avTO TTOU^ar], Kal r^v ye p^rj 
iravrd-JTaaLV Trayfj to a(op,a, orav el'p.aTa Xd^rj 
Kal eXOrj e9 tj-jv aKeTrrjp, eVt p,dX\.ov Kal iirl 

20 TrXelov deppiaiveTat, to acop.a- tovto Be, el ideXoi, 
iK9epp,av6rjvai lcr')(ypoi'i rj XovTpSi depp^w rj rrrvpl 
TToXXu), iK Be TOVTOV TO avTo elp,a e^yoyv iv tw 
avT(p y^copiw TTjv BiaTpi^rjv TTOielaOai, tocnrep Bie- 
y^vypuevo^, ttoXv (paiverai Kal -^v^poTepo'i Kal 
aWco? (f)ptKaXecoTepo<i' i) el piTTi^op.evo'i ti<; vtto 
TTvLyeo'i Kal 7rapaaKeva^6p,evo<; avTO'i ecovTco y\rv)(^o<; 

CK TOIOVTOV dv TpOTTOV SiaTTaVdaiTO TOVTO TTOiewv, 

BeKaTcXdcTLOV earai to Kavp,a Kal 7Tv2yo<; rj rat 
pur^Bev TOiovTO TroieovTL. 
30 ToBe Br] Kal ttoXv p,e^ov octol dv Bed ')(^L6vo<i 
rj dXXov yjrvx^o^ 0aBiaavTe<i piycoaoicri Bia- 
(f)ep6vTC0<; 7r6Ba<; rj ')^elpa<i rj Kecf^aXr'jV, ola 

42 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, xvi. 

XVI, And I believe that of all the powers^ none 
hold less sway in the body tJian cold and heat. My 
reasons are these. So long as the hot and cold in the 
body are mixed up together, they cause no pain. For 
the hot is tempered and moderated by the cold, and 
the cold by the hot. But when either is entirely se- 
parated from the other, then it causes pain. And at 
that season, when cold comes upon a man and causes 
him some pain, for that very reason internal heat 
first is present quickly and spontaneously, without 
needing any help or preparation. The result is the 
same, whether men be diseased or in health. 
For instance, if a man in health will cool his 
body in winter, either by a cold bath or in any 
other way, the more he cools it (provided that his 
body is not entirely frozen) the more he becomes 
hotter than before when he puts his clothes on and 
enters his shelter. Again, if he will make himself 
thoroughly hot by means of either a hot bath of 
a large fire, and afterwards wear the same clothes 
and stay in the same place as he did when chilled, he 
feels far colder and besides more shivery than before. 
Or if a man fan himself because of the stifling heat 
and make coolness for himself, on ceasing to do this 
in this way he will feel ten times the stifling heat felt 
by one who does nothing of the sort. 

Now the following is much stronger evidence still. 
All who go afoot through snow or great cold, and 
become over-chilled in feet, hands or head, suffer at 

^ Or " properties." 

43 



nEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKHS 

7rda')(^ovaLv 6? rr^v vvKja, orav TTepiaraXeooai 
T€ KOI ev aXerj lyeviovrai vtto Kavixaro<; koI 
KV7]a/jiov. /cat eariv olai (pXvKrawai dvLaravrai 
cocrirep T019 aTro irvpo^ KaraKeKavfievoL^. koI ou 
TTporepov TOVTO irdayovaiv, irplv Oep/xavOiuxriv, 
ovrco^ erot/xo)? eKarepov avroiv iirl ddrepov rrapa- 
•yiverai. fivpia 8' dv Kal ctWa €')(^ot/jii elirelv. rd 
he Kara tov<; voaeovTa<;, ov'xl 6aoi<i dv ptjo<; 
40 yevrjrai, tovtol<; 6^vTaT0<i 7rvpeTo<i eKXdfnrei; 
Kal ov)(l OTTO)? ^ l(T)(ypo<;,'^ aWd Kal 7rav6/x€vo<; 
Bt oXiyov, Kal dWoo^ ra TroWd dau'rj'i Kal oaov 
dv y^povov TTaprj StdOep/xo'i; Kal Si€^id>v Sid TravTO<; 
reKevra e? toi)? TroSa? /xdXicrTa, ovirep to plyo<i 
Kal T) "^v^a V6r]viK(t)TdTr] Kal iirl irXelov eve^^po- 
viaev TrdXtv re orav iSpcoar) re Kal dTraXXayfj 6 
TTupero?, rroXu fxuXXov Sieyjrv^e ?) el /J,rj eXa/3e rrjv 
dpyi]V. w ovv 8ia ra^Y^o? ovrco irapayiveTaL to 
evavricorarov re Kal d<^aipeofxevov rrjv hvvajjuv 

50 diro rcovro/j^drov, n dv drro rovrou jxeya t) heivov 

51 jevoiro; rj ri Set 7roXXfj<; eirl rovrw ^ori6eiri<i; 

XVII. EtVot dv ri<i' aXV ol 7ruperaLvovre<; 
rolai Kav(TOL(TL re Kai TrepL-nvevfxovirjai Kal dXXotai 
layypolai voa7]fiaai ov ra')(^co<; Ik t?}? dep/xrj^i 
d-rraXXdcrcrovrai, ovSe vapeariv evravda en to 
depfiov rj ro yfrv)(p6v. iyu> Se fioi rovro fieyiarov 
reKfj.7]piov riyev/jiai elvai, on ov Bia ro Oepfibv 
aTrXcb^ TTvperaivouaiv ol dvOpcoiroi, ovSe rovro elrj 
ro atriov tt;? KaK(oaio<i fxovvov, dXX ean Kal 
TTiKphv Kal depixov ro avro, Kal o^v Kal Oepjxov, 



^ oiix^ oircoj Diels : ovxl ovrais A : ovx ovtws M. 
^ l(TX"p^i Coray : lax^P'^^ MSS. 



44 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, xvi.-xvii. 

night very severely from burning and tingling when 
they come into a warm place and wrap up ; in some 
cases blisters arise like those caused by burning in 
fire. But it is not until they are warmed that they 
experience these symptoms. So ready is cold to pass 
into heat and heat into cold. 1 could give a multi- 
tude of other proofs. But in the case of sick folk, is it 
not those who have suffered from shivering in whom 
breaks out the most acute fever ? And not only is it 
not powerful, but after a while does it not subside, 
generally without doing harm all the time it remains, 
hot as it is .'' And passing through all the body it 
ends in most cases in the feet, where the shivering 
and chill were most violent and lasted unusually long. 
Again, when the fever disappears with the breaking 
out of the perspiration, it cools the patient so that 
he is far colder than if he had never been attacked at 
all. What important or serious consequence, there- 
fore, could come from that thing on which quickly 
supervenes in this way its exact opposite, spontane- 
ously annulling its effect?^ Or what need has it of 
elaborate treatment ? 

XVII. An opponent may retort, "But patients 
whose fever comes from ardent fevers,' pneumonia, 
or other virulent disease, do not quickly get rid of 
their feverishness, and in these cases the heat and 
cold no longer alternate." Now I consider that 
herein lies my strongest evidence that men are not 
feverish merely through heat, and that it could not be 
the sole cause of the harm ; the truth being that one 
and the same thing is both bitter and hot, or acid and 

1 Or "power." 

^ Kavaos was almost certainly a form of remittent malaria. 
See my Malaria and Greek History (index). 

45 



nEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKHS 

10 Kol dX/xvpov Kul OepfMoi', koI aXXa fivpca, kuI 
TTokiv ye yp-vy^pov /jbera huvafxiutv erepwy. ra /xev 
ovv XvpaivopGva ravT icni- avfXTTdpecrTi he kul 
TO Oeppbov, poopurj^ fxev e)(^ov oaov ro ^ rjyev/xevov 
KoX rrapo^vvoixevov kuI av^ouevov cijua eKelvw, 

15 Bvva/iiiv Se ovhefiiav irXeiM tj}? 'rTpocn]Kovaii<;. 

XVIII. A))Xa Be ravra on o)8e e;^et eirl rcovSe 
rwv cTTj/xeLcov irpSyrov ju.ev eirl rd^ (pavepcorepa, 
Siv irdvre'i efXTrecpoi 7roXXdKi<i ea/xev re Kal ecro- 
fieOa. TovTo fxev yap, oaoiai dv ijfiecov Kopv^a 
eyyem]Tai Koi pevpa kivijOt} Bed rS)V pivwv, tovro 
(a<i TO TToXv Bpi/xvTepov rod irporepov yLvop.evov 
re Ka\ lovra e/c ro)v pivoiv KaS' eKaaTrjv r)/uLepr]v 
Kal olSecv fxev iroLel r)]v plva kol avyKaiet Oepfirp' 
re Kal Bidirvpov ea^dTO}i;,rju 8)]'^ rijv ^etpa Trpoa- 

10 (f)eprj'i- KTjv TrXeico '^povov irapfj, Kal e^eXKOvrai 
TO ^(^wpiov daapKov re Kal aKXrjpov eov. iraveTai 
he TTwf TO Kavpia eK Ti]<i pivo<;, ov)(^ orav to pev/uLa 
ylviiTai Kal 7) (f)Xey/jiovT) ?;, dXX' eTrethdv 7ra)(^v- 
repov T€ Kal rjaaov hpipuv per], ireTTOv Kal /xefitype- 
vov fxdXXov rod irporepov ytPop,evou,^ rare he ^jhr] 
Kal rb Kavfia ireTravrai. dXX olai he ^ viro -v^u;!^eo? 
(f^avepcb'i avrov [xovvov ytverai /j,7]hei'0'i dXXov 
av/xTTapayevo/xevov, rrdcn he )) aurt] duaXXay//, 
eK fxev Tf/? ■\lrv^L0'i hiadep/xai d)")vai, €K he rod 

20 Kav[xaro^ hia^v)(6yjvai, Kal ravra Ta^t'co? irapa- 
yiverai Kal Tre'^/^to? ovhept.Lri<; Trpoahelrai,. rd h^ 

' fxev ex"'' oiTor rh Reilihold : ^xeTs'^o'', o"? &>' to MSS. 
- (ttI to. am : f(TTi many MSS. : «m ra Kiililewein. 
' ia^drcos, V 5r) Coray : fcrxaTois. 7)r Se MSS. 
* rov TTporfpou yivo/xfi/ov Coraj'^ and Reinhold : rb wpSTtpov 
•yiuj/jLevci) A : rtf irpSrepov yivo/j.ei'w M. 
5 a\\' offfi 5e Littre : &\\oiai 5e MSS. 

46 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, xvu.-xvm. 

hot, or salt and hot, with numerous other combina- 
tions, and cold again combines with other powers.^ 
It is these things which cause the harm. Heat, too, 
is present, but merely as a concomitant, having the 
strength of the directing factor which is aggravated 
and increases with the other factor, but having no 
power 2 greater than that which properly belongs 
to it. 

XVIII. That this is so is plain if we consider the 
following pieces of evidence. First we have the more 
obvious symptoms, which all of us often experience 
and will continue so to do. In the first place, those 
of us who suffer from cold in the head, with discharge 
from the nostrils, generally find this discharge more 
acrid than that which previously formed there and 
daily passed from the nostrils; it makes the nose 
swell, and inflames it to an extremely fiery heat, as 
is shown if you put your hand upon it.* And if the 
disease be present for an unusually long time, the 
part actually becomes ulcered, although it is without 
flesh and hard. But in some way the heat of the 
nostril ceases, not when the discharge takes place 
and the inflammation is present, but when the 
running becomes thicker and less acrid, being matured 
and more mixed than it was before, then it is that 
the heat finally ceases. But in cases where the evil 
obviously comes from cold alone, unaccompanied by 
anything else, there is always the same change, heat 
following chill and chill heat, and these supervene 
at once, and need no coction. In all other instances, 

1 Or "properties." 
- Or "effect." 

* Or, with the MSS. reading, " And if you keep putting 
your hand to it, and the catarrh last a long time," etc. 

47 



HEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKHS 

aWa iravra, oaa 8ia '^^v/jLcov Bpi/jLvrr]Ta<i kol 
uKprjaLa^, (fyrjfxl eycoye jiveaOai tov aurbv Tpo-nov 

24 Kal aTTOKadicrraaOaL Trecj^Oevra Kal /cpr/Bevra. 

XIX. ' Oaa reaviirl rov'i 6(pdaX/u.ov<i rpeireTai 
rojv pev/uidrcov, ca'^vpa'^ Kal TTavToia<; 8pi/jiVTt]Ta<i 
h')(ovra, eXKol p,€v /SXecpapa, KareaOiei S' eviayv 
<yvd6ov<i re Kal ra vtto roiai ocpdaX/xolat, 60' 6 ri 
av €7nppvfj, prjyvvai he Kal SieaOUi top dpb(fi\ rrjv 
o^iv ^tTcot'a. oSui'ai Be Kal Kavfia Kal (pXoyfioi; 
ecr;!^aT09 Kare'^eL p^ey^pi tiv6<;, p-expi- av ra pev/j-ara 
7re(f)6fj Kal yeprjTai Tra')(^uTepa Kal Xrjpbrj dir avTwv 
rj. TO he 7r€(p6r]vai yiverai eK rov p^c-^Oqvai Kal 

10 Kp7]0i]vai ciWijXoiai, Kal (Tvvey^7)9r)vaL. tovto he, 
oaa e? rrjv (pdpvyya, dcpi' wv ^pdyy^Oi yii'OVTai 
Kal auvdy)(^ai,ipuanreXaTd re Kal 'Trepiirvev [loviaL, 
irdvTa ravra rb fxev Trpcorov dXfivpd re Kal vypd 
Kal hpi/xea d(f)iei, Kal iv roiai toiovtoi<; eppcorat 
ra voai'^pLara. orav he 7ra')(VTepa Kal ireiraLTepa 
yevifraL Kal irdaT]'; hpL/j,VTr]ro'i d7n]XXayfieva, roTe 
yhrj Kal OL TTvperol Travovrai Kal raXXa rd Xviri- 
ov-ra TOV dvOpwnov. hel he hrJTrov ravra a\'ria 
eKuarov rjyelaOai etvai, wv irapeovrwv fxev roiov- 

20 rbrporrov yiveaOai dvdyKTj, fiera^aXXovrcov he eV 
dXXtjv Kprjaiv rraveaOai,. brrbaa ovv d-rr^ aurr}<i 
rfj<i Oepfir}<; elXiKpiveo^ i) '\jrv^io<; yiverai Kal /xr) 
ixere^ei dXXr]<i hvvdp,to<; fitjhep.iTj'i, ovrco iravoLro 
dv, orav p.era[3dXXr] eK rov 6epfiov e? to yp^vypbv 
Kal eK rov yfrv^pov e? to Oepfxov. /xera^dXXeL 
he ovirep Trpoeiprjrai p.oi rpoTTOv. ert roivvv rdXXa 
baa KaKOiradel b dvd pwTro<i iravra dnb huvap-Lcov 
yLverat. rovro p,ev ydp, orav iriKpori]^ ri<i aTro- 
X^^fl' 1^ ^h X^^V^ ^av07]v KaXeop,ev, olai daai 
48 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, xvm.-xix. 

where acrid and unmixed humours come mto play, 
I am confident that the cause is the same, and that 
restoration results from coction and mixture. 

XIX. Again, such discharges as settle in the eyes, 
possessing powerful, acrid humours of all sorts, ulcerate 
the eyelids, and in some cases eat into the parts on to 
which they run, the cheeks and under the eyes ; and 
they rupture and eat through the covering of the 
eyeball. But pains, burning and intense inflamma 
tion prevail until the discharges are concocted and 
become thicker, so that rheum is formed from them. 
This coction is the result of mixture, compounding 
and digestion. Secondly, the discharges that settle 
in the throat, giving rise to soreness, angina, 
erysipelas and pneumonia, all these at first emit salt, 
watery and acrid humours, whereby the diseases are 
strengthened. But when they become thicker and 
more matured, and throw off all trace of their acridness, 
then the fevers too subside with the other symptoms 
that distress the patient. We must surely consider 
the cause of each comjilaint to be those things the 
])resence of which of necessity produces a complaint 
of a specific kind, which ceases when they change 
into another combination. All conditions, then, 
resulting from heat or cold pure and simple, with no 
other power ^ as a factor, must cease wlien heat 
changes into cold or cold into heat. This change 
takes place in the manner I have described above. 
Moreover, all other complaints to which man is liable 
arise from poAvers.- Thus, when there is an out- 
pouring of the bitter principle, which we call yellow 

1 Or "quality." 2 Or "qualities." 

49 



HEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKHS 

30 Kol Kav/jLura koI dSvva/xiat KaTe')(ov(Tiv' clttoX- 
Xaaaofievoi Se rovrou, ivcore kol KaOaipofievoi, rj 
avTOfxaroc rj vtto <pap/j,dKou, rjv ev KaLpw rt avroiv 
jLvrjrai, (pav€po)<i kuI tcov ttovcov koI rr]<i depixri<i 
airaXXdaaovTai. oaov 8' av 'x^povov raura pbere- 
copa 77 Kai, cnreTTTa koX d/cpijTa, /Mrj-^avr) ovSep-la 
ovre TCOV ttovoiv iraveaOat ovre tcov Trvpercbv. 
KOL oaoiai he o^vTrjTd TrpoauaTavrai hpifxelai re 
KoX lco8ee<;, olai Xvacrai koI hrj^te^ aTr\dy')^vcov kol 
Ocopr]KO<; KoX aTToplri' oii iraveTai tl ^ tovtov irpo- 

40 Tepov, irplv rj diroKaOapd^ re koX KaTaaTOpecrdfi 
KOL fiiX^V '^olaiv dWoLcnv Treacreadat 8e koI 
peTa^dWeiv kol XevTuveaOai re kuI Trax^vecrOai 
e? ')(ypoiv €lSo<; Si' aWcov elSecov koX iravTOicov — 
810 Kol KpL(Tie<; Kol dpiOfjiol Tcbv xpovcov ev TOiai 
TOLovTOiac p^eya ZvvavTUi- — ttuvtcov Sr) tovtcov 
rjKicTTa 7rpocn]Kei deppLW rj yfru)(^pa> 7rda')(^eiv ouTe 
<ydp av TOVTO ye aaTrelrj ovts TraynjvOeii^. trt 
yap avTO (pr]crcop.ev elvai; Kp7]aia<i auTcov dWr]v 
7rp6<i dX\.r)Xa e'y^ovaa<; 8vvap,tv.f ^ eirel dXXco ye 

50 ov8evl TO Oeppbv pi')(dev iravaeTUL t^? 6ep[xrj<i rj 

^ ri Ermerins from a lost MS : re M : omitted by A. 

^ Tl yap avrh (prjawfxev €lvai; Kp-ficrias ahriv &\At]v it phs &\\ri\a 
ixo'^oiis SvfafiLiv. So A. M has tI 5' tiv avrh <pa'nr}fji.(v , . . KpTJ- 
ff/j re avTiwv icrri, irA^v nphs &\\7]\a exovcra Svi/a/uii'. Kiihle- 
wein reads <p-{jffo/j.ev, deletes the question stop at elvai and 
puts it after Svva/xLv. Littre has ri 5' hv avrh (palrjuev fluat; 
Kpijcrias avTfuv, &\\riP irphs fiAA7j\o fxoixras Sivafiiv. 

' Or "distress." ^ Or "property." 

' There are many reasons for supposing that this sentence 

is either (a) in its wrong place, or (b) an interpolation. It 

seems quite irrelevant, and ainiiv should grammatically refer 

to rh depfihv and rb \pvxp<i'', but there is not a crasis of these, 

50 



ANCIEiNT MEDICINE, xix. 

bile, great nausea, burning and weakness prevail. 
When the patient gets rid of it, sometimes by pur- 
gation, either spontaneous or by medicine, if the 
purging be seasonable he manifestly gets rid both 
of the pains and of the heat. But so long as these 
bitter particles are undissolved, undigested and un- 
compounded,by no possible means can the pains and 
fevers be stayed. And those who are attacked by 
pungent and acrid acids suffer greatly from frenzy, 
from gnawings of the bowels and chest, and from 
restlessness.^ No relief from these symptoms is 
secured until the acidity is purged away, or calmed 
down and mixed with the other humours. But 
coction, alteration, thinning or thickening into the 
form of humours through otlier forms of all sorts 
(wherefrom crises also and fixing their periods de- 
rive great importance in cases of illness) — to all 
these things surely heat and cold are not in the least 
liable. For neither could either ferment or thicken. 
"j^For what shall we call it t Combinations of humours 
that exhibit a power ^ that varies with the various 
factors.^f Since the hot will give up its heat only 
when mixed with the cold, and the cold can be 

but only of x^f^ol. Hot and cokl mixed produce only hot or 
cokl, not a crasis. The sentence might be more relevantly 
placed at the end of Chapter XVIII, as an explanation of the 
process awoKaBiaTaadjii -w^rpdivTa koI KprjdevTa. But transposition 
will not remove the other difficulties of the sentence. What 
is avrSt Health or disease? If health, then there is but 
one crasis producing it, not "many, having various proper- 
ties." If disease, then it cannot be a crasis at all, l)at 
aKpaala. Finallj', &\\7iv nphs &\\-n\a is dubious Greek. The 
whole sentence looks like an interpolation, though it is hard 
to say why it was introduced. The scribe of M seems to 
have felt the difSculties, for he wrote «pf;<r(s, ttAV for &\\riv, 
and fx°"'^°- 

SI 



nEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKHS 

T&) i/ruT^po) ovSe 76 TO "^^v^pov i) tw depfiw. to, 
Se aWa ircivTa ra irepl rov dvOpcoTTOv, ocrq) av 
TrXeioai /xLcryr]Tai, roaovrw rjiricoTepa xal ^eXTLco. 
•wdvTwv he dptara SiaKeiTUi, 6 dvdpcoiro^, orav 
Trdv ^ Trecra-TjTai koX iv rjavy^ir] fj, /nrjSefMLav hvvafXLv 
lSltjv diroheLKvvfxevov, Trepl ov rjjev/xat eTTiSeSel- 

57 %^ai. 

XX. AiyovcTt Be riv€<; IrjTpol /cal ao(f)t(TTaL, fo? 
ov/c ett] huvarov IrjTpi/crjv elhevai 6aTL<i pLrj olSeu 
6 Tt eajLV dvOpwiTO^;. dWd touto Sei KurafiaOelv 
Tov fieWovra 6pOco<; OepaTrevaeiv toj)? dvOpcoTTOv;. 
reivet, 8e avrol^ 6 Xoyo^ e? c})L\o(TO(pl7]i', KuOdirep 
'Eyu.7reSo/cX?}9 i) dWoi o't irepl (f)vcrio<i 'yeypd(f)aa-ti' 
i^ dp^rj<i 6 Tfc eariv dvOpwno^, koI 6rro}<i eyevero 
TTpwTOv Kol OTToOev (TVPeTrdy)].- eyu> Se touto p.ev, 
oaa Tivl ei'pi]Tai i) ao(f)iaTf] i) l)]Tpu) i) yeypaTTTUi 

10 Trepl (f)vai0'i, rjaaoi' vofxi^w Ti] ir]TpiKfj Te')(yrj irpoa- 
7]Keiv rj Ty ypa(f)iKf]. vop^i^oy 8e Trepl (fivaio'i 
yvbival Ti aac^ef; ovSa/xoOep dWoOev elvai 1) e^ 
IrjTpiKTji;- TOUTO Be olov re KaTafxaOelv, otuv auTi]V 
Tt9 T-Tjv IrjTpiKrjV 6p6(ji)<; TrepiXd/S;/' p-eXP'' ^^ toutou 
TToWou p,oi BoKel Belv Xeyco Be tuuttjv ttjv laTO- 
pirjv elBevai, di>6poL>Tro<; tI eaTiv koI Bl ol'a<i uItIu^ 
yivcTai koI TaXXa aKpi/Seco'^. ivel tovto ye p,oi 
BoKei dvay/calov elvac li]TpM Trepl ^vaio^i elBevai 
Kal TTuvv aTTOvBdaai co? etcreTai, eiTrep tl fieXXei 

20 Tci)i> Beoi'Tcov TTOitjcreiv, 6 tl Te eaTiv dv6pcoTro<i 
7rpo<i TO ia0iop,€vd Te Kal TTLVo/xeva Kal 6 tl irpb^ 

^ trciv added by Kiililewein. 

^ Reinhold transposes from koX ottois to ffwcirdyri to the 
end of the first sentence of the chapter. 

52 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, xrx.-xx. 

neutralized only by the hot. But all other com- 
ponents of man become milder and better the 
greater the number of other components with which 
they are mixed. A man is in the best possible 
condition when there is complete coction and I'est, 
with no particular power ^ displayed. About this I 
tliink that I have given a full explanation. 

XX. Certain physicians and philosophers assert that 
nobody can know medicine who is ignorant what a 
man is ; he who w-ould treat patients properly must, 
they say, learn this. But the question they raise is one 
for philosophy ; it is the province of those who, like 
Empedocles, have written on natural science,- what 
man is from the beginning, how he came into being 
at the first, and from what elements he was originally 
constructed. But my view is, first, that all that 
philosophers or physicians have said or written on '^ 
natural science no more pertains to medicine than to 
painting.^ I also hold that clear knowledge about , 
natural science can be acquired from medicine and 
from no other source, and that one can attain this 
knowledge when medicine itself has been properly 
comprehended, but till then it is quite impossible — 
I mean to possess this information, what man is, 
by what causes he is made, and similar points 
accurately. Since this at least I think a physician 
must know, and be at great pains to know, about 
natural science, if he is going to perform aught of his 
duty, what man is in relation to foods and drinks, — 

' Or "property." 

^ About "nature," how the universe was born and grew 
out of primal elements. We might almost translate (pvais by 
" evolution." 

^ Or, perhaps, " pertains even less to medicine than to 
literature." 

53 



nEPi apxaih:: ihtpikhs 

Ta aWa eTriTriSev/jLara, koi 6 ti a<p eKdarov 
€KaaT(p avfif^tjaeTai, Km fxi] «7rX&>9 ol5t&)<?* ttovii- 
pov iariv /Spco/na rvpof. ttovov yap rrape~)(€L tw 
TrXTjpcoOeuTi auTov, dX\,a nva re ttovov kuI Bid 
Tt Kul Tivi TOiv iv rep dvOpdoTTO) iveovTcov dveTTiri]- 
Beiov. ecTTC <ydp zeal dWa TroWd ^pcopbara koI 
TTO/jiara Trovrjpd, d StaTiOijcri rov dvdpcoTTov ov rov 
auTOV TpoTTOv. ovTO)^ ovv fjboi ecTTO) olov olvo'i 

30 dKprjTO<i TToWo? TToOeU SiariOTjai ttco? tov dvdpco- 
TTOV KUL TTdvTe<i dv ol eiSoTC? rovTO yvoirjcrav, oti 
'favTTj Suva/ii.'i ou'ov kuI auro^ aiTio<i''f koI olai 
ye TMV iv rep dvOpcoTTcp touto hvvarai /xdXiaTa, 
olBafxev. roiavTtjv 8r) /SouXofiai d'\,t]d€ii]v Kal 
irepl ro)v dWwv (pavrjvai. Tvpo<i ydp, eTTCiBr] 
TouTfp cr>;/zetft) iYprjad/nijv, ov rrnvTa^ dvOpcoirovs 
o/jLOia)<i Xvixaiverai, dXX! elalv OLTtve^ avrou ttXt]- 
povfievoi ovh OTtovv ^XdirrovTai, dWa Kal la'^uv, 
olcriv dv av/jL(peprj, SavfiaaLco<i 7Tap6)(^€Tai. elcrl 

40 8 01 ^aXeTTW? diraWdcraovai. Biacpepovaiv ovv 
TOVTcov al (pvcrie^. Sia(f)6povcTLv Be Kard tovto, 
oirep iv rut acopari eveari TToXefiiov rvpS) Kal viro 
rovTOv iyeiperai re Kal KivelraL' oi<; o TOiovro'i 
%u/i09 Tvy')(^dvec TrXetcov iveoov Kal pdWov ivBvva- 
(TT€V(ov iv T(p (Tcu/xaT/,, T0VT0v<i fxdWov Kal KaKO- 
waOelv elKo^. el Be irdai] rfj dvOpcoirivr/ (fjvaec 
rjv KaKov, 7rdvTa<; dv i\v/j,i']vaTo. ravra Be et ri? 

48 elBecr}, ovK dv 'iTda)(ot rdBe.^ 

XXT. 'Ev rfjaLv dj/aKO/xiBfjai rfjaiv iK twv 
vovawv, en Be Kal iv rfjcn vovaoKxt rfjat paKpfjai 
yivovTai iroWal (TvvTapd^ie<i, ai p,ev diro tcovto- 
/jlutou, al Be Kal aTrb t6)v Trpoaeve^devTcov tmv 



54 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, xx.-xxi. 

and to habits generally, and what will be the effects 
of each on each individual. It is not sufficient to 
learn simply that cheese is a bad food, as it gives a 
pain to one who eats a surfeit of it ; we must know 
what the pain is, the reasons for it, and which con- 
stituent of man is harmfully affected. For there are 
many other bad foods and bad drinks, which affect a 
man in different ways. I would therefore have the 
point put thus: — "Undiluted wine, drunk in large 
quantity, produces a certain eff"ect upon a man." All 
who know this would realise that this is a power of 
wine, and that wine itself is to blanie,^ and we know 
through what parts of a man it chiefly exerts this 
power. Such nicety of truth I wish to be manifest 
in all other instances. To take my former example, 
cheese does not harm all men alike ; some can eat 
their fill of it without the slightest hurt, nay, those 
it agrees with are wonderfully strengthened thereby. 
Others come off" badly. So the constitutions of these 
men diff'er, and the difference lies in the constituent of 
the body which is hostile to cheese, and is roused and 
stirred to action under its influence. Those in whom 
a humour of such a kind is present in greater quantity, 
and with greater control over the body, naturally sufl^er 
more severely. But if cheese were bad for the human 
constitution without exception, it would have hurt 
all. He who knows the above truths will not fall 
into the following errors. 

XXI. In convalescence from illness, and also in 
protracted illnesses, many disturbances occur, some 
spontaneously and some from things casually 
^ See Appendix on p. 64. 

1 The MSS have Trao-xoi. to. 5' eV k.t.K. I have adonted 
the punctuation of Gomperz. 

55 



HEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKHS 

TV)(oi'T(ov. ol8a Se tov^ ttoXXoi"? iT^rpou?, wairep 
Tov<i l8iQ)Ta<i, rjp rvyfUfJi irepi rrjv i]fj,€py]v Tavrrji^ 
TL KeKaivovpyi]K6Te<i, r) Xovcrd/u,€vot rj TTepiirary']- 
aavres rj (f)ay6i>r€<; tl erepolov, rauTa Be rravTa 
/SeXTtft) Trpoaeprjuej/Jieva rj firj, ouSev rjaaov rrjv 

10 alTLrjv TOVTwv tlvX avaTL6evra<; kol to jxev atriov 
ayvo€Vi'Ta<i, to oe (TV/j,(f)opcoTaTOj', rjv ovrw "^^XU' 
a(f)aipeopTa<i. See Se ou, aXX" elheuai, rl Xourpov 
aKaipwi TTpoayevo/xevov ipydaerai rj rl kotto';. 
ovheiTOre yap rj avrrj KaKoirdOeia toutcov ovBe- 
rkpov, ovhe ye citto 7rXy]pd)aio^ oi)S' cltto ^poiparo^ 
TOiov Tj TOLOV. oiTTi? ovp TUVTU p,r) elaeTttL 0)9 exa- 
ara e%et 7rpo9 rov avOpcorrov, ovre yivcoaKeiv rd 

18 yivopeva ctTr' avroiv hvi'-qasTai ovre y^prjaOai 6pd(b<i. 
XXII. Aelv 8e pot SoKel koI ravra elSej'ai, oaa 
TW avOpotiTTO) TTaOtjpara diro Suvaplcov yiverai, kuI 
ocra diro a^Tjpdrwv. Xeyco Si ri tolovtov, hvva- 
piv pev elvai rwv '^(yp.wv rd-i dKpOTi'jrd'i re Koi 
l<T')(^uv, a^^^ijpara Be Xeyco oaa 'iveariv ev rw 
dv6pdiiT(p, rd p,ev KoiXd re Kai e^ evpeo<; e? 
arevov auvr]yp,eva, rd Se Kal €K7re7Trap,6va, rd Be 
areped re Kal crrpoyyvXa, rd Be rrXarea re Kal 
eiriKpepapeva, rd Be Btarerapeva, rd Be paKpd, 

10 rd Be irvKvd, rd Be p,ai'd re Kal reOrjXora, rd Be 
aTToyyoeiBea re Kal dpaid. rovro pev ouv, 
eXKvaai e(p ecovro Kal eTnavdaaa-dat vyportjra 
eK rod dXXov cr&j/iaro?, irorepov rd KolXd re Kal 
eKireTTrapeva rj ra areped re Kal arpoyyvXa rj rd 
KolXd re Kal e? arevov e^ evpeo^ avvrjypeva Bv- 
vairo dv p,dXiara; olp,ai pev rd roiavra, rd e? 
arevov avvijypeva eK ko'lXov re Kal evpeo^. Kara- 
pavddveiv Be Bel ravra e^toOev eK rcbv (pavepcov. 

56 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, xxi.-xxii. 

administered. I am aware that most physicians, 
like laymen, if the patient has done anything 
unusual near the day of the disturbance — taken a 
bath or a walk, or eaten strange food, these things 
being all beneficial — nevertheless assign the cause to 
one of them, and, while ignorant of the real cause, 
stop what may have been of the greatest value. In- 
stead of so doing they ought to know what will be 
the result of a bath unseasonably taken or of fatigue. 
For the trouble caused by each of these things is 
also peculiar to each, and so with surfeit or such and 
such food. Whoever therefore fails to know how 
each of these particulars affects a man will be able 
neither to discover their consequences nor to use 
them properly. 

XXII. I hold that it is also necessary to know which 
diseased states arise from powers and which from 
structures. What I mean is roughly that a " power " 
is an intensity and strength of the humours, while 
" structures " are the conformations to be found in 
the human body, some of which are hollow, tapering ^ 
from wide to narrow ; some are expanded, some 
hard and round, some broad and suspended, some 
stretched, some long, some close in texture, some loose 
in texture and fleshy, some spongy and porous. Now 
which structure is best adapted to draw and attract 
to itself fluid from the rest of the body, the hollow 
and expanded, the hard and round, or the hollow 
and tapering ? I take it that the best adapted is 
the broad hollow that tapers. One should learn this 
thoroughly from unenclosed objects ^ that can be 

1 Or "contracting." 

* i. e. objects that are not concealed, as are the internal 
organs. 

VOL. I. E 57 



nEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKHS 

TOVTO fxev yap, tw aro/jLaTi /ce^T^i^co? vypov ovSev 
20 ava(7Tr<i(T€i.<;'^ 7rpo/u,vW7]va<i 8e koI crvaTeiKa^, 
7rtecra<; re ra ■)(ei\6a Kal eireiTev ^ avKov irpoa- 
6e/x€P0<i pr]'i8ico<; avaairdaaL'i av 6 ri e'^eXoi?. 
TOVTO Be, al aiKvat Trpoa-^aWofievai, i^ eupeo^ 
€9 aTevoiTepov avvyjy/xevat irpo'i tovto tctc'^^- 
vrjVTai, TTyOo? TO eXiceiv eK Trj<; aapKO<; koX iiri,- 
cnracrdai, aWa re iroWa ToiovTOTpoTra. tcov Se 
ecrct) (puaet tov avOpcoTTOv a^^^ij/xa tolovtov KvaTif 
T6 Kal Ke(f)aX7], Kal vaTeprj yuvai^lv Kal ^ave- 
pw? TavTa fiaXicrTa eXKet Kal irXrjped icTTiv 

30 eircLKTov vyp6T7]TO<i alei. to, 8e KolXa Kal ck- 
ireirTapLeva eireapvelaav jnev vypoT7]Ta /xdXiaTa 
Se^aiTO TTcivTcov, iinanTdaaLTo S' dv oux o/xolco^. 
TO. Si ye (TTeped Kal crTpoyyvXa out av eVicTTra- 
craiTO ovT dv eirecr pvelaav he^aiTO- 7repi,o\i- 
addvoi re yap Kal ovk e)(^oi eSprjv, e0' rj<; fievoi. 
Ta Be airoyyoeiSia re Kal dpaid, otov aizXijv re 
Kal TTvevfxwv Kal fia^oi, irpocrKaOe^opieva /xdXicrTa 
dvaiTivoi Kal aKXrjpvvdeiJ] dv Kal av^rjdelr] vypo- 
T7;to9 7rpocryevo/xevT]'i TauTa fidXiaTa. ov yap 

40 dv ^ (oairep iv kolXlt], ev rj to vypov, e^co re 
Trepie'^ei avTrj 1] KoiXirj, e^aXi^OLT dv KaB' 
€Kd(rTrjv 7)fxeprjV, dXX OTav ttlt] Kal Be^rjTai avTO 
e? ewvTO TO vypov, tcl Kevd Kal dpaia eirXrjpodOri 
Kal TCL cr/j,LKpa TravTrj Kal dvTl piaXOaKov Te Kal 
dpaiov a-KXr]p6<; Te Kal 'ttvkvo<; iyevcTO Kal ovt 
eKTreacrei out' d(f)L7]ai. tuvtu Be Tracr^ei Bid ttjv 
(pvaiv TOV ax^]/u.aTO<;. ocra Be ^vadv Te Kal 
dveiXrjixaTa direpyd^eTai ev tm au>pbaTt, irpocn'^Kei 

' hvaairaaeis two late Paris MSS. (2144, 2145) : avaffiri- 
58 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, xxii. 

seen. For example, if you open the mouth wide 
you will draw in no fluid ; but if you protrude and 
contract it, compressing the lips, and then insert 
a tube, you can easily draw up any liquid you wish. 
Again, cupping instruments, which are broad and 
tapering, are so constructed on purpose to draw and 
attract blood from the flesh. There are many other 
instruments of a similar nature. Of the parts within 
the human frame, the bladder, the head, and the 
womb are of this structure. These obviously attract 
powerfull}^ and are always full of a fluid from with- 
out. Hollow and expanded parts are especially 
adapted for receiving fluid tliat has flowed into them, 
but are not so suited for attraction. Round solids 
will neither attract fluid nor receive it when it has 
flowed into them, for it would slip round and find no 
place on which to rest. Spongy, porous parts, like 
the spleen, lungs and breasts, will drink up readily 
what is in contact with them, and these parts 
especially harden and enlarge on the addition of 
fluid. They will not be evacuated every day, as are 
bowels, where the fluid is inside, while the bowels 
themselves contain it externally ; but when one of 
these parts drinks up the fluid and takes it to itself, 
the porous hollows, even the small ones, are every- 
whei-e filled, and the soft, porous part becomes hard 
and close, and neither digests nor discharges. This 
happens because of the nature of its structure. When 
wind and flatulence are produced in the body, the 

crei«v2141 : avaandaete 2143 : ayaandcraLS A. The opt. may be 
right, as in this treatise the potential optative sometimes 
occurs without av. See p. 44, 1. 59, and p. 52, 1. 2. 

^ fTTfiTeu Kiililewein : Ka\ ewl re A : kuI «ti ts M. 

• Littre adds, after &v, iv a-KK-rjvi. 

59 



HEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKHS 

iv jxev rolai KOiXoicn fcal evpv)(^u>poL(Ti, olov KOiXirj 
50 re Kal dcoprjKi, ylrocpov re Koi Trdrayov i/u,7roi€iv. 
ore yap av fir] tnTOTrXripocxT]] ovTco<i oocTre aTrjvai, 
dXX! €')(^rj /u-6Ta/3o\tt9 re koi Kivt](Tia<;, dvdyKr] 
utt' avrcov yjrocfiov koi Karacfyavewi Kivijcriaf yi- 
veaOai. oaa he aapKtiihed re Kal /xaXOaKd, iv 
Tolat TOiovToiai vdpKrj re Kal 7rXr]poo/jLara ola iv 
rolai dTTOirXrjyelai, ^ yLverai. orav h iyKvpijarj 
TrXarel re Kal dvTiKei/j-evfp, Kal tt/jo? avrb dv- 
TiTriarj, Kal (f)va€i tovto TV)(r] iov fii^Te IcT'X^vpov, 
U)(TT€ SvvaadaL dvey^eaOat ti]V ^irjv Kal /j,r]8ev 

60 KaKov iraOelv, p-rjTe p-aXOaKov re Kal dpaiov, wcrr 
eKhe^aaOai re Kal vTrel^ai, dnraXov he Kal re- 
OrjXb'i Kal evaipiov Kal ttvkvov, olov r]Trap, hid p,ev 
rrjv TTVKVOTTjTa teal irXarvri^ra dvOearrjKe re koI 
oti% inreLKei, (pvaa S" eVtcr^ofiet^?; ^ av^eral. re Kal 
IcfX^poTeprj yiveraL Kal oppid p,dXicrra 7r/309 to 
dvTLTraLov. hid he tt)v dTraXbrrira Kal rrjv ivaipio- 
rrjTa ov hvvarac dvev ttovcov elvai, Kal hid Tavra<i 
rd^ 7rpo(f)daia<; oSvvat re o^vTarat Kal ttvkvo- 
rarai Trpo? tovto to '^wpLov yivovTai ip,Trv7]pLaTa 

70 re Kal (f)vp,aTa TrXelaTa. yiveTai he Kal vjro 
(f>p6va<i la')(ypw<i, rjaaov he ttoXXov. hiaTacri^ 
pLev ydp (ppevMv TrXareir} Kal dvT(Kecp,evrj, (f)vai<i 
he vevpcohecTTept] re Kal Icr^^^uporepr], hco rjcraov 
iiTcohwd iariv. ylverai he Kal rrepl ravra Kal 

75 TTovoi Kal (fivpara. 

XXIII. IToWa he Kal dXXa Kal eaco Kal e^w 
Tov crotJ^aTO? e'chea a")(rip,dr(t)Vy a pLeydXa dXXrjXoov 
hcacjiipei, 7rp6<; rd 7ra0t']p.aTa Kal voaeovri Kal 
vyiaivovrt, olov Kec^aXal apLiKpai r) pieydXai, 
Tpd')(riXot, XeiTTol rj ira'^ee'i, puiKpol rj /3pa^ee<i, 
6o 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, xxii.-xxm. 

rumbling noise naturally occurs in the hollow, broad 
parts, such as the bowels and the chest. For when 
the flatulence does not fill a part so as to be at rest, 
but moves and changes its position, it cannot be but 
that thereby noise and perceptible movements take 
place. In soft, fleshy parts occur numbness and 
obstructions, such as happen in apoplexy. And when 
flatulence meets a broad, resisting body, and rushes 
on it, and this happens by nature to be neither strong 
so as to endure its violence without harm, nor soft 
and porous so as to give way and admit it, but tender, 
fleshy, full of blood, and close, like the liver, because 
it is close and broad it resists without yielding, while 
the flatulence being checked increases and becomes 
stronger, dashing violently against the obstacle. But 
owing to its tenderness and the blood it contains, 
the part cannot be free from pain, and this is why 
the sharpest and most frequent pains occur in this 
region, and abscesses and tumours are very common. 
Violent pain, but much less severe, is also felt under 
the diaphragm. For the diaphragm is an extended, 
broad and resisting substance, of a stronger and more 
sinewy texture, and so there is less pain. But here 
too occur pains and tumours. 

XXIIl. There are many other structural forms, 
both internal and external, which differ widely from 
one another with regard to the experiences of a 
patient and of a healthy subject, such as whether 
the head be large or small, the neck thin or thick, 
long or short, the bowels long or round, the chest and 



^ aTTOTrATj^ertrj Littr6 : a.Tro(r<payl(Tt A : airocrcpayelcrt M : olto- 
(ppaytiffi Coray. 

^ €jrio-xo/ifV7j Reinhold : in tx^o fie vtj A : tiriSexo/irfT) M. 

6i 



nEPI APXAIHS IHTPIKH!: 

KOiXiai, jxaKpaX r) arpoyyuXai, dcoprjKO^ Koi TrXeu- 
peoov TrXaruTT^re? r) aT€v6rT]T€<;, clXXa /xvpia, a Set 
iravTa elhevai fj Sia(f)epei, ottco? tu alria eKaarcov 
etSoj? op^co? (f)v\aaayiraL' 

XXIV. JJepl Se SwafMicov 'X^vfxcov avroiv re 
eKacrTO'i 6 ri hvvaraL iroLelv top avOpwnov 
€(TKe(j)dat,, oyairep koL Trporepov etprjrai, koX rrjv 
avyyeveiav oj? k'y^ovai irpo'^ aW)j\ov<;. \eyo) 
Se TO TOiovTOV el <y\vKv<; %v/io? icov fiera^aXXoi 
e? dWo el8o<;, fxrj a-rro a vy k pi](no<; , aWa avro^ 
e^KTrdixevo^, 7roio<; ti<; av irpoiTO'i yevoLTo, iriKpo^ 
Tj aXfxvpo^; rj aTpv(f)i>6<i i) o^u?; o2/xai fxev, 6^v<i. 
6 cipa 0^1/9 'X^Vfio'i ave7rir7]8eio<i irpoac^epeiv av 

10 rwv XoiTTOiv eirj iJniXicna, etVep 6 yXvKV'i tmv 
ye TTcivTOiv aveirir r]SeLOTaTO<; .^ oino)<i el t;? hvvaiTo 
l^rjrewv e^wOev eTriTvyx^veiv, /cal hiivacro av 
irdvTtov eKXeyeaOaL alel to /SeXTLcrrov. ^eXricTTOV 
he i(TTi alel to TrpoacoTarco tov dveTmrjBeLov 

15 dirixov. 

1 I obtain this reading by combining A, which has avtiriTr}- 
Setos, hv before rHv \onroiv, and rSiv before ye, with the aveiri- 
TT/SeioVaTos of M. Other MSS. have tiv etrn-liSfios, omit hv 
before roov Konraiv and tuiv before ye, and read e-ntr-qZeioraros. 
Kiililewein has 6 fipa 6|i)s x^^^^^ ^'^ iwiTriSews Trpoacptpeiv riv 
\otTrwy etri fidXiara, einep S y\vKVS ye sTriTTjSeic^TOTOs. 



62 



ANCIENT MEDICINE, xxiii.-xxiv. 

ribs broad or narrow, and there are very many other 
things, the differences between which must all be 
known, so that knowledge of the causes of each thing 
may ensure that the proper precautions are taken. 

XXIV. As I have said before, we must examine the 
powers of humours, and what the effect of each is 
upon man, and how they are related to one another. 
Let me give an example. If a humour that is sweet 
assumes another form, not by admixture, but by a 
self-caused change, what will it first become, bitter, 
or salt, or astringent, or acid ? I think acid. There- 
fore Avhere sweet humour is the least suitable of all, 
acid humour is the next least suitable to be admi- 
nistered.^ If a man can in this way conduct with 
success inquiries outside the human body, he will 
always be able to select the very best treatment. 
And the best is always that which is farthest re- 
moved from the unsuitable. 

^ Because : — 

(1) Health is a crasis of all the humours, none being in 
excess ; 

(2) Sweet humour passes readily into acid ; 

(3) Therefore, when sweet is the least suitable as a remedy 
(there being an excess of it already), acid (which is likely to 
be reinforced from the sweet) is the next least suitable. 

Kiihlew ein's text makes sense only if we transpose o^vs and 
yXvKvs. If you want o^hs X'^M'^' for orn.sis you can get it best 
by adding olvs, next best by adding y\vKvs, which naturally 
turns into o^vs. 



63 



APPENDIX 



Appendix on Chapter XX, p. 54. 

olvos &KpriTos TToWhs TToOels Siaridriai irws rhv ^vOpwrrov Kal 
irdyres hv ol fiSSrfS rovro yvoirjaav, on avrri Bvva^is oivov koI 
ainhs a^Tios. 

So A ; other MSS. have aaOevfa after avOpaiirov, IS6i>t€s for 
ol dSores, t) after aOVrj and 4(ttiv after avrSs. 

This passage contradicts the general argument, which is 
that in medicine statements about foods must not be made 
air\ais. Cheese is not bad food ; it is only bad in certain 
conditions, and in certain ways, and at certain times. In 
these circumstances cheese has a Siivafxts which does not 
belong to cheese in itself, but is latent until certain conditions 
call it forth. The error, says the writer, is not made in the 
case of wine. Everybody knows that in itself wine is not 
bad ; it is drinking to excess, or at wrong times, which is 
mischievous. 

Now the reading of A (in fact any MS. reading) makes the 
writer saj' that wine itself is to blame (avrhs afrios) — an 
obvious contradiction of the general argument. My colleague 
the Rev. H. J. Chaytor most ingeniously suggests that avT6s 
refers not to wine but to the man. He would therefore 
translate " this Siva/xis of wine and the man himself are to 
blame." But not only is it more natural for avT6s to refer to 
wine, but the writer's whole point is that in and by itself ?io 
food is atTios. A food is a cause only in certain conditions, 
or, rather, certain conditions call forth certain dwd/.i.eis. 

I think, therefore, that the right reading is on Toiavrri 
Svyufxis otvov Kal oiiK aitrhs alrios. " Such and such a 5vvaij.is 
of wine (i. e. a Svvafxts caused by excess of wine acting upon 
the human fviris) is to blame and not mere wine by itself " 
Srt TOLavTt] might easily turn into on avrrj, and the omission 
of ol by scribes is not uncommon. 

There is an attractive vigour about the reading lh6vT(s for 
01 e<5()T6s, and it may be correct. " Anybody can see at a 
glance that in the case of wine it is excess, etc., and not 
merely wine itself which is to blame," 



64 



AIRS WATERS PLACES 



INTRODUCTION 

No ancient critic appears to have doubted the 
authenticity of this work, and only Haller among 
the moderns has rejected it. 

It is divided roughly into two parts. The first 
(Chapters I-XI) deals chiefly with the effects of 
climate and situation upon health ; the second 
(XII-XXIV) deals chiefly with the effects of climate 
upon character. At the end of XII a portion has 
been lost dealing with the Egyptians and Libyans. 

The style of the book has the dignified restraint 
which we associate with the Hippocratic group of 
treatises. In tone it is strikingly dogmatic, con- 
clusions being enunciated without the evidence upon 
which they are based. Modern physicians are 
sceptical about many of these conclusions while 
fully recognizing the value of the principle that 
geographical conditions and climate influence health. 

The second part of the work is scarcely medical 
at all, but rather ethnographical. It bears a close 
resemblance to certain parts of Hei'odotus, but lacks 
the graceful bonhomie which is so characteristic of 
the latter writer. Indeed it is hard not to see a 
close connection between the account of the im- 
potent eff'eminates of Chapter XXII and the ivdpees 
of Herodotus I. 105. 

66 



INTRODUCTION 



MSSi AND Editions. 



The chief MSS. are V and JS, the latter being 
a fifteenth-century MS. at Rome called Codex 
Barberinus. To these must be added the readings 
of a MS. called by Kiihlewein b, which is now lost, 
but its readings have been noted by Gadaldinus of 
Venice. There are two Paris MSS. woi'th noticing. 
One (2255 or E) divides the treatise into two parts, 
and the other (7027) is a Latin translation which 
sometimes helps in the reconstruction of the text. 

The work has often been edited. The earliest 
edition was published at Venice in 1497, and there 
were at least ten others during the sixteenth 
century.i The best edition is that of Coray (2 vols., 
Paris, 1800). Though verbose it is both scholarly 
and medically accurate, Coray being a Greek by 
birth, a medical man by training, and a scholar by 
inclination. 

There are English translations by Peter Low 
(London, 1597), John Moffat (London, 1788), Francis 
Clifton (London, 1734), and, of course, Francis 
Adams (London, 1849). 

The following table, taken from Aetius III. 164, 
may prove useful in determining the periods of the 
year mentioned in the Hippocratic writings. 

March 23 . . larjfj.epLa lapiVT]. 
April 1 . . at TrXrytaScs (XKpoi'v^oi (fiatvovTai. 
April 19 . . ai TrXTjtaSes icnrepioi KpvTTTOVTat. 
April 21 . . ai TrATjtaSes a/xa rjXiov avaroXr] ctti- 

riXkova-L. 
May 7 . . . at 7rA7;ta8es ewai (ftaivovraL (heliacal 

rising). 

1 See Littre, II. 9, 10. 

67 



INTRODUCTION 

June 6 . . . apKTOvpo'i Swei. 

June 25 . , rpoTral Oepivai. 

July 19 . . 6 Kvwv ewos en-treXXei. 

September 1 7 apKrovpos CTriTeA-Xet (heliacal rising). 

September 25 Icrrjfxepia <^^ti/07rwpu'>). 

November 6 ai TrAr^iaSes ewat 8i)i'oi;cri (cosmic 

setting). 
December 23 Tpo-n-at ■)((.LjX€pivaL 
February 25 apKTovpos ecTTreptos eViTe'XXct koI 

(26) ;(€Xi8dv£S TTcVoi/Tai Ktti ^at- 

vovrai. 

Spring began with the equinox^ but was often 
popularly dated from the appearance of swallows 
and the acronychal rising of Arcturus in February. 
The heliacal rising of the Pleiades marked the 
beginning of summer, which ended with that of 
Arcturus, an event nearly coinciding with the 
autumnal equinox. Finally, winter began with the 
cosmic setting of the Pleiades. 

A star is said to rise heliacally when it gets far 
enough in front of the sun to be visible before 
dawn. It sets cosmically when it gets so much 
further in advance as to be first seen setting in the 
west before dawn. The acronychal is the evening 
rising of a star, when it is visible all night, and 
contrasts with the heliacal, or morning, rising, when 
it soon disappears in the sun's rays. 

Galen, in his commentary on the third section of 
Aphorisms, implies that there are two meanings of 
p€Ta/3oXai Toiv wpewv, a common term in Airs Haters 
Places : 

(1) the actual changes from season to season ; 
68 



INTRODUCTION 

(2) sharp contrasts of weather during the 
seasons. 

It is clear from the passages in Airs Waters Places 
where the phrase occurs that it may have either 
meaning. The notion underlying it is that of 
violent change in the weather. 

The reader should note the meanings of the 
following : 

(1) "between the winter rising of the sun and 

the winter setting/' i. e. roughly E.S.E. 
to W.S.W. ; 

(2) "between the summer setting and the 

summer rising," i. e. roughly VV.N.W. to 
E.N.E. ; 

(3) " between the summer and winter risings/' 

i. e. roughly E.N.E. to E.S.E. 

The exact number of degrees is a question of 
latitude. The directions given above are roughly 
correct for the Mediterranean area. 



69 



nEPI AEPQN YAATON TOnQN 

^IrjrpiKrjv 6crTL<i /SouXerai 6p6o)<i ^ijTelv, rciSe 
XPh TTotelv irpcoTOv fiev ivdvixeiaOai ra? o)pa<i 
Tov €T€o<i, 6 Tt Svvarai aTrepyd^eaOai kKaari)' 
ov yap eoLKaaiv dWi]Xoi(Jiv ovhev, dWd ttoXv 
8ia(f)epovcnv avjal re e^' ecovrecov kuI iv rfjai 
fX€Ta/3o\fjatv' eirena he. ra TTvevpLara ra 9epp.d 
re Kol ra '\^v')(^pd, /xdXiara p,ev rd Koiva irdatv 
dvOpcoTTOtatv, eireira Se Kal rd iv eKuarrj X^PV 
iirixcopia eorra. Sec Be Kal rwv vSdraiv evdv- 

10 /xetaOai rd<; Svudp.ia';' coairep yap iv r(p aropian 
Sia(f)epovcTi Kal ev rat ara6p.(p, ovrco Kal r) Svvap.i'i 
Sia(f)epei ttoXv eKdarov. coare e? nroXiv eireiSdv 
d(f)LK7]rai Tt?, ?7? direipo'i icrri, 8ia(f)povria-ai ^.P') 
rrjv decTiv avri)'^, o/coj? Kelrai Kal Trpo? ra rrvev- 
p-ara Kal tt/oo? ra? dvaro\d<i rod rjXiov. ov yap 
rwvro hvvarai ■^rL<; tt/jo? /3opei]v Kelrai Kal ■tjri'i 
7rpo9 vorov ov8^ r/Tt? tt/do? ifK.iov dvia^ovra ovS 
■^Tt? TTpo? hvvovra. ravra 8e xph ^ €vOvp,eta0ai 
to? KdWiara Kal rwv iihdrcov rrepi to? e^ovai, 

20 Kal TTorepov eXcoSeat ^Peovrai Kal p,aX0aKOLaii> 
rj aKXrjpolcrL re Kal eK p,€recopcov Kal rrerpcoBewv 
e'ire dXvKolai Kal drepdpLvoiaiv Kal ri]v yrji', 
TTorepov -yfrLXyj re Kal di>vSpo<; rj oaaela nal 
e(f)v8po<; Kal etre eyKocXo^ eari Kal rrviyripirj elre 
pereu>po<i kol y^uxp^]' Kal rtjv Slatrai' roiv dvOpoo- 
TTcov, oKOLj] JjBoprai, TTorepov (fitXoTTorat Kai 
70 



AIRS WATERS PLACES 

Whoever wishes to pursue properly the science of 
medicine must proceed thus. First he ought to 
consider what effects each season of the year can 
produce ; for the seasons are not at all alike, but 
diff'er widely both in themselves and at their changes. 
The next point is the hot winds and the cold, 
especially those that are universal, but also those 
that are peculiar to each particular region. He 
must also consider the properties of the waters ; for 
as these differ in taste and in weight, so the property 
of each is far different from that of any other. 
Therefore, on arrival at a town with which he is 
unfamiliar, a physician should examine its position 
with respect to the winds and to the risings of 
the sun. For a northern, a southern, an eastern, 
and a western aspect has each its own individual 
property. He must consider with the greatest care 
both these things and how the natives are off for 
water, whether they use marshy, soft waters, or 
such as are hard and come from rocky heights, 
or brackish and harsh. The soil too, whether bare 
and dry or wooded and watered, hollow and hot 
or high and cold. The mode of life also of the 
inhabitants that is pleasing to them, whether they 

* Xpv h : omitted in other MSS. 

71 



nEPI AEPnN TAATQN TOnQN 

api(TTr)ra\ Kal araXaiircopot rj ^tXo'yv fjbvaarai re 
28 KCil ^lXottovol Kal iScohol Kai uttotoi. 

II. Kal UTTO TOVTcov \prj ivOv/jLeiaOat exaara, 
el yap ravra elBeli] xi? zcaXw?, p^dXiara fjuev 
TTcivra, el Be fxr}, rd ye rrXelo-ra, ovk av avTov 
XavOdvot €<? TToXiv cK^iKveop-evov, tj'^ av direipo'i 
17, oure voai]/j,aTa i7ri')(copia ovre twv KOivwv r] 
(jivai'i, OKOLT] Tt? eariv ware fii] dTropelaOai ev 
rfj OepaTreij) tmv vovacov ju,y]8e 8iap,apTdi>eiv a 
ei/co? ecrri ylveaOai, rjv fiJ] Ti? ravra rrporepov 
elBcL)<i 7Tpo(f)povriar] rrepl kfcdarov rod Be -^povov 

10 rrpoiuvro<i Kal rov evLavrov Xeyoi dv, oKoaa re 
voa7]fiarii p,eXXei rrdyKoiva rrjv rroXiv KaraayJ]- 
aeiv rj depeo^ 7) ^ef/Ltcoz^o?, oKoaa re IBia eKaarw 
KivBvvo<i yiveadat eK fxera/BoXrj'i rrj<i Bt-atrr]';. 
elBoi'i yap rS)V oopewv ra? fiera^oXa<; Kat, tw/^ 
darputv ra? ^ eVfToXa? re Kal Bvaia^, KaOori 
eKaarov rovrwv ylverai, irpoeiBehi dv ro ero'i 
oKoiov ri /xeXXei yiveaOai. ovrco^ dv rt? evvoev- 
/jbevo<i Kal rrpoyivdiaKcov rot"? Kaipov<i p,aXiar av 
elBeirj rrepl eKdarov Kal rd rrXelara rvy^avoi 

20 T779 vyie'iT]'^ Kal KaropOolrj ovk eXd^iara ev rfj 
re^vo- ^^ Be BoKeoi Ti? ravra pierewpoXoya eivai, 
el pLSraarairj t^}? yvayp.rj'i, p.a6oL dv, bri, ovk eXa- 
')(^t.arov /xe/oo? ovp^^dXXerat darpovopLirj e? Irjrpi- 
KTjv, dXXd rrdvv rrXelarov. ap,a yap rfjaiv wprjcn 
Kal al vovcroi Kal at KOiXiai p.era^aXXovaiv 

26 rolcTLV dvOpcoTTOiaiv. 

III. "Oatw? Be xph eKacrra rwv Trpoeip'ijp.evcov 
(TKorrelv Kal ^aaavL^etv, eyw (f}pdcrco aa(peo3<i. 

^ ras added by Wilamowitz. 
72 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, i.-iii. 

are heavy drinkers, taking lunch, ^ and inactive, or 
athletic, industrious, eating much and drinking little. 

II. Using this evidence he must examine the 
several problems that arise. For if a physician 
know these things well, by preference all of them, 
but at any rate most, he will not, on arrival at a 
town with which he is unfamiliar, be ignorant of 
the local diseases, or of the nature of those that 
commonly prevail ; so that he will not be at a loss 
in the treatment of diseases, or make blunders, as is 
likely to be the case if he have not this knowledge 
before he consider his several problems. As time 
and the year passes he will be able to tell what 
epidemic diseases will attack the city either in 
summer or in winter, as well as those peculiar to 
the individual which are likely to occur through 
change in mode of life. For knowing the changes 
of the seasons, and the risings and settings of the 
stars, with the circumstances of each of these 
phenomena, he will know beforehand the nature of 
the year that is coming. Through these considera- 
tions and by learning the times beforehand, he will 
have full knowledge of each ])articular case, will 
succeed best in securing health, and will achieve the 
greatest triumjihs in the practice of his art. If it 
be thought that all this belongs to meteorology, he 
will find out, on second thoughts, that the contri- 
bution of astronomy to medicine is not a very small 
one but a very great one indeed. For with the 
seasons men's diseases, like their digestive organs, 
suffer change. 

III. I will now set forth clearly how each of the 
foregoing questions ought to be investigated, and 

' Tliat is, taking more than one full meal every day. 

73 



HEPI AEPQN TAATQN TOnQN 

^Ti? fxev TToA-t? TT^o? TO, TTvevfiuTa KGLTat TO, depfid 
— ravTU S' earl fxeTa^v Trj<; re ^ei/xepii/?}? ava- 
ToXrj^ Tov rfkiov Kol tow Sucrfjiecov tcov j^eifiepivcov 
— /cal avTjj ravTU ra TTvevfiard ean avvvofxa, 
TOiV he diTO T(ov dpKTcov irvev/xdrcov aKeirr], ev 
rauTj] rfi iroXet earX rd re voara iroWa kul 
v(pa\a,^ Kol dvdyKT] elvai fxcTecopa, rou fxev depeo<i 

10 Oepfj-d, TOV 8e 'xeifioivo^ -^v^pd' rov<; re dvdpco- 
7rof<? rd^ K€(fia\d<; vypdf; ex^ii' '^o.i' (p^ey/xarcoBea'i, 
rd<; re Koi\ia<; avrcov rrvKvd eKrapdaaeaOac diro 
TJJ9 Ke(^akrjq rod (pXeyparo^ eiriKarappeovro'i' rd 
re etSea eirl ro ttXyjOo'^ avrcov drovwrepa eivar 
eadieiv S' ovk dya9ov<; elvai ov8e iriveLV. okoctoi 
pev yap Ke(^a\.a^ u(j9evea<; e^ovaLv, ovk av etrjaav 
dyadol TTiveLV rj yap KpanrdXrj pdWov irie^ei. 
vocn]pard re rdSe iinx^pta elvai- rrpcorov p,ev 
xa? yvvaLKa'i voaepd'^ koX pou)hea<i etvar eTreira 

20 TToX\.d<; droKov; vrro vovcrov Kal ov (pvaei eKnrpco- 
(TKeaOai re irvKvd' rolcri re TraiSioicnv eTTLTmrreiv 
aTTaapov'i re kuI da6p,ara Kal d vop^i^ovcn ro 
TratSiov ^ rroielv kol leprjv vovcrov ejvar rolai Be 
dvSpdai 8vaevrepia<; Kal Bcappoia'i Kal rj7ruiXov<; 
Kal TTvperov'i 7ro\vxpovLov<; ')(^eipepLV0v<i Kal errc- 
vvKriha<i 7ToWd<i Kal alpoppotha^ ev rfj ehprj. 
TrXeupmSe? he koI rrepiirvevpioviaL Kal Kavaoi 
Kal oKoaa o^ea voarjpara vopi^ovrai elvai ovk 
eyylvovrai rroWd. ov yap olov re, okov av 

30 Koikiai vypal ecoai, ra? vovaov; ravra<i lax^eLv. 
6<p6a\piai, re eyy ivovrai vypal Kal ov %aA-e7rat, 

^ Perhaps one should read v<pa\vKd.. 

2 iraiSiov MSS. : ef:ov Coray, who reads h for &, and Zwinger 
in margin. 

74 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, iii. 

the tests to be applied. A city that lies exposed 
to the hot winds — these are those between the winter 
rising of the sun and its winter setting — when 
subject to these and sheltered from the north winds, 
the waters here are j^lentiful and brackish, and must 
be near the surface,^ hot in summer and cold in winter. 
The heads of the inhabitants are moist and full of 
phlegm, and their digestive organs are frequently 
deranged from the phlegm that runs down into them 
from the head. Most of them have a rather flabby 
physique, and they are poor eaters and poor drinkers. 
For men Avith weak heads will be poor drinkers, as 
the after-effects are more distressing to them. The 
endemic diseases are these. In the first place, 
the women are unhealthy and subject to excessive 
fluxes. Then many are barren through disease and 
not by nature, while abortions are frequent. Children 
are liable to convulsions and asthma, and to what 
they think causes the disease of childhood, and to 
be a sacred disease.- Men suffer from dysentery, 
diarrhoea, ague, chronic fevers in winter, many 
attacks ^ of eczema, and from hemorrhoids. Cases 
of pleurisy, pneumonia, ardent fever, and of diseases 
considered acute, rarely occur. These diseases 
cannot prevail where the bowels are loose. Inflam- 
mations of the eyes occur with running, but are not 

^ ixeriojpos "elevated," both liere anJ in Chapter XXIV, 
seems, when applied to springs, to mean the opposite of 
"tf.eep," i. e. rising from a point near the surface of the soil. 
Contrast Chapter VII, where water (k BaOuraTccv irriyfuv is 
said to be warm in winter and cool in annimer. 

* That is, epilepsy. Coray's reading means, "that 
affection which they think is caused by Heaven, and to be 
sacred." 

» Or "forms." 

75 



nEPI AEPDN YAATQN TOHJ^iN 

oXijoxpovioi, r)v fii] n Karda-)(rf voarj/xa TrajKOi- 
vov ix /jL€Ta/3o\rj<; /jie'ydX')]^.^ Koi OKorav ra 
irevTi^Kovra eVea vTrep/SdXcoa-i,^ Kardppooc ein- 
yevojiievoi €k tov iyKecpdXov 7rapa7T\T]KTiKov<i 
TTOieovat TOv<i dvdpcoTrov^, oKorav i^ai(f)vr]<i rjXia)- 
OecocTi TT)v Ke(pa\r]v i] piycoacoai. ravra fxev ra 
voay'jfiaTa aurolaiv iTri')(^d)pid iari. X^w/Ji? ^e. 
ijv Ti irdyKOtvov /caracr^?/ voarj/na e'/c fiera^oXrjfi 

40 rojv u>peu)v, kuI tovtov fiere^^ovaiv. 

IV. 'OKoaai 8' avTiKeovrat tovtcov 'irpo<; ra 
TTvevfxara to. ^^vj^^pd rd /leTa^v Tcof 8vcr/jbea)V TOiv 
Bepivwv Tou ifkiov koI t/}? dvaroXi)^ t?}? Oepivrj'q, 
KoX avrfjCTi Tavra rd Trvevfiara eiTL'^dypid iari, 
TOV Be voTOv Koi Tcov Oepjxoiv irvevfiaToov (jKeTTT], 
mBc ex^t TTepl TOiv ttoXlcou tovtcov Trpcorov fxev 
ra vBara aKXtjpd re Ka\ '^v)(^pd co? eVi to 
7rXrjdo<; eyjiveTai.^ tol/? Be dvOpco7rov<i evTovov^ 
re Kol (TKeXicfypov^i dvdyKrj elvai, tou? Te TrXeiov^ 

10 Ta<; KOiXia<; drepd/ubvov^ ^X^''^ '^'^^ aKXrjpwi Ta? 
Kdroi, Ta? Be dvco evpowTepa^;' '^oXcoBed'; re 
/j-dXXov Tj (f)X€y/LiaTia<; elvat. Ta? Be K€(f)aXa<i 
vyirjpd^ €)(Ovai koi cTKXrjpd';' prjy/MaTLaL Te elaiv 
eirl TO 7rXrj6o<i. voaev/xaTa Be avTolaiv iTTiBrj/xei 
TdBe' TrXevpLTiBe^ re ToXXal a'i re o^elat vojjll^o- 
fievai vovaoL. avdyK^i Be (oBe e)(etv, oKorav at 
KOiXuai cTKXrjpal ecocriv efXTrvoi Te ttoXXoI ywovTai 
diro 7rda7]<i 7rpoc})d(Tio^. tovtov Be aiTiov icxTi 
TOV crd>fxaTO<i i) evraai^ Kal r) (7KXT]poTr]<; t?}? 

20 KOiXlrj^, ■>] yap ^rjpoTJj'i py]yfjiaTi,a<; Trotel euvai 
Kal TOV vBaTO^ rj 'y}rv'>^p6Ti]<;, iBcoBov'i Be dvdyKr) 

^ /j.eyd\r]s omitted by Greek MSS. : de magna metahula 
7027. 

76 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, iii.-iv. 

serious ; they are of short duration, unless a general 
epidemic take place after a violent change. When 
they are more than fifty years old, they are paralyzed 
by catarrhs supervening from the brain, when the 
sun suddenly strikes their head or they are chilled. 
These are their endemic diseases, but besides, they 
are liable to any epidemic disease that prevails 
through the change of the seasons. 

I\^. But the following is the condition of cities 
with the opposite situation, facing the cold winds 
that blow from between the summer setting and 
the summer rising of the sun, being habitually 
exposed to these winds, but sheltered from the 
hot winds and from the south. First, the waters 
of the region are generally hard and cold. Tlie 
natives must be sinewy and spare, and in most cases 
their digestive organs are costive and hard in their 
lower parts, but more relaxed in the upper. They 
must be bilious rather than phlegmatic. Their 
heads are healthy and hard, but they have in most 
cases a tendency to internal lacerations. Their 
endemic diseases are as follow. Pleurisies are 
common, likewise those diseases which are accounted 
acute. It must be so, since their digestive organs 
are hard, and the slightest cause inevitably pro- 
duces in many patients abscesses, the result of a 
stiff body and hard digestive organs. For their 
dryness, combined with the coldness of the water, 
makes them liable to internal lacerations. Such 



2 v-n-epRa\a>ai Coray : virfp^dWwffi MSS. 

3 iyyiyverai Littre : yAvKaiverai most MSS. : oii yXvKaiyeTat 
Coray : koI aXuKo, yivtrai Kuhleweiu. 



77 



nEPI AEPHN TAATHN TOnON 

ra? JoiavTa<; (pvaia'i elvai Koi ov 7ro\v7roTa<;- ov 
ryap olov T6 ajxa TToXv/Sopovi re elvat, kqI ttoXv- 
TTOTa?-^ 6(f)da\/xia<i re jiveaOat fiev 8ia xpovov, 
rylveaOai Be aK\T]pa<i koi laxvpd'i, i<a\ evOeo)<i 
pijyvvcrOai to, ofipara- aifjioppota<; 8e Ik twv pivMv 
TOtai vewripoiai TpnJKOvra iTecov jiveadai Ic^X^' 
pa<? Tov Oepeo'i' rd re lepd voaev/xara KoXevfxeva, 
oXtya jxev Tuvra, lax^pd Si. ixaKpo^lov<; Be roi)? 

30 dv9 pu)TTOV<i TOUTOU? jxaXkov elKb<; elvai tmv eripcov 
rd re eXKea ov cfyXey/xarcoSea eyyiveadat ovSe 
dypiovaOat' rd re ijOea dypicorepa 17 y/xepcorepa. 
rolai fiev dvSpdat ravra rd voa/]/xara irnxf^P'^^ 
ea-rr kol %&)/o/9, "iv ri rrdyKoivov Kardaxv e'« 
jxera^oXrj^ rwv oipewv rfjai he yvvai^t' irpcorov 
/jLev arepLcpai ^ rroWal yivovrai hid rd vhara 
eovra aKKr^pd re Kol drepa/xra Koi yjrvxpd. ai 
jdp KaOdp(Tie<; ouk imyu'ovrai roiv eTrip-ijvLoyv 
eTTLrrjheLai, dWd oXiyai koI irovyipai. eveira 

40 riKrovcn ;)^a7y.67ra)9- eKrirpcoaKoucri he ov (T(f)6hpa. 
oKorav he reKcoai, rd rraihia dhvvaroi rpe^eiv 
elai- ro yap ydXa d-TrocrlSevvvraL diro rcov vhdraiv 
rr)? (TKXrjpor'qro'i koi drepa/xvLT]^- ^Olaiif; re yi- 
vovrai cTf yi'at drro rodv roKeroyv. viro yap ^ir)<i 
V ..„v __..' --■- hk TTaihl— 




48 ^ovrar i)^m(TL re oxjre ev ravrrj rfj rroXei. 

V. Tlepi fxev ovv roiv 6ep/u.cov irvev/xdrcoi' kul 
rcov yjrvxp^v Kal rcov rroXicov rourcov wSe ex^i d}<; 
TrpoeLprjrat. oKocrat he KeovraL 7rpo<; ra rrvevfiara 

1 So most MSS.: omitted by :(Sb and Kiihlewein. It 
contradicts Chapter VII, 11. 20, 21. 

78 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, iv.-v. 

constitutions necessarily make men eat much and 
drink little ; for one cannot be both a great eater 
and a great drinker. Inflammations of the eyes 
occur at last ; they are hard and violent, and rapidly 
cause rupture of the eyes. Men under thirty 
suffer from violent bleedings at the nose in summer. 
Instances of the disease called "sacred" are rare 
but violent. These men are more likely to be 
lonir-lived than are others. Their sores become 
neither phlegmatic ^ nor malignant, but their char- 
acters incline to fierceness, not to mildness. For 
men these diseases are endemic, besides there are 
epidemic diseases which may prevail through the 
change of the seasons. As to the w^omen, firstly 
many become barren through the waters being hard, 
indigestible and cold. Their menstrual discharges 
are not healthy, but are scanty and bad. Then 
childbirth is difficult, although abortion is rare. 
After bearing children they cannot rear them, for 
their milk is dried up through tiie hardness and 
indigestibility of the waters, while cases of phthisis 
are frequent after parturition, for the violence of 
it causes ruptures and strains. Children suffer from 
dropsies in the testicles while they are little, which 
disappear as they grow older. In such a city puberty 
is late. 

V, The effects of hot winds and of cold winds 
on these cities are such as I have described ; the 
following are the effects of winds on cities lying 

' ' Suppurating." 



* anplcpai Coray : a-repitpval or arpicpval MSS. : aTKppal 
Ermerins and Reinhold. 

79 



riEPI AEPHN TAATON TOntiN 

TO. aeraPv twv OeoLvcov iwaroXecov rou rfKiov Kai 
ro)v ')(^eLfj-€pivcoi' kul oKoaai to evavnov tovtwv, 
o)8e ex^t Trepl avrewv OKoaai fiev 7Tpo<i Ta<i ava- 
To\a^ Tov TjXiov Keovrai, ravra'^ elKo^ eivac 
vyieivoTepa<; tmv irpb^ ra? ap/CTOVi icrTpa/x/xevcov 
Kol TMV 7rpo<i TO, Oep/xci, rjv Kol ardSiov ^ ro 

10 fxera^v fj. nrpMrov ^ pih yap p-erpuorepov ex^i^ 
TO deppLOV Kol TO ■\lru-)(p6v' CTTecTa to, vSaTa, oKoaa 
7rpo<i raf tov r]\iov avaTo\d<; icrTL, TavTa \ap,TTpd 
Tc eivai dvdyKi] kuI evcoSea Kat /xaXOa/ca kul 
ipuTetva eyyiveaOac ev tuutt] ttj iroXer a yap 
^X,(0? t KoyXvei dvia'^^^cov kuI KaTa\ap,7rQ)v, to 
yap ecoOii'bv exdaTOTe auTo<i 6 rjrjp eirex^i- <^'> ^'"""^ 
TO TToXu.t ^ Ta T€ €iBea TMV dvdpooTTcoi' ehxpoa t€ 
Kal dvOrjpd iaTi p.dXXov >) ciXXr} rfv pa'] tl<; vovao<; 
KcoXvf]. XapbTT pb(^u>voi ts ol dvOpcoTTOL ^ opyrjv 

20 Te Kal (Tvveaiv ^eXTiov<; elal twv 7rpoa/3opei(ov,^ 
f]7rep Kal to, dX\a to, epb<^vbpeva dp,6Li'0) e'crTiV. 
eoiKe T€ pidXiaTa ?] ovtco Keip^ei'i] TroXt? ypt KaTa 
TTjv p-eTpLOTiiTa tov deppLov Kal tov ■^vxpov' Ta 
Te vo(7€vp,aTa eXdaaw pL€V ytveTai Kal daOeve- 
aTcpa, eoLK€ 6e TOt? iu Trjcri iroXeai yei'op,€i'oi<i 
vocrevpiaai Trjai Trpo? Ta Oepp-a irvevp-aTa iaTpap,- 
piej'rjcnv. at re yvvacKe'^ avToOi dpiKvpiove'i ^ €vai 

28 a(f)68pa Kal TiKTOvat pr]i8L(o<;. 

VI. Tlepl fiev tovtwv coSe e';^6t. oKoaai Se 
7rpo9 Ta? Sucrm? KeivTai Kal avTrjaiv eaTi aKeirii 

^ So all MSS. and editors. T would insert ix6vov. 

^ irp&Top Coray : vpSrepov MSS. 

* The part within daggers is as given in most MSS. For 
KwXvfi (which cannot govern vSara as an object) Coray 
would read KuWvyei, and Ernierins and Reinhold bracket 

8o 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, v.-vi. 

exposed to those between the summer and winter 
risings of the sun, and to those opposite to these. 
Those that lie towards the risings of the sun are 
Hkely to be healthier than those facing the north 
and those exposed to the hot winds, even though 
they be but a furlong apart. In the first place, the 
heat and the cold are more moderate. Then the 
waters that face the risings of the sun must be clear, 
sweet-smelling, soft and delightful, in such a city. 
For the sun, sliining down upon them when it rises, 
pui'ifies them. The persons of the inhabitants are 
of better complexion and more blooming than else- 
where, unless some disease prevents this. They 
are clear-voiced, and with better temper and intelli- 
gence than those who are exposed to the north, 
just as all things growing there are better. A city 
so situated is just like sjiring, because the heat and 
the cold are tempered ; the diseases, while resemb- 
ling those which we said occur in cities facing the 
hot winds, are both fewer and less severe. The 
women there very readily conceive and have easy 
deliveries. 

VI. Such are the conditions in these cities. Those 
that lie towards the settings of the sun, and are 

rh yap fiiiBivhv iro\v. Perhaps Kadaipei (not unlike 

KwXvfi in luicials) should be read for KuKvet, and the gloss 
read rh yap eocOivhi' kKaarore avTO, (aurhs is meaningless) 
6 T/T)p €jre'x6i iis eiri rb ttoAv. Has jcoiAyei arisen from kcuXvj] 
in the next sentence? In his notes Coray suggests 6 yap 
rjKios KwXvei (or KoAovet) rhv ijepa aviffx^" koI Kara^ajxircnv' Th 
yap iajdiphv avrSfff rjrjp k.t.\. But can ai/Tiicre = avrSOit 

* Kttl should perhaps be added after &u6pwn-oi. 

^ Trpoa^npeioov Kiihlewein : Trpoafiopfwu V 3B : Trphs 0op(r)V 
most MS.S. 

* apiKv^ovis Coray ; iyapiKv/xoves V 3B- 

8i 



nEPI AEPQN YAATON TOIIQN 

Tcbv TTvev/J-drcov tmv airo Trj<; r)OV<i TTveovTcov rd 
T€ Oepfid TTvev/juaTa irapappel koI ra ^jrvx^pd diro 
Tcov dpKrwv, avdyKT] TavTa<i ra? TroXfa? decriv 
iceladai vocrepcoTdTip'- rrptorov p,ev jdp rd vSara 
ov \ap,Trpd' airiov Be, on o 7)1] p to ewdwov Kari^ei 
0)9 eTTL TO 7ro\v, 6aTi<i T(p vSaTi ejKaTap.iyvvp.evo^ 
TO Xa/xTTpov d(f)avL^€i' 6 yap ?/\f09 Trplv dvo) 

10 dpOrjvat ovk eTrcXdpTrei. tov 8e dipeo^ ecodev /xev 
avpai y\rv')(^paX rrvkovai Kal BpoaoL TriTTTOvaL' to 
Be XoiTTov ?/A,io9 ijKaTaBvi'cov oxTTe p,d\i(TTa Bie\jrei 
Tov<; dvOp(t)7rov<i, Bio /cai d-^poov; re etVo? elvai 
Kal dppcocTTOv^, Tojv T€ vocTev pbdTWv TrdvToov peT- 
€')(^eiv pepo<; tmv irpoeiprjpievwv' ovBev yap avTol^ 
aTTOKeKpLTai. /Bapvcpuivovi; re elKO'i elvai Kal 
^pay')(^d)Bea<; Bid tov rjepa, otl aKdOapTd &)? eVl 
TO TToXu avToOi ylveTai Kal voo-coBtj'^' ovtc yap 
VTTO Twv I3opeicov €KKpiV€Tai cr(f)oBpa' ov ydp irpocr- 

£0 e')(ovai Td 7rvevp,aTa' d re 7rpocre)(^ovaiv avToicn 
Kal irpocTKeivTai vBaTeivoTaTd eaTiv eirel TOiavTa 
TO. aTTo •"• T?}? 6(T7re/)?;9 irvevp.aTa' eoiKev re p,eT- 
OTrdopo) pdXiaTa t) Oecri'i 1) TOcavTr) Tr;9 ttoXio'? /cara 
Ta9 TT]<i rjpepT]^ p,eTa^oXd<;, oti iroXv to peaov 

26 yiveTai tov t€ ecoOivou Kal tov 7rp6<; Trjv BelXijv. 
VII. Ilepl fxev 7rvevp,dTa)V, d re iaTiv eTriTi^Beia 
Kal dveiriTijBeia, wBe e^et. irepl Be twv Xoittmv ^ 
vBdTcov /3ovXopai Birjyijcraadai, a re eVrt voacoBea 
Kal d vyieivoTaTa Kal oKocra a^' vBaTO^ KaKa 
ei/f09 yi'veadai Kal oaa dyadd- vXelcrTov ydp 

1 €7r€l Toiavra to airh Coray : eVel ra inl most MSS. 

2 AoiTTciv omitted by 7027 and Wilamowitz. 



82 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, vi.-vii. 

sheltered from the east winds, while the hot winds 
and the cold north winds blow past them — these 
cities must have a most unhealthy situation. In the 
first place, the waters are not clear, the reason being 
that in the morning mist is generally prevalent, 
which dissolves in the water and destroys its clear- 
ness, as the sun does not shine ui)on it before it 
is high on the horizon. In the summer cold breezes 
blow in the morning and there are heavy dews ; 
for the rest of the day the sun as it advances 
towards the west thoroughly scorches the inhabitants, 
so that they are likely to be pale and sickly, subject 
to all the diseases aforesaid, for none are peculiar 
to them.^ They are likely to have deep, hoarse 
voices, because of the atmosphere, since it is usually 
impure and unhealthy in such places. For while 
it is not clarified much by the north winds, which 
are not prevalent there, the winds that do prevail 
insistently are very rainy, such being the nature of 
westerly winds. Such a situation for a city is pre- 
cisely like autumn in respect of the changes of the 
day, seeing that the difference between sunrise and 
afternoon is great. 

VII. So much for winds, healthy and unhealthy. 
I wish now to treat of waters, those that bring 
disease or very good health, and of the ill or good 
that is likely to arise from water. For the influence 

^ avToU may be either a dative of advantage or one of 
disadvantage. There can thus be two meanings ; — 

(1) " for none aie isolated to their advantage," i.e. they 

are exempt from none ; 

(2) "for none are isolated to their disadvantage," i.e. 

they have no disease peculiar to themselves. I 
have taken the latter meaning, with Littre, but a 
good case could be made out for the former. 

83 



nEPI AEPHN TAATQN TOnON 

fxipo<; av/uL^dWerai e? t^i/ vyieirjv. OKoaa fiev 
ovv ecJTiv eXcoBea koX ardaifia koI \Lfivala, ravra 
avdy/ci] rou fiev depeo-i elvai Oepfxa Kal ira^^^ea Kal 
68fir]V €)(^ovTa, obTe ovk cnToppvra eovra' dWa 

10 Tov re 6/ui^pLov vSaro^ eiTK^epoixevou^ alel veou 
Tov re r}\iov KaiovTO<; avajKy] d^poa re etvai Kal 
TTOvrjpd Kal '^oXwBea, rov Se ^eiiMOivo'^ TrayercoSed 
T€ Kal yjru^pd Kal Te6o\a)/xeva viro re ')(^i6vo'i Kal 
irayercov, oiare (^Xeyixarwhearara elvat Kal ^pay- 
')((i)he(7rara. rolai he Trivovai (T7r\r]va<; p-ev alel 
jxeyaXov^ eivai Kal p,ep.vu>p,6vov<; Kal rn? yaarepa^ 
aK\ripd<; re Kal XeTrra? Kal Oepp.d'i, tol/? Se wp-ovi 
Kal rd<; KXtpSa'i Kal ro TrpoacoTrov KaraXeXe- 
irrvadaf i'^ yap rov aTrXrjva al crdpKe^ avvrrjKov- 

20 rai, Siort l<j)(^vo'i elcnv' ehwhov^ re elvai tol/? 
roiourov; Kal biy^qpov'i' r /<> re KOiXta^ ^rjpordra'i 
re Kal Oepp,ordra<i Kal ra? dvo) Kal ra? Kdrw 
e^^iv. Mare ro)v (f)app,dKcov la-)(yporep(iiv Seladai. 
rovro p,ev ro voaijp^a aurolai avvrpo(f)6v icrri 
Kal 6epeo<; Kal ')(^etp.wvo<;. trpo'i he rovroiatv ol 
v8pa)7re<; rrXelaroi re yivovrai Kal Oavarcoheararoi. 
rov yap Oepeo<; hvaevrepiai re woXXal ep.TriTrrovai 
Kal Sidppoiai Kal TTvperol rerapraloi 7roXv)(p6- 
vioi' ravra he rd vocrevp^ara p-rjKvvdevra rd^ 

30 rotavra^; (f)vcna^ e? vhpwrra^ KaOiarrjcn Kal drro- 
Kreivet. ravra p.ev avroiai rov depeo^ y'tverai. 
rov he ')(^eip,ioi'0^ roicri vewrepoiai p,ev rrepLTrvev- 
pLoviaL re Kal p.avict)hea voaevpiara, rolat, he 
irpea^vrepoicTi Kavaot, hid rrjv rrj'^ kolXh]^ aKXr)- 
porrjra. rfjcri he yvvai^lv olhr]p,ara eyyiverat, 
Kal cf)Xeyp^a XevKov, Kal ev yaarpl La')(^ovai /xoA,t9 
Kal riKrovai ^aXeirSi's' p,eydXa re rd epu^pva Kal 

84 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, vn. 

of water upon health is very great. Such as are 
marshy, standing and stagnant must in summer be 
hot, thick and stinking, because there is no outflow ; 
and as fresh rain-water is always flowing in and the 
sun heats them, they must be of bad colour, un- 
healthy and bilious. In winter they must be frosty, 
cold and turbid through the snow and frosts, so as 
to be very conducive to phlegm and sore throats. 
Those who drink it have always large, stiff spleens, 
and hard, thin, hot stomachs, while their shoulders, 
collar-bones and faces are emaciated ; the fact is 
that their flesh dissolves to feed the spleen, so that 
they are lean. With such a constitution they eat 
and drink heavily. Their digestive organs, upper 
and lower, are very dry and very hot, so that they 
need more powerful drugs. This malady is endemic 
both in summer and in winter. In addition the 
dropsies that occur are very numerous and very 
fatal. For in the summer there are epidemics of 
dysentery, diarrhoea and long quartan fever, which 
diseases when prolonged cause constitutions such as 
I have described to develop dropsies that result in 
death. These are their maladies in summer. In 
winter young people suffer from pneumonia and 
illnesses attended by delirium, the older, through 
the hardness of their digestive organs, from ardent 
fever. Among the women occur swellings and leuco- 
phlegmasia ; they conceive hai'dly and are delivered 
with difficulty. The babies are big and swollen, and 

' fTTKfepOjueVou b : e-rrir^fcpoixivov most MSS. 

85 



nEPI AEP£!N YAATDN TOnON 

olheovra. eTrena iv rrjcn Tpo(j)f]at (pdivco8eu re 
Kut TTOvrjpa 'yiveraL' i] re KciOapcn^ Tjjat 'yvvai^lv 

40 ovK iTriyLverat ;^p?;crT^ /xctci top tokov. rolai Se 
Traioioiai KrjXai eiTiyivovTai fj.d\iaTa Kal toIctlv 
dvBpdai KLpaoi kol eXKea iv r^at Kv-ij/xriaiv, coare 
Ta? Toiavra^ (^vaia's ov^olov re p-aKpo^iovi elvai, 
dWa TrpoyijpdaKei.v rod ^(^povov tov iKveup^evov. 
€Ti Be at yvvaiK€<; hoKeovaiv eyeiv ev yaarpi, Koi 
OKorav toko<; >j, (Kpai'L^erai to TrXijpco/jLa T^;? 
yaaTpo<;. tovto Se yiverai, OKorav uBpcoirujacoaiv 
at varepaL. ra /xev roiavra vhara vo/xi^w p-oy- 
drjpa elvau 7rpo<i dirav ')(pr]/uLa- hevrepa he oacov 

50 eiei> ^ ai iryjyal e'/c TTerpecov — aKX'qpd yap dvdyKt] 
eivai — )) eK 7*}?, okov depfid vSard eariv, i) crihripo<^ 
yiverai ?; ')(^a\KO<i i) dpyvpo^ ?) ')(^pua6^ t) Oelov r) 
arvmr^pLi] r; dacpaXroi' r) viipov. ravra yap 
TrdvTa VTTO ^ir]<i yivovrai tov dep/xov. ov Toiwv 
olov re eK rotavrrjx; yyi; vBara dyadd y'tveadat, 
aWa aK\,t]pa Kal KavacoSea SiovpelaOal re ya- 
Xena kuc 7rpo<; rijv Siaycoprjaiv ivavria elvai. 
dpiara 8e OKoaa e« fierecopcop ycopiwv pel Kal 
\o(f)0)v yeiipoyv- avrd re yap iari yXvKea Kal 

60 XeuKa Kal rov olvov (pepeiv oXiyov old re earLv. 
TOV Be yeip.oivo^ 6epp,d yiverai, rov Be 6epeo<; 
■\}rvxpd. ovrco yap dv elrj eK ^aOvrdrcov irrjyewv- 
fxdXiara Be eiratveo) wv ra pevp^ara irpo^ rd<i 
avaroXa<i rov ijXlov eppooyacn Kal fidXXov rrpo<i 
ra<i Oeptvd^. dvdyK)] yap XajUTrporepa elvai Kal 
evcoBea Kal Kov<pa. OKoaa Be eariv dXvKa Kal 
arepafxva Kac aKXiipd, ravra [xev irdvra rriveiv 
OVK dyaOd- elal 5' evLai <pv(rie^ kuI voaevp-ara, 
if a iiTiTijBetd iari ra roiavra vBara Tnv6p,eva, 
86 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, vii. 

then, as they are nursed, they oecome emaciated ^ 
and miserable. The discharge after childbirth is 
bad. Children are very subject to hernia and men 
to enlarged veins and to ulcers on the legs, so that 
such constitutions cannot be long-lived but must 
grow pi-ematurely old. Moreover, the women appear 
to be with child, yet, when the time of delivery 
comes, the fullness of the womb disappears, this 
being caused by dropsy in that organ. Such waters 
I hold to be absolutely bad. The next worst will be 
those whose springs are from rocks — for they must 
be hard — or from earth where there are hot waters, 
or iron is to be found, or copper, or silver, or gold, 
or sulphur, or alum, or bitumen, or soda. For all 
these result from the violence of the heat. So from 
such earth good waters cannot come, but hard, heat- 
ing waters, difficult to pass and causing constipation. 
The best are those that flow from high places and 
earthy hills. By themselves they are sweet and clear, 
and the wine they can stand is but little. In winter 
they are warm, in summer cold. They would naturally 
be so, coming from very deep springs. I commend 
especially those whose flow breaks forth towards the 
rising — by jireference the summer rising — of the 
sun. For they must be brighter, sweet-smelling 
and light ; while all that are salt, harsh and hard 
are not good to drink, though there are some consti- 
tutions and some diseases which are benefited by 
drinking such waters, concerning which I will speak 

^ Or "consumptive." 

^ ehv so most MSS. : etr)v V: elcrlv Reinhold (unneces- 
sarily, for the "vague" opt. without fee is not rare in the 
Hippocratic writings). However, 7027 reads su7it. 

87 



nEPI AEPHN TAATON TOnON 



70 Trepl a)v (j)pd<xa) avTCKa- e;^et Se irepl tovtcov wSe* 
OKoacov fiev at •n^i'yaL tt^o? ra? avardXa^ e)(^ovai, 
Tavra fxev apiara avra ecovTcov iart,' hevrepa he 
ra fiera^v tmv OepwMV avaroXecov earl rov tjXlov 
Koi Bualcov, Kol fiaWov ra Trpo? ra? dvaTo\d<;' 
rplra he to, p^era^u tcov hvapLetov rcov Oepivcjv 
Kol TOiv ')(eip,epLVMv' (f)av\oTaTa he ra 7rpo<i lov 
voTov Kal TO. p.6ia^v T^? ')(^eip.epLvr)<i dvaToXrj'i 
Kal hvato<i. kol ravra rolai puev votloictl irdw 
TTOvrjpd, Tolai he ^opeioiaiv dp.eiv(o- Tovroiat he 

80 Trpeirec uhe 'y^prjaOai' ocrrt? p.ev vjiatvei re kuI 
eppwTai, /xTjhev htaKpiveiv, dWd TriveLv aiei, to 
Trapeov. oari'i he vovaov e"veKa ^ovKeraL to 
eTTiTjjheiOTaTOv irLveiv, d)he dv iroiecov p,d\iaTa 
rvyx^dvoi xr}? vjieL7)<i' OKoacov p,ev al KOiXiai 
aKXrjpal elai Kal avy/caUiv dyaOai,, Tourocai 
p,€v ra yXvKVTaTa crvpL^epei Kal Kov(f)OTaTa Kal 
Xap-TrpoTara' oKoawv he /xaXOaKal al vrjhv€<; Kal 
irypai elai Kal (^Xe'yp.aroohee^, rovroLcn he ra 
aKXrjporaTa Kal dTepa/xvoraTa Kal ra vcpaXvKu' 

90 ovTco 'yap dv ^rjpaivoiVTO p^dXiara. oKoaa yap 
vhard eaTiv ey^SLv dpiaTa Kal TaKepwraTa, TavTa 
Kal Ti)v KocXujp htaXveiv elKo<; p,dXiaTa Kal hta- 
rriKeiv' OKoaa he ecrriv drepafiva Kal aKXrjpd Kal 
7]Ki(TTa e-^avd, Tavra he avvicrryjcn fxaXiara ra? 
KoiXla<i Kal ^i]paivei. dXXd <ydp '^evadpuevot ^ 
eialv 01 dvOpwrroi rcov dXpvpcov vhdrcov irepi hC 
aTreipiyv, Kal on ^ vop^i^erai hia')(^copririKd' ra he 
evavridirard ian Trpo'i ttjv hia-)(^u)pr]aLV' drepap-va 
yap Kal dve^^ava, ware koI ttjv kolXltjv vtt^ avrayv 

100 arvcpeadai p^aXXov rj ri]Kea-Oai. 

88 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, vii. 

presently. Aspect affects spring waters thus. Those 
whose sources face the risings of the sun are the 
very best. Second in excellence come those between 
the summer risings and the summer settings, by 
preference in the direction of the risings. Third 
best are those between the summer and winter 
settings. The worst are those that face the south, 
and those between the winter rising and setting. 
These are very bad indeed when the winds are in the 
south, less bad when they are in the north. Spring 
waters should be used thus. A man in health and 
strength can drink any water tliat is at hand with- 
out distinction, but he wlio because of disease wishes 
to drink the most suitable can best attain health in 
the following way. Those whose digestive organs are 
hard and easily heated will gain benefit from the 
sweetest, lightest and most sparkling waters. But 
those whose bellies are soft, moist, and phlegmatic, 
benefit from the hardest, most harsh and saltish 
waters, for these are the best to dry them up. For 
waters that are best for cooking and most solvent 
naturally loosen the digestive organs the most and 
relax them ; but harsh waters, liard and very bad for 
cooking, contract most these organs and dry them 
up. In fact the public are mistaken about saline 
waters througli inexperience, in that they are 
generally considered to be laxative. The truth is 
that they are just the reverse ; tliey are harsh and 
bad for cooking, so that the digestive organs too 
are stiffened by them rather than loosened. 



^ i^ev(r(ifj.€voi SO V JS : i^evrrfievoi Kiihleweiti. 
* Kal oTi MSS. : WilamowiLz woukl delete on ; Coray would 
read kutoti for ical oti. Perliaps koI should be deleted. 

VOL. I. F 89 



nEPI AEPHN TAATi^JN TOUQN 

VIII. Kal irepi fi€v rwv Trrjyaicov vSdrcov coSe 
e';\^ei. Trepl Se tmp ofi/Bptcov Kal oKoaa arro ')(^i.6vo<i 
(f)pda(o 6K(o<i e'^et. ra fxei^ ovv ofijSpLa Kov^orara 
Kol yXvKVTaTa iari koI XeTrroraTa Kal Xap-rrpo- 
Tara. rrjv re yap dp)^r)v 6 y'jXio^ dvdyei Kal 
dvapTrd^et rov v8aro<i to re XeinoTarov Kal 
Kovc^orarov- hrfKov he ol aXe? iroieovai,. to /xev 
yap dXjjLvpov XeiTrerai avrov vrro Trdx^O'^ Kal 
^dpeo^ Kal yiverai aXe?, to he XeirTorarov 6 i]Xio<i 
10 dvapird^ei, vtto K0vcf)6T)]T0<i' dvdyei he to toiovto 

OVK aTTO TftJi" vhdTCOV pLOVVOV TMV Xip,vaLQ)v, dXXd 

Kal aTTO T»}<? 6aXdao-i]<; Kal e^ dirdvrwv ev OKoaoicn 
vypov Ti eveoTLV. evean he ev iravil y^pi^pari. Kal 

i^ aVTMV TMV dvOpQ)7TCOV dy€l TO XefTTOTaTOV t/}? 

LKp^dhci Kal KovcfiOTaTOV. TeKp,7]piov he pueyiaTOV' 
OTav ^ dvOpcoTTd ev r)XL(p ^ahl^rj i) KaOi^ij Ip-dTtov 
€)(Q)v, oKocra p,ev tov ;^pwT09 6 //Xfo? €(f)opa, oi);^ 
lhpa>r] dv 6 yap rj\i,o<; dvapirdt^ei to 7rpo(f)ai- 
vop^evov tov lhpS)To<i' oKoaa he vtto tov Ip^aTiov 

20 eaKeiraaTai rj vtt dXXov tov, ihpol. e^dysTai 
fiev yap vtto tov 7]Xlov Kal ^td^eTat, aoi^eTai he 
VTTO T//9 aKeTTt]';, waTe purj dipavi^eaOac vtto tov 
t'jXiov. OKOTav he e? aKirjv dcpiKrjTai, airav to 
awpua o/xot&)9 Ihiei'^ ov yap eVt o yXio'i cTTtXdp^TTei. 
hid TavTa he Kal aijireTai twv vhdTwv Td)(^iaTa 
TavTa Kal 6h/j,i]v 'Icryj^i ivovrjprjv to op.^piov, oti 
diTO TrXeiaTcov (TvvTjKTai Kal avpipiepiKTai, coaTe 
aijireadai Td^iaTa- eTi he irpo^ tovtoktiv iireih- 
dv dp-TTacrOfi Kal fieTecopLo-dfj TrepL^epopievov Kai 

30 KaTap-epLiyp-evov e? toi^ r^epa, to fiev doXepov 
avTov Kal vvKToeihe'i eKKpiveTai Kai e^iaTnTai 
Kal yiveTai t)r]p Kal 6/xi)(Xt], to he XapbirpoTaTOv ^ 
90 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, viii. 

VIII. Such are the facts about spring waters. I 
will now proceed to speak of rain water and snow 
water. Rain waters are the lightest, sweetest, finest 
and clearest. To begin with, the sun raises and draws 
up the finest and lightest part of water, as is proved 
by the formation of salt. The brine, owing to its 
coarseness and weight, is left behind and becomes 
salt ; the finest part, owing to its lightness, is drawn 
up by the sun. Not only from pools does the sun 
raise this part, but also from the sea and from 
whatever has moisture in it — and there is moisture 
in everything. Even from men it raises the finest 
and lightest part of their juices. The plainest 
evidence thereof is that when a man walks or sits 
in the sun wearing a cloak, the parts of his skin 
reached by the sun will not sweat, for it draws up 
each layer of sweat as it appears. But those parts 
sweat which are covered by his cloak or by any- 
thing else. For the sweat drawn forcibly out by the 
sun is prevented by the covering from disappearing 
through the sun's power. But when the man has 
come into a shady place, his whole body sweats 
alike, as the sun no longer shines upon it. For this 
reason too rain-water grows foul quicker than any 
other, and has a bad smell ; being a mixture gathered 
from very many sources it grows foul very quickly. 
Furthermore, when it has been carried away aloft, and 
has combined with the atmosphere as it circles round, 
the turbid, dark part of it separates out, changes 
and becomes mist and fog, while the clearest and 

^ Cobot would insert yh.p after oTav. 

2 lUii Heriiiga, from Erotian, who gives iSieiv = Ibpovv -. 
Su€i most MSS. : Siifl Coray and Littre. 

' Aafj-irporaTov V 'JQ ]>: AeTTTdraTOf' many MSS. 

91 



nEPI AEPQN TAATQN TOnQN 

KoX Kov^orarov aurov XeLTrerai koI yXuKaiverai 
VTTO Tov rjXiou Kaio/nevov re Kal e^ofxevov. yiverat 
8e Kal TciWa irdvTa ra^ k^lrofxeva aleX 'yXvKvrepa. 
e&)9 fJ'€V ovv oiecr Kehaa fievov rj koI fii^iroj avvearrjKr], 
(peperai fierecopov. OKorav Se kov dOpoiadij Kal 
av(TTpa(pfi €9 TO avTO utto dve/xcov dWi^Xocaiii 
ivavTLcodevrcov e^ai<pvi]<^, rore Karapp/jyvvTai, y 

40 av TV'^rf rrXelaTOV avarpa(f>ev. Tore yap €OiKd<; 
rovTO /jidWov ytveaOai, oKorav rd vecpea vvro 
ave/jLov ardaiv /xrj e^ovro<i'-^ oippLiifieva eovra ^ Kal 
^copeoi'Ta i^aL(f)V)]<; dvTiKoyp-r] Ttveu/na evavriov 
Kal erepa vec^ea' evravOa to /xev -npCoTov avTov 
(ru(Trpe(f)€Tai, tu Se OTTiaOev err L(^epeT aire Kal oinu> 
iTa')(vveTat Kal /xeXaiveTai Kal auarpe(f)€Tai e? to 
aj^To Kal UTTO ^dpeo'i KaTappi'iyvvrat, Kal o/x/3pot 
yivovTat. ravra puev iariv cipiara Kara to eiKo^. 
SeiTai Se d(pey\reaOaL Kal diroarjireadai''^ el he. 

50 pbi], ohfirjV oa')(^ei TTOVVjprjv Kal /Spdy^a Kal /Sr};^^? 
Kal /3apv(jiCt)VbT] TOi<; irivovai. irpoaiaTaTaL. 

Td he dirb ')^i6vo<i Kal KpvaTdWwv irovrjpd 
irdvTa. oKQTav yap dira^ irayf], ovk en is Ttjv 
dp-^alriv (f)vatu KadlaTaTai, dXXd to jxev avTOv 
XafMTTpov Kal Kov(f)ov Kal yXvKu eKKpiveTai Kal 
dcf)avl^eTai, to he doXwheaTUTOv Kal (7TaO/j,u>Se- 
(TTaTov XenreTai. yvoirj'i h dv oyhe' elydp ^ouXet, 
OTav 7) ■)(^€l/jL(i)v,^ e? dyyelov fieTpo) eyy^ea<i vScop 
delvai e? ti]v aWpirjv, 7va 7rt]^eTac fxaXiara, 67reiTa 

60 TTJ vcTTepatr] ecreveyKchv e? dXey]v, okov ^ct/Va'cret 

^ rd, Wilamowitz would delete this. 

* virh a.v€fj.ov (Traaiv fxri exofTos van der Liuden and Coray : 
fiTj virh av4uov (naffiv f xctos MS8. and Littre : V60fa v-nh 
ave/xov avaraaiv fx"''''''^ Kiihlewein. 

92 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, viii. 

lightest part of it remains, and is sweetened as the 
heat of the sun produces coction, just as all other 
things always become sweeter through coction. 
Now as long as it is scattered and uncondensed, it 
travels about aloft, but as soon as it collects any- 
where and is compressed into one place owing to 
sudden, contrary winds, then it bursts wherever the 
most compression happens to take place. For this 
is more likely to occur when the clouds, set in 
motion and carried along by a wind that allows them 
no rest, are suddenly encountered by a contrary 
blast and by other clouds. ^ In such cases the front is 
compressed, the rear comes on and is thus thickened, 
darkened and compressed into one place, so that the 
weight bursts it and causes rain. Such waters are 
naturally the best. But they need to be boiled and 
purified ■^ from foulness if they are not to have a bad 
smell, and give sore throat, coughs and hoarseness to 
those who drink them. 

Waters from snow and ice are all bad. For, once 
frozen, water never recovers its original nature, but 
the clear, light, sweet part is separated out and 
disappears, while the muddiest and heaviest part 
remains. The following experiment will prove it. 
Pour by measure, in winter, water into a vessel and 
set it in the open, where it will freeze best ; then on 
the next day bring it under cover, where the ice will 

^ The reading of Kiihlewein means, "condensed, set in 
motion and carried along by a wind, are suddenly," etc. 
=* Or, with the reading of Coray, "filtered." 

3 UvTo. of the MSS. shoidd probably be deleted as an 
anticipation of the end of x^P^o"'^"- 

* airofT-fiireadai MSS. : oTroo-jj^eo-eai Coray after Foes. 

* '6Tav fj xf'/"'^'' ^^ Coray : tirav oi x«'M'>'''«s ^ ^ ' o'^'^" 
Xet/uwJ' «'S b. 

93 



HEPI AEPaN TAATf^N TOnQN 

IxaXiara o irayero';, okotuv Sk XvOfj, avafierpeiv 
TO vSo)p, evpy](Tei^ eXaaaov avx^w. tovto t€k- 
lx7]piov, OTL vTTO T?}? TTJ^^fo? a(j)avi^€Tai KOl uva^T)- 
paiveTUi TO Koviporarov koI XeirroTarov, ov ro 
BapuTUTOV KOl iravvrarov' ov yap av SvvaiTO. 
TavTTj ovv vopii^co TTOPTjpoTaTa ravTU ra voara 
elvai Tci citto ■)(^i6vo<; koI KpyarciXkov Kat ra rov- 

68 TOiaiP eiropeva 7rpo<i airavra ;^/3?//xaTa. 

IX. Hepl pev ovv 6p,/3pi^cov v8dra)v koI tmv 
CLTTO X''OVO<; Koi KpvaTtiWwv ovtco<; ex^t- XiOtcoai 
Be p^dXiara avOpwirot,'^ Koi v-no vecpptTiSayv Koi 
aTpa'yjovpir]<; uXiaKOvrat, koX icrxidBcop, koI KrfkaL 
yu'OVTac, okov vhara irivovai TravroBaTrcoTara 
Kol diTO TTorap.odv peydXcov, e? ou? Trorap.oX erepoi 
ip/3dX\.ov<TL, Kol diro \Lpv7]<;, e? r/v pevpara iroWd 
Kol iravToha-nd dcpiKvevvrai, /cal okoctol vSaaiv 
eTTaKTolai ;Y/3fc'oi'Tat hid patcpov dyopLevoiai kul 

10 pr) eK ^paxio<i. ov yap olov re erepov erepw 
eoiKevai vSwp, dWd rd puev yXvKea elvai, rd 8e 
dXvKd re kol arvTrrypKoSea, rd 8e diro deppcov 
peiv. avppiayopeva he ravra e? rcovro dWi]Xoicri 
araaid^ei kuI k par el alel ro laxvporarov. laxvei 
8e ovK alel rcovro, dWd dWore dXXo Kara rd 
TTvevpara' rep pbev yap ^oper]<; rijv lax^v irap- 
eyerai, rw he 6 v6ro<i, kuI rSiv Xoirrcov rrepu wvro<; 
x6yo<;. vipiaraaOai ovv rolai roiovroiaiv dvdyKt] 
iv rol^ dyyeioi<i IXvv Kal -^dpcpov' Kal diro rovrwv 

20 mvopevcov rd vocrtjpara yiverai rd irpoeipripeva' 
on he ovx drraaLV, e^P/? (f)pd(Tco. 

'OKoawv pev ?; re koiXl-t] evpoo^ re fcal yytrjpy] 
ean Kal y) Kvari^ p^rj irvperwhrj'i p.r]he 6 ar6paxo<i 
tt}? KvaTLo<i avpbiTe(ppaKrai Xiip>, ovrot p,ev hiov- 

94 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, viii.-ix. 

melt best ; if, when it is dissolved, you measure it 
again you will find it much diminished. This shows 
that freezing dries up and causes to disappear the 
lightest and finest part, not the heaviest and coarsest, 
to do which it lias no power. In this way, therefore, 
I am of ojnnion that such waters, derived from snow 
or ice, and waters similar to these, are the worst for 
all purposes. 

IX. Such are the properties of rain waters, and of 
those from snow and ice. Stone, kidney disease, 
strangury and sciatica are very apt to attack people, 
and ruptures occur, when they drink water of very 
many different kinds, or from large rivers, into which 
other rivers (low, or from a lake fed by many streams 
of various sorts, and whenever they use foreign waters 
coming from a great, not a short, distance. For one 
water cannot be like another ; some are sweet, 
others are impregnated with salt and alum, others 
flow from hot springs. These when mixed up 
together disagree, and the strongest always prevails. 
But the strongest is not always the same ; sometimes 
it is one, sometimes another, according to the winds. 
One has its strength froin a north wind, another 
from the south wind, and similarly with the others. 
Such waters then must leave a sediment of mud and 
sand in the vessels, and drinking them causes the 
diseases mentioned before. That there are excep- 
tions I will proceed to set forth. 

Those whose bowels are loose and healthy, whose 
bladder is not feverish, and the mouth of whose 
bladder is not over narrow, pass water easily, and no 



ai/dfiwirot MSS. : '(Li'Qpoiiroi Kulilewein. 

95 



nEPI AEPON TAATHN TOnON 

pevcrt /0>;t5/&)9, koL ev rfj Kvaiei ovSeu cruarpe(f)erai. 
OKoacdV he av t) Koikirj TrupercoSrj^ ^, ai'dyKrj Ka\ 
rrjv Kvcrriv tcovto 7rda")(^eLV. OKorav yap OeppbavOfj 
fidXXov T?7? (pvaio'i, i(j}\eyfj^r]v6v avr?]<; 6 (tto- 
pia^o'i. oKorav he ravra TrdOrj, to ovpov ovk 
30 a(f)i7]atv, dW' ev ewvrfj avve-^ei fcal crvyKaiei. 
Kai TO fiev XeiTTOTaTOi' avTov dTroKpiverai koI to 
KaOapooTaTOV hiiei Kol e^ovpelTai, to he Tra^v- 
TaTOV Koi OoXooheaTUTOv av<TTpe<^eTai Kal auuirri- 
yvvTaL. Kol ■*■ TO pbev irpoiTOv /.iiKpov, eireiTa he 
fie^ov yiveTai. KvXivhev jxevov yap inro tov oupov, 
6 Ti dv (TVVLcrTtjTat, Trayy, avvapp.o'C^eL irpu^ ecovTO, 
Kal ovTux; av^sTat re kuI TrwpovTar Kal oKOTav 

OVpf}, TrpO? TOV (TTOpiay^OV TrfS KVaTlQ<i TTpOaTTlTTTei 

VTTO TOV ovpov /Sia^ofxevov Kal KcoXvei ovpelv Kal 
40 ohvvrjv Trapeze; la'^v pi'-jv (octt€ Ta alhola Tpi/3ovai 
Kal ekKOvai Ta iraihia tcl XtOiMVTa- hoKel yap 
auTot? TO a'iTiov eviavOa elvai tj}? ovprj(Tio<;. '^ 
T€Kfn]piov he, otl ovtw; e-^ei- to yap ovpov 
XapurpoTaTOv ovpeovaiv oi Xi0iwvTe<;, otl to 
'Ka-)(yTaTov Kal OoXwheaTaTov avTov /nevet Kal 
(TVcrTpe(f)eTai. Ta fiev irXelaTa ovtco XlOlS,' 
yiveTai he iraialv Kal aTrb tov ydXaKT0<;, fjv fir) 
vyirjpov fi, dXXa 9epp.ov re Xniv Kal ^oXcoSe?. 
T't]V yap K0iXi7]v hiaOepfiaLvet Kal t)]V KvaTiv, 
50 cocrre to ovpov avyKaiop^evov Tavra 7rao"^eiJ^. /cat 
c})r]p,i dfieivov elvai T0i<i iraihioLai tov olvov co? 
vhapecTTaTOV hilovar rjacrov yap Ta? cpXe/Sa^ 
avyKaiei Kal avvavalvei. Tolai he OrjXecn XiOoi 
ov yivovTai o/xoLWi' o yap ovptjTtjp /3paxv'i eaTiv 
T/79 KvaTio<i Kal evpvi, waTe ^id^eaOai to ovpov 
/3>;iStfo?. ovTe yap t^ X^''P'' ''"P'^/^ef to alholov 
96 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, ix. 

solid matter forms in their bladder. But feverishness 
of the bowels must be accompanied by feverish- 
ness of the bladder. For when it is abnormally 
hetited its mouth is inflamed. In this condition it 
does not expel the urine, but concocts and heats it 
within itself. The finest part is separated off, and 
the clearest passes out as urine, while the thickest 
and muddiest part forms solid matter, which, though 
at first small, grows in course of time. For as it rolls 
about in the urine it coalesces with whatever solid 
matter forms, and so it grows and hardens. When 
the patient makes water, it is forced by the urine to 
fall against the mouth of the bladder, and staying 
the flow of the urine causes violent pain. So that 
boys that suffer from stone rub and pull at their 
privy parts, under the impression that there lies the 
cause of their making water. ^ That my account is 
correct is shown by the fact that sufferers from stone 
emit urine that is very clear, as the thickest and 
muddiest part of it remains and solidifies. This in 
most cases is the cause of stone. Children get stone 
also from the milk, if it be unhealthy, too hot and 
bilious. For it heats the bowels and the bladder, 
so that the urine is heated and affected as I have 
described. And my opinion is that we should give 
to young children only very diluted wine, which 
heats and parches the veins less. Females suffer 
less from stone. For their urethra is short and 
broad, so that the urine is easily e.xpelled. Nor do 
they rub the privy parts as do males, nor handle the 

^ Coray's emendation would mean, " the cause of the 
stoppage," an attractive alteration. 

' Koi added by ^Vilamowitz. 

* Coray would insert uI/k before ovpr]a-ios. 

97 



HEPI AEPHN YAATi^N TOnON 

wairep to apaev, oure UTrreTat- rov oupr]Tf]po<;' e? 
ryap ra alSola ^vi'TiTpr]vrai, ol he avhpe<i ovk 
evdv reTptjVTat, koL Siort ol ovprjrrjpe^ ovk evpeh' 

60 Kal TTLVOvai TrXelov rj ol rralZe^. 

X. Wept fiev ovv tovtwv oihe e^et rj on toutcov 
iryryvrara. irepl 8e roiv copecov coSe av Ti? evOvjjbev- 
fievo'i Stayivcoa-Koi, okoIov tl /xeXkei eaeadat to 
eT09, etre voaepov eiVe vyii]p6i'' rjv [xev yap kutu 
\6yov y€V')]Tai to, ar^pbela ivl rot? ciaTpoiac 
hvvoval re /cat eTTiTeWovaiv, eu re tw p^eToircopo) 
vSuTU yevi]Tai, kuI o '^ei/xcov pueTpio^i fcal pn^Te 
\lriv 6uSio9 /x';Te virep/SdWcov rov Kaipov t&) 
'\lrv)(^eL, ev re tw rjpi vSuTa yevrjTac wpala Kal iv 

10 T(h Oepec, ovTco to €ro<i uyieLvoTaTOV etVo? elvai. 
rjv Se 6 p,ev ■)(ei[uini avyp.rjpb<; kuI /36peio^ yevijrai, 
TO he Tjp eTro/.i,8pov Kal votiov, avdyKT] to 6epo<i 
7rvpeT(bSe<; ylveaOai Kal 6(f)0a\p^ia<i Kal hvaev- 
repta? ep.Troielv. okotuv yap to irvlyo^ emyevriTat 
€^al(f)V)j<i T?}? Te 71}? vypi)^ eoi/o"?;? vtto tmv op,/3pa)v 
TMV eapivcbv Kal vtto rov votov, dvdyKrj SirrXoov 
TO Kavfia elvai, diro re rr}? yP]<; 8ia^p6)(^ov eovaT)<i 
Kal depixr)^ Kal vtto tov i)\lov KaiovTO<;, twv Te 
koiXlwv prj avveaTrjKVLOiv roi? dv6pw7T0L<i /jujre 

20 Tou eyK€(j)dXov dv6^r)paa-p,evou — oi) yap olov Te 
TOV rjpo^ TOLOVTOV iovTOS fir) ov TrXaSdv to aoijxa 
Kal Trjv adpKa — • ware tou? Trvp6Tov<i iTnTmrreiv 
ofi'TaToi'9 diraatv, p.dXtaTa oe Totac cf)Xeyp.aTir)ai. 
Kal hvaevTepia^ elKo<i ecrri ylveaOai Kal rfjai 
yvrai^l Kal TOL<i e'lSecn roi? vypoTaTOKri. Kal "rjv 
p.ei> errl Kvvo<i eTTiToXf] vhcop eTnyevqTai Kal x^i/xwv 
Kal ol eTTjalai, irvevaoyaiv, cXttI^ TravaaaOai koI 
TO /J,eT OTTO) pov vycTjpov yeveadai' r/v he f.u}, kIv- 
98 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, ix.-x. 

urethra. For it opens direct!}' into the privy parts, 
which is not so with males, nor is their urethra wide. 
And they drink more than boys do. 

X. This, or something very hke this, is the truth 
concerning these matters. As to the seasons, a 
consideration of the following points will make it 
possible to decide whether the year will prove 
unhealthy or healthy. If the signs prove normal 
when the stars set and rise ; if there be rains in 
autumn, if the winter be moderate, neither too mild 
nor unseasonably cold, and if the rains be seasonable 
in spring and in summer, the year is likely to be 
very healthy. If, on the other hand, the winter 
prove dry and northerly, the spring rainy and 
southerly, the summer cannot fail to be fever- 
laden, causing ophthalmia and dysenteries. For 
whenever the great heat comes on suddenly while 
the earth is soaked by reason of the sjiring rains 
and the south wind, the heat cannot fail to be 
doubled, coming from the hot, sodden earth and 
the burning sun ; men's bowels not being braced 
nor their brain dried — for when spring is such 
the body and its flesh must necessarily be flabby — 
the fevers that attack are of the acutest ty})e in 
all cases, especially among the phlegmatic. Dysen- 
teries are also likely to come u})on women and 
the most humid constitutions. If at the rising 
of the Dog Star stormy rain occurs and the 
Etesian winds blow, there is hope that the dis- 
tempers will cease and that the autumn will be 
healthy. Otherwise there is danger lest deaths 

99 



nEPI AEPHN TAATON TOnON 

Svuo<i OavdTOV<i T6 <yeve.(T6aL rolai iraihioLcri Kat, 

30 rfjat 'yvvat^LV, rotat Se Trpea^vrrjatv ^]Ki(TTa, Tov<i 
T€ 7re pi, jevo/j,evov<; e? rerapraiov^ uiroTeXevTav 
Koi eK Tcov rerapraicov e<? vSpcoTTw;. r>v B 6 jjuev 
■^ei/xoov voTLo^ yivy]Tat koL eTrop./3po^ kuI eu8io^, 
TO 8e rjp ^opeiov re kol av)(^p,yp6v teal ■)(^€ip.epiov, 
irpoiTOV puev ra? '^/vvaiKa'i, OKoaac av TV)((t)aiv iv 
yaarpl €)(pvaai kol q r6K0<i avrfjcrtv r) iTpo<i to 
rjp, eKTirpuxTKeaBai,' o/coaai 5' ai> Kal reKaaiv, 
cLKparea ra TraiSca riKreiv Kal voaooSea, ware rj 
avTLKa cLTroWvcrOaL, rj ^axri XeTTTo, re iovra Kal 

40 aaOevea kol voacohea. ravra fxev rfjcri yvvai^L' 
Toiat Se \oLiTolcn hvaevTepla'^ Kal o(pdaXpiia<i 
^rjpa'i Kal ivioiai Karappoovi airo tj}? KecpaXiji; 
iirl rbv irvevp-ova. rolat p,ev ovv (fiXeyparirjai 
Ta<i SvaevTcpla^ et/co? ylveaOai Kal rfjat yvvai^l 
(f>Xiy/xaro^ eitLKaTappvevro'i airo rod iyK€(f)dXov 
Sia rrjv vyp6ry]ra ri]<; <pvcno<;' roicri Se ■)(oXaihea'Lv 
6(f)daXixia<; ^y]pd<; Std rrjv deppiorrjTa Kal ^rjporrjra 
T^9 crapKo^' Tolai Be Trpecr^vT-rjai Karappoov^ hia 
rrjv dpaiorrira Kal rrjv eKrrj^iv ro)v (f)Xej3o)i', 

50 Mcrre i^aL(f)V7]'; rov^ puev cnroXXvaOai, rov^ Se 
TTapairXi'] KT ov^ ylveoOat ra he^Lci rj ra dpcarepd. 
OKorav yap rod ')(eip-o)vo<i euvro'; vonov Kal dep/xov 
rod au>p,aro<; /xt] avviartjrai 6 eyKe(f)aXo'i /x?;Se 
ai (pXe/Se^, rov r]po<i emyevopevov jSopelov Kal 
auy^pLrjpov Kal y^vy^pov 6 eyKe^aXa, oTrrjvLKa 
avrov eScL dpLa Kal^ rS) rjpt SiaXveaOai Kal KaOai- 
pecrOai vtto re Kopv^i]<; Kal ^pdy^^cov, rr/uLKavra 
Tnjyvvrai re Kal avmararai, Mcrre i^alcpi'rjfi rov 
6epeo<i eTTiyevofxevov Kal rov Kav/iaro^; Kal rrj^ 

60 /Ji€ra/3oXrj<; i7riyLvo/u,ev7]<i ravra rd voaevfiara 

lOO 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, x. 

occur among tlie women and children, and least 
of all among the old men; and lest those that get 
better lapse into quartans, and from quartans into 
dropsies. But if the winter be southerly, rainy and 
mild, and the spring be northerly, dry and wintry, 
in the first place women with child whose delivery 
is due by spring suffer abortion ; and if they do 
bring forth^ their children are weak and sickly, 
so that either they die at once, or live puny, weak 
and sickly. Such is the fate of the women. The 
others have dysenteries and dry ophthalmia, and 
in some cases catarrhs descend from the head to 
the lungs. Phlegmatics are liable to dysenteries, 
and women also, phlegm running down from the 
brain because of the humidity of their constitution. 
The bilious have dry ophthalmia because of the 
warm dryness of their flesh. Old men have catarrhs 
because of their flabbiness and the wasting of their 
veins, so that some die suddenly, while others 
become paralyzed on the right side or the left. For 
whenever, owing to the winter being southerly 
and the body warm, neither brain nor veins are 
hardened, a northerly, dry, cold spring supervening 
the brain, just at the time when it ought to have been 
relaxed along with spring and purged by cold in the 
head and hoarseness, congeals and hardens, so that 
the heat of summer having suddenly supervened and 
the change supervening, these diseases befall. Such 



' Kal added by Coray. 

loi 



nEPI AEPHN TAATQN TOnON 

iTrnrLTneiv. koX oKoaai /u,ev rojv ttoXlcov Keovrai 
T6 KoXoi^ Tov 7]\iov KoX Twv TTveufiaTuiv vBuaL re 
ypeovrai djaOotaip, avrai fi€V rjaaov aiaddvovrai 
TMV roiovTOiv /Jb€Ta/3o\€0)V OKoaai he vSaai re 
eXeioiai y^peovTat fcal XifivcoSeat Keovrai re fii] 
/caXw? rciyv Trvevfidrwv koX rov rj\iov, avrai oe 
fxdWov. K})v /xev ro Oepo<i avxp^vpov ^ev^]raL, 
ddaaov iravovraL at voucror rjv 8e e7ro/x/3pov, 
■KoXvy^povioi yivovrat' koX (f)ajeBaiva<i KivBvvo'i 

70 eyytveaOai diro irdcn]^ iTpo(j)daio<;, rjv eA,«:o? ey- 
<yei't]rai,. koL \eievrepiai kol vSpco7re<i reXeuTMai 
rolcn voaevfxaaiv eirtyiVOvraL' ov yap aTTO^rjpai- 
vovrai at Kotkiai pijlSico';. rjv he ro 6epo<; eirofi- 
^pov yevrjrai koI voriov /cal ro jxeroircopov, rov ^ 
■)(€ipLwva dvdyKT) vocrepov elvat, koI rol^ (pXey- 
fiarlrjat Kal rot<i yepairepoiai reaaapciKOvra 
ereoav Kavaov<; ylveaOat, ecKO'i, rolat he ^oXcooecrt 
ifKev pir iha<; koI 7Tepc7rvev/xovLa<;. rjv he ro depo^ 
av)(^p,iipov yevy-jrai kol ^opeiov, ro he /xeroTrcopov 

80 eirofi^pov koI voriov, Ke(pa\a\.yia^ e? rov ')(eifjLO)va 
Kal (T(paKe\ov<; rov eyKec^dXov elK0<; yiveadai, 
Kal TTpoa-eri /Spdyxov^ Kal Kopv^a<; Kal /Syxct^, 
evLOiat he Kal (^Oiaia^. i)v he jSopeiov re fj Kat 
dvvhpov Kal /xr'jre viro Kvvd eiro/x^pov fxi'ire eiri 
rSi dpKrovpw, rolai fxev (pXey/Manrjai cpvaei 
(Tv/x(f)ep€i jxdXiara Kal rol^ vypoi<i ra<i (^v(TLa<i 
Kal rfjai yvvai^i' rolai he ypXciioeai rovro 
TToXe/uLicorarov yiverat,. Xirjv yap dva^rjpaivovrai 
Kal 6(p6aX/jLiai avrotcriv eTTLyivovrai ^r/pai, Kal 

90 rrvperol o^ee? Kal TToXvypovioi, evloiat he Kal 
fxeXayxoXtaL. tj}? yap XoXt}? to p,€v uyporarov 
Kai vhapeararov dva^ripaiverai Kal dvaXtaKerac, 
IQ2 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, x. 

cities as are well situated with rcujard to sun and 
winds, and use good waters, are less affected by such 
changes ; but if they use marshy or standing waters, 
and are not well situated with regard to winds and 
sun, they are more atfected. If the summer prove 
dry, the diseases cease more quickly ; if it be rainy, 
they are protracted. Sores are apt to fester from the 
slightest cause. Lienteries and dropsies supervene 
on the conclusion of the diseases, as the bowels do 
not readily dry uji. If the sunmier and the autumn 
be rainy and southerly, the winter must be un- 
healthy ; phlegmatics and men over forty are likely 
to suffer from ardent fevers, bilious people from 
pleurisy and pneumonia. If the summer prove dry 
and northerly, and the autumn rainy and southerly, 
it is likely that in winter headaches occur and 
mortifications of the brain, ^ and in addition hoarseness, 
colds in the head, coughs, and in some cases con- 
sumption as well. But if the weather be northerly 
and dry, with no rain either during the Dog Star or 
at Arcturus, it is very beneficial to those who have 
a phlegmatic or humid constitution, and to women, 
but it is very harmful to the bilious. For these dry 
up overmuch, and are attacked by dry ophthalmia 
and by acute, protracted fevers, in some cases too 
by melancholies. For the most humid and watery 
part of the bile is dried up and is spent, while the 

' See Littre V. 581 foil. 

1 T^i' added by Wilaniowitz. 

103 



HEPI AEPnN YAATQN TOnON 

TO 8e TTayvTarov koi ZpLjjLvrarov XeiTrerai /cal 
rov a'ifiaTO^ Kara rov avrov Xoyov a^' a)v ravTa 
TO, voaev/aara avTolai ytverai. rolai oe (bXej- 
fxaTitjai TTc'ivra raura apcoyd ecrriv. aTro^tjpauvov- 
rai yap kuI e? rov -^ec/jLcova dcf)iKV€OVTai ov 
98 7r\aScopT€<;, dXka dva^ijpatvofievoi. 

XI. Kara ravTo, Ti<? ivvoevpievo<i koX crKoirev- 
/ji€VO<i TrpoeiSelrj dv ra irXelaTa tmv peWoPTcov 
eaeadai drro tmv pLeral^oXewv. cf)v\daa€adai 8e 
'y^prj pdXiara ra? fieTa^oXd^ tmv (hpecov ra? 
fi€yi,ara<; koI /nj'jre cf)dp/jiaKOv hihovai eKovra fxy']T€ 
KaleLv 6 TL i<i KoiXiyv //j;Te rdfiveiv, irplv irap- 
eXduxTiv -qfjuepai heKa rj /cat TrXe'iove<;- pbeyiarai, 
he elcTLV athe al Te(Taape<i ^ koX eTriKtvhvvoTaTai' 
'f)Xiov rpoTral d/xcporepai kol fidXXov at depival 

10 Kul al larjixepiai vo/ni^opevat eivai ap<f)OTepai,, 
fidXXov Se al fxeTOTrcopLvai' Set Be /cal tmv daTpwv 
Ta? eTTLToXd'i (f)vXd(Taea6at /cal pdXiaTa tov 
Kvva<;, eTreiTa dp/cTovpov, Kal gti TrXTjidScov Svaiv. 
Ta T€ yap rocrevpaTa p,dXiaTa ev TavTrjcn Trjaiv 
r]pepr](jiv KpiveTat. Kal to, pev diTO(^diveL, tcl he 
Xrjyec, Ta 8e dXXa irdvTa p-ediaTaTau is eTepov 

n elhos Kal CTeprjv KaTacTTaaiv. 

XII. Ilept p.ev TOVTCov ovtms ^'%e«. /3ovXopai 
he irepl t>]<; 'Ao-it;? Kal t?}? EiypcoTT?;? hei^ai 
OKoaov hia(p6povaiv dXXj'jXcov e? Ta iravTa Kai Trept 
TOiv idvecov T?}? pop(f)Pj^, oTi hiaXXaaaei Kal prj- 
hev eoiKev dXXi'jXoLaLV. irepl pev ovv dirdvTcov 
TToA-u? dv ehi X6yo<;, irepl he tmv pueylaTMv Kal 
irXelaTOv hia(jiep6vTMV ipeM cu? poi hoKeiexeiv. ttjv 
^A(Ti-)]v irXelcTTOv hia^epeiv (f)'t]pl t?}? EupMirrj^; 



104 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, x.-xii. 

thickest and most aci-id part is left, and similarly 
with the blood. Consequently these diseases come 
upon them. But all these conditions are helpful to 
the phlegmatic, for tliey dry up and reach winter 
dried up and not flabby. 

XI. By studying and observing after this fashion 
one may foresee most of the consequences of the 
changes. One should be especially on one's guard 
against the most violent changes of the seasons, and 
unless compelled one should neither purge, nor 
apply cautery or knife to the bowels, before at least 
ten days are past. The following are the four most 
violent changes and the most dangerous : — both 
solstices, especially the summer solstice, both the 
equinoxes, so reckoned, especially the autumnal. 
One must also guard against the risings of the stars, 
especially of the Dog Star, then of Arcturus, and also 
of the setting of the Pleiades. For it is especially 
at these times that diseases come to a crisis. Some 
prove fatal, some come to an end, all others change 
to another form and another constitution. 

XII. So much for the changes of the seasons. 
Now I intend to compare Asia ^ and Europe, and 
to show how they ditl'er in every respect, and how 
the nations of the one dider entirely in physique 
from those of the other. It would take too long to 
describe them all, so I will set forth my views about 
the most important and the greatest differences. I 
hold that Asia differs very widely from Europe in the 

^ That is, Asia Minor. 



■• Hi5e al Tfrrirap^s Kiihlewein : al Ttiraapfs JB : cl 5e'\-a V : 
aVSe Kal iiriKivTivvoTaTaL Coiay and Littre, perhaps riglitlx'. 

i°5 



r 



nEPI AEPi^N TAATDN TOnQN 

e? Ta<; <pvcria<i tmv av/xTravTOiv tmp re e/c t;')s 

10 jr]<; (f)VOf.ievcov kciI tmv dvOpooircov. ttoXv 'yap 
KaWiova koI fie^opa Trdpra jLverai iv rfj AaLrj, 
Tj re X'^P^ '^V'i X<^/5^/9 rjfiepcorepr] koX ra ijOea 
TMV uvO pwTToov yjTTicorepa koI evopyTjTorepa. to 
Se alriov tovtcov i) KprjaL'i tmv Mpewv, on tov 
rjXiov iv fieaM tcoi' dvuToXeMV Kelrat Trpo<i TrjV 
r}M TOV re -^^v^pov TToppMTepM. TrjV he av^iicnv 
Koi yfLeporijTa 7ra/3e%et irXelaTOV diravTMV, oko- 
rav pySev 77 eTri/cpaTeov /BiaLM^;, dXXa Traf to? tcro- 
/jLoiply BvvaaTeur}. e^ei Se Kara TTjv^Aaujvou irav- 

20 Taxfl 6poiM<;, dXX' oar] fiev t?}? X^PV^ ^^ fiiaw kcI- 
TUi TOV Oeppov KoX TOV yfrvxpov, avTi] fiev evKap- 
TTOTarii i(7T\ Kol evSevhpoTaTr] Koi evZieaTaTT) 
Kol vSaai KaWiaroiai KexP^Tcii. Tolai t€ ovpavi- 
oiai /cal T049 €K T?}? 77}?. 0VT6 yap vtto tov 
deppov eKKCKavTOL Xn^v ovre vtto avxp^v Kai 
dvvSpLi]<; dva^tjpaiverai, ovtc vtto '^v-)(^eo<; j3e- 
jBiaapevi] ovtg vorla re Kal Sid^poxo^ ccttiv vtto 
re op^^pMV ttoXXmv Kal ;y'oz'09" rd re utpala 
avTodi. TToXXd eLKo<; jiveadai, oKocra re airo 

30 crTTeppaTMV Kal OKoaa avTr/ rj ji] dvaSLSol (fiVTU, 
MV TOi<i Kapirolcn XP^^'^'^^^ avQpMiroL, r}pepovvTe<; 
i^ djpLMV Kal e? eirLrySeiov p€Ta(f)VT6V0VT€<;' rd 
T€ €VTp€(p6fi,€va KTi']vea evOijvelv €iKo<;, Kat p.a- 
Xt(TTa TiKTCiv Te TrvKvoTUTa Kal eKTpecpeiv KaX- 
XiaTa' Toy? re di'6pd)7rov<; €vTpaypea(; elvai Kal 
TO, elSea KaXXlaTov; Kal fieyeOei p,6yiaT0v<; Kat 
ijKiaTU Biacpopov^ e? xa re etSea avTMV Kal to. 
peyeOea- eIko^ tg ti]V x^PV^ TavTrjv tov rjpo'i 
iyyvraTa elvai kutcl ttjv (f)vaiv Kal ttjv perpi- 

40 oTTjra tmv oopaov. to Be dvSpelov Kal to TaXal- 
106 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, xii. 

nature of all its inhabitants and of all its vegetation. 
For everything in Asia grows to far greater beauty 
and size ; the one region is less wild than the other, 
the character of the inhabitants is milder and more 
gentle. The cause of this is the temperate climate, 
because it lies towards the east midway between 
the risings ^ of the sun, and farther away than is 
Europe from the cold. Growth and freedom from 
wildness are most fostered when nothing is forcibly 
predominant, but equality in every respect prevails. 
Asia, however, is not everywhere uniform ; the 
region, however, situated midway between the heat 
and the cold is very fruitful, very wooded and very 
mild ; it has splendid water, whether from rain or 
from springs. While it is not burnt up with the 
heat nor dried uj) by drought and want of water, it is 
not oppressed with cold, nor yet damp and wet with 
excessive rains and snow. Here the harvests are 
likely to be plentiful, both those from seed and those 
which the earth bestows of her own accord, the 
fruit of which men use, turning wild to cultivated 
and transplanting them to a suitable soil. The 
cattle too reared there are likely to flourish, and 
especially to bring forth the sturdiest young and 
rear them to be very fine creatui'es.^ The men 
will be well nourished, of very fine physique and 
very tall, differing from one another but little either 
in physique or stature. This region, both in char- 
acter and in the mildness of its seasons, might fairly 
be said to bear a close resemblance to spring 

^ That is, the winter rising and the summer rising. 
2 Or, if TTuKi'oTaTa .and KaWiara be adverbs, "they are very 
prolific and the best of mothers." 

107 



HEPI AEPCIN YAATON TOHDN 

TToypov ■'• Kol TO e/jLTTOvov Kol TO dv/xoeiSe^ ovK av 
hvvano iv Totavrr] cfyvaei iyycveaOai ovre^ ofio- 
<fiv\ou 0VT6 ^ aWo<pv\ov, dWa rrjv 7]8ov7]v dvajKr] 
Kparelv Sloti TTo\v[jbop(pa ylverai ra iv 

45 T049 6'?7ptot9. 

XIII. Hepl p,ev ovv AiyvTTTLwv real Ai/Svcov 
ovro)<; ex^iv poi SoKel. rrepl he to)v ev he^ifj rod 
rjXiov TOiv dvuToXecov rcov Oepivcov ^ //,e^/7i Mafco- 
TiSo9 \i/jLVT]<; — ovTO<i yap 6po<i Tr]<; Eu/awTr^/? Kal 
tt}? 'Acrt?;? — oiBe e'^ei irepl avTcov to. Se eOvea 
ravTU TavTT] ^ Sidcpopa avra ecovTwv pdWov iari 
roiv TrpoSirjytjpevcov Sid rd'; peza^oXdt; rSiv 
u>peu)V Kal rf]<i t^co/3?;? r}]V (f)vaiv. ex^i- Se Kal 
Kara ttjv yrjv 6/JLoio)<i direp Kal Kara toi)? a'A.Xoi'? 

10 dv9pd>irov<i. okov yap at oipai peyL(Tra<; p,€Ta~ 
/9oXa9 TToieovTai Kal TrvKVOTdra'^, eKet Kal rj 
X^Pl dypioordry] Kal dvcop^aXoirdrr) iarc, Kal 
€vp7]aeL<i opea re TrXetara Kal Sdaea Kal TreSla 
Kal \€i,p,a)va<; e6vra<;. okov he at oypai pr) peya 
dWdacTOvcTLV, eKeivot<i rj X^PV o/^dXcordTij earlv. 
ovrco he e-)(ei Kal irepl tmp dvOpdyircov, et Tt? 
^ovXerai evOvpeladai. elcn yap (f)vaie<; al pev 
dpecriv ioiKvlat hevhpcoheai re Kal e(f)vhpoiaiv, al 
he XeTrrolal re Kal dvvhpoi'^, al he \eipaKecrrepoL<i 

20 Te Kal eXcohecrt,, al he irehLO) re Kal ylnXfj Kal 
^VPV JV- ^^ y^P ^P^i- ^'^ peraWdacrovaai rrj<i 
pbop^r}<; rrjv ^vcriv ^ elal hid(f)opoL. rjv he 

^ raXalnapov Littr6 : a.Ta\a'nro:pov MSS. 

" ovrt oi/TE Littr6 from Galen's qaotation : /x-fiTf 

ix-fire MSS. 

* Tciv 9eptva>v Coray : rwv xetjtfp"'^'' most MSS. : omitted 
by as. 

■■ 1 1 is probable that either ravTu or raint) should be deleted. 

lo8 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, xii.-xm. 

Courage, endurance, industry and high spirit could 
not arise in such conditions either among the 
natives or among immigrants/ but pleasure must 
be supreme . . .^ wherefoi'e in the beasts they are 
of many shapes. 

XIII. Such in my opinion is the condition of the 
Egyptians and Libyans. As to the dwellers on the 
right of the summer risings of the sun up to Lake 
Maeotis, which is the boundary between Europe 
and Asia, their condition is as follows. These 
nations are less homogeneous than those I have 
described, because of the changes of the seasons 
and the character of the resrion. The land is 
affected by them exactly as human beings in 
general are affected. For where the seasons ex- 
perience the most violent and the most frequent 
changes,^ the land too is very wild and very uneven ; 
you will find there many wooded mountains, plains 
and meadows. But where the seasons do not alter 
much, the land is very even. So it is too Avith the 
inhabitants, if you will examine the matter. Some 
physiques resemble wooded, well-watered mountains, 
others light, dry land, others marshy meadows, 
others a plain of bare, parched earth. For the 
seasons which modify a physical frame differ ; if the 

^ The writer is thinking of Asiatic natives and the Greek 
colonists on the coast of Asia Minor. 

^ There is a gap in the text here dealing with the Egyptians 
and Libyans. 

- Or, more idiomatically, "the variations of climate are 
most violent and most frequent." The four changes at the 
end of the four seasons were only the most important of 
many /ueraffoXai. See Chapter XI, and pp. 68, 69. 

* There is probably a gap in the text after (pvffiv. 

109 



nEPI AEPnN TAATHN TOHf^N 

Bid(f)opoL ewai fie^a ^ a(j)ea)v avrewv, Siacjiopal 

24 Kal vrXetoye? yivovrat rot's ecSeat. 

XIV. Kal oKoaa fiev oXlyov Sia(j)epet tmv 
iOverov TrapaXeL^jru), oKoaa he fjieydXa rj (j)vaei 
i) v6/j,(p, ipeo) irepl avrojv co? ^X^'" '^^'' '^pf^'^ov 
irepl TMV yiaKpoKe<^d\(i)v. rovrwv <ydp ovk eariv 
dXXo e9vo<; 6/-iOLa<i Ta<i /<-e(f)aXd<; e^ov ovhev' rrjv 
fiev yap ap^yjv o v6[io<^ alTLC0TaT0<i iyevero rov 
/x.r;«609 T?}9 Ke(f)aXrj<i, vvv he Kal ?} (puai'i <ruft- 
^dXXeTac rw vopw. TOv<i yap fiaKpoTdniv e^ov- 
ra? Tr]v Ke(f)aXi]v yevvaiordrov^ I'lyeovraL. e^^t 

10 he TTepl vopLOV whe' to iraihiov OKOTav yevrjraL 
rd)(iaTa, rrjv Ke(^a\i]V avrov en diraXijv eovcrav 
jxaXOaKov eovro^ dvairXdaaovcri rfjai X'^pal Kal 
avayKu^ovaiv e? to fxiJKO'i av^eaOui hea/jbd re 
7Tpo(T(j)€povr€(; Kal rexi"jp<3-ra eirtr/jheia, u(^' mv 
ro /xev a(f)atpn6ihe<; t/}9 /Cfc^aX;"}? KaKOvrai, ro 
he fXTjKO^ av^erai. ourcof; rijv dpxv^ o vo/j,o<; 
Kareipydaaro, ware vtto ^irj^ roiaurrjv rrjv (pvaiv 
yeveadat' rov he xpovov 7rpo'i6vro<i ev (f)V(Tei eyi- 
vero, oicrre rov ropov pTjKeri, dvayKa^eiv. o yap 

20 y6vo<i rravrax^Oev epx^TCit rov ad)paro<i, drro re 
T&jj' vyL7]pcov vyirjpo<i drro re rwv voaepcov voaepo^. 
el ovv yivovrai ck re <^aXaKpo)v (paXuKpol Kal 
eK yXavKoiv yXavKol Kal eK hiearpap^pevcov arpe- 
^Xol &)? em TO rrXrj0o<;, Kal rrepl ri)^ dXXi}<i 
pop(f)i)<i avro<; X0709, n KcoXvei Kai e'/c fiaKpo- 
Ke(j)dXov paKpoKecpaXov yivecrOai. ; vvv he opoiw^ 
ovKeri yivovrai co? rrporepov yap vopo'i ovKert 

28 lax^ei hia rrjv 6piX[7]v rwv dvOpcoTTcov. 

1 /LLsya Coray : yuera MSS. 

no 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, xm.-xiv. 

differences be great, the more too are the differences 
in the shapes. , 

XTV. Tiie races that differ but httle from one '/" 
another I will omit, and describe the condition only 
of those which differ greatly, whether it be through 
nature or through custom. I will begin with the 
Longheads.^ There is no other race at all with 
heads like theirs. Originally custom was chiefly re- 
sponsible for the length of the head, but now custom 
is reinforced by nature. Those that have the 
longest heads they consider the noblest, and their 
custom is as follows. As soon as a child is born 
they remodel its head with their hands, while it 
is still soft and the body tender, and force it to 
increase in length by applying bandages and suit- 
able appliances, which spoil the roundness of the 
head and increase its length. Custom originally so 
acted that through force such a nature came into 
being ; but as time went on the process became 
natural, so that custom no longer exercised com- 
pulsion. For the seed comes from all parts of the ^ 
body, healthy seed from healthy parts, diseased seed 
from diseased parts. If, therefore, bald parents have 
for the most part bald children, grey-eyed parents 
grey-eyed children, squinting parents squinting 
cliildren, and so on with other physical peculiarities, 
what prevents a long-headed parent having a long- 
headed child ? ^ At the present time long-headedness 
is less common tlian it was, for owing to intercourse 
with other men the custom is less prevalent. 

^ Practically nothing more is told us about this race bv 
our other authorities, riiny, Harpociation and Suidas. But 
see Litlre IV., xi. and xii. 

'^ Modern biologists hold that acquired cluuacteristics are 
not inherited. 

I 1 1 



r 



nEPI AEPHN TAATaN TOnQN 

XV. Hepl fiev ovv tovtcov oi/t&)9 €j(^eLv jxol 
SoKel. irepl he tmv iv ^daer i) x^PV eVetV?; 
6X,a)S>7? e'cTTt Kal Oepfxr] Kal vhareivrj koI Saaeca, 
o/jL^pot re avToOi 'jivovrat iraaav iopyjv iroWoi 
re Kal laxypoi- ?/ re hiatra tol<; avdpcoiroi'i iv 
TOt? eXecrlv iariv, to, re OLKi^/xara ^vXiva Kai 
Ka\d/jLtva ev Tot9 vSacn /x6p,r}'XCiV7]fieva' oXiyr) 
re ^/seoz^rat ^ ^ahiaet Kara ti]v ttoXlv Kai to 
i/xTTopiov, aXXd /jLovo^u\oi<i SiairXeovcnv avco Kai 

10 KCLTW 8i(t}pvye<; yap TroWal elcri. ra oe vZara 
Oepjxa Kal ardaipa TTivovaiv vtto re rod tjXlov 
ai-jTrofieva Kal vtto tcov 6/.i^pu)v eTrav^o/Jieva. 
avTo^; re o ^dai,<; aTaaifi(t)Taro<; Travrcov rcov 
TTora/xayv Kal pecov rjiricorara. o'i re Kapiroi oi 
yivofxevoi avroOi rrdvre^ dvaXSea eicrt Kai re- 
6r]\v(Tfievoi Kal dreXee's vtto 7ToXv7TX7]0eLT]<; rod 
vharo'i' Sio Kal ov ireTraivovrai. rji-jp re rroXvq 
Karexet rrjv y^Mpiqv drro rcov uBdrcov. 8ia ravra^ 
Br] ra? 7rpo(pdcna<; rd e'lBea dirrfSXayixeva rcov 

20 XoiirSiV dv6 pcarroiv exovaiv ol ^a(Tn]vob- ra re 
yap jjLeyedea fxeydXoi, rd rrdx^CL S' uTrepirdxV'^^'i) 
dpOpov re KardhifXov ovhev ovhe (pXe^' ri-jv re 
Xpoi'^iv oo^pv^ e^ovatv warrep vrro tKrepov e%o- 
jxevoV (jideyyovrai re ^apvrarov dvdpooTrcov, rw 
Tjepi ^/oecu/i-ei'Of ov Xafnrpo), dXXd vorcooei ^ Kal 
OoXepqy rrp6<i re to raXanrcopelv to ao)/j,a apyo- 
repoi ire^vKaaiv. a'l re wpat ov iroXv fieraXXacr- 
aovcriv ovre tt/jo? to 7rvlyo<i ovre Trpof to y^v)(o<i' 
rd re rrvevp-ara rd * rroXXd voria irXrjv avpT)<; 

30 /jLir]<; emxo^pii'i'i. avrrj he rrvel eviore /3ta;o9 Kal 
XaXeTri] Kal Oep/xiy Kal Keyxpova, ovo/nd^ovai 



112 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, xv. 

XV. These are my oj:)inions about the Longheads. 
Now let me turn to the dwellers on the Phasis. Their 
land is marshy, hot, wet, and wooded ; copious violent 
rains fall there during every season. The inhabitants 
live in the marshes, and their dwellings are of wood 
and reeds, built in the water. They make little use 
of walking in the city and the harbour, but sail 
up and down in dug-outs made from a single log, 
for canals are numerous. The waters vvhicli they 
drink are hot and stagnant, jiutrefied by the sun 
and swollen by the rains. The Phasis itself is the 
most stagnant and most sluggish of all rivers. The 
fruits that grow in this country are all stunted, 
flabby and imperfect, owing to the excess of water, 
and for this reason thev do not rij^en. Much fog 
from the waters envelops the land. For these causes, 
therefore, the physique of the Phasians is different 
from that of other folk. They are tall in stature, 
and of a gross habit of bodv, while neither joint nor 
vein is visible. Their complexion is yellowish, as 
though they suffered from jaundice. Of all men ^j^ 
they have the deepest voice, because the air they 
breathe is not clear, but moist and turbid. They are 
by nature disinclined for physical fatigue. There 
are but slight changes of the seasons, either in 
respect of heat or of cold. The winds are mostly 
moist, except one breeze peculiar to the country, 
called cenchron, which sometimes blows strong, violent 

^ Before jSaStVej Coraj' inserts Tji, probably rightly. 

- 01 added by Coray. 

' voTdobei Kal 0o\fpw b : x^O'^Stt re Kal Siepcf V. 



* TO. added by Coray. 



"3 



nEPI AEPnN YAATQN TOnON 

rovTO TO -TTvevfia. o he /3ope)]^ ov a<f)6Spa acp- 
33 LKvelrat' OKorav Se rrverj, aadevr]<i Kal /3/\7;^po<f. 
XVI. Kai Trepl /:i€v t?}? (f>vaio^ tt}? 8ia(f)op)j<i koL 
T% p,op(f))']<i TMvev rf] Aairj Kal tjj FjvpcoTTr) ovTa)<; 
e'X^ei. Trepl 8e Tr}<i a9vpirj<; tcov dvOpcoTrwp KolTTj'i 
avavSpeiT]^, oti aTToXepLcoTepoi elai tmv Yjupwiraicov 
01 Aai7]i'o\ Kai 't)p,epioTepoL tcl i]6ea al (opai aLTtai 
fiaXiaTa, ov p,eyd\a<; tA? /.leTa/BoXd'i TToievf-ievaL 
ovT€ eirl TO deppov ovTe iirl to yfrvy^pov, dWd 
TTapaTrkrjcriu)'^} ov 'yap '^/lvovtul eK7r\->]^ie<; Trj<i 
•yi'cop.t]'; ovTe p.eTdaTaai<i la-^^vp?] tov crw^aro?, 
10 acf) oTcov eiKO<; ti]v opyrjv dypiavaOal re Kal tov 
ciyv(i)p.ovG<i Kal 6vpLoeiheo<; p.eTe)(eLV p.aWov i) ev 
TO) avT(p ai€L eovTa. ai ydp p6Ta(3o\ai elcri TOiv 
TTavTwv a'l irre'yeipouaai ttjv yvco/u,7]p tmv dv9- 
pa>7rci)v Kal ovk ecoaat aTpepi^eiv. Sid raura? 
ep-ol SoKel Ta^ 7rpo(f)daia<i dva\K€<i elvai to yevo^i 
TO Aairjvov Kal TrpoaeTi Sid tov^ v6p-ov<;. tt}? 
yap Aan]<; Ta TroWa jSnatkeveTai. okov Se p,rj 
avTol kwvTMv elcTL KapTepol ol dvOpcoiroi p.r]Se 
avTovop,oi, dWd SeaTTo^ovTai, ov irepl tovtov 
20 avToloiv Xoyo^y eaTiv, okw^ Ta 7ro\e/.iia daKij- 
aaxTiv, aW 6K0)<f fir) So^wat pd'y^^ip^ot elvai. ol 
yap KivSvvoi oi';^ opoloi eloi. tov<; puh' yap aTpa- 
Teveadai e/«o<? Kal TaXanrcopeiv Kal diroOvrjCTKeiv 
i^ avdyK7]<; inrep tmv SeairoTewv utto t€ TraiSiwv 
Kal yvvaiKo^ i6vTa<i Kal tow Xolttcov ^tXwi/. Kal 
OKoaa piev dv ')(^pr](jTa kclI dvSpela epydaoiVTai, ol 
SeaTTOTat avr' avTcov av^ovTal Te Kal €K(pvovTai, 
Tou? Se KivSvi'Ov; Kal OaiaTnif; avTol KapTrovvTai. 
eTi Se TTpos' TovToiat tmv tolovtcop dvOpcoTToyv 

114 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, xv.-xvi. 

and hot. The north wind rarely blows, and when 
it does it is weak and gentle. 

XVI. So much for the difference, in nature and 
in shape, between the inhabitants of Asia and the 
inhabitants of Europe. With regard to the lack of 
spirit and of courage among the inhabitants, the 
chief reason why Asiatics are less warlike and more 
gentle in character than Europeans is the uniformity 
of the seasons, which show no violent changes either 
towards heat or towards cold, but are equable. For 
there occur no mental shocks nor violent physical 
change, which are more likely to steel the temper 
and impart to it a fierce passion than is a monotonous 
sameness. For it is changes of all things that rouse 
the temper of man and prevent its stagnation. For 
these reasons, I think, Asiatics are feeble. Their 
institutions are a contributory cause, tlie greater 
part of Asia being governed by kings. Now where 
men are not their own masters and independent, 
but are ruled by despots, they are not keen on 
military efficiency but on not appearing warlike. 
For the risks they run are not similar. Subjects 
are likely to be forced to undergo military service, 
fatigue and death, in order to benefit their masters, 
and to be parted from their wives, their children 
and their friends. All their worthy, brave deeds 
merely serve to aggrandize and raise up their lords, 
while the harvest they themselves reap is danger 
and death. Moreover, the land of men like these 

^ Tvapa-n\y)<riws (Jaleu and Littro : TTapanAricriat MSS. 

"5 



HEPI AEP^N TAATHN TOnQN 

30 avdynr) iprj/jLovadac rrjvyi^v vtto re TroXe/xiMV ^ /cat 
apyLr]<i, ware Koi el Tt9 (})V(T6i Tri^v/cev dvBpelo'; koI 
evyjrvxo'i, cLTTOTpeTreaOai rrjv jvco/xtjv vtto ^ roiv 
vofiwv. [xi'ya Be reKfx/jpLov toutcov okoctoi yap 
ev TTJ WaLr]"EWr]V£<; t) /3dp/3apoi, firj Seairo^ov- 
rai, dXk" avTovo/Jiol elai koI ecovTolat, rakanTco- 
pevaiv, ouToi p,axi^f^d)rarol elcn vravTcov rov'i 
yap KLvhvvov<i icovTMV irepi KLvhwevovaL, kuI n"]^ 
dvBpei')]'^ avTol rd adXa ^epovrai. kuI ttj'^ heiXir)^ 
rrjv ^rjfiirjv cbcrauTft)?. evpi]aei<i Se Kal tou? 

40 'Aairjvov^ 8i.a(pepovTa<i avTov<; ewvTcov, Toy? fxh^ 
^€\Tiova<?, T0U9 Se cjiav\oTepov<; e6vTa<i. tovtmv 
8e at jjueTajBoXal ULTiao tmv dtpecov, oiairep fioc 

43 etprjTaL ev rot? irpoTepoiai. 

XVII. Kal TTepl ixev roiV ev rfj 'Aairj ouT(o<i 
e%et. ei^ Be rfj ^vpcoTrrj eariv edvo^ SkuOikov, o 
irepl Trjv Xi/.tvriv olicel rijv Maicoriv Siacpepov rwv 
idvecov rwv dXXwv. '^avpo/xdrac KuXevvrai. rov- 
TQ)V ai yvvaLKe<; LTTTrd^ovTai re Kal To^evovai Kai 
dKOVTL^ovaiv diro tmv iTrirtov Kal fxdxovTai rot? 
TToXefiioi^, eo)? av irapOevoi eroaiv. ouk aTroTrap- 
devevovrai 8e, fiexpi dv tmv iroXe/xicov TpeL<i 
dTTOKTeivcoai, Kal ov irporepov avvoiKeova-LV yirep 

10 rd tepd Ovacacnv rd evvo/xa. i) 3' dv dvhpa ecovrrj 
dptjrac, vaverai iTrTra^ofievrj, ew? dv p,?] dvdyKyj 
KaTaXd/Si] TTayKoivov (npaTeif}^. rov he^tov Se 
/iia^bv ovK exovcrt. Tra^Sioi? yap iouaiv en vrjinoi^ 
al p,r]Tepe<i yaXKiov rerex^fll^^vov eV avrS> rouro) 

1 ep T/j-ovaOai tV JV'' ^tto re iroXe^ioir most MSS. : i]ixfpova6ai 
r^v 6pyi]v Zwinger; Ilberg would also read airoXefj-iSiv ivom 
the d;rj\6/xiaiv of V "SQ- 

ii6 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, xvi.-xvii. 

must be desert, owing to their enemies and to their 
laziness,^ so that even if a naturally brave and 
sj)irited man is born his temper is changed by their 
institutions. Whereof I can give a clear proof. 
All the inhabitants of Asia, whether Greek or 
non-Greek, who are not ruled by despots, but are 
independent, toiling for their own advantage, are 
the most warlike of all men. For it is for their 
own sakes that they run their risks, and in their 
own persons do they receive the prizes of their 
valour as likewise the penalty of their cowardice. 
You will find that Asiatics also differ from one 
another, some being superior, others inferior. The 
reason for this, as 1 have said above, is the changes 
of the seasons. 

XVII. Such is the condition of the inhabitants 
of Asia. And in Europe is a Scythian race, dwell- 
ing round Lake Maeotis, which differs from the other 
races. Their name is Sauromatae. Their women, 
so long as they are virgins, ride, shoot, throw the 
javelin while mounted, and fight with their enemies. 
They do not lay aside their virginity until they have 
killed three of their enemies, and they do not marry 
before they have performed the traditional sacred 
rites. A woman who takes to herself a husband no 
longer rides, unless she is compelled to do so by 
a general expedition. They have no right breast ; 
for while they are yet babies their mothers make 

^ Or, reading T^/xepoiffOai tvjv opy'iji' virS re a.Tro\ep.ia)V k.t.\., 
"the temper of men like these must be gentle, because they 
are unwarlike and inactive." 

* VTru b : oiTru V^ ^. 

117 



HEPI AEPHN TAATJ^JN TOnQN 

BiciTTvpov TTOteovaai Trpo<; rov fia^ov riOeacn tov 
Be^LOv Koi iTTiKaierat, Mare tjjv av^TjcTLv ^Oeipe- 
aOai, e? he rov he^iov oijxov Koi ^pa')(^iova Trdaav 

18 TT]v la'^iiv Kal to rr'X.rjdo'i eKStSovai. 

XVIII. Uepl Se rwv Xolttcov ^KvOeoiv t/}? 
fiopcpi'i'i, on avTol avTolaiv eoLKaat, koX ovSa/M(t)<i ^ 
dWoL^, &)yTO'? Xoyo<i Kal rrepl tcov AlyviTTicoi', 
"rXrjv OTi 01 jxev viro rov Oeppou elcn jBe^iaapevoi, 
ol he UTTO TOV ■\p-v)(^pov. i) he ^Kvdecov eprjfiiT) 
Kokevpevii TTehid^ eari Kal XeipaKcohi]^ Kal ylnXr)" 
Kal ei'vhpo<i /jLerpicoq. Trora/xol yap elai peydXot, 
ot i^ox^erevovcri to vhcop e'/c tcoi/ Trehiwv. evravOa 
Kal ol SKvdac hiairevvrai, No/xaSe? he KaXevvrai, 

10 on ovK eanv oiKi'^para, a)OC ev cipd^rjaLV OLKevaiv. 
a'l he cipa^ai elaiv at pev e\dy(^Larai rerpdKVKXot, 
at he e^dKVKXor avrat he 7rtA.of? 7repL7re(ppay- 
p^evar elal he Kal r6re')(yaapevat oiarrep olKr']para 
ra p,ev hirrXa, ra he rpiirXd. ravra he Kal 
areyva 7rpo<i vhwp Kal 7rpo<; ')(^iova Kal 7rp6<; ra 
TTvevpara. ra? he dp,d^a<i eXKOvcn ^evyea ra? 
p,ev hvo, rd<; he rpia ^omp Kepw<; drep. ov yap 
e^ovai Kepara vtto tov i/ry^eo?. iv ravrrjac p,€v 
ovv rfjai}' apd^rjaw ai ^ yvvalKe<i hiairevvrai. 

20 avrol h' e^' lttttcoii oy^evvrai ol dvhpe^. errovrai 
he avrot<i Kal ra irpo^ara ra^ eovra Kal at ySoe? 
Kal ol Xiriroi. p^euovcrt 8' iv rw avrS) roaovrov 
'^povov, oaov dv drTo-^pfi avrocai rol<i Kr/jveaiv o 
'X^opro'i' oKorav he p.rjKen, e? erep'>]v ')(^copy]v 
ep-xjovraL. avrol S' eaOiovai Kpea e(f)6d Kal 

^ ouSa/iiis MSS. : ouSaytiors Wilamowitz. 
2 ^,;^^ most MSS. : ^-nXri V 35. 
^ at added by Cora v. 

ii8 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, xvii.-xviii. 

red-hot a bronze instrument constructed for this 
very purpose and apply it to the right breast and 
cauterise it, so that its growth is arrested, and all 
its strength and bulk are diverted to the right 
shoulder and right arm. 

XVIII. As to the physique of the other Scythians, 
in that they are like one another and not at all like 
others, the same remark applies to them as to the 
Egyptians, only the latter are distressed by the heat, 
the former by the cold.^ What is called the Scythian 
desert is level grassland, without trees,- and fairly 
well-watered. For there are large rivers which drain 
the water from the plains. There too live the 
Scythians who are called Nomads because they have 
no houses but live in wagons. The smallest have 
four wheels, others six wheels. They are covered 
over with felt and are constructed, like houses, 
sometimes in two compartments and sometimes in 
three, which are jn-oof against rain, snow and wind. 
The wagons are drawn by two or by three yoke of 
hornless oxen. Tliey have no horns because of the 
cold. Now in these wagons live the women, while 
the men ride alone on horseback, followed by the 
sheep they have, their cattle and their horses. They 
remain in the same place just as long as there is 
sufficient fodder for their animals; when it gives 
out they migrate. They themselves eat boiled 

^ Both people are of peculiar physirjue, and tlie cause of 
the peculiarity is in the one case extreme lieat, and in the 
other extreme cold. 

- Or, reading viin]\n, "a plateau." 



TO added b}' Coray. 

110 



nEPI AEPi:)N YAATQN TOnQN 

TTivovai yaXa "ttttwv. koI 'nnrdKrjv Tpwyovar 
27 TOVTO S' iarl rvpo<; 'lttttcov. 

XIX. Ta /mev e? t)]V hlairav avrcov ovrcd^ e)(^6i. 
Kol TOU'i i>6fM0V<;' irepi he tmv (hpecov Kal tj)? 
/jiop(f)y]<i, on TToXv dir/jWaKTai rwv Xolttcov av- 
OpcoTTcov TO XkvOikov <yevo<i Koi eoLKev avro ecovrw 
coairep to AlyviTTiov kcu "jKicTTa iroXvyovoi' iaTi, 
Kal 7) %fop7/ iXdxi^o-TU O^ipia Tpe(f)€i, kutcl pueyeOo^ 
Kal 7rXriOo<i. KeiTat yap vtt avTrjcrt, ttjctiv 
dpKTOi<i Kal T0t9 opeaL Tol^i 'VcTraioicnv, oOev o 
/3oper]<; TTvel. o re r;A./09 TeXevroJ:' iyyvTaTa 

10 yiveTai, oKOTav eirl Taq depivca eXOrj irepiohovi, 
Kal Toxe oXlyov ■y^povov 6€pp,a'ivei Kal ov acpoopa' 
TO, Be TTvevp-ara tci citto twv Oepp-Mv nrveovTa ovk ^ 
cKpLKveiTai, rjV p^rj oXiyaKd Kal daOevea, dXX 
CLTTO tG)V dpKTCov aUl TTveovai TTvevpiaTa yfrv^^pa 
iiTTo re yiovo'i Kal KpvaTaXXov Kal vhuTtov iroX- 
X6t)v- ovSiiTOTe Be to, opea eKXeLTret- uiro tovtcov 
Be Bvao'iKrjTd eaTiv. ■qi'jp re KaTeyei ttoXu? tt]^ 
'qpipr}<i TO. treBia, Kal ev tovtolctl^ BiatTevvTar 
ware tov pev ^(eipboiva alel eJvai, to Be depo<i 

20 6Xi,ya<i iip,epa<i Kal TavTa<i firj Xli^v. pueTewpa 
yap Ta TreBia Kal •xjriXd Kal ovk icTTecpdvoovTai 
opeaiv, dXX' rj dvdvTea diro^ tmv dpKTWv' auToOt 
Kal TO, Or-jpla ov yiveTai pLsydXa, d\X oia re 
eaTiv VTTO yrjv aKeird^eardai. 6 yap ')(^€ip,(ov 
KwXvei Kal T?}? yr)<i rj n|ri\oT7;9, OTi ovk eaTiv 
d\er] ovBe cr/ceV?;. al Be^ p,eTa^oXal tmv copecov 

^ OVK added by Littre from the Latin manuscript 7027- 
2 TovTotai Reinliold : axneoiffi Littre from 7027 (illis). 
' aAA' 71 avavrea anh Kiihlewein : aA.A' avavrt) VTrh most 
MSS.: o\A' 7*; Sv Tj) airh 'SQ : aAA' -fj aur^ a-rrh V. 

120 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, xviii.-xix. 

meats and drink mares' milk. They have a sweet- 
meat called hippace, which is a cheese from the milk 
of mares {hippoi). 

XIX. So much for their mode of living and their 
customs. As to their seasons and their jihysique, 
the Scythians are very different from all other men, 
and, like the Egyptians, are homogeneous ; they are *• 
the reverse of prolific, and Scythia breeds the smallest 
and the fewest wild animals. For it lies right close <. 
to the north and the llhijiaean mountains, from / 
which blows the north wind. The sun comes / 
nearest to them only at the end of its course, 
when it reaches the summer solstice, and then it 
warms them but slightly and for a short time. The 
winds blowing from hot regions do not reach them, 
save rarely, and with little force; but from the (, 
north there are constantly blowing winds that are i 
chilled by snow, ice, and many waters,^ which, never / 
leaving the mountains, render them uninhabitable. "; 
A thick fog envelops by day the plains upon which 
they live, so that winter is perennial, while summer, ; 
which is but feeble, lasts only a few days. For the -^ 
plains are high and bare, and are not encircled 
with mountains, though they slope from the north. 
The wild animals too that are found there are not large, 
but such as can find shelter under gi'ound. They 
are stunted owing to the severe climate and the 
bareness of the land, where there is neither warmth ^ 
nor shelter. And the changes of the seasons are 

* Or, "heavy rains." 

* Strangely enough, botli Littre and Arlams translate as 
though they took a\tt] to be the Epic word meaning "means 
of escape." 

* 5e Wilamowitz : yip MSS. 

VOL. 1. f; 121 



HEPI AEPDN YAATHN TOnON 

ovK elai aeydXai ouSe layvpai, dW o/xolai Kat 
oXiyov /jLeraWaacTuvaai' oiort Kat, ra ecoea 
ojxoloL^ aurnl ecoinoU elai alru) re ;^/3ea>yu,eroi 

30 aUl 6/jioi(p iaOrjTi re rfj avrfj koI Oepeo'i kol 
'X^etfiMi'O'i, rov re rjepa vBuTeivov eX/coj^re? kul 
Tvayvv, TO, re vhara irLiovre'; diro y''^^^'^ '^^'' 
7rayeT0)p, rov re raAanrcopov arreovre^. ov yap 
ol6v7€ Toaoofxa TaXatTTCopelaOai ouSe Trjv yjrvxW' 
oKov fxera^okal fii] yivovrat, lax^po-^- ^'* ravTa<i 
Ta? avdyKa<i ra etSea avroiv ira-^ea eart Kai 
aapKcoSea Kal dvapdpa kol vypa tcaL drova, at 
Te KOiXiai, vyporarai iraaewv kolXlmv at kutco- 
ov yap olov re vrjhvv dva^t-jpalveaOaL iv Toiavrr) 

40 X^PV '^^'' 4'^^^'' "■*'' ^P"^!^ Karaardaei,, dXXa oia 
TTifxeXi]!' re Kal ylriXijv Ti^v adpKa rd tret^ eiBea 
eoLKev dXXr)Xoiai rd re dpaeva TOi<; cipaeai Kat 
rd 07]X€a T0t9 6r]\eai- rcov yap oopecov TrapaTrXr]- 
aioiv iovaewv (pOopal ovk eyyivovrai ovhe ku- 
Kooa-ie^ iv rfj rov yovov av/xiDj^et, rjv fii] riva 

4G dvdyKTj'i ^latov rvxV V vovaov- 

XX. yieya Be reKfxr'jpiov e? r7]v vyp/jriqra irap- 
e^ofiai. SKvBecov yap tou? iroXXovq, diravra^^ 
oaoi Nofxd8e<;, evp/jaet^ KeKavfievovi rov<; re 
w/.iof? Kal rov<; ^pax^ova'^ kol rov'i Kaprrov^ ro)v 
X^ip(*>v Kal rd arij(^ea Kal rd '* lax^ct Kal rrjp 
oa^vv St dXX' ovSev rj Bid rrjv vyponjra rrj<; 
(f)vaio<; Kal ri]v jxaXaKU-jv. ov ydp Suvavrat ovre 
roh To^o/? avvrelveiv ovre rS) aKOvriw ifiTmrreiv 
rdo w/xfi) uTTo u7/9ot7;to9 Kal drovL7]<;. oKorav Be 

10 KavdewaLv, dva^i^palverat eK rwv dp6pcov rb ttoXv 

1 6fio7oi avTol Coray : o/uom ouri MSS. 
122 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, xix.-xx. 

neither gi-eat nor violent, the seasons being uniform 
and altering but little. Wherefore the men also are 
like one another in physique, since summer and 
winter they always use similar food and the same 
clothing, breathing a moist, thick atmosphere, drink- 
ing water from ice and snow, and abstaining from 
fatigue. For neither bodily nor mental endurance 
is possible where the changes are not violent. For 
these causes their physiques are gross, fleshy, showing 
no joints, moist and flabby, and the lower bowels 
are as moist as bowels can be. For the belly cannot 
possibly dry up in a land like this, with such a nature 
and such a climate, but because of their fat and the 
smoothness of their flesh their physiques are similar, 
men's to men's and women's to women's. For as 
the seasons are alike there takes place no corruption 
or deterioration in the coagulation of the seed,^ 
except through the blow of some violent cause or of 
some disease. 

XX. I will give clear testimony to their moistness. 
The majorit}' of the Scythians, all that are Nomads, 
you will find have their shoulders cauterized, as well 
as their arms, wrists, breast, hips and loins, simply 
because of the moistness and softness of their con- 
stitution. For owing to their moistness and flabbiness 
they have not the strength either to draw a bow or 
to throw a javelin from the shoulder. But when 
they have been cauterized the excess of moisture 

^ As a modern physiologist might put it, "abnormal 
variations in the formation of the embrj^o." 

2 T€ Wilamowitz would delete. 
' aTTavras most MSS. : /naKio-ra 3Q- 
* Kal TO added by Coray. 

123 



IIEPI AEPDN TAATDN TOnQN 

Tov uypou, Kul ivTov(t>T€pa fidWov jLverai Kal 
Tpocf)i/j,u>Tepa Kal rjpOpwpeva ra aaopara fxaWov. 
pOLKii 8e lyiverai. koI irXarea, Trpcorov pev on ov 
aTrapyavovvTai uxjirep ev AlyvTrrco ovSe vopuil^ovai^ 
hta T7]v LTTTraaiijv, OKco'i av evehpoL ecoaiv' eirecTa 
Be Sia TJjv ehpifv to, tc yap apcreva, eoj? av 01);^ 
old re e(^ 'innTov oyeiaOai, to ttoXv tov ')(p6pov 
KaOijvrai, ev rfj dpd^t] Kal ^pax^v rfj ^aSlaei 
')^peovTai Sid rd'i p-erar'aardaia^ Kal irepieXdaia';' 

20 TO. he drjXea Oavpaarov olov poiKd eari re Kal 
^pahea^ rd ethea. irvppov 8e to yevo<; ecrrl ro 
^KvdiKov Std TO ■\lrv)(^o<i, ouK iiTLyivopLevov 6^io<i 
TOV i-jXiov. vTTo Be tov ylrv-)(^eo<i t) X€vk6tt]<; im- 

24 KaieTtti Kal yiveTai irvppr]. 

XXI. n.oXvyovov Be ov^ oiov re elvai (jivcnv 
T0iavT7]V- ovTG yap tG> dvBpl i) iiviOvpiTj t?";? 
p.el^to<; yiveTai iroXXr] Btd t)]v vypoTrjTa ti}? 
cf)U(7io<i Kal t^9 KoiXir]<; ti)v paX9 aKOTtiTd T€ Kal 
Trjv ^lrv)(^p6TrjTa, d^ otcov i]Ki(TTa etVo? dvBpa 
olov Te Xayveveiv' Kat eVt vtto tmv lttttcov alel 
KOTTTop-evoL daOevee<i ytvovTai e? ttjv p.€L^tv- Tolat 
pev dvBpdcnv avTai al irpo^dcne^ ylvovTai, Trjai 
Be yvvai^lv rj t€ ttcottj^; t?}? aapKo<; Kal vypoTij'i' 

10 01; yap Bvvavrai eTi avvapTrdteiv al pyTpac tov 
yovov' ovTe yap i7Tip7]vio<i Kddapat<; aoTfjai yi- 
veTai C09 ^(^ptdiv ecTTiv, dXX oXuyov Kal Bid ')(^p6vov, 
TO Te (TTopa TMV pr)Tpe(ov vtto iripeXi]'; avyKXei- 
€Tai Kal ov)( inroBe~)(eTaL tov yovov avTai Te 
dTaXa'iTTwpoi Kal Triepai Kal al KoiXiab -^v^pal 

^ Is there a gap in the text after vofxl^ovcrt ? ouSe vo/j.i(ov(n 
adds nothing to ov a-irapyavovyrai, and requires an infinitive 
or some phrase to complete the sense. I once conjectured 

124 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, xx.-xxi. 

dries up from their joints, and their bodies become 
more braced, more nourished and better articulated. 
Tlieir bodies grow relaxed and squat, firstly because, 
unlike the Egyptians, they do not use swaddling 
clothes, of which they have not the habit,^ for the 
sake of their riding, that they may sit a horse well; 
secondly, through their sedentary lives. For the 
boys, until they can ride, sit the greater part of the 
time in the wagon, and because of the migrations 
and wanderings rarely walk on foot ; while the girls 
are wonderfully Habby and torpid in physique. The 
Scythians are a ruddy race because of the cold, not 
through any fierceness in the sun's heat. It is the 
cold that burns their white skin and turns it ruddy. 
XXI. A constitution of this kind prevents fertility. 
The men have no great desire for intercourse because 
of the moistness of their constitution and the softness 
and chill of their abdomen, which are the greatest 
checks on venery. Moreover, the constant jolting 
on their horses unfits them for intercourse. Such 
are the causes of barrenness in the men ; in the 
women they are the fatness and moistness of their 
flesh, which are such that the womb cannot absorb 
the seed. For neither is their monthly purging as 
it should be, but scanty and late, while the mouth 
of the womb is closed by f;it and does not admit the 
seed. They are personally fat and lazy, and their 

' This is a literal translation of the text, but see the footnote 
on the opposite page. 

ScTTep ovS' iv AlyvirTC)) vo/xi^ovat, and I find that Coiaj' too has 
suggested this emendation, on the ground that it is unlikely 
that the Egyptians used swaddling clothes. 
^ fioaSea ^S b : /3Ao5ea Coray. 

125 



nEPI AEPON TAATON TOnON 

Koi fidXOaKal' vtto ^ toutcov tmv dvajKecov ov 
TToXvyovov eaTi to jevo'i to ^kvQlkov. fxe^a he 
TeK^y]pLOV al ot'/certSe? Troieovaiv' ov "yap (pddvovai 
irapd di'Spa d(f)iKvevpevai kuI iv yaaTpl t(T)(^ouaiv 

20 8ia T7]v TaXai7ro)pit]v Kul la)(i>6TT}Ta t^? aapKos. 
XXII. "Et( re Trpo? tovtolctiv €vvov)(^Lai yt- 
vovTUi ol'^ TrXeicTTOt ev ^KvOrjat Kal yvvaiKeia 
epyd(^ovTai, kol d)<i al 'yuvatKa hiaLTevvTai^ 
BiaXeyovTai re o/xoico'i' KoKevvTai re ol toiovtol 
^Avapiet<i.^ ol fxev ovv eTrf^dopiot ttjv alTit-jv 
rrpoaTtOeaai dew Kal ae/SovTai T0UT0v<i tou? 
civO payiTov^ Kal rrpocrKVveovaL, SeSot/core? irepl 
ecouTMV GKaaTOi. e/xol Se Kal avTW Sokcc TavTa 
TO, irddea Oela elvai Kal TciXXa irdvTa Kal ov8ev 

10 €T€pov €T€pov OsLOTepov ovSe dv6pco7rcv(OTepov, 
dWd TrdvTa opola Kal irdvTa Oela. eKacTTOv he 
avTMP e'Xjei (f)vcriv T7]v ecovTOv Kal ouhev dvev 
^vaio^ ylveTai. Kal tovto to rrdOo'i w? /xot 80- 
Kei yiveaOai (f)pdaco' iirro tP]^ I'lnTaaiT]'^ avTovi 
KeSfiaTa Xafx^dvei, aTe alel Kpe/xa/xevcov diro 
Tcov iTTTTcov TOt? TToaiv eTTetTa d7ro)((oXovvTai Kal 
ekKovvTai TCI la)(^ia, ot dv crcpoSpa vocn^awcnv. 
loiVTai Se a(^d<i auTOV^ Tpoiroi Toi&Se. okotuv yap 
dp')(r]Tai 1) vovao^, oiriaOev tov wto? eKaTepov 

20 (f)\ef3a Tdp,vou(Tiv. oKOTav he diroppvfj to alpa, 
v7rvo<i v7ro\a/u,/3(ivec vtto dadevelr]^ Kal Kadev- 
hovaiv. erreiTa dvejelpovTai, ol fiev tiv6<; vyiee^ 
e6vTe<i, ol 8" ov. epol pev ovv hoKel ev TavTrj Trj 
li'-jaei, hia^Qelpeadai 6 y6vo<;. elal yap irapd Ta 

^ Before virh the MSS. have kuI, which Wilamowitz 
deletes. 

126 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, xxi.-xxii. 

abdomen is cold and soft. These are the causes 
which make the Scythian race unfertile. A clear 
proof is afforded by their slave-girls. These, because 
of their activity and leanness of body, no sooner go 
to a man than they are with child. 

XXII. Moreover, the great majority among the 
Scythians become impotent, do women's work, live 
like women and converse accordingly. Such men 
they call Anaries. Now the natives put the blame 
on to Heaven, and respect and worship these creatures, 
each fearing for himself. I too think that these 
diseases are divine, and so are all others, no one 
being more divine or more human than any other ; 
all are alike, and all divine. Each of them has a 
nature of its own, and none arises without its natural 
cause. How, in my opinion, this disease arises I will 
explain. The habit of riding causes swellings at the 
joints,^ because they are always astride their horses ; 
in severe cases follow lameness and sores on the 
hips. They cure themselves in the following way. 
At the beginning of the disease they cut the vein 
behind each ear. When the blood has ceased to 
flow faintness comes over them and they sleep. 
Afterwards they get up, some cured and some not. 
Now, in my opinion, by this treatment the seed is 
destroyed. For by the side of the ear are veins, to 

^ For this difficult word see Littre V. 3'20 and VIII. xxxix 
foil. 

2 Should not ol be deleted? It is unlikely that "the 
majority" were impotent, but " very many" might be. 

3 SianevvTai added by Gomperz. 

* 'Avapiels Gomperz (cf. Herodotus I. 105): a.i/5ptf7s V: 
wvavS^jieij Jlj ; ayapSperjs b, 

127 



nEPI AEPDN TAAT^iN TOH^N 

cura (^Xe/Se?, a? idv rt? iiriTd/jiT}, dyovoi yLvovrai 
01 i7rtTfj.7]t)evTe<;. ravra^ toivvv fioi SoKeovai Ta<; 
(f)\e/3a<; eTmdjjiveLv. oi Be /uiera ravra eTretSdv 
d(f)iKQ)VTai, rrapa <yuval/ca<i koI [xtj olol r ecoai 
'X^prjaOai acjiLcriv, to Trpoijov ovk ivdvjievvrai, 

?0 ttXA,' ')]avxi'V^ e^ovai. okotuv he St? koI rplf 
Kol irXeovaKi'i avrolai TTeipwixevoiai fxiiZev d\- 
Xniorepop d-Tro^aivr], vofiLaavTe^ ri rjfiapTrjKevai 
Tft) Beo), ov iTraiTiojVTai, ivhvovrai cTToXrjv <yu- 
vai,Ken]v Kara'yvovTe<; ecovTWv dvavhpeirjv. yv- 
vaiKL^ouai re koI epyd^ovrai [xerd rcov yvvacKcop 
a Kol eKeh'at,. 

TouTo Be 7rd(T)(^ova'c ZKvOecov ol itXovctlol,^ ^^X 
Oi KciKiaTOL aX\ oi evyevecrraToi koI la^y^vv TrXet- 
ar')]v KeKTTjpeioi, Sia ti-jv iTnracrirjv, ol Be Trez'T/Te? 

40 r/craov ov yap 'nnrdl^ovTai. KUizot exp>iv, eireX 
6eLoT€pov TovTo TO voaevfia tmv Xolttwv earcv, ov 
rol<i yevvaLOTdroL^i twv ^KvOecov koX toi<; ttXov- 
aicoTdToi'i TrpoaiTLTTTeiv fiouPOi<i, dWd rot? diraaiv 
opoLO)^, Koi pdWov Toicnv oXiya KeKTtjpevoiaiv, 
el Br] Tipcopevot^ ^aipovcnv ol deoX kul davpa- 
^opevot VTT dvOpcoTTcov Koi dvrl tovtcov ^aptra? 
diroBiBoaaiv. €iK6<; yap tou9 pev 7r\ov(TLOv<; dveiv 
TToXXd T0Z9 6eol<i Kal dvariOevai dvaOrjpara eovTWV 
'^pyjpdrcov ttoXXcov kol Tupdv, rov<; Be irevrjra'i 

50 Yjaaov Bed to pr] e')(^eLV, eTreiTa Kal e'7ripep4>opeuov<i 
oTi ov BiBoaa-i ')(pi']para avrolcnv, a>aTe tcov toiov- 
Tcov dpapTLMV Td<i ^i]pla<; rov'i oXiya K€KTT]pevov<i 
(f)epetv pdXXov rj T0v<i TrXovalov^. dX\d ydp, 
locTTrep Kal rrpoTepov eXe^a, Beta pev Kal ravrd 
ecrnv 6poLco<; toI<; dXXoc<i' ylveTui Be Kara (fjvcriv 
^Kaara. Kal rj roiavrr) vov(to<; diro roLavrrjf 
128 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, xxii. 

cut which causes impotence, and I believe that these 
are the veins which they cut. After this treatment, 
when tlie Scythians approach a woman but cannot 
have intercourse, at first they take no notice and 
think no more about it. But wlien two, three or 
even more attempts are attended with no better 
success, thinking that they have sinned against 
Heaven they attribute thereto the cause, and put 
on women's clothes, holding that they have lost their 
manhood. So they play the woman, and with the 
women do the same work as women do. 

This affliction affects the rich Scythians because of 
their riding, not the lower classes but the upper, 
who possess the most strength ; the poor, who do 
not ride, suffer less. But, if we suppose this disease 
to be more divine than any other, it ought to have 
attacked, not the highest and richest classes only of 
the Scythians, but all classes equally — or rather the 
poor especially, if indeed the gods are pleased to 
receive from men respect and worship, and repay 
these with favours. For naturally the rich, having 
great wealth, make many sacrifices to the gods, and 
offer many votive offerings, and honour them, all of 
which things the poor, owing to their poverty, are 
less able to do ; besides, they blame the gods for not 
giving them wealth, so that the penalties for such sins 
are likely to be paid by the poor rather than by the 
rich. But the truth is, as I said above, these affec- 
tions are neither more nor less divine than any others, 
and all and each are natural. Such a disease arises 



^ 01 TrXovffioi, Cobet {Mnemosyne IX. 70) would delete these 
words. 

^ €1 5^ rifxtifiefoi Coray : ov rifiasfj.fi'ota'ii' ijSri el MSS. 

129 



HEPI AEPQN TAATON TOHON 

'7rpo(f)dcrco<; roi? SKvdrjcn jLverai o'lrjv elpifKa. €')(eL 
8e KUL Kara tou? \oL7rou<i avdpcoirovi ofiOLW^. 
OKOV yap LTTTTa^ovTai /ndXidTa koI irvKPorara, 

60 eKel TrXelaroi viro Keh[xdTU>v kol la^idBcov Kal 
TToSaypiMV akicrKovrai Kal Xayveueiv KaKtcrroL 
elac. ravra Se roiai %Kvdr)cn Trpocrecrri, Kal 
evvov^oeiSearaTOL etaiv dvOpMirwv 8id ravra<; 
re ^ ra? 7rpo(f)daia<i Kal on dva^vpiha<; €j)(^ouaiv 
alel KUL etaiv eVl tmv ittttcov to irXetaTOv rov 
^(^povov, ware P't]T€ %et/3i aTneaOai tov alSoiov, 
vTTo T6 TOV -v/rfj^eo? Kal TOV KOTTov iiTiX/jOecrdai 
TOV ifiepov Kal t/}? fieL^io^, Kal fiijSev irapaKivelv 

69 irpoTepov rj dvavSpu>6 Pjvai.^ 

XXIII. riepl /xev ovv twv 'ZKvOecov ovtco^ e')(^6i 
TOV yeveo<i. to Be Xonrov yeiw^ to iv ttj EupooTr?; 
Std(j)opov avTO ewuTft) eaTL Kal Kara to p.eye6o<i 
Kal Kara Ta<i p,op(f>a'i Sta Td<; p.eraWayd'^ tmv 
oipewv, oTi fxeydXai yivovTai Kal TrvKvai, Kal 
OdXired re Icr^vpd Kal ')(^eip.oive<i KapTepol Kal 
op^jSpoL TToXXol Kal avTif av-)i^p,ol TroXv^poinoi Kal 
7Tvevp.aTa, i^ mv p-era/3oXal TToXXal Kal iravTO- 
SaTraL diro tovtwv et/co? alaOdveadai ^ Kal T'ip' 

10 yeveaiv ev ttj avp^inj^eL tov yovov dXXoTe * dXXrjv 
Kal p.r] T(p avTU) jyv avTT]v yiveadat ev re tm depeu 
Kal Tu> ')(^eip,(ovi /u,r]Be ev eiropblBpirj Kal av-^p,M. 
BioTi TO, e'iSea Sn]XXd')(^dat, vop^L^co tmv EvpcoTralcov 
p^dXXov rj Twv ' Acni-jVMV Kal to, p,eyeOea 8ia<f)opQ)- 
TaTa avTa e(ovToc<i eivat Kara ttoXlv CKdaTTjv. at 
yap (pOopal 7rXei0ve<; eyy wovTai tov yovov ev ttj 
av/x7ri]^ei iv Tjjai p,eTaXXayf]ai tmv Mpecov irvKvfj- 

* re added by Wilamowitz. 
130 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, xxii.-xxiii. 

among the Scythians for such a reason as I have 
stated, and other men too are equally liable to it, for 
wherever men ride very much and very frequently, 
there the majority are attacked by swellings at the 
joints, sciatica and gout, and are sexually very weak. 
These complaints come upon the Scythians, and they 
are the most impotent of men, for the reasons I have 
given, and also because they always wear trousers 
and spend most of their time on their horses, so that 
they do not handle the parts, but owing to cold and 
fatigue forget about sexual passion, losing their 
virility before any impulse is felt. 

XXIII. Such is the condition of the Scythians. 
The other people of Europe differ from one another \ 
both in stature and in shape, because of the changes 
of the seasons, which are violent and frequent, - 
while there are severe heat waves, severe winters, 
copious rains and then long droughts, and winds, 
causing many changes of various kinds. Wherefore 
it is natural to realize that generation too varies 
in the coagulation of the seed,^ and is not the same 
for the same seed in summer as in winter nor in 
rain as in drought. It is for this reason, I think, that -. 
the physique of Europeans varies more than that of | 
Asiatics, and thst their stature differs very widely in ] 
each city. For there arise more corruptions in the 
coagulation of the seed when the changes of the sea- 

* J. e. "in the formation of the foetus." 

2 Coray, with at least one MS., would read ai^SpwOrivat, that 
is. " attempt no sexual act before they recover their virility." 

^ aladdveffOai Kiihlewein would delete, as interpolated from 
Chapter X : ffwicrracrQai Wilamovvitz. 

* ^AAoTf added (with Koi preceding) by Coray. 



HEPI AEPnN TAATQN TOHON 

(Tiv iovarjcriv r; iv rfjai Trapair'XricTLrjcTt koX 
oixoirjai. nrepi re twv rjdiwv 6 avro^ \6yo<;' to 

20 re ciypiov Kol to cifieiKrov kuI rb Ov/jioei8e<; iv 
rf] roiavr)] (pvaei eyytverai. al yap e'/CTrX-jy^ie? 
irvKval yti'o/jievai t/;9 yvco/.n]<i ryv aypLOTi^ra evride- 
aai, ro Be rjfiepov re kciI i'^ircov dfiavpovcrc. 8t6 
Kal ev^v^orepov<; vopii^oi toi)? rtjv JLupco7ri]v 
oLKeovra'i elvai i) rov<; rrjv ^Aairjv. ev fiei' yap 
ru) aleX 7rapa7rXy]ai(p al paOvpiiai eveiaiv, ev Se 
Tft) ixera(3aWo[xev(p ai raXaiircopiai rw aco/jLari 
Kai rf) '^u'X^fj. Kal diro p.ev 7;cri'^t?;9 Kal pqOv- 
ixirj<; 7] SeiXit] av^erai, inro Be rrj^ raXaL7rct}pit]<; 

30 Kal T607^ -TTovcov al dvhpetai. 8ia rovro elcri 
/xaxi/jicorepoL o'l rrjv Kvpcoirrjv OLKeovre^ Kal 8ia 
Tou? v6/jLov<i, on ov /SaaiXevovrai Mcnrep ol ^Aairj- 
voL OKOV yap jBaaiXevovrai, e'/cet dvdyKt^ Beiko- 
rdrov^ etvai. e'iprjrat Be fioi kul rrporepov- ai 
yap yp-v^al BeBovXoyvrdi Kal ov ^ovXovrat, rrapa- 
KLvBvveveiv eKovre^ elKfj inrep dWorpirj^ Bvvd/jLio<i. 
oaoL Be avr6vofj,oi — virep ecovrcov yap toi)? klv- 
Bvvov<i alpevvrai kol ovk aXX-wv — irpodvp^evvrai 
eKovres Kal eV to Beivov ep'y^ovrat. ra yap dpiareia 

40 T/}? viKi]<; avrol (j^epovrai. ovT(i)<i ol v6/u.ol ov)(^ 

41 ijKiara rrjv ev'yjrv^^Lijv ipyd^ovrai. 

AAiV. io fxev ovv oKov Kai ro anav ovr(o^ 
e-xei irepi re ri]<; lLvpco7r7]<; Kal tt}? 'Actit^s'. eveiai 
Be Kal ev rfj KvpcoTrr} (pvXa Btd(f)opa erepa erepoLcn 
Kal ra /xeyeOea Kal rd<i ijuopc^d^ Kal rd<i dvSpeia<i. 
ra Be BiaWdaaovra ravrd "^ eariv, a Kal iirl rS)v 
Tvporepov etpifrai. en Be (racpearepov (ppdaco. 
OKoaoi [xev '^coprjv 6peivi]V re OLKeovai Kal rpr]-)(^elav 
Kal vyjrrjXTjv Kal evvBpov, Kal al jxera^oXal avrolai 
132 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, xxm.-xxiv. 

sons .are frequent than wlieii they are similar or alike. 
The same reasoning applies also to character. In 
such a climate arise wildness, unsociability and spirit. 
For the frequent shocks to the mind impart wild- 
ness, destroying tameness and gentleness. For this 
reason, I think, Europeans are also more courageous 
than Asiatics. For uniformity engenders slackness, 
while variation fosters endurance in both body and 
soul ; rest and slackness are food for cowardice, 
endurance and exertion for bravery. Wherefore 
Europeans are more warlike, and also because of 
their institutions, not being under kings as are 
Asiatics. For, as I said above, where there are 
kings, there must be the greatest cowards. For 
men's souls are enslaved, and refuse to run risks 
readily and recklessly to increase the power of 
somebody else. But independent people, taking- 
risks on their own behalf and not on behalf of 
others, are willing and eager to go into danger, for 
they themselves enjoy the prize of victory. So 
institutions contribute a great deal to the formation 
of courageousness. 

XXIV. Such, in outline and in general, is the 
character of Europe and of Asia. In Europe too 
there are tribes differing one from another in stature, 
in shape and in courage. The differences are due to 
the same causes as I mentioned above, which I will 
now describe more clearly. Inhabitants of a region 
which is mountainous, rugged, high, and watered, 

^ ravrd Coray : Tavrd Ji3 : Tavr' V. 

^33 



HEPI AEP£SN TAATfiN TOHfiN 

yivovrai tmv wpecov fieya 8ui(f)opoi, ivTavua et«09 
10 etSea /xejaXa elvai koI irpo^ to TaKaliroipov Kai 
TO dvSpecov ev irec^vKOTa, koI to re aypcov Kai to 
67]pi(bSe<; at Toiainai (fiv(n6<i ovx rj/ciaTU exovcriv. 
oKoaoi Se KoTka ywp'ia koI Xei/xaKcoBea /cal Trviyy]pa 
Kol Tcov Oep/jLwv Trvev/jLciTcov Tr\eov fiepo's p^eTexovaiv 
Tj t6)v yp~v)(^p(t)V vhacJi re ^peovTac 6 e p pbola iv , ovTOt 
Se fxeyaXoi fiev ovK av etrjaav ovBe /cavovLat, e? 
€vpo<; Se Tre^u/core? Koi aapKcoSee^ koi p-eXavo- 
T/ai^e?, Kol avTol /xeXai^e? p,dXXov rj XevKorepoi, 
(f)XeyfMaTLat Se rjaaov rj ')(^oX(i)hee<;- to Se dvhpelov 
20 Kol to TaXaiTTOipov ev tt} \lrvxv 4>^o-€i p.ev ovk av 
o/xoLO)^ iveir], v6po<; Be irpO(Tyev6p.evo<i cnrepya^oiT 
dv. KoX el fiev iroTap-ol iveirjaav ev tjj X^PV> 
ohcve<; e'« t?)? %ft)/37?<? e^ox^'T^voucTi to tc aTuaip^ov 
Kol TO 6p.^pLov, ovTOi dv vyn]poi re etrjaav kui 
Xap.TrpoL el fievTot iroTap.o\ pev p^rj eh^aav, to. 
he vSuTa \ip,vald ^ re Kal aTuaip^a TTivoiev kui 
eXdohea, uvdyKT) tu TOiavTa ethea irpoyaaTpoTepa 
Kol aiTXrjvcoSea elvai. OKoaoc 8e v^rjXi^v re olxe- 
ovac x^PW '^^^ Xeirjv Kai dvepicoSea fcal evvBpov, 
30 elev dv e'iSea p,eydXoi Kal ecouTotcn TrapaTrXjjo-ior 
dvavSpoTepai 8e Kal rjpbepooTepac at yvS)p,at. 
OKoaoi 8e XeiTTa re Kal dvvSpa Kal -^iXd, Trjcri 
p,eTa/3oX§at t&v oopecov ovk evKpijTU, ev TavTrj tjj 
X^i^PV "^^ ecBea etVo? aKXrjpd re elvai Kal evTova 
Kal ^avdoTepa r) p,eXdvT€pa Kal tu ■y)9ea Kal Ta<; 
opyd'i avOd8ed<i re Kal lSioyvoop.oi'a^. okov yap 
al p-eTa0oXai elac irvKVOTaTai tcov wpewv Kai 
irXelcxTov Bid^opoi avTal ewvTrjcnv, eKel Kai Ta 
eiBea Kal tu yOea Kal ra? (f>v(Tia<i evp7]aei<i 
40 irXeiaTOV Bia(f)6povo-a<;. 
134 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, xxiv. 

where the changes of the seasons exhibit sharp 
contrasts, are Hkely to be of big physique, with a 
nature well adapted for endurance and courage, and 
such possess not a little wildness and ferocity. The 
inhabitants of hollow regions, that are meadowy, 
stifling, with more hot than cool winds, and where 
the water used is hot, will be neither tall nor well- 
made, but inclined to be broad, fleshy, and dark- 
haired ; they themselves are dark rather than fair, less 
subject to phlegm than to bile. Similar bravery and 
endurance are not by nature part of their character, 
but the imposition of law can produce them artificially. 
Should there be rivers in the land, which drain ofl" 
from the ground the stagnant water and the rain 
water, these ' will be healthy and bright. But if there 
be no rivers, and the water that the people drink be 
marshy, stagnant, and fenny, the physique of the 
people must show protruding bellies and eidarged 
spleens. Such as dwell in a high land that is level, 
windy, and watered, will be tall in physique and 
similar to one another, but rather unmanly and 
tame in character. As to those that dwell on thin, 
dry, and bare soil, and where the changes of the 
seasons exhibit sharp contrasts, it is likely that in 
such country the people will be hard in physique 
and well-braced, fair rather than dark, stubborn and 
independent in character and in tempc. For where 
the changes of the seasons are most frequent and most 
sharply contrasted, there you will find the greatest 
diversity in physique, in character, and in constitution. 

1 The people or the rivers? Probably tlie former, in which 
case "bright" will mean " of bright (clear) complexion." 

^ Kifxi'aia )i3 : Kfirjvala all otiier RISS. 



nEPI AEPCIN TAATON TOnQN 

yieytcnac fiev ovv elaiv avrai tj]^ (f)vato<; al 
ScaWayai, eirena Se KaX rj y^MpT], iv y av ti<; 
Tp€<f>T]Tai Koi ra vOaTa. €vpi']aei<i yap cttI to 
Tr\rj9o<i TTj^ 'yaipj]<; rfj (pvaec a/coXovdeovTa kol ra 
elhea tcov av6 pcoircov kol rov<? Tpoirov^. okov 
jxev yap rj yij rrieipa Kal /xaXOaKJ] kuI €i'v8po<;, Kal 
ra vSara Kapra p-erecopa, Mcrre deppua eivai tov 
Oepeo<; Kal rod ^et/z.&ji'o? "^v)(^pd, Kal TOiv mpewv 
Ka\w<i Kelrai,, ivrauOa Kal oi avdpcoTroi aapKcoSee^; 

50 €L(Tc Kal avapOpoi Kal vypol Kal aTaXaiTrcopoi Kal 
rrjv yfrvyrjv KaKol co? iirl to ttoXv. to re pdOvjiov 
Kal TO vTTvqpov evecrriv iv avroi<; ISeiv e? re rd^ 
re')(ya<i Tray^ee'i Kal ov Xerrrol ovh o^ee?. okov 8' 
icrrlv 77 X^P^ ■v/^tXr; re Kal dvv8po<i ^ Kal rpi]X^La 
Kal vTTo rov x.^ificovos 7rLe^o/.L€vr] Kal vtto rou 
rjXiov KeKavpievrj, evravOa he a-KXrjpov; re Kal 
l(T-)(yov<; Kal SiTjpdpcop.eiwu'i Kal evrovov^; Kal 
Saaea^ l8oi<;.^ ro re epyariKov eveov ^ ev rfj cfyvaei 
rfj roiavTT] Kal ro dypvirvov, rd re ■)]Oea Kal rd<i 

60 opyd'i auOdSea<; Kal lhioyv(t)pLOva<;, rov re dypiov 
fxdWov fxereyovra^ rj rov rj/nepov, e<; re Ta<? reyi'a^ 
6^vr€pov<i re Kal avvercorepov; Kal ra 7ro\ep.ia 
dp.€Lvov<; evp7](rei<;' Kal rdWardiv rf] yfj (f}v6p.eva 
irdvra uKoXovOa eovra rfj yfj. al fiev ivavricorarai 
(f)vaLe<; re Kal IBeai eyovaiv ovrw<;. drro he 
roincov reKfiaipo/mevo^ rd XotTra ivOvp-elaOai, Kal 

67 ovx dfxaprrjaij. 



136 



AIRS WATERS PLACES, xxiv. 

These are the most important factors that create 
differences in men's constitutions ; next come the land 
in which a man is reared, and the water. For in 
general you will find assimilated to the nature of the 
land both the physique and the characteristics of the 
inhabitants. For where the land is rich, soft, and 
well-watered, and the water is very near the surface, 
so as to be hot in summer and cold in winter, and if 
the situation be favourable as regards the seasons, 
there the inhabitants are fleshy, ill-articulated, 
moist, lazy, and generally cowardly th character. 
Slackness and sleepiness can be observed in them, 
and as far as the arts are concerned they are thick- 
witted, and neither subtle nor sharp. But where 
the land is bare, waterless, rough, oppressed by 
winter's storms and burnt by the sun, there you will 
see men who are hard, lean, well-articulated, well- 
braced, and hairy ; such natures will be found 
energetic, vigilant, stubborn and independent in 
character and in temper, wild rather than tame, ot 
more than average sharpness and intelligence in 
the arts, and in war of more than average courage. 
The things also that grow in the eartli all assimilate 
themselves to the earth. Such are the most sharply 
contrasted natures and physiques. Take these ob- 
servations as a standard when drawing all other 
conclusions, and you will* make no mistake. 

^ avvSpos Ermerins from inaquosa of 7027 : avoixvpos MSS. 
^ iSoij b, omitted by most MSS. : iSois i.v Coray. 
3 Before ivihv all MSS. except :© add o^i. 



137 



EPIDEMICS I AND III 



INTRODUCTION 

These two books manifestly form one work, and 
that the most remarkable product of Greek science. 

Pretensions to literary form it has none, yet no 
Greek writer, with the possible exception of Thucy- 
dides, has used language with better effect. Often 
ungrammatical, sometimes a series of disconnected 
words, the narrative is always to the point, and 
always conveys the impression that the writer's sole 
object is to express observed facts in the fittest and 
shortest way. 

The composition shows violent dislocations. There 
come first two " constitutions," ^ then two short 
paragraphs on the duty of the physician and on 
cei'tain symptoms respectively, then another con- 
stitution, then a few paragraphs on fevers, then 
fourteen clinical histories. The third book begins 
with twelve more histories, which are followed by 
a fourth constitution, at the end of which is another 
disconnected paragraph, and the book closes with 
sixteen histories. 

Dislocations due to the ancient methods of copying 
manuscrij)ts are common enough in classical authors, 
but startling chanjies like the above are not such as 

^ "Constitution" is the traditional translation of Kora- 
(TTao-is, climatic conditions of such a marked type as to give 
a distinguishing character to a period of time. The word is 
also used of diseases, and so on, to denote a fixed type pre- 
valent at any particular time. 

141 



INTRODUCTION 

can be ascribed to the vagaries or the carelessness ot 
scribes. Combined with the broken grammar they 
seem to point to the work having never been prepared 
for publication. The writer probably jotted down 
his remarks as a series of notes in an order which 
happened to suggest itself, and never went on to 
edit them. Several of the shorter " interpolations " 
would have been in a modern book footnotes or 
appendices. 

This theory is suppoi'ted by the fact that a 
very great number of the histories have no con- 
nection at all with the constitutions. The first 
three constitutions refer to Thasos ; the place ot 
the fourth is unnamed. The medical cases belong 
to Thasos, Larisa, Abdera, Cyzicus, and Meliboea, 
while many others have no locality attached to 
them. The nature, too, of the diseases bears no 
great likeness to those of the constitutions. They 
are all "acute," some exhibit abnormal symptoms 
and some are ordinary cases of remittent malaria. 
They illustrate Prognostic far better than they do 
the constitutions. " What do symptoms portend ? " 
is the subject of Prognostic, and the clinical histories 
give the data from which many of its generalizations 
may well have been framed. On the whole, it is 
probable that Epidemics was never published by its 
author. 

The subject matter of the Epidemics, \nc\\id\ng the 
five books universally attributed to authors other 
than Hippocrates, namely, II and IV, V, VI, VII, 
present several interesting problems. For the 
present I will confine myself to I and III. 

What are the diseases described in the Epidemics ? 
This question has interested physicians for centuries^ 

142 



INTRODUCTION 

and each medical reader will enjoy the task of 
diagnosing tliem for himself. Several cases are 
difficult, but the section on Hippocratic diseases in 
the General Introduction should enable even a lay- 
man to identify many. Perhaps the most fjiscinating 
problem is whether the constitution in Book III 
refers to the plague year of Thucydides II. 

Another interesting point is the cUenlcle of the 
writer and the scenes of his practice.^ The latter 
have already been referred to; the names of the 
patients, and their position in life, are worth a 
moment's consideration.- None of the clinical 
histories has a date, but most give the name and 
address of the sick person. Occasionally the name 
is given without the address, or the address is given 
without the name. In a few instances at the end 
of Book III the town is named but neither tlie 
patient nor his address is specified. In two cases 
(I, case 12, and III, case 4, of second series) name, 
address and locality are all omitted. The patients 
are sometimes householders, sometimes members of 
their families, sometimes slaves. Several seem to 
have been lodgers.^ 

The variety in the descriptions of patients seems 
to show that the writer attached no importance to 
them, but simply wrote in his note-book enough to 

^ It is wortli noticing that Greek physicians, like the 
Sophists, often passed from city to cit}', staj'ing a longer or 
shorter period according to the demand for their services. 
It was for such TrepioSeurai that Airs J feeders Places was 
written, to enable tliem to know what diseases were likely 
to occur in a city they had never visited before. 

2 See Littre, VIII. vii-xxix, where Meincke is considered. 

' See on these points Littre, X. pp. xxix-xxxii, where 
Rossignol's views are given and criticised. There seem to 
have been large boarding-houses in some places. 

M3 



INTRODUCTION 

enable him to identify a patient for himself. In 
fact he rarely appeai-s to be Avriting for a public; 
in the clinical histories especially one feels that the 
only object is private information. 

If the clinical histories are rough notes of this 
character it becomes plain why they vary in fulness 
of detail. The plan generally adopted is to give a 
daily bulletin, or at least to notice the critical days, 
but if the patient was not visited every day and 
the attendants did not report anything striking, 
gaps would occur such as we actually do find. An 
editor writing for a public would either have made 
these gaps less obvious or else have explained them. 

But the most striking feature of this woi-k is its 
devotion to truth. The constitutions are strictly 
limited to descriptions of the weather which pre- 
ceded or accompanied cei-tain epidemics ; the clinical 
histories are confined to the march of diseases to a 
favourable or a fatal issue. Nothing irrelevant is 
mentioned ; everything relevant is included. 

Of the forty-two cases, twenty-five end in death, 
very nearly 60 per cent. The writer's aim is not to 
show how to cure — treatment is very rarely mentioned 
— but to discover the sequences of symptoms, to set 
down the successes and failures of Nature in her 
efforts to expel the disease. The physician is acting, 
not qua physician but qua scientist ; he has laid aside 
the part of healer to be for a time a spectator looking 
down on the arena, exercising that Oewpia which a 
Greek held to be the highest human activity. 

MSS. AND Editions 

The chief MSS. for Epidemics I. are A and V, 
and for Epidemics III., V and D, supplemented for 

144 



INTRODUCTION 

both books by the ihteresting commentaries of 
Galen. 

Editions were common in the sixteenth, seven- 
teenth, and eigliteentli centuries,^ but none are of 
outstandine: merit. There is an Enylish translation 
of no merit by Samuel Farr (London, 1780), and the 
books are inchided in Adams' first volmne. 
1 See Littr(5, II. 593-596. 

Additional Notes 

1. The word o^vs, "acute," "sharp," is applied to fever, 
and to such diseases (pleurisy, pneumonia, remittent 
malaria, etc., Regimen in Acute Diseases, v) as are accom- 
panied by high fever. The Hippocratic doctrines of crisis, 
coction, etc., apply chiefly to acute diseases, but not to 
them only, as the common cold {Ancient Medicine, xviii) 
shows coction. 

2. The preposition -rtapa, meaning "at the house of," seems 
to be used indifferently with ace, gen., or dat. There are 
probably differences, but I cannot detect them. 



M5 



EniAHMmN A 

KardaTUaiii TrpcoTt] 

I. 'Ei; ^da(p (pdivoTTcopov irepl Icrr} fie plriv Koi 
vTTo irXTjidha vSara iroWd, <jvve)(^ea fJbokdaKU)^, iv 
voTLOi<i. ■^eificbv potior;, apuLKpa Bopeia, av)(/u.Oi' 
TO (Tvvokov €9 76 ')(€i/ji(ic>va olov eup jLveTat,. eap 
Be voTiov ^v)^eLv6v, a/xiKpa vapara. 6epo<i &>? 
eVl TO TToXv emvecpeXov- dvvhpiaL- eTTjaiaL 
oXija, crp,tKpd, Bieairaap-evo)'; errvevcrav. 

VevopLevrj<i he t/}? dycoyr]^; oX.>;? eirl rd voTia kol 
p,eT avxP'f^v, Trpcol fiev tov Tr)po<i ck t?}? irpoadev 
10 KaTaaTdaio<i vTrevavTi'rj'i koi jBopeiov yevop^evrj^ ^ 
oXiyoi^; ijLvovro Kavaot, koI Tovroiai irdw eucna- 
6e€<;, Kol oXiyoif ■^p.oppdysL ouB' direOvrjaKov e« 
TOUToov. eTTappbara Be irapa ra o)Ta ttoWoIcjlv 
krepopporra kuI e^ dpi^orepcov, rolai TrXeiCTToiaiv 
aTTvpoLcnv opdoardBrjv' ecni Be ot Kal apuKpa 
eiredepp^aivoi'TO' KaTeajSr] irdaiv daLvew^; ovB 
e^e7TW](Tev ovBevl wcrirep rd e^ dWwv Trpoc^aaUov. 
rjv Be 6 TpoTTo^ avTOiV x^vva, p,eydXa, Ke)(^up.eva, 
ov p^erd (f)Xeyp,ovi]<i, dvu>Bvva' irdaiv da7]p.o)^ 

* I believe that the words iK . . , yei'o/xevrjs should be 
transposed and placed alter avxf^-^v. " The whole year was 
southerly, after a period which was the opposite." 

^ virh in expressions denoting time seems in Hippocrates to 
mean "about" or "during." The period is roughly from 
September 21 to November 8. 

146 



EPIDEMICS I 

First Constitution 

I. In Thasos during autumn, about the time of 
the equinox to near the setting of the Pleiades,^ 
there were many rains, gently continuous, with 
southerly winds. Winter southerly,- north winds 
light, droughts; on the whole, the winter was 
like a spring. Spring southerly and chilly ; sliglit 
showers. Summer in general cloudy. No rain. 
Etesian winds few, light and irregular. 

The whole weather proved southerly, with droughts, 
but early in the spring, as the previous constitution 
had proved the opposite and northerly, a few patients 
suffered from ardent fevers, and these very mild, 
causing hemorrhage in few cases and no deaths. 
Many had swellings beside one ear, or both ears, in 
most cases unattended with fever,^so that confinement 
to bed was unnecessary. In some cases there was 
slight heat, but in all the swellings subsided without 
causing harm ; in no case was there suppuration 
such as attends swellings of other origin. This was 
the character of them : — flabby, big, spreading, with 
neither inflammation nor pain ; in every case they 

* That is, the winds were generally from the south, and 
such north winds as blew were light. 

•* Or, punctuating after Sira and irKiia-Toiaiu, " There were 
swellings beside the ears, in many cases on one side, but in 
most on both." The epidemic was obviously mumps. 

147 



EniAHMmN A 

20 rj(f)ai>ia8r]. iyiveTO Be ravra fxeipaKioiai, veoicriv, 
uK^d^ovat, Kol rovTCOv roiai irepl TraXalarptjv koX 
yvixvaaia TrXeiaroLat,' yvvai^l Be oXiyrjaLv i'yivero. 
iroWolcri Be IBrj')(^e<i ^rjpaX ^i]aaovai koX ovBev 
avayovaiv' (jicoval ^pay^^toBee'i. ov fjbera ttoXv, 
Tolcri Be Koi fiera •y^povov, (f^Xeyp-oval fxer 6Bvvr]<i 
e? op-^iv erepopporroi, rolai. Be e? d/j,(f)OTepov<;. 
TTvpeTOi Tolcn fxev, rolai S' ov- iTrnrovo)^ ravra 
roicTi 7r\eiaroiat. ra S' dWa ocra Kar Irjrpelov 

29 dvo(Ta)<i Biyyov. 

II. Upcol Be rov depeo^ ap^d/xevoi Bia depeo^ 
KoX Kara ^(eLfiMva ttoWoI tcov ■)]Bt} ttoXvv ■y^povov 
v7ro(^epopLevwv (f)Oiv(i>Bee<i KareKXivyjaav, eVei Koi 
Tol<i evBoiaaTO)<; exovcri iroWolcnv e/Se^atuxre 
Tore, eari B olcriv ^jp^aro Trpcorov rore, olaiv 
eppeirev rj (pvai'i eVt to cfyOivwBe^. direOavov 
Be TToWoi Kal irXelaroL tovtcov, kol twv /cara- 
KKivevTccv OVK OiBa eX Tt9 ovK el /xeTpiov ^(^povov 
rrepieyeveTO. cnreOvrjaKov Be o^vrepax; i) 009 

10 etdcaTai Buiyeiv ra roiavra' 00? rd ye dWa 
Kat fiaKpoTepa Kal ev irvpeTolaiv eovra evcfiopax; 
TjveyKav KoX ouk direOvrjcrKov, Trepl cjvyey pdyjreTai. 
fiovvov yap Kal fieyicrrov twv yevop.ev(i)v voctt]- 
/ubaToov Tou? 7roWov<; to (f)diva)Be<; eKretveu. 

Hv Be T0i<; 7r\€L<TT0iaiv avrwv rd TraO/jfjuara 
TotdBe' (f)piKCi)Bee<; TTvperoi, avvex^€^> o^ee?. to 
fiev oXov ov Bi.a\ei7rovre<;' 6 Be rpoiro^ rjfiirpc- 
Tato?* /j,Lav KOV(f)6T€pot, rfj erepr) Trapo^vpofievoc, 
Kal TO oXov eirl to o^vrepov iiriBiBovTe^i' lBp(bTe<i 

^ That is, with no symptoms indicative of a crisis. 
2 That is, nobody was ill enough to make a visit to the 
physician's surgery (iriTpelov) necessary. 

148 



EPIDEMICS I, i.-ii. 

disappeared without a sigii.^ The sufferers were 
youths, younf:^ men, and men in their prime, usually 
those who frequented the wrestling school and 
gymnasia. Few women were attacked. Many had 
dry coughs which brought up nothing when they 
coughed, but their voices were hoai-se. Soon after, 
though in some cases after some time, painful 
inflammations occurred either in one testicle or in 
both, sometimes accompanied with fever, in other 
cases not. Usually they caused much suffering. In 
other respects the people had no ailments requiring 
medical assistance. ^ 

II. Beginning early in the summer, throughout 
the summer and in winter many of those who had 
been ailing a long time took to their beds in a state 
of consumption, while many also who had hitherto 
been doubtful sufferers at this time showed undoubted 
symptoms. Some showed the symptoms now for 
the first time ; these were those Avhose constitution 
inclined to be consumptive. Many, in fact most of 
these, died ; of those who took to their beds I do not 
know one who survived even for a short time. Death 
came more promptly than is usual in consumption, 
and yet the other complaints, which will be described 
presently, though longer and attended with fever, 
were easily supported and did not prove fatal. For 
consumption was the worst of the diseases that 
occurred, and alone was responsible for the great 
mortality. 

In the majority of cases the symptoms were these. 
Fever with shivering, continuous, acute, not com- 
pletely intermitting, but of the semitertian type ; 
remitting during one day they were exacerbated on 
the next, becoming on the whole more acute. Sweats 

149 



EniAHMinN A 

20 aiei, ov oi 6\ov' ■yjrv^i'i ciKpewv TToWrj Kal fioyc^ 
avaOepfJLaLvojJLei'a. KoiXiat rapa^^oiSeef; ')(^6X(ji>hecnv, 
oiXfyoL^, aKprjTOiai, XeirTolai, Sa/cvcoSeai' irvKva 
aviaravTO. ovpa i) XeTrro. kul ci)(^pu) Kal aireTna 
Kal oXlya rj 7rdxo<; e)(^ovTa Kal ajJUKpi-jV vTroaTaaiv, 
ov KaXoJ'i KadLarcip.eva, aX/V' ut^xfj tivl Kal tiKaipw 
vTTOaTCKjei. ejStjacrov Se apiLKpd, irvKvd, rreTTOva, 
Kar' oXija jULO'yL'i dvdyovTe'i. oiai he rd jSiaiorara 
crvpTTLTTTOi, ou8 69 oXijov TTeTTaa/jiov fjei, dXXd 
SiereXeov wfxd 7rruovT€<i- (fidpvyy€<; 8e rolau 

30 irXeiaTotcn tovtcov i^ "PX^*? '<^'^i' ^i-^ reXeo? 
e-wdihwoL' el^ov epevdo^; perd (f)X€ypovf]<;' pev- 
para crpLKpd, Xeind, hptpea' Ta)(^v ripcopevoi 
Kai KaK0vp,6V0L, diroairoL irdvTOiv yevpdrcoi' 8id 
re/Veo?, dSc'^oi- Kal irapdXripoi iroXXol ire pi duva- 

35 rov. irepl p,ev rd cfjdivcoSea ravra. 

HI. Kara 8e depo^ i'jhri Kal (^OivoTrwpov irvpeTol 
TToXXol crvvex^^'i ov /Siaio)^, paKpd he voaeovaiv 
ovhe irepi ra dXXa hvacpopco^ hidyovcTLv eyevovTO' 
KoiXiai Te ydp ^ rolai irXeicrroicn irdw ev(^6pw^ 
Kal ovhev ci^lov Xoyov Trpocre^Xairrov. ovpd re 
Tolai TrXeicTTOicnv ev)(pa) pev Kal KaOapd, Xeirrd 
he Kal p,€Ta -^povov irepl KplcrLV ireTraivopeva, 
j3ri')(^aihee^ ov Xirjv. ovhe rd ^rjcrcTopeva hv(TK6Xo3<i' 
ovh' drroairoL, uXXa Kal hihovai rrdvv evehe')(ero. 

10 TO p^ev oXov virevoaeov,' ov rov (f)Oi,vcohea rporrov 

* yap most MSS. : rapox^Sfes V. 

^ After vTTev6aeoi' the iiSS. have ol (pBlvovres, which 
Kiihleweiu deletes. 



EPIDEMICS 1, II. -III. 

were continual, but not all over the body. Severe 
chill in the extremities, which with difficulty 
recovered their warmth. Bowels disordered, with 
bilious, scanty, unmixed, thin, smarting stools, 
causing the patient to get up often. Urine either 
thin, colourless,^ unconcocted and scanty, or thick 
and with a slight deposit, not settling favourably, 
but with a crude and unfavourable deposit. The 
patients frequently coughed up small, concocted 
sputa, brought up little by little with difficulty. 
Those exhibiting the symptoms in their most 
violent form showed no concoction at all, but 
continued spitting crude sputa. In the majority 
of these cases the throat was throughout painful 
from the beginning, being red and inflamed. Fluxes 
slight, thin, pungent. Patients quickly wasted away 
and grew worse, being throughout averse to all food 
and experiencing no thirst. Delirium in many cases 
as death approached. Such were the symptoms of 
the consumption. 

III. But when summer came, and during autumn 
occurred many continuous but not violent fevers, which 
attacked persons who were long ailing without 
suffering distress in any other particular manner ; for 
the bowels were in most cases quite easy, and hurt 
to no appreciable extent. Urine in most cases of 
good colour and clear, but thin, and after a time near 
the crisis it grew concocted. Coughing was slight, 
and caused no distress. No lack of appetite ; in fact 
it was quite possible even to give food. In general 
the patients did not sicken, as did the consumptives, 

^ Throughout Epidemics axpois may mean, not mere!}' 
" without colour," but "of bad colour." It certainly has this 
meaning in Airs Waters Places, VII, 1. ii. See p. 8-5. 



EniAHMIQN A 

TTvperotcTi (j)piKcoSeai, (j/xiKpa v(f)i8pouvT€<i, aWore 
rtWoico? rrapo^vvo/Jievoi TreTrXavrj/xepco'?.^ CKpcve 
TOVTcoi' olat TO, ^pa-^UTaTU yivotTO irepl elKoaryjv, 
rolai 8e 7rXei<TToiai irepl reaaapaKocnip, iroWolai 
he Trepl ra? oyhotjKOVTa' ecni S' olcriv ov8' oi/rw?, 
dWa 7r€7r\avi]jiievco<i Kai aKpLTco<i i^iXiirov' rov- 
Ta)!* 8e Tolai TrXeiarotaiv ov irokvv 8ia\i7r6vre<; 
^(^povov virearpe'^av ol irvperol ttuXiv, e« he tmv 
VTToaTpocfjecov iv rfjaiv avrfjai Trepcohoiaiv eKpi- 

20 vovTo' TToWolai he avTOiv avrj'ya'yov, ware koI 
vTTo ^(eipbOjva voaetv- 

'E/c TTavTcov he rcov vTToyeypa/x/J'evcov ev t?} 
KaracTrda-ei ravrr) ixovvoicn Tolat ^OLvoyhecn 
davaroohea avveTteaev eirel Tolai ye ciWoiai 
irdcTLv evcpopco'i, Kai Oavaroohee^ ev rolacv dWoicn 

2G TTvperolaiv ovk iyevovro. 

Kardaracn^; heuTeprj 

IV. 'Ei/ ^dcrep Trpcol rov (pOipoircopov \€ifi(ove<i 
ov Kara Kaipov, dW e^ai^in^'q iv ^opeioLcn koX 
voTLOiai TToXXol'i vypol koI 7rpo€Kpr]yi'v/j,€Vot. 
ravra hi] iyevero TOiavra p-e-vpu TrX^jidSo^ hvcrio<; 
Kai vrro TrXrj'idha. ')(^eifxd)V he ^6peio<;' vhara 
TToWd, \uj3pa, fieydXa, 'x^Love'i' fiei^aiOpia rd 
7r\el(TTa. ravra he iyevero fxev irdvra, ov Xirjv 
he aKaipax; rd rwv yjrv^ecov. I'jhi) he /xed^ ■))Xiov 
rpoird-i '^ei/jiepivd'i Kai rjViKa ^e(jivpo<i rrvelv 
10 dp')(^erai, 67TLa6o)(eL[XMve<; fieyaXoi, /Bopeia TToWd, 
p^^i&jy Kai vhara iroXXd avve'^eco^;, ovpavo^ Xai- 

1 After ■KCizXavqfiiivws the MSS. have rh fxey o\ov OVK eK\ei- 
TTovTes, Trapo^vio^evoi Se Tpiraio<pvea rpotrov, which Kiihlewein 
thinks au interpolation from Chapter VII. 



EPIDEMICS I, iii.-iv. 

with shivering fevers, but with shght sweats, the 
paroxysms being variable and irregular.^ The earliest 
crisis was about the twentieth day ; in most cases 
the crisis was about the fortieth day, though in 
many it was about the eightieth. In some cases 
the ilhiess did not end in this way, but in an 
irregular manner without a crisis. In the majority 
of these cases the fevers relapsed after a brief 
interval, and after the relapse a crisis occurred at 
the end of the same periods as before. The disease 
in many of these instances Avas so protracted that 
it even lasted during the winter. 

Out of all those described in this constitution 
only the consumptives showed a high mortality-rate • 
for all the other patients bore up well, and the 
other fevers did not prove fatal. 



Second Constitution 

IV. In Thasos early in autumn occurred un- 
seasonable wintry storms, suddenly with many north 
and south winds bursting out into rains. These con- 
ditions continued until the setting of the Pleiades and 
during their season. Winter was northerly ; many 
violent and abundant rains ; snows ; generally there 
were fine intervals. With all this, however, the cold 
weather was not exceptionally unseasonable. But 
immediately after the winter solstice, when the west 
wind usually begins to blow, there was a return of 
severe wintry weather, much north wind, snow and 

* The words omitted by Kiihlewein mean "not inter- 
mitting altogether, but with exacerbations after the manner 
of tertians." 

VOL. I. H ^53 



EniAHMinN A 

\a7r(wS?79 Kal e7nve(pe\o<i. ravra Se avvireive 
KoX ovK avUi fiexpt tcrr;/xe/5t7;?. eap 8e ■^vxpov, 
^opeLov, vhaTMSe<;, iirwec^eXov. depo^ ov Xurjv 
A-au/xaTCoSe"? iyevero- irrjaiai (rui^e^ee? eTTvevaav. 
rax^ ^^ Trepl apKTOvpov ev /SopeioLcn iroWa 

17 TTciXiv vBaTa. 

Y. Vevojxevov Be rov eVeo? oXov vypov Kal 
yjrvxpov Kal ^opelov Kara x^'-P'^^'^ P-^^ vyu'ipM'; 
elxov ra irXelaja, Trpon he rov >}/509 ttoXXol Tive<; 
Kal 01 irXelcrTOL Biijyov e-nivoaM'i. ■>]p^avTO fxev 
ovv TO TTpMTOV 6(f)0a\fMiai. pocohee^, oSvvcoBee';, 
vypal a7re7rTft)<f auiKpa Xrjiila hvcrKo\oi<i ttoX- 
Xotaiv eKpyjyvvp^eva' roicri ir/^eLaroiaiv vrre- 
arpecpov cnreXLTTov o^jre irpo'i ro (^yOivoirwpov. 
Kara he 6epo<i Kal (pdivoTrcopov hvaevTepL(j)hee<i Ka\ 

10 Teiveafiol Kal XetevrepKohee^. Kal hidppocai 
YoXa>See9, TroXXoccri XeTTTOicriv, wpbolai Kal haKvoo- 
heaiv, eari h' olcn Kal vharcohee'^. TroXXolai he 
Kal TreplppoiaL ixera irovov xo'Xo)hee<i, uSarcoSee?, 
^va/jLarQ)hee<;, irucohee'i, arpayyovpioohee^;' ov 
vecj^piTiKci, aXXa tovtoictiv avr aXXwv aXXa. 
ejJLeroL ^X€ypiariohee<i, ;T^oA,&)5e69 Kai aiTttov 
aTTeiTTMv avaywyal. thpcore^;' Trdai, wavToOev 
TToXi"? TrXaSo?. iylvero he ravra iroXXolcnv 
opdoardhrjv dirvpoiai, TroXXotai he irvperoi, irept 

20 b)u yeypdyjrerai. ev olcri he virecfyaivero rravra ra 
v-TToyeypafifxeva, fierd ttovov cj)Oii>(ohe€<;. r;S>; he 
(pOivoTrwpov Kal vtto x^ip^^^a nvperol avvexe€<i — 
Kai riaiv avroiv oXlyoiai Kava(i)he€<i — y/xepivoi, 
vvKTepLVol, rjfiirpiraioi,, rpiraiot aKpi^ee^, rerap- 
raloi, TfXdvTjre'i. eKaaroi he rwv vrroyeypa^- 

26 fxevwv TTvpercov iroXXolaiv eyivovro. 

154 



EPIDEMICS I, iv.-v. 

copious rains continuously, sky stormy and clouded. 
These conditions lasted on, and did not remit before 
the equinox. Spring cold, northerly, wet, cloudy. 
Summer did not turn out excessively hot, the Etesian 
winds blowing continuously. But soon after, near 
the rising of Arcturus, there was much rain again, 
with northerly winds. 

V. The whole year having been wet, cold and 
northerly, in the winter the public health in most 
respects was good, but in early spring many, in fact 
most, suffered illnesses. Now there began at first 
inflammations of the eyes, marked by rheum, 
pain, and unconcocted discharges. Small gummy 
sores, in many cases causing distress when they 
broke out ; the great majority relapsed, and ceased 
late on the approach of autumn. In summer and 
autumn dysenteric diseases, tenesmus and lientery ; 
bilious diarrhoea, with copious, thin, crude, smart- 
ing stools ; in some cases it was also watery. 
In many cases there were also painful, bilious de- 
fluxions, watery, full of thin particles, purulent 
and causing strangury. No kidney trouble, but 
their various symptoms succeeded in various orders. 
Wimitings of phlegm, bile, and undigested food. 
Sweats ; in all cases much moisture over all the 
body. These complaints in many cases were un- 
attended with fever, and the sufferers were not con- 
fined to bed ; but in many others there was fever, 
as I am going to describe. Those who showed all 
the symptoms mentioned above were consumptives 
who suffered pain. VVhen autumn came, and during 
winter, continuous fevers — in some few cases ardent 
— day fevers, night fevers, semitertians, exact 
tertians, quartans, irregular fevers. Each of the 
fevers mentioned found many victims. 



ErilAHMinN A 

VI. Ot jxev ovv Kavcrot eKaxlcrroKTi re iyivovTO 
KoX rjKiara tcov Ka/mvovrcov ovtol iTTovrjaav. ovre 
yap r]ixoppd<yei,, el fir] iravv a/j,iKpa xat o\iyoiatv, 
ovre ol TTapdXrjpoi. to. re dWa ttclvt €V(f)opco<;. 
eKpive TOVTOiai irdw eura/CTO)?, rolcri TrXeiaroiai 
avv TTJai SiaXeiTTOvarjaiv iv eTnaKaiheKa rj/jieprjaiv 
ovSe aTTodavovra ovheva olSa rore Kavaw ovSe 
(bpei'iTiKa Tore 'yevofieva. ol 8e rpiraloi TrXelov; 
jxev TCOV Kuvcrcov Koi emTrovooTepoi' evrdKrax; Se 

10 rovTOiai irdcriv d-no rrj^ irpcoTij^; \ijyJrio<; ricrcrapa'i 
■TT€pi6Sov<i' €v emd he reXeaxi eKpivav ov8' 
virecTTpe^av ouSevl rovrmv. ol Se TerapTaloL 
iroWolai p.ev e| dpx^l^ ^v rd^ei rerapTalov 
iw^avTO, ear I Be ol'i ouk oXiyoLaiv i^ dXXwv 
TTvpercbv Kol voaij/jidTcov aTroaraaei reTapratoi 
eyevovTO' fxaKpd he koI ox? eWiarat rovTocai 
KOL en /xaKpoTepa crvveTTiTTTev. d/ii(f)y]p,epivol he 
Kol vvKrepivol /cal 7rXdvi]re<i ttoXXolcti ttoXXol kul 
TToXvv xpo^^^ Trapefxevov opOoardhi^v re kuI 

20 KaraKeifievoLai. rolcri rrXeiaroLcn rovrwv vtto 
7TXr)id8a Kal p.^-^pi' %ef/u,wi/o? ol irvperol irapet- 
TTOvro. (T'naap.oi he rroXXoiai, /xdXXov oe 7raihiot<;, 
e^ dpxv^ i^(^f' vTrerrvpeaaov, Kal irrl rrvperolaiv 
iylvovro arracrpiol' ^/owia pbev roiai rrXeiaroiai 
rovrcov, d/3Xal3ea he, el fxtj rolai Kal eK rwv ctXXcou 

26 rrdvrwv 6Xedpi(i)<i exovaiv. 

VII. Ol he hy] crft'e^e'e? fiev ro dXov Kal ovhev 
eKXeiiTovre'i, rtapo^vvoixevoi he rrdat, rpiracocjivea 
156 



EPIDEMICS I, vi.-vii. 

VI. Now the ardent fevers attacked the fewest 
persons, and these were less distressed than any 
of the other sick. Tiiere was no bleeding from the 
nose, except very slight discharges in a few cases, 
and no delirium. All the other symptoms were 
slight. The crises of these diseases were quite 
regular, generally in seventeen days, counting the 
days of intermission, and I know of no ardent fever 
proving fatal at this time, nor of any phrenitis. 
The tertians were more numerous than the ardent 
fevers and more painful. But all these had four 
regular periods from tlie first onset, had complete 
crises in seven, and in no case relapsed. But the 
quartans, while in many instances they began at first 
with quartan periodicity, yet in not a few they became 
quartan by an abscession from other fevers or ill- 
nesses.^ They were protracted, as quartans usually 
are, or even more protracted than usual. Many 
fell victims to quotidians, night fevers, or irregular 
fevers, and were ill for a long time, either in bed 
or walking about. In most of these cases the fevers 
continued during the season of the Pleiades or even 
until winter. In many patients, especially children, 
there were convulsions and slight feverishness from 
the beginning ; sometimes, too, convulsions super- 
vened upon fevers. Mostly these illnesses were 
protracted, but not dangerous, except for those who 
from all other causes were predisposed to die. 

VII. But those fevers which were altogether con- 
tinuous and never intermitted at all, but in all cases 

^ There are often mixed infections in malaria. If the 
quartan be one of these, being the longest it outlasts the 
others. So tlie disease appears to have turned into a 
quartan. 



EniAHMmN A 

TpoTTOv, fxiav v7roKov(pi^ovre'i koX fxlav irapo^vvo- 
/xevoi, irdvTwv ^laiorarot twv Tore 'yevojxevoyv koI 
/jLa/cpoTaroi Kol fxeTa irovcov fMeyiarcov yevo/nevoi' 
7rpr]e(o^ dp^opevoi, to S' oXov eVtSiSoi^Te? alel kol 
7rapo^vvop,€i'oi kol avdyovre^ irrl to kclkiov 
apcKpa SiaKov(f)t^ovTe<i Kal to-x^ irdXiv i^ 
eTTLcrx^cno'i /SiaiOTepw^ irapo^vvopevoL, iv Kpiai- 

10 /iot? ft)? eVl TO TToXv KaKovpevoL. piyea Be -Trdai 
pep uTdKTd)^ Kal 7r67r\avr]pev(o<i iyiveTO, iXd^iaTU 
8e Kal 7]KL(TTa TOVToiaiv, dXX" iirl twv dXXcov 
TTvpeTOiv pe^o). iSpMTe^ ttoXXoI, tovtoccti Be 
iXdy^K^TOL, KOU(f)l^ovTe<i ovBev, dXX! VTrevainiov 
^Xdj3a<i cf)ep6vTe<;. ylrv^i<; Be ttoXXt] TOUToicriv 
uKpicov Kal p6yt<; dvaO ep paivo pueva. dypurrvoi to 
(Tvi'oXov Kal pidXiaTa ovtol Kal TrdXiv KcopaTcoBee^. 
KoiXlai Be irdat p,ev Tapax<^Bee^ Kal KaKai, ttoXv 
Be TOUTOiai KdKidTai. ovpa Be Tolat TTXelaTOLcn 

20 TovTtov rj XeTTja Kal oopd Kal dxp(^ Kal pueTa 
Xpovov apLKpcL 7re7raiv6p.€va KpiaLp.(o<i i) ird^o'i 
pev e^ovTa, OoXepd Be Kal ovBev KaOiaTupeva, ouB' 
vcpicTTdpeva, i) apuKpa Kal KaKa Kal u>pd ra 
v(f)i(rTdp,eva' KdKiaTa Be TavTa TrdvTwv. /3/}t^69 
Be TrapeiTTovTO p.ev rot? rrvpeTolcn, ypd^jrai. Be ovk 
€X(^ ^Xd/3r]v ouS' (jL)(peXeLi]u yevopevijv Bid /3)/;)^09 

27 Tore. 

VIII. Xpovia pev ovv Kal Bva^epea Kal rrdw 
aTa«T&)9 Kal ireTrXainjpevco'i Kal dKpLToo^ ra 
irXelaTa TovToiv BicTeXei yivopeva Kal Tocac irdpu 
158 



o 



EPIDEMICS I, VII. -vui. 

fjrew worse after the manner of semitertians, with 
remission during one day followed by exacerbation 
during the next, were the most severe of all the 
fevers which occurred at this time, the longest 
and the most painful. Beginning mildly, and on 
the whole increasing always, with exacerbation, 
and growing worse, they had slight remissions 
followed quickly after an abatement by more violent 
exacerbations, generally becoming worse on the 
critical days. AH patients had irregular rigors that 
followed no fixed law, most rarely and least in 
the semitertians,^ but more violent in the other 
fevers. Copious sweats, least copious in the semi- 
tertians ; they brought no relief, but on the con- 
trary caused harm. These patients suffered great 
chill in the extremities, which grew warm again 
with difficulty. Generally there was sleeplessness, 
especially with the semitertians, followed after- 
wards by coma. In all the bowels were disordered 
and in a bad state, but in the semitertians they were 
far the worst. In most of them urine either (a) 
thin, crude, colourless, after a time becoming slightly 
concocted with signs of crisis, or (b) thick enough 
but turbid, in no way settling or forming sediment, 
or ((•) with small, bad, crude sediments, these being 
the worst of all. Coughs attended the fevers, but 
1 cannot say that either harm or good resulted from 
the couffhinj; on this occasion. 

VIII. Now the greatest number of these symptoms 
continued to be protracted, troublesome, very dis- 
ordered, very irregular, and without any critical signs, 
both in the case of those who came very near death 

^ I take the pronoun ovros througliout this chapter to 
refer to the remittent seniitertian, or to sufferer.s from it. 



EniAHMIDN A 

o\€9pi(o<; e-)(0V(Ti Koi rolai firj. el yap riva<i 
avTcov Kol SiaXiTTOi apLL/cpd, Ta')(y ttliXiv 
v7reaTpe(f)ev. eari h otaiv eKptvev avroiv 
oXiyoicxLV, olai ra ^pa')(yTaTa ykvoiTO, irepl 
6yBor]KoaT7]v iovai, kol tovtcov evLOi^ vTrecrTpecpev, 
oyne Kwra -^eiiu-oiva TOv<i TrXelarov; avTCov en 

lU voaelv. Tolai 8e TrXetaroicnv aKp'nu)<i e^eXenrev. 
6fjL0L0}<; 8e ravTa auveTrnrrev rot? Trepcycvofievoiaiv 
KOi TolcTLv ov. TToXX,/}? 8e Tivo<; ytuop,evy]<; 
aKpiau]^; kul 7roiKi\L7]<i eVt tmv voaijfxdrcov xal 
pLeyiarov /xev ai]p.eLov kul KaKiarov Bid, TiXeo<i 
TTapetropievov rolai irXeLaroiatv d7ro(TLTOi<; elvai 
iravrwv yevpLarwv, pidXiaTa Se tovtcov, olat Koi 
TciXXa oXe6pL(o<; e\OL, Sfv/roiSee? ov Xu]v ciKaipcci 
r]aav eVl Tolcn irvpeTolai, TovToiac. yevopuevwv 
Be j^povwv pLUKpoiv Kal irovwv ttoXXmv koI KaKf]<i 

20 avvTTj^LO^, eVt TovTOiaiv d7roaTuai€<; iyivovTO rj 
fxe^ovi, d>aT€ vTTO(^epeiv fir) Svvaadat, ?; pLelov^, 
&jcrT6 fiTjSev (ocpeXelv, dXXd tu^v TraXivSpop-elv 

'23 Kal (TvveTTeLyeiv eirl to xdKiov. 

IX. Hi; Se TOVToiai ra yivopieva BvaevTeptooSea 
Kal TeiveapLOi, Kal \ei6VTepiKol •* kuI pocoSee'i. 
eaTL 8' olai, Kal ySpcoTre? pteTa tovtcov Kal dvev 
TOVTCOV. 6 TL he TiapayevoLTO tovtcov ^laioy's 
Ta-^v (Tvvrjpei, rj ttuXlv eirl to pLrjhev ux^eXelv, 
e^avdyjpLaTa apuKpd Kal ovk d^ico<; r/}? TrepijSoXrji; 
Toov voarjpLdTcov Kal Ta')(y irdXiv d(pavi^6pieva i) 
irapd Ta ooTa olByj/xaTa pLcoXvopieva ^ Kal ovSev 

^ If this be the true reading, and not Xeievreplai, it cannot 
possibly be an adjective in agreement with Teiveffuol, which 
would give an absurd sense. It must agree with some such 
word as ol voaeovTes. 

i6o 



EPIDEMICS I, viii.-ix. 

and in the case of those who did not. For even if 
some patients enjoj-ed sHght intermissions, there 
followed a quick relapse. A few of them experienced 
a crisis, the earliest being about the eightieth day, 
some of the latter having a relapse, so tliat most of 
them were still ill in the winter. The greatest 
number had no crisis before the disease terminated. 
These symptoms occurred in those who recovered 
just as much as in those who did not. The illnesses 
showed a marked absence of crisis and a great variety ; 
the most striking and the worst symptom, which 
throughout attended the great majority, was a com- 
plete loss of appetite, especially in those whose 
general condition exhibited fatal signs, but in these 
fevers they did not suffer much from unseasonable 
thirst. After long intervals, with many pains and 
with pernicious wasting, there supervened abscessions 
either too severe to be endured, or too slight to be 
beneficial, so that there was a speedy return of the 
original symptoms, and an aggravation of the 
mischief.^ 

IX. The symptoms from which these patients 
suffered were dysenteries and tenesmus, lienteries 
also and fluxes. Some had dropsies also, either with 
or without these. Whenever any of these attacked 
violently they were quickly fatal, or, if mild, they did 
no good. Slight eruptions, which did not match the 
extent of the diseases and quickly disappeared again, 
or swellings by the ears that grew smaller ^ and 

1 That is, the abscessions did not carry off the morbid 
humours, which spread again througliout tlie system. 
* IxoXwofxeva woidd mean " remained crude." 



fxuiKvo/jieva Foes : yur) Kvo/xeua A : fxuKvvoneva V. 

i6i 



EITIAHMIQN A 

aTToarj/xatvovTa, eart S' 0I9 e? dpOpa, /xdXiara 8e 
10 Kara la')(^iov, oXiyoiai Kpiai/x(i)<i diroXeiTTOVTa kol 

ra^y irdXiv iiriKpareufMeva eVl rrjv i^ dpxv'^ 
12 e^iv. 

X. "KOprjaKov 6' eK TrdvTcov /xev, rrXetaTOL S' €K 

TOVTWV, Kol TOUTCOV TTtttSta, OaU UTTO 'yaXa/CTOf 

rjhr], Kol TTpea^vrepa, oKraeTea kol SeKuerea, kuI 
oaa Tvpo r^^rj'i. iyivero 8e TOVTOtai ravra ovk 
dv€V rcbv TrpcoTcov yc'ypa/iijjLevcov, ra Be irpwra 
ttoWoIglv dvev Tovrwv. fMovifov Se y^prjarov Kal 
fA,eyicrTov tmp <yevoixevu>v arifieiwv Kal 'ir\eiarov<i 
ippvaajo tmv iovTwv iivl rolcri, p.e'^iaioLai Kivhv- 
voiaiv, olcnv eVl to arpwyyovpicoBe'i irpdireTO Kal 

10 €9 Tovro d7Toardai€<i eyivovro. avveiri'TTre he Kal 
TO arpayyovpicoSe'i rfjaiv rjXiKLrjaiv TavTrjaiv 
ylveadac fidXiaTa. iyiveTO Be Kal tmv dWcov 
TToWolaiv opOoardBrjv Kal eVt TOiv vocrrjfidTcov. 
ra^i) Be Kal fieydXt] Tt9 rj /neTa^oXr) rovTOtac 
irdvrwv iytvero. KoiXiaL re ydp, Kal ei Tu^otei' 
e^vypaii'OfJLevai KaKoijOea rpoirov, ra'^v avv- 
iaravTO, yevjxaaiv Te irdaiv rjBew'i ely^ov, oX re 
TTuperol 7r/3>;e6? /xerd ravra. ')(^p6via Be Kal rov- 
roiai, rd irepl rrjV (xrpayyovptrjv Kal ermrovo)^. 

20 ovpa Be rovrooaiv jjei iroXka rrayea Kal iroiKiXa 
Kal epvOpd, jxei^oTTva /xer oBvvrj'i. irepieyevovro 
Be Travres ovroi, Kal ovBeva rovrwv oiBa diro- 

23 Oavovra. 

XI. "Oaa Bid KivBvva>v, TreTraa/mov^ roiv dmov- 
rcov Trdvra'i irdyroOev eTTLKaLpov<i rj KaXd<i Kal 
Kpiai/jiou<i drrocxrdaca'i cTKOTrelaOai. Treiraa/xol 
ra^vrfjra Kpiawi Kal dacfydXeiav vyt,eiyi<i arj/xai- 

162 



EPIDEMICS I, ix.-xi. 

signified nothing, in some cases appearing at the 
joints, especially the hip-joint, in few instances 
leaving with signs of crisis, when they quickly 
re-established themselves in their original state. 

X. From all the diseases some died, but the greatest 
number from these fevers,^ especially children — those 
just weaned, older children of eiglit or ten years, 
and those approaching puberty. These victims 
never suffered from the latter symptoms without 
the first I have described above, but often the first 
without the latter. The only good sign, the most 
striking that occurred, which saved very many of 
those who were in the greatest danger, was when 
there was a change to strangury, into which absces- 
sions took place. The strangury, too, came mostly 
to patients of the ages mentioned, though it did 
happen to many of the others, either without their 
taking to bed or when they were ill. Rapid and 
great was the complete change that occurred in 
their case. For the bowels, even if they were 
perniciously loose, quickly recovered ; their appetite 
for everything returned, and hereafter the fever 
abated. But the strangury, even in these cases, was 
long and painful. Their urine was copious, thick, 
varied, red, mixed with pus, and passed with pain. 
But they all survived, and I know of none of these 
that died. 

XI. In all dangerous cases you should be on the 
watch for all favourable coctions of the evacuations 
from all parts, or for fair and critical abscessions. 
Coctions signify nearness of crisis and sure recovery 

' It is not clear to what irdyT^v and tovtwv refer. Prob- 
ably -navToiv refers to all the seniitertians, and tovtwv to the 
special type of them described in Chapter IX. 

163 



EniAHMmN A 

vovcnv, di[xa he Kal aTreTrra koX e? KaKU'^ 
dTTOCTTacna^ TpeTTo/xeva ciKpicna^ i) Trovovi i) 
'y^povov'i 7] Oavdrov; i) rcov avToJv vTroarpocpd'i. 
6 Ti 8e TOVTCov earai pbaXiara, atceineov i^ 
dXX(ov. Xeyeiv rd Trpoyevo/xeva, 'ytvuxTKeiv rd 
10 irapeovTa, TrpoXeyeiv ra icrofieva' fieXerdv ravra. 
daKelv irepl rd vocrrj/nara hvo, oxpeXelv r) pi] 
(BXdiTTeLv. 1] Texvrj hid rpiwv, to voarjp.a Kal o 
voaecov Kal o LrjTpo<i' o lr)rpo<i vin^peTrj^ tj}? 
Te)(yi1^' VTT6vai'Tiov(T0ai rw voaijp,aTi rov vocreovra 

15 pLerd Tov irjTpov. 

XII. Td TTepl K€<pa\r]v Kal r pd')(ri\ov d\yj]p,ara 
Kal ^dpea p-er oSvvrj'i dvev trvpeToiv Kal ev 
TTvperolcTf (ppeviTCKolai p,ev (nraapLOi, Kal Iwhea 
€7ravepLevaiv, evioi Ta^yOdvaroi tovtcov. ev 
KavaoiGi he Kal rot? dX\.oi<i irvperol'^, olcrt pev 
Tpax'jXov TToi'o? Kal Kpordt^cov /3dpo<i Kal 
(jKorcohea irepl ra^; oyjria^ Kal vTTO^ovhpLOV avv- 
racTf? ov pL6T 6hvvy]>i yiverai, tovtoktiv alpbop- 
payet hid pivSiV olac he ^dpea p-ev 6\t]<; t/}? 

10 K€(f)a\rj<;, KaphicoypLol he Kal dc7u>hee<; elcnv, eirave- 
piiovaiv ■)(^o\(i>hea Kal cfyXeypiarcohea. to ttoXv 
he Traihioicriv ev rotai TOiovToiaiv oi cnraapbol 
pidXiaTa, yvvai^l he Kal ravra Kal diro varepeaw 
TTOvoi, irpea^viepoKTi he Kal 6aoi<i i]hi] to depp.ov 
KpaTetTai, TrapaTrXrjytKd rj p-aviKd 17 aT€pi]aie<i 

16 6(f)daXp,cov. 

KaTaaTaai^ TpiTrj 

XIII. 'El* %dcr(p irpo dpKTOvpov oXiyov Kal 
eV dpKTOvpov vhaTa TroXXd pLeydXa ev /Sopeioi'i. 
irepl he larrjpLeplrjv Kal P'^XP'' '^^V''^^o<; voTia 
164 



EPIDEMICS I, xi.-xiii. 

of health, but crude and unconcocted evacuations, 
which change into bad abscessions, denote absence 
of crisis, pain, prolonged illness, death, or a return 
of the same symptoms. But it is by a consideration 
of other signs that one must decide which of these 
results will be most likely. Declare the past, 
diagnose the present, foretell the future ; practise 
these acts. As to diseases, make a habit of two 
things — to help, or at least to do no harm. The 
art has three factors, the disease, the patient, the 
physician. The physician is the servant of the art. 
The patient must co-operate with the physician in 
combating the disease. 

XII. Pains about the head and neck, and heaviness 
combined with pain, occur both without and with 
fever. Sufferers from phrenitis have convulsions, and 
eject verdigris-coloured vomit ; some die very quickly. 
But in ardent and the other fevers, those with pain in 
the neck, heaviness of the temples, dimness of sight, 
and painless tension of the hypochondrium, bleed 
from the nose ; those with a general heaviness of the 
head, cardialgia, and nausea, vomit afterwards bile and 
phlegm. Children for the most part in such cases 
suffer chieHv from the convulsions. Women have 
both these symptoms and pains in the womb. Older 
people, and those whose natural heat is failing, have 
paralysis or raving or blindness. 



Third Constitution 

XIII. In Thasos a little before and at the season 
of Arcturus many violent rains with northerly winds. 
About the equinox until the setting of the Pleiades 

165 



EniAHMIDN A 

va/Mara oXlya. xeiixwv ^6peco<i, avx/^ot, yfrv^^^ea, 
TTvevfiara /xeydXa, '^i6v€<;. irepl Be tcryjfiepLrjv 
')(^€i/jicove<; fxiyiaroi. eap jSopeiov, av)(p.0L, vafxara 
oXiya, ■^v-)(^ea. irepl St yXiov rpo7ra<i Oepivaq vBara 
oXija, fzeyaXa ■^v')(^ea /xe;^/3i kvvo^ iTrXTjalaae.^ 
fieTO. Se Kuva p-^XP^ dpKTOupou 6epo<; Oeppiov 

10 Kavpiara p-eydXa Kal ovk Ik irpoaaycoj)}^, dWd 
avve^^a Kal fBiaiw vScop ovk iyevero' irrjaiat 
errvevaav. irepl dpKrovpov vap^ara voria p-e^pi 

13 lat]p.€pLr}^. 

XIV. Ei^ rfj KaracrTacret, ravTrj Kara x^Lpiwva 
p-ev i']p^avTO iraparrXriyiaL Kal rroWolaiv eyivovTO, 
Ktti Tive<; avrcov eOvrjaKov Bid Tay^ewv Kal yap 
dWQ)<; TO voarjpLa eTTtBripLOV rjv rd Be dWa 
BieTeXeov dvoaoi. Trpco'i Be tou r]po^ rjp^avro 
Kavaoi Kal BieTeXeov piexpi lo'rjp.epiTj'i Kal tt/oo? 
TO 6epo<i. oaoL p,ev ovv rjpo<; Kal 6epeo<; dp^apbevov 
avTLKa voaelv yp^avTO, at irXelaToi Bteaw^ovro, 
oXtyoL Be rive<i e6i'r)<TKov. I'jBi] Be rou (j)6u'OTTwpov 

10 Kai Twv vapidrcov yevop,eva)v Oavardyhee^i rjaav Kal 
TrXeiou? a7rd)XXvvTo. 

'Hv Be rd 7ra6}]/jLaTa roov Kavacov, olai p.ev 
«a\co? Kal BaylnXewi eK pivcov alp,oppay)](TaL,^ Bid 
Tovrov p.aXi(TTa aw^eadai, Kai ovBeva oiBa, el 
KaXcb'i aip,oppayi](jai,^ ev -rfj Karaardaei Taurrj 
diToOavovTa. 'i>iXl(TK(p yap Kal EiTrap^eivovi Kal 
^iX')]vq) TerapraLO) Kal irepbrrTairp apuKpov d-no 
pu'ojv eara^ev diredavov. o'l p.ev ovv irXelaToi, 
TOiv voa^jadi'Tcov irepl Kpiaiv eirepplyovv Kal 

^ I suspect the MSS. reading, as i/'Sara and ^vx^a can 
scarcely be the subjects of iirx-qaiacrf. I think that iirKriaiaffe 

1 66 



EPIDEMICS I, xiii.-xiv. 

slight, southei-ly rains. Winter northerly, droughts, 
cold periods, violent winds, snow. About the 
equinox very severe storms. Spring northerly, 
droughts, slight rains, periods of cold. About the 
summer solstice slight showers, periods of great cold 
until near the Dog Star. After the Dog Star, until 
Arcturus, hot summer. Great heat, not intermittent 
but continuous and severe. No rain fell. The 
Etesian winds blew. About Arcturus southerly 
rains until the equinox. 

XIV. In this constitution durinff winter began 
paralyses which attacked many, a few of whom 
quickly died. In fact, the disease was generally 
epidemic. In other respects the public health 
continued good. Early in spring began ardent 
fevers which continued until the equinox and on to 
summer. Now those who began to be ill at once, in 
spring or the beginning of summer, in most cases 
got well, though a few died ; but when autumn and 
the rains came the cases were dangerous, and 
more died. 

As to the peculiarities of the ardent fevers, the 
most likely patients to survive were those who had a 
proper and copious bleeding from the nose, in fact I 
do not know of a single case in this constitution that 
proved fatal when a proper bleeding occurred. For 
Philiscus and Epaminon and Silenus, who died, had 
only a slight epistaxis on the fourth and fifth days. 
Now the majority of the patients had rigors near the 



either is part of a gloss, or has replaced a verb meaning 
" persisted." 

^ alfioppaynffai Kiihlewem: al/j.oppay?^(rai AY. 

^ al/jioppayr)(Tai Kiihlewein : aluoppayTJcrat A : ai/xoppayijafi V. 

167 



EniAHMmN A 

20 fxaXiara oiai /jltj aifMoppay/jcrat.^ €7repptyovv Se 

21 t /f^i t ^ ovTOL Kal ecpLBpovv. 

XV. "EcTTi Se olaiv iKrepot eKraioa, aWa 
TOVTOi,<; 7] Kara kvcttlv Ka.6apcn<i 17 KOLkirj i/crapa- 
'XOelaa wfpeXei r) Sa'x/^tX^? alfioppajirj, olov 
WpaicXeihri, 09 KarefceiTo irapa \\piaroKu8ei. 
KauTOi TOVT(p Kal CK pLvoiv r]/j,oppdy)]ae Kal t/ 
KoCkiTj €7r€Tapa')^di], Kal Kara Kvariv €Kad>']paTO' 
eKp'iQr] elKoaTalo<i' ov^ olov o ^avajopeco Oi/treT?;?, 
CO ovSev TOVTWV iyevero' airedavev. yfMoppdyeL 
oe Tolac TrXeiaroiai, puiXicrra he fietpaKioiai Kal 

10 aKfxa^ovcri, Kai eOvrjCTKov TrXelaroi tovtcov, olai 
jjbrj ai flop pay )](rai.^ Trpecr^vrepoicn Se e? iKTepov; 
i] KOLXiaL Tapa')((i)See<i, olov Jiicovt r5> irapa 
'S.iXrjvov KaTaK6i/ji€V(p. iireBripijaav Be Kal Bua- 
evTepiai Kara 6epo<i, Kai rcai Kal twv hiavoa)]- 
(xdvTOiv, olai Kal ai/ioppayiai eyevovTO, eV 
hvaevrepioihea ireXevTrjaev, olov tw 'E/5aT&)i^09 
iraihl Kal MuWco ttoXXtj'; ai/ioppayLy]<; y€vofievT]<i 
e? SvaevTepiooSea KareaTi]' TvepieyevovTO. 

TIoXv<i fxev ovv fxdXiara ovro<i 6 ^i/yuo? eVe- 

20 TToXaaev, iirel Kal olai irepl Kplcriv ov^ Vf^^p- 
payi-jcrev, dXXd irapd to. mtu iiravaardvTa 
rj^avKjOrj—TOVTwv he dcfiaviadevTcov Trapd rov 
Kevewva ^dpoq rov dpiarepov Kal e? ciKpov la')(iov 
— dXytjpaTo^ fierd Kplaiv yevojxevov Kal ovpcov 
Xeirroiv hie^iovTcov, alpioppayeiv apbiKpa yp^aro 
irepi TerdpTrjv Kal eiKoaTijv, Kal iyevovro e's 

' ai/j-opfiayriffat Kiihleweiu : al/xoppayrjcrat A : alp.oppayr\(rei. V. 

^ KoX before oItoi is contrar}' to the sense. One RIS. (D) 
omits it. Galen read ol avToi for koI uvtoi. The omission 
of Kol is the simplest remedy. 

168 



EPIDEMICS r, xiv.-xv. 

crisis, especially such as had no epistaxis^ but these 
had sweats also as well as rigors. 

XV. Some had jaundice on the sixth day, but 
these were benefited by either a purging through 
the bladder or a disturbance of the bowels or a 
copious hemorrhage, as was the case with Hera- 
clides, who lay sick at the house of Aristocydes. 
This patient, however, who had a crisis on the 
twentieth da}', not only bled from the nose, but also 
experienced disturbance of the bowels and a purging 
through the bladder. Far otherwise was it with the 
servant of Phanagoras, who had none of these 
symptoms, and died. But the great majority had 
hemorrhage, especially youths and those in the 
prime of life, and of these the great majority who 
had no hemorrhage died. Older people had jaundice 
or disordered bowels, for example Bion, who lay 
sick at the house of Silenus. Dysenteries also were 
general in summer, and some too of those who had 
fallen ill, and also suffered from hemorrhage, finally 
had dysentery ; for example, the slave of Erato and 
Myllus, after copious hemorrhage, lapsed into dysen- 
tery. They recovered. 

This humour,! then, especially was in great abun- 
dance, since even those who had no hemorrhagre 
near the crisis, but swellings by the ears which 
disappeared — and after their disappearance there 
was a heaviness along the left flank up to the ex- 
tremity of the hip — after the crisis had pain and 
passed thin urine, and then began to sufl^er slight 
hemorrhage about the twenty-fourth day, and 

' That is, blood, 

' alfj.oppayriaai. K.uh\ewein: alfMoppayTiffai AV:T]/j.oppiyri<Tfi' A*. 

169 



EniAHMIQN A 

al flop pay itjv diroaTdaie^i' ^ Avtk^wvtl Kptro- 
^ovXov direTTavaaro Koi eKpldr) TeXew? nepl 
29 recrcrapaKoaTTjv. 

XVI. Fu/'at/ce? hi evoa-qcrav /nev iroWai, eXda- 
aov<; he i) dv8pe<i koI eOvrjaKOv Tjaaov. ehvaroKeov 
he al TrXeiarai koI fxeTa rov<; t6kov<; eirevoaeov, 
Koi eOvrjaKov avrac fidXicTTa, olov ?) 'Ve\e^ov\ov 
dvydrrip drrWavev eKrairj e« tokov. rfjai jxev 
ovv 7r\eiarr](Tcv ev rolai TTvpeTolcn 'yvvaiKela 
eire<^a'iveTO koI Trapdevoiai iroWfjai Tore Trpcorov 
iyeveTO' eart 8' ycrcv y/xoppdyrjaev ck pivwv ^ 
eaTi h' 6t€ koX ck pivcov kol to, yuvaiKeca Trjcrtv 

10 avrfjaiv e'ne(paiveTO, olov ttj Aaiddpaec; dvyarpl 
irapOevo) e'TTe(f)dv'>] rare irpSiTOV koI eV pivcov 
Xd^pov eppvrj, kol ovhepblav olha drrodavovaav, 
fjai TovTwv Ti Ka\M<i yevoiTO. fjaihe (TweKvprjaev 
ev yaarpl e')(^ovar](TL vparjaai, Trdaai direcfydeipav, 

15 a<? Kol eya> olha. 

XVII. Ovpa he rolat TrXeiaroKTiv €v)(p(o p.ev, 
XeTTTO. he Kal vTrocndaiwi oXiywi e^ovra, KOiXiai 
he rapa^ooSee? TOiat irXeiaroiaL hia)(^(jop7]pLaai, 
XeiTTolcn Kol ^oXcoSeo'i. iroXXolcri he tmv dXXcov 
KeKpifieviov e? hvaevTepia'i eTeXeura, olov Sevo- 
(pdvei Kal Kpirla. ovpa he uharcohea iroXXd 
KaOapd Kal Xeirra Kal fxera Kpiaiv Kai vtto- 
ardaio^ «aX?}? yevop.evrj'i Kal tcov dXXa)v KaXoi)<i 
KeKpifievwv dvapLvy'iaopbaL olcriv eyevero' J^lcovi, 09 

10 KareKeiTO irapd ^iXrjvov, Kpdrtht ^ rfj jrapa 
'B,evo(^dveo's, 'ApeTcovo<i Traihi, ^Ivrjaiarpdrou 
yvvaiKi. ixeTCL he hvaevrepioohee^ eyevovro ovroi 
irdvre^. 

Tlepl he dpKTOvpov evheKaraioLcn iroXXolaiv 
170 



EPIDEMICS I, xv.-xvii. 

abscessions into hemorrhage occurred. In the case 
of Antipho, son of Critobuhis, the illness ceased and 
came to a complete crisis about the fortieth day. 

XVI. Though many women fell ill, they were 
fewer than the men and less frequently died. But 
the great majority had difficult childbirth, and after 
giving birth they would fall ill, and these especially 
died, as did the daughter of Telebulus on the sixth 
day after delivery. Now menstruation appeared 
during the fevers in most cases, and with many 
maidens it occurred then for the first time. Some 
bled from the nose. Sometimes both epistaxis and 
menstruation appeared together ; for example, the 
maiden daughter of Daitharses had her first men- 
struation during fever and also a violent discharge 
from the nose. I know of no woman who died if 
any of these symptoms showed themselves properly, 
but all to my knowledge had abortions if they 
chanced to fall ill when with child. 

XVII. Urine in most cases was of good colour, but 
thin and with slight sediments, and the bowels of most 
were disordered with thin, bilious excretions. Many 
after a crisis of the other symptoms ended with dysen- 
tery, as did Xenophanes and Critias. I will mention 
cases in which was passed copious, watery, clear and 
thin urine, even after a crisis in other respects favour- 
able, and a favourable sediment : Bion, who lay sick 
at the house of Silenus, Gratis, who lodged with 
Xenophanes, the slave of Areto,and the wife of Mnesi- 
stratus. Afterwards all these suffered from dysentery. 

About the season of Arctiirus many had crisis on 

* MS8. place ecm 5' fiaiy . . . piuQv after iTrf(palueTo. Tlie 
words were first transposed by Ernieiins. 
- KpariSi Meineke : Kparip V : KpaTiahri A. 

171 



EniAHMIQN A 

eKpive Koi rovToiaiv ovB' ai Kara \6yov ytv6fx€vai 
u7roarpo(f)al V7reaTpe(f)ov' rjaav Be Kal Kco/jbarooSees 
irepl Tov ^povov rovrov, irXeioi he TTaihla, Kal 

18 eOvrjcTKOv 7]Ki(Tra ovTOt rravTcov. 

XVIII. Ilepl Be larj/jbepLTjv Kal P'^XP^ TTXrjidSo^ 
Kal vTTo x^ipioiva TTapenrovTO p.ev oi Kavaoi, 
arap Kal oi (ppevLTiKol TrjViKavTa irXelaToi 
eyevovTO Kal Wvijctkov tovtcov oi TrXelcnoL. 
eyevovTO he Kal Kara Qepa oXiyoL. TOiai p.ev 
ovv Kavacoheaiv ap^opevoKTiv iiTearjp^aLvev, olcn 
TO. oXeOpia avvem-mev avriKU yap dp^op-evoiai 
TTvpero'i 6^v<i, ap,LKpd eireppiyovv, aypvirvoL,^ 
hiyjrcohee'i, dacohee'i, ap,iKpa e(j>ihpovv irepl p^ercoirov 

10 Kal KX7]lha'i, ovhel<i hi^ oXov, TroWd irapeXeyov, 
(f)6^oi, hvaOvpLiai, ciKpea irepi^vxpa, TToSe? aKpoi, 
pidXXov he ra irepl x^lpa^;' ol irapo^vap^ol ev 
dpTLTjar Tolcn he TrXeiaToiaiv TerapraioKTiv ol 
TTovoi p,eyiaToi Kal [hpoo^ eirl irXelarov viro'^v'xpo'i 
Kal aKpea ovk en dveOepp-alvovTO, dXXa weXihi^d 
Kal yjrvxpd, ovh ehL-yjrcov en eirl TOVTOiaiv ovpa 
rovTOL'i oXiya, p,eXava, Xeirrd Kal KoiXiai i<^i- 
aravTO' ovS' ■)]p,oppdy7]aev e'/c pivcov ovhevi, olai 
ravra (TvpiriirTOi, dW' ?; apuKpa ecTTa^ev ovh' e? 

2U inroarpocpyv ovhevi tovtcov rjXdev, dXX! eKTaloi 
direOvrjcTKOv avv ihpMTL. Tolai he (f>peviTiKoicn 
crvveTrnrre p,ev Kal ra inroyeypap^p^eva iravTu, 
eKpive he Tovroicnv &>? enl to ttoXv evheKaTaioiaiv 
ean 5' olai Kal eiKoaTaioiai, olaiv ovk ev9v<i ^ 
^^ "/^X'5'* V 4^P^vIti<; yp^aTO i) ^ irepl TpiTrjv 
rj TerdpTTjv rjp.eprjv, dWd p.eTptco'i e)(ovaiv ev tu> 

^ After &ypvin'oi. Galen adds aS-n/xoyts. 
172 



EPIDEMICS I, xvii.-xviii. 

the eleventh day, and these did not suffer even the 
normal relapses. There were also comatose fevers 
about this time, usually in children, and of all 
patients these showed the lowest mortality. 

XVI II. About the equinox up to the setting of 
the Pleiades, and during winter, although the ardent 
fevers continued, yet cases of phrenitis were most 
frequent at this time, and most of them were fatal. 
In summer, too, a few cases had occurred. Now the 
sufferers from ardent fever, when fatal symptoms 
attended, showed signs at the beginning. For right 
from the beginning there was acute fever with slight 
rigors, sleeplessness, thirst, nausea, slight sweats 
about the forehead and collar-bones, but in no case 
general, much delirium, fears, depression, very cold 
extremities, toes and hands, especially the latter. 
The exacerbations on the even days ; but in most 
cases the pains were greatest on the fourth day, with 
sweat for the most part chilly, while the extremities 
could not now be warmed again, remaining livid and 
cold ; and in these cases the thirst ceased. Their 
urine was scanty, black, thin, with constipation of the 
bowels. Nor was there hemorrhage from the nose in 
any case when these symptoms occurred, but only 
slight epistaxis. None of these cases suffered relapse, 
but they died on the sixth day, with sweating. 
The cases of phrenitis had all the above symptoms, 
but the crises generally occurred on the eleventh 
day. Some had their crises on the twentieth day, 
namely those in whom the phrenitis did not begin 
at first, or began about the third or fourth day, but 

* oiiK eudvs Kiihleweiii : fvdvs ovk most AlfcJS.: olaiv 

/jLerftreaev omitted by A V. 

* ^ added by Kiihlewein. 



EniAHMiaN A 

Trpooro) ')(^p6vu> irepl rrjv e^86fj.7]v e? 6^vT)]ra to 

28 voai]/j.a fxereireaev. 

XIX. WXrjdo'i /J-ev ovv tmv voarjpLdrwv eyeveTo. 
eK Se Tcov KafJbvovTwv arreOvrjaKOv fidXiara 
/xeipaKia, vioi, a/c/xa^of re?, Xeloi, uTro\evK6)(pwre<:, 
Wvrpi')(^e<i, /j,e\ai'6Tpi)(^e<;, /j.e\ai'6(f)6a\f2,oi, oi elKfj 
Kal iirl TO 'pndvfxov /Se^tcoKOTe';, la^vocpwvoi, rpyj- 
-^^vcficovoi, rpavXoi, opylXoi. Kal yvvaiKe'i irXelaTai 
eK Tourov tov el'Seo? diredvrjcrKOv. iv Se ravTij 
rfi KaraardaeL errl at]/j.6LU)i> /j-dXtaTa reaadpwv 
Bieacp^ovTO' olcn yap 7] Sid pLvoiV KaXoi^ aifiop- 

iO payijaai ^ 77 Kara Kvariv ovpa iroXXd Kal iroXXi-jv 
Kal KaXrjv inroaraaiv €)(^ovTaeX6oi ?} Kara kolXltjv 
Tapa)((i)Bea y^oXwheatv evLKaipu)^, rj hvaevrepiKol 
yevoiaro. voXXolai Se avveTmne fi?; e'0' ei'O? 
KptveaOai tmv inroyeypap-p-epcov arjpbeiwv, dXXd 
Ste^ievat, Sid irdvToov rolcri TrXeiaTOicn Kal BoKelv 
p,ev ex^iv 6)(XrjpoT€p(o<;' Bieaco^ovro 8e Traz^re?, 
olai ravra crvp,7rL7rT0i. yvvai^l 8e kuI irapdevoiai 
avveTTLTTTe p.ev Kal rd vrroyeypapLpieva arjpiela 
irdvTa, §ai Se rj tovtcov ri /caA-co? yevoLTO rj rci 

20 yvvaiKela ha-^iXeco^ eincfyaveLT], Sid rourcov eacp- 
tovTO Kal eKpLve, Kal ovhepLiav olBa aTroXop-evrjv, 
fjcri TOVTCOV TL KaXo)'^ yevoLTO. ^iXwvo^ yap 
OuydTrjp,^ eK pivcov Xd^pov ippw], e/38op,airj eovaa 
eheiTTvrjaev aKaiporipwi' direOavev. 

OlcTLV iv irvpeTolcnv o^eai, p.dXXov Se Kavado- 
Seaiv, deKovaiv SdKpva irapappel, rovroiaiv utto 
pLvcbv aipLoppayirjv irpoaBe-^eaOai, rjv Kal TaXXa 

' aiVoppa7-^(7ai Kiihlewein : atfj.oppayri<Tat Y : T]noppd.yt\(T(v A, 
with ev in litura. 



EPIDEMICS I, xviu.-xix. 

though these fared tolerably at the beginning, yet 
the disease assumed an acute form about the seventh 
day. 

XIX. Now the number of illnesses was great. And 
of the patients there died chiefly striplings, young 
people, people in their prime, the smooth, the fair- 
skinned, the straight-haired, the black-haired, the 
black-eyed, those who had lived recklessly and care- 
lessly, the thin-voiced, the rough-voiced, the lispers, 
the passionate. Women too died in very great 
numbers who were of this kind. In this constitution 
there were four symptoms especially which denoted 
recovery :— a proper hemorrhage through the nostrils ; 
copious discharges by the bladder of urine with 
much sediment of a proper character ; disordered 
bowels with bilious evacuations at the right time ; 
the appearance of dysenteric characteristics. The 
crisis in many cases did not come with one only 
of the symptoms described above, but in most cases 
all symptoms were experienced, and the patients 
appeared to be more distressed ; but all with these 
symptoms got well. Women and maidens experi- 
enced all the above symptoms, but besides, whenever 
any took place properly, and whenever copious men- 
struation supervened, there was a crisis therefrom 
which resulted in recovery ; in fact I know of no 
woman who died when any of these symptoms took 
place properly. For the daughter of Philo, who 
died, though she had violent epistaxis, dined rather 
unseasonably on the seventh day. 

In acute fevers, more especially in ardent fevers, 
when involuntary weeping occurs, epistaxis is to be 

^ After Ouya.Ti]p Kiihlewein adds ■p. 



EniAHMinN A 

o\€6pLO)<i fX7] e)(^(oaiv, en el rolai ye (pXaupcoi; 
e)(^ov(Tiv oux alfioppaylrjv, aWa ddvarov 

30 (n]/j.aLV€i.^ 

XX. Ta TTupa ra coxa ev TrvperolcTiv erraipofxeva 
jxer ohvvT]^ eariv olaiv eKXeirrovTO^ tou TTvperov 
Kpiai/j,(o<i OUTS KadicnaTO ovre i^eTrvei' tovtokjl 
SicippoLai ')(o\u)heu)V ?) huaevjepii] rj maykwv 
ovpcov v7ro(TTa(Ti'i yepop,evT] eXvaei', olov Ejpp.L7nra) 
rat K.Xa^op.eplq}. to, 8e Trepl Ta<; Kpiaia'^, e^ 
(i)v Kol BiejLvcoaKOfiev, rj ofioia rj dvofiota, olov 
ol Bvo dSe\(f)eoL, ot ■tjp^auTO o/nov tj]v avT7]v 
6)pr)v' KareKeiVTO irapa to Oeperpov '£77*761/60?." 

10 Tovrcov Tft) Trpecr^vTepfp eKpivev eKTaiw, t&) he 
vewrepu) kjBhopLaicp. VTrearpe^lrev dfi(f)OTepoi(Tiv 
op.ov rrjv avri]v Mpyjv koI SieXiirev 7]p,epa<; irevre. 
e/c Be tt}? VTroarpocf))}'; eKplOrj dpLfpojepoicnv ofiov 
TO avpLirav eTTTaKaiSe/caTaloiaiv. eKpive Be tolcti 
TrXeiaToiaiv eKraioi^. BieXeiirev e^' €k Be tmv 
vTToarpocpewv efcpive Tre/xTTTatof?. alert 8' eKpivev 
e^Bop,aioiai, BieXenrev eTrrd' e'/c Be t^? vTToarpocpfj^; 
eKpive rpiTatot^. olcn, S' eKpivev e^Bo/xaioiai, 
BiaXeiTTovra rpei^ eKpivev e^Bop.aioL<;. olai B' 

20 CKpivev eKTaioiai, BiaXeiTTovTa e^ eXdfi/3ave 
rpiaiv, BieXeiTre pLiav, fxiav eXdp,/3avev eKpivev, 
olov liivdyovTi T(p AaiOdpaeo'i. olai B' eKpivev 
eKTaioiai, BieXenrev eind, eK Be rrj<i v7roaTpo(f)f]<i 
eKpive Terdprr], olov rj} ' AyXaiBov dvyarpi. 01 
pLev ovv irXeiaroi rwv voaijcrdvTCOv ev ttj kutu- 
ardaei ravrrj tovtco ru> rpoirm Bievoarjaav, koI 

^ Ermerins would omit oJaiv to a-ni.Laivet. 
* After 'Ziciyiveos the MSS. add aSeA(^eof. 

176 



EPIDEMICS I, xix.-xx. 

expected it the patient have no fatal symptoms 
besides ; for when he is in a bad way such weeping 
portends not hemorrhage but death. 

XX. The painful swellings by the ears in fevers 
in some cases neither subsided nor suppurated when 
the fever ceased with a crisis. They were cured by 
bilious diarrhoea, or dysentery, or a sediment of 
thick urine such as closed the illness of Hermippus 
of Clazomenae. The circumstances of the crises, 
from which too I formed my judgments, were either 
similar or dissimilar ; for example, the two brothers, 
who fell sick together at the same time, and lay ill 
near the bungalow of Epigenes. The elder of these 
had a crisis on the sixth day, the younger on the 
seventh. Both suffered a relapse together at the 
same time with an intermission of five days. After 
the relapse both had a complete crisis together on 
the seventeenth day. But the great majority had 
a crisis on the sixth day, with an intermission of 
six days followed by a crisis on the fifth day after the 
relapse. Those who had a crisis on the seventh day 
had an intermission of seven days, with a crisis on 
the third day after the relapse. Others with a crisis 
on the seventh had an intermission of three days, 
with a crisis on the seventh day after the relapse. 
Some who had a crisis on the sixth day had an 
intermission of six and a relapse of three, an inter- 
mission of one and a relapse of one, followed by a 
crisis ; for example, Euagon the son of Daitharses. 
Others with a crisis on the sixth had an intermission 
of seven days, and after the relapse a crisis on the 
fourth ; for example, the daughter of Aglaidas. Now 
most of those who fell ill in this constitution went 
through their illness in this manner, and none of 

177 



EniAHMmN A 

ovBeva olBa tmv Treptyevofxevoyv, <Zrivi ov^ 
VTreaTpeyjrav al Kara Xoyov viroai-pof^ai yevop-evai, 
Kol Bieacv^ovTO 7^a^'Tt~?, o&? Kayco olha, olatv al 

30 V7roaTpo(f>al Bia rov elheo^ tovtov yevolaro. ovhe 
ru)v BiavoayjaavTUfu Bia tovtov tov Tpoirov ovSevl 

32 olSa v7roaTpoc})y]V yevopivijv irdXiv, 

XXI. "Ei6i>r}aK0v Be Tocai voarjfiaai toutoi? ol 
irXelaTot eKTaloi, olov 'Yjirapeivoivha'i Kol ^iXrjvo'i 
KOi ^CkLaK0<; 6 'AvTayopew. olcrt Se to, irapa to, 
wxa yeuoLUTo, eKpive [xev ecKoaTaiOLac, KUTea^r] 
8e irdai koX ovk e^cTrvrjaev, dXX iwl KvaTiv 
eTpdireTo. K.paTiaTcovaKTi, o? -rrap^ HpuKXet 
oiKCt, Koi "SiKV/jLvov tov yi'a(j)e(o<i Oepairaivr] 
i^eirvrjaev' direOavov' olat 8 eKpivev e^hofxaioLcn, 
SieXeiirev evvea, vireaTpe^ev, eKpivev e« t?}? 

10 v7ToaTpo(f>y]<i TeTapTacoiat — ^ IlavTaKXel, 09 (pKei, 
irapa Aiovvacov — . olcri S' eKpivev e^Sopaioiaiv, 
SieXeiTrev e^' VTroaTpocf))')' e'/c Be tj}? inrocTT poi^rj'^ 
eKpivev e^hopaioiai — ^ ^avoKpiTO), 09 KaTeKeiTO 

J 4 napd TvdOcovi tS> yva(f)€i. 

AAli. I TTO be ^eipcova Trepi r]Xiov TpoTra<; 
')(eipepivd<i Kol pe^pi la->]pep(,i]<i Tvape/xevov pev 
Kal ol Kavcroi kuI tu (ppeviTiKa, Koi eOvrjaKov 
TToXXoi' al pievToi Kpl(Tie<i peTeireaov, Kal eKpive 
Toiai irXeicTTOKTiv i^ dp')(^rj^ TrepTTTaloiai, SieXenre 
Teaaapa<i, inreaTpe^ev, e'/c he T/79 v7TO(TTpo(f)f]'i 
eKpive TrepiTTTaloLai, ro crvp-Trav TeaaapeaKai- 
BeKaTaloi^. eKpive he rraihioiaiv ovtco TOiai 
irXeicTTOicnv, aTap Kal irpea^vTepoicriv. eaTi he 

' Here some editors would add oToy. 
178 



EPIDEMICS I, xx.-xxii. 

those who recovered, so far as I know, failed to 
suffer the relapses which were normal in these cases, 
but all, so far as I know, recovered if their relapses 
took place after this fashion. Further, I know of 
none who suffered a fresh relapse after going through 
the illness in the manner described above. 

XXI. In these diseases most died on the sixth 
day, as did Epaminondas, Silenus and Philiscus the 
son of Antagoras. Those who had the swellings by 
the ears had a crisis on the twentieth day, but these 
subsided in all cases without suppuration, being 
diverted to the bladder. There were two cases of 
suppuration, both fatal, Cratistonax, who lived near 
the temple of Heracles, and the serving-maid of 
Scymnus the fuller. When there was a crisis on 
the seventh day, with an intermission of nine days 
followed by a relapse, there was a second crisis on 
the fourth day after the relapse — in the case of 
Pantacles, for example, who lived by the temple of 
Dionysus. When there was a crisis on the seventh 
day, with an intermission of six days followed by a 
relapse, there was a second crisis on the seventh day 
after the relapse — in the case of Phanocritus, for 
example, who lay sick at the house of Gnathon the 
fuller. 

XXII. During winter, near the time of the 
winter solstice, and continuing until the equinox, 
the ardent fevers and the phrenitis still caused 
many deaths, but their crises changed. Most cases 
had a crisis on the fifth day from the outset, then 
intermitted four days, relapsed, had a crisis on the 
fifth day after the relapse, that is, after thirteen 
days altogether. Mostly children experienced crises 
thus, but older people did so too. Some had a crisis 

179 



EniAHMIDN A 

10 olacv eKpivev evSeKaraiOi'i, virocrrpo^r] rearaapea- 
KatStKaTaloi^, CKptve TcXeo)? eiKoaTrj. el Be TLve<i 
eTreppiyovv irepl ttjv ecKoarrjv, rovTOicnv k/cpive 
reaaapaKOCTTaLOi'i. eTreppiyovv 8' ot ifK-elcnoL 
irept KpiCTLV rrjv i^ a/O^*}?* of S' iTnppiycocravTe'i 
i^ ap)(ri'i rrepX Kpiaiv, koI ev Trjcriv v7roaTpo(f)f]aii' 
a/xa Kpiaei. ippiyovv K ekd'^^LaTOi fiev tov rjpo'i, 
Oepeo<; TrXetou?, (pOivoircopov eji irXeiov;, virb 8e 
')(eip,(tiva TToXv irXeiarot,. al he aip,oppayiat 

19 vTTeXtfyov. 

XXIII. Ta he irepX ra voai]ixaTa, e'^ ojv 
hceyivcoaKo/xev, fxa06vTe<i eK t?}? kolvi]'^ (^vaio^ 
cLTTavTcov Kol T?}? ihlif]^ eKacTTOV, eK TOV voar^p.aTO<i, 
eK TOV voaeovTO<;, eK tmv TTpoa(f)epo/xeva>v, eK tov 
■7rpoa(f)epovTO^ — eirl to paovyap Kal ')(^aXe7r(i)Tepov 
eK TOVTcov — , eK Ttj'i KaTaaTo.aiO'i oA.?;? Kal kutcl 
fxepea tcov ovpavlcov koI ')(^ci)pri<i eKaaTrj^, ex tov 
eOeo<i, eK t>)9 hiaiTi]^, eK tmv e7riTr]hevp,dTU>v, eK 
Tr}? ?)\ik[7](; eKacTTOV, Xoyoiai, TpoiroKTi, (Xtyfi, hia- 

10 vo')]/jiaaiv, virvoiacv, ov^ vrrvoiaiv, evvirvLotcn, 
o'loiai Kal OTe, TiX/xoiai, Kvqcrpbolcn, huKpvaiv, 
eK TOiv Trapo^vapiMV, hLaxwpyj/naaiv, ovpoiaiv, 
TTTvaXoKJcv, e/j-eToiai, Kal oaat i^ oioiv e? oca 
htaho-^al voaijfxciTcov Kal (nroaTdaie<i eVt to 
oXeOpiov Kal Kptai/xov, ihpco<i, pcyo<;, ■\}rv^i^, /9'y|-, 
TTTupp-OL, Xvyp,oi, TTvevfJLaTa, epev^ie<;, (fyvaai, 
(TtywaaL, -^^oc^oihee^, alp.oppayiai, ai/xoppoihe^. eK 

18 TovTO)v Kal oaa hid tovtoov aKeiTTeov. 

XXIV. TivpeTol 01 jJLev crvve^ee'i, ol h^ rip.epr]v 
€')(^ovai, vvKTa hiaXe'nrovai., vvKTa e)(ovaiv, i]/iieprjv 
htaXeLTTOvacP' rjfMiTpiTaloi, TpiTaloc, TSTapTulot,, 

i8o 



EPIDEMICS I, xxii.-xxiv. 

on the eleventh day, a relapse on the fourteenth, 
and a complete crisis on the twentieth. But if rigor 
came on about the twentieth day the crisis came on 
the fortieth. Most had rigors near the first crisis, 
and those who had rigors at first near the crisis, 
had rigors again in the relapses at the time of the 
crisis. Fewest experienced rigors in the spring, 
more in summer, more still in autumn, but by far 
the most during winter. But the hemorrhages 
tended to cease. 

XXIII. The following were the circumstances 
attending the diseases, from which I framed my 
judgments, learning from the common nature of all 
and the particular nature of the individual, from the 
disease, the patient, the regimen prescribed and the 
prescriber — for these make a diagnosis more favour- 
able or less ; from the constitution, both as a whole 
and with respect to the parts, of the weather and of 
each region ; from the custom, mode of life, practices 
and ages of each patient ; from talk, manner, silence, 
thoughts, sleep or absence of sleep, the nature and 
time of dreams, pluckings, scratchings, tears; from 
the exacerbations, stools, urine, sputa, vomit, the 
antecedents and consequents of each member in the 
successions of diseases, and the abscessions to a fatal 
issue or a crisis, sweat, rigor, chill, cough, sneezes, 
hiccoughs, breathing, belchings, flatulence, silent or 
noisy, hemorrhages, and hemorrhoids. From these 
things must we consider what their consequents also 
will be. 

XXIV. Some fevers are continuous, some have an 
access during the day and an intermission during 
the night, or an access during the night and an 
intermission during the day ; there are semitertians, 

i8i 



EniAHMIQN A 

TTe/jLTTTaioi, e/3So/iiaLoi, ivaTotoL. elaX he o^vrarai 
fxev Kal jxe^/KxraL koI '^^akeTTCoraTat vovctol kul 
OavaTcoheararai ev rCo avve^^^el TTvperu). acrcpaXe- 
aTaro<i he iravroiv ku\ 'pi]l(JTo<i Kal fiaKpoTaTO<i 
TTcivTcov 6 Terapralo^' ov <yap fiovvov avro^ e<^ 
ecovTov TOiovTO<i eaTii', aWa Kai i>oai]/xaro)v 
10 erepcov /jieydXcov puerai. ev he tm ■t^p.irpnaiM 
KoXeopievw avp^Trl'mei fiev Kal o^ea voai'^jxaTa 
yiveadai, Kal eari, tmv Xoittcov ovto^; Oavarwhe- 
craTOf ciTap Kal (}iOivoohee<i Kai baoi aWa 
p^aKpoTepa voai][xaTa I'oaeovaiv, iirl tovtw /xa- 
Xiara voaeovai. vvKT€piv6<i ov \ii]v davaroohiTi, 
pLaKpo<; he. i]p,epiv6<; /.laKporepo^' ecm S' olai 
peirei Kal eirl ro (f)Ou>(ii)he<i. e/3ho/xalo^ p,aKpo<;, 
ov 6avaT(t)hr]^. evaTalo<; en p-aKporepos, ov 
6avaTU)hq<i. Tpira7o^ a/c/Of/Sr/9 Ta)(VKpiaip.o'i Kai 
20 ov OavaT(ohi]<;. 6 he Trep.TrraiO'i TTuvrayv pev 
KaKiaTa' Kal jap irpo (f)diaio<; Kal yhi] (f)Oivovaiv 
22 €7nyiv6p.evo<i KTeuvet. 

XX \'^. EiVt he rpoTTOL Kal KaraaTacne^ Kal 
•napo^vcrpLol tovtwv eKaarov twv irvpeTCOv. 
avTLKa yap crvvex']'^ ecniv olaiv ap^6p,ei'o<=; uvdel 
Kal aKpd^et p^dXiara Kal dvdyei eVt to ^aXerro)- 
Taroi', irepl he Kpiaiv Kal dp,a Kpiaet XeurvveTar 
ecTTi S' olatv dpx^Tai piaXaKois Kal viro^pvxia, 
eTvavahihoZ he Kal irapo^vverai Ka6' i)p,ep7]v 
eKd(TT7]v, irepl he Kpicnv ^ aXt? i^eXapb-^ev ean h 
olcrtv dp')(^opievo<; Trprjeco'i iirihihol Kal irapo^vveTai 
10 Kal P'ixpi Ttv6<i dKp,daa<f irdXtv v(f)i)]cn p-^XP'' 
KplcTLO'^ Kal irepl Kpiaiv. avp,7mrTei he ravra 
yiveadai eirl 7ravro<; TrvpeTOV Kal z-ocr^^/xaro?. hel 
he Kal TO. hiaiTi]p.aTa aK07revp,evov eV tovtcov 
182 



EPIDEMICS I, xxiv.-xxv. 

tertians, quartans, quintans, septans, nonans. The 
most acute diseases, the most severe, difficult and 
fatal, belong to the continuous fevers. The least 
fatal and least difficult of all, but the longest of all, 
is the quartan. Not only is it such in itself, but it 
also ends other, and serious, diseases. In the fever 
called semitertian, which is more fatal than any 
other, there occur also acute diseases, while it 
especially precedes the illness of consumptives, and 
of those who suffer from other and longer diseases. 
The nocturnal is not very fatal, but it is long. The 
diurnal is longer still, and to some it also brings 
a tendency to consumption. The septan is long but 
not fatal. The nonan is longer still but not fatal. 
The exact tertian has a speedy crisis and is not 
fatal. But the quintan is the worst of all. For if it 
comes on before consumption or during consumption 
the patient dies. 

XXV. Each of these fevers has its modes, its 
constitutions and its exacerbations. For example, 
a continuous fever in some cases from the beginning 
is high and at its worst, leading up to the most 
severe stage, but about and at the crisis it moderates. 
In other cases it begins gently and in a sup- 
pressed manner, but rises and is exacerbated each 
day, bursting out violently near the crisis. In some 
cases it begins mildly, but increases and is exacer- 
bated, reaching its height after a time ; then it 
declines again until the crisis or near the crisis. 
These characteristics may show themselves in any 
fever and in any disease. It is necessary also to 
consider the patient's mode of life and to take it 

' After Kpiffiv V adds koI a/.ta Kplaei. 



EniAHMIQN A 

rrpocrcfiepeiv. iroWa Se /cal dWa eiTLKaipa aT]iu,€ta 
TOVTOL^ iarli' rjSeXcpicr/jieva, irepl 6)v ra fiev ttou 
jeypaTTTai, to, Se Kal •ye^pd-^eraL. irpo^ a 8el 
SiaXoyi^o/xevov SoKi/uid^eiv koI crKOTrelaOai, nvt 
rovTcov o^ij Kal davarothe^ i) TreptetxriKov Kai rivi 
fxaKpov Kal 6avaT()ihe<i 17 irepieaTiKov Kal rivi 

20 Trpoaapreov rj ov Kal ttotg Kal iroaov Kat, tl to 

21 TTpoa^epoiJbevov eaTUi. 

XXVI. Ta he 7rapo^vv6/JL€va iv dpTcrjai KpiveTat 
ev dpTirjaLV o)v he ol Trapo^ua/xol iv Trepiaafjai, 
KpiveTai ev Trepiaafjaiv. eaTi he rrpooTi] TrenCoho^ 
Toov ev Trjaiv dpTLijai KpivovTcov Terapr?;, eKTt], 
oyhoi], heKiiTT], Teacra pecrKaiheKaTrj, elKOcxT-q, 
TeTapTy] Kal eiKoaTi], TpiaKoaTi], TeaaapaKoaTTj, 
e^rjKoaTi], oyhorjKoaTJ], eoKoaTrj Kai eKaToaTt]' 
t6)V 8' ev Tjjai TTepiaafjcri KpivovTcov TreptoSo? 
TrpcoTr], TpuTi], TrefiiTTri, e/Sho/xy, evaTt], evheKaTrj, 
10 eTTTaKaiheKciTi], elKoaTrj TrpcoTi], eiKoaTrj ejBhopiT], 
TpiaKoaTTj irpooTi]. elhevaL he ^p7] eVi, V/V ciWwi 
KpiOfi e^co TOiv iiTTO'ye'ypaixp.evcov, ecro/jLeva<; 
vTToaTpo^d^' yevoLTO he av Kal oXedpta. hel ht] 
TTpoaey^eiv tov vqov Kal elhevai ev Toiai ^^povniai 
TOVTOLCTL TO.? KpiCTia^ e'cTO/LteVa? eVi acoTrjpujv 1) 
oXeOpov 77 poTra? iirl to dp^eci'ov i] to '^(elpov. 
7r\dvr]Te<; he iTvpeTol Kal TeTapTaloi Kal Tre/xTrraiot 
Kal e^hofiatoi Kal evaTaloi, ev f/ai irepiohoiai, 
KpivovTaL, aKeiTTeov. 



184 



EPIDEMICS I, xxv.-.vxvi. 

into account -when prescribing. Many other im- 
portant symptoms there are wliich are akin to 
these, some of which I liave described, while others 
I shall describe later. These must be duly weighed 
when considering and deciding who is suffering from 
one of these diseases in an acute, fatal form, or 
whether the patient may recover ; who has a chronic, 
fatal illness, or one from which he may recover ; 
who is to be prescribed for or not, what the pre- 
scription is to be, the quantity to be given and the 
time to give it. 

XXVI. When the exacerbations are on even days, 
the crises are on even days. But the diseases exacer- 
bated on odd days have their crises on odd days. 
The first period of diseases with crises on the even 
days is the fourth day, then the sixth, eighth, tenth, 
fourteenth, twentieth, twenty-fourth, thirtieth, 
fortieth, sixtieth, eightieth, hundred and twentieth. 
Of those with a crisis on the odd days the first period 
is the third, then the fifth, seventh, ninth, eleventh, 
seventeenth, twenty-first, twenty-seventh, thirty- 
first. Further, one must know that, if the crises 
be on other days than the above, there will be 
relapses, and there may also be a fatal i.ssue. So 
one must be attentive and know that at these times 
there will be the crises resulting in recovery, or 
death, or a tendency for better or worse. One must 
also consider in what periods the crises occur of 
irregular fevers, of quartans, of quintans, of septans 
and of nonans. 



VOL. I. 



185 



EniAHMION A 

20 appaxTTOi Teaaapea Kalh^Ka 

a . ^tXiaKO'i (pKei Tvapa to relxo'^' KareKklvr], 

TTJ TTpcOTT] TTfpeTO? 6^V<i, I'SpCOaeV, e's" VVKTU 

eViTroi'to?" SeurepD iravra TTapco^uvOr], 6\jre Be 
aiTO KXva-fxariov KoX.cb'i SirjXde' vvktu St' {](TV)^iri<i. 
Tpirr) Trpcol koI P'^XP'' /^^<^o^ rjp,ep7]<; eSo^e <yevea9ai 
aiTvpo'i, 7rpo<i SelXrjv Se TTvpero^ 6^v<i p,eTa i8pMT0<;, 
St-v/raJSj/?, fyXtaaaa iire^ripaiveTO, p.eKava ovpijae' 
VVKTU 8va(p6p(i)'i, ovK iKoip,7Jdj], Trdvra irapeKpovae. 
lerdprr) Travra Trapco^vvOrj, ovpa p,e\ava' vvktu 

30 €V(f)opo)T6priv, ovpa evxpodoTepa. 7rep,7rTr) irepX 
p,eoov rjp.eprj'i crpuKpov diro pivcov kcTTa^ev ciKprjTOv 
ovpa Be TroiKiXa, e^ovTa evaicopi^piaTa aTpcyyvXa, 
jovoeiSea, 8iecr7raap,eva, ovx IBpveTO' TrpoaOep-evu) 
Be jBdXavov (pvawBea ap.iKpa BifjXde. vvKTa 
eirnrovo}^, vttvoi apuKpoL, Xoyoi, Xi]po<i, ciKpea 
TTcivToOev ■\\rvxpti Kal ovkcti ava6epp.aivop.eva, 
ovpr]cre p,eXava, €KOip,7]0rj ap.iKpd irpb^ rjp,epy]v, 
d(j)U)V0<i, XBpwae ■\lrvxp<p> aKpea ireXiBva. irepi Be 
p,eaov 7)p,eprj<i eKTalo<i direOavev. tovtm irvevp-a 

40 Bid TeXea, wairep dvaKa\eop.eva>, dpaiov p,eya- 
a-nXrjv eTrt^pdi^ TrepKpepel KvpTcop^aTi, IBpooTd 
■^vxpol Bid TeXeo<;. ol 'rrapo^vap.ol ev dpTirja-iv. 

/3'. ^lXijvo^ (pKei eVt tov 7r\aTapL(J!)vo<i irX'qaLov 
Twv EvaXKiBeu). e/c kottcov Kal ttotwv Kal 



* The patient seemed to forget the necessity of breathing, 
and then to remember it and to breathe consciously. 

i86 



EPIDEMICS I, CASES i.-ii. 

FOURTEEN CASES 

Case I 

Philiscus lived by the wall. He took to his bed 
with acute fever on the first day and sweating ; 
night uncomfortable. 

Second day. General exacerbation, later a small 
clyster moved the bowels well. A restful night. 

Third dai). Early and until mid-day lie appeared 
to have lost the fever ; but towards evening acute 
fever with sweating ; thirst ; dry tongue ; black urine. 
An uncomfortable night, without sleep ; completely 
out of his mind. 

Fourth day. All symptoms exacerbated ; black 
urine ; a more comfortable night, and urine of a 
better colour. 

Fifth day. About mid-day slight epistaxis of un- 
mixed blood. Urine varied, with scattered, round 
particles suspended in it, resembling semen ; they 
did not settle. On the application of a suj)pository 
the patient passed, with flatulence, scanty excreta. 
A distressing night, snatches of sleep, irrational talk ; 
extremities everywhere cold, and would not get 
warm again ; black urine ; snatches of sleep towards 
dawn ; speechless ; cold sweat ; extremities livid. 
About mid-day on the sixth day the patient died. 
The breathing throughout, as though he were re- 
collecting to do it,^ was rare and large. Spleen 
raised in a round swelling ; cold sweats all the 
time. The exacerbations on even days. 

Case II 

Silenus lived on Broadway near the place of 
Eualcidas. After over-exertion, drinking, and exer- 

187 



EniAHMinN A 

yvfxvacncov aKaipwv irvp eXa/3ev. I'-jp^aro he 
TTOvelv Kar oacjivv' koX KecpaXrj'i /3dpo<i kol 
Tpa)(y]Xou avvraai'^. tnro he koiXu]^ r-p Trpcarr) 
^oXftjSea, UKprjTa, erracfypa, KaraKopea ttoWci 
htt]\Oev' ovpa p-eXava, p,e\aivav virocnaaiv 

50 €)(0VTa, hiyjrctihi]';, yXoiaaa e7ri^ripo<;, vvkto^ ovhev 
€Koip,7]0}]. hevTeprj 7rup€T0<i 6^v<;, hia')(^u)pi]pa7a 
TrXeici), XewTorepa, eTtacppa, ovpa p,eXapa, vvktu 
hva(f)6pa><i, ap,iKpa irapeKpovae. rpbrrj irdvra 
irapw^vvdri' vTro^^ovhpiou avvTaat'i e^ dp,(^orepu>v 
7rapap,)']Krj<i tt/jo? 6p,(f)aX6v, vTroXd-rrapo^' hia- 
'X^pripara Xeirrd, virop,eXava, ovpa OoXepd, 
v7rop.eXava, vvKTO<i ovhev eKnip,i]6rj, Xoyoi ttoXXoI, 
7eX&)9, cphi], xare)(eiv ovk rjhvvaro. reTupTr] hid 
TMV avTOiv. Trep^TTTr) hia')(^a)pi]p.aTa uKpi^Ta, '^o- 

60 Xdihea, Xela, Xnrapd, ovpa Xeirrd, hia^avea' 
a/iiiKpd Karevoei. €KTr) Tvepl K€(f)aXr)v a/xiKpa 
e(f>i,hp(i)aev, ciKpea ^jrv^^pd, ireXihvd, ttoXu? /3A,r;- 
arpiap,o<i, diro KoiXiyi^; ovhev hcijXdev, ovpa eTrearr], 
7rvp€To<i o^u?. ejBhop,]] d(f)(i)vo<;, aKpea ovKert 
dveOepp^aivero, ovprjcrev ovhev. oyhor] Ihpwaev 
hi oXov yjrv)(pq)' e^avd/jp^ara p.€rd ihpcoro'i 
epvOpd, arpoyyvXa, ap^iKpa olov tovOot, 7rapep,evev, 
ov Kadicnaro' diro he KoiXLr]<i ipeOiapw apuKpcp 

^ The word vnoKd-napos is often applied to avvraffis or 
fVTacTis of the hypochondria. Galen (see Littre on Epidemics 
III, Case II, Vol. Ill, p. 34) says that it means " without 
bulk," or "without swelling." This is possible if the word 
is etyraologically connected with Aaird^w. The translators 
are not very precise. Littre has " sana beaucoup de reni- 
tence," "sans tumeur," "sans gonflement," "sans grand 
gonflemeut ; " Adams has "empty," "loose," "softish." 
In Epidemics I, Case xii, occurs the phrase <p\e-/ixov^ inroxd- 

i88 



EPIDEMICS I, CASE II. 

cises at the wrong time he was attacked by fever. 
He began by having pains in the loins^ with heavi- 
ness in the head and tiglitness of the neck. From 
the bowels on the first day there passed copious 
discharges of bilious matter, unmixed, frothy, and 
highly coloured. Urine black, with a black sediment ; 
thirst ; tongue dry ; no sleep at night. 

Second day. Acute fever, stools more copious, 
thinner, frothy ; urine black ; uncomfortable night ; 
slightly out of his mind. 

Third day. General exacerbation ; oblong tight- 
ness ^ of the hypochondrium, soft underneath, ex- 
tending on both sides to the navel ; stools thin, 
blackish ; urine turbid, blackish ; no sleep at night ; 
much rambling, laughter, singing ; no power of 
restraining himself. 

Fourth day. Same symptoms. 

Fifth day. Stools unmixed, bilious, smooth, greasy ; 
urine thin, transparent ; lucid intervals. 

Sixth day. Slight sweats about the head ; extremi- 
ties cold and livid ; much tossing ; nothing passed 
from the bowels ; urine suppressed ; acute fever. 

Seveidh day. Speechless ; extremities would no 
longer get warm ; no urine. 

Eighth day. Cold sweat all over ; red spots with 
sweat, round, small like acne, which persisted with- 
out subsiding. From the bowels with slight stimulus 

■napos iK Tov eero) /xepeos, from which it seems that the prefix 
vTTo- means "underneath," not "rather." "Empty under- 
neath" seems the primary meaning, and suggests a tightness, 
or inflammation, with nothing hard and bulky immediately 
beneath the surface to cause the tightness or inflammation. 
Perhaps the word also suggests the tenderness often found 
in the hypochondria of malaria patients. 

189 



EniAHMIQN A 

KOTvpava XeTTrd, oca aTreirra, TToWa St^ei fxera 
70 irovov' ovpet /xer 68vvi]<; SuKVcoSea' ciKpea a/xLKpa 
dveOep/jbau'ero, virvoi XeiTToi, Kco/u.aTcoSt]';, a<f)a)vo<;, 
ovpa XeTTTo, hia^avea. ivdrr] hid. tmv avTO)v. 
heKdrr] TTord ovk eSe'^^ero, KoypaTcoSr]';, vrrvoi 
XeTTTOi' diro 8e Koi\i'>]<i Ofioia, ouprjaev ddpoov 
UTTOTrax^' KetfJievcp viroaTaai^ Kpi/j,v(oSr]<i \evKi], 
ciKpea rrdXiv yjrv^^^pd. evSeKdrrj diredavev. e^ 
dp')(rj'i TOVTcp Kal 8id Te\6o? Trveufia dpaiov, fxeya. 
v-jro)(ov8piov 7raX/jL0<; crfi^e;^);?, iiXiKirj &)? irepl 
erea eiKocJLV. 
80 7'. 'HpocficovTi- -jrupeTo^ o^v<i, diro koiXltj'^ oXlya, 
reiveaixoihea Kar dp'^d'^, /xerd 8e XeTrrd SLijei 
'^oXwBea, VTToav^va' vttvoc ovk ivrjcrav, ovpa 
jxeXava Xeirra. ire'/xTTTr} Trpcol Kcocficoai^, Trap- 
(o^vvOrj irdvra, arrXr^v e7rt]p6r], v7ro')^ov8piov 
avvTaai<i, djrb K0tXii)<; oXlya BiijXOe p,eXava, Trap- 
€<pp6pi]a€V. eKTTj eXrjpei, e? vvKja i8pco<;, ■\Jrv^i<;, 
TTapdXtjpo'i Trape/xevev. e/SSofirj TrepieyjrvKTO, 
St-v/rcdS?;?, TTapeKpoucre. vvKTa Karevoei, Kare- 
KOipLrjOii. oySoT) errvpeaaev, a7rXi]i> e/xeiovro, 
Karevoei Trdvra, ■tjXjTjaev to vpcoTov Kara 
80 ^ov/3(oi'a, airXijvo'; kut t^cv, eireiTa 8e ttovol e? 
d/j,(f)0Tepa(; KVi]/iia<;. vvktu ev(f)6pco<;, ovpa €V)(^po- 
ooTcpa, vTToaracnv e2)(^e crfj,iKpi]V. ivdrr] 'ihpuxrev, 

1 I take \firT6s here to mean ' ' thinner than usual, than 
might have been expected," a meaning it has once or twice in 
the Hippocratic Corpus. It might also mean " consisting of 
small pieces." See ou Epidemics III, Case 11 (first series). 

190 



EPIDEMICS I, CASES ii.-iii. 

there came a copious discharge of solid stools, thin,^ 
as it were unconcocted, painful. Urine painful and 
irritating. Extremities grow a little warmer ; 
fitful sleep ; coma ; speechlessness ; thin, transparent 
urine. 

Ninth daif. Same symptoms. 

Tenth day. Took no drink ; coma ; fitful sleep. 
Discharges from the bowels similar ; had a copious 
discharge of thickish urine, which on standing left 
a farinaceous, white deposit ; extremities again cold. 

Eleventh day. Death. 

From the beginning the breath in this case was 
throughout rare and large. Continuous throbbing 
of the hypochondrium ; age about twenty years. 

Case III 

Herophon had acute fever ; scanty stools with 
tenesmus at the beginning, afterwards becoming 
thin, bilious and fairly frequent. No sleep ; urine 
black and thin. 

Fifth day. Deafness early in the day ; general 
exacerbation ; spleen swollen ; tension of the hypo- 
chondrium ; scanty black stools ; delirium. 

Sixth day. Wandering talk ; at night sweat and 
chill ; the wandering persisted. 

Seventh Day. Chill all over ; thirst ; out of his 
mind. During the night he was rational, and slept. 

Eighth day. Fever ; spleen lessened ; quite 
rational ; pain at first in the groin, on the side of 
the spleen ; then the pains extended to both legs. 
Night comfortable ; urine of a better colour, with a 
slight deposit. 

Ninth day. Sweat, crisis, intermission. 

191 



EniAHMmN A 

€Kpi07], SiiXiTrev. TrefiTTTrj vTrecrTpeyjrev. avrlxa 
Be aTrXrjv eTTijpOt], TTupero^ o^v<;, Ka)(f)Ci)cn<; ttoXlv' 
fxera he rrjv vTToaTpocjii]!' rpLTT) aTrXrji' ifMeiovTO, 
K(io(f)0)(rL<i rjcraov, (TKeXea eTrojBvvax;' vvktu I'Spcoaev. 
eKpidr] Trepl eTnaKaiheKdrriv' ovhe irapeKpovaev 
iv rfj v7roaTpocf)fj. 

100 B' . 'Ey 0acr&) ^ikivov juvalKa Ovyarepa 
TCKovaav Kara (f)V(Tiv Kaddp(Tto<i yevo/x€V7]<i kuI 
ra aWa Kou(f)co<i Sidyovaav, reaaapeaKathcKa- 
Tairjv iovaav fieTO, tov tokov, ivvp e'A,a/3e fieTo, 
piyeos' i]\yei 8e dp')(oixevri KapBii-jv Kai viro- 
y^ovhpLov Se^iov' yvvaLKeiwv irovot' KaOapat^ 
eiravaaTO. irpoaOeixevr] he ravra fiev eKOV(f)[(Tdt], 
Ke(f)a\r]<; Be Koi Tpa)()]Xou koX 6a(^vo<i ttovol irap- 
efxevov, vttvoi ovk evrjaav, aKpea -yjrv^pd, Bi'^ooS)]^;, 
KoiXirj cruv€KavOi], ajJLLKpa Birjei, ovpa Xeirrd, 

110 a'%/3ft) KUT dp-)(^d<;. e/crabr) e? vvktu TrapeKpovcre 

TToWa Kal voXlv Karevoei. e^So/jLrj Bi-^coB7]>;, 

Bia-^copyjfiaTa oXlya -y^oXcoBea KaTa/copea. oyBop 

eirepptywaev, irvpero'^ o^v<i, airaafjbol ttoWoI //.era 

TTovov, iroWa irapeXeyeV i^aviararo /SdXavov 

irpoaOefJievTi' iroXXd BirjXOe fxerd rrepippoov 

'^oXdiBeo'i' V7TV01 OVK ivrjcrav. evarr] (nraapLol. 

BeKdrrj a-fit/cpd Karevoei. evBeKdrr] eKOi/u,7]0rj, 

TrdvTcov dvepivi'jcrOii, rw^^ii Be irdXiv irapeKpovaev' 
192 



EF'IDEMICS I, CASES iii.-iv. 

On the fifth day after the crisis the patient 
relapsed. Immediately the spleen swelled ; acute 
fever ; return of deafness. On the third day after 
the relapse the spleen grew less and the deafness 
diminished, but there was pain in the legs. During 
the night he sweated. The crisis was about the 
seventeenth day. There was no delirium during 
the relapse. 

Case IV 

In Thasos the wife of Philinus gave birth to a 
daughter. The lochial discharge was normal, and 
the mother was doing well when on the fourteenth 
day after delivery she was seized with fever attended 
with rigor. At first she suffered in the stomach 
and the right hypochondrium. Pains in the genital 
organs. The discharge ceased. By a pessary these 
troubles were eased, but pains persisted in the head, 
neck and loins. No sleej) ; extremities cold ; thirst ; 
bowels burnt ; scanty stools ; urine thin, and at first 
colourless. 

SLrlk day. Much delirium at night, followed by 
recovery of reason. 

^Seventh day. Thirst ; stools scanty, bilious, highly 
coloured. 

Eighth day. Rigor ; acute fever ; many painful 
convulsions ; much delirium. The application of a 
suppository made her keep going to stool, and 
there were copious motions with a bilious flux. No 
sleep. 

Ninth day. Convulsions. 

Tenth day. Lucid intervals. 

Eleventh day. Slept ; complete recovery of her 
memory, followed quickly by renewed delirium. 

193 



EniAHMIDN A 

oiipcL Se fiera aTraaficov aOpoov ttoXv o\iydKi<; 

120 avafjLipbvrjaKovrwv Tra'^v XevKov, olov yiverac €k 
Twv Kadi(Trafieva)v, orav avaTapa')(6fj' Keifievov 
TToXvv ')(^povov ov KaOiaTUTO' ^/ow/^a Kal 7rd')(^o<i 
LKeXov olov jiverac inro^vyLOV. roiavra ovpei, 
Ota Kayco eiSov. irepl reacrapeaKaLSeKdrTjv eovcrr) 
TToKfio'^ ht oXov Tov acopuTo^, \6yoi ttoXXol, 
apiiKpa Karevoet' 8id ra^ewv he irdXiv rrap- 
eKpovaev. irepl he eTrraKaiheKdrrjv eovaa dcpcovo'i. 
ecKOaTrj direOave. 

6 . EiTTLKpdreo^ yvvaiKa, *; KareKeiro irapa 

130 dp)(^7]yeT7]v, irepl tokov y]hi) eovaav plyo^ eXa/3ev 
lcr')(yp(x)<;, ovk eOepp-dvOrj, &)? eXeyov, koI ttj 
varepair] rd avrd. rpLTr) S' ereKev Ovyarepa 
Kal rdXXa Trdvra Kara Xoyov rjXde. heurepairjv 
fieTa TOV TOKOV eXalBe irvpeTO^ o^vf, Kaphii]<; 
TTOVO^; Kal yuvatKelcov. TTpoadepLevrj he TavTa p.ev 
eKOv^iaOri, Ke(f)aXi]<i he Kal Tpa')(^y]\ov Kal 6a(f)vo<} 
TTOVd' VTTVoi OVK ivfjcTav' diTO he KotXitj'i oXlya 
^oXcoSea XeirTa hirjei aKprjTa' ovpa XeTTTa 
VTTOfieXava. dcf)^ r^? he eXa/de to TTvp, e'9 vuKTa 

140 eKTairj rrapeKpovaev. e/ShofxaiT] rrdvTa Trapco^vvdrj, 
dypvTTVo^, irapeKpovaev, St-v/rooS?;?, hcax'^pij/xaTa 
-^oXdihea KaTaKopea. oyhorj eireppiyuxrev Kal 
eKoifn'jOt] TrXeioi. evdTr/ hid tmv avTCOv. heKdTij 

* /. e. near the statue of the founder of the city, or near 
the temple of the god who presided over the founding of the 
city. 

194 



EPIDEMICS 1, CASES iv.-v. 

A copious passing of urine with convulsions — her 
attendants seldom reminding her — -which was white 
and thick, like urine with a sediment and then 
shaken ; it stood for a long time without forming a 
sediment; colour and consistency like that of the 
urine of cattle. Such was the nature of the urine 
that I myself saw. 

About the fourteenth day there were twitchings 
over all the body ; much wandering, with lucid 
intervals followed quickly by renewed delirium. 
About the seventeenth day she became speechless. 

Twentieth day. Death. 

Case V 

The wife of Epicrates, who lay sick near the 
founder,^ when near her delivery was seized with 
severe rigor without, it was said, becoming warm, 
and the same symptoms occurred on the following day. 
On the third day she gave birth to a daughter, and 
the delivery was in every respect normal. On the 
second day after the delivery she was seized with 
acute fever, pain at the stomach and in the genitals. 
A pessary relieved these symptoms, but there was 
pain in the head, neck and loins. No sleep. From 
the bowels passed scanty stools, bilious, thin and 
unmixed. Urine thin and blackish. Delirium on 
the night of the sixth day from the day the fever 
began. 

Seventh dati. All symptoms exacerbated ; sleep- 
lessness ; delirium; thirst; bilious, highly-coloured 
stools. 

Eighth day. Rigor ; more sleep. 

f^inth day. The same symptoms. 

195 



EniAIIMinN A 

(TKeXea i7ri7r6vo)<; rfK'yei, Kaphlr]<; ttoKlv ohvvrj, 
Kaprj^apirj, ov rrapeKpovev, eKoipdro fidWov, 
kolXltj eVecTT?;. evheKarr) ovprjaep ev')(po(vTepa 
av')(yrjv inroaTacnv ey^ovTa' Sitjye Kov^orepov. 
reaaapeaKaiSeKaTTj eireppiycdaev, Trypero? o^y?. 
TTevTeKaiheKaTr] y^fxeae y^okwhea ^av9a lnT6cTV)(ya, 

150 I'Bpaxrev dirvpo'i, e? vvfcra he TrvpeTo^ o^v<i, ovpa 
TTa^o? e')(OVTa, viroaTaai'^ XeuKi]. eKKatBeKarr] 
irapw^uvOr)' vvKra hva^opu)<i' ov-^ virvcoaeV 
irapeKpovcrev. oKTcoicaiheKdrr) hi^lroohi]^, yXcoaaa 
eTreKavOr}, ou)(^ virvwcrev, TrapeKpouae ttoWc'i, 
(TKeXea iTrcoSvi>u)<i el'^ev. irepl 8e elKoarr^v irpwl 
apLKpd eTreppiyaxTev, K(i)/J,aTcohi]^, 5t' 7/cri/;!^t?;9 
vvvoycrev, rjpecre 'X^oXcoSea oXlya p,eXava, e? vvktu 
Kco(f)(o<TL<i. Trepl Se Trpcorrjv kol etKoarrjv irXeupov 
dpiarepov ^dpo<; Si' oXou pier d8vvr]<i, ap^LKpa 

160 v7re/3r]aa€V- ovpa he rrdx^o^ €)(^ovra, OoXepd, 
vTTepvdpa' KeipLdva ov KaOiaTaro' rd S' dXXa 
Kov(poTepco^' ovK aTTupo?. avTY) ^ e^ dp')(?j'^ 
(f)dpvyya eiroihwo^i' epev6o<;' klcov dvea7raa-pevo<;' 
pevpa 8pLp,v, haKvo)8e<;, dXp,vp(b8e'i Sid xe/Veo? 
irapepevev. Trepl he el/coaTrjv e/3h6pi]v aTrvpa, 
ovpoiaLv V7r6(Traai<;, irXevpov virrjXyei. Trepl he 
TrpcoTrjv Kal TptaKoaTtjv TTvp eXajSev, kolXlt] 
-X^oXooheaiv eVeTapa^^/?. reaaapaKoarfj ijpeaev 
oXiya -^^oXcohea. e/cpidr) TeXeij}<i drrvpo^ oyhorj- 

170 Koaif}. 

r'. KXeavaKTihiiv, o? KareKeiro eirdvo) tov 
'HpaKXebov, TTVp eXa/Se TreTrXavijpevo)^- i]Xyei he 

^ For avTTi Littre reads aidis (with a colon) and deletes the 
stop at 6,Trvpos. 

196 



EPIDEMICS I, CASES v.-vi. 

Tenth day. Severe pains in the legs ; pain again 
at the stomach ; heaviness in the head ; no delirium ; 
more sleep ; constijiation. 

Eleventh day. Urine of better colour, with a 
thick deposit ; was easier. 

Fourteenth day. Rigor ; acute fever. 

Fifteenth day. Vomited fairly frequently bilious, 
yellow vomit ; sweated without fever ; at night, how- 
ever, acute fever ; urine thick, with a white sediment. 

Sixteenth day. Exacerbation ; an uncomfortable 
night ; no sleep ; delirium. 

Eighteenth day. Thirst ; tongue parched ; no 
sleep ; much delirium ; pain in the legs. 

About the twentieth day. Slight rigors in the 
early morning ; coma ; quiet sleep ; scanty, bilious, 
black vomits ; deafness at night. 

About the twenty-first day. Heaviness all over 
the left side, with pain; slight coughing; urine 
thick, turbid, reddish, no sediment on standing. 
In other respects easier ; no fever. From the 
beginning she had pain in the throat ; redness ; uvula 
drawn back; throughout there persisted an acrid 
flux, smarting, and salt. 

About the twenty-seventh day. No fever ; sedi- 
ment in urine; some pain in the side. 

About the thirty-first day. Attacked by fever; 
bowels disordered and bilious. 

Fortieth day. Scanty, bilious vomits. 

Eightieth day. Complete crisis with cessation ot 
fever. 

Case VI 

Cleanactides, who lay sick al)ove the temple of 
Heracles, was seized by an irregular fever. He had 

197 



EniAHMIQN A 

K€(f)aX}]v e^ ap-)(^rj<i Kal irXevpov apiarepov, kui 
Tcov aXXcov iTovoL KOTTiddhea rpoTTov ol irvperol 
irapo^vvop-evoL aXXor d\XoLa)<i, aruKTU)^' lhpwre<i 
ore p-iv, ore h ov' ra puev TrXelcrra e7r£a7]p,aivov 
ol irapo^vap.ol iv Kpi(Tt,p,oi<i p.dXLaTa. irepi he 
elKOcrrrjV TeTdpT)]v -^elpwi ciKpa^ iirovyjaev,^ 
rjpiecre y^oXwhea ^avOd, viroavy^va, p.er oXiyov 

180 Se IcoSew rrdvTwv eKovcpLaO?]. trepl he rpia- 
KoarrjV eovn Jjp^aro diro ptvcov aip.oppayeiv e^ 
dp^cpoTepcov Kal ravra 7re7rXavi]p,eva)<i kut oXljov 
p-e)(pL KpLcno<i' ovK diToaiTO<^ ovhe hiyjrcohrjf; irapd 
irdvra tov -^povov ou3' dypvirvo<i' ovpa he Xenrd, 
OVK d'^po). irepl he reaa-apaKoarrjv ecov ovpijaev 
VTrepvOpa VTroaraaiv TroXXr/i' epvOpifv e)(^ovTa' 
€Kov(f)icrdi]. fierd he 7roiKLXa)<i rd icov ovpcov' 
ore p.ev inroaracnv el'x^ev, ore S' ov. e^i-jKoarfj 
ovpoiaiv v7rocrrac7i<i ttoXXt) kuI XevKr) kul Xeii], 

190 avi'ehwKe Trdvra, Trvperol hieXiirov, ovpa he irdXiv 
Xeirrd p,ev, evxpw he. e^hop.'>]Koarf} 7rvper6<i, 
hieXenrev ^ r]p.€pa<i heKa. oyhoyjKoar^ eppiywcre, 
7rvper6<i 6^v<i eXajBev' Xhpuxxev ttoXXw' '^vpoiaiv 
iiTTQcrraai^ epvOpij, Xeir). reXect)? eKpiOrj. 

^' . yierwva rrvp eXa/3ev, 6a<pvo^ /3dpo<; erroii- 
Bvvov. hevrepr] vhcop iriovri v7t6(TV)^vov drro 
KoiXirj^ KaXw'i hirjXde. rpirr] Ke<f)aXf]^ /3dpo<;, hia- 
')(ju)pr]piara Xeirrd, '^^oXmhea, virepvOpa. rerdprrj 



^ For iir6vri<Tev V has e^f/ux^T'^- 
■^ For difKet-irev V lias SieAiirev. 



198 



EPIDEMICS I, CASES vi.-vii. 

at the beginning pains in the head and the left side, 
and in the other parts pains like those caused by 
fatigue. The exacerbations of the fever were varied 
and irregular ; sometimes there were sweats, some- 
times there were not. Generally the exacerbations 
manifested themselves most on the critical days. 

About the twenty-fourth day. Pain in the hands ; 
bilious, yellow vomits, fairly frequent, becoming after 
a while like verdigris ; general relief. 

About the thirtieth day. Epistaxis from both 
nostrils began, and continued, irregular and slight, 
until the crisis. All the time he suffered no thirst, 
nor lack of appetite or sleep. Urine thin, and not 
colourless. 

About the fortieth day. Urine reddish, and with 
an abundant, red deposit. Was eased. Afterwards 
the urine varied, sometimes having, sometimes not 
having, a sediment. 

Sixtieth day. Urine had an abundant sediment, 
white and smooth ; genei*al improvement ; fever 
intermitted ; urine again thin but of good colour. 

Seventieth day. Fever, which intermitted for 
ten days. 

Eightieth day. Rigor ; attacked by acute fever ; 
much sweat ; in the urine a red, smooth sediment. 
A complete crisis. 

Case VII 

Meton was seized with fever, and painful heaviness 
in the loins. 

Second day. After a fairly copious draught of 
water had his bowels well moved. 

Third day. Heaviness in the head ; stools thin, 
bilious, rather red. 

199 



EniAHMIQN A 

irdvTa TTapw^vvdri, ippurj airo Ze^iov S<? Kar' 
200 oXijov. vuKTa hva^opws, 8ia')(^o}pr]/u,ara ofiota 
rfj Tptrrj, oupa viropieXava' et^ei' ivaicopi]fxa 
vTTOfieXav iov, BieaTraa/jLevov ov)(^ ISpvero. 
■jrefjLTrTT) ippurj \d^pov i^ dpiarepov ciKpTjrop, 
Ihpwaev, eKpidi], ixera Kpiaiv dypvirvo^, irap- 
e\ej€v, ovpa Xema vvofxeXava. Xovrpolaiv 
i')(^p/}craTO Kara Kecj^aXij-i, eK0tp.i]6ri, Karevoei. 
TOVTCp ov)(^ vTreaTpeyjrev, dXX ^/xoppdyei ttoXXuki*; 
fierd /cpcaiv. 

7]'. Kpaalvo<i OJK61 irapa BowTeco ■)(^apdhpy)v. 
210 TTvp €Xa/3ev fxerd helirvov, vvKra rapaxd)ST]<;. 
7]fiep7]v Ti-jv TTpooTrjv St' i]av)f^i7](;, vvKra eVtTTOi'ft)?. 
SevTeprj Trdvra Trapco^vvOi], i^ vuktu TrapeKpovae. 
rplrr) eViTrofa)?, TroXXa irapeKpovae. rerdprr] 
SvacpopcoTara' e? Se Tijv vvicra ovSev iK0Lp,j']6i]- 
evinrvia Kal Xoyiapoi' ^ eTreira 'xeipo), fieydXa 
Kal eiTLKaipa, (^o^o^, 8va(f>opLr}. TrifiTTrr] irpcol 
KaT}]pTT]To' Karevoei Trdvra' ttoXv Be irpo fxeaov 
■))fi€pi]'s e^e/iidvT], Kare-^eiv ovk rjSuvaro, aKpea 
■^v)(^pd vTTOTreXia, ovpa inearrj- ^ drreOave rrepX 
220 7]Xlov Bva/jid<;. rovrcp irvperol hid TeXeo9 avv 
ISpcori, vTro')(^6vSpia perewpa, avvraai'i /xer 6Bvvr]<i' 
ovpa p,eXava e^ovra evaiwp/j/xara arpoyyvXa' 
ov^ iBpvero' diro Be koiX{,7)<; Korrpava oij^er Bi-yjra 

^ For Aoyta/j-ol Kiihlewein suggests xSyoi -iroAAoi. The 
meaning must be delirium, and there is no instance of 
Koyifffxoi in this sense. 

" i-RiffTT] D : vweaTT) A : aTrfar-r] V. 

200 



EPIDEMICS 1, CASES vii.-mi. 

Fuurth day. General exacerbation ; slight epistaxis 
twice from the right nostril. An uncomfortable 
night ; stools as on the third day ; urine rather 
black ; had a rather black cloud floating in it, spread 
out, which did not settle. 

Fifth day. Violent epistaxis of unmixed blood 
from the left nostril ; sweat; crisis. After the crisis 
sleeplessness ; wandering ; urine thin and rather 
black. His head was bathed ; sleep ; reason re- 
stored. The patient suffered no relapse, but after 
the crisis bled several times from the nose. 

Case VIII 

Erasinus lived by the gully of Bootes. Was seized 
with fever after supper; a troubled night. 

First day. Quiet, but the night was painful. 

Second day. General exacerbation ; delirium at 
night. 

7'/iird day. Pain and much delirium. 

Fourth day. Very uncomfortable; no sleep at 
niffht : dreams and wanderinsr. Then worse 
symptoms, of a striking and significant character ; 
fear and discomfort. 

Fifth day. Early in the morning was composed, 
and in complete possession of his senses. But long 
before mid-day was madly delirious ; could not 
restrain himself; extremities cold and rather livid; 
urine suppressed ; died about sunset. 

In this patient the fever was throughout accom- 
panied by sweat ; the hypochondria were swollen, 
distended and painful. Urine black, with round, 
suspended particles which did not settle. There 
were solid discharges from the bowels. Thirst 

20I 



EniAHMION A 

Sia TeXeo9 ov \li]v (nraa/jLol iroWol avv ISpcoTi 
nrepl Odvarov, 

6 . KpcTcoi'i ev %a(T(p ttoSo? ohvvrj -i'jp^aTO 
iayypri awo SaKTvXov tov /xeydXov opdoardBijv 
rrepiLovTi. KareKXlvrj avOrjixepov, (f)piKa>B7]<i, 
d(Tu>BT]<;, (TfUKpa virodepfiaivo/xevo^, eV vvKra 

230 Trapec^povrjaev. Bevrepr] ocSrjfxa St* oXov tov 
7ro8b<i Kal Trepl crc^vpov virepvO pov /xera avvTd(Tio<;, 
(f)\vKraiviBta fieXava, trvpero'i 6^v<i, e^epbdvrj' diro 
Se koiXlt]'; ctKptira, '^oXtahea, vrroav^va. direOavev 
diro T>}? a/3;Y% BevTepato^. 

I . Tov KXa^ofxeviov, 09 KUTefceiro irapa to 
^pvpLxlheoy (f)peap, irvp eXajSe. i^X^ei he Kecf)aXi')v, 
Tpdxn^oV' oo-(f)VV i^ dp-)^}]<;, avrUa Be K(0(f)(ocn(;- 
VTTi'Oi ovK evrjcrav, irvpero'; 6^v<; eXa/Sev, vtto- 
■)(^6vBpiov iirrjpTO pieT ojkov ov Xirjv, avvracri'^, 

240 jXcoacra ^i]p^. TerdpTrj e? vvKra irapec^poveL. 
Trep^TTTT) eTTLTTOvco^- €KTr) Trdvra Trapw^vvOr), 
Trepl Be kvheicdrrjv ap,iKpd ovveBcoKev. d-no Be 
KOiXLT]<i diT ap-^rjii koI /Ae%pt reaa apea KaiBeKdrii<i 
Xeirrd, iroXXd, vBaro'^oXa^ Birfei' ev<p6pQ)<; rd 
Trepl Bia)(^(op7]aLV Biiiyev. eireira KOiXirj eirecrTrj. 
ovpa Bia Te\eo9 XeTrrd fxev, ev'X^poi Be- Kal ttoXv 
el^ev ei^aiwprjpLa vTroBieaTTaa/jievov' 01)^ IBpvero. 
irepl Be eKTrjv koI BeKdrrjv ovprjaev 6X[ya) Trayy- 
Tcpa' el^^ a/xiKprjv vTroaraaiV eKov^iaev oXlyo)' 

^ u5aT<{;^oAa most MSS. : vSaroxpoa V. 
202 



EPIDEMICS I, CASES viii.-x. 

throughout not very great. Many convulsions with 
sweatintr about the time of death. 



*& 



Case IX 

Crito, in Thasos, while walking about, was seized 
with a violent pain in the great toe. He took to bed 
the same day with shivering and nausea ; regained 
a little warmth ; at night was delirious. 

Second day. Swelling of the whole foot, which 
was rather red about the ankle, and distended ; 
black blisters ; acute fever ; mad delirium. Alvine 
discharges unmixed, bilious and rather frequent. 
He died on the second day from the commencement. 

Case X 

The man of Clazomenae, who lay sick by the well 
of Phrynichides, was seized with fever. Pain at the 
beginning in head, neck and loins, followed immedi- 
ately by deafness. No sleep ; seized with acute 
fever ; hypochondrium swollen, but not very much ; 
distension ; tongue dry. 

Fourth day. Delirium at night. 

Fifth day. Painful. 

Sixth day. All symptoms exacerbated. 

About the eleventh day slight improvement. 
From the beginning to the fourteenth day there 
were from the bowels thin discharges, copious, of 
a watery biliousness; they were well supported by 
the patient. Then the bowels were constipated. 
Urine throughout thin, but of good colour. It had 
much cloud spread through it, which did not 
settle in a sediment. About the sixteenth day the 
urine was a little thicker, and had a slight sediment. 

203 



EniAHMIQN A 

250 Karevoet fj,a\\ov. eTrraKatSeKaTr) ttoXiv Xeind, 
irapa he ra coxa, aix^orepa e7ri)p9i] avu oSvvrj' 
VTTVOL ovK evrjaav, iTape\i']pei, aKeXea eVwSi/i/co? 
el')(€v. GLKoarfi d7rvpo<; eKpidt], ou)(^ 'iSpcoae, 
iravra Karevoei. irepl 8e elKOdTrjv €^S6fxy]v 
l(j')(^LOV ohvvrj he^iov l(j')(ypM<i' hua TU^ecov 
eTTavaaro. ra he irapa rd oira ovre KaOiararo 
ovTe e^eTTvei, rfK.'yei he. irepl irpooTrjv Kal rpirj- 
Koary^v htdppoia TroWoiacv vSaTcoheaiv fierd 
hvaevrepiwhecjov ovpa 7ra)i^€a ovpef Karearrj rd 

260 irapd rd oyra. recraapaKoarfj 6(f)Oa\/ji6v he^iov 
■{jXyei, djjLJBXvTepov ecopa' Karecrrrj. 

la . Trjv Apo/xedheo) yuvalKa dvyarepa rcKovaav 
Kal rcov dWcov ttuvtuiv <yevo/xepo)i> Kara Xoyov 
hevrepaii^v iovaav pl'yo^ eXa/Bev irvpercx; 6^v<i. 
Tjp^aTO he TTOvelv tj] irpcoTrj irepl viTO)(oi>hpiov' 
dawh?]'^, (f)ptKCii)h7]<i, dXvovaa Kal Ta? e^o/xeVa? 
ou% virvcoae. irvevpLa dpaiov, pie<ya, avTLKa 
dveairaa/jLevov. hevreprj ac^' ^9 epplycoaev, diro 
KOiXir]<; Ka\a)<i Koirpava hirjXOev ovpa ira^ea, 

270 XevKU, OoXepd, ola 'yiveraL eK twv KaOicrrafxevoiv, 
orav dvarapa'xOfj Kei/xeva y^povov iroXvv' ov 
KadiaraTO. vvKra ovk €koi/x)]67). rpbTr] irepl 
peaov rj/uLepr]^ iireppLjcocre, irvpero'^ o^h<;, ovpa 
opoia, viro')^ovhpLOV ir6vo<;, daoohrj^i, vvKra hva- 
(f)6p(o^, OVK eKOLp7]0y]- 'thpuxre hi oXov -y^v^pw, 
Ta^v he irdXiv dveOep/u,dvOr]. reTaprr] irepl viro- 

' As we might say, " with a catch in it." 
204 



EPIDEMICS I, CASES x.-xi. 

The patient became a little easier, and was more 
rational. 

Seventeenth day. Urine thin again ; painful swell- 
ings by both ears. No sleep ; wandering ; pain in 
the legs. 

Twentieth day. A crisis left the patient free 
from fever ; no sweating ; quite rational. About 
the twenty-seventh day violent pain in the right 
hip, which quickly ceased. The swellings by the 
ears neither subsided nor suppurated, but continued 
painful. About the thirty-first day diarrhoea with 
copious, watery discharges and signs of dysentery. 
Urine thick ; the swellings by the ears subsided. 

Fortieth day. Pain in the right eye ; sight rather 
impaired ; recovery. 

Case XI 

The wife of Dromeades, after giving birth to a 
daughter, when everything had gone normally, on 
the second day was seized with rigor ; acute fever. 
On the first day she began to feel pain in the region 
of the hypochondrium ; nausea; shivering; restless; 
and on the following days did not sleep. Respiration 
rare, large, interrupted at once as by an inspiration. ^ 

Second day from rigor. Healthy action of the 
bowels. Urine thick, white, turbid, like urine 
which has settled, stood a long time, and then 
been stirred up. It did not settle. No sleep at 
night. 

Third day. At about mid-day rigor ; acute fever ; 
urine similar ; pain in the hypochondrium ; nausea ; 
an uncomfortable night without sleep ; a cold sweat 
all over the body, but the patient quickly recovered 
heat. 

205 



EniAHMION A 

■)(ovSpiov (jfiiKpa eKovcpiaOr], K€(f)aXr]<i Se ^dpo<i 
/ier' ohvvT]<i' inreKapoiO^y apuKpa airo pLvcov eara^f 
yXcoaaa. i7ri^rjpo<;' hiylrctihi]^' oupa ap^iKpa Xeirra 

280 eXaicoSea' apiKpa i/coipijOrj. TrifiTrrTj ^t-v/rcoS?;?, 
aa(t)B)]<i, ovpa o/xoia, airo KOL\ir}<; ouhev, rrepl he 
fxeaov i)p.epri<i ttoWu TrapeKpovae koX ttuXiv Ta-^v 
apLiKpa KarevoeL' aviaTa/xevr) vrreKapooOr], yp-v^i<; 
a/xiKpd, vvKTO<i iK0ifii]6T], irapeKpovaev. ckty] 
irpcol eTreppiycoaev, Ta-^y SieOep/xdi'Or), iSpoycre Be 
oA-Of aKpea -^v^^^pd, TrapeKpovaev, irvev/xa fxiya, 
dpaiov' pier oXljov airaap^ol diro /i-e^aX,?}? jjp^avro, 
ra'x^v direOavev. 

i/3 . "AvOpu)7ro<i 0€pfxaiv6pevo<i eheiirviiaev kol 

290 eTTie irXeov. r^pbeae irdvra vvkt6<;, irvpeTO'i o^u?, 
VTTO'^oi'Spiov Se^Lov 7r6vo<;, (f)Xeypovr] vTroXdirapo'^ 
CK Tov €<T(o p,ep60<i, vvKTU 8va(f)6pa>'i' ovpa Se Kar 
dp)(^d<i 'n-d')(o<i e^ovTa, ipvdpd' Ksipieva ov Ka6i- 
araro' yXwaaa eTTi^rjpo<;, ov Xirjv Si\lru)Srj<i. 
Terdprr) irvpeTO<; o^u9, ttovol TrdvTcov. irepnTTr] 
ovp7]ae Xelov eXatwSe? ttoXv' irvpero'^ o^y?. eKTtj 
heiXrjf; TToXXd irapeKpovcrev. ovhe vvKra eKOt/xijOrj. 
€^B6p.y] TrdvTa Trapco^vvOrj' ovpa 6p,oia, Xoyoi 
TToXXoL, Kari^eiv ovk i)hvvaro' diro he KoiXlij'i 

300 ipe6t<Tpb(h vypd rapa^dihea hiTjXOev p^erd eXpiy- 
ywv. vvKTa i7ri7r6va)<;,7rp(ol h^ eppiycoae. irvpeTO'i 
6^v<;, ihpcocre OeppLw, aTvvpo'i eho^e yeveadar ov 

1 See note, p. 18S. 
2o6 



EPIDEMICS I, CASES xi.-xii. 

Fourth day. Slight relief of the pains about the 
hypochondrium ; painful heaviness of tlie head ; 
somewhat comatose ; slight epistaxis ; tongue dry ; 
thirst ; scanty urine, thin and oily ; snatches of sleep. 

Fifth day. Thirst ; nausea ; urine similar ; no 
movement of the bowels ; about mid-day much 
delirium, followed quickly by lucid intervals ; rose, 
but grew somewhat comatose ; slight chilliness ; 
slept at night; was delirious. 

Sixth day. In the morning had a rigor ; quickly 
recovered heat ; sweated all over ; extremities cold ; 
was delirious ; respiration large and rare. After a 
while convulsions began from the head, quickly 
followed by death. 

Case XII 

A man dined when hot and drank too much. 
During the night he vomited everything ; acute 
fever ; pain in the right hypochondrium ; inflam- 
mation, soft underneath, from the inner part ^ ; an 
uncomfortable night ; urine at the first thick and 
red ; on standing it did not settle ; tongue dry ; no 
great thirst. 

Fourth day. Acute fever ; pains all over. 

Fifth day. Passed much smooth, oily urine ; 
acute fever. 

Sixth day. In the afternoon much delirium. No 
sleep at night. 

Seventh day. General exacerbation ; urine similar ; 
much I'ambling; could not restrain himself; on 
stimulation the bowels passed watery, disturbed 
discharges, with worms. An uncomfortable night, 
with rigor in the morning. Acute fever. Hot 
sweat, and the patient seemed to lose his fever ; 

207 



EniAHMinN A 

TToXv €K0l/U.1]dr], €^ V7TV0V yjrv^l'i- TTTUaXiCTyLlO?. 

SeiX?;? TToXka irapeKpovae, fiST oXiyov Be y/jbeae 
fxeXava, oXija, ')(^oX(joB€a. ivdrrj ■yjrv^i'i, TrapeXi-jpsi 
TToXXd, ovx VTTVuxjev. SeKarr) aKeXea i7r(i)8vvQ)<;, 
iravra Trapco^vuOi], TrapeXjjpei. ipSeKarr} dire- 
Oavev. 

ly. VvvatKa, fj KareKeno ev aKTrj, rpi./j,r)i'ov 

310 TT^o? ecovrfi exovaav irvp eXa^ev avriKa Be 
i'jp^aro TTOvelv oacpvv. TpiTr) ttoi'O? t pa~)(^ifK.ou 
Kol Ke(j)aXrj<; koI^ Kara KXtjlBa" Be^iijir Bid 
Ta')(^ewv Be yXcoaaa r]cf)u>i'€i, Be^ti] %et/3 TrapeXvdr) 
jxerd airaapLov 7rapa7rXt]yiKov Tporrov, irapeXi^pei 
TrdvTa. vvKja Bua(f)6pa)<;, ovk eKOip,y]0r], KotXirj 
e'JTerapd')(dri ')(^oXu>Becnv dKp)']TOiaiv oXiyoiaiv. 
reidpTr) yXcocraa aaa(f)i]<; rjv, iXvdt], aTraa/xof 
TTOVOi TOW avTCOv irapejxevov, Kara vrro^ovBpiov 
eirapp.a avv oBvvrj, ovk eKOifidro, irapeKpovcre 

320 rrdvra, KoiXirj rapa)(^(i!)By<;, ovpa Xerrrd, ovk evxP^^- 
rrifiTrrr] 7rvpero<i o^u?, VTTOXovBp'iov 7r6vo<i, rrap- 
eKpove Trdvra, Biaxoypi'jfiara -)(,oX(o8ea. e? vvKra 
'IBpuxjev, diTvpo'i. eKrr] Karevoei, irdvra eKOV(f)LaOr], 
rrepl Be KXrjlBa upiareptjv Trova rrapefMeve' 
BiylrcoBr]';, ovpa Xerrrd, ovk €KOi/J,i]0y]. e^Bofxr) 
rpofio^, vrreKapcjoOrj, a/xiKpa rrapeKpovaev, aXyi]- 
fxara Kard KXrjlBa Kal /Spaxiova dpiarepov 
rrapefjieve, rd S' dXXa BteKOvcpLaev, rrdvra Karevoei. 

1 Kol added by Blass. 

2 After KArjrSo the MSS. add x^'^P°- It is deleted by 
Kiihlewein. 

2o8 



EPIDEMICS I, CASES xii.-xm. 

little sleep^ followed by chilliness ; expectoration. 
In the evening much delirium, and shortly after- 
wards he vomited black, scanty, bilious vomits. 

Ninth day. Chill ; much wandering ; no sleep. 

Tenth day. Legs painful ; general exacerbation ; 
wandering. 

Eleventh day. Death. 

Case XIII 

A woman lying sick by the shore, who was three 
months gone with child, was seized with fever, and 
immediately began to feel pains in the loins. 

Third day. Pain in the neck and in the head, 
and in the region of the right collar-bone. Quickly 
she lost her power of speech, the right arm was 
paralyzed, with a convulsion, after the manner of 
a stroke ; completely delirious. An uncomfortable 
night, without sleep ; bowels disordered with bilious, 
unmixed, scanty stools. 

Fourth day. Her speech was recovered, but was 
indistinct ; convulsions ; pains of the same parts 
remained ; painful swelling in the hypochondrium ; 
no sleep ; utter delirium ; bowels disordered ; urine 
thin, and not of good colour. 

Fifth day. Acute fever ; pain in the hypochon- 
drium ; utter delirium ; bilious stools. At night 
sweated ; was without fever. 

Sixth day. Rational ; general relief, but pain 
remained about the left collar-bone ; thirst ; urine 
thin ; no sleep. 

Seventh day. Trembling ; some coma ; slight 
delirium ; pains in the region of the collar-bone 
and left upper arm remained ; other symptoms 

2og 



EniAHMIQN A 

T/J6t9 8i,e\i7r€v dirvpo^. evheKarrj vireaTpe^ev, iirep- 
330 piycocrev, irvp eXa^ev. trepl he reaaapea KaiSeKci- 
TTjv 7]p€a€ '^oXcoBea ^av9a vTToavy^va, ISpcocrev 
aiTVpo^ eKpiOri. 

ih'. M.e\i8ir), i) KareKeiTO irapa "H/djj? Ipov, 
rip^aro K6(f)d\,rj<i Kai Tpa')(^r]\ov koI aT't]deo'i ttwo? 
iV^Uyoo?' avTLKa Be irvpero'i 6^v<ie\a/3ev' yvvaiKela 
8e afiiKpa €7re(f)aiV€To' ttovol tovtcov irdvTwv 
avvex^C'i. €Krr) Kfo/xaTcoSrj'i, a<y(i)hrj<i, (f)piK(t)Si]<;, 
epvdriiia era yvddcov, afii/cpd irapeKpovcrev. e^So/j-j] 
'iSpcoae, TTvperb'i SieXiirev, ol ttovol irapefxevov, 
340 vireaTpe'^ev, vttvol afxifcpoi' oupa Sia reXeo? 
ev'x^po) fxev, Xeina Si' Sia-^^^copyj/uLara XeTTrd, 
')(^o\coSea, SuKvcoBea, oXija, fxekava, BucrcoSea 
StTJXOev, ovpoi<i v7r6(TTacn<i XevKi], Xeirj' 'iBpcoaei'. 
344 eKpidrj TeXew? evSeKarrj. 



2IO 



EPIDEMICS I, CASES Mii.-xiv. 

relieved ; quite rational. For three days there 
was an intermission of fever. 

Eleventh day. Relapse ; rigor ; attack of fever. 
But about the fourteenth day the patient vomited 
biliouS; yellow matter fairly frequently; sweated; 
a crisis took off the fever. 

Case XIV 

Melidia, who lay sick by the temple of Hera, 
began to suffer violent pain in the head, neck and 
chest. Immediately she was attacked by acute 
fever, and there followed a slight menstrual flow. 
There were continuous pains in all these parts. 

Sixth daij. Coma; nausea; shivering; flushed 
cheeks : slight delirium. 

Seventh day. Sweat ; intermittence of fever ; the 
pains persisted ; relapse ; snatches of sleep ; urine 
throughout of good colour but thin ; stools thin, 
bilious, irritating, scanty, black and of bad odour ; 
sediment in the urine white and smooth ; sweating. 

Eleventh day. Perfect crisis. 



211 



EPIDEMICS III 

THE CHARACTERS 

SoMK MSS., the most important being V, have 
certain characters at the end of the medical histories 
in Book HI of the Epidemics. These characters were 
known to Galen, who wrote, or contemplated writing, 
a treatise about them. There is no doubt, therefore, 
that they are ancient ; Galen indeed in his com- 
mentary tells us that his predecessors had been much 
exercised over them. Zeuxis, he says, had written 
a history of them in which they were traced back 
to Mnemon, who either added them to a manuscript 
in the Library at Alexandria or else brought to the 
Library a copy with the characters inserted. 

These characters are of no real value for the inter- 
pretation of the text, but they bear witness to the 
interest taken in the "medical histories" from very 
early times. Somebody or other invented a short- 
hand script in order to summarize these histories, or 
rather the main teaching of them. For some reason 
they were only applied to the histories of the third 
book, and Galen says that the older manuscripts 
of his time had no characters inserted until the 
seventh case (woman with angina). 

Galen gives the following explanation of the 
characters : — 

HyeiTui ^£1^ oi'i', (I)? €(fir]v. airavTOiV to tijv dia/xeTpov 
yf)ajx^y]V ^X^^ ^' (^fJl^olvov ctei to iridavov. TtAcvTatov 8' 

213 



THE CHARACTERS 

^Toi TO Y ypafifxa (paaeTai yeypafj-ixevov r; to 0, to fj-ev 
vyiLav, TO 81 Odvaroi' arj/xalvov. (./jiTrpocrOev 8 a^Toiv 6 
Twv rjixepwv api^/xog, ei/ ais £Vocrr;o"£V t^ aTre^avev 6 Kcifjivutv. 
ol 8e c'v T<5 ixera^v tovtiov )(apaKTrjpes aTravTes jnev eio"t 
Sio, ToJv ypaiJ.fJi(iTwv, a cnqpiaivii to. o"Tot^€ta tt}? (f>(i)irj<i 
Tr\-r]v Tov KaTiaOev a.Tveo'TiyfJ.evov SeXra. riva 8e Stavoiav 
e/cao^TOs avTwv ^X^'' 8>;Xojo-a). fXi/xvrjfxevwv ovv r]p.<jiv, uti 
TO. vrpo TOV TeXevTaiov twv y^apaKTrjpwv, v(fi ov $dvaTov i] 
{lyeiav ec^oyuev 8ijXova0ai, yeypa/x/xeVa tov aptdp-ov Tuiv 
■tjp.epwv arjp.aiv(.L, irepl twv aAAcuv, oora pLera^v tovtcov Te 
Koi T'iys ^PXV'^ yeypaTTTUL, Troirjaopai tov Aoyov. to pXv 
A Sr^Aot OLTrof^Oopav, aTrtoXciav, to Se F yovoetSes ovpov, 
TO S' aTrecTTLyph ov, otaTrep etXTiv a KarwOfv ^x*'' Tporrw 
TOtwSe yeypayu/xevov A 8La)^wpovp.€va 8l ISpwTwv koi 8uip- 
potav Kai 8ia<^6prj(jLV koX crweAovTt (fxivai Kevwcnv tji'ti- 
vaouv (T-qpaiV€LV ^ovXovTai, to Se E €7rox'>/i', eSpav, to 8e 
Z t,rjTy]p.a, to 8c © Odvarov, d)S Trpoeiprjrai, to 81 I t8poJTa, 
to 8e K KpiiTiv r) KotXia/o)v 8ia^e(Ttv, to 8e M pavuiv r) 
p.r)Tpav, TO 8e N vioTrjTa Kai veKpwarLV, to 8e H ^av0\jV 
-^oXrjV Kol ^ivov T( Kttt (TTravtov K-at ^vcrp.bv Koi ^rjpoTTjTa, 
to Se O oSi'va? r) o*pov — Ivtoi 8€ (ftaaiv, OTav eTrtKCt/Acvov 
dvuiOiv €X*J TO Y, Tore arjpaivav to ovpov avTo, ypacfio- 
p.€V0V d)S €i(j)OaaL TO oiuTcos ypdcfieLV — , to Sc II ttX^^o? t/ 

TTTVcXoV •^ irvpOV ^ ^ TTVpCTOV 7J TTVCU/XOVO? TTCiaOS, TO [ll] 8' 

ev auTw p.€(jov €\ov to I, KaOoTi TrpoeLprjTat, to inOavov 
8'qXol, TO Se P pvaiv 17 piyos, to Se $ (fipevlTiv rj (^Biaiv, 
TO 8e 2 airao-piov 7) (XTop-d-^ov KdKwcnv i] (TTopaTO'i, to 8£ 
TOKOV, TO be I vyeiav 77 vTroxovoptov, to 0€ A xoAr;v y) 
^oAcuSes, TO Se ^ ij/v^iv, to 8e O w/xoTr^Ta. 

Kiihn XVII, A 611-613. 

1 This sentence is evidently corrupt. 
* Littre would read Siax'^'P'jtrji'. 
' Littre would read iTvpp6v. 

214 



THE CHARACTERS 

Now the first character, as I said, is alwaj's the 
letter 11 with the intersecting Une, meaning in all 
cases "probable." At the end we see written either 
Y or 0, meaning ''recovery" and "death" re- 
spectivel}'. Before them is the number of the days 
at the end of which the patient recovered or died. 
The characters in the middle are in all cases (except 
the delta with a mark below it) the letters indicating 
the elements of the word.^ I will now state the 
meaning of each. Remember that the last character 
was said to signify recovery or death, and the last 
but one the number of the days, and I will now give 
a list of the others written between the number and 
the beginning. A signifies " miscai-riage," "destruc- 
tion" ; r " urine like semen"; the letter with the 
mark underneath,'- written thus A, means " evacua- 
tions by sweats," "diarrhoea" and " perspiration," ^ 
and in general any evacuation; E "retention," 
"seat"; Z "object of search"; © "death," as I 
said before; I "sweat"; K "crisis" or "condition 
of the bowels"; M "madness" or "womb"; N 
"youth" or "mortification"; H "yellow bile," 
"something strange and rare," "irritation," "dry- 
ness"; O "pains" or "urine," though some say it 
means urine only when it has the Y placed above, 
written as the word owtw? is generally written ; IT 
means "abundance," "sputum," "wheat," * "fever," 

1 That is, each middle character except one is a letter of 
the alphabet, and that letter is significant, being the initial 
of a word, or of several alternative words. 

* The text is probably mutilated, but the general meaning 
is clear. 

^ Surely this is wrong. Littrc^'s suggestion ("stools") 
may possibly be correct. 

* This again can surely not be correct. Littr^'s emenda- 
liun is unconvincing. 



THE CHARACTERS 

" affection of the lung " ; with a vertical stroke in 
the centre it means as I said "probable" ; P means 
" flux," " rigor " ; <I> " phrenitis " or " consumption " ; 
2 "convulsion" or "morbid condition of oesophagus 
or mouth " ; T " delivery " ; Y " recovery of health " 
or "hypochondrium" ; X "bile" or "bilious"; * 
"chill"; O" crudity." 

For more information about the characters see 
Littre, HI. pp. 28-33, and various notes at the end 
of the cases, and also Ilberg in Kiihlevvein's edition, 
p. 245. 

As miglit have been expected, there is considerable 
doubt as to the right readings of these characters. 
Thus in V the characters at the end of Case i 
(first series) are : — 

nizSMON 

where the first character is obviously another form 
of Galen's Fl- Ilberg emends to : — 

mzC MON(Y> 
Galen reads : — 

m 11 O Y M Y 

I, e. TTLOavov. 

ovpa. 

TecrcrapaKovTa' 

{lyteia. 

" It is probable that abundance of urine caused 
recovery in forty days." 

Galen's reading makes it necessary to take the 
words of the text, fieTo. Bk Kpto-LV, Tea-aapaKOvra 

2l6 



THE CHARACTERS 

y'j/xepriaiv varepov, in tlie unnatural sense of "after 
tlie crisis, forty days from the beginning of the 
illness." So Littre and Adams, but the Greek 
scarcely allows it. 

It appears certain that there were varieties of this 
shorthand, and that Galen's account deals with one 
only. 



VOL. !. K 2^7 



EniAHMION r 

I. a . YivdioiVL, 09 co/cei trapa F?}? Ipov, r\p^aTO 
T/30/i09 (iTTO yeiptiiv' rfj Trpcarrj 7Tvp6T0<i 6^v<;' 
\i]po^. hevrepr] TTiivra Trapco^vvdrj. TpiTrj to, 
avrd. TerdpTT) diro K0i\L7]<i oXcya, ciKpyjTa, 
')(^o\(t)8ea BiSjXOe. Tre/j-irrr} rrdvra 7rapco^uvd)]\ 
vrrvocXeTrTOL' koiXl')] e a tt]. eKTrj-rrTvaXa TroiKiXa, 
VTrepvdpa. e/SSo/x?; crro/j-a irapeipvaOr]. 07S077 
TfdvTa Trapw^vi'Oi], rpojaoL irapefievov ovpa he 
Kar dp^a<i /xev Koi /^exP'- ''"'5^ 07807;? A-eTrra, dxpco' 
10 evaioopiipa ei^ov eTrivecjieXov. SeKaTrj Xhpwae, 
TTTvaXa v7ro7T67rova, eKpldrj- ovpa VTroXerrTa irepl 
KpicTLv. jxera Be Kpiaiv, reaaapdKovra iifxeprjcnv 
varepov, ifiTrurj/xa irepl ehpi]v, Kal aTpayyovpicoSij'i 
iyevETO d'TToaTa<yi<i.^ 

/3'. 'Eip/noKpdry]!', 09 KareKeiTO Trapa to Kaivov 
Tei^o'?, TTvp eXa/Sev. i]p^aTo he dXyelv Ke(})a\)']i', 
6a(f)vv' VTTOXovhplov evTaai<i Xa7rapco<i' yXcjaaa 

1 V has here niZSMON. 

^ The third book of the Epidemics has alwa^^s been regarded 
as a continuation of the first book. Even a casual glance 
will convince any reader that the two books are really one 
work. The Paris manuscript called A, which breaks off 
after the opening words of Epidemics III, nevertheless 
joins these words without interruption to the end of the 
first book. 

218 



EPIDEMICS nil 



Case I 

Pythion, who lived by tlie temple of Earth, was 
seized with trembling which began in the hands. 

First day. Acute fever ; wandering. 

Second daij. General exacerbation. 

Third day. Same symptoms. 

Fourth day. Stools scanty, uncompounded and 
bilious. 

Fifth day. General exacerbation; fitful sleep; 
constipation. 

Sixth day. Varied, reddish sputa. 

Seventh day. Mouth drawn awry. 

Eighth dai/. General exacerbation ; tremblings per- 
sisted ; urine from the beginning to the eighth day 
thin, colourless, with a cloudy substance floating 
in it. 

Tenth day. Sweat ; sputa somewhat concocted ; 
crisis ; urine somewhat thin about the time of the 
crisis. After the crisis, forty days subsequent to 
it, abscess in the seat, and an abscession through 
strangury. 

Case II 

Hermocrates, who lay sick by the new wall, was 
seized with fever. He began to feel pain in the 
head and loins; tension oftiie hypochondrium with- 

219 



EniAHMinN r 

Be apxojxevw CTreKavOt]' k(o(^w(ji<; avri/ca' virvoi 
ovK evrjcrav' Si'^wSr]'; ou \ltjv' oupa ira^^ea, ipvOpd, 

20 Kei/xeva ov KaOiaraTO' diro 8e kolXli]^ ovk 6\ija 
(TvyKSKavp.eva Si-pei. irepLTnr] ovpriaeXeind, el-^ev 
evaicoprjfia, ov)(^ 'iSpvTO,^ e? vvktu Trape/cpovcrer. 
e/CTj] t/crepicoS?^?, TrdvTa Trapco^uvdrj, ou /carevoei. 
k^hopbT) 8vo-(f)6p(o<i, ovpa Xeirrd, o/xoia. ra? eTro- 
fi€va<i 7rapa7r\i](7i0)<;. Trepl Se evSe/caTrjv iovri 
TTavra eho^e Kov^iaOrivat' KOifia ijp^aro, ovpei 
ira'^VTepa, inrepvOpa, kutq) Xerrrd' ov KaOiaTaro' 
i]av')(^fj Karevoei. TeaaapeaKaiSeKdrr} d7Tvpo<;, ov^ 
tSpoicrev, eKOi/ji'>]d)], Karevoei. irdvra, ovpa trapa- 

30 TrXi^aia. irepl Se eTrraKaiSeKdrtjv eovrt vire- 
cTTpe-^ev, eOepjiidvdrj. ra? €7T0fieva<i Trvpero^ o^u?, 
ovpa Xeirrd, irapeKpovaev.^ rrdXiv 8e elKoarfj 
eKpWTj, dirvpc^, ov)(^ iSpcoaev. drroaLTO'i irapd 
Trdvra rov 'X^povov, Karevoei irdvra,^ SiaXeyecrdai 
OVK rjSvvaro, 'yXwaaa eTrt^yjpo'i, ovk eBi\lrr]- Kare- 
KOifidro apLLKpd, Kwixardyhrj^. Trepl he eLKoarijv 
Kal rerdprrjv erreOepixdvOi], koiXItj vyprj ttoWoIcti 
Xeirrolai. Kal rd<; eirofieva^i 7rvper6<; 6^v<;, yXcocrcra 
avveKavOrj, e^h6p.rj Kal elKoarfi drreOave. rovrcp 

40 K(i>(f)(i)ai<i Sia TeXeo? irapep-evev, ovpa rra-^^ea Kal 
epvOpd, ov KaOiard/jieva, r) Xerrrd Kal d-^poy Kal 
evaidiprifxa e^ovra' yeveaOai Se ovk rjSvvaro* 

^ 'ISpvTo MSS. : ISpvero Kiihlewein. 

^ V omits Trapeitpovcrev. 

3 V omits irafTa : Littre I'estores from Galen. 

* V has here ni-E-Z-Ar-IA-IZ-KA-KZ.©. 

1 But see note on p. 188. 

* Galen says that the meaning of AsTrra is here "small," 

220 



EPIDEMICS III, CASIO u. 

out swelling ^ ; tongue at the beginning parched ; 
deafness at once ; no sleep ; no great thirst ; urine 
thick, red, with no sediment on standing ; stools not 
scanty, and burnt. 

Fifth dnij. Urine thin, with particles floating in 
it, without sediment ; at night delirium. 

Sixth day. Jaundice ; general exacerbation ; not 
rational. 

Seventh day. Discomfort ; urine thin, and as 
before. The following days similar. About the 
eleventh day there seemed to be general relief; 
coma began ; urine thicker, reddish, thin - at the 
bottom, without sediment; by degrees grew more 
rational. 

Fourteenth day. No fever ; no sweat ; sleep ; 
reason quite recovered ; urine as before. 

About the seventeenth day there was a relapse, 
and the patient grew hot. On the following days 
there was acute fever ; urine thin ; delirium. 

Twentieth day. A fresh crisis ; no fever ; no sweat. 
All the time the patient had no appetite ; was per- 
fectly collected but could not talk ; tongue dry ; no 
thirst ; snatches of sleep ; coma. About the twenty- 
fourth day he grew hot ; bowels loose with copious, 
thin discharges. On the following days acute fever; 
tongue parched. 

Twenty-seventh day. Death. 

In this case deafness persisted throughout ; urine 
thick, red, without settling, or thin, colourless, with 
substances floating in it. The patient had no power 
to take food. 

i. e. he thinks that there were small particles at the bottom. 
Such is not tlie meaning of the word in Hippocrates when 
applied to urine. 

221 



EniAHMIQN r 

7'. 'O KaTaKelfjievo<; ev ru) AeXeap/ceo? ^ Kijiro) 
KecfiaXy']'; /3dpo<i kuv KpoTa<^ov he^iov eTTcoBvvov 
^1%^ XP^^^^ TToXvv. fiera 8e 7rpo<pdaio^ rrvp 
eXa/3e, KareKXiOrj. SevTeprj i^ dpcaTepov oXiyov 
aKpi]TOV eppvrj' diro he KoiXlij^i KOTTpava KaX(b<; 
SiyXOev, ovpa XcTTTa ttoikIXu, evatcoprj/xara e^ovra 
Kara afxiKpa olov Kplfiva, yovoeiSea. t/jitt; 

50 TTupero? o^u?, 8in')(^ci)p}]iu,aTa p^eXava, Xeirrd, 
eirac^pa, vTroaracn'^ TveXiSvi] Biaxo)py]p,aaiv, vire- 
KupovTO, iSvacpopec irepl Ta<; dvaaTaaia^i, ovpoi<i 
vTTOcrraai^ TreXiZin], viroyXiaxpo^;. rerdpTrj ijp^eae 
XoXcoSea ^avOd oXlya, SiaXiircov oXlyov Icahea, e'f 
dpLcrrepov oXiyov dicpiirov ippw], Siaxo^pv/^ara 
6p,oia, ovpa 6/jioia, ecpLSpcoae rrepl Ke^aXrjv Kal 
KXijlSwi, airXijv eTrijpdr], p,rjpov oSvvr] kut c^cv, 
viroxovhpLov Se^iov avvTaat<i v7roXd7rapo<;, vvkto<; 
ouK iKOifirjdr], irapeKpovae crp^iKpd. irep.'jTrr] Sia- 

63 )(a)pr]paTa TrXeico, /xiXava, €7ra(f)pa, viroaTaai^ 
p,eXaiva hLci'^a)pi)p,aai,, vvKTa ovx VTrvcoae, irap- 
eKpovaev. exTij 8Lax(t)pi']/J'aTa p.eXava, Xnrapd, 
yXicrxpci, SvadiSea, virvoiae, KUTevoei p.dXXov. 
ejShop-r] yXoyacra eTri^rjpo'^, St\}rd)8t]<;, ovk iKOLp,7]6i], 
irapeicpovcTev, ovpa Xeirrd, ovk evxp(^- oyhorj 8ia- 
'^(opijp^ara p^eXava oXiya, crvpeaTTjKOTa, vTTVcoae, 
Karevoei, 8i-\p-oo8}]<i ov Xtijv. ivdrj] eireppiywae, 
TTvpeTO'i 6^v<i, 'Ihpcoac, -^v^i^, Trape/cpovae, Se^io) 
iXXaive, yXrbaaa €7ri^i]po<i, Sii/rooS?;?, dypvirvo'i. 

^ Af\-:dfiKeos Meiiieke from Galen : 5eaA.5eoj V : other MSS. 
have Si6AKovs or 5td\Kovs. 

222 



EPIDEMICS III, CASE III. 

Case III 

The man lying sick in the garden of Delearces 
had for a long time heaviness in the head and pain 
in the right temple. From some exciting cause he 
was seized with fever, and took to his bed. 

Second day. Slight flow of unmixed blood from 
the left nostril. The bowels were well moved ; 
urine thin and varied, with particles in small groups, 
like barley-meal or semen, floating in it. 

Third day. Acute fever ; stools black, thin, 
frothy, with a livid sediment in them ; slight stupor ; 
getting up caused distress ; in the urine a livid, 
rather viscous sediment. 

Fourth day. Vomited scanty, bilious, yellow vomits, 
and after a short interval, verdigris-coloured ones ; 
slight flow of unmixed blood from the left nostril ; 
stools unaltered and urine unaltered ; sweat about 
the head and collar-bones ; spleen enlarged ; pain 
in the direction of the thigh ; tension, soft under- 
neath, of the right hypochondrium ; ^ no sleep at 
night ; slight delirium. 

Fifth day. Stools more copious, black, frothy ; a 
black sediment in the stools ; no sleep at night ; 
delirium. 

Sixth day. Stools black, oily, viscid, foul-smelling ; 
slept ; was more rational. 

Seventh day. Tongue dry; thirsty; no sleep; 
delirium ; urine thin, not of a good colour. 

Eighth day. Stools black, scanty, com])act ; sleep ; 
was collected ; not very thirsty. 

I^inth day. Rigor, acute fever ; sweat ; chill ; 
delirium ; squinting of the right eye ; tongue dry ; 
thirsty ; sleepless. 

1 See note, p. 18S. 

223 



EniAHMmN r 

70 BeKUTT] wept ra avrd. evSeKarr) icarevoet Travra, 
a7rvpo<i, vTTVcoaev, ovpa Xeirra irepl Kpiaiv. Suo 
SieXnrev airvpo'i, vrrearpe'^ev TeaaapeaKaiSeKaTTj, 
avTLKa Se vvktu ovk eKOifjLr'jdrj, iravra TrapeKpoucrev. 
TrevTeKacSeKarr) ovpov 6o\ep6v, olov €K t(ov Kade- 
arrjKoTMV <ylveTai, orav dvarapa^Ofj, irvpero^; 
o^v'i, TTcivTa irapeKpovaev, ovk eKoi/j,t']0'>], jovvara 
Koi Kv/]/jia<; eiroihwa el')(GV' diro he KotXbT]<; ^aXavov 
TrpoadepevM /xeXava Korrpava SLi]\dev. k^Kai- 
SeKUTT] ovpa XeTTTa, el^^v evaicopri/jLa eirive^ekov, 

80 TTapeKpovaev. einaKaiheKdrr) izpool uKpea yjrvxpd, 
TrepiecrTeWero, Tru/jero? o^u9, Xhpwae hC 6\ov, 
€Kov<f)iadT], Karevoet fidWov, ovk dirvpa, hL'<^u>hi<i, 
i]/j,€ae ')(p\d}hea, ^avdd, oXlya, dyrb Be koi\l7]<; 
Koirpava SirjXde, fxer oXlyov he pekava, oXlya, 
XeTTTa* ovpa \e7rrd, ovk €V)(pco. OKTcoKaiheKdrrj 
ov Karevoet, Kwp^arcohrj^;. evveaKaiheKdrrj hid tmv 
avTOiv. elKoarfj virvwae, Karevoet, it dvT a, ihpcoaev, 
dirvpo's, OVK ehi^jrr], ovpa he Xemd. elKoarfj 
irpoori] apLtKpd irapeKpovaev, vTrehLyjrri, vtto- 

90 ■xpvhplov TTovoq Kul irepl 6p.<^aXov rraXpo<; hid 
Te\eo?. elKoarfi rerdpTij ovpoiaiv v7r6crTaai<i, 
Karevoet rrdvra. eiKoarf] e^hop^rj tV^t'ou he^iov 
ohvvrj, rd S" dXXa ea'x^ev eirteiKearara, ovpoiaiv 

vTr6(Traat<i. rrepl he eiKoarrjv evdrrjv ocfiOaXpov 
224 



EPIDEMICS III, CASE 111. 

Tenth day.- Symptoms about the same. 

Eleventh day. Quite rational ; no fever ; slept , 
urine thin about the time of the crisis. 

The patient remained free from fever for two days, 
relapsed on the fourteenth day, and immediately 
had no sleep at night and was completely delirious. 

Fifleenlh day. Urine muddy, like that which has 
been stirred up after settling ; acute fever ; com- 
pletely delirious ; no sleep ; pain in knees and 
legs. On the ajjplication of a suppository, black, 
solid motions were passed. 

Siocteenth day. Urine thin, with a cloudy substance 
floating in it ; delirium. 

Seventeenth day. Extremities cold in the early 
morning ; would wrap himself up ; acute fever ; 
sweated all over ; was relieved ; more rational ; 
some fever ; thirst ; vomited bilious matters, yellow 
and scanty ; solid motions from the bowels ; after 
a while they became black, scanty and thin ; urine 
thin, and not of a good colour. 

Eighteenth day. Was not rational ; comatose. 

Ninetee7ith day. The same symptoms. 

Twentieth day. Slept ; completely rational ; 
sweated ; no fever ; no thirst ; urine thin. 

Twenty- firfit day. Slightly delirious ; rather thirsty ; 
pain in the hypochondrium and throbbing about the 
navel continuously. 

Twenty-fourth day. Sediment in urine ; completely 
rational. 

Twenty- seventh day. Pain in the right hip, but in 
other respects very comfortable ; sediment in the 
urine. 

About the twenty-ninth day pain in the right eye ; 
urine thin. 

225 



EniAHMiQN r 

Se^iou ohvvrj, ovpa XeTrrd. rea-aapaKoarfj Bie- 
■)(^(i)pi](T€ (pXeyfiarcohea, XeuKa, VTroav^va, iBpcocre 
TToWw Si' oXou, TeXico<i eKpid)].^ 

8'. 'Ei/ @daw <5>tA-to"T?}9 ^ Ke(f)a\y]V eTrovei )(p6vov 
TToXuv Kai, TTore Kal viroKapcodel'i KaTeKXidt}' e'/c 

100 Se TTOTwv TTvperoyv avve'^ecov 'yevopbivcov 6 irovo'; 
Trapco^vvOr]. vvkto<; eTreOeppcivdr] to Trpoirov. 
rfj TrpooTT] i^peae ■)(oXco8ea, oXi^/a, ^av9a to irpoi- 
TOVy pera he ravra IcoSea irXeio), utto Se KoiXirj<; 
Koirpava Sti^XOe' vvktu Svacpopco'i. Seurepr] kco- 
(pcoai^, TTvpeTO'i ofi/?, v'7ro')(^ovhpLov Se^ibv crvv- 
erdOrj, eppenev e? ra eaw ovpa XcTrra, Siacfiavea, 
el-x^ev evaLwprjpa yovoeihe^;, apLLKpov e^epdvrj 
irepl peaov r]p.€pr]<;. rplrr] 8uacf)6pct)<i. Terdprr] 
anraapoi, irapw^vvdrj. TrepirTr} irpan direOavev.^ 

110 e . KaipLcova, o? KareKeiTO irapa ^Ay]patviTCi),'t^ 
eK TTOTOv TTvp eXajScv. uvtiku 8e /cec^aX?}? ^dpo<i 
eTTOihvvov, ouK eKoipidro, KoCXit] rapa')(^d)hrj<i XstttoI- 
alv, v7ro)(oX(o8eai. Tptrr) 'irvpero<i o^u?, Ke(j)aXr]<i 
rpopLO^, pdXiara Se ;\;6/Xeo9 rou Kdrco' pier oXtyov 
Be ptyo<i, (TTTaapoL, irdvTa Trape/cpovae, vvktu 
hva(p6p(i)<;. TerdpTT] Bi r)av'^irj<i, apuKpd eKocjxijd?], 

1 V has here n I K A OA MT. 

2 4>i\iffTris Blass : (piXiarrjs MSS. 

* V has here n I <i> A E K K. 

* AtjAio'-' V : Ay-jfiaiveTCfi Littre and some MSS. 

^ The variants indicate corruption. Can ArjAfav be " Delian 
goddess " or "Delias " ? The form is not Ionic. 

226 



EPIDEMICS III, CASES iii.-v. 

Fortieth day. Passed motions full of phlegm, white 
and rather frequent ; copious sweat all over ; a 
perfect crisis. 

Case IV 

Philistes in Thasos had for a long time pain in the 
head, and at last fell into a state of stupor and took 
to his bed. Heavy drinking having caused continu- 
ous fevers the pain grew worse. At night he grew 
hot at the first. 

First day. Vomited bilious matters, scanty, at 
first yellow, afterwards increasing and of the colour 
of verdigris ; solid motions from the bowels ; an 
uncomfortable night. 

Second day. Deafness ; acute fever ; tension of 
the right hypochondrium, which fell inwards. Urine 
thin, transparent, with a small quantity of substance, 
like semen, floating in it. About mid-day became 
raving. 

Third day. Uncomfortable. 

Fourth day. Convulsions ; exacerbation. 

Fifth day. Died early in the morning. 

Case V 

Chaerion, who lay sick in the house of Demaenetus,^ 
was seized with fever after drinking. At once there 
was painful heaviness of the head ; no sleep ; bowels 
disturbed with thin, rather bilious stools. 

Third day. Acute fever, trembling of the head, 
particularly of the lower lip ; after a while rigor, 
convulsions, complete delirium ; an uncomfortable 
night. 

Fourth day. Quiet; snatches of sleep ; wandering. 

227 



EniAHMiQN r 

TrapeXeye. Tre/xTrr?; iirtTrovco^;, Travra irapco^vvOrj, 
\i)po<;, vvKTa 8ua(f)6pco^, ovk iKOt/j,'>]dr]. €kt7} oia 
tS)v avToJv. klBhopLTj iireppbyaxre, TTvpeTo<i o^v^, 
120 iSpcoae Bi oXov, e/cptdi]. rovTCp Sta reXeof arro 
K0iXi7]<i hiax^PVpcLTa 'XpXooZea, oXiya, uKprjTa' 
ovpa XeTTTU, ovk ^ ei;%p&), ivaiooptjpa e7nv€<p€Xov 
€Xovra. irepl oySorjv ovpiicrev ev-^^pocorepa, e^ovra 
VTToaraaiv XevKrjv oXlyrjv, Karevoei, airvpo^' Sie- 
Xnrev. evdrr] inreaTpe^e. irepl he reaaapecr- 
KaiheKarrjv 7rvpeT0<i o^v^. eKKaiSeKdrrj i^fiea-e 
^oXcoSea, ^av9d, vTT6crv')(ya. eTrraKaiBeKaTrj 
eTTeppLyooae, 7rvp6T0<; o^u?, iSpcoaev, aTTvpo<; 
eKpiOt-j. ovpa yu-era v7ro(TTpo(f)-)]v Kol Kplaiv 

130 ev)(^po), vTToaraatv ey^ovra, ovSe TrapeKpovaev iv 
T^ v7roaTpo(f)f}. oKTcoKaiBeKaTj) ideppalvero 
crpiKpd, vTreSiyfrrj, ovpa Xeirrd, €vaL(i)pi]/j,a iirive- 
(f>eXov, afxiKpd rrapeKpovaev. ivveaKaiSeKaTrj 
aTTLipo?, Tpd')(ifXov eircohiivftx; eix^v, ovpoicnv viro- 
<jTacn.<i. reXewi eKpiOrj elKociTf].'^ 

t'. Tr]v ¥jvpudvaKTO<; dvyarepa, TrapOevov, irvp 
eXajSev. rjv he dhL-\\ro<; hia reXea' yeupLara ov 
TTpoaehex^'TO. o-tto he KOiXlrj^ a/xiKpa hirjei, ovpa 
Xeirrd, oXiya, ovk eu^/jco. dp^opievov he roii 

140 TTVperov irepl ehpy]v eirovei. eKraiTj he eovaa 



* OVK restored by Littre and Ermerins. 
» V has here ni • xnAOTKT. 



228 



EPIDEMICS III, CASES v.-vi. 

Fifth day. Pain ; general exacerbation ; irrational 
talk ; uncomfortable night ; no sleep. 

Sixth day. The same symptoms. 

Seventh day. Rigor ; acute fever ; sweating all 
over ; crisis. 

This patient's stools wei'C throughout bilious, 
scanty and uncompounded. Urine thin, not of a 
good colour, with a cloudy substance floating in it. 
About the eighth day the urine had a better colour, 
with a slight, white sediment ; quite rational and 
no fever ; an intermission. 

Ninth day. Relapse. 

About the fourteenth day acute fever. 

Sixteenth day. Vomited bilious, yellow matters 
rather frequently. 

Seventeenth day. Rigor; acute fever; sweating; 
crisis ended the fever. 

Urine after relapse and crisis of a good colour, 
with a sediment; no delirium during the relapse. 

Eighteenth day. Slight heat ; rather thirsty ; urine 
thin, with cloudy substance floating in it; slight 

1 ,. . •' bib 

deiinum. 

Nineteenth day. No fever ; pain in the neck ; 
sediment in urine. 

Twentieth day. Complete crisis. 

Case VI 

The maiden daughter of Euryana.\ was seized 
with fever. Thi-oughout the illness she suffered no 
thirst and had no inclination for food. Slight alvine 
discharges ; urine thin, scanty, and not of a good 
colour. At the beginning of the fever suffered pain 
in the seat. On the sixth day did not sweat, being 

229 



EniAHiMiQN r 

uTTvpo'i ov-y^ 'iSpaxrev eKpiOrj. to he irepl ttjv 
ehprjv cy/xiKpa e^eirvrjaet', eppay^] afia Kpicrei. 
aera Be Kpiaiv e^hopLairj iovcra ippfycoae, (TpiLKpa 
eiredepp.dvd')'!, 'Ihpwaev} varepov Se a/cpea yfrvx^pa 
alel. Trepl 8e SeKarrjv pbera rov ISpcora tov 
<yevop.evov nrapeKpovae Kai irdXiv ra^^u /carevoef 
eXeyov Se yevcrafxevqv ^orpvo^.^ SiaXiirovaa Be 
BcoSeKCLTi] TTciXiv TToWa 7rape\y]pei, koCKwj eirera- 
pd')(d'>i ')(o\(ji>Be(Tiv, uKp/]TOiaii>, oXiyoicn, XeirTolai, 

150 BaKVciiBeai, irvKvd dvLaraTO. a<^' t;? Be Trap- 
eKpovae to ixnepov, cnreOave i/SBo/xrj. ainrj 
dp'x^ofiei'ov TOV vo(Ti'i[xaTO<i ijXyei, cjidpvyya, Koi 
Bia TeXeo<; epev6o<i ely^e, yapyapeoov dveaTraaiJuevo';. 
pevpaTa TToXXd, (TfiiKpd, Bpi/xea. e/Syjaae Treirova, 
ovBev dvrjyev ^ • aTrocrfTO? irdvTcov irapa TrdvTa 
TOV ')^p6vov ovS" e7reOv/jii]aev ovBev6<;. aSti|/'09, 
ovB^ eiTivev ovBev d^tov Xoyov. cnyS)aa, ovBev 
BceXeyeTO. BvcrOvp.lrj, dveX'nicrTCO'i ecovTT]^ ^^X^''- 
rjv Be Ti Kal avyyeviKov cpOLVcoBe^.^ 

160 ^'. 'H KvvayxiKt] rj irapd ^ ^ ApiaTLwvo<i, 17 
TrpwTOV^ ijp^aro daa(f>r)<; (jiwvij. yXwaaa epvOpi], 
e7re^7]pdv6r]. Trj TrpcoTrj (f)piKcoBrj(;, iireOepfidvOy]. 

^ After '{op'xff€v most MISS, have juera 5e Kpiaiv oySoalT] iovcra 
tppiyccffev oil ToWd : V omits. 

2 After fiorpvos most jNISS. have ravra iradi^v : V and R'' 
omit. 

^ Galen read tz^ttov 5' ohZtv avrty^v. 

* V has here niEADAS*. 

^ The MSS. after irapa. have ra, which is omitted bj' 
Kiihlewein. 

• After irpwTov most MSS. add a-rrh y\uffcrr)s : V omits, 

2.^0 



EPIDEMICS III, CASES vi.-vii. 

without fever ; a crisis. The sore near the seat 
supj)urated slightly, and burst at the crisis. After 
the crisis, on the seventh day, she had a rigor ; grew 
slightly hot ; sweated. Afterwards the extremities 
always cold. About the tentli day, after the sweat- 
ing that occurred, she grew delirious, but was soon 
rational again. They said that the trouble was due 
to eating grapes. After an intermission, on the 
twelfth day she again wandered a great deal ; the 
bowels were disturbed, with bilious, uncompounded, 
scanty, thin, irritating stools, which frequently made 
her get up. She died the seventh day from the 
second attack of delirium. This patient at the 
beginning of the illness had pain in the tln-oat, 
which was red throughout. The uvula was drawn 
back. Many fluxes,^ scanty and acrid. She had a 
cough with signs of coction, but brought up nothing.''^ 
No appetite for any food the whole time, nor did 
she desire anything. No thirst, and she drank 
nothing worth mentioning. She was silent, and did 
not converse at all. Depression, the patient despair- 
ing of herself. There was also some inherited 
tendency to consumption. 

Case VII 

The woman suffering from angina who lay sick 
in the house of Aristion began her complaint with 
indistinctness of speech. Tongue red, and grew 
parclied. 

First day. Shivered, and grew hot. 

^ Here f>€vij.aTa iroWa must mean " many fluxes," but in 
Ejndciiiicx III. iv. it means " copious fluxes." 

* Or, wilh Galen's reading, "she had a cough, but brought 
up no concocted sputum." 

231 



EniAHmnN r 

rpiTTj plyo';, TTVpero^ ofu?, oiBrjfia virepvOpov, 
(TKXrjpov Tpa')(^7]Xou Kal iirl arPjOo^; e^ dficporepcov, 
uKpea '\jrv'^pd, ireXiSi'd, Trvevfia fieTccopov, ttotov 
Sid pLvwv, Karairiveiv ovk rjhvvaTo, Sia^^^copyj/xaTa 
Kal ovpa irrea-Trf. TerdpTr} Trdvra Trapco^vvOy]. 
Tre/jLTTTr} dveOave.^ 

7]'. To /xeipaKiov, o KareKeno iirl ylrevBecov 

170 dyopfj, TTup eXa/3ev e/c kottcov kuI ttovcov Kal 
Spofjicov irapd to e'^09. t^ irpwrr) KoCkirj rapa- 
-^coStj^; ')^o\(o8e<n., XeTrroicn, 7roWo2(Tiv,oupa Xeirrd, 
vTTOfieXava, ov^ virvcoae, Sii^wS?;?. hevrepr] Trdvra 
Trapw^vvdr], Sia')(^u)py]fMaTa irXeloi, uKaiporepa. 
ovy v'TTVcoae, rd t?}? 'yvcop,!]^ Tapa')(^u)hea, a-jULKpd 
vcfiiSpcoae. rpiTr) 8v(T(f)6po)<;, Sii/^coSr;?, dao)hr]<i, 
iroXvi f3Xr)(TTpi(Tfjio<;, uTroptr], irapeKpovcrev, aKpea 
ireXiSva Kal ■\lrv)(^pd, v'7TO-)(^ovhpLOV evTaai^ inro- 
Xdirapo^; e^ d/j.(pOT6pu>v. rerdprri ov^ v7rvo)a^' 

180 eVt TO ')(^etpov. e^hop,rj direOavev, rjXiKLtjv Trepl 
erea elKoaiv? 

& . 'H irapd Teiaajnevov yvvr] KareKeoTO, fj rd 
elXecoSea Bvacpopca copp^rjaev. epeTOt ttoXXol, 
TTOTOV Kare-^eiv ovk rjSuvaro. ttovol Trepl vtto- 
y^ovhpLa. Kal iv rolai Kara) Kard kolXli^v 01 
TTovoL. arp6(^0L (jvve')(^ee<;. ov Bi\p-(t}STj<i. eVe- 
depixaivero, aKpea ^jrv^^^pd Sid TeA,eo?. dacoSrj^, 

1 V has here n irAEH0I. 
* V has here n IZT0. 

^ The ancient commentators did not know the meaning of 
this word when applied to respiration, and a modern can 
only guess. 

2 See note, p. 188. 

232 



EPIDEMICS III, CASES vii.-ix. 

Third day. Rigor ; acute fever ; a reddish, hard 
swelling in the neck, extending to the breast on 
either side ; extremities cold and livid, breathing 
elevated ;i drink returned through the nostrils — she 
could not swallow — stools and urine ceased. 

Fourth day. General exacerbation. 

Fifth day. Death. 

Case VIII 

The youth who lay sick by the Liars' Market was 
seized with fever after unaccustomed fatigue, toil 
and running. 

First day. Bowels disturbed with bilious, thin, 
copious stools ; urine thin and blackish ; no sleep ; 
thirst. 

Second day. General exacerbation ; stools more 
copious and more unfavourable. No sleep ; mind 
disordered ; slight sweating. 

Third day. Uncomfortable ; thirst ; nausea ; much 
tossing ; distress ; delirium ; extremities livid and 
cold; tension, soft underneath, of the hypochon- 
drium 2 on both sides. 

Fourth day. No sleep ; greAv worse. 

Seve7ilh day. Died, being about twenty years old. 

Case IX 

The woman who lodged with Tisamenus was in 
bed with a troublesome attack of inflammation of 
the upper bowel. Copious vomits ; could not retain 
her drink. Pains in the region of the hypochondria. 
The pains were also lower, in the region of the 
bowels. Constant tormina. No thirst. She grew 
hot, though the extremities were cold all the time. 



EniAHMIQN r 

aypV7rvo<;, ovpa oXiya, XeTrra. hiayapt^iiara 
oifxa, XeTTTa, oXiya. McpeXelv ovKeri r)hvvaTO, 

190 aired avev.^ 

L. TvvalKa i^ aTro^^op?}? vrjiTLOv rcov irepX 
YlavTLjiilTjv rfj TTpcoTT) TTvp e\aj3e. 'yXwcraa 
eiTL^ripo'i, hL-^u>hri<;, aacoSi]';, aypvirvo^. KoiXlt] 
Tapa)(^a)8rj<; XeTrrolat, TToXXolaiv, o)/j,otai. Sevreprj 
eTreppijcoae, 7rvpero<; 6^v<i, atro koiXltj^ ttoXXu, 
ov'X^ VTrvcoae. Tp'nr) ixei^ov^ oi ttovol. TerdpTr] 
Trapercpovaev e/3S6fir) aireOave. kolXlyj Sia •rravTO'i 
vypy) Bta'^wpijfiacn TroXXolat, Xeirrolcnv, oifiolaiv' 
ovpa oXlya XeTrra.^ 

200 la. 'Erep')]!' i^ u'7ro(^6oprj<i irepl Trevrdfirjvoi', 
'iKereco yvvai/ca, irvp eXa/Bev. dp')(^o/ii€vr} KWjxa- 
TcoS?;? rjv, KOI irdXiv dypuiTVO'i, 6a(f)V0'i oSvvr], 
K€(paXT]<; l3dpo<;. SevTeprj kolXli] e-neTapd-^^Ori 
oXiyoicri, Xeinola-iv, aKpi'^TOicn to irpodTov. rpLT-p 
irXeico, ')(eLpct)' vvkto^ ovBev eKOifiijOTj. rerdpT'p 
Trape/cpouae, cfio/Soi, Suadv/jLLai. Se^iw tXXaive, 
tSpcoae irepi KecpaXrjv oXiycp -'^vy^pSi, d/cpea -xlrv^^pd' 
TTep.'mri Trdvra Trapay^vvdr], ttoXXu rrapeXeye Kal 
TrdXiv Ta'xy Karevoei' dSLyjro^, dypv7rvo<;, KoiXlrj 

1 V has here niPE0. 

* V has here n 10 AT A. Ka~:<Tos occurs in the MSS. hefore 
the characters, and similar identilicatioiis are given at the 
end of other histories. Galen rejected them, and he is 
followed by modern editors. Such identifications are alien 
from the spirit of the Epidemics. 

234 



EPIDEMICS III, CASES ix.-.\i. 

Nausea; sleeplessness. Urine scanty and thin. 
Excreta crude, thin and scanty. It avhs no longer 
possible to do her any good, and she died. 

Case X 

A woman who was one of the house of Pantimides 
after a miscarriage was seized with fever on the first 
day. Tongue dry ; thirst ; nausea ; sleeplessness. 
Bowels disordered, with thin, copious and crude 
stools. 

Second daij. Rigor ; acute fever ; copious stools ; 
no sleep. 

Third day. The pains greater. 

Fourth day. Delirium. 

Seventh day. Death. 

The bowels were throughout loose, with copious, 
thin, crude stools. Urine scanty and thin. 

Case XI 

Another woman, after a miscarriage about the 
fifth month, the wife of Hicetas, was seized with 
fever. At the beginning she had alternations of 
coma and sleeplessness ; pain in the loins ; heaviness 
in the head. 

Second day. Bowels disordered with scanty, thin 
stools, which at first were uncompounded. 

Third day. Stools more copious and worse ; no 
sleep at night. 

Fourth day. Delirium ; fears ; depression. Squint- 
ing of the right eye ; slight cold sweat about the 
head ; extremities cold. 

Fifth day. General exacerbation; much wander- 
ing, with rapid recovery of reason ; no thirst ; no 

235 



EniAHMIQN r 

210 TToWolaiv aKaipoiai Sia reXeo^' oupa 6\i<ya,\eiTTd, 
viro/LiiXava- uKpea yjrvxpa, VTroireXiSva. €Ktt} 
8ia Tcov avToyv. e^Bofirj aTredave} 

i/3'. VvvoiKa, ■i'jTi'i KareKeno errX -^evhewv 
a'yopfj, reKovaav rore irpoirov eTrnropco^ apcrev 
irvp eXa^ev. avTLKa ap')(^oixevri Si-\lr(i)8rj<;, dadoSrj^;, 
Kaphi'^-jv vTTijXyei, yXtoaaa eVt^^^po?, koiXltj eire- 
■Tapd-)(dri XeTTTOicriv oXlyoiaiv, ov)(^ virvioae, 
Bevrepr} ajXLKpd eireppi'ycoae, irvpejo'; 6^v<i, a/xLKpd 
irepl Ke(f)aXr]v I'Spcocre ■^v'^p5>. rplrr] eTrtTroyo)?* 

220 diTO KOtXiT]'; w/xa, XeTTTa TroXXa hirjei. Terdprr] 
iTreppiycoae, Trdvra Trapw^vvOrj' dypv7rvo<;. 

Tre/jHTTT) eTTilTOVCO^. €KTr] hid rS)V aVTMV' d-TTO 

KotXtr]<; ^^XOe vypd iroXXd. e^So/x-p eTreppiycocre,^ 
TTupero? o^u9, hi-^a, 7roXv<i /3X7]aTpiafi6<;, irepl 
SeiX')]v iSpcocre Si' oXov yfrv^^^po), i/^u^t?, aKpea 
■ylru^pd, ovK€Ti dveOepfxaLvero' kol irdXiv e? vvKra 
eTreppiycoaev, UKpea ovk dvedepfiaivero^ ov^ 
VTrvcoae, apiKpa irapeKpovae, kol irdXcv Ta')(y 
Karevoei. oyhorj irepl fxecrov rjixepr]^ dveOepfjidvOr}, 
230 Si^lrcoSt]^, K(o/xaTco8T]<;, dacoBr]^, I'jjxecre ')(^oXco8ea 
a/xcKpd vTTo^avda. vvktu 8u(T(f)6paK;, ovk eKoc/xijdy], 
oup->]ae iToXu dOpoov ovk elSvia. evdrr] (TvveSwKe 

^ V has here ni0AAZ0. Before the characters most 

MSS. have (ppeviTiaia : (ppevlris Galen. 

^ After iTreppiywae Galen adds yXiiaaa ^rjpr). 

236 



EPIDEMICS III, CASES M.-XII. 

sleep; stools copious and unfavourable throughout; 
urine scanty, thin and blackish ; extremities cold 
and rather livid. 

Sixth day. Same symptoms. 

Seventh day. Death. 

Case XII 

A woman who lay sick by the Liars' Market, after 
giving birth in a first and ^lainful delivery to a male 
child, was seized with fever. From the very first 
there was thirst, nausea, slight pain at the stomach, 
dry tongue, bowels disordered with thin and scanty 
discharges, no sleep. 

Second day. Slight rigor ; acute fever ; slight, 
cold sweating around the head. 

Third day. In pain ; crude, thin, copious dis- 
charges from the bowels. 

Fourth day. Rigor ; general exacerbation ; sleep- 
less. 

Fifth day. In pain. 

Sixth day. The same symptoms ; copious, fluid 
discharges from the bowels. 

Seventh day. Rigor ; acute fever ; thirst ; much 
tossing ; towards evening cold sweat all over ; chill ; 
extremities cold, and would not be warmed. At 
night she again had a rigor ; the extremities would 
not be warmed; no sleep; slight delirium, but 
quickly was rational again. 

Eighth day. About mid-day recovered her lieat; 
thirst ; coma ; nausea ; vomited bilious, scanty, 
yellowish matters. An uncomfortable night; no 
sleep ; unconsciously passed a copious discharge 
of urine. 

237 



EniAHMioN r 

iravra, KO)/J-aTa>Srj<i. irpo'i SelXrjv afitKpa eirep- 
piycoaev, i'^fieae afxiKpa ■)(^o\a}8ea. heKarr) plyo';, 
TTupero? Trapw^vvdi], ov')(^ vTrvcocrev ovhev' irpcol 
ovpTjae TTokv InrocnaaLV ovk e.xov, aicpea avedep- 
pidvdrj. evheKarr] i^/xecre ^oXcoSea, loohea. eirep- 
pijooaev ov p,eTa iroXv, kol ttoKlv d/cpea 'ylrv')^pd, 
69 BeiXrjv /Spco?, pl'yo^, ■tjfieae TToWd, vvicra 

210 iTriTTovco'i. SioSeKcirt] Jjfiecre rroXXa p^eXava 
SvacoSea, Xvyp^o^; 7toXv<;, 8t'-»^o<? eVtTroz'co?. rpia- 
KatBeKUTrj p,eXava, SvcrcoSea TToXXd rjpbecre, pl<yo^' 
TvepX he peaov 7)p,eprj<; d(p(jL>po<;. TeaaapecrKaiSeKdrr) 
alp,a Bid pivwv uTreOave. tuutt] 8id r6X6o<i 
kolXh] vyp}')' ^piK(i>hi]<i' rjXiKLr] irepl erea 

246 eTTTUKaiSeKa} 



KaTaaTaac<; 

II. 'Eto9 I'OTiov €7rop-/3pov' aTTVOia Sid reXeo^;' 
av)(^p.03V Be yei'op.evcov tou<; inroirpoaOev ^p6vov<; ^ 
iv voTLOicri irepl dpKTovpov vBara TroXXd. (pOi- 
voTTOipov aKLwhe^, eTrivicfyeXoi', vBdrcov TrX/jOea. 
-X^eip-Mv v6tio<;, vyp6<;, pLoXOaKoq pberd tjXlov 
Tp07rd<i' vaTepov ttoXXu), TrXi^aiov larjp.epii-j'^, 
6'iTia6o')(^eLpLOive<;, koL rjBrj irepl iai]p,epiT]v ^opeia, 
Xiovcohea, ov iroXvv ^povov. rjp irdXiv votlov, 
dirvoov' vBaTa iroXXd Bid reXeo? /^^XP'' k^^vo's. 
10 Oepo'i aWpiov, 6epp.uv, rcviyea p.eydXa' eTi]aiai 

^ V has here n I A A I A O A 1 0. 

* After xp°^ovs the MSS. have tV ii/iavroy. Littre queried 
the phrase and Ernieriiis deleted it. 

238 



EPIDEMICS III, CASE XII. AND CH. II. 

Ninth day. General abatement of the symptoms ; 
coma. Towards evening slight rigor ; vomited 
scanty, bilious matters. 

Tenth day. Rigor ; exacerbation of the fever ; no 
sleep whatsoever. In the early morning a copious 
discharge of urine without sediment ; extremities 
were warmed. 

Eleventh day. Vomited bilious matters, of the 
colour of verdigris. A rigor shortly afterwards, and 
the extremities became cold again ; in the evening 
sweat, rigor and copious vomiting ; a painful night. 

Twelfth day. Vomited copious, black, fetid matters ; 
much hiccoughing ; painful thirst. 

Thirteenth day. Vomited black, fetid, copious 
matters ; rigor. About mid-day lost her speech. 

Fourteenth day. Epistaxis ; death. 

The bowels of this patient were throughout loose, 
and there were shivering fits. Age about seventeen. 

Constitution 

II. The year was southerly and rainy, with no 
winds throughout. About the rising of Arcturus, 
while during the immediatel}' preceding period 
droughts had prevailed, there were now heavy rains, 
with southerly winds. Autumn dark and cloudy, 
with abundance of rain. The winter southerly, 
humid, and mild after the solstice. Long after the 
solstice, near the equinox, wintry weather returned, 
and at the actual equinoctial period there were 
northerly winds with snow, but not for long. The 
spring southerly again, with no winds ; many rains 
througliout until the Dog Star. The summer was 
clear and warm, with waves of stifling heat. The 

239 



EniAHMinN r 

(TfxiKpa di€a7Ta(T/x€V(o<i eTTvevaaV ttoXlv Se irepl 
apKTOvpov ev ^opeioicnv vSaTU ttoWu. 

TevopLevov he rod eVeo? vot'lov koI vypov kuI 
/xaXOa/cou Kara fiev ^et/xwi^a 8ir]yov vyir)pm 7rXr/i/ 
15 TOiV (f)dtvcohea)v, irepl mv yey pdyjreTai. 

III. Upcol 8e Tou rjpo<; ap,a rolat yepofxeuoiai 
yp'vyeaiv ipvcnTreXaTa iroWd, Tolat jxev fiera 
7rpo(pdcno<;, Totai S' ov, icaKor^Oea' iroXXov'i eKreive, 
iroXkol (f)dpvyya<i iirovrjcrav (pcoval KaKovixevai, 
KavaoL, (ppeviTtKOi, crTOfxara d(f)0(o8ea, alSoioiat 
(^u/xara, o^6a\pbiat,avd paKe<;, KoCKiai Tapa')(u)hee'i, 
aTToaLTOi, hiy\roihee<i ol jxev, ol S' ou, ovpa rapa- 
yo)8ea, TroWd, /caKa, Ka)pLaT(o8ee<; iirl ttoXv koI 
irdXiv dypvTTVOi, aKpialat iroWal, BvaKpira, 

10 vBpo)'7Te'i,<^9ivd)8e€'i7roWoi,. rd fiev eTnhrjixi]aavTa 
voa)]p.aTa ravTU. eKdarou 8e tcov viroyeypafi- 
jxevoov elSecov -qaav ol Kdp.vovTe<i Kal WvrjaKOv 

13 TToXkoi. avve-nLTrre S' e^' eKdaToicn tovtcov wSe. 

IV. UoWolcrc jxev to ipvaLireXa'; p^era Trpo- 
(bdaio^ eVt rolai rv)(ovai Kal irdvv errl ap-iKpolai 
rp(op,aTiOL<i ecf)' 6X(p tm aoop^ari, pudXicrra oe rolai 
irepl e^)]K0VTa eVea Kal ^ irepl KecpaXijv, el Kal 
ap,iKpov dp.eX'qOeLi]. iroWolat Se Kal ev Oepairelr) 
eovcTL ^ p,eyd\ai (pXeyp^oval eylvovro, kul to 
€pvaLire\a<i iroXv raxl) irdvroOev eirevep^ero. Tolao 
p,ev ovv irXelaTOiaiv avrwv diroardaia e? ip,- 
irvi]p,ara avveinirTov aapKoyv Kal veupcov Kal 

1 Koi omitted by MSS., added by Littre from Galen. 

2 Liltre puts a comma at afieKriOelT) and a colon at iova-t. 



1 Or, "forms." 

2 With Littrc's punctuation the meaning is, "however 



240 



EPIDEMICS m, ii.-iv. 

Etesian winds weae faint and intermittent. But, on 
the other hand, near the x-ising of Arcturus there 
were heavy rains with northerly winds. 

The year having proved southerly, wet and mild, 
in the winter the general health was good except for 
the consumptives, who will be described in due course. 

III. Early in the spring, at the same time as the 
cold sna})s which occurred, were many malignant 
cases ^ of erysipelas, some from a known exciting cause 
and some not. Many died, and many suffered pain 
in the throat. Voices impaired ; ardent fevers ; 
phrenitis ; aphthae in the mouth ; tumours in the 
private parts ; inflammations of the eyes ; carbuncles ; 
disordered bowels ; loss of appetite ; thirst in some 
cases, though not in all ; urine disordered, copious, 
bad; long coma alternating with sleeplessness; 
absence of crisis in many cases, and obscure crises ; 
dropsies ; many consumptives. Such were the 
diseases epidemic. There were patients suffering 
from each of the above types, and fatal cases were 
many. The symptoms in each type were as follow. 

IV. Many were attacked by the erysipelas all 
over the body when the exciting cause was a trivial 
accident or a very small wound; especially when the 
patients were about sixty years old and the wound 
was in the head, however little the neglect might 
have been. Many even while undergoing treat- 
ment suffered from severe inflammations,- and the 
erysipelas would quickly spread widely in all direc- 
tions. Most of the patients experienced abscessions 
ending in suppurations. Flesh, sinews and bones 

slight the neglect, and even when a patient was actually 
undergoing treatnieut. There were severe inflammations," 
etc. 

241 



EniAHMIfiN r 

10 6(TTea>v iK7rT(0(Ti€<i /jieydXai. tjv Be koI to pevfia 
TO avvt(TTd/j.€vov ov TTixp iKcXov, oXXu arjTTeSoov 
Ti? dWrj Koi pevfxa ttoXv Kai ttoiklXou. olai fiev 
ovv TTepl Ke(pa\r]v tovtcov ri aufiTnTnoi yivecrOaL, 
fidhi]ai'i re oA,7;9 t^? Ke(pa\T]^ iytveTO Kal tov 
yevetov Kal oaTewv xp^iXco/xaTa Kal eKiTTwace^ Kal 
TToWd pevfxaTa. ev irvperolai, re raina koi dvev 
TTvperoiv, yv Se Tavra (po^epoorepa i) KaKiw. 
olcTL yap e? i/jLirwj/jia ■>] Tiva toiovtov ck^lkolto 
ireTTaafxov,^ ol TrXecaroL tovtcov eacv^ovTO. olai 

20 S' 1] fxep (f)\€y/J,ov7] Kal to epuai7r€\a<i inreXdoi, 
TOLavTrjv he aTroaTacnv ixrjhefxiav 7roi)]aaiTO, 

TOVTCOV aTTCoXXvVTO TTOXXOL. 0/.iOLCO<i Oe Kal ec TTTj 

dXXr] TOV acofiaTO^i TrXavijOeLrj, crvveTniTTe TavTa. 
TToXXoiai p,€v yap j3pa')(^ici)v Kal 7rri')(v<i 6Xo<; 
Trepieppvi]. olcn S' iirl tcl irXevpd, TavTa eKa- 
KOVTo Tj TMv epLTrpoaOev tl tj twv oiriadev. oiai 
S* oXo'i 6 pLrjpo'i rj tcl nrepl KV)']/jiy]v aTreyfriXovTO 
Kal TTOv^ o\o<f. ^]v Se iravTCOv )(^aXe7rcoTaTa tmv 
TOiovTcov, 6t€ Trepl rj^rjv Kal alhola yevoiaTO. to. 
30 p-kv Trepl eXKea Kal p,eTa Trpocpdaio'i ToiavTa. 
TToXXocat Se iv rrvpeTolai Kal rrpo rrvpeTov Kal 
eVl TTvpeTolat avveTrnrTev. rjv Be Kal tovtcov, 
oaa p.ev dirocTTacnv TTon^aaiTO hia tov eKTrvfjaai 
Tj KaTci KoiXit]v Tapa')(^tj rt? e7rLKaipo<i rj •^pjjcTTCov 
ovpcov BliiBoctl^ yevoLTO, Sia tovtcov XeXvaOai, 
olcTt Be fxrjBev tovtcov av/nTrLTTTOi., da^jp.co'i Be 
dcpavi^o/jLevcov, OavaTcoBea yiveaOai. ttoXv p,ev 
ovv TrXeiGTOLai crvveTriTTTe tci Trepl to ipvaiireXaf 
tov ^]po<;. TrapeiTTeTO Be Kal Bid tov depeo<s Kal 

40 VTTO CpdlVOTTCOpOV. 

242 



EPIDEMICS III, IV. 

fell away in large quantities. The flux which formed 
was not like pus^ but was a different sort of putre- 
faction with a copious and varied flux. If anv of these 
symptoms occurred in the head, there was loss of 
hair from all the head and from the chin ; the bones 
were bared and fell away, and there were copious 
fluxes. Fever was sometimes present and sometimes 
absent. These symptoms were terrifying rather 
than dangerous. For whenever they resulted in 
suppuration or some similar coction the cases usually 
recovered. But whenever the inflammation and the 
erysipelas disappeared without producing any such 
abscession, there were many deaths. The course of 
the disease was the same to whatever part of the 
body it spread. Many lost the arm and the entire 
forearm. If the mahidy settled in the sides there 
was rotting either before or behind. In some cases 
the entire thigh was bared, or the shin and the 
entire foot. But the most dangerous of all such 
cases were when the pubes and genital organs were 
attacked. Such were the sores which sprang from 
an exciting cause. In many cases, however, sores 
occurred in fevers, before a fever, or supervening on 
fevers. In some of these also, when an abscession 
took place through suppuration, or when a seasonable 
disturbance of the bowels occuri-ed or a passing of 
favourable urine, this gave rise to a solution ; but 
when none of these events happened, and the symj)- 
toms disappeared without a sign, death resulted. It 
was in the spring that by far the greater number of 
cases of erysipelas occurred, but they continued 
throughout the summer and during autumn. 

^ So V and most MSS. : 6 tu>v roiovroiv a.<piKOno irenaff/uLhs 
most editions. 

243 



EniAHMIQN r 

V. IloXXr; Se Tapa-)(^i] Tiat. koX to, irepl (fxipvyya 
(^vfiara, koX (pXey/Jioval 'yXcoaar)^, koI ra irap 
686vTa<; d7roaTi]/ji.ara. (fxovai re TToWolaiv 
iirecnj/jiaivov KaKov/xevac koX KanWovaai,^ 
rrpoiTOv p,ev rolai tpdivooBeaiv dp)(o/jievoccnv, drdp 

8 Koi rolcrc KavcrcoSeai koI toIcti ^peviriKolaiv. 

VI. "Hp^avTo fiev ovv ol Kavaot Koi rd (ppevL- 
TiKCL nrpwl Tov 7]po<; /nerd rd <yev6peva ^\rv-)(ea, 
KoX irXeZaToi TrjviKavra Sievocnjaav o^ea 8e 
rovroiai Koi OavarcoSea avveimnev. rjv he -r) 
Kardaraaa rcov yevop^evcov Kavawv wSe- dpyo- 
[levoL KcofiaTwSee^, ao-coSee?, ^ piKciihee'^ , Tru/jero? 
o^U9,^ ov 5t-v/rft)8ee<? Xirjv, ov TrapdXr/poi, dirb pivcov 
ecna^e apiKpov. ol rrapo^vafiol Tolai TrXet- 
(TTOLatv ev dprirjcn, irepl he rov'i irapo^vapov'^ 

10 '\,7]0')] Kal d(f)€ai<; Kal d(f)(i)vi7]. uKped re tovtoictcv 
alel piev ■\JfV)(^poTepa irohcov /cal x^ipcov, ttoXv he 
irepl T0U9 irapo^vapiov^ /idXiaTa' ttoXlv re jSpa- 
he(o<; Kal ou «aXw? dveOeppaivovro Kal irdXiv 
Kajevoeov Kal hieXeyovTO. /caret^e he rj to Koiypui 
(Tvvexe<;, oi)^ v7rv(ohe<;, rj perd irovcov dypvirvoL.' 
KOiXiat Tapa)(^cohee's rolai irXeicrroLcn tovtcov, 
hia')(^u>p7]paaiv wpolcri, Xeinolcn, iroXXolcnv ovpd 
re TToXXd Xeirrd Kpiaip^ov ovhe ^(^priarov ovhev 
e'XpvTa' ovhe dXXo Kpicripov ovhev rolcrtv ovrw^ 

20 'i^ovaiv icfyalvero- ovre ydp rjpoppdyei KaXa)<; 

^ KUTlAXovcrai Freind and Kiihlewein : KoreiAoCo-oi V ? 
KaTfiWovaai Erotian. For other variants see Littre. 

2 Before o|us Galen (VH 651) followed by Littre has ovk. 

244 



EPIDEMICS III, v.-vi. 

V. Much trouble was caused to some patients by 
the tumours in the throat, inflammations of the 
tongue and the abscesses about the teeth. Many had 
the symptom of impaired and muffled ^ voice, at first 
at the beginning of the cases of consumption, but 
also in the ardent fevers and in phrenitis. 

VI. Now the ardent fevers and phrenitis began 
early in the spring after the cold snaps which 
occurred, and very many fell sick at that time. 
These suffered acute and fatal symptoms. The con- 
stitution of the ardent fevers that occurred was as 
follows. At the beginning coma, nausea, shivering, 
acute fever, no great thirst, no delirium, slight 
epistaxis. The exacerbations in most cases on even 
days, and about the time of the exacerbations there 
was loss of memory with prostration and speechless- 
ness. The feet and hands of these patients were 
always colder than usual, most especially about the 
times of exacerbation. Slowly and in no healthy 
manner they recovered their heat, becoming rational 
again and conversing. Either the coma held them 
continuously without sleep, or they were wakeful 
and in pain. Bowels disordered in the majority of 
these cases, with crude, thin, copious stools. Urine 
copious, thin, with no critical or favourable sign, nor 
did any other critical sign apjiear in these patients. 
For there occurred neither favourable hemorrhage 

* The word so rendered has puzzled the commentators 
from very early times. See the full discussion of Littre 
ad loc. The ancients interpreted either "cooped up" or 
"altered," "fauss^e" (Littr^). See Erotiau sub voce (pwval 
KarelWovaai. 1 think that H. used a strange word meta- 
phorically on purpose to describe a strange alteration in the 
voice, which was as it were " imprisoned" or (to borrow a 
motoring expression) "silenced." 

245 



EniAHMIf^N r 

ovT€ TA9 aWr] TOiv €idi(Tfji€V(i)v a7roaTa(n<i iyevero 
KpLai/j,o<i. edvrjaKov re eKaaTO'i u><; rv^of, TreirXa- 
vrjfievco'i ra jroWd, irepl ra? Kpicna<;, eK ttoWov 
8i Tiv€<; a(f)0)voi, i8p(ovr€<i ttoWol. Tolat pkv 
oKeOplw^i e^ovai (TweTnine ravra' 7rapaTT\')]aia 
5e Kol rolai (^pevLTLKolcriv. aSL^jroi Se irdvv ovTOt 
rjaav, ovK e'^ep-avrj tmv (ftpevntKOiv ovSel^, coairep 
iir' dWoiaiv, dW dW,r} rivl Karacjiopfj vcoOprj 
29 KapyjjSapee^ ^ uttcoWvito. 

VII. ^Haav Se koX dWoi TrvperoL, irepl mv ye- 
ypd'yp'erai. arofiaTa TToWolcnv d(pOu>oea, eXKooSea. 
pevfxaTa Trepl alSola iroWd, eXKcofiara, (pv/jLara 
e^ooOev, eawdev rd irepl /Sov/Scova';. ocjidaX/nLaL 
vypai,fxaKpo)(p6vtoi/jL€Td ttovwv. €7ri(f)vcn€<; /3\e(f)d- 
pcov e^(odev, eacodev, ttoWmv (fiOelpovra rd^ oyjna^, 
d avKa eiTovoixd^ovcTLV. icfyvero Be Kol eirl twv 
dWwv €\k€0)v TToWd Kol iv alBoLoiaiv. dvOpaK€<; 
TToXXol Kurd Oepo^ koX dWa, d aijyjr KaXelTai. 

10 iK0v/j.aTa fxeydXa. ep7rr]Te<i TroWolai fxeydXoi. 

VIII. Td Be fcard KOiXlrjp TToXXoicxt TroWd 
Kal ^Xa^epd avve^aive. Trpcorop /xev reivea-pLoX 
TToWoLcriv eTTiTTovox;, TrXeiaroiai Be TraiBtoicn, 
Kal rrdaiv ^ oaa ^ irpo )]0r]<i, Kal aTTCoWwro ra 
TrXecara Tovrcov. XeievrepiKol ttoWoL Bvaevre- 
pt(t)Se6<i, ovB' ovTOi Xirjv eTrnrovax;. rd Be '^oXcoBea 
Kal Xnrapd Kal Xeirrd Kal vBarcoBea' TToXXoiai 

^ So Galen (XVI 579) Karacpopfi Ko/tjj fuOpy /Sape'ois MSS. 
- -Kafftv D and Galen : traicrlv V. 
' '6<ra MSS. : oaoi most editions. 

^ Possibly "frequent," "common." So Littr^. Tliis is 
one of the most doubtful cases of those difficult words in 
a medical context, ivoXvs and d\iyos in the plural. See 
General Introduction, p. Ixi. 

246 



EPIDEMICS III, vi.-viii. 

nor any other of the usual critical abscessions. The 
manner of their dying varied with the individual ; it 
was usually irregular, at the crises, but in some cases 
after long loss of speech and in many with sweating. 
These were the symptoms attending the fatal cases 
of ardent fever, and the cases of phrenitis were 
similar. These suffered from no thirst at all, and 
no case showed the mad delirium that attacked 
others, but they passed away overpowered by a dull 
oppression of stupor. 

VII. There were other fevers also, which I shall 
describe in due course. Many had aphthae and 
sores in the mouth. Fluxes about the genitals were 
copious ^ ; sores, tumours external and internal ; the 
swellings which appear in the groin. ^ Watery in- 
flammations of the eyes, chronic and painful. Growths 
on the eyelids, external and internal, in many cases 
destroying the sight, which are called "figs." There 
were also often growths on other sores, particularly 
in the genitals. Many carbuncles in the summer, 
and other affections called "rot." Large pustules. 
Many had large tetters. 

VIII. The bowel troubles in many cases turned 
out many and harmful. In the first place many 
were attacked by painful tenesmus, mostly children 
— all in fact who were approaching puberty — and 
most of these died. Many lienteries. Cases of 
dysentery, but they too ^ were not very painful. 
Stools bilious, greasy, thin and watery. In many 

^ A curious phrase. I suspect that to hides a corruption 
of the text. 

^ /. c. as Galen suggests in his commentary, they were like 
tlie lienteries in not causing much pain. Lientery is not 
particularly painful. 

247 



EniAHMiaN r 

fiev avTO TO voarj/jia e? tovto KareaKTjyjrev avev re 
TTvperwv KoX ev TTvperolcn, fiera ttovcov arpo^oi 

10 Kal aiiei\i']aie<i KUKoyjOea. Sie^oSol re tcov 
ttoWmv evovTMV ^ re Kal iTTca)(^6vrcov. ra Se 
Bte^iovTa TTovov^ ov \vovTa rolal re Trpoacfyepofti- 
voLcrt hvaKoXoi^ inraKovovra- Kal yap ai Kaddpcrie^ 
TOv<i 7r\ei<TTOV9 irpoae^Xamov. rcov Be ovrax; 
6')(^ovTU)V TToXXol /j,ev 6^ea><i airoiWvvro, ecm K 
olai Kal /xaKporepa Sirjyev. to? 8' iv KecpaXaltp 
elpPjaOai, Trayre?, Kal ol ra fiuKpa voareovTe<i Kal 
ol ra o^ea, ck toov Kara kolXltjv ci'TredvrjaKOv 

19 fidXicTTa. 7rdvTa<; yap KOtXirj avvair-qveyKev. 

IX. ^ ATToaiTOi S' eyevovTO TrdvTe^ fiev Kal eirl 
Trdai rolai TrpoyeypafifievoLcnv, tt)<? eyco ovSe 
'TTdorrore ev6TV)(or, rroXv Se /jidXiara ovtoi Kal ^ gk 
TOVTcov Kal CK TCOV dXXcov 8e oc Kal oXe9pL(o^ 

^ tv6vrwv MSS. But should we not expect eveSvTwv ? I 
suggest fjLiv6vTwv. Cf. my suggestion on p. 320. 
^ After Koi JNISS. have ol. Blass omitted. 

1 Littrti in a long and obscure note argues that only avev 
TTvpeTwv and not iv TrvperoTa-i can belong to the preceding phrase, 
apparently because it is illogical to say that fever was present 
when the disease consisted merely of unhealthy stools. But 
the writer does not wish to exclude fever ; he merely wishes 
to exclude from this class of patient tenesmus, lientery and 
dysentery. The commentary of Galen, ttoXAois oe (pTiaiv ahrh 
TOVTO yeviaOat rh vicTTJixa, rovTiffri rh Siax^p^^v ra rotavTa' Kal 
yap Kal X'^P'-^ TTvpeTcov iviois tovto yeveadai (pi)al, does not, as 
Littr^ supposes, support his contention. The phrase Kal 
Xo:p\s irvpiToiv iviois tovto y^viaOai (prial implies Ka\ iv irvpeTols 
TOVTO iyfveTo. 

* It is hard to separate Sie^o^oi from tUv iroWwv, yet the 
sense seems to require it. The next sentence states that 
these evacuations caused no relief, evidently because they 

248 



EPIDEMICS 111, vin.-ix. 

cases this condition of the bowels constituted the 
disease itself, fever being sometimes absent and 
sometimes present.^ Painful tormina and malignant 
colic. There were evacuations, though the bulk of 
the contents remained behind.- The evacuations 
did not take away the pains, and yielded with diffi- 
culty to the remedies administered. Purginffs, in 
fact, did harm in most cases. Of those in this con- 
dition many died rapidly, though a few held out 
longer. In brief, all patients, whether the disease 
was prolonged or acute, died chiefly from the bowel 
complaints. For the bowels carried all otftogether.^ 
IX. Loss of appetite, to a degree that I never 
met before, attended all the cases described above, 
but most especially the last, and of them, and of the 
others also, especially such as were fatally stricken.^ 

(lid not clear tlic trouble from the bowel. Now if 6i€|o5oi be 
taken with twv -rvoWilv, the only possible translation is 
"evacuations of the many contents which were retained 
there," implying complete evacuation. Galen's comment 
(Kuhn XVII, Parti, p. 708) bears out the former interpreta- 
tion : ras 5e 5if|<jSoi;s, rovTiarX ras Kefwaeis, avTo7s au/x^Tivai, 

TToWwu epovToov Kal iinaxovToiv koI Sia tovto /.iriSk tovs 

irSvovs Kveif TO, Sie^iOUTa. noo'iyix.p olov re \veiv avrd, iroWwv en 
Tuii> inexo/^i"^" uvroiv ; It should be noticed that einffxivTwv 
is probably from eViVxai (Galen's iTrexo/j-evaiv) and not from 
eTre'xto, although I cannot find a parallel for intransitive 
iiriax'^ in this sense. 

^ The writer has not expressed himself clearly in this 
chapter, which seems to be the roughest of rough notes. The 
last two sentences apparently mean : — 

(a) It was always the bowel complaints which caused most 
deaths. This was natural, since (6) all attacked by bowel 
complaints died. 

* The emendation of Blass permits the translator of this 
passage to harmonize both sense and grammar. Before it 
was impossible to do so. 

VOL, I. ^ 249 



EniAHMIQN r 

exoiev. SfxjrcoSee^; ol fxiv, ol S' ov' tmv iv irvpe- 
roLcn Kol Tolaiv aWoiaiv ov8el<i aKaipw^, a\\! 
7 Tji' Kara ttotov hianav co^ -i']0e\e<i. 

X. Ovpa Se TToWa jxev ra Sie^iovTa rjv, ovk ex 
rojv 7rpo(T(f)epofJiev(i}v ttotmv, a\Xa ttoWov inrep- 
^dWovTa. TToWr] 8e t<? kul tmv ovpcop KaKOTr}<} 
rjv TOiv aTTLovTOiv. ovre yap Tra^^o? ovre Treira- 
afiov<i ouT€ Ka6dp(Tia<i )^p7]aTa'? et^ef.-*- iaij/xaivev 
Se Tolai irXeiaTOiai. crvvTi'i^i.v koI Tapw^rjv Kal 

7 TTOPOVi Kul cLKpiaLa^. 

XI. Kw/LtarwSee? he /xdXiaTa ot (ppeviTiKot, koI 
ol KavacoBee<i rjcrav, drdp Kal iirl Tol<i aWocat 
vocr7J/u.aai irda-i rolcri fieyiaroiatv, 6 tl fierd 
TTupeTOU yivoiTo. Sta iravro^ he toI<jl irXel- 
aroiaiv i) ISapi) Koofxa TrapeLireTO ?) fiiKpovi Kal 

6 XeTTTOi)? vTTvov^ KOifxdadai. 

XII. IloWa Be Kal dWa irvperoiv eTreSij/xrjarev 
eiBea, rpiraicov, TerapTaiwv, vvKrepivcov, auv- 
ex^ecov, jJbaKpoiv, TTeTrXavrj/xevoyv, dacohecov, aKara- 
ardrcov. ctTrai'Te? Se ovtoc yttera ttoXXj)? eylvovTO 
Tapa-)(ri<;' KoiXiai re yap rolat TrXetaTOiaiv rapa- 
^a)See9, (fypiKcoSee^- /S/jwre? ov Kpiai/xoi, Kal ra 
TMV ovpcov 0)9 vTToyeypaTTTai. ^aKpd he roiai 
TrXetfTTOtcTi TOVTCOv' ovSe yap al yivopievat 
TOVTOiaiv aTTocTTacrte? eKpivov oxTTrep iirl Tolaiv 

10 dWoiac SvcTKpiTa fxev ovv irdcn Travra iyivero 
Kal aKpiaiai Kal ')(^p6vca, ttoXv he fidXiaTa rovToif. 

^ After 6?X^'' MSS. have eVl Tro\\o7ffi yap al Kara Kvariv 
KaBdpaies xpVO'T"''- yeuofxivaL a.yad6u. Deleted as an explana- 
tory note by Erraerins. 

1 Probably " disordered bowels," a common meaning of 
rapaxh in the Corpus. 
250 



EPIDEMICS III, ix.-xii. 

Thii-st afflicted some, but not others; of the fever 
patients, as well as of the other cases, none were un- 
seasonabl}' affected, but as far as drink was concerned 
you could diet them as you pleased. 

X. The urine that was passed was copious, not in 
proportion to, but far exceeding, the drink adminis- 
tered. Yet the urine too that was passed showed 
a great malignancy. For it had neither the proper 
consistency, nor coction, nor cleansing powers; it 
signified for most patients wasting, trouble,^ pains, 
and absence of crisis. 

XI. Coma attended mostly the phrenitis and ardent 
fevers, without excluding, however, all the other dis- 
eases of the most severe sort that were accompanied 
by fever. Most patients throughout either were 
sunk in heavy coma or slept only in fitful snatches. 

XII. Many other forms also of fever were epi- 
demic : — tertians, quartans, night fevers, fevers 
continuous, protracted, irregular, fevers attended with 
nausea, fevers of no definite character. All these 
cases suffered severely from trouble. ^ For the 
bowels in most cases were disordered, with shiver- 
ing fits. Sweats portended no crisis, and the 
character of the urine was as I have described. 
Most of these cases were protracted, for the ab- 
scessions too which took place did not prove critical 
as in other cases ; nay rather, in all cases all 
symptoms marked obscurity of crisis,^ or absence 
of crisis, or protraction of the disease, but most 
especially in the patients last described. A few 

- See the preceding note. 

^ For SvffKpiToy see Foes' Oeconomia, stib voce. It means 
that it was hard to see when a crisis took place, or that 
the crisis was not a marked one. 

25^ 



EiiiAHMinN r 

eKpive he rovrwv oXtjoiai irepX 6j8orjKOcrTi]v. 
Tolai 8e TrXeicrroiaLV e^ekeLTrev &)? ervyev- edvr)- 
aKOv he TOVTwv oXijoi vtto vhpwiro^ opOoardhjjv. 
TToWolac he koX eirl Tolaiv aWocaL voa-qjiacnv 
olSij/jLaTa 7rap(t)')^\ei, iroXv he /xaXiara rolai 

17 (pdtvcohea-t. 

XIII. M.eji(TTOv he koI y^aXeirdiiTaTov koX 
7rXeL(TT0V<; eKreive to (pOivcohc';. iroXXol yap 
rive^ dp^d/xevoi Kara ')(eifx(t)va ttoXXoI fiev Kure- 
KXidy-jaav, oi he avroiv 6pdoaTdhy]v v7re(f)epovTO' 
TTpcol he Tov Tjpo'i eOvrjaKov ol TrXelaroL t(ov 
KaTaKXidevTcov' tmp he dXXwv e^eXnrov fiev 
al ^rJX^'> oiihevi, vcfjiecrav he Ka-rd Oepo<;. vtto 
he TO (pOivoTTwpov KareKXiOTjaav iravre'; Koi 
TToXXol edvrjaKov. fiaKpd he toutcov ol irXeiaTOi 

10 hievoaeov. i]p^aro jxev ovv rolcri irXeiaroKTi 
TOVTcov e^aL(f)V7]<; eK tovtcov KaKovadai' cfipiKco- 
5e€9 TTVKvd. 7roXXdKi<; Trvperol (Tvvexee<;, o^ee?" 
ihpci)Te<i (iKaipoL iroXXol, -y^vy^pol hid TeXeo<;' 
TToXXi] '^v^L'i, Kol fjioji'i irdXiv dvaOepfiaivojjievoi' 
KotXlai iroiKiXco^ ic^iaTap^evai koI irdXiv Ta')(y 
KaOvypaivofievai, irepl he reXevrr^v "jrdai /3iaia><; 
Kadvypauw/xevai'^ koX twv rrepl Trvev/xova irdv- 
rcov hidhoaL<; Karco' ttXi/^o? ovpcov ov ^(^pricrTMV' 
a-vvTi']^ie<; KUKai. al he /3>};;^e? evrjaav fxev hid 

20 TeXeo<; ttoXXoI koI iroXXd dvdyovaai ireirova 
Kal vypd, fxerd ttovcov he ov Xltjv' dXX^ el koX 
eiToveov, Trdvv irprjeco'i Tvdcnv 7] Kddapcri^ toov 
diTO TTvevfxovo^ eyivero. (pdpvyye^ ov Xlrjv haKvo)- 
hee^, ovhe dXfxv pihe<; ovhev r]vd>')(\eov rd fxevroi 

^ Fi'om irepl to KaOvypaivS/xevat omitted by all MSS. except 
H (in margin). 

252 



EPIDEMICS III, Aii.-xiii. 

of these had a crisis about the eightieth day ; 
with most recovery followed no rule. A few of 
them died of dropsy, without taking to their bed ; 
many sufferers from the other diseases too wei'e 
troubled with swellings, most particularly the 
consumptives. 

XIII. The severest and most troublesome disease, 
as well as the most fatal, was the consumption. 
Many cases began in the winter, and of these 
several took to their bed, though some went about 
ailing without doing so. Early in the spring most 
of those who had gone to bed died, while none of the 
others lost their cough, though it became easier in 
the summer. During autumn all took to bed and 
many died. Most of these were ill for a long time. 
Now most of these began suddenly to grow worse, 
showing the following symptoms : — frequent shiver- 
ing; often continuous and acute fever; unseasonable, 
copious,^ cold sweats throughout ; great chill with 
difficult recovery of heat ; bowels variously consti- 
pated, then quickly relaxing, and violently i*elaxing 
in all cases near the end; the humours about the 
lungs spread downwards ; abundance of unfavourable 
urine ; malignant wasting. The coughs throughout 
were frequent, bringing up copious,^ concocted and 
liquid sputa, but without much pain ; but even if 
there was pain, in all cases the purging from the 
lungs took place very mildly. The tln-oat did not 
smart very much, nor did salt humours cause any 
distress at all. The fluxes, however, viscid, white, 

' I am often doubtful as to the meaning of iroWol in 
instances like these ; does it refer to quantity or frequency ? 
In these two examples either meaning would give excellent 
sense. See General Introduction, p. Ixi. 



EniAHMmN r 

yXtaxpct- KoX XevKCL koI vypa koi a(^pu)hea 
TToWa ciTTo Ke(f)a\i]<i rjei. ttoXv Se fxiyiarov 
KaKov TrapeLTrero Koi tovtolctl koX rotaiv aXkoLcrt 
TO, irepl TT]v dTToariTLTjv, Kaddirep viroyky pairrai- 
ovBe yap ttotcov /xerci rpocf))]^ J/Seoj? el^ov, dWd 

30 irdvv hirjyov aSti/r&)?- ^dpo<; cxcofMaTO<;' Kco/xa- 
Ta)Se6?* Tolai irXeiaTOLcrLv aiirSiv otZrujia, koL e? 
vSpcoTra TTepuaravTO' (jiptKwhee';, TrapdXrjpoi irepl 

33 Odvarov. 

XIV. Et5o9 Se TOiv (f)0u>(i)8€Q)v rjv to Xelov, 
TO vTToXeuKov, TO (})aK(Ji)8e^,^ to inrepvdpov, to 
XapoTTov, XevKOipXey/xaTLai, TTTepvycoSee'i' Kal 
yvvaiKe'i ovtw. to fxeXay)(^oXiKov Kal vcpai/jiov 
oi Kavaoi Kal Ta (ppevcTiKa Kal tcx. SuaeuTeptwBea 
TovTcov r/TTTero. Teivea-fxol veoiac (pXeyfiaTcoSeaiv 
at fiaKpal hiappotat Kal to, Sptfiea Sia^cop-ij/xaTa 

8 Kal Xcrrapa TTLKpo^oXoiaiv. 

XV. Hi/ Se ird&t TOi? inroyeypapipievoL^ -^aXe- 
TTcoTaTOv fxev TO eap Kal TrXeiCTOf? direKTeive, to 
he Oipo<; prjicTTOv, Kal iXd'X^iaToi dirdiXXvvTo. tov 
06 cf)divo7T(opov Kal VTTo TrXrjidSa TrdXiv eOvrjcTKov, 
01 TToXXol TeTapTaloi. ^ hoKel Be /xoi TTpoaux^e- 
Xrjaai KaTa Xoyov to yevop-evov Oepo<;. ra? yap 
6epLva<i vovcrov^ -y^eip-oov eTnyevo/Lievo^ Xvei, Kal 
Ta9 ')(^eifiepii'd<; 6epo<i einyevopievov /u.e0iaT'>]ai. 

^ (paKcides most MSS.: rapaxaiSfS R' : (pXey/xaroiSes Galen. 

^ From 5oK€r 5e f.ioL to the end of the KaTaiTTaats appears in 
the MSS. not here but at the end of tlie book. Most editors 
have transposed the passage to this place. 

^ It seems impossible to decide whether the adjective 
xapo-irSs refers here to the brightness of the eyes or to their 
colour (blue or grey). 



EPIDEMICS III, xin.-xv. 

moist, fi'othy, which came from the head, were 
abundant. But by far the worst s3'mptom that 
attended both these cases and the others was the 
distaste for food, as has been mentioned. Tliey had 
no relish either for drink with nourishment, but they 
remained entirely without thirst. Heaviness in the 
body. Coma. In most of them there was swelling, 
which developed into dropsy. Shivering fits and 
delirium near death. 

XIV. The physical characteristics of the consump- 
tives were : — skin smooth, whitish, lentil-coloured, 
reddish ; bright eyes ; ^ a leucophlegmatic ^ con- 
dition; shoulder-blades projecting like wings. Women 
too so.^ As to those with a melancholic ^ or a rather 
sanguine ^ complexion, they were attacked by ardent 
fevers, phrenitis and dysenteric troubles. Tenesmus 
affected young, phlegmatic ^ people ; the chronic 
diarrhoea and acrid, greasy stools affected persons 
of a bilious'^ temperament. 

XV. In all the cases described spring was the 
worst enemy, and caused the most deaths ; summer 
was the most favourable season, in which fewest 
died. In autumn and during the season of the 
Pleiades, on the other hand, there were again 
deaths, usually on the fourth day. And it seems 
to me natural that the coming on of summer should 
have been helpful. For the coming on of Avinter 
resolves the diseases of summer, and the coming on 
of summer removes those of winter. And yet in 

* See General Introduction, p. xlvi-li, on the humours. 
"Bitter bile" was the same as that sometimes called 
"yellow." 

^ This brief phrase seems to mean that the same cb.aracter- 
istics marked consumptive women as consumptive men. 



EniAHMION r 

Kairoi avTO <ye cttI ecourou to yev6/j,evov depo<; ovk 

10 evaja6e<i eyivcTo' kol yap e^aicpvT]'; Oep/xov 
KoX voTiov Kal drrvoov aW o/u.co'i tt/Oo? T7]p 

12 aWrjv KardaTaaiv jxeTaWd^av axpeXrjae. 

XVI. Meya 8e ytiepo? ■yp/eu/xai, t/}? r€)(^vr]<; elvai 
TO hvvaaOai, (TKorrelv Kal irepl twv yeypa/x/xevcov 
6p6o)<i. 6 yap yvoix; Kal y^pecap-evo^ TO^Toi? ovk 
dv p,oi 8oKel p,eya acfxiWeaOai iv tt) re-)(yr]. Bel 
Se Karap^avOdveiv rtjv KardaTacriv tmv (apecov 
dKpL^Oi<i €KdaTrjv ^ Kal to v6criip.a, dyadov 6 Tt 
Koivov iv TTJ KaTacndaei rj ev ttj vovcrw, kukov 
6 Ti Koivov ev TTj KUTaaTdaec rj iv ttj vovaw, 
p^aKpov 6 Tt v6crrip.a Kal Oavaatp^ov, p,aKpov 6 

10 Ti Kul TrepieaTiKov, o^u 6 tl 6avdaip,ov, o^v 6 
Tt TrepiecTTiKov' Td^iv twv Kpiaip^wv eK tovtcov 
aKOTreiaOai Kal irpoXeyeiv e« tovtcov evTTopecTai. 
elSoTt irepl tovtcov ecTTiv elSevai ov<i Kal otc kuI 

14 fo)9 Set SiaiTav. 



J^KKaiBeKa dppcoaTot 

XVII. a. 'Ey ©acTft) Tov Udptov, 09 KUTeKeiTO 
inrep ^ ApTep^iaiov, 7rvpeT6<; eXa$ev 6^v<;, kut dp- 
^a? avvexv'i) Kav(Td)8r]<;' Slyjro^' dpy^op^evo'^ Kwp,a- 
tcoSt]!; kol TrdXiv dypvirvo'i' koiXlt] Tapap^coS?;? 
ev dp-)(fiaLV, ovpa XeiTTd. eKTrj ovprjaev eXaicoSe'i, 
vapeKpovaev. €^Sop,r) irapco^vvOrj irdvTa, ovSev 

' One MS. reads l/cao-TTjj, perhaps rightly. 

1 " Of a good constitution." 

* This chapter does not fit in with the context, and occurs 
256 



EPIDEMICS III, CH. XV.— CASE i. 

itself the summer in question was not healthful ;i 
in fact it was suddenly hot, southerly, and calm. 
But nevertheless the change from the other con- 
stitution proved beneficial. 

XVI. The power, too, to study correctly what has 
been written I consider to be an important part of 
the art of medicine. The man who has learnt these 
things and uses them will not, I think, make 
great mistakes in the art. And it is necessary to 
learn accurately each constitution of the seasons 
as well as the disease ; what common element 
in the constitution or in the disease is good, and 
what common element in the constitution or in the 
disease is bad ; what malady is protracted and fatal, 
what is protracted and likely to end in recovery ; 
what acute illness is fatal, what acute illness is likely 
to end in recovery. With this knowledge it is easy 
to examine the order of the critical days, and to 
prognosticate therefrom. One who has knowledge 
of these matters can know whom he ought to treat, 
as well as the time and method of treatment.^ 

SIXTEEN CASES 
Case I 

XVII. In Thasos the Parian who lay sick beyond 
the temple of Artemis was seized with acute fever, 
which at the beginning was continuous and ardent. 
Thirst. At the beginning coma followed by sleep- 
lessness. Bowels disordered at the beginning ; urine 
thin. 

Sixth day. Oily urine ; delirium. 

Seventh day. General exacerbation ; no sleep ; 

.again at the beginning of the book ivepi Kpiffi/naiv. Ermerins 
brackets it. 

257 



EniAHMiDN r 

eKOifJiriOii, aWa ovpd re o/xoia koI to, t/}? 
72'ft)//,»;9 rapa-^whea' airo 8e KoiXit]^ ;^oA,&>8ea, 
\i7rapa StrjXOev. oyBor) a/MKp6v cltto pLVCOv 

10 ecrra^ev, i]fieaev IcoSea oXiya, crjuiKpa iKotpi^drj. 
evdrrj Bia tmv avrcov. hcKarr] Trdvra cruve8a>Kev. 
evSeKCLTT} iSpcoae 8i oXov' Trepieyjrv^e, ra^^i) Be 
irdXiv dve0epp.dv6)]. reaaapecr KaiheKdrrj ^ irvpe- 
TO? o^u<?, hiay^wpi^p.aTa y^oXoohea, Xeirrd, iroXXd, 
oupoiaiv €vai(opr]pa, irapeKpovaev. eTTTUKaiBe- 
Kdrr] eTriTTovco'i' oi'ne yap vttvol, 6 re 7rvpeTo<i 
eirereLvev. elKoarfj I'Bpcoae 8i oXoV diTupo'i,^ 
Bia')(^ojpr]paTa y^oXayhea, dTr6cnT0<;, K(op.aTco8j]<;' 
elKoarfi rerdprr] virecTTpeylre. Tpii]KoaTr} reTdprr] 

20 dirvpo^, KoiXii] ou auviaTaro, koI rrdXiv dveOep- 
p,di'Ot]. reaaapaKoarfi dirvpo'i, KOtXir) avveaTrj 
■)(^povov ov TToXvv, dirocrno^, apiKpd irdXiv eTTvpe^e 
Kol Bid 7ravT0<i ireTrXavi'jpepai'i' ccTrvpo'i rd /.cev, 
rd S' ov' el ydp tl SiaXiTroi Kal hiaKov^iaai, 
Ta~^v irdXiv vTvearpec^e. atrapioiai, re oXiyoiai'^ 
KoX (})avXoi(ri '7rpo(Te')(^pj]TO. vttvol kukou, irepl 
rd^ v7TocrTpocf)d<; TrapeicpovcTev. ovpa 7ra%09 p.ev 
exovra ovpec rrjviKavra, Tapa-)(^Mhea he Kal 
7rov)]pd. Kal rd Kard kolXltjv avi'icTTdpeva Kal 

30 TrdXiv SiaXvopeva. TrvpeTca crui^e^ea. Sia^o)- 
pijpara Xeind, ttoXXu. ev e'lKoac Kal eKarov 
eOave. rovTO) kolXlj] (Tuve^ea)<i diro t))<; 7rp(OTr]<; 
vyprj j(oX(jiihe(J IV , vypolai ttoXXoIo-iv rjv 17 crvv- 

^ rea-aapiffKatSeKaTr} Littre from Galen (VII 649) : rptffKai- 
Se/farrj V. (It is the 14th day which is important as a 
cri tical daj'. ) 

^ UTTvpos Littre from Galen : &ypvTn'os V. 

^ oXiyoiai Kiihlewein : iroXXo'tdi MSS. 

258 



EPIDEMICS III, CASE I. 

urine similar and mind disordered ; stools bilious and 
fatty. 

Eighth day. Slight epistaxis ; vomited scanty 
matters of the colour of verdigris ; snatches of sleep. 

Ninth day. Same symptoms. 

Tenth day. General improvement. 

Eleventh day. Sweated all over ; grew chilly, but 
quickly recovered heat. 

Fotirteenth day. Acute fever ; stools bilious, thin, 
copious ; substance floating in urine ; delirium. 

Sevenfee7ith day. In pain; no sleep, while the fever 
grew worse. 

Tfventieih day. Sweated all over ; no fever ; stools 
bilious ; aversion to food ; coma. 

Twenty-fourth day. Relapse. 

Thirty-fourth day. No fever ; no constipation ; re- 
covered heat. 

Fortieth day. No fever ; bowels constipated for a 
short time ; aversion to food ; became slightly 
feverish again, throughout irregularly, the fever being 
sometimes absent, sometimes present ; for if the 
fever intermitted and was alleviated there was a 
relapse soon afterwards. He took little bits of 
food, and that of an unsuitable sort. Sleep bad ; 
delirium at the relapses. Urine at these times had 
consistency, but was troubled and bad. Bowels con- 
stipated, but afterwards relaxed. Continuous slight 
fevers. Stools thin and copious. 

Hundred and twentieth day. Death. 
In this case the bowels continuously from the 
first day loose with bilious, loose, copious stools, or 

259 



EniAiiMinN r 

lara/^Lem] ^eovcrt koI aireTTToiaiv' ovpa 8ia reXeo^i 
KaKci' KcofiaToo8i]<i ra irXelcrra, fxera irovcov ctypvir- 
vo<;, drr6aiT0<i avve^^eco'i.^ ^ 

/3'. 'Ei/ ©acrct) rrjv KaraKei/xevtjv irapa to 
"^v')(^pov vScop €K roKOV Ovyarepa reKovaav KaOdp- 
(Tio'i ou yevo/xiv't'j'i Trupero? o^y? (ppLKco8r}<i rpi- 

40 Taii]v ekajBev. ck ')(^p6vov he ttoWov irpo rov 
TOKOV TTvpercoSrjq rjv, KaTaKXivr]<i, d7r6(rtTO<;. 
fxera he to jevo/xevov piyo<i (Tvve')(^ee<;, o^ea, 
(f>piK(t)hee<; ol irvperoi. oyho-p TroWd TrapeKpovcre 
Kul T<X9 i'^ojxeva'i koI Tct)(^v ttuXiv Karevoei' 
KoiXiT] Tapa)^(t)h7]<; TToWoiat XeirTotcnv, vharo- 
')(6Xot,<;' dhi\lro<i. evheKcirp Karevoei, Ka>ixa- 
TOihrj^ S' rjv' ovpa iroWd \e7rrd /cal fxeXava, 
dypvTTVo'i. elKoarfj a[XLKpd Trepteyjrv^e koI Ta')(^u 
TTc'iKiv dveOepfidvOrj, afxiKpa irapeXeyev, dypuTrvo<i' 

50 rd Kara KotXirjv eVt tcov avroiv ovpa vhaTcohea 
TToXXd. eiKoarrj e/Sho/mr] dirvpo^s, KOiXirj ovv- 
earrj, ov ttoXXw he ■^(^povM vcnepov tV^t'ou he^iov 
ohvvrj la'^vpi] '^povov ttoXvv' TTvperol TrdXiv 
TrapeiTTovTO' ovpa vharcohea. TecraapaKOcrry rd 
fM6v irepl TO Icrxi'OV iireKOvcpiae, /S>}xe9 he <jvv- 
e;\;ee? vypal TroXXat, /coiXii] avvecrTr), dirocn- 
T09' ovpa eiri tmv avTcov. ol he irvpeTol to 
fiev oXov ovK eKXe'iirovTe^, 7reTrXavi]/xevQ)<; he 

^ After (Tvvex^cos the MSS. have Kavixos. 
'•i V has here niT*ATPK0. 



^ Lit. "seething " or " boiling." The reference is possibly 
not so much to heat as to the steaming, frothy nature of the 
stools. 

260 



EPIDEMICS HI, CASES i.-ii. 

constipated with hot/ undigested stools. Urine 
throughout bad ; mostly comatose ; painful sleep- 
lessness ; 2 continued aversion to food. 

Cask II 

In Thasos the woman who lay sick by the Cold 
Water^ on the third day after giving birth to a 
daughter without lochial discharge, was seized with 
acute fever accompanied by shivering. For a long 
time before her delivery she had suffered from fever, 
being confined to bed and averse to food. After the 
rigor that took place, the fevers were continuous, 
acute, and attended with shivering. 

Eighth and followmg days. Much delirium, quickly 
followed by recovery of reason ; bowels disturbed 
with copious, thin, watery and bilious stools ; no 
thirst. 

Eleventh daij. Was rational, but comatose. Urine 
copious, thin and black ; no sleep. 

Ttventieih day. Slight chills,^ but heat quickly 
recovered ; slight wandering ; no sleep ; bowels the 
same ; urine watery and copious. 

Twenty-seventh day. No fever ; bowels constipated ; 
not long afterwards severe pain m the right hip for 
a long time. Fevers again attended ; urine watery. 

Fortieth day. Pain in the hip relieved ; continuous 
coughing, with watery, copious sputa ; bowels con- 
stipated ; aversion to food ; urine the same. The 
fevers, without entirely intermitting, were exacer- 

* The meaning apparently is that the patient was generally 
in a state of conia ; if not comatose, he was in pain and could 
not sleep. 

' This sentence shows that irepi in irepL\\/iixoi means not 
"very," but "all over." The phrase may mean "slight 
chilliness." 

261 



EniAHMiQN r 

Trapo^vvofievoi, ra fiev, to, S" ov. e^rjKOCTTf} al 
GO fiev j3rj')(€^ ttcr?;/x.&)9 e^eXiTTOv out6 <ydp Ti? tttvci- 
\o)v 7r67ra(T/xo? ijevero ovre aWi] tmv elOicr/xepcov 
a7r6crra(Ti,<;' cnrj'yoyv he rj e/c tcov eVt Be^ia Kar- 
eaTrdaOr]' KcofiaTwSrj'i' nrapeXeye kol TaT^y irciXiv 
Karevoei' 7rpo<; he ra ryevixara dTrovevotjfiivo)^ el^ev 
anjjcbv fiev iiravrjKe, KoiXtyj Se ')(^o\co8ea a/xcKpd 
BteScoKev, eiTupe^ev o^vTepwi, (f)piK(o8yj<;' /cat Ta9 
i)(^ofj.€va<; d(^wvo<; kuI irdXiv SieXeyeTo.^ oySoyj- 
Koarrj diredave. Tavrrj rd twv oupcov 8id reXeof 
rjv fxeXava koI Xeirra koI vBaTwSea. km/u-u 
70 irapeiireTO, dirocnro^;, dOvpLO^, dypvirvo^;, opyai, 
Sva(f)opbai, rd irepl rrjv yvcopLi-jv pieXayxoXiKd.^ 

y . 'Ei/ @dcray Tlv0icova, 09 Kare/cecTO vTrepdvco 
Tov 'UpaKXecov, i/c ttovuiv Kal kottwv Kal Statri]^ 
yevoixevri<i dfjLeXeo<; plyo<; fieya Kai Trupero? 6^v<; 
eXa/9e. yXwaaa i7rL,^rjpo<;, Si-\^c6S>;9, ^oXcoS?;?, 
01)^ VTTVcoaev, ovpa vTro/xeXava, evaicop7]/jLa /iere- 
wpov, ov)(^ 'iSpvTO.^ hevrepr] irepl fxeaov rj/u,€p7]<; 
■ylrv^a aKpewv, ra irepX ■)(^elpa<; /cal KecpaXijv /ndXXov, 
dvavho'i, d^oyvo^, j3pa-)(v-iTVOo<; eirl ttoXvv y^povov, 
80 dvedepixdvOri, hiylra, vvktu 81' rjav^ir]^, 'iBpcoae 
Trepl KecfyaXrjv a/miKpd. rpirr] rjp,€py]v St' tjav^iij^;, 
o'yp'e 8e Trepl r'jXiov 8v(Tfxd<i V7reyjrv)(^0i] a/xLKpd, 
dar], Tapax,>'j> vvkto<; eTrnrovco'i, ov8ev virvcoaev, 
d-no 8e KOiXlrjf; ufiiKpa avvecrTtjKora KOirpava 
8i7]X6e. Terdprr] irpcol 8t '))(TV)(Lr]<;, Trepl 8e 
fieaov i)fxepy'j<i irdvra Trapco^vvOr), ■v//"y|-t?, 

^ Before SifXeyero the MSS. except V have KaTevSei Kai. 

2 V has here n I A AE F 0. 

* 'iSpvTo MSS. : iSpveTo Kiihlewein. 

^ For "melancholy" see General Introduction, p. Iviii. 
262 



EPIDEiMICS III, CASES ii.-iii. 

bated irregularly, sometimes increasing and some- 
times not doing so. 

SLxlieth day. The coughing ceased without any 
critical sign ; there was no coction of the sputa, nor 
any of the usual abscessions ; jaw on the right side 
convulsed ; comatose ; wandering, but reason quickly 
recovered ; desperately averse to food ; jaw relaxed ; 
passed small, bilious stools ; fever grew more acute, 
with shivering. On the succeeding days she lost 
power of speech, but would afterwards converse. 

Eightieth day. Death. 

The urine of this patient was throughout black, 
thin and watery. Coma was present, aversion to 
food, despondency, sleeplessness, irritability, rest- 
lessness, the mind being affected by melancholy. i 

Case III 

In Thasos Pythion, who lay sick above the shrine 
of Heracles, after labour, fatigue and careless living, 
was seized by violent rigor and acute fever. Tongue 
dry ; thirst ; bilious ; no sleep ; urine rather black, 
with a substance suspended in it, which formed no 
sediment. 

Second day. About mid-day chill in the extremities, 
especially in the hands and head ; could not speak 
or utter a sound ; resj)iration short for a long time ; 
recovered warmth ; thirst ; a quiet night ; slight 
SAveats about the head. 

Third day. A quiet day, but later, about sunset, 
grew rather chilly ; nausea ; distress ; 2 painful night 
without sleep ; small, solid stools were passed. 

Fourth day. Early morning peaceful, but about 
mid day all symptoms were exacerbated ; chill ; 

' Probably bowel trouble. See p. i^oO 

263 



EniAHMmN r 

dvavSo'i, acf)(ovo^, eirl to ')(^etpov, avedepfidvOrj 
fxera y^povov, ovpy]a€ jxeXava €vaidop7]/jba eyovra, 
vvKTa St, 7;crL'T^t779, €Kot/x7]9ri' TrefMirrr] eSo^e 
90 Kov(f)taac, Kara Se koiXltjv (Bapo^ jxera ttovov, 
SiyjrcoSrj^, vvktu iTTL7r6vco<;. CKTrj Trpcol fiev Si 
rjavx^V^' Sei\7]'i 8e ol Trdvoi, fie^ovi, Trapw^vvBi], 
diro Se KOiXiTj'i 6'^e K\vafxarLa> Ka\co<; SiijXOe, 
vvKTO's iKOifi7]0ri. e^SofJbr] rj/xeprj d(TOi)Sr]<;, VTve- 
Svacpopet, ovpjjaev €\aio)8e<i, vukto^ Tapayv 
TToWi], TTapeXejev, ovSev eKOiixi^drj. oySo-rj Trpcol 
fxev iK0ijuL7]dr] a/JUKpa, Ta)(v Se ylnj^i<;, a^wm;, 
XeTTTOv TTvev[xa Kal ixivv6o}Se<;, o^jre Se ttoKip 
dveOepixdvdii, TrapeKpovaev, yjSi] Se Trphs ijfieprjv 

100 (TfxiKpd eKou(f)ia-6i], SLaj(wpi^ixaTa aKp^-jra, afxiKpa, 
■yoXwSea. evuTrj K(0fj.aT(o8rj<i, dcrcoS)]<;, OTe Sie- 
jetpoLTO' ov Xlijv SiT^ftiS?;?* irepl Se rjXiov Svcrpbd'^ 
iSucr(f)6p€t, TrapeXeye, vvktu kuki^v. SeKaTt) Trpwl 
d(^a)vo<i, TToXXt) yjrv^i';, TrvpeTO<; o^v^;, TroXv<i iSp(t)<;, 
edavev. ev dpTirjaiv ol ttovol toutu}.^ 

S' . 'O (f)pevLTiKo<; Trj irpcoTr] KaTaicXi6e\<; y/xeaev 
IcoSea iroXXd, XeTTTu, 7TvpeT0<i <^piKcoSrj^ ttoXv^, 
iSpa)<; avi'exv'^ Si' oXov, KecpaXrj^; Kal Tpa')(^i'fXov 
^dpo^ fi€T oSuf?;?, ovpa XeTTTd, ivaicopij/xuTa 

110 (T/jbiKpd, Sieairaa-fxeva, ovx iSpvTo. utto Se 
KOiXir)<; i^eKoTTpiaev ddpoa " rrroXXd, TrapeKpovaev, 

1 V has here niTinA0. 

* Littre punctuates aOpSa' iroWa. irapiKpovaev. 

^ Probably bowel trouble. See p. 250. 
264 



EPIDEMICS III, CASES iii.-iv. 

speechless and voiceless ; grew worse ; recovered 
warmth after a time ; black urine with a substance 
floating in it ; night peaceful ; slept. 

Fifth daij. Seemed to be relieved, but there was 
heaviness in the bowels with pain ; thirst ; painful 
niijht. 

Sixth day. Early morning peaceful ; towards even- 
ing the pains were greater ; exacerbation ; but later 
a little clyster caused a good movement of the 
bowels. Slept at night. 

Seventh day. Nausea ; rather uneasy ; urine oily ; 
much distress ^ at night ; wandering ; no sleep at all. 

Eighth day. Early in the morning snatches of 
sleep ; but quickly there was chill ; loss of S2)eech ; 
respiration thin and weak ; in the evening he 
recovered warmth again; was delirious; towards 
morning slightly better ; stools uncompounded, 
small, bilious. 

Ninth day. Comatose ; nausea whenever he woke 
up. Not over-thirsty. About sunset was uncom- 
fortable; wandered ; a bad night. 

Tenth day. In the early morning was speechless ; 
great chill ; acute fever ; much sweat ; death. 

In this case the pains on even days. 

Case IV 

The patient suffering from phrenitis on the first 
day that he took to bed vomited copiously thin 
vomits of the colour of verdigris ; much fever with 
shivering ; continuous sweating all over ; painful 
heaviness of head and neck ; urine thin, with small, 
scattered substances floating in it, which did not 
settle. Copious excreta at a single evacuation ; 
delirium ; no sleep. 

265 



EniAHMiQN r 

ovSev vTTVcocre. SevTeprj Trpcol d(f)(t)vo<;, TTvpeTo^i 
o^y?, iSpcocrev, ov SieXiTre, iraXfxol Bi 6\ov tou 
a(op,aTo<;, vukto<; cr7racr/iot. rpiTij TTuvra irap- 
(o^vvOrj. reTCLpTr) eOavev} 

e. ^Ejv AapLarj cf}a\aKp6<i fiijpov Se^tov eirovriaev 
e^al(f)vi]<;' tmv he 7rpo(Tcf)€pojiievcov ovSev aycfiiXec. 
rfj TTpooTij 7rvp€To<; 6^v<i, KavcrwBj]^, uTpefieux; 
el^et', 01 Be ttovol TrapeiTrovro. Sevreprj tou p,r]pov 

120 fiev v(f)ieaav ol irovoi, 6 he TTvpeTO'i eirereLvev, 
v7re8v(r(popei, ovk eKOi/jidTO, ctKpea yjrv^pd, ovpcov 
irXijOo^ hirjei ov 'X^pTqajoiv. TpiTrj rov p,T]pov piev 6 
7r6vo<; eirauaaro, TrapaKoirrj he rrj^ yvcopLrj^; koI 
rapaxv '^<^'' 7roX,i)? ^XnjaTpicrp.o'i. reTaprr] irepl 
pLeaov I'lpLepr]^ edavev.'^ 

<?'. 'Ei' 'A^hj]poicn TIepiKXea 7Tvp€To<; eka^ev 
ofu9, crvve')(r)<i /x€Ta ttovov, ttoWi] hi-^a, aarj, 
TTorov KaTe')(^eLV ovk rjhvvuTO' rjv he inroairXi-jvo^i 
re Koi Kaprj^apLKO^. rfi Trpcorr} r]p,oppdyrja€v e^ 

130 dptcTTepov' 7ro\v<i pcevroi o Trvpero^ eTrereivev 
ovpyae TToXv doXepov, Xev/cov Kei/xevov ov KaOi- 
cnaTO. hevTeprj irdvra irapoi^vvOi]' ra fievTOi 
ovpa Tvayea piev f]v, Ihpvfxeva he pboXXov' kol rd 
irepX TTjv cta-rjv iKOV(f)iaev, eKoifir]dr}. rpirr] rrvpe- 
T09 ep,aXd')(Oy], ovpcov rrXrjdo';, ireirova, iroXXr/v 
vTToaTaaiv e^ovTa, vvktu hi r](TV)(ii-j<i. rerdpTTj 

^ V has here niPC 0. 

* V has here niTAOniABTAe. 

^ Probably trouble in the bowels. 
266 



EPIDEMICS III, CASKS iv.-vi. 

Second day. In the early niornin<T speechless ; acute 
fever ; sweatini:^ ; no intermission ; throbbing all over 
the body ; convulsions at night. 

Third dm/. General exacerbation. 

Fojirik day. Death. 

Case V 

In Larisa a bald man suddenly experienced pain 
in the right thigh. No remedy did any good. 

First day. Acute fever of the ardent tj'pe ; the 
patient was quiet, but the pains persisted. 

Second day. The pains in t'le thigh subsided, but 
the fever grew worse ; the patient was rather un- 
comfortable and did not sleep ; extremities cold ; 
copious and unfavourable urine was passed. 

IViird day. The pain in the thigh ceased, but there 
was derangement of the intellect, with distress ^ and 
much tossing. 

Fourth day. Death about mid-day. 

Case VI 

In Abdera Pericles was seized with acute fever, 
continuous and painful ; much thirst ; nausea ; could 
not retain what he drank. There was slight enlarge- 
ment of the S{)leen and heaviness in the head. 

First day. Epistaxis from the left nostril ; the 
fever, however, increased greatly. Copious urine, 
turbid and white. On standing it did not settle. 

Second day. General exacerbation ; the urine, how- 
ever, had consistency, but there was some sediment ; 
the nausea was relieved and the patient slept. 

Third day. The fever went down ; abundance of 
urine, with concocted and copious sediment ; a quiet 
night. 

267 



EniAHMinN r 

TTepX fxeaov rjfxepr)^ 'iSpcoae ttoWw Oep/ULW St' 6\ov, 
aT7vpo<;, eKpiOrj, ov}^ vTrearpe'^ev} 

^'. 'Ey ^ A^StjpoKTi Tr]v Trapdei'ov, t) KareKetro 

140 eVt Ti]<; lprj<; ohov, Trfpero? Kavaoihrj<i eXa^eV rjv 
he hL-^(jL)hi]<i Koi dypvirvo^. Karij^rj Se ra 
yvvaiKela TrpcoTOV avTrj. eKrrj dcrrj ttoXX.?;, 
epev0o<i, (f)pLKO)Sr]<i, aXvovaa. e^Sop^j] Sia tmv 
avTMV, ovpa Xeirrd p,ev, evxpo^ S^, rd Trepl ri-jv 
KoCKirjV ovK rjvu>)(\ei. oySor] K(0(f)(i)cn<i, Tru/oero? 
ofi;9, dypvTTVO^, a(ru)S7)<;, (j)piK(i)Bi]<;, Karevoei, ovpa 
ofMOia. ivdrrj Sid tmv avrcov' Kal Ta9 kiTop,eva<; 
ovTco?" rj Kuxpcoat^ irapepieve. reaaapeaKaiSe/cdrrj 
xa tt}? yvdop.r]^ Tapa)(d)8€a, 6 Trupero^; avvehooKev. 

150 eTTTaKaiSe/cdrj] Sid pivoiv eppvr] ttoXv, i) Ktioifxoai^ 
apmcpd avveScoKe. Kal ra? eirop.eva'; darj, 
K(i)^6rr]<;' ev?]v koi TTapdXrjpo';. elKoarfj ttoScov 
oSvvT]' K(ocf)6T7]<;, TrapdXrjpo^ dir eXiirev , ^/u.oppdyi]cr€ 
ap,LKpd Sid pivMV, 'iSpwcrev, drrvpo^;. elKocn^ 
rerdpTrj 6 irvpejo<; virecrTpeyfre, Kcocfxjocn^; irdXii', 
ttoSmv ohvv>i irapepieivev, TrapaKOTTJ]. ecKoo'Tfj 
e/SSo/i?7 iSpcoae ttoXXm, dirvpo^, i) K(i)(f)co(Ti<i i^- 
eXiirev, r) tmv ttoScov v-nep-evev ohvvrj, rd 8' dXXa 

160 rj' , 'Ev ^ A^ZrjpoKTiv Ava^Lcova, o? KareKeno 
irapd rd<; %prjlKia<; irvXa'^, 7rvp6To<i o^i)? eXa^e' 

1 V has here niAIATnA0IIBAT. 
' V has here niOKZT. 
268 



EPIDEMICS III, CASES vi.-viii. 

Fourth day. About mid-day a hot, violent sweating 
all over ; no fever ; crisis ; no relapse. 

Case VII 

In Abdera the maiden who lay sick by the Sacred 
Way was seized with a fever of the ardent type. She 
was thirsty and sleepless. Menstruation occurred 
for the first time. 

Sixth day. Much nausea ; redness ; shivering ; 
restlessness. 

Seventh day. Same symptoms. Urine thin but of 
good colour ; no trouble in the bowels. 

Eighth day. Deafness ; acute fever ; sleeplessness ; 
nausea ; shivering ; was rational ; urine similar. 

Ninth day Same symptoms, and also on the 
following days. The deafness persisted. 

Fourteenth day. Reason disturbed ; the fever 
subsided. 

Seventeenth day. Copious epistaxis ; the deafness 
improved a little. On the following days nausea 
and deafness, while there was also delirium. 

Twentieth day. Pain in the feet ; deafness ; the 
delirium ceased ; slight epistaxis ; sweating ; no 
fever. 

Twenty-fourth day. The fever returned, with the 
deafness ; pain in the feet persisted ; delirium. 

Twenty-seventh day. Copious sweating ; no fever ; 
the deafness ceased ; the pain in the feet remained, 
but in other respects there was a perfect crisis. 

Case VIII 

In Abdera Anaxion, who lay sick by the Thracian 
gate, was seized with acute fever. Continuous pain 

269 



EniAHMIQN r 

TrXevpov Se^iov ohvvrj avvex^j^, e^^jcrae ^i]pd, oi^S' 
eiTTve ra<; Trpcora^;' Si^^coS);?, a<ypv7rvo<i, ovpa he 
ev'^pco TToWa Xeind. eKTrj irapdXyjpo'i' tt/jo? 8e 
ra Oeppda/uLara ovBev eveStSov. e/386p,7] eTmrovci}^' 
6 <yap TTvpero^ iireTeivev, o'C re ttovol ov avv- 
ehlhoaav, a" re ^rjX^'^ '>)v(io'xXeov, 8ua7rvo6<; re rjv. 
oySoT] dyKMva erafioV eppinj ttoWov olov Sel' 
avveScoKav pev ol rrovoL, al pevroi yS^^^e? al 

170 ^y]pal TTapetirovro. evSe/cdrr] avvehwKav ol irvperoL, 
crpiKpa TTcpl Ke(pa\y]V 'iSpu>aei>, ai re ^ /S^^^e? Kol 
ra diro 7rvevpovo<; vyporepa. eTrraKaiSeKdrr] 
i]p^aro apiKpa Treirova irrveiv' iKou(pia6T]. 
elfcoarfj '{hpuicrev, a7rvpo<;, perd Be Kpiaiv '^ Sl- 
yjrcoST]^ re rjv Kol rwv diro 7rvevpovo<i ov y^prjaraX 
al KaOdpat.e<;. elKoarfj e^S6p,r] 6 7Tvpero<; Inre- 
arpe'^ev, e^rjaaev, dvrjye Treirova TroWd, ovpoicnv 
vTToaraaiq rroW}] XevKi], dBt\lro<i eyevero, einrvoo'i. 
rpn]Koarfi rerdprr] 'ihpcoae hi oXov, dirvpo^, 

180 eKpiOrj irdvra.^ 

ff . 'Ev ^A^h)]poiaiv 'HpoTTvdo^ Ke(f)aXi]v 6p9o- 
ardhrjv emirovoi^ f'X^^> ov rroXXo) he )(^p6v(j) 

1 oV re Littr6 : Hn MSS. 

2 After Kpla-iv the MSS. have iKovfpiaerj. Omitted by 
Littr6. 

s V has here niDAAAT. 



* I am conscious of a slight change in diction and method 
in this part of the Epidemics. I mention four points : — 

(1) The frequent use of irvperhs in the plural, which is 
unusual when it simply means " feverishness " (Cases 
vin, IX, XII, xiii). 

(2) Kara^aivui is used of evacuations (Cases vii, ix oZpa . . , 
KaTf^aivfv, Xll). 

270 



EPIDEMICS III, CASES vni.-xi. 

in the right side ; a dry cough, with no sputa on the 
first days. Thirst ; sleeplessness ; urine of good 
colour, copious and thin. 

Sixth day. Delirium ; warm applications gave no 
relief. 

Seventh day. In pain, for the fever grew worse 
and the pains were not relieved, while the coughing 
was troublesome and there was difficulty in breathing. 

Eighth day. I bled him in the arm. There was 
an abundant, proper flow of blood ; the pains were 
relieved, although the dry coughing persisted. 

Eleventh day. The fever went down ; slight 
sweating about the head ; the coughing and the 
sputa more moist. 

Seventeenth day. Began to expectorate small, 
concocted sputa ; was relieved. 

Twentieth day. Sweated and was free from fever ; 
after a crisis was thirsty, and the cleansings from 
the lungs were not favourable. 

Twenfy-seve7ith day. The fever returned ; cough- 
ing, with copious, concocted sputa ; copious, white 
sediment in urine ; thirst and difficulty in breathing 
disappeared. 

Thi7-ty- fourth day. Sweated all over ; no fever ; 
general crisis.^ 

Case IX 

In Abdera Heropythus had pain in the head 
without taking to bed, but shortly afterwards was 

(3) Treatment is mentioned (Case viii, dep/xda/j-ara, and 
d7K'aii'o iTa^jLov, where note the personal touch). 

(4) IZpvvofxai used of recovery of reason, = Karavou (Case 
XV). The change is marked enough to lead one to 
suppose that these histories were composed at a 
different period in tJie writer's life. 

271 



EniAHMinN r 

vcrrepov KaTeKklOi-j. ccksl '7r\y]aLov tt}? avco 
d'ywyfj'i.^ TTvpeTo^ eXa/Be KavacoSiri, 6^v<i' e/JL6T0i 
TO Kar ap)(^a<i ttoW^v ')(o\a)hea)V, hf^(X)hri<i, iroXki^ 
Bvacf)opLri, ovpa Xeyrra /xeXava, evaicoptjpa pere- 
wpov ore pkv, ore S' ov' vvKra i7rnTovco<;, irvpero'i 
dWore aWoLa)<i 7rapo^vv6p€vo<;, ra TrXeicrra 
ara/CTft)?. "nepl Se T€(Taape(T/cat8eKdT7jv K(o(f>o)cn<i, 

190 ol TTvperol iTvereivov,^ ovpa hid ro)v avroiv. eiKO- 
arf] TToWa irape/cpovae koI ra-i e7rop,eva<i. 
recraapaKoaTrj Sid pwcov ypoppdyi]a€ ttoXv koI 
Karevoei pdWov' »} Kco(f)cocn<i ivrjv piv, rjaaov he' 
ol TTvperol (TVvihooKav. rjpioppdyet, Ta<i kiTopeva'^ 
TTVKva Kar oXtjov. Trepl he e^r/Kocrrrjv ai p,ev 
aipoppaylac aTTeiravaavTo, la)(^Lov he Se^iov ohvvi-j 
Icr^vpr] KoX ol TTuperol eirereivov. ov iroXXo) he 
"^povw varepov ttovol tmv kuto) rrdvrwv' avv- 
eirnrre he r) 701/9 irvperov'^ elvat pe^ov<; Kai rr]v 

200 K(v(f)0)(Tiv TToXXrjv 7) ravra pev vc^ievai Kal kov- 
(f)L^€iv, TO)v he Karo) irepl la')(lia pe^ov<; elvai 
T01/9 7r6vov<;. r]hr} he Trepl oyhoijKoaTTjv avvehcoKe 
p,ev Travra, e^eXnre he ovhev ovpa re yap evxpoo 
Kal irXelovs v7ro(TTdaia<i e')(^ovTa Kare^aLiev, 01 
TrapdXrjpol re pieiov^ 7]aav. Trepl he eKaToarrjv 
KOtXiTj TToXXolcTi ')(oXo)heaiv eTreTapd)i^Ori, koI jjei 
')(^p6vov ovK oXlyov TroXXd roiavra, Kal ttoXlv 
huaevrepLOihea perd ttovov, tow he dXXcoi> paaroovr]. 
TO he (TvvoXov o'lre rrvpeTol e^eXnrov Kal j] Kaxpaxriii 

210 eTravaaro. ev eKaroarf} etKoarfj TeXeoj? eKpiOrj.^ 

^ kyteyris MSS. : ayopris Blass. 

2 e'TTfTeij'oi'Ermerins : e|6T6ii'oj' MSS. (Perhaps rightly ; the 
diction in this part of Epidemics III. is sometimes unusual. ) 
■ V has here n I X A P K T. After iKpiBt] the MSS. have Kavaros. 

272 



EPIDEMICS III, CASE IX. 

compelled to do so. He lived close to the Upper 
Road.i An acute, ardent fever seized him. Vomited 
at the beginning copious, bilious matters; thirst; 
great discomfort ; urine thin and black, sometimes 
with, sometimes without, substances suspended in 
it. Painful night, with fever rising now in this 
way, now in that, but for the most part irregularly. 
About the fourteenth day, deafness ; the fever grew 
worse ; urine the same. 

Tweniieik day. Much delirium, also on the 
following days. 

Fortieth day. Copious epistaxis ; more rational ; 
some deafness, but less than before ; the fever went 
down. Frequent, but slight, epistaxis on the 
following days. About the sixtieth day the bleed- 
ings from the nose ceased, but there was violent pain 
in the right hip and the fever increased. Not long 
afterwards, pains in all the lower parts. It happened 
that either the fever was higher and the deafness 
great, or else, though these symptoms were relieved 
and less severe, yet the pains in the lower parts 
about the hips grew worse. But from about the 
eightieth day all the symptoms were relieved with- 
out any disappearing. The urine that was passed 
was of good colour and had greater deposits, while 
the delirious mutterings were less. About the hun- 
dredth day the bowels were disordered with copious, 
bilious stools, and copious evacuations of this nature 
were passed for a long time. Then followed painful 
symptoms of dysentery, with relief of the other 
symptoms. In brief, the fever disappeared and the 
deafness ceased. 

Hundred and twentieth day. Complete crisis. 

* With Blass' reading, " Upper Market-place." 



EniAHMmN r 

I . 'Ez/ ^A/SSjjpoLcrt l^liKoBrjfiov i^ acppoSicTiwv 
Kai TTOTcov TTvp e\a^€i'. ap)(^6/jL€V0<i Se i]v a(Ta)87]<; 
Kal KaphiaX'yLKo^;, Si-v^&iS//?, yXcoacra e-neKavdr], 
ovpa XcTTTa fxiXava. Sevreprj 6 TTvpero^ ira- 
pcd^vvdrj, <^pLK(tiBri<;, dacoBi]^, ouhev €Koifi/]6r], 
rjfjLecre ')(^oXco8ea ^avOd, ovpa ofiota, vuKra hC 
'rj(7V')(L'r]<i, VTTVcoae. Tpirrj vc^yrjice iravra, paarcovr)' 
irepl Se rjXiov Svcrftdf; TraXtv virehvcrcpopeL, vvKja 

220 €7ri7r6va)^. TerdprT) plyo<;, Trfpero? ttoXu?, ttovol 
Trdvrwv, ovpa Xeirrd, ivaicopi^/na' vv/cra rrdXiv Si' 
ria-v')(iyi<;. Tre/xTrrj? evrjv fxev iravra, paaToovrj Se 
rjv. €KTT} TO)v avToyv irovoi TrdvTcov, oupoiaiv 
evaidipripLa, TrapeKpovcxe TroXXd. e^So/xjj paardovr). 
oySoT) TO. dXXa ^ crvviSaiKe irdpra. SeKdrrj kuI 
ra^ e7Top,eva<; ivrjaav p-ev oi irovoi, rjcraov Be 
Travre?- ol Be Trapo^vcr/xol koL ol ttovol tovtw 
8ia T6Xeo9 ev aprirjcnv rjaav fxdXXov. eiKOCTTij 
ovprjae XevKov, 7ra%09 ei%e, Kelp^evov ov KaOlcrraTO' 

230 iLSpcoae ttoXXm, eSo^ev dirvpo^ yeveadai,, SetA.?;? 
he irdXiv edepixdvdrj, koX rSiv avrSiV irovoi, cf)piKr], 
hi~^a, (rp,LKpd nrapeKpovcrev. elKoarfj reTdprr) 
ouprjcre ttoXv XevKov, TroXXrjv inroaraaiv €)(^ov. 
liSpcoae TToXXo) deppiw St oXov, dirvpo'^ eKpiOti? 

' oy^6ri TO. &K\a most MSS. : 07507; to S' aAAo V. I suggest 
that a yuer-clause has fallen out after oyZ6ri. 
2 V has here niXAIKAT. 

* What other symptoms ? It is clear that some s^'mptoms 
are excepted, but there is no hint what these are. As V has 
TO 5' i.\\a, "but all the other symptoms were relieved," I 

274 



EPIDEMICS III, CASE X. 

Case X 

In Abdera Nicodemus after venery and drunken- 
ness was seized with fever. At the beginning he 
liad nausea and cardialgia ; thirst ; tongue parched ; 
urine thin and black. 

Second day. The fever increased ; shivering ; 
nausea ; no sleep ; bilious, yellow vomits ; urine the 
same; a quiet night; sleep. 

Third day. All symptoms less severe ; relief. 
But about sunset he was again somewhat un- 
comfortable ; painful night. 

Fourth day. Rigor ; much fever ; pains every- 
where ; urine thin, with floating substance in it ; 
the night, on the other hand, was quiet. 

Fifth day. All symptoms present, but relieved. 

Sixth day. Same pains everywhere ; substance 
floating in urine ; much delirium. 

Seventh day. Relief. 

Eighth day. All the other ^ symptoms less severe. 

TentJi day and folloiving days. The pains were 
present, but all less severe. The exacerbations and 
the pains in the case of this patient tended through- 
out to occur on the even days. 

Twentieth day. Urine white, having consistency ; 
no sediment on standing. Copious sweating ; 
seemed to lose his fever, but towards evening grew 
hot again, with pains in the same parts ; shivering ; 
thirst ; slight delirium. 

Twenty fourth day. Much white urine, with much 
sediment. Hot sweating all over; the fever passed 
away in a crisis. 

believe that after o^So't; has fallen out a phrase containing the 
symptoms which were not relieved. 



EniAHMioN r 

m . 'Ej^ %a(TfC) f^vvri Svadvio<i etc \v7rr)<; fiera 
7rpo(f)d(Tto<; opdoardhrjv eyeveTO aypv7rvo<i re Kol 
drrocnro'i fcal Sc-ylrcoSr]^ rjv kol da(t)Sr]<;. mkci Se 
irXrjcrlov rcbv IluXdSov eVl rov Xelov. rfj irpcorrj 
d p')(^o ixevif^ vvKTO<i (f)6/3oi, Xoyoi, ttoWol, SvcrdufiLi], 

240 TTupeTiov XeTTTOv. Trpwl cnraafiol ttoWol- ore 8e 
BiaXLTTOiev ol (T7raa/xol ol ttoWol, irapiXeyev, 
ri(T')(^pofxv6ei' TToXXol irovoi, fxeydXat, crvv6')(te<i. 
Seureprj Bta tmv avrcov, ovSev eKOip-dro, 
TTvpeTO'i 6^vrepo<i. Tpirrj ol /xev airaapLoX dire- 
XiTTov, KOijxa he kol Karacpopr) koI irdXiv eyepai^' 
avrjlaae, Kare^etv ovk r/SvvaTO, irapeXeye iroXXd, 
TTvpeTO'i o^m, €<? vvKTa he ravrrjv thpcoae ttoXXm 
6epfia> hi oXov dTTvpo<;, VTrvuxre, irdvTa Karevoei, 
eKpiOrj. irepl he rplrrjv rjju,iprjv oupa fieXava 

250 Xeirrd, ivaidop^j/J^a he eirl ttoXv arpoyyvXov, 
ovx Ihpvero, nepl he KpicTLV yvvaiKela iroXXd 
Kare/Sj].^ 

t/3'. 'Ej/ Aapiar] irapdevov irvpercfi eXa/3e 
Kavcr(i)h')]<;, ofw" dypv'7rvo<i, hiyjrcohrjf;, yXwaaa 
Xiyvu(t)hr]<;, ^rjprj- ovpa ev^poi fiev, XeTTTO. he. 
hevrepD eViTroro)?, ov^ virvoicre. rpirr] iroXXa 
hL7)X6ev diro KoiXtrj^; vharo^^Xoa, koI ra^ e7ro/jiiva<i 
yet, roiavra ev(f)6pco^. reTdpTrj ovprjae XeirTov 

^ V has here n I n I A 6 FT. 
276 



EPIDEMICS III, CASES xi.-xu. 

Case XI 

In Tliasos a woman of gloomy temperament, after 
a grief with a reason for it, without taking to bed 
lost sleep and appetite, and suffered thirst and 
nausea. She lived near the place of Pylades on the 
plain. 

First day. As night began there were fears, much 
rambling, depression and slight feverishness. Early 
in the morning frequent convulsions ; whenever these 
frequent convulsions intermitted, she wandered 
and uttered obscenities ; many pains, severe and 
continuous. 

Second day. Same symptoms ; no sleep ; fever 
more acute. 

Third day. The convulsions ceased, but were 
succeeded by coma and oppression, followed in turn 
by wakefulness. She would jump up ; could not 
restrain herself; wandered a great deal ; fever 
acute ; on this night a copious, hot sweating all 
over ; no fever ; slept, was perfectly rational, and 
had a crisis. About the third day urine black and 
thin, with particles mostly round floating in it, 
which did not settle. Near the crisis copious 
menstruation. 

Case XII 

In Larisa a maiden was seized with an acute fever 
of the ardent type. Sleeplessness; thirst; tongue 
sooty and parched ; urine of good colour, but thin. 

Second day. In pain ; no sleep. 

Third day. Copious stools, watery and of a 
yellowish green ; similar stools on the following 
days, passed without distress. 

Fourth day. Scanty, thin urine, with a substance 

277 



EniAHMIQN r 

oXljov, el-)(^ev evaidopriixa /xerecopov, ou-)^ ISpvero. 

260 TvapeKpovaev e? vvKra. eKTrj 6ia pivMP Xd^pov 
eppvrj TToXv' cf)pi^aaa iSpcoae ttoWw Oepp-cp St 
oXov aTTVpo<;- eKpiO)), ev he rolcrt TrvpeTolat kuI 
r]8r) K€Kpifiev(i)v <yuvaiK€ia Kare^rj 7rpo)TOV Tore 
7rap6evo<i yap rjv. r/v 8e Sid rravro^ da(i)8>]<;, 
(f)piK(o87]<i, epevdo^ irpoadiTTOv, ofifidrcov ohvvif 
KaprjjBapiKi]. ravT7] ov^ vTveaTpeyp-ev, dX)C 
eKpiOri. ol TTQVOi iv dpTirjaiv. 

ly'. 'A7roX,Xft)z'f09 iv ^ X^h)]poi,cnv opOoardBrjv 
v7recf)epeT0 ^(povop ttoXvv. yv Se p-eyaXoaTrXay- 

270 ^I'o?, Kal TTepl rjirap avv)']Or]<i ohvvq ')(^p6vov 
TToXvv TrapeiTrero, Kal 8r} tots Kal iKTepcoBtj^; 
iyeveTO, (^ucrwSr;?, ')(^poLi]<i Trj<i viroXevKov, (paycov 
Se Kal TTicov aKatporepov /3o€iov iOeppidvOrj apuKpa 
TO TTpwTOV, KaTeKXWrj. ydXa^i 8e ■)(^pr]adp-€Vo<i 
€(f>doLai Kal w/MOicTi TToXXolaiv, aiyeioiai Kal 
p,r]XeLOtcn, Kal SiaiTrj KaKfj Trdvrcov, /3Xd/3at, 
piey dXaf oX re yap irupeTol Tvapw^vvOiiaav, kocXltj 
re Tcoz/ 'TTpocreve')(6ivTci)v ovSev SiiScoKev a^iov 
Xoyou, ovpd T€ XeiTTci Kal oiXiya Sijjer vttvoi ovk 

280 evrjaav i/xcjiua7]p.a KaKov, ttoXu Si^jra, /coj/iaTcoSr;?, 
v'TTO')(ovhpLOv he^iov enapp^a avv oSvvrj, ctKpea 
TrdvTodev vTruyjrv^^^pa, ap,LKpd TrapeXeye, Xi'^Oti 
TrdvToov 6 Ti XeyoL, irapec^epero. rrepl he Teaaa- 

^ (paywv according to this translation has no expressed 
object. Furthermore, fiSewv is more naturally "beef." As 
the words stand the above version is the natural one, but 1 
suspect that either ^6eiov should be transposed to between 54 
and Kai, or else it is used airh kolvov and zeugmaticallj' with 
both (payiav and ttiiiiv, "after eating beef and drinking cow's 
milk." So Littr^ and, apparently, from his translation, 
Calvus. 

278 



EPIDEMICS III, CASES xn.-xin. 

suspended in it which did not settle ; delirium at 
night. 

Sixth day. Violent and abundant epistaxis ; after 
a shivering fit followed a hot, copious sweating all 
over ; no fever ; a crisis. In the fever and after the 
crisis menstruation for the first time, for she was a 
young maiden. Throughout she suffered nausea and 
shivering ; redness of the face ; pain in the eyes ; 
heaviness in the head. In this case there was no 
relapse, but a definite crisis. The pains on the even 
days. 

Case XIII 

ApoUonius in Abdera was ailing for a long time 
without being confined to bed. He had a sAvollen 
abdomen, and a continual pain in the region of the 
liver had been present for a long time ; moreover, 
he became during this period jaundiced and flatulent ; 
his complexion was whitish. After dining and 
drinking unseasonably cow's milk ^ he at first grew 
rather hot; he took to his bed. Having drunk 
copiously of milk, boiled and raw, both goat's and 
sheep's, and adopting a thoroughly bad regimen,'^ 
he suffered much therefrom. For there were 
exacerbations of the fever; the bowels passed 
practically nothing of the food taken ; the urine was 
thin and scanty. No sleep. Grievous distension ; 
much thirst ; coma ; painful swelling of the right 
hypochondrium ; extremities all round rather cold ; 
slight delirious mutterings ; forgetfulness of every- 
thing he said ; he was not himself. About the 

^ Or, changing the comma at iravri^v to icaKri. " adopting a 
bad regimen, he suffered great liarm in every way." 

279 



EniAHMmN r 

pea-KaiSeKaTrjv, ^ d0' >^9 KaTefcXiOrj, pLycoaa^ 
erreOepiidvOrj- i^efxavT]' /3oi], rapay^i], \6yoi, ttoX- 
\oi, Kol irdXtv 'iSpva-L'i, Kol to KMfxa TrjviKavra 
TTpoarjXde. /xerd Se ravra koiXlt] rapa)(^ct)Brj^ 
TToWolai. yoXoihea Lv , ciKpi^TOicnv, oo/xolaiv ovpa 
fieXava, a/jLiKpd, Xeirrd' TroWtj hvac^opir]' ra 

290 T(ov hia')(^U) pi^ (xdrcov TTOiKiXwi' rj yap /xeXava koX 
a-fxiKpa Kol idihea rj Xiwapd koi difxd, koI haKvdihea- 
Kara he ')(^povov<; eSoKei koi yaXaKrdihea SiSovai. 
Trepl 8e elKoarrjV rerdpTtjv Sid Traprjyopiri'^- rd 
/x€v dXXa eVt tmv avrcov, a/xiKpa Be Karevoijaev' 
i^ ov Sk KareKXlO)], ovSevoi; e/nvyjadi]' irdXtv he 
Ttt^u rrapevoei, o}p[xi]TO iravra eVt to ')(^elpov. 
irepX he rpnjfcoarrjv TruyoeTo? o^u9, 8ia)(^cop7]paTa 
TToXXd Xeind, iTapdXiipo<=;, d/cpea ^}rv■)(pd, d(f)(jovo<i. 
TpiyKOcTTfj Terdprr) eOave. tovtw hid TeXeo?, 

300 e'f ov Koi eyto oiha, koiXlt] rapw^dihy]^, ovpa Xeirrd 
fieXava, K(ofxaTd)h')]<i, dypvirvo^;, aKpea -^v^pd, 
TrapdXrjpo^ hid TeXeo<;.^ 

iS' . 'Ey K.v^LKQ) yvvaiKi dvyarepa^ TeKovcrrj hi- 
hv[jba<i /cal hvaroKijadar} Kal ov irdw KadapOeicrrj 
TTJ wpcoTTj iTvpero<i (f)piKd)h7]<i o^v^, Ke(f)aXr]'i Kal 
Tpax^']Xov /3dpo<; ixer 6hvvy]<i' dypviTV0<; ef dpxv^, 
aiyoxra he /cal (jKvOpoiTnj Kai ov TreiOo/iievr]' ovpa 
XeiTTd Kal dxp^' hiyfrcoh'q';, dad)hr]<; to ttoXv, 
KoiXiri 7re7TXav't]jii€vci)<; Tapa~)(d}hri<; Kal irdXiv 

310 avviaTa/xevrj. eKTi] e? vvKra iroXXa irapeXeye, 

1 So Reinhold. MSS. have d^' ^s fnyaxras a.Tredep/xdi'dr] Kal 
Kot6kAi'6t7 i^i/j.di'rj. 

* MSS. after Te\fos have ^p€iitlk6^. 

"■ Here perhaps not bowel trouble. 
380 



EPIDEMICS III, CASES xiii.-xiv. 

fourteenth day from his taking to bed, after a rigor, 
he grew hot ; wildly delirious ; shouting, distress,' 
much rambling, followed by calm ; the coma came 
on at this time. Afterwards the bowels were dis- 
ordered with copious stools, l)ilious, uncompounded 
and crude ; urine black, scanty and thin. Great 
discomfort. The evacuations showed varying symp- 
toms ; they were either black, scanty and verdigris- 
coloured, or else greasy, crude and smarting ; at 
times they seemed actually to be like milk. About 
the twenty-fourth day comfortable ; in other respects 
the same, but he had lucid intervals. He remembered 
nothing since he took to bed. But he quickly was 
again delirious, and all symptoms took a sharp turn 
for the worse. About the thirtieth day acute fever ; 
copious, thin stools; wandering; cold extremities; 
speechlessness. 

Thirty-fourth day. Death. 

This patient throughout, from the time I had 
knowledge of the case, suffered from disordered 
bowels ; urine thin and black ; coma ; sleeplessness ; 
extremities cold ; delirious throughout. 

Case XIV 

In Cyzicus a woman gave birth with difficult 
labour to twin daughters, and the lochial discharge 
was far from good. 

Fiist day. Acute fe\er with shivering; painful 
heaviness of head and neck. Sleepless from the 
first, but silent, sulky and refractory. Urine thin 
and of no colour ; thirsty ; nausea generally ; bowels 
irregularly disturbed with constipation following. 

Sixth day. Much wandering at night ; no sleep. 

VOL. I. j^j 281 



EniAHMiQN r 

ovSev eKoifiijdr). Trepl he evheKarrjv iouaa €^efj,dvy] 
KoX irdXiv Karevoet' ovpa fieKava, XeiTTa koI 
waXtv SiaXeiTTOvra iXaicoSea' KOiklrj iroWolcn, 
XcTTToiai, Tapa')(^u>hecn. TeaaapeaKaiSeKuTTj aira- 
(7fj,ol TToWoi, ctKpea ylrv^P", ovSev eVi fcarevoei, 
ovpa iireaTt]. e^KaiheKdrr] a(f)covo^' kirraKai- 
heKUTT] diredave} 

le, 'Ei^ €)da(p AeXea/j/ceo? ^ yvvaiKa, tj Kare- 
KeiTO iirl Tov Xeiov, 7rvp6T0<i (^piKooh')]'^, 6^v<i e'/c 

320 \y7r»?9 eXa^ev. ef dp-)^i]<; Be TrepieareXXeTO Kal 
Bid reXfo? alel aiycoaa eyjrrjXdcjia, eriXXev, eyXv- 
(J3€i', irpf^^oXoyei, Bdxpva Kal irdXiv yeXw<i, ovk 
eKOifiaTO' dwo KoiXiri<i epeBia/jirp ^ ovBev Birjei' 
crfXiKpd u7TO/jiip.vr]aKovTcov eTTLvev ovpa Xeind 
(jfiiKpd' TTvpeTOi Trpa X^^P'^ XcTrrof dxpewv 
yp'v^i'i, ivdrr) iroXXd irapeXeye Kal irdXiv IBpvvdiy 
(TLywcra. recraapecrKaiBeKdTrj Trvevfxa dpaiov, fieya 
Bid xpov^^ij '^'^'' TrdXtv /3/5a%u7rfoo?. eTrraKaiBe- 
Karr) drro KoiXtt]<; epeOia/xa) Tapa~)((j}Bea, eTreira 

330 Be avrd ra ttotci BirjeL, ovBev aviiaraTO' dvat- 
o-6i)ro)<i elye irdi'TOiv' Bep/j,aro<; ■neptjaai'; Kapc^a- 
Xeov. ecKoarfj Xoyot ttoXXol Kai irdXiv iBpvvdrj' 
d(f)a)VO^, fipaxvTTVoo'i. elKoar^ Trpcorr] dweOai'e, 
ravTT] Bid TeXea irvevpa dpaiov, p-eya' dvai- 

1 V has here n I M r I Z 0. MSS. after airfdave have tppivnis. 

2 AiXiapKeos. See p. 222. 

' fpedta/xw Ermerins : ipfdia-fxhs MSS. and Galen : epe6La/j.o\ 
editors. 

^ I take this, in spite of Galen, to mean " with extra long 
intervals between each breath." The plirase is rather care- 
less but scarcely tautological. "At intervals" or "after a 
long interval " are possible meanings, but inconsistent with 
Sia Tt'Aeos later on. 

282 



EPIDEMICS III, CASES xiv.-xv. 

About the eleventh day she went out of her mind 
and then was rational again ; urine black, thin, and 
then, after an interval, oily ; co2:)ious, thin, disordered 
stools. 

Foiirteeiith diUf. Many convulsions ; extremities 
cold ; no further recovery of reason ; urine 
suppressed. 

Sixteenth dm/. Speechless. 

Seventeenth ddi/. Death. 

Case XV 

In Thasos the wife of Delearces, who lay sick on 
the plain, was seized after a grief with an acute fever 
with shivering. From the beginning she would 
wrap herself up, and throughout, without speaking 
a word, she would fumble, pluck, scratch, pick hairs, 
weep and then laugh, but she did not sleep ; though 
stimulated, the bowels passed nothing. She di'ank 
a little when the attendants suggested it. Urine 
thin and scanty ; fever slight to the toucli ; coldness 
of the extremities. 

Ninth daij. Much wandering followed by return 
of reason ; silent. 

Fourteenth day. Respiration rare and large with 
long intervals,^ becoming afterwai-ds short. 

Seventeenth darj. Bowels under a stimulus passed 
disordered matters, then her very drink passed 
unchanged ; nothing coagulated. The patient 
noticed nothing ; the skin tense and dry. 

Twentieth day. Much rambling followed by re- 
covery of reason ; speechless ; respiration short. 

Twenty-first day. Death. 

The respiration of this patient throughout was 

283 



EniAHMIQN r 

a6rjTco<; irdvTwv elx^v alel irepieaTeWero' rj 
\6yoi TToWol rj aiycoaa Bia re\eo<i.^ 

a(f)poBiaio)i> ttoWmv ttoXvp ')(^p6vov 6epiJLavd€\<i 
KaTe/cXiOr]' cf)ptK(i)8y]^ 8e koI dacoSrj^; rjv koI 
340 aypv7rvo<i koI ahiy\ro<i. airo he koiKit]^ ttj Trpoorr} 
TToWa Korrpava SiPjXde crvv irepippow iroWQ), kuI 
T(Z9 eTTOyu-ei'a? vharoyXoa iroXka hirjer ovpa 
Xeirrd, oXija, «%/)&)• irvevpa dpaiop, fxeya hia 
'^povov v7ro)(ovBptov eWacri? vTroXdirapo^;, irapa- 
pi'jKTjs e^ dp,(pOT€pcov' KapSiTjf; 7raXp6<; Sid T€Xeo<; 
avvexj']'^' ovpi]cr€V €XauoBe<;. SeKdrrj'^ TrapeKpovaev 
d.Tpepeco'i, rjv Be ^ K6a[xi6<; re koI a-tycov BeppLa 
Kap(^aXeov /cal TrepiTerapbevov Biaxwp/jpaTa i) 
iToWd Kol \eTna rj ■y^oXwSea, \c7rapd. Teacrapea- 



* After TeAeos MSS. have <ppev7Tis. 

^ SeKaT-f] omitted by extant MSS., but was in two MSS. 
known to Foes It is in Galen. 

^ j)i/ Si Littre from Galen : omitted by MSS. 

^ In many ways this case, though one of the most 
picturesque, is also one of the most carelessly written, 
(ialen points out that Sia xp^^ov is ambiguous, and that its 
possible meanings are inconsistent with the rest of the 
description. How can the respiration be apaiov throughout, 
when on both the fourteentli and the twentieth daj'S the 
patient was ^paxvirvoos ? It is strange that the writer 
specifies the fourteenth day as the day when the respiration 
was rare and large, seeing that it had these characteristics 
throughout. A similar remark applies to avaiaO-fiTO}! fixe 
■KavToiv of the seventeenth daj'. Further, ael ffiySicra of the 
second sentence becomes strangely % \6yoi iroAAol i) a-iyaxra 

284 



EPIDEMICS III, CASES w.-xvi. 

rare and large ; took no notice of anything ; she 
constantly wrapped herself up ; either much rambling 
or silence throufihout.^ 



•»' 



Case XVI 

In Meliboea a youth took to his bed after being 
for a long time heated by drunkenness and sexual 
indulgence. He had shivering fits, nausea, sleepless- 
ness, but no thirst. 

Fiist day. Copious, solid stools passed in abundance 
of fluid, and on the following days the excreta were 
copious, watery and of a greenish yellow. Urine 
thin, scanty and of no colour; respiration rare and 
large with long intervals; tension, soft underneath, 
of the hypochondrium,2 extending out to either 
side ; continual throbbing throughout of the epigas- 
trium ;3 urine oil3^ 

Tenth day. Delirious but quiet, for he was orderly 
and silent;* skin dry and tense; stools either 
copious and thin or bilious and greasy. 

5ia Te'Aeoi in the last. I conchide that this medical history 
v/as hastily written and never revised. A slight revision 
could easily have cleared away the inconsistencies, which 
are, as Galen seems to have seen, more appaient than real 

2 See note, p. 188. 

^ So Littre, following Galen. Perhaps, however, it means 
"heart," i. e. there was violent palpitation. 

* Said by Galen, followed by Littre (who reads 'i\avxo^ for 
<si-yii>v),to refer to the character of the young man when well, 
which interpretation to modern minds is rather inconsistent 
with the first sentence. They would paraphrase, "the 
delirium was really serious, but appeared slight because the 
patient was naturally self-controlled and calm." I take the 
meaning to be that though delirious he remained quiet and 
comparatively silent. 

285 



EniAHMIQN r 

350 KaiheKarrj irdvra irapw^vvOri, irapeKpovcrev,^ 
TToWa irapeXeyev. elKoarfj e^e/xdvy], ttoXu? 
0\r]a-Tpia-/x6<;, ovSev ovpei, a/xtKpa ttoto, Kareix^TO. 

353 elKoarfi reTdprr] diredave} 

^ irapeKpovaeu Blass : irapeKpoiKTO-n most MSS. : omitted 
by V. 
" ^ After anieave MSS. have (ppevWis. 



286 



EPIDEMICS III, CASK XVI. 

Foiineentk day. General exacerbation ; delirious 
with much wandering talk. 

Tivciitieth day. Wildly out of his mind ; much 
tossing ; urine suppressed ; slight quantities of drink 
were retained. 

Twenty-fourth day. Death, 



287 



THE OATH 



THE OATH 

Of all the Hippocratic writings the Oath, in spite 
of its shortness, is perhaps the most interesting to 
the general reader and also to the modern medical 
man. Whatever its origin, it is a landmark in the 
ethics of medicine. 

Yet its exact relationship to the history of 
medicine is unknown, and apparently, in our present 
state of knowledge, unknowable. I'he student must, 
at every stage of tlie inquiry, confess his ignorance. 
What is the date of the Oath } Is it mutilated or 
interpolated? Who took the oath, all practitioners 
or only those belonging to a guild } What binding 
force had it beyond its moral sanction ? Above all, 
was it ever a reality or merely a " counsel of per- 
fection " ? To all these questions the honest in- 
quirer can only say that for certain he knows 
nothing. 

Such being the case it is most important to 
realize clearly what actually is known. In the 
first place, the Oath was admitted to be genuinely 
Hippocratic by Erotian. 

As to internal evidence, the Oath, besides binding 
all who take it to certain moral rules of practice, 
makes them also promise to act in a certain manner 
towards co-practitioners. 

The taker of the oath — 

(1) Will treat the children of his teacher as 
though they were his brothers ; 

291 



THE OATH 

(2) Will " share his livelihood " with his teacher, 
and, in case of necessity, relieve his financial 
distress ; 

(3) Will teach his teacher's children " without fee 
or indenture " ; 

(4) Will give full instruction to his own children, 
to those of his teacher, to students who have taken 
the oath and signed the indenture, and to no others. 

We cannot be sure what this indenture {crvyypacf)^) 
was. The word occurs again in the very first 
sentence, "I will carry out this oath and this in- 
denture." One might suppose from these two 
occurrences of avyypacf)-^ that they both refer to the 
same document, and that the document is what we 
call the Oath. If this view be taken, our present docu- 
ment must be a composite piece, consisting of both 
oath and indenture, and that it is the second com- 
ponent that the students paying no fee are excused 
from signing, for nobody would suppose that these 
had not to take the oath to uphold a high moral 
standard. 

It must be confessed that to separate avyypac^rj 
from opKos would not be difiicult, as the former 
would include merely those articles which concerned 
master and pupil, i. e. the latter's promise of financial 
aid to his teacher and of instruction to his teacher's 
children. 

The difficulty in this view is that the vague 
promises (iiov Kotvwcrecr^at, koI )(peQiv ^pift^ovri /xcraSocriv 
TTOL-qaeaOai, do not read like a legal a-vyypa(f>y, such as 
is implied in the words avev fxicrOov koX avyypa(f)rj<;. 
They are not definite enough, and there is no 
mention of a specific /xicr^ds. Indeed, such clauses 

292 



THE OATH 

could never be enforced ; if they could have been, 
and if a physician had one or two rich jiupils, his 
financial position would have been enviable. A 
share in the livelihood of rich men, relief when in 
need of money, free education for children — these 
advantages would make it superfluous, not to say 
unjust, to require any fjnaOos in addition. 

It may well be that the cruyypa<^>/ of avev fXLcrdov 
Kal (Tvyypacf)?]^ was a private agreement between 
teacher and taught, quite distinct from the present 
document, in which case (rvyypaif)i]v rrp'Se will refer 
either to such an agreement appended to the Oath, 
or more probably to the Oalh itself, which might be 
called a o-vyypa<^r;, in the wider and vaguer sense 
of that term, though it is not precise enough for 
the legal indenture. 

Some scholars regard the Oal/i as the test required 
by the Asclepiad Guild. The document, however, 
does not contain a single word which supports this 
contention. It binds the student to his master and 
his master's family, not to a guild or corporation. 
But if the Hippocratic oath ever was a real force 
in the history of medicine, it must have had the 
united support of the most influential physicians. 
Whether this union was that of something approxi- 
mating to a guild we cannot say. 

The Oath contains a sentence which has lone 
proved a stumbling-block. It is : — ov re/xcw 8e ovSe 
/xT/v \i6iwi'Ta<;, iK\wpr]aoi ok ipydrrjcnv avSpdat rrpr/ftos 
rqcrSi. If these words are the genuine reading, they 
can only mean that the taker of the oath promises 
not to operate even for stone, but to leave operations 
for such as are craftsmen therein. It has seemed 
an insuperable difficulty that nowhere in the Hij)po- 

293 



THE OATH 

cratic collection is it implied that the physician must 
not operate, nor is any mention made of ipydrai 
avSpcs who made a profession of operating. On the 
contrary, as Littre points out in his introduction 
to the Oath, the Hippocratic writers appear to per- 
form operations without fear or scruple. Gomperz, 
in a note to the first volume of Greek Th'mkers, 
suggests that the words hide a reference to castra- 
tion. A fflance at Littre's introduction shows that 
the suggestion is by no means new, and a belief in 
its truth underlies Reinhold's unhappy emendation 
to ovhl fXT] Iv rjXiKLr) e'ovra?. A reference to castration 
would clear away the difficulty that a promise not to 
operate is out of place between two promises to 
abstain from moral offences, for castration was 
always an abomination to a Greek. But to leave 
the abominable thing to the epyarai is condoning a 
felony or worse, and, moreover, the qualification is 
quite uncalled for. The whole tone of the Oalk 
would require "I will not castrate" without 
qualification. 

One might be tempted to say that the promise 
not to operate was intended to hold only during the 
noviciate of the learner were there anything in the 
text to support this view. But althougJi the oath 
would have been stultified if it had not been taken 
at the beginning of the medical course,^ there is 
nothing in the text implying that any of its clauses 
were only temporarily binding. So the historian is 

^ Of course an ancient physician did not graduate in the 
modern sense of the term. The distinction between a quali- 
fied practitioner and one unqualified was not a well-defined 
line. A man was an IvrpSs as soon as he had learnt enough 
to be of any use at all. 

294 



THE OATH 

forced back upon the view that the clause, even if 
not strictly speaking an interpolation, applied only 
to a section of the medical world, or only to a 
particular period, when it was considered degrading 
to a master physician to operate with his own 
hands, and the correct course was to leave the use 
of the knife to inferior assistants acting under 
instruction. 

Knowing as little as we do, it is perhaps per- 
missible to use the constructive imagination to frame 
an hypothesis which in broad outline at least is not 
inconsistent with the data before us. 

From the Protagoras we learn that Hippocrates 
himself was ready to train physicians for a fee, and 
there is no reason to suppose that the practice was 
unusual. Some sort of bond between teacher and 
taught would naturally be drawn up, and a set form 
of woi-ds would evolve itself embodying those clauses 
which had as their object the maintenance of medi- 
cal probity and honour. Tliese might well contain 
promises to the teacher couched in extravagant 
language if taken literally, but which were intended 
to be interpreted in the spirit rather than in the 
letter.^ Such may have been the nucleus of the 
Hippocratic Oath, and a copy would not unnaturally 
be found in the library of the medical school at Cos. 
But there is nothing in the evidence to lead us to 
suppose that a stereot^'ped form was universal, or 
that clauses were not added or taken away at various 
places and at various times. One writer in the 
Corpus, the author of the work Nature of the Child, 
unblushingly violates the spirit, if not the letter, of 
the Oath by attempting to produce abortion in a 

^ Compare modern interpretations of marriage vows. 

295 



THE OATH 

singular and disgusting manner.^ So some physi- 
cians did not feel bound by all the clauses, and 
some may not have felt bound by any. We may 
suppose, however, that no respectable physician 
would act contrary to most of the Oath, even if he 
were ignorant of its existence. The clause for- 
bidding operative surgery may be an addition of late 
but uncertain date.^ 

But the interest of the Oath does not lie in its 
baffling problems. These may never be solved, but 
the little document is nevertheless a priceless pos- 
session. Here we have committed to writing those 
noble rules, loyal obedience to which has raised the 
calling of a physician to be the highest of all the 
professions. The writer, like other Hippocratics, 
uses to describe the profession a word which, in 
Greek philosophy, and especially in Plato, has a 
rather derogatory meaning. Medicine is "my art" 
(revvr/) in the Oath ; elsewhere, with glorious arrog- 
ance, it is "the art." "The art is long; life is 
short," says the first Aphorisvi. Many years later, 
the writer of Precepts declared that "where the love 
of man is, there is the love of the art." That 
medicine is an art (the thesis of The Art), a diffi- 
cult art, and one inseparable from the highest 
morality and the love of humanity, is the great 
lesson to us of the Hippocratic writings. The true 
physician is inr bonus sanandi peritus. 

The chief MSS. containing the Oath are V and M. 

1 § 13, Littre, vii. 490. 

^ It is possible that tlie degradation of surgery did not 
take place until Christian times (see Galen x. 454, 455), 
and tlie sentence of the Oath may well be very late indeed. 
The iJ.i]v in ouSe /iV MBiiovTas will strike scholars as strange. 

296 



THE OATH 

The chief editions are — 

Sevment d' Hippocrate. precede d'mie 7ioficc sur lea 
servients en rnedecine. J. R. Duval. Paris, 1818. 

Hippocrate : Le Serment, etc. Ch. V. Daremberg. 
Paris, 1843. 

See also — 

Super locum Hippocratis in lureiurajido maxime 
vexatum meditationes. Fr. Boerner, Lips. 1751. 



297 



OPK02 

^'OfivviJit AiToWoyva Irjrpov Kat AafcXrjTTiov 
Kal "TycLav Kal TiavaKciav Kal Oeou^ Trdvra'i re 
Kol 7rdaa<;, tcrropa? TTOi€v/Ji€vo<i, eiriTeXea irou'jaeiv 
Kara Svva/xiv Kal KpiaLv e'/xr/y opKov rovhe Kal 
(TV'yypa(f>i]V rrjvSe' rjyijaeaOai fiev rov BiSa^avTo. 
fie rrjv Te'xy^fv Tavrrjv taa yeverrjacv €p-oi<i, 
Kal /3lou Koivcocrecrdai, Kal XP^^^ Xprjt^ovTL 
fieTaSoaiv TTOirjaeaOai, Kal yevo^ to e^ ainov 
dSeXc^ot? "crov eiTLKpivelv appeal, Kal huhd^eiv 

10 rrjv TC'X^vrjv ravTrjv, iji' ')(p^]t^Q)ai /xavddveiv, avev 
fiiaOov Kal (Tvyypa^y)^, TrapayyeXii)'; re Kal 
dKpo7]ato<i Kal r?}? \oi,Trrj<; aTrdarjf; fia6i]cno^ 
fxerdSoaiv 7roit']aeaOac viol<; re e'/xot? Kal rot? rov 
ifie 8iSd^avro<i, Kal fiaOrjrfjai a vyyey pa fijievoi^ 
re Kal ('opKiafxevoi<i vopbw IrjrpiKU), dWu> he ovoevt. 
hiairr] fxaa I re 'xpi'iaop-at, err co^eXet^ Kapivovrwv 
Kara Svvafxiv Kal KpiaLV ipiH]V, errl SrjXijaei, Be 
Kal dhiKirj eip^eiv. ov Scoaco 8e ovSe (pdpfMaKov 
ovhevl atrrjPel'; Oavdaifxov, ovBe v(}}y]y7]aofiai avp,- 

20 ^ovXirjv roiyvSe' 6/xolco<; 8e ovBe yvvaiKl Treaaov 
(pOopiop ha}(JU). dyv(t)<; 8e Kal 6aico<; Biarrjpj^ao) 
^iov rov epov Kal re'xvi]v rrjv ep,i'}v, ov rep,ea) 
8e ovBe /u.r]v \i0io)vra<;^ eK')(^u)pi]a(o Be epydrrjaiv 

' Littrd suggests aniovjas, Reiuhold ouSg jjl^ ev tiKikIt) i6vTas. 
298 



OATH 

1 SWEAR by Apollo Physician, by Asclepius, by 
Health, by Panacea and by all the gods and god- 
desses, making them my witnesses, that I will carry 
out, according to my ability and judgment, this oath 
and this indenture. To hold my teacher in this art 
equal to my own parents ; to make him partner in 
my livelihood ; when he is in need of money to 
share mine with him ; to consider his family as my 
own brothers, and to teach them this art, if they 
want to learn it, without fee or indenture ; to 
impart precept,^ oral instruction, and all other 
instruction ^ to my own sons, the sons of my 
teacher, and to indentured pupils who have taken 
the physician's oath, but to nobody else. I. will use 
treatment to help._the— siek-ae-coxding to my ability 
and judgment^ but never_jvnth a view to injury and 
wrong-doing. I^cither will radmimster a poison to 
anybody when asked to do so, nor will I suggest 
such a course. Similarly I will not give to a woman 
a pessary to cause abortion. But 1 will keep pure 
and holy both my life and my art. I will not use 
the knife, not even, verily, on sufferers from stone, 
but I will give place to such as are craftsmen 

^ Apparently tlie written rules of tlie art, examples of 
which are to be found in several Hippocratic treatises. 
These books were not published in the strict sense of the 
word, but copies would be circulated among the members of 
the " phvsicians' union." 

^ Probably, in modern English, " instruction, written, oral 
and practical." 

299 



OPKOS 

dvSpdcrt 7Tp7]^io<; TrjaSe. e? oIklus Se 6K6aa<; dv 
icTLco, eaeXeuao/jLai eir dx^eXeir] Ka/jLvovrtov, eKTO<; 
ioov Trdarj^ dhiKLrj^ €Kovau]<; Kol (pdopLr]^;, t/}"? re 
dWrjf; Koi dcppoSiaicov epyaiv eiri, re yuvaifceicov 
(TWfjidTOiv Kal dvSprocov, iXevdepcov re kol SovXwv. 
a av ev uepaTreirj jj low i) UKOvaco, i] kul avev 

30 depa'rreirj<; Kara /3iov dvOpdnrcov, a firj y^pr] ttotg 
eKXaXelaOai efo), (TL'yr]aop,ai, dpprjTa rjy€VfX€vo<; 
elvai rd, Toiavra. opKov fiev ovv pioi TovSe eVt- 
TeXea Troieovri, Kal prj avyx^ovn, etrj iiravpaaOai 
Kal yStou Kal t€)(^vtj^ SG^a^o/jLev(p irapd Trdatv 
avOpdnroi'i e? rov alel ')(^p6vov' Trapa^aivovTi he 

36 Kal i-mopKeovTi, Tuvavria tovtoop. 



300 



OATH 

therein. Into whatsoever houses I enter, I will 
enter to help the sick, and I will abstain from all 
intentional wrong-doing and harm, especially from 
abusing the bodies of man or woman, bond or free. 
And whatsoever I shall see or hear in the course of 
my profession, as well as outside my profession in 
my intercourse with men,i if it be what should not 
be published abroad, I will never divulge, holding 
such things to be holy secrets. Now if I carry out 
this oath, and break it not, may I gain for ever 
reputation among all men for my life and for my 
art; but if I transgress it and forswear myself, may 
the opposite befall me. 

1 This remarkable addition is worthy of a passing notice. 
The physician must not gossip, no matter how or where the 
subject-matter for gossip may have been acquired ; whether 
it be in practice or in private life makes no difference. 



301 



PRECEPTS 



INTRODUCTION 

It is with considerable misgiving that I have 
included this work as a kind of appendix to the first 
volume of the Hippocratic collection. In the first 
place there is not yet available the material neces- 
sary for a really satisfactory restoration of the text. 
Furthermore, the editors have generally neglected 
it. Littre reserved it for his ninth and last volume 
of text and translation, and by the time he reached 
it even his untiring energy was beginning to flag ; 
his edition is hasty, erratic and in places unintel- 
ligible. Ermerins gives over the task in despair, and 
leaves whole chapters untranslated. 

In spite of all these things I have determined to 
include Precepts, because it illustrates so well the 
characteristics of many parts of the Hippocratic 
collection, and the problems that face both editors 
and translators. It forms also a complete contrast 
to the nucleus of Hippocratic writings composing 
the rest of the first volume. 

(1) Like Ilumoiirx and Sithi)nenl, it is obscure to a 
degree. 

(2) It is, like so many Hippocratic works, a cento. 
Beginning and end are quite unconnected with 
the main portion of the book, and the main 
portion itself is a series of rather disconnected 
remarks. 

305 



INTRODUCTION 

(3) It has, like Ancient Medicine, Nutiiment, Nature 
of Man, Airs, Regimen I., a close relationship 
to philosophy. 

(4) It shows, I think conclusively, the wide period 
covered by the Hippocratic collection. 

No reader can fail to notice that, short as it is, the 
work is a cento with three main divisions. 

(1) Chapters I and II defend the principle that 
medicine must be based upon observed fact 
and not on any plausible but fallacious hypo- 
thesis (J.K TTiOavri's dva7rA.tto-tos Xoyov). The writer 
uses language remarkably similar to that 
attributed to Epicurus by Diogenes Laertius. 
I must quote two passages from the latter. 

(a) Ktti yap Kai inivoLai Tracrat otto tcov al(r6r](rewv 
yeyovoLori Kara t€ TreptTrrwrrti' Kat avaXoytav /cai 
bfxoioTTjTa Kol crvvOeaLi', av/j.l3aXX.o/x€V'Ov Tt kol tov 
XoyKTfJLOv. . . . Tyv Se irpoXrjxpiv Xiyova-tv otovet 
KaTaXrj\piv, rj Sd^av opdrjv, 7j evvoiav, i) KaOo\iK7]v 
vorjaii' iyaTTOKeL/xevTjv, toDt icm pvi)p.i]V rov ttoA- 
X6.KL<i e^wdev 0avei'TOS. 

D. L., X. 20, 21,§§32, 33. 

(6) dA.Aa. fJLTjV VTToXrjTTTiOV KOL Tr]V TWI/ a.i6p(i)irwv 

cfivcTiv iroXXa kul Trairota viro twv avrrjv Trepuaroj- 
Twv TTpayp-aTwv 8L8a^6rji'ai re kol ayayKairOrjvaL' tov 
Se XoyLcr/Jiov to. vtto ravrrj^ wapeyyv-qBevra Koi 
varepov inaKpifSovv. 

D. L., X. 24, § 75. 

There are also several occurrences of the Epicurean 
word ivapyt]<i. The similarities are far too close to 
be accidental. 



INTRODUCTION 

(2) Chapters III-XIII contain remarks on medical 
etiquette, fees, patients' whims, quacks, con- 
sultants, lecturing to large audiences, late 
learners. These remarks are sometimes con- 
nected, but follow no plan. 

(3) Chapter XIV contains a few disconnected re- 
marks on illnesses and invalids. 

So the work as a whole shows no signs of a pre- 
arranged plan. It is disjointed and formless. As 
far as subject-matter is concerned, the three parts 
distinguished above ought to be classed under 
separate branches of medicine : — 

(1) This belongs to the theory of medicine, or 
rather to the theory of science generally. 

(2) This belongs on the whole to etiquette 
{€va\r]fjiocrvvr]). 

(3) This consists merely of a few disconnected 
hints. Littre justly says of it (IX. 248) : "J'y 
vols done une de ces intercalations que les 
copistes se permettaient quelquefois a la fin 
d'un traite, soit, comme dit Galien, pour gros- 
sir le volume, soit pour placer quelque fragment 
qu'on ne savait oii mettre, et qui, autrement, 
s'en allait perdu." 

Yet it is remarkable that there is a certain style 
common to all three parts which points to the con- 
clusion that the compiler, whoever he was, was no 
mere " paste-and-scissors " man, but an author who 
stamped his characteristics even on his borrowings. 
This style is marked by a studied aphoristic brevity 
combined with a genius for choosing out-of-the-way 
terms and expressions. It so happens that in ad- 
dition the author appears to have been an imperfect 

307 



INTRODUCTION 

Greek scholar. It is indeed hard to believe tliat he 
was writing his mother tongue. 

I am ready to admit that a more perfect recension 
of the MSS. will prove that certain of these vagaries 
are merely errors of the copyists, but when con- 
sidered together they are too numerous and too 
strange to be exj)lained in this way. A few examples 
only shall be chosen. 

Chapter I. t)v to. CTrt^^cipa iKOfXL^ovro. 

„ II. yu-v) ilq €77 av pad 6 at, "perhaps it is im- 

possible to gain " (see Oath, p. 300^ 
1. 33). 
„ IV. Trapatvecrios 8 av kol tovto €TTLhey]0€iq ttJs 

6(.wpiri<i. 
vovaov yap Ta)(yTr]<i Kaipov p.ij StSoScra 

K.T.X. 

„ Vl. r]v 8e Kaipos e'lrj. 

y^crOrjixevoL to Tra^os p-ij eov iv oicrc^aXcir^. 
„ VII. yu.7) eyKe;>^€i/j(.KOTes, " because they have 
not entrusted." 

Sedyuei'ot ti]v vyL€Lvi]v Sta^ecrtv. 
„ VIII. iTTLvefiijaLv K€Xpy]VTaL [an emendation 
of Coray]. 

o av epeoj. 
J, IX. avp Try ovcriij = ttJs ovctli]^. 

ov SiaiJLapTijaeL (3rd person singular). 

OTTOt av Kttl iTTKTTaT l]<TaijXl. 



XIII. '- '^- 



Notice in particular that fi-q is ousting ov. This is a 
sure sign of late date. 

Words and expressions that occur only in late 
Greek, or are used in a strange sense, are fairly 
common, and there appear to be a few aTra^ Aeyo/tcva. 

308 



INTRODUCTION 

Chapter I. Karacftopi^ = deducing. 

„ II. irepl ravra ytyi^ecr^ai =; to be occupied 

with. 
„ IV. TTpofxvcrcreLV. 

,, V. rjSeXcfjLcrixevo^. 

„ VI. evSoKirj. 

,, VII. Ik ttoSo?. 

KaTa\Ki^uv. 

SLUvrXtl^icrdai. 
J, VI 11. KaTacriWaii'O). 
,, IX. [xivv6r]ixa. 

,, X. €v^apir] (if this reading be correct), 

or ev)(^o.pL(TTiy]. 
,, XII. L(rTopi€vp.evrjv. 

/xaTaiOKOTrrq. 
,, XIII. cf)iXaXvcrT7]<;. 

„ XIV. crvfJiTraOrjcn';. 
crvfJ-iraOeLa. 

viroirapaLTiq(Ti% (if this reading be 
correct). 

The aphoristic style, which appears to have been 
popular among medical writers (^Coan Prenolions, 
Prorrhetic J., Aphorisms, Nutriment) tended to become 
oracular and obscure. The writer of Precepts seems 
to have gone out of his way to wrap up his meaning 
in unusual diction, which is often almost unintel- 
ligible. He is fond of allusive, metaphorical language, 
which savours sometimes of the lyric poets. 

In spite of his weaknesses as an author, and they 
are many, he is a man of sound common sense. I 
would note in particular his insisting upon reasoning 

309 



INTRODUCTION 

from accurately observed facts only, and upon the 
necessity of not worrying the patient about fees, 
and his pungent criticisms of quacks, their dupes, 
and all " late-learners." 

There is something about the style which is 
reminiscent of Latin, particularly Trapauecrios tovto 
in Chapter IV, meaning "this piece of advice," and 
perhaps the future in Chapter V with imperatival 
sense. ^ The perfect tense too is commonly used for 
the aorist. One would be tempted to regard the 
author as a Roman Avho wrote in Greek an essay, 
compiled from Epicurean literature and fairly sound 
medical sources, were it not for two scholia, one 
discovered by Daremberg and the other in the MS. 
Vaticanus gr. 277. The latter quotes a great part 
of Erotian's explanation of (fiXeSovwSea as a comment 
upon Precepts V II. , where ourMSS. now have ^^oyywSea 
or ^^cyywSea. In other words, the treatise appears 
to have been known to Erotian, or to the authorities 
used by Erotian, as an Hippocratic work. Darem- 
berg ^ discovered in a Vatican MS. a gloss from 
which it appears that Galen commented on Precepts, 
and that Archigenes (a physician of the early second 
century a.d.) and Chrysippus the Stoic commented 
on the distinction between /catpos and ;(pdvos with 
which Precepts opens. 

Even if we allow full weight to this evidence of 



' Since I wrote the above my attention has been called to 
trref wv fvSoffiv in Chapter VII. The word (XTevciv looks like 
angiisiiarum. 

* See Notices et extraits dcs manuscrils midicaux grecs, lathis 
et franqais dcs principales biUiotheques de V Euro2)e, pp. 200- 
203. 

310 



INTRODUCTION 

early authorship, we need conclude no more than 
that Chrysippus knew the originals from which the 
compilation was made — indeed he must have been 
well acquainted with the Epicurean original of 
Chapters I and II. There is nothing in the evidence 
to prevent our taking Precepts to be a cento from 
good sources made by a late writer not perfectly 
familiar with Greek. Somehow it became incor- 
porated in a collection of Hippocratic writings, 
probably a little-known one, as none of the ancient 
" lists " of Hippocratic works includes Precepts. 
There was no generally accepted canon, and a work 
of unknown or uncertain authorship might easily 
find its way into the Hippocratic collection in one 
or other of the great libraries. 

Although linguistic difficulties obscure the details, 
the reader will be interested in the picture of medical 
practice in antiquity. The "late-learner" covering 
up his mistakes in a flood of medical jargon will 
suggest the doctors of Moliere. The public lectures, 
with quotations from poetry, are the exact counter- 
part of modern advertisements of patent medicines. 

MSS. AND Editions. 

Precepts is found in several of the Paris manu- 
scripts and in M.^ There have been so far as I know 
no separate editions and no translations into English. 

> There is no good apparatus criiicus. I have tried to 
infer from Littr^'s "vulgate" and Ermerins' text what is 
the reading of the majority of the manuscript'', and it is 
generally this reading which I denote by " MSS." Only 
more careful examination of the actual manuscripts can 
show how far I am justified in so doing. 



3" 



nAPArrEAiAi 

I. Xpoi^o? idTiV iv u) Kaipos, koI Kaipo<i ev ro 
■)(p6vo<; ov TToXu?* dfC€(n<; 'X^povcp, ecm he rjvLKa 
Koi Kaipaj. Sel ye fiiju ravra elSora /nyj Xoyiaixto 
irporepov mOavw 7rpoae)(^ovTa li]rpeveiv, aWa 
TpifSfj fxera Xoyov. 6 yap Xoyi(r/j,o<; fxinj/j,r) ti? 
eart avpOeriKr] tmv fier al(TO)](Tio<i XyjcpOevTav, 
ecpavraaricodti yap ivapyeco^; ?/ a't'a67]ai<i iTpoiTa9rj<i 
zeal avaTTO/J-TTO'i iovaa e? hidvoiav roiv VTTOKet- 
/xevcov, i) 8e TrapaSe^a/Jbevr) TroXXdKi<;, ot? ore 

10 6Kolw<i^ rypi'jaaaa, koI €9 ecovryjv Karadepbevq, 
efxvrijjiovevaev. crvyKaraivew fxev ovv Kal rov 
Xoyiafjiov, ■ijvTrep (k TrepLmoicno'^ TroiijTat Trji' 
dp)(^7]v, Kal TTjV KaTa<pop7]v eV tmv cfiaipo/xevcov 
fieOoSevr]. CK yap tcov ivapyi(o<i eTTireXeofxevcov 
rjv rrjv dp')(rjv TToi/jarjTai 6 Xoyia/xo'i, iv Siai'OLi]<; 
hwcifxei inrdpy^o)!' evpiaKeTai, 7rapaSe)(^o/iiev7](; 
avTi)<; efcacrra Trap aXXoiV. VTroXTjirreov ovv ti-jv 
(f)vaiv VTTO TOiv TToXXcov Kai TravTOicov irpr^yixdroiv 
KivrjOrjval re KaX SiBax^Pjvai, /Str]^ vTreovcrr}^' r) 

20 Be Sidvoia Trap' avTii'i Xa/Soucra, to? Trpoeiirov, 
vcnepov e? dXrjOeujv i]yayev. el he fi7) e^ evapyeo<i 

* Ermerins would delete Tro\Aa\iy . . . ok-ouiis. 

^ The definition shows that in this passage \oyi(T/j.6s is a 
genei'alisation, like the irpSArjif/is of Epicurus, whose language 
is borrowed. But whereas Trp6\ri\j/is corresponds to a general 
Urm (e. g. "man"), Koytafi-Ss here seems to mean a general 

312 



PRECEPTS 

I. Time is that wherein there is opportunity, and 
opportunity is that wherein there is no great time. 
Healinff is a matter of time, but it is sometimes 
also a matter of opportunity. However, knowing 
this, one must attend in medical practice not 
primarily to plausible theories,^ but to experi- 
ence combined with reason. For a theory is a 
composite memory of things apprehended with 
sense-perception. For the sense-perception, coming 
first in experience and conveying to the intellect 
the things subjected to it, is clearly imaged, and 
the intellect, receiving these things many times, 
noting the occasion, the time and the manner, stores 
them up in itself and remembers. Now I approve 
of theorising also if it lays its foundation in incident, 
and deduces its conclusions in accordance with phe- 
nomena. For if theorising lays its foundation in 
clear fact, it is found to exist in the domain of in- 
tellect, which itself receives from other sources each 
of its impressions. So we must conceive of our nature 
as being stirred and instructed under compulsion 
by the great variety of things ; and the intellect, as 
1 have said, taking over from nature the impres- 
sions, leads us afterwards into truth. But if it 

proposition {e. g. "man is mortal"). Later on it means the 
use of Xo-y i.(T jjLoi in making avWoyicr/xoi, that is, deduction. 
"Theory" and " theorising " are the nearest equivalents I 
can think of. 

VOL. I. N 3^3 



HAPArrEAIAI 

i(f)68ov, eK he TriOavTj'i dvuTrXdaio^ Xoyov, ttoX- 
\dKi<; iBapeirjv koa dvir]prjv iinjveyKe SidOeatv. 
ovTOi 8e dvohirjv ^(^eLpil^ovcTL. rt yap av r/v kukov, 
rjv ^ TO, eV/^ei/oa eKO/ii^ovTO oi ra rrj'i irjrpiKri'i 
epja KaKU)<i hi jxiov pyeovre'i ; vvv he toi<; dvairloi^; 
iovac TOiv KafxvovTOtiv, oKO(TOt<; ov')(^ iKavrj ecfiaiveTO 
eovcra rov vocrecv ^it], el fxr) avveXOoi rfj tou 
Irjrpov drreipir]. irepX fiev ovv tovtcov aXt9 ecrTco 

30 SceLXeyfieva. 

II. Tmv S' CO? \6yov fiovov av/J^irepaivofievcov 
fxrj eh) ^ eiravpaadai, tcov Be &)? epyov eVSet^to?* 
acpaXeprj yap Kal evTrTaiaroi; -q fier' dSoXecr^t?;? 
l(T')(ypLai.<i. 8i6 Kttl KadoXov Bel ey^eadat twv 
yLvofievwv, Kal rrepX ravra fxi] eXaxiarco'^ ywe- 
adai, rjP fieXXj) e^eiv pifiBiiiv Kal uva/xdpTtiTov 
e^Lv Tjv Br] lriTpLKi]v irpoaayopevo/xev. Kupra yap 
fieydXtiv oi)(peXLi]v Trepnroiiiaet, T0t9 ye voaiovai 
Kal TOi? TOVTCOV BrjixLovpyol<;. firj oKveiv Be irapa 

10 IBicoTecov [(TTopelv, r]v tl Bokj) avvolaeiv e<» Kaipov 
depaTreii]^. outco yap BoKeco ttjv avfjuracrav 
Te')(yW dvaBei\9rjvat, Bia to e^ cKaaTOV ti^ tov 
TeXov<i TijpTjOrjvai Kal e? TavTO avvaXiaOrjrai. 
TTpoae'^eLv ovv Bel tt} irepnrTooaeL ttj co? eirl to 
TToXv, Kal fxeT oocf^eXly]^ Kal rjpe/j,ai6T7]To<i p^aXXov 

16 r] errayyeXirjii Kal uTToXoyirj^; Trj<; fieT dirprj^Lr)^;.'^ 

1 So apparentlj' the MSS. and editions except Ermerins, 
who emends to ei. I retain it (doubtfully) as a mistake due 
to ignorance. ^ See p. 308. 

* rov MSS. : Tl another hand in M. I have inserted n 
and kept tov because of the sense. There is one tcAos, but 
many observations contribute to the completion of it. 

* /xera irpTj^ios MSS. : fxer' aTrpr)|ios another hand in M : 
fiera wpr}^tas Littr^ : fxer' airpTq^i-qs is my conjecture. I find 



PRECEPTS, i.-ii. 

begins, not from a clear impression, but from a 
plausible fiction,^ it often induces a grievous and 
troublesome condition. All who so act are lost in a 
blind alley. Now no harm would be done if bad 
practitioners received their due wages. But as it is 
their innocent patients suffer, for whom the violence 
of their disorder did not appear sufficient without 
the addition of their physician's inexperience. I 
must now pass on to another subject. 

II. But conclusions which are merely verbal cannot 
bear fruit, only those do which are based on demon- 
strated fact. For affirmation and talk are deceptive 
and treacherous. Wherefore one must hold fast to 
facts in generalisations also,^ and occupy oneself with 
facts persistently, if one is to acquire tliat ready and 
infallible habit which we call "the art of medicine." 
For so to do will bestow a very great advantage 
upon sick folk and medical practitioners. Do not 
hesitate to inquire of laymen, if thereby there 
seems likely to result any improvement in treat- 
ment. For so I think the whole art has been set 
forth, by observing some part of the final end in 
each of many particulars, and then combining all 
into a single whole. So one must pay attention to 
generalities in incidents, with help and quietness 
rather than with professions and the excuses that 
accompany ill-success. 

^ I.e., if the general statement from which we deduce 
conclusions be a plausible but untrue hypothesis. Conclu- 
sions drawn from such hypotheses lead to nowhere. 

* Or, possibly, "even from beginning to end." 

that I have been anticipated by Ermerins, who also reads 



nAPArrEAiAi 

III. \pi]ai.fio^ Se Kal ttolklXo^ tcov irpoac^epo- 
[xevwv TM voaeovTL Kal 6 7rpoopL(Jfx6<i, oti^ fiovov 
Ti irpoaeve'xP^v wcpeXijcrer ov jap la'^^vpiaio'i Bel- 
irdvTa yap ra TvaOrj hia 7roWa<i 7re picrraaia'i Kai 

5 fxeTa/3oXa<; fiov^ rivi TrpoaKadi^ec. 

IV. Ylapatvecno'i S' av Kal touto eTriSeyjOelr] 
rr}? 6€U)pitj<i' aufx^dWei <ydp ri rw crvfXTravTr^ 
el yap dp^aio irepl /xiadaplcov rw fiev dXyeovTi 
TOiavTfjv Siavoyjaiv ifX7T0Ci](T€i^ ttjv on ^ dTToXivcov 
avTov TTopevaei /j,i] avvde/ji6vo<i, rj^ on d/jLe\7](Tei.<i 
Kal ou-^ v7Tod)](Tei^ Tivd T(p TTapeovTi. eTTifie- 
Xeladatovv oii^ SeiTrepl ardcno<i fiiadov' d)(p7]aT0v 
yap rjyevfieOa evdufxrjcnu 6-)(XeopLevu) ttjv Toiavrr^v, 
7ro\v Be /xdWov ev o^el vocn'j/xaTi' vovaov yap 

10 ra^uW;? Kaipbv fir] BtSouaa e? dvaaTpo(f)i]v ovk 
iTTorpvvei rbv /caXw? IrjTpeuovTa ^rjTelv to Xvai- 
TeXe?, e^^aOai Be Bo^rj^ p,dWov. Kpeaaov ovv 
cr(p^o/jievoi<i oveiB'i^eiv r) 6\e6plco<f exovra-i irpo- 

14 pLvaaeivP 

V. Kat JOi eviot voaeovre^ d^ioucn ^ to ^evo- 
TrpeTre'i kuI to dBi^Xov ^ 7rpoKpivovTe<;, d^ioi /mev 
a/xeXetT/?, ov fxevrot ye KoXdaio<;. Bio T0UT0i<i 
dvTLjd^eL elK6TQ)<i fieTaSo\i]<; eVl adXov iropevo- 

* Ermerins here inserts ov. 

2 In the MSS. this sentence occurs after i^KrOapiwv. It 
was transposed by Coray. 

3 Here the MSS. have ovk, which is omitted by Coray, 
Littre and Ermerins. * 7^ Littre : Kal MSS. 

^ viro9r)(Teis MSS. : Coray emended to the middle. 

* The negative is added by Littre 

' irpofxvaffeiv MSS. : ■npoavvaffiiv Coray : Trpoc^vaanv Er- 
merins. 

* a^iovai MSS. : aXXacraovcn Littr6. 
» tHh-nKov MSS. : ^StjAo;/ Littre. 

316 



PRECEPTS, ni.-v. 

III. Early determination of the patient's treat- 
ment — since only what has actually been admin- 
istered will benefit ; emphatic assertion is of no 
use — is beneficial but complicated. For it is through 
many turns and changes that all diseases settle into 
some sort of permanence.^ 

IV. This piece of advice also will need our con- 
sideration, as it contributes somewhat to the whole. 
For should you begin by discussing fees, you will 
suggest to the patient either that you will go away 
and leave him if no agreement be reached, or that 
you will neglect him and not prescribe any immediate 
treatment. So one must not be anxious about fixing 
a fee. For I consider such a worry to be harmful 
to a troubled patient, particularly if the disease be 
acute. For the quickness of the disease, offering no 
opportunity for turning back," spurs on the good 
physician not to seek his profit but rather to lay 
hold on reputation. Therefore it is better to reproach 
a patient you have saved than to extort money from-^ 
those who are at death's door. 

V. And yet some patients ask for what is out of 
the way and doubtful, through prejudice, deserving 
indeed to be disregarded, but not to be j)unished. 
Wherefore you must I'easonably oppose them, as 
they are emlmrked upon a stormy sea of change. 

' Because changes and turns are common in the early 
stages, to fix the proper treatment earlj' is a coniplicated 
matter. 

^ /. c. from missed opportunities that have passed away 
while haggling over fees. It is possible that avaa-Tpocprt has 
here the sense of a.va(npi<\>eiv KapiSay in Thucydides II. 49, 
"to upset." All acute disease is not the time to upset a 
patient with financial worries. 

' Or, if Coray's emendation be adopted, " to tease." 



nAPArrEAiAi 

h]rpo<i LTjrpeveo Toaavrr) ^ drepa/iivcr] ware iv ap^fj 
avaKpivovra'^ irav^ irdOo'; fxr] oux,^ viroOecrOaL 
riva av/j,(f)epovTa e? OepaTrelrjv, dirodepaTrevaai re 
rov voaeovra Kal /xt] TrapiSeiv tjjv eTrifcapTrirji', 
10 dvev ^ T/}? iiT ta Keva^ovarj^ e? ixdOrjaiv eTriOv/jLLri^ ; 

VI. JJapaKeXevopaL Se /j,r] Xirjv diravdpwTTLrjv 
iadyeiv, dX)C aTro^Xeveiv e? re Treptovairjv Kal 
ovaiTjv ore Se TrpocKU, dvacj^epcov /j,vrjpT]v ev^a- 
pi(TTir]<; 7rpoTepr]v ^ rj Trapeovaav evhoKLrjvP rjv ^ 
Se KaLpo<i eh] X^PVl^V^ ^evw re eovri, Kal diro- 
peovTi, fidXiara errapKelv rol'i toiovtol<;' i]v ydp 
irapfj (f)i\avOpco7riv, irdpecni, Kal cf)c\oTexvL7]. 
evioi yap voa6ovT€'i rjaOy/xevoi ro irepl ecofrou? 
rrddo^ /XT] eov ev dac^aXeir], Kal rfj rov it]rpov 

10 eTTieLKeir) evSoKeovai,^ /j,eraXXdaaovr€<; e? vyieiriv. 
ev S' e)f^€i vocreovrcov fxev emcirarelv, evsKev 
vyietrj'i, uyiaivovrcov 8e (f)povrL^€tv, eveKev dvoairi<;- 

13 ^povri^eLv koI ecovrcov ^^ eveKev €va')(7]pocruvt]<;. 

VII, Oi /jiev ovv eovre^ ev ^vdw dr€')^vl7]<; rwv 
TT poXeXey pevwv ovk dv alcrOdvoivro. Kal yap ovroi 
dvLrjrpoi eovre<i eXey)(oivr dv ^^ eV ttoSo? vyjrev- 

* ToirouTj; my conjecture : Tziurei fj MSS. : Tna-revoi Er- 
merins : veiaBeir] Littre (with Ivrpeveiv). 

' avaKpivovTa Littre : avaKpUav-ra Ermerins : avaKpiviovTas 
vulgate. 

^ Ermerins inserts t6. 

* ix-if] ovx'^i- : jUTj most MSS. : Set many early commentators. 
The position of the negative is abnormal, and the reading 
is uncertain. 

^ So Ermerins : ttjs i-KiKapvL-ns /j-t) &.vev MSS. Most editors 
punctuate at irapiSeTv. But then tt/s ii:iKap-n'n]s depends on 
nothing. 

^ irporepriv MSS. : irpSrepov Ermerins. 

' evSoKiTiv M : evSoKif/.'{T}r most MSS. 



PRECEPTS, v.-vii. 

For, in heaven's name, who that is a brotherly ^ phy- 
sician practises with such hardness of heart as not at 
the beginning to conduct a preliminary examination 
of every illness^ and prescribe what will help towards 
a cure, to heal the patient and not to overlook the 
reward, to say nothing of the desire that makes a 
man ready to learn ? 

VI. I urge you not to be too unkind, but to con- 
sider carefully your patient's superabundance or 
means. Sometimes give your services for nothing, 
calling to mind a previous benefaction or present 
satisfaction.^ And if there be an opportunity of 
serving one who is a stranger in financial straits, 
give full assistance to all such. For where there is 
love of man, there is also love of the art. For some 
patients, though conscious that their condition is 
perilous, recover their health simply through their 
contentment with the goodness of the physician. 
And it is well to superintend the sick to make them 
well, to care for the healthy to keep them well, but 
also to care for one's own self, so as to observe what 
is seemly. 

VII. Now those who are buried in deep ignorance 
of the art cannot appreciate what has been said. 
In fact such men will be shown up as ignorant of 

^ The word so translated is fairly common in the Corpus in 
the sense of "related." Here it evidently means "a loyal 
member of the family of physicians." 

* With Ermerins' reading, "all the illness." 

^ Or, with evSoKt/xi-ny, " your present reputation." 

* ?)i/ MS8. : 61 Ermerins. But see Chapter I, p. 314, note 1. 

* MSS. fvSoKiineouan. Littre suggests (vSoKeova-i but reads 
ivSoKiOVTfs and ^fTaAAacfroi'Tai. 

^^ ecinTuiv Ermerins : vyiaii/SfTaiv MSS. 

'^ f Ae'7xoi>"r' hv Ermerins : eAeyx"' MSS. : iKtyxv Littre. 



HAPArrEAIAI 

/xevoi, TV-)(7]<i ye /xrjv Seo/xevot,. vtto yap tlvwv 
evTTOpwv, Kal arevow evhoaiv avaXap,^av6vT0)v, 
CKarepr] eirrjv €7ri,TV)(^(ocn,^ evSoKi/xeoucri, Kal 8ia- 
TriTTTovTov eVt TO ')(^€tpov KaTa)(Xi8€vai, Kara- 
/xe/weX?;/fOT69 to. tT;? T€)(^vt]<i avvrrevOvva, e^' oh 
av i7;T/0O9 aya06<i ciKfid^oi 6/j.6re)(vo'i Ka\e6/xevo<;. 

10 06 TCL'i aKe(Jia<i avajjiapri^Tovi prjiSico'i eTmeXecov 
ovBev av tovtcov Trapa^alr] aTrdvec ^ tov hvvaadai' 
ov yap cnriaTo'i eariv w? eV dSiKtr], tt/jo? yap 
depa'TTelriv ov yivovTai aKOTreovTe'i SidOeaiv (f)X€- 
^ovcooea,^ cfivXaaao/nevot krepwv lyjTpcov iirea- 
aya>yi]v, evovTe^ ^ ev fxiaoTrovrjpij] ^oi]d)]ato^.^ 
01 T€ vocreovT€'i dvi(o/ji€voi ^ v)])(^ovTai eVt eKarepij 
/xox^Vph H-V ^yKex^iptKOTe'i ecovrov^ ew? T€\eo<; 
TTJ ev rf) re')(^i'T} irXeiovi Oepairelr]- av6aL<i yap 
vovaou Tivo<i Kd[xvovTi 'iTape')(^ei ixeydXrjv dXecopijv 

20 Sio Seofxevoi rrjv vyieivrjv Siddeaiv ovk edeXovat 
TTjv avTrjv -^prjcnv alel rrpoahex^'^dcLi', 6/iioi'oeovTe'i 
irjrpov ttoikiXlt}.'^ t TroXvTeXeit]^ t yap diropeovcnv 

^ So Ermerins. Most MSS. have ava\afx.^a.vovrai or oca- 
\a/j.0ai'ovTes, (KaTepot eVi Tfvxftrt and fvSoKi,uiovT€s. 

^ (Twdvi (sic) Ermeriny : ov iravrl ffirdvei most MSS. : h 
iravrl airdvei M (dittography) : ov iravTri airdvei Littre. 

^ So apparently some ancient commentators. See Erotian 
fr. 7 Nachmanson. (peeyywSfa or (peoyywSea MSS. : (pda'wSia 
Littre : (povdSfa Ermerins. 

* fvSyres M, Littre : alvovvTfs most MSS. I suggest 
,uevovT(s, as we should have expected ive6vTes. See p. 248. 

alveovTei yUKTOTrovrjpiTji/ ^oT]Qi](nos Ermerins. 

* kviwixivoi MSS. : avif/j.fi'oi Littre after Matthiae. 

' So Ermerins : S/xoiovfTes IrjTpov ttoikiXlti vulgate : fx^ 
vofoi'TfS IriTpov iroiKiKlriv : I>ittre. 



^ He is trusted, and so can do as he likes. Therefore want 
of power to influence a patient never compels him to trans- 
gress the medical code. 
320 



PRECEPTS, VII. 

medicine, suddenly exalted yet needing good luck. 
For should wealthy men gain some remission of their 
trouble, these quacks win reputation through a 
double good fortune, and if a relapse occurs 
they stand upon their dignity, having neglected 
the irreproachable methods of the art, wherewith 
a good physician, a "brother of the art" as he is 
called, would be at his best. But he who accom- 
plishes his cures easily without making a mistake 
would transgress none of these methods through want 
of power; ^ for he is not distrusted on the ground of 
wickedness. For quacks do not attemi)t treatment 
when they see an alarming - condition, and avoid 
calling in other physicians, because they wickedly 
hate help. And the patients in their pain drift on a 
sea of twofold wretchedness for not having intrusted 
themselves to the end to the fuller treatment that 
is given by the art. For a remission of a disease 
affords a sick man much relief. Wherefore wanting 
a healthy condition they do not wish always to sub- 
mit to the same treatment, therein being in accord 
with a physician's versatility. ^ For the patients 

^ It is quite uncertain whether (pAf^ovuiSea is the correct 
reading, and equally uncertain what it means if it be correct. 
P^rotian's note recognises two ancient readings, (pXtSovcoSea, 
explained as to. fiera (pKuaplas koI -nvevfiaTwSovs Tapaxv^ 
iKKptuSfxepa, and (pAf^ovwSea, explained as to. /x^t' aXynfxaTos 
oiSrjfxaTa. But the general meaning must be "serious," 
" alarming." 

* The reader must suspect that in tlie words l-qrpov iroiKiKi-n 
is concealed an allusion to frequent changes of the medical 
attendant. "Changing their doctor every day." The 
version in tlie text means that tlie patients frequently 
change their minds as do quacks, or as doctors must be ready 
to change their treatment at a moment's notice. 

321 



HAPArrEAIAI 

oi voaeovre^,^ KaKorpoiriri 7rpo<TKvveovTe<;^ koi 
a'^api(7Teovre<; avvrv^elv. Svvarol e6vTe<i eviro- 
pelv, 8iavT\l^ovTai ^ irepX ixLo-Oapiwv, arpeK€(i)<i 

e9ekovre<; V'yt6€<i elvai eivsKev epyaaLr)<; 

TOKcov 7] yecopyLr]-?, a(f)povTiaTeovTe<i irepi ^ avrwv 

28 Xapb^dveiv. 

VIII. Tlepl (Trip.aaiT}<i rocavTt]<; a\i<; earco' 
avecn<i yap Kal eVtTacri9 vocreovro<; eTnvepjrjcTLv 
u]rpiKr]P Ke)(pr]VTai.^ ovk aa')(^Ti']pi(i)v ^ he, ov8' 
qv Tt? lr}rpo<s aT€vo)(^copeo)V tS) irapeovTL ' errl tlvl 
voaeovrc koI eTna/coTeop^evo'; rf] cnreipirj KeXevrj 
Kal erepovi eadyeiv^ eiveKa rov iic Koi,voXoyir]<i 
iaropijaai rd nrepl rov voaeovTU, Kal crvvepyov^ 
yeveaOat e? eviropitiv l3oi]6})aLo<;. ev yap kuko- 
7rad€ii]<; irapehpiij eTnreivovro'i rov irddeo^, 8i 

10 d-nopirjv rd irXelcTTa eKK\ivovcn, tw irapeovri' ' 
6app7jT€OV ^ ovv ev Kaipu) toioutco' ovSeTTore yap 
iyo) TO ToiovTo 6pi€up,ai, on i) re')(y7] KeKpnai 

^ So apparently all MSS. : TroAvreXeis yap airopeovffiv 46i>Tis 
Littre. Perhaps Tro\vTi\elT) sjiould be read. 

* irpotrKwevirTes MSS. : npocrKvpevvTes Littre. I suggest 
that OVK has fallen out after Kal. 

* SiavTKi^oi'Tai (apparently) MSS. : Siitrxi'P^C'"''''"' Cor- 
narius : Sia\oy((ovTai Ermerins. 

'' irept MSS. : fj.^ inrep Littre. 

* KeKT7]vrai MSS. : Ke'xp7)»''rai Coray. 

* acrxv/^^v MSS. : itrxvi^ov Littre. 

' Taj TrapfofTi omitted bj' Ermerins. 

* dapprireov ^LSS. : jutj dapprjTeov [sic] Martinus quoted by 
Foes. Perhaps ov BapprjTeov. 

^ These patients airopiovcnv, and so can scarcely be the same 
as the eHitopoi of the earlier part of the chapter. Perhaps 
OVK should be read before axapi<niovTis, and the sense would 
then be, " they become poor by showing gratitude to quacks, 
when they might be well off by employing qualified men." 

322 



PRECEPTS, vii.-viii. 

are in need throuoh heavy expenditure, worshipping 
incompetence and showing no gratitude when they 
meet it ; ^ when they have the power to be well off, 
they exhaust themselves about fees, really wishing 
to be well for the sake of managing their investments 
or farms, yet without a thought in these matters to 
receive anything.^ 

VIII. So much for such recommendations. For 
remission and aggravation of a disease require re- 
spectively less or more medical assistance. A 
physician does not violate etiquette even if, being 
in difficulties on occasion over a patient and in the 
dark through inexperience, he should urge the calling 
in of others, in order to learn by consultation the 
truth about the case, and in order that there may 
be fellow- workers to afford abundant help. For 
when a diseased condition is stubborn and the evil 
grows, in the perplexity of the moment most things 
go wrong. So on such occasions one must be bold.'^ 
For never will I lay it down that the art has been 

2 The greater part of this chapter is hopeless. There 
seems to be no connexion between the quack doctors of the 
first part and the wayward patients of the latter part. I 
suspect that an incongruous passage has been inserted here 
by some compiler, just as chapter fourteen was so inserted. 
Perhaps there are gaps in the text, the filling up of which 
would clear away the difficulty. Probably there is one after 
e'heKiv. If the latter part be not an interpolation, the 
general meaning seems to be that when patients grow worse 
under quack treatment, they change their doctor and hire 
another quack. So they both grow worse and lose money. 
They really want to get well to look after their business, 
but do not tliink of the right way to return to work again, 
i. e. of employing a qualified medical man. 

* Or (reading ob) "on such occasions one must not be 
self-confident." 



HAPArrEAIAI 

Trepl rovTOV, /jLrjSeTroTe ^ikoveiKelv irpoaKvpeovTa^ 
ecovTOLcrt, koI ^ KaraaiWaiveiv ^ o jap av ^ fxed 
opKou epew, ovheirore Irjrpov Xoyta/jL6<i (pOoi^ijaetev 
av erepcp' aKiSvb<i ^ yap av (f)aveLr]' aWa fidWov 
ol ay)(^taTevovT€<i dyopaiJ]<i ipyaau^jf; irpi'jcraovcn 
ravra evfiapeo)^. KairoL ye ovBe yfrevSeco'i Kara- 
Id V€v6r}Tai' irdcrr] yap eviropir) cnropirj eveari. 

IX. ls\eja TovTcov 6e iravTcov fieya av refc/jirjpiov 
(^avelrj avv ^ rfj ovair] tt}? Te;^f /;?, el' Tt9 Ka\o}<i 
IrjTpevwv TTpoaayopevaio^i ToiauT^]<i /u,r) uTToaTairi, 
KeXevcov Tolac voaeovai pLrjSev 6)(\eiaOai Kara 
Stdvoiav iv to) (nrevSeiv dipiKeaOai e? Kaipov 
aa>rripLt]<i' I'jyeufxeda yap a XP'H ^'^ "^^^ ^ vyLeh]v. 
KaX 7rpo(nacra6/ji€v6<i ye ' ov hiafxa primer er avrol 
fxev yap ol vocreovTe^ hta rrjv dXyeivijv SidOeatv 
diravSeovTe^ ecovrov'i re ... ^ ixeraWdaaov<TL 
10 T?}? ^(orj'i' 6 5' ey Keyset pLcrp,evo^ rbv voaeovra, rjv 
diTo^ei^r) rd rr)? Te;^^^?;? e^evpij/xuTa, aw^cov 
ovK ^ dWoiMV (pvaiv, dTTOiaei rrjv irapeovaav 
<ddvfM(,7]v> ^^ >') ri]v TrapauTiKa aTriarlTjv. r) yap 
rov dvOpcoTTov eve^'ui (puai'i rt<i icrri (jiucrei irepiTre- 
TTOirj/xevr] KLvrjacv ovk dWoTpLrjv, aWa Xirjv ye^^ 

1 Kol omitted in MSS. : inserted first by Littre, who also 
reads aWriAoLcri instead of eaivrolffi. 

^ KaraaiWaiviiv MSS. : kSto ffiWaivnv Ermerins. 

' This &!/ is very strange with ip4u>. Perhaps it is a 
repetition of the preceding two letters. But see p. 308. See 
also additional note, p. 332. 

* One MS. has dcrflei'^s. 

* avv MSS. : omitted by Ermerins. See p. 308. 
'' & xph es TVV Littre : axpv^'^i-W MSS. 

' So most MSS. : Trpoaraaffoiv fxiv Ermerins. 
^ Littre, supposing that a participle is wanted, adds 
inroppiiTTovTa. 



PRECEPTS, vui.-ix. 

condemned in tliis matter.^ Physicians who meet 
in consultation must never quarrel, or jeer at one 
another. For I will assert upon oath, a physician's 
reasoning should never be jealous of another. To 
be so will be a sign of weakness. Those who act 
thus lightly are rather those connected with the 
business of the market-place. Yet it is no mistaken 
idea to call in a consultant. For in all abundance 
there is lack.^ 

IX. With all these things it will appear strong 
evidence for the reality of the art if a physician, 
while skilfully treating the patient, does not refrain 
from exhortations not to worry in mind in the 
eagerness to reach the hour of recovery. For we 
physicians take the lead in what is necessary for 
health. And if he be under orders the patient will 
not go far astray. For left to themselves patients 
sink through their painful condition, give up the 
struggle and depart this life. But he who has taken 
the sick man in hand, if he display the discoveries 
of the art, preserving nature, not trying to alter it, 
will sweep away the present depression or the dis- 
trust of the moment. For the healthy condition of 
a human being is a nature that has naturally attained 
a movement, not alien but perfectly adapted, having 

^ /. e. that because a consultant is necessary the fault Hes 
with the art of medicine. 

2 No matter how much help you have you can never have 
enough. 



* o\)K MSy : ^ Martinus in Foes. 

1" eVi/capTr/rji/ vulgate : iri/cpiTjr Littr6. The true reading is 
probably a word with the meaning of adv/xla. 

11 Kl7]v ye Littr6 : \li]i> t€ MSS. : ISlijv Ermerins. 

32.5 



nAPArrEAiAi 

evapfioaTevcrav, 7rvev/j.ari re koI Oep/naalj) koX 
'yyixMV KarepjaaL}], ttcivt)] re kcu irdar] hLaiTr) 
KOI Tocai av/jbiracri BeSTj/xiovpyrj/bLevT], rjv fitj ri e« 
<y€V€T'P]<i rj a7r' ap-)(rj<; eXXetpa tJ* rjv 8e jevrjTal Ti, 

20 i^iTijXov €OVTO<;, ireipaaOat e^o/j,otovv ttj vtto- 
Kei/xevj]' TTapa yap cfivaiv to /u,ivv0i]/j,a koL Bia 

22 '^povov. 

X. ^evKTeT] Se kol 9pv^L<; ^ imfcpaTiScov Sia 
'7rpo(TKvpy]crcv aK6aio<i, oO/uli'j re Treplepyo^' Bia yap 
iKavrjv davi'7]dei7]v ^ Bia^oXrjv KeKrijaei,^ Sid 8e 
oXiyrjv, evcrxVl^oavvTjv- ev yap pepei 7t6vo<; oXiyo^, 
iv irdat iKavo^. eux^ipirjv ^ he ov Trepiaipeco' 

6 d^u] yap ii]TpiKrj<i TrpoaTacTir]^. 

XI. TlpoaOecno'^ Be Bi opydvcov Kal crrjpavTL- 
kS)v e7riBei^co<i, Kal rcov roiovTorpoTrcov fxvijptjv 

3 irapeZvai. 

XII. "\\v Be Kal eu'SKei' opiXov OeXij^ uKpoaaiv 
Trnii'jaaadai, ovk dyaKXeo)*; eir iO v peZ<i , pi] pevroi 
ye perd p^apTvpitj'i 7rou]TiKp](;' dBvvapiriv yap 
ep(f)aLvei (^iXoirovirj'q • ^ dirapveopai ydp e? ^priaiv 
erepriv (^iXoirovLi^v pera irovov laropievp^evTjv,^ Bio 
ev ewinfi p,ovpr] a'tpeaiv e'^ovaav'^ 'X^apieaaav 
7repnron]aec ydp K7](f)i'ivo<i perd TrapaTTopTrfj^ 

8 paTaiOKOTrirjv.^ 

^ 6pv\f/is conjecture of Triller : rpl^is viilgate. 

^ a^vufaiTji' MSS. : ^eipocrvpriv or |ej'frj»' Triller : a.<yvvriQelr\v 
Kvihii and Littr6. 

^ KeKT^aet my emendation : KfKT-naai Littre, without 
comment. 

* ivxapivv M : evxapiffTi-qv other MSS. (apparently) and 
Littr6. The dictionaries do not recognise evxapia. 

* (pi\oTTovir]s MSS. : cpiXoirovlr] Littre. 

326 



PRECEPTS, ix.-xii. 

produced it by means of breath, warmth and coction 
of humours, in every way, by complete regimen and 
by everything combined, unless there be some con- 
genital or early deficiency. Should there be such a 
thing in a patient who is wasting, try to assimilate 
to the fundamental nature.^ For the wasting, even 
of long standing, is unnatural. 

X. You must also avoid adopting, in order to gain a 
patient,^ luxurious headgear and elaborate perfume. 
For excess of strangeness will win you ill-repute, but 
a little will be considered in good taste, just as pain 
in one part is a trifle, while in every part it is serious. 
Yet I do not forbid your trying to please, for it is 
not unworthy of a physician's dignity. 

XI. Bear in mind the employment of instruments 
and the pointing out of significant symptoms, and 
so forth. 

XII. And if for the sake of a crowded audience 
you do wish to hold a lecture, your ambition is no 
laudable one, and at least avoid all citations from 
the poets, for to quote them argues feeble industry. 
For I forbid in medical practice an industry not 
pertinent to the art, and laboriously far-fetched,^ 
and which therefore has in itself alone an attractive 
grace. For you will achieve the empty toil of a 
drone and a drone's spoils.^ 

^ /. e. try to bring the patient back to his normal condition. 

* Apparently, in order to increase your practice by 
fastidiousness in the matter of dress. But the expression 
is very strange, and should mean, " in order to effect a cure." 

3 See p. 308^ * See p. 308. 

* I suspect the form of this word, to which I can find 
no parallel. The meaning is that of laropw. 

' eX'"'f"'^ Littre : iovaav MSS. 

8 So Littre after Weigel : MSS. apparently kroif^oKoiririv. 

327 



nAPAITEAIAI 

XIII. Eu«T677 Se Kal 8i.ddeai<i e/CTO? eovaa 
6y^i,ixa9iy]<;' irapeovrwv /xev ovBev eTrcTeXel- arreov- 
rcdv he fiV7]/jLi] aveKTi']. fyiveTac roivvv Trd/ji/jia)(o^ 
drv)(iV> /^€Ta \v/J,ri<; ^ veaprj<;, dcppovTtarevaa 
evTrpeTTLT]';, opLa/jLOL<i re Kat iirayyeXirjaiv, opKOC^ 
Te 7rap.jx6yeO€(Tiv 6eS)v eiveKev, IrjTpov rrpo- 
cTTareot'To? vovaov, dva'^vuiaLO^ avveyei7]<i Kar- 
T)')(^7]cn6'i T€ Ihtwrecdv ^LXaXvarewv Xoyov; ck 
yLteTa(^o/3?79 SLa^rjXeuofievcov,^ Kal rrplv i) j'ovctm 

10 KaraTTopecixjiv rjOpoia/Jbivoyv.^ tcov [xev ovv Taiov- 
Tcov oiroi av koI iiricTTaTtjaaifii, ovk av eirl 
OepaTrelij'i avWoyou acTjja-ai/xi av OapaaXeco^ 
^orjOeiiiv'^ iaTopir]<i yap 6va)(7]/j,ovo'i avveai<; iv 
TOUTOi? BieaTraafxevy].^ tovtcov ovv Si dvdyKrjv 
davvejoiv iovTcov, irapa/ceXevo /xai. '^prja-Lfirjv elvai 
rrjv rpijBrjv, fiedvarepijcnv '^ Soyp-aTcov iaTopi'q<i. 
TL^ yap €7Ti0v/jLet Boy/xdrcov /xev 7roXi'cr^tSi?^j7 
drpeKeax; iOeXcov ' Icrtopelv, /xeTa he ^ 'X^eiporpi^ii-j'; 
drpep-eoniTa ; ^ Bib irapaiveoi T0V70L<i Xeyovac 

20 fxev 7rpoa6)(eiv, iroieovac oe ey/coTTTeiv. 

XIV, liVveaTaX/jievrj'i 8iaLTi]<; firj fiUKprjv 

^ Xvfxris Little : Xv/xiris M : Xoi/ulris most MSS. 

2 5ia(ri\evo/j.(Vit>v Zwinger : Sia<^r]K€v6fxeyov MSS. : Sia^TjKevo- 
fjiivou Littre. 

' KaTairopeai ^vv7]6poiffiJ.4voi most MSS., the second hand of 
x\l having ^vv7]Bpoia fxevwv : KaraTropewcriv i]6poi(rfieyoi Little. 
The text is a combination of Littr6's emendation and tlie 
reading of M. 

* 307)0617)1/ my emendation (anticipated by Foes) : ^oijdelv 
Littre : ^ovaQnv MSS. 

* Zifairaajjiivi) Ermerins : dieffirap/j.ei'ri MSS. : Zucpdapfifvi] 
Littr6. 

^ jxid' vaTep-qcTiv ^ISS. : ;U7j Tr)y T-i]prj<nv Littre. The 
dictionaries do not recognise ixeOvarfprjo-is, but the present 
work is full of strange words. 

328 



PRECEPTS, xm.-xiv. 

XIII. A condition too is desirable free from the 
late-learner's faults. For his state accomplishes 
nothing that is immediate, and its remembrance 
of what is not before the eyes is but tolerable. So 
there arises a quarrelsome inefficiency, with head- 
strong outrage, that has no thought for what is 
seemly, while definitions, professions, oaths, great as 
far as the gods invoked are concerned/ come from 
the physician in charge of the disease, bewildered 
laymen being lost in admiration of flowery language 
spoken in continuous reading and instruction, 
crowding together even before they are troubled by 
a disease.^ Wherever I may be in charge of a case, 
with no confidence should I call in such men to 
help as consultants. For in them comprehension of 
seemly learning is tar to seek. Seeing then that they 
cannot but be unintelligent, I urge that experience 
is useful, the learning of opinions coming far after. 
For wlio is desirous and ambitious of learning truly 
subtle diversities of opinion, to the neglect of calm 
and practised skill .'' Wherefore I advise you to 
listen to their words but to oppose their acts. 

XIV. When regimen has been restricted you must 

^ That is, the oatlis fi-antically appeal to all the great gods. 

^ The consti-uclion and translation are uncertain. I believe 
that dpiffixols and the other datives are a Roman's efforts at 
rendering into Greek "ablatives of attendant circumstances," 
but Sk /xeratpopris is puzzling, and can hardly be taken with 
\6yovs. Perhapsit is a Latinisni. Cf. "pastor ab Amphryso." 

'' tOiXuv Jirmerins : iJiKeiy MSS. 

* yuera Se my emendation : fxriTe most MSS : yuera Al : ^V; 
ye Littre. 

* a.Tpe/xf6TT)Ta my emendation : arpeixeSTTiri most MSS. : 
arpf/xewTarov K. 

^" iyK6wreiv MSS. : iyKvirrtiv Mack and Ermerins. 

329 



HAPArrEAIAI 

t iy-^eipecv t rov Kdixvovro<i ')(^poiar]v €7rt$v/xL7]v ^ 
aviarycri Kal (Tvyy^utpirj iv '^povlrj vovaw, rjv 
ri'? Trpocreji^r) TU(f)X(p to heov. to? fjbeya<i (f)6^o<; 
(fiv\aKTeo<;, Kal y^apaf; Secvorr]^. rjepo<i alcfiviBt)] 
Tapa')(ri <pv\aKT6r].^ uKfirj r)\iKLri<i Trdvra e')(6i 
'X^apievra, aTToXT^^t? Be rovvavTiov. daai^lrj he 
'yXcoaarjq jtverai r) hia 7rd6o<;, i) Sta rd &ra, 17 ^ 
irplv rd "* TTpoTepa e^ayyelXat erepa eTrikaXelv, 
10 7] irpiv TO hiavevoi^pbivov elrrelv erepa eTVihiavoel- 
aOau- TOVTO ^ p-ev ovv ^ dvev 7rd6ov<; opaTov 
\e\eyp,evov p^dXiara avpL^aivei <^i\ore')(yovaLv, 
rfkiKLr]<;,'^ apuKpov eovTo^ rov viroKeipievov, SvvapLi^ 
evLOTe TrapLTToWi], vovaou dra^ii] ^ p.rJKO'i 
cyijpLalver Kpcai'i Se diroXvcn^ vovcrov. crp^iKpyj 
alTD] dKecn<i yiverai,^ rjv fi^ ri irepX tottov 
KaipLOv irdOrj. Biori avp,7rdOr]cn<; vtto Xv7n]<i 
eovaa o)(Xel, e^ krepov aufnraOeh]'? Tive<i 

^ The reading and punctuation of this passage are hopeless. 
The vulgate joins the end of XIII with the beginning of XIV, 
and punctuates at aylffrrjcn, vovacf and (pvAaKTtos. iyx^tp^'i'' 
can scarcely be correct. 

2 So Littre : Kal x^P'" (X"P° second hand in M) Si' ris 
f K^TTjj af'pos (or T/f'pos) alcpyiStr} Tapaxy (pvXaKTfT) most MSS. 

' jj added by Ermerins. 

* TO. P]rnierin3 : re MSS. 

* TOVTO Ermerins : t^ MSS. 
' ovv second hand in M. 

' ■jjAi/ciTjs Littr^ : t/Aikitj vulgate. 

* ara^lr] Littr6 : arapa^ir) MSS. Perhaps the scribe un- 
consciously wrote an Epicurean word. vSee p. 30(3. 

* So second hand in M : &Ki(Ti many MSS. : Kverat Littrd 
and apparently M. 

330 



PRECEPTS, XIV. 

not suppress for long a long-standing desire of the 
patient.^ In a chronic disease indulgence too helps 
to set a man on his feet again, if one pay the 
necessary attention to one who is blind.- As great 
fear is to be guarded against, so is excessive joy. 
A sudden disturbance of the air is also to be guai'ded 
against.^ The prime of life has everything lovely, 
the decline has the opposite. Incoherence of speech 
comes from an affection, or from the ears, or from 
the speaker's talking of something fresh before he 
has uttered what was in his mind before, or from 
his thinking of fresh things before he has expressed 
what was in his thoucrhts before. Now this is a thine; 
that happens without any " visible affection " so- 
called, mostly to those who are in love with their 
art. The power of youth, when the matter is 
trifling,^ is sometimes supremely great. Irregularity 
in a disease signifies that it will be a long one. A 
crisis is the riddance of a disease. A slight cause 
turns into a cure unless the affection be in a vital 
part. Because ^ fellow-feeling at grief causes dis- 
tress, some are distressed through the fellow-feeling 

^ Too strict a regimen may do harm by the patient's using 
up his strength in conquering his appetites. Some such verb 
as KaTexfi" must be sulistituted for iyx^^P^^^' 

2 /. e. the patient does not know what is good for him. 

3 /. e. either (a) a draught or {b) a sudden change in 
the weather. 

* Possibly, " when the patient is not a big man." inroKei/xf- 
vov, can mean " patient" in later Greek. 
' Possibly, " for the same reason that." 



nAPArrEAiAi 

O'^evvTai. Karavhrjai^ XvTrei. (j)i\o7rovi7]<i Kpa- 

20 Tatr](; v7ro7rapaiTy](Ti'i.^ t ciXi/coS?;? t ^ totto? 

21 6vT]cri(p6po'i. 

1 The text is here uncertain. Littre has (ptXoirouiris Kparepns 
vTTo, Trapalveats, aKea, qJ5tJ, rSnos 6vr)iTi(p6pos, " pour I'exces de 
travail, encouragement, chaleiir du soleil, chant, lieu salu- 
taire," a not very plausible restoration, and could only mean 
" excess of diligence causes advice, etc." 

2 Foes apparently translated aAffwSris, perhaps rightly. 



Additional Note. 

Chapter VIII, 11. 14-16, p. 324 : t yap . . . hipcp. I 
should like to suggest (although I am not confident enough 
to print it in the text) that the right reading is : — 

ohSfTTore IrjTphs \oyi(T/u.hv <p9oi'r}ffeLev &v. 
" a physician will never grudge giving his reasoned opinion." 

Such a reading fits in very well with the next sentence but 
one. It is only in the world of business that each man is 
for himself. 



332 



PRECEPTS, XIV. 

of another. Loud talking is painful. Overwork 
calls for gentle dissuasion.^ A wooded - district 
benefits. 

1 viro-napalrrjais is not found in the dictionaries, but may be 
correct. 

^ {xAuuJStjj is unmeaning, and I translate as though a\nwhijs 
were in the text. 



333 



NUTRIMENT 



INTRODUCTION 

The treatise Nutriment is unique. It deals with 
an interesting subject in an unusual manner, and, in 
spite of the limitations of Greek physiology, many 
valuable and interesting views are set forth. 

Heraclitus held that matter is, like a stream, in a 
state of continuous change. His system contained 
other hypotheses,! but this was the most fruitful, 
and the one which commended itself most to his 
followers and to his successors. 

A later Heraclitean, whetlier a professional doctor 
or not is uncertain, applied the theory of perpetual 
change to the assimilation of food by a living 
organism, and Nutriment is the result. He has 
copied the aphoristic ^ style and manner of his 
master, as well as the obscurity, with considerable 
success, and whole paragraphs might well be genuine 
fragments of Heraclitus. 

The author's idea of digestion is far from easy to 
follow. 

Apparently nutritive food is supposed to be dis- 
solved in moisture, and thus to be carried to every part 
of the body, assimilating itself to bone, flesh, and so 

^ Some perhaps [e. g. the union of opposites) being more 
fundamental. 

* It is interesting to note that the aphoristic style, which 
is a great aid to memory, came into vogue at a time when 
text-books iirst became necessary. It has its modern analogue 
in the " crammer's" analysis. 

337 



INTRODUCTION 

on, as it comes into contact with them. Air (breath) 
also is regarded as food, passing through the arteries 
from the heart, while the blood passes through the 
veins from the liver. But the function of blood is 
not understood ; blood is, like milk, " what is left 
over " (vrAeoi'ttcr/xos) when nourishment has taken 
place. Neither is the function of the heart under- 
stood, and its relation to the lungs is never 
mentioned. 

The aspect of nutrition which appeals most to the 
writer is the combination of unity and multiplicity 
which it exhibits. Food is one ; yet it has the 
power of becoming many things. Similarly the 
animal organism is one, with many parts vitally 
connected with the whole, so that they act in 
complete sympathy with it and with one another. 

Food, says the writer, has "power" (Swa/xis), and 
so has the body. This " power " seems to be the sum 
total of its properties, although these are not yet 
regarded as abstractions. It is one and many ; one 
in its essence, many in its manifestations. But 
"power" in its various forms is manifested only in 
relationship to other things; it is not independent, 
being latent until called into action by a suitable 
environment. In modern language, the author feels 
that qualities are relations. Wine is good (or bad) 
in certain circumstances ; so is milk and all other 
foods. All things are good or bad irpos rt (Chapters 
XIX and XLIV). 

This theory of Swa^uis with its insistence upon 
relativity helps in assigning a date to the document. 
A similar account of Suva/xts is given in Ancient 
Medicine, the date of which is approximately 420 b.c. 
The theory of relativity, implied in the doctrine of 

338 



INTRODUCTION 

HeraclituSj was fully developed in one direction by 
Protagoras, who regarded knowledge as conditioned 
by {i. e. relative to) the percipient being. In 
Nutriment relativity is made to apply, not merely to 
the knowledge of properties, but to the properties 
themselves. Such an extension of the doctrine 
would probably be made somewhat later than the 
time of Protagoras, and we may with some confidence 
suppose that the author wrote about 400 b.c. 

The first chapter of Nutriment distinguishes ye'ios 
from £t8os after the Aristotelian manner. A similar 
distinction occurs in the Parmenidps of Plato, and it 
need not prevent us from assigning a date as early as 
the end of the fifth century b.c. 

In Chapter XLVIII mention is made of pulses, 
supposed to be the first occasion of such mention in 
Greek literature.^ This fact, again, is no argument 
against an early date. The reference is quite 
general, and amounts to no more than the know- 
ledge, to be found in several places in the Hippo- 
cratic Corpus,^ that violent pulsations (of the 
temples and so forth) are characteristic of certain 
acute diseases. 

It should be noticed that the doctrine of Swa/xts 
described above is inconsistent with a post-Aris- 
totelian date. Aristotle's doctrine is obviously a 
development of it, and it is clear how the earlier 
doctrine prepares the way for the later. 

The Heraclitean love of anthithesis results in 

^ See Sir Clifford AUbutt, Greek Medicine in Rome, Chapter 
XIII, for the anc-ient doctrines about pulses. It is most 
remarkable that before about 340 B.C. their great importance 
was not realised. 

* See Littrid's index, s.v, hattements. 

339 



INTRODUCTION 

many purely verbal contrasts, which render more 
obscure the natural obscurities of this little tract. 
Indeed the reader is often forced to the conclusion 
that the writer Avished so to express himself that 
more than one interpretation might legitimately be 
put upon his words. In my paraphrase I have tried 
to give the most obvious meaning, although I have 
often felt that other meanings are almost equally 
possible.^ 

Nutriment is more important as a philosophical 
than as a medical document. The teaching of 
Heraclitus did not die out with his death ; he had 
followers who emended and developed his theories, 
and one of these wrote Nutriment to bring a branch 
of physiology into the domain of philosophy'. The 
tract is a striking proof of the difficulty of uniting 
philosophy and science, and of pursuing the latter 
on the methods of the former. Incidentally one may 
notice that it belongs to the period of eclecticism 
and reaction which followed the development of 
atomism. 2 

Nutriment was accepted as a genuine work of 
Hippocrates by Erotian, and a mutilated commentary 
on it passes under the name of Galen. Aulus 
Gellius (III. xvi), quotes it as a work of Hippocrates. 
There was another tradition in antiquity, referred to 
in two Paris MSS., that Nutriment was the work of 
Thessalus or of Herophilus. It is easy to under- 
stand how some found a difficulty in ascribing to the 

^ I wish to point out that Chapters I, III, V and VI are 
up to the present unsolved mysteries. Incidentally, I should 
like to mention that Chapter I shows that the history of the 
word eZSoj is not so simple as Piofessor A. E. Taylor makes 
out in Varia Socratica, 

'^ See Burnet, Early Greek Philosophy, Chapter X. 

340 



INTRODUCTION 

author of Epidemics such a dissimilar book ; indeed 
it is Hkely that the chief reason for assigning it to 
Hippocrates was its superficial likeness to Aphorisms. 

MSS. AND Editions. 

The chief MSS. are A and M. Nutrimoit was 
edited several times in the sixteenth century, and 
interesting remarks on it are to be found in the 
following : 

J. Bernays, Heraklitiscke Briefe. 

A. Patin, Qiiellenstiidien zti Heraklit. 

See also Mewaldt in Hermes, xliv. 121, and, 
for Heracliteanism in the Corpus, C. Fredrich, 
Hippokratische Untersitchungen. 



341 



nEPI TPO^H2 

I. TpocpTj Kal rpo^Pj'i ei?)o<i jxia koX iroWai' 
/Mia jxev fi <y€vo<; ev, elSo? Be vyportjri Kal ^TjporrjTr 
Kal ev TOVTOi^ Iheai Kal ttogov earl Kal e? riva 

4 /cat 69 ToaavTa. 

II. Av^ei Se Kal pcovvvai, Kal crapKOt Kal o/aoiol 
Kai avofxoiol ra ev ef<ticTTOi<; Kara (f)v<Tiv T7]v 

3 eKuarov Kal rrjv e^ ap^*}? Svvafxiv. 

III. 0/jiOLOL Be €9 Bvvafiiv, orav Kpar/jarj rj 
eTreiaioucra, Kal orav eTriKparrjrai t) rrpov- 

3 TTdp}(ov(Ta} 

IV. Vi^veTai Be Kal e^lri]\o<i, ore fxev rj irpoTeprj 
ev ^(^povui cLTToXvOelaa r) eTmrpoaTedelcra, ore ^e 7) 

3 ixnepi-j ev ')(p6v(p airoXvOelcra 7} eTrnrpoareOelcra. 

1 This is practically the reading of A, the spelling only 
being emended. Littre has o/noioT Se is ((pvaiy kuI) Svua/j.iv, 
SkStuv Kpareri fiev t] tneicTiOvaa, iiriKpaTer] Se r] irpovTrdpxovcra. 
The explanation of Galen scarcely helps matters : ?; fiev civ 
(pvais dfj.oio'i, '6rav Kpareri koX ttstttj t))v TpoprjV tijj/ eireiffiovaaV 
Kol Svvafiis T) TTpovirdpxovffa iiriKpareei Kal Karepyd^frai koI 
o\Aojo7 Kol 6fj.oio7 Kal rb reAos rp^cpei. It makes r; eTreiffiovcra 
the object of Kpariri ; our texts make it the subject. 

(i) Nutriment is generically one, but it has many varieties, 
which differ according to the amount of moisture in them. 
These varieties have forms of their own and differ, the 
differences depending on quantity, the parts to be nourished 
and the number of parts to be nourished. 

(ii) It produces increase, strength, flesh, similarity, dis- 
similarity, among the several parts of the body, according to 

342 



NUTRIMENT 

I. Nutriment and form of nutriment, one and 
many. One, inasmuch as its kind is one ; form 
varies with moistness or dr3'ness. Tliese foods too 
have their forms ^ and quantities ; they are for 
certain things, and for a certain number of things. 

II. It increases, strengthens, clothes with flesh, 
makes like, makes unlike, what is in the several 
parts, according to the nature of each part and its 
original power. 

III. It makes into the likeness of a power, when 
the nutriment that comes in has the mastery, and 
when that is mastered which was there to begin 
with. 

IV. It also loses its qualities : sometimes the 
earlier nutriment, when in time it has been liberated 
or added, sometimes the later, when in time it has 
been liberated or added. 

1 Or " figures." 



(a) the nature of each part and [b] the power it had to begin 
with. 

(iii) It assimilates into this power when the new nutriment 
has the mastery and the substance ah-eady in the part is 
overcome. (In this case, apparently, the part changes or 
decays.) 

(iv) Nutriment, in both the stages of nutrition, the earlier 
and tlie later, may lose its power to nourisli, either because 
it is evacuated or because it is incorporated. 

343 



nEPI TPOa)HL 

V. Afiavpot Be eKaTepa<; iv 'x^povw koI fiera 
y^povov 7] e^(t)6ev avvexh'^ eTTeiaKpiOelcra kol iirl 
TToXkov ')(povov aTepe/jLVLco^ traai, roli; p,e\eac 

i SiaTrXeKetaa. 

VI. Kal rrjv fiev Ihirjv ISetjv i^e/SXaa-Trjae' 
<peTa^dX\et re rrjv ap-)(^ai^^v koX KaTa(f>ep€Tai' 
rpe(f)€i Be 7reTTo/xevrj'> t7jv Be TTporeprjv KlBeriv 
e^aWdcTaeL> ecrriv ore koX ra? Trporepwi e^rj- 

5 fxavpoiaev} 

VIL Avvapi<i Be Tpo^rj<i dc^LKvelrai Kal e? 
oareov kul izavra ra p,epea avrov, kol e? vevpov 
Kai 69 (fiXe^a koI e? aprTjpiTjv Kal e'9 p.vv Kal e? 
upeva Kal crdpKa Kal irip-eXiju Kal aipa Kal 
(f)\e'ypa Kal pLveXov Kal eyKe^aXov Kal vwrialov 
Kai ra evroadiBia Kal Trdvra ra pepea aviwv, 
Kal Brj Kal e? deppaairjv Kal irvevpa Kal 

8 vypacrLrjv. 

VIII. Tpocpi] Be TO Tpe(f)ov, TpocfiT) Be to olov, 
2 Tpo(f)7j Be TO peXXop. 

IX. Apyrj Be TrdvTcov pla Kal reXevrr) Trdvjcov 
2 yLtia, Kai rj avrrj TeXevrrj Kal dp'^i], 

^ The parts within brackets are omitted in MSS. but 
restored by Littr^ from Galen. It is far from certain that 
this restoration is right, as the inserted clauses read like 
glosses and break the thread of the thought. Littrt^ too has 
apXCi'tav and e|aAAoTT€j. 

(v) Nutriment in both stages cannot hold oat long against 
nutriment which has firmly established itself in all the limba 
by constant reinforcement from without, i. e. after middle- 
age nutrition gradually fails. Another possible explanation 
is that there is a contrast between permanent tissues and 
temporary fuel, which is the source of heat and energy. 

344 



NUTRliMENT, v.-ix. 

V. Both are weakened in time and after a time by 
the nutriment from without which has continuously 
entered in, and for a long time firmly has interwoven 
itself with all the limbs. 

VI. And it sends forth shoots of its own pi'oper 
form. It changes the old form and descends ; it 

, nourishes as it is digested. Sometimes it alters 
the earlier form, and completely obscures the former 
ones. 

VII. Power of nutriment reaches to bone and to 
all the parts of bone, to sinew, to vein, to artery, 
to muscle, to membrane, to flesh, fat, blood, phlegm, 
marrow, brain, spinal marrow, the intestines and all 
their parts ; it reaches also to heat, breath, and 
moisture. 

VIII. Nutriment is that which is nourishing; 
nutriment is that which is fit to nourish ; nutriment 
is that which is about to nourish. 

IX. The beginning of all things is one and the 
end of all things is one, and the end and beginning 
are the same. 

(vi) Fat in nutriment produces fat in the various parts, 
and so on. As nutriment descends it changes its form, and 
nourishes as digestion goes on. kSometimes nutriment changes 
tlie form or forms that were before it, &. g. excess of moisture 
in nutriment might diminish the dr^'ness in any part. The 
meaning of this chapter is very doubtful. 

(vii) Nutriment pervades the whole system. 

(viii) It is used in three senses, representing three stages 
in the process of assimilation. 

(ix) Yet strictly speaking there are no separate stage.s. 
Nourishing is a continuous process ; the end of nourishment 
is the beginning of e.g. flesh or bone. 

VOL. I. O ^^ 



HEPI TP03)HS 

X. Kal ocra Kara fiepo<i ev Tpo<^f} AcaA,w? Kal 
KaKM^ SioiKeirai, /caX&J? /xev oaa TrpoetpTjrai, 

3 KaK(t)<; Se ocra rovToi<i r>]v evavrirju e-)(et, rdPiv. 

XI. XuXot ttoikIXol Kal ')(^pci)/jLaac Kal Svvdfieai 
Kal 69 ^\a^r]v Kal e? ccxpeXiijv, Kal ovre ^Xdnreiu 
ovre (ji)(f)e\eiv, Kal 7r\/]$eL Kal virep^oXf} Kal 

4 iWeLyjrei Kal SiairXoKfj wv fiev, (ov Se ou. 

XII. Kal TrdvTcov €<; 0epfia<ji')]v ^Xdinei Kal 
Q)(j)e\€l, e? ^jrv^iv /SXdTTTGi Kal w^eXet, €9 Svvafiiv 

3- /SXaTTTCt Kai wcpeXei. 

XIII. Avvdfxio^ 8e TTOiKiXat (f)U(Ti€<;. 

XIV. Xuytiol (^6eipovTe<i Kal 6\ov Kal iiiepo<; Kal 
e^oiOev Kal evZoOev, avTo/narot ovk avrofxaroL, 
rj/xLV ixev avTOfiaroi alrir) he ovk avrofxaroi. 
aiTit)^ oe ra fxev o)]Aa ra be aorjXa, Kai ra jxev 

5 hwaTO, ra he dhvvaTa. 

XV. ^vcn<i e^apKel Travra Trdai. 

XVI. 'E9 Se ravTTjv, e^wOev fj,ev KardirXaa/jia, 
KaTd)(^piafxa, dXeLfi/j,a, yv/jbvoTrj'i oXov Kal /xepeo<i 
Kal aKeTTT] oXou Kal /xepeo^;, Oepfiaaltj Kal '^u^i'i 
Kara rov avrov Xojov, Kai crrvt^L<i Kai k\K(i}ai<^ 
Kal Br]'y/j,o<i Kal XtTracrfia' evZoOev he rivd re rwv 
elprjiJievcov, Kal eirl rovroi^ alrir) dhi]Xo<i Kal jxepei 

7 Kal 6X(o, rivi re Kal ov nvL. 

(x) What has been said of the whole body applies also to 
individual parts. 

(xi) The health of the body depends upon the combination 
of its various juices. 

(xii) Nutriment affects the temperature of the body, for 
well or ill, as well as the body's power. 

(xiii) A power has many diflerent natures as its factors, 
i. e. it is the sum total of a thing's properties. 

(xiv) Diseases, local or general, depend upon the humours. 

346 



NUTRIMENT, x.-xvi. 

X. And all the particular details in nourishment 
are managed well or ill ; well if as aforesaid, ill if 
ordered in the opposite way to these. 

XI. Juices varied in colours and in powers, to 
harm or to help, or neither to harm nor to help, 
varied in amount, excess or defect, in combination of 
some but not of others. 

XII. And to the warming of all it harms or helps, 
to the cooling it harms or helps, to the power it 
harms or helps. 

XIII. Of power varied natures. 

XIV. Humours corrupting whole, part, from with- 
out, from within, spontaneous, not spontaneous ; 
spontaneous for us, not spontaneous for the cause. 
Of the cause, part is clear, part is obscure, part is 
within our power and part is not. 

XV. Nature is sufficient in all for all. 

XVI. To deal with nature from without : plaster, 
anointing, salve, uncovering of whole or part, 
covering of whole or part, warming or cooling 
similarly, astriction, ulceration, biting,^ grease ; from 
within : some of the aforesaid, and in addition an 
obscure cause in part or whole, in some cases but not 
in all. 

' Apparently, such things as a mustard plaster. 

They have a definite cause, but as far as we are concerned 
they are spontaneous. As to this cause, part is known, 
part is unknown ; partly we can prevent disease, partly we 
cannot. 

(xv) Nature is powerful enough to be supreme in both 
physiological and pathological processes. 

(xvi) There are various ways of assisting Nature in her 
efforts to expel disease. 

347 



nEPI TPOOHL 

XVII. A7roKpi(Ti€<i Kara (f)vaiv, K0i\i7)<^, ovpcov, 
l8pMT0<i, TTTvdXov, fx.v^r]<;, v(rTepr]<i, KaO'' alfjiop- 
polha, OvixoVfXeTTprjv, (f)u/xa, KapKivwfxa, iic pivcbv, 
CK 7r\eu/uLovG<;, €k Koc\ir]<;, i^ eSpy]';, e/c /cavXov, 
Kara (pvatv /cai, irapa (fyvaw. at SiaKpi(n€<; 
TOVTwv aWoiai irpo'i dXXov Xoyov dXXore Kal 
aXXoLWi. yiita (j)v(Ti<; earl ravra Trdvra Kal ov 

8 fita' TToXXai (fivcrie<i eicn ravra iravTa Kal fiia. 

XVIII. ^apixaKeirj dvo) Kal kcltw, ovre dvio 

2 ovre kuto). 

XIX. Ev rpof^fj (pap/jiaK€irj dpicnov, ev rpocpfj 
c^ap/iiaK€Lr] (f)Xaupov, (f>Xavpov Kal dpiarov 

3 Trpo? Tt. 

XX. ' E\ko?, ia-^dprj, al/xa, ttuov, ly^copyXeTrprj, 
TTLTVpov, d.)(^(op, X€i)(>']i', dX(f)6'i, €(f)7]XL<;, ore /xev 
^XuTTTei, ore 8e uxfieXei, ore Se ovre ^Xd-mei 

4 ovre (ucfyeXet. 

XXI. Tpo(f>T} ov rpo(f)i], rjv /nrj Svvrjrai- fir] 
Tpocf)r} Tpoc})7], rjv olov re y rpeipecrOai. ovvop^a 
rpo(f)7], epyop Be ov)(L' epyov rpo(f)j], ovvojxa he 

i ov)(^i} 

XXII. 'E? rpL)(a<i Kal e<; 6vv)(a<; Kal e? rijv 
ea)(^drT]v eTTLx^aveiy^v evhoOev dcfyiKvelrar e^wdev 
rpocpT] eK TJ}? ia-)(^drr]<i eTTK^aveirji; evhordro3 

4 d<f)iKveirat. 

^ The toxt is Littr^'s, being a combination of A and the 
vulgate. 

(xvii) The various secretions from the various parts of 
the body. 

(xviii) Purging may be carried out by purges in the 
ordinary sense, by emetics, or by any other means of 
expulsion from the body. 

348 



NUTRIMENT, xvii.-xxii. 

XVII. Secretions in accordance with nature, by 
the bowels, urine, sweat, sputum, mucus, womb, 
through hemorrhoid, wart, leprosy, tumour, carci- 
noma, from nostrils, lungs, bowels, seat, penis, in 
accordance with nature or contrary to nature. The 
peculiar differences in these things depend on 
differences in the individual, on times and on 
methods. All these things are one nature and not 
one. All these things are many natures and one 
nature. 

XVIII. Purging upward or downward, neither 
upward nor downward. 

XIX. In nutriment purging excellent, in nutri- 
ment j)urging bad ; bad or excellent according to 
circumstances. 

XX. Ulceration, burn-scab, blood, pus, lymph, 
leprosy, scurf, dandruff, scurvy, white leprosy, 
freckles, sometimes harm and sometimes help, and 
sometimes neither harm nor help. 

XXI. Nutriment not nutriment if it have not its 
power. Not nutriment nutriment if it can nourish. 
Nutriment in name, not in deed ; nutriment in deed, 
not in name. 

XXII. It travels from within to hair, nails, and to 
the extreme surface; from without nutriment travels 
from the extreme surface to the innermost parts. 

(xix) The value of purging depends upon circumstances. 

(xx) The extraordinary means of evacuating morLId 
humours (abscessions) may do good, harm, or neither. 

(xxi) Tlie only test of nutriment is power of nourishing. 

(xxii) There is a circulation of nutriment from within 
outwards and vice versa, 

349 



nEPI TPOOHS 

XXIII. Zvppoia fiia, avfjLTTvoia fiia, avfLTraOea 
iravra. Kara fxev ou\opLe\ir]p irdvra, Kara fiepo^i 

3 he ra iv eKaaTW /xepei /nepea tt/po? to epyou. 

XXIV. 'Ap^^ p,eydXi] e? ea')(aTov jxepo^ 
d(f)iKV€iTaf i^ iaxdrov /xipeo<i 69 CLp)(j]v /xeydXrjv 

3 dcpiKveiTat' fxta (f)vai<i elvai kui fxi] elvai. 

XXV. NovcTcov Be Sia(j)opal ev Tpo(f)fj, ev 
TTvevfiari, ev Oepfxaaiij, ev a'ljxaTi, ev (f)Xey/j,aTL, 
ev ')(o\fj, ev ^(v jjiola Lv , iv aapKL, ev iri/.^eXf), iv 
(pXe^L, iv dpTrjpLrj, iv vevpa, fxvi, v/xevi, ocrreft), 
ijKeipdXq), vwrtalo) /uveXo), arofiari, yXcoaarj, 
(no[xd-)(^u>, KoiXir], ivrepotai, (ppeal, irepiTOvaiw, 
rjirari, (tttXijil, ve(f)pol<;, Kvarei, fi7jrpr), hepfxari. 
raura irdvra Koi kuO' ev kol Kara fj,epo^. /xeyeOo<; 

9 avTO)v fieya kol ov peya. 

XXVI. TeKfX7]pia, yapyaXia/xo^, 68vv7], pr]^i<i, 
yvco/jLti,^ t8p(i}<i, ovpcov v7r6(7Taai<;, i]av')(Li], 
piTTxacr/io?, 6i^io<i ardaie^, ^avTacriai, 'iKT€po<i, 
Xvypoi, irrLXyj-^'n], al/aa oXo(T)(^epe<i,^ virvo'i, Kal 
eK TOVTCDv Kal TMV dXXcov TMV Kara cl)vaiv, Kal 
oaa dXXa TOiovrorpoTra e? /3Xdf3i]v Kal e^ u)(f)eXi7]v 
oppa- TTOvoi bXov Kal pepeo<; peyeOov^ ar^pela, 
Tov pev e? TO pdXXov, rov Be t? to yaaov, Kal 
air dp(pOTep(ov e? rb pdXXov Kal dir dpcfjorepcov 

10 c9 TO fjacrov. 

1 A reads yvui/xr]s, which must be taken with pii^is — an 
unusual phrase for delirium. 

* ^Aocrxepfs : E has dKoax^P'^^! which must be taken witli 
i/'irt'or, " unbroken sleep." 

(xxiii) All parts of the body aie in sympathy ; the body is 
an organism. 

(xxiv) The various forms of nutriment when in the body 

35° 



NUTRIMENT, xxiii.-xxvi. 

XXIII. ConHux one, conspiration one, all things 
in sympathy ; all the parts as forming a whole, and 
severally the parts in each part, with reference to 
the work. 

XXIV. The great beginning travels to the 
extreme part ; from the extreme part there is 
travelling to the great beginning. One nature to 
be and not to be. 

XXV. Differences of diseases depend on nutri- 
ment, on breath, on heat, on blood, on phlegm, on 
bile, on humours, on flesh, on fat, on vein, on 
artery, on sinew, muscle, membrane, bone, brain, 
spinal marrow, mouth, tongue, oesophagus, stomach, 
bowels, midriff', peritoneum, liver, spleen, kidneys, 
bladder, womb, skin. All these things both as a 
whole and severally. Their greatness great and not 
great. 

XXVI. Signs : tickling, ache, rupture, mind, sweat, 
sediment in urine, rest, tossing, condition ^ of the eyes, 
imaginations, jaundice, hiccoughs, epilepsy, blood 
entire, sleep, from both these and all other things in 
accordance with nature, and everything else of a 
similar nature that tends to harm or help. Pains of 
the whole or of a part, indications of severity : of the 
one, greater severity, of the other, less, and from 
both come signs of greater severity, and from both 
come signs of less. 

1 Or, "staring." 

are merely stages in the process of perpetual change. Ueing 
and not-being are one and the same. 

(xxv) Differences in diseases depend upon the various 
constituents and parts of the body, whether the disease is 
general or local. The importance of organs in this respect is 
not proportional to their size. 

(xxvi) Where the physician is to look for symptoms. 

35« 



nEPI TPOOHS 

XXVII. TXvKV ov yXvKV, yXvKv e? Svvafiiv 
olov vBcop, yXuKV e? yevaiv olov fieXc ai]/jL6ia 
eKarepwv, eXKea, ocpdaX/xol Kal yevcne'i, kuI iv 
Toyroi? TO fidXXov Kal to rjaaov jXvkv e? Tr]V 
o-^LV Kal iv ')(p(io/j,aat Kal iv aXXyat fii^eai, yXvKv 

6 fidXXov Kal i^TTOv. 

XXVIII. ^ ApaioTTj^; crwyLtaTO? e? Bia7rvoii]V oi<: 
irXeov a<paipetrat uyieivov 7rvKv6Ty]<i aoop.aro'i e? 
hiaiTvoiriv ol? eXaaaov d(f>aipeLTai voarjXov oi 
hiaiTveop.evoL KaXo)^ daOevearepoi kuI uytetvorepoi 
Kal euavda-cpaXroi, ol htairveop-evoL KaKOi<i irplv i) 
voaeiv lay^^vporepoi, voai^aavre^ he Bvaavd- 

7 crcpaXror ravra Se Kal oXw Kal pepei. 

XXIX. VlXeupoyv evavrirjv a-oofxaTO^ Tpo(f>r]V 

2 eXK€i, rd 8' dXXa Trdvra tijv avri]v. 

XXX. ^ Ap')(^i) Tpoc^rj^ 7TvevpaT0<;, plve^, cnop.a, 
fipojx^'^' '^Xevpoji', Kal rj dXXr] hiaTrvoiiy dpx>] 
rpo(j)t']<i Kal V'yprj'i Kal ^y]p^]<>, aTop^a, aT6pa-)(^o<;, 
KOiXlrj. rj Be dp^aiorepi] rpocfir] Bid tov em- 

5 jacrrpLov, fj 6^ 6p(^aXo<^. 

XXXI. 'Vi^wai.^ (pXe^MU i^irap, pi^cocn^ dpri]- 
pLOiv KapBirj' e'/c tovtwv diroTrXavdrai e? iravTa 

3 alpa Kal irvevpa, Kal Oeppaair) Bid tovtcov (f)oiTa. 

^ Most MSS. read 6ix(pa\6s : A prefixes ^, and Littr^ alters 
to jj. Ermerins adds 6, as in tlie text. 

(xxvii) Sweetness is relative, whether it be the potentially 
sweet, like water, or that which is sweet to taste, like 
honey. Either kind of sweetness can be tested by the effects 
of a substance on sores, the eyes, and the sense of taste, 
which can also distinguish degrees. Sweetness, in varying 
degrees, can appeal to the sense of sight, being aroused by 
colours and other beautiful combinations. 



NUTRIMENT, xxvii.-x.vxi. 

XXVII. Sweet, not sweet; sweet in power, like 
water, sweet to tlie taste, like honey. Signs of 
either are sores, eyes and tastings, wliich can also 
distinguish degrees. Sweet to sight, in colours and 
in combinations generally, sweet to a greater or 
less degree. 

XXVTII. Porousness of a body for transpiration 
healthy for those from whom more is taken ; dense- 
ness of body for transpiration unhealthy for those 
from whom less is taken. Those who transj)ire 
freely are weaker, healthier, and recover easily ; 
those who transpire hardly are stronger before they 
are sick, but on falling sick they make difficult 
recovery. These for both whole and part. 

XXIX. The lungs draw a nourishment which is 
the opposite of that of the body, all other parts draw 
the same. 

XXX. Beginning of nutriment of breath, nostrils, 
mouth, throat, lungs, and the transpiratory system 
generally. Beginning of nutriment, both wet and 
dry, mouth, oesophagus, stomach. The more ancient 
nutriment, through the epigastrium, where the 
navel is. 

XXXI. Root of veins, liver ; root of arteries, heart. 
Out of these travel to all parts blood and breath, and 
heat passes through them. 

(xxviii) The effects upon health of the porousness of the 
body. 

(xxix) The lungs only are fed by air. 

(sxx) The doors by which breath and other food enter 
the body. 

(xxxi) The veins, starting from tlie liver, carry blood and 
heat ; the arteries, starting from the heart, carry breath and 
heat. 

353 



HEPI TPOOHi: 

XXXII. Avva/xi,<i /xia kol ov ^ia, f] iravra 
ravra kol ra erepola hiOLKelrai, fj jxev e? t^wriv 
oXov KUL jxepeo'i, ■>) 8e e? ataOrjcnv oXov Kal 

4 fjL€p€0<;.^ 

XXXIII. Td\a rpo(f)r], ol<i jdXa rpo(pr] Kara 
(pV(Ttv, dWoiai Be ov')(^i, ciWoiai Be olvo<i Tpocp/j, 
Kal dXXoiaiv ov')(i, Kal adpKe^ Kal dWai IBeai 
rpo<prj<i TToWai, Kal Kara ')(^o}prjv Kal Kar 

5 e.QiapLOvP' 

XXXIV. TpecfieTai Be to, fxev e<; av^rjcnv Kal 
e? TO eivaL, to. Be e? to elvai fiouvov, olovyepovTe<;, 
TO, Be 7r/309 rouTw ^ Kal e? f)(o/j,T]v. BidOeai<i 
dOXrjTiKT] ov (fivaet' e^t? vyieivrj Kpeiaacov ev 

5 irdaiv. 

XXXV. M67a TO iroaov ev<n6^w<; e? Bvvapbiv 

2 avvap/JLoaOev. 

XXXVI. TdXa Kal alfxa Tpo(f)rj(; TrXeovacrp.o'i. 

XXXVII. Ile^toSoi e? ttoXXcl auficpcovot, e? 
€/xl3pvov e? rt]v toutou rpocji/jv. avra S' dvo) 

3 perrei e? ydXa Kal e<; rpo<pr]u (Bpec^eo^. 

XXXVIII. Tiwovrai, ra fii] ^q>a, l^wovTai rd 
2 ^a)a, ^coovrai rd puepea tcov ^wcov. 

1 V to nipeos omitted by A, probably because of /xfpfos 
preceding. 

^ Kar' before idta/j-Sv added by Ermerins. The text of this 
chapter is mainly Littr^'s, the MSS. showing some confusion 
in the arrangement of the words. 

* nphs TovTwv MSS. : irpls tovtcv Ermerins. 

(xxxii) The power of life is one; but there are many 
powers of sensation — the power of feeling generally and the 
powers of the sense organs. 

(xxxiii) Foods do, or do not, nourish according to the 
differences between individuals, their habits, and their homes. 

354 



NUTRIMENT, xxxii.-xxxviii. 

XXXII. Power one, and not one, by which all 
these things and those of a different sort are 
managed ; one for the life of whole and part, not 
one for the sensation of whole and part. 

XXXI II. Milk nutriment, for those to whom milk 
is a natural nutriment, but for others it is not. For 
some wine is nutriment, for others not. So with 
meats and the other many forms of nutriment, the 
differences being due to place and habit. 

XXXIV. Nourishment is sometimes into growth 
and being, sometimes into being only, as is the case 
with old men ; sometimes in addition it is into 
strength. The condition of the athlete is not natural. 
A healthy state is superior in all. 

XXXV. It is a great thing successfully to adapt 
quantity to power. 

XXXVI. Milk and blood are what is left over 
from nutriment. 

XXXVII. Periods generally harmonise lor the 
embryo and its nutriment ; and again nutriment 
tends upwards to milk and the nourishment of 
the baby. 

XXXVIII. Inanimates get life, animates get life, 
the parts of animates get life. 

(xxxiv) Nutriment may give («) being (b) increase (i;) 
strength. The condition of an athlete is unnatural, but a 
healthy habit of body (constitution ?) is in every way superior. 

(xxxv) It is important to harmonise amount of food witli 
power of digestion. 

(xxxvi) \Vhat is left over after nourishment is complete 
forms milk or blood. 

(xxxvii) At the proper season, a mother forms nutriment 
for (a) embryo (6) child. 

(xxxviii) Life is something which can come to inanimate 
matter, to animals, or to the limbs of animals. It is, in fact, 
a force which can invade any matter. 

355 



riEPi TPOOHi; 

XXXIX. ^vate<; ttcivtcov aStSaKTOt. 
XL. Alfia aWorpLOV w^eXi/jLOV, al/xa iSioi' 
(i)(f)e\L/jiOv, alfxa aWorpiov jSXa^epov, al/xa iSlov 
^Xa^epov, X^l^^^^ iSiot /3Xaf3epoi, x^/^ol dXXoTptoi 
/3Xa^epoi, %i'/iOt aXXorpioi av/ji(f)epovTe<i, X^/^^'- 
iSioi av/ji(f)€poi>Te(;, to aufKpcovov Scdtpcovov, to 
OLa^oivov avp,(f)ci)Poi', <ydXa ciXXoTpiou dcrrelov, 
yaXa cBiou ^Xavpov, ydXa dXXorpiov ^Xa^epov, 
8 ydXa tSiov oocjieXi/xov. 

XLI. XiTiov P60i<i aKpoaairei;, yepovaiv e<? TeXo? 
2 /u,eTa^€j3Xr]/j,ivov, aK/jid^ovaiv d/jLerd^XrjTOV. 

XLII. 'E9 TVTTcoaip Xe r^eXioi, e? Kivr^cnv o , 
69 reXeiorrjTa cri- dXXoc, e? I8e7)v fie , e? Kivi^aiv 
r , 69 e^ooov ao • aXXoi, v e9 ioer]i>, e9 irpcoTOV 
ciXfia p , 69 TeXeiOTTjra t . e<i Sidfcpicriv p! , e'9 
jjLerdlBaaiv tt', e'9 eKiTTwaiv ap! . ovk kari Kai 
ecTTL. ylverai Se ev tovtoi^ koI TrXeiu) kul eXaaaco, 
Kol Kad' oXov Kol Kara p>epo<i, ov ttoXXov Be Kat 
8 irXeiu) irXeiw kol iXdcraco iXdaaco.^ 

^ The MS. A mentions only three cases, as does Galen. 
Littre, however, gives the fourth case (that of the tenth- 
month child) from the other MSS. and the reference in Aulus 
Gellius III. xvi. The last two lines appear in various forms 
in the MSS. The text is that of Aulus Gellius. 

(xxxix) The natures of various things act instinctively. 
Or, if TrdvTwv depends upon aSiduKToi, " are instinctive in 
evei"y way." 

(xl) The effects of a mother's humours upon embryo, and 
of mother's or nurse's milk upon child, vary according to 
circumstances. 



NUTRIMENT, xxxix.-xui. 

XXXIX. The natures of all are untaught. 

XL. Blood of another is useful, one's own blood 
is useful ; blood of another is harmful, one's own 
blood is harmful ; one's own humours are harmful, 
humours of another are harmful ; humours of another 
are beneficial, one's own humours are beneficial ; the 
harmonious is unharmonious, the unharmonious is 
harmonious ; another's milk is good, one's own milk 
is bad ; another's milk is harmful, one's own milk is 
useful. 

XLI. Food for the young partly digested, for the 
old completely changed, for adults unchanged. 

XLII. For formation, thirty-five days ; for move- 
ment, seventy days ; for completion, two hundred 
and ten days. Others, for form, forty-five days; for 
motion, ninety days ; for delivery, two hundred and 
seventy days. Others, fifty for form ; for the first 
leap, one hundred ; for completion, three hundred 
days. For distinction of limbs, forty ; for shifting, 
eighty ; for detachment, two hundred and forty days. 
It is not and is. There are found therein both more 
and less, in respect of both the whole and the parts, 
but the more is not much more, and the less not 
much less. 

(xli) How far food should be prepared for digestion in the 
case of {a) the young (h) the old (c) the middle-aged. 

(xlii) The periods between conception, formation, move- 
ment and birth. The embryo is and is not. The periods 
may vary slightly. 

357 



IIEPl TPOOH2 

XLIII. ^Oarecov rpo(^r} Ik «aT»;^to9, pwl h\<i 

vevTC, yvddo) koI K\7]lBt koX TrXevpfjai. SnrXdcnai, 

7T)])(€i' rpiTrXda-iai,, kvij/xt] koL j3pa')(^iovi rerpa- 

TrXdatat, fJ-ypo) irevrairXdaLai, Kal el ri ev tovtoi^ 

5 Svvarai TrXeov i) eXaaaov. 

XLIV. Al/xa vypbv kuI alfia arepeov. al^a 
vypov dcrrelov, al/xa vypov (pXavpov al/xa (nepeov 
dareiov, al/na orepeov (f)Xavp6v irpos xt navra 

4 (pXavpa kol irdvTa darela. 

XLV. 'OBo<i CIVCO KUTQ}. 

XLVI. Avva/jLi^ Tpo(f)T]<; /cpecracov rj 07/C09, ojKO'i 
rpo<^rj<i Kpeaacov i) Svva/xi^, Kal ev uypol^; Kal eV 

3 ^i]poI<;. 

XLVII. ^Acjyaipel Kal irpoaTiOrjaiv ou T(0Vt6, 
2 TM pev d(j)nipet, tm Be irpo(nLdi]ai rwvro} 

XLVIII. ^Xe^oiv Sia(T(f)u^t,€<i Kal dvain'oi] 
irXevfxovo^; Kad^ tjXiKLr^v, Kal crvp.<^wi'a Kal 8id- 
cfxova, Kal vovaou Kal vyLeiT]<; arjp.eZa, Kal vyielrj^; 
fxdXXov Tj voiKTou Kal vovcrov fidXXov 7) vyLei7]<i' 

5 Tpo(f)7] yap Kal rrvev/xa. 

XLIX. "Typ7] Tpo(f)r) evp.eTd^Xr}TO<i fidXXov r) 
^f]p}j' ^>iph Tpo^i] evp,erd8Xt]T0'i p.dXXov i) vypiy 
7) 8uaaXXoicoTO<; 8v(Te^avdXcoTO<i, rj evirpoadero^ 

4 eue^avdXoiTO^. 

* A omits Tw fiiv . . . Tinhri. 



(xliii) The periods which elapse before a bone unites. 

(xliv) Good and bad are relative terms ; even liquid and 
solid blood are good or bad according to circumstances. 

(xlv) The alimentary canal is like the "road up and down " 
of Heraclitus. 

358 



NUTRIMENT, xliii.-alix. 

XLIII. Nutriment of bones after breaking; for 
the nostril, twice five ; for jaw, collar-bone and ribs, 
twice this ; for the fore-arm, thrice ; for the leg and 
upper-arm, four times ; for the thigh, five times ; 
there may be, however, in these a little more or less. 
XLIV. Blood is liquid and blood is solid. Liquid 
blood is good, liquid blood is bad. Solid blood is 
good, solid blood is bad. All things are good or bad 
relatively. 

XLV. The way up, down. 

XLVI. Power of nutriment superior to mass ; mass 
of nutriment superior to power ; both in moist things 
and in dry. 

XLVII. It takes away and adds not the same 
thing ; it takes away from one, and adds to another, 
the same thing. 

XLVI II. Pulsations of veins and breathing of the 
lungs according to age, harmonious and un- 
harmonious, signs of disease and of health, and 
of health more than of disease, and of disease 
more than of health. For breath too is nutriment. 

XLIX. Liquid nutriment more easily changed 
than solid ; solid nutriment more easily changed 
than liquid. That which is hardly altered is hard of 
digestion, and that which is easily added is easy of 
digestion. 

(xlvi) The power of nutriment is not in proportion to 
its bulk. 

(xlvii) What is taken from food and added to bodily parts 
is not the same thing, as the form changes in the process ; 
yet it is in a sense the same matter. 

(xlviii) Varieties of pulse and of respiration are signs of 
health and disease, particularly of the latter. 

(xlix) Solid or liquid foods are more or less digestible 
according to circumstances. 

359 



nEPI TPOOHS 

L. Kat OKcxJoi Ta'yei'r)<; irpoaOecno'; SeovTai, 
vypov tr)fjia e? dvd\7]\p-iv Sui'd/xio<i Kpariarov 
OKoaoL Be en Ta')^VTepr]s, hi 6acf)p)']aio<;. oKoaoi 

4 Se jBpahvTeprj^ 7TpoaOeaio>i heovrai, arepet] Tpo(f)r]. 

LI. MOef arepecoTepoL 8v(TeKTi]KT0i <pdX\ov ^> 
T(bv ciWcov, irape^ oareou koI vevpov hvafierd- 
fiXrjTU rd 'yeyvpn'aa/.ieva, Kara <yevo<; avra 
eoiVTWv l(T)(vp6Tepa iovra, hid tovto avra 

5 eCOVTOiV hv(TT7]KT0Tepa. 

LII. Tlvov TO €K (Tapfc6<;' TTuwBe^ TO i^ 
aLfiaro^ Koi e^ d\Xy]<; vypacni-j'^- ttvov Tpo(j)r] 
3 e'/V/ceo?" Trva>Se<; Tpo(f)r] (f)X€^6<;, dpr'}]pir}<i. 

LIII. MueXo? Tpocpi] oareov, Bid tovto eiri- 
2 TTcopourai. 

LIV. i\vvap,t<i TrdvTa au^ei koI Tpe<pei Kai 
2 ^XaaTdvei. 

LV. "Typaa'ir] Tpo(pt]<i 6-)(^t]iJ,a. 

^ /xaWov added by Littrd. 

(1) The more dissolved nutriment is the quicker it acts, 
(li) The more soliti or the more exercised a part of the 
bod^' is, the less quickly it changes. 



360 



NUTRIMENT, i..-lv. 

L. And for such as need a quick reinforcement, a 
liquid remedy is best for recovery of power ; for such 
as need a quicker, a remedy through smell ; for 
those who need a slower reinforcement, solid 
nutriment. 

LI. Muscles being more solid waste less easily 
than other parts, save bone and sinew. Parts that 
have been exercised resist change, being according 
to their kind stronger than they otherwise would 
have been, and therefore less liable to waste. 

LII. Pus comes from flesh ; pus-like lymph comes 
from blood and moisture generally. Pus is nutri- 
ment for a sore ; lymph is nutriment for vein and 
artery. 

LIII. Marrow nutriment of bone, and through this 
a callus forms. 

LIV. Power gives to all things increase, nourish- 
ment and birth, 

LV, Moisture the vehicle of nutriment. 

(lii) The difference between pus and lymph. 
(liii) Marrow nourishes bone. 

(liv) Birth, growth and nourishment are always due to the 
power of nutriment. 

(Iv) Nutriment is carried through the body by moisture. 



361 



POSTSCRIPT 

The present volume is intended to be typical of 
the whole Hippocratic Corpus; in it are included 
works belonging to the chief classes of which the 
collection is composed. Some are books of a severely 
scientific character, others are tracts in which 
medicine and philosophy are either blended or 
rigidly separated. 

In the next volume I hope to translate Prognostic, 
Regimen in Acute Diseases, scientific treatises of the 
strictest type, The Art, a demonstration by a sophist 
of the value of medicine. Epilepsy, an attack on 
superstition. The Law, a slight tract similar to The 
Oath, and Decorum, a treatise similar to Precepts. 
There will also be essays on the Cnidian school of 
medicine and on the treatises sujiposed to be ])re- 
Hippocratic, which will also, if possible, be translated. 

In the interval between the publication of the two 
volumes I hope to form an independent opinion as 
to the mutual relationship of the chief MSS. At 
present I have nothing to add to the views of Ilberg 
and Kiihlewein as given in the Introduction to the 
Teubner edition. 

I must add that in Philologus LXXVIII. 88-130 
(1922) J. F. Bensel discusses the tract de medico 
(physician) and connects it with Precepts and 
Deroriim. It is hard to see whei'e the connection 
lies, but I must reserve the question for Vol. II. 



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McJOE Attic Orators (Axtiphom, Andocides, Lycurgus, 

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J. O. Burrt. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 
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6 



Philo. 10 Vols. Vols. I.-V. ; F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 

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Marcus. 
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Plato : Republic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. (Vol. 1. 5th Imp., 

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Plato: Statesman, Philebus. H.N. Fowler; Ion. W. R. M. 

Lamb. {Ath Imp.) 
Plato: Theaetetus and Sophist. H. N. Fowler, (ith hnp.) 
Plato : Timaeus, Critias, Clitopho, Menexbnus, Epistulae. 

Rev. R. G. Bury. (3rd Imp.) 
Plutarch: Mor.alia. U Vols. Vols. l.-V. F. C. Babbitt; 

Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold : Vol. X. H. N. Fowler. Vol. 

XII. H. Cherniss and W. C. Helmbold. (Vols. I.-VI. and X. 

2nd Imp.) 
Plutarch : The Parallel Lives. B. Perrin. 1 1 Vols. 

(Vols. I., 11., VI., VII., and XI. 3rd Imp. Vols. III.-V. and 

VIII.-X. 2nd Im.p.) 
PoLY'Bius. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Pkocopius : History of the Wars. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 

(Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vols. II. -VII. 2nd Imp.) 
Ptolemy' : Tetrabiblos. C'f. .Manetho. 

Quintus Smyrnaeus. A. S. AVay. Verse trans, (ord Imp.) 
Sextus Empiricus. Rev. R. C!. Bury. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. ith 

Im,p., Vols. II. and III. 2nd Imp.) 
Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. (\'ol. I. \Oth Imp. Vol. II. (kk 

Imp.) Verso trans. 
Strabo : Geocjraphy. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. (Vols. I., V., 

and VIII. 3rd Imp., Vols. II., III., IV., VI., and VII. 2nd Imp.) 
Theophrastus : Characters. J. M. Edmonds. Herodes, 

etc. A. D. Knox. (3rd Imp.) 



Theophrastus : Enquiry into Plants. Sir Arthvir Hon, 

Bart. 2 Vols, (ind Imp.) 
Thtjcydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 5th Imp., Vols. 

II., III., and IV. 3rd Imp. revised) 
Tbyphiodobus. Cf. Oppian. 
Xenophon : Cybopaedia. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th 

Imp., Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
Xenophon : Hellenica, Anabasis, Apology, and Symposium. 

C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. (Vols. I. and III. 

3rd Imp., Vol. II. 4:th Imp.) 
Xenophon : RIemokabilia and Oeconomtcus. E. C. Marchant. 

{3rd Imp.) 
Xenophon : Scbipta Minoba. E. C. Marchant. (3rd Imp.) 



IN PREPARATION 



Greek Authors 

Aelian : On the Nature of Animals. A. F. Scholfield. 
Aristotle : History of Animals. A. L. Peck. 
Plotinus : A. H Armstrong. 



Latin Authors 

Phaedrus. Ben E. Perry. 

DESCRIPTIVE PFOSPECTUS ON APPLICATION 



London WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

Cambridge, Mass. HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 



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Hippocrates LOIL 

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Colophon

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