Infomotions, Inc.Francis Bacon; a sketch of his life, works, and literary friends, chiefly from a bibliographical point of view. by G. Walter Steeves, M. D. With forty-three illustrations. / Steeves, George Walter, 1854-1915




Author: Steeves, George Walter, 1854-1915
Title: Francis Bacon; a sketch of his life, works, and literary friends, chiefly from a bibliographical point of view. by G. Walter Steeves, M. D. With forty-three illustrations.
Publisher: London : Methuen & Co. ltd., [1910]
Tag(s): bacon, francis, 1561-1626; bacon; demy; francis bacon; francis; edition; novum organum; new atlantis; second edition; fourth edition; sylva sylvarum; fifth edition; third edition; tobie mathew; historia naturalis
Contributor(s): Eric Lease Morgan (Infomotions, Inc.)
Versions: original; local mirror; HTML (this file); printable; PDF
Services: find in a library; evaluate using concordance
Rights: GNU General Public License
Size: 57,411 words (short) Grade range: 7-10 (grade school) Readability score: 59 (average)
Identifier: francisbaconsket00steeiala
Delicious Bookmark this on Delicious

Discover what books you consider "great". Take the Great Books Survey.


UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



SCHOOL OF LAW 
LIBRARY 



FRANCIS BACON 




UiirrVice-Comes S c L , 

2)77t. i 6 "2. 6. ^f in 10 a jictat 66. 



/5 



KROM THE " RESUSC1TAT10," 1657 



FRANCIS BACON 

A SKETCH OF HIS LIFE, WORKS 

AND LITERARY FRIENDS; CHIEFLY FROM 

A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL POINT OF VIEW 



BY 

G. WALTER STEEVES, M.D. 

til 



WITH FORTY-THREE ILLUSTRATIONS 



METHUEN & CO. LTD. 

36 ESSEX STREET W.C. 

LONDON 



3 



First Published in 1910 



PREFACE 

IN placing this little volume before the public, no 
more is presumed or attempted than is indicated 
by its title, viz. a sketch of the chief events in the life 
of Bacon, freed as much as possible from general 
historical detail, followed by a " classification " and 
short description of Bacon's chief works, together 
with certain considerations bearing on his Life and 
Letters. 

It is hoped that the reproduction of the selected 
title-pages, etc., which have been introduced may not 
only serve as "object lessons," but altogether add to 
the general interest of the subject. 

The " classification " of the different works has been 
modelled on that already adopted in many previous 
treatises, with such variations and additions as will 
best carry out the object in view. I have thought it 
well to add some remarks on the intimate friends of 
Bacon ; and to refresh the memories of those who have 
not recently referred to the period, the chief incidents 
in the lives of a few of these have been alluded to. 
In this connexion I have endeavoured to utilize such 
quotations, letters, etc., as not only illustrate those ties 
of friendship which existed between Bacon and his 



vi FRANCIS BACON 

literary associates, but which, at the same time, exhibit 
his style and art in such communications. 

The idea of issuing such a publication, which should 
serve more especially as a bibliographical record, was 
suggested to my mind by certain difficulties that I 
experienced some years ago when I first began to 
make a serious study of Bacon's work. Even at the 
present day I strongly suspect that there may be not 
a few, interested in such literary pursuits, who find it 
difficult to obtain the privileges of a great library, or 
gain access to those rare and early editions which 
sweeten the toil of the bibliophile and bibliographer 
alike. Such students not only very frequently waste 
much time which might be avoided, but direct their 
energies in a channel which often proves misleading 
and disappointing. 

During the past few years the attention of readers 
has been much attracted towards the literature of Bacon, 
and probably as an incentive the Bacon-Shakespeare 
discussion has in no small degree contributed. It is 
not my intention to enter the argumentative arena 
of those interesting and " disputed facts," dealing with 
the authorship of certain dramatic and poetic works : 
indeed, those who look for controversial food in these 
pages will, I fear, meet with disappointment. Never- 
theless, I am glad to have this opportunity of adding 
that if in the prosecution of such studies, whatever 
the motive, the public are led to take a deeper interest 
in the great literature of the Elizabethan period, 



PREFACE vii 

especially that of Bacon and Shakespeare, then such 
disputes have not altogether been in vain. 

One may truly say that the attempt to write a short 
Life of Bacon is beset with many difficulties, not only 
on account of the unusual personal qualities and eccen- 
tricities of the man, but also because his whole life was 
so full of historical interest and detail. To study such 
a life in its completeness one must necessarily turn to 
the actual pages of history, in which may be found all 
those events and conditions which served as the im- 
pulses of his actions and tested his moral character. 
Therefore while I am deeply conscious of my respon- 
sibility and the feebleness of the present effort, I 
would wish at the same time to emphasize the fact 
that my object has in no wise been to add to, or 
supplant in any way, those larger works whose com- 
prehensiveness and usefulness it is here my chief 
purpose and duty to recommend. 

In the consideration of the Works, if more atten- 
tion has been given to some than may seem necessary, 
or, on the other hand, the space devoted to the larger, 
and what are usually considered greater, publications 
of Bacon appears relatively and unnecessarily curtailed, 
it has not been because the latter have been deemed 
less important, but rather that a few of the less known 
and smaller compositions have not hitherto received 
their due. 

As a matter of fact, many editions of the great 
philosophical works, issued with copious explanatory 



viii FRANCIS BACON 

notes, are always accessible ; besides, it would be quite 
beyond my present purpose to attempt a disquisition 
on them ; my object being to endeavour to point out 
the way to those who are on the threshold of a study 
which is full of interest, whether approached from a 
purely literary, bibliographical, or psychological point 
of view, and if these few pages assist such inquirers 
in any small degree, the pleasant " recreations " of my 
leisure moments have been profitably chosen. 

I wish to add my grateful acknowledgments to 
those whose names will be found in different portions 
of this book, and whose work on the subject has been 
of the greatest service in the preparation of it. Finally, 
I would express my indebtedness to many biographical 
treatises, especially the Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy, from whose pages I have gathered much 
valuable information relating to the subject. 

G. WALTER STEEVES. 
9, CAVENDISH SQUARR, W. 



CONTENTS 



LIFE OF BACON 

His home Parents Youth Residence at Cambridge Early 
philosophical views Entrance at Gray's Inn On the Continent 
Invention of his cypher-writing system Death of his 
father and return to England In monetary straits Called 
to the Bar Member of Parliament Letter' of Advice to 
Queen Elizabeth His attitude towards the Puritans and 
Catholics Sworn "Queen's Counsel Extraordinary" His 
objections to the action of the Lords interfering with the rights 
of the Commons in financial questions Registership of the Star 
Chamber Rivalry of Sir Edward Coke for the hand of Sir 
Thos. Cecil's daughter, and the offices of the Earl of Essex in 
the matter The friendship of Essex and Bacon The lil>erality 
of the former Essex's administration in Ireland and his 
subsequent downfall Bacon's prosecution in the case of Essex 
Bacon receives his knighthood from James the First The 
Afology in Certain Imputations concerning the late Earl of 
Essex Appointed King's Counsel His marriage to Alice 
Barnham Receives the appointments of Solicitor-General and 
Attorney-General Case of the " Post-Nati " of Scotland 
Publication of the Advancement of Learning Wisdom of the 
Ancients Appointment of Lord Keeper of the Great Seals 
Hostility between Bacon and Coke Cases in the Star 
Chamber Becomes Lord High Chancellor of England and 
Viscount St. Albans His country seat at Gorhambury Essays 
Novum Organum His sixtieth birthday Narrative of his fall 
His sentence Freedom Literary work during his retirement 
History of Henry VII Translations of his Works Applica- 
tion for Provostship to Eton College Publication of various 
books Translations of Psalms His Prayers, etc. His health 
Last scientific investigation His death Will, etc. Con- 
siderations with respect to his character, surroundings, and 
influences . . . ... Pages 1-39 

ix 



FRANCIS BACON 



THE WORKS OF BACON 

Early writings: Notes on the State of Europe Temporis partum 
Maximum Cogitata et Visa Valerius Terminus Partis 
secundae Delineatis Redargutio Philosophiarum Mr. Bacon in 
Praise of Knowledge Mr, Bacon in Praise of his Sovereign 
Certain Observations made upon a Libel The Northumberland 
Manuscript Promus of Formularies and Elegancies . Pages 41-52 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE WORKS 

(1) PHILOSOPHICAL: De Augmentis Scientiarum Novwii Organum 
Phenomena Universi Scala Intellectus Prodromi Philo- 
sophia Secunda . . . ... 53~8 1 

(2) LITERARY : The Essays, -with the Colours of Good and Evil- 
History of Henry VII History of Henry VIII The Beginning 
of the History of Great Britain In Felicem Memoriam 
Elizabethae In Henricum principem Walliae Elogiwn Francisci 
Baconi Imagines Civiles Julii Caesaris, et Augusti Caesaris 
A Confession of Faith The Characters of a believing Christian 
in Paradoxes and seeming Contradictions The Prayers Trans- 
lation of Certain Psalms Poetry and Poetical Works 
Apophthegms The Wisdom of the Ancients . . .81-139 

(3) PROFESSIONAL : Speeches (Post Nati Naturalization of the 
Scotch in England, etc.) Law Tracts (Rules and Maxims of the 
Common Laws of England Use of the Law The Learned 
Reading of Sir Francis Bacon, etc.) Legal Arguments Star- 
Cham her Charges . . ... 140-161 



LETTERS OF BACON 

Earliest compositions The publications of Robert Stephens and 
David Mallet In the Resuscitatio Basil Montague's Works, etc. 
Letters of "Advice" and "Expostulation" The value and 
significance of Bacon's Letters . ... 161-167 



CONTENTS xi 



POSTHUMOUS WORKS 

Certain Miscellany Works by Wm. Rawley Sylva Sylvarum and 
New Atlantis Rawley's Folio, 1638 The Remaines The 
Mirrour of State and Eloquence Isaac Griiter's publication 
Resuscitatio Opusatla Varia Posthuma Tenison's Baconiana 
Stephens' Letters Dr. Birch's publication Blackbourne's com- 
plete edition of the Works Publications of David Mallet, Dr. 
Shaw, Montague and Spedding Recent Work . Pages 167-194 



BACON'S LITERARY FRIENDS AND THEIR RELATION 
TO HIS WORK 

William Rawley Tobie Mathew Ben Jonson George Herbert 
Lancelot Andrews Thomas Meautys Thomas Bodley The 
Fathers Fulgentio and Barazano Selden, Hobbes, and Sir John 
Constable . . . ... 195-220 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



I'A .K 



Portrait of Bacon .... Frontispiece 

Portrait of Bacon at the age of eighteen years . Facing page I 
Title-page of Lady Bacon's translation of the Apology for the Church 

of England, 1564 . . . ... 3 

Title-page of the first edition of A Declaration of the Practises and 

Treasons committed by the Earl of Essex, 1601 . . .15 

Document containing the signatures of Bacon, his wife, and others 

Facing page 1 6 

Title-page of the first edition of Bacon's Apologie concerning the late 

Earl of Essex, 1604 . . . ... 19 

Bacon's Monument in St. Michael's Church . Facing page 30 

First page of the Northumberland Manuscript . 44 
Reproduced from the work of Mr. Frank J. Burgoyne by his kind permission. 

Title-page of the first edition of the De Augment is Sdentianun, 1623 55 

,, Advancement of Learning, 1605 . 59 
,, ,, Novum Organutn, 1620 

Facing page 62 

,, ,, Historia Natttralis, 1622 . . 65 

,, ,, Historia Ventorum, 1653 . . 69 

,, ,, Historia Vitae et Mortis t 1623 . 73 
,, ,, Sylva Sylvarum, 1627 

Facing page 76 

,, ,, New Atlantis, 1627 . . 77 

Essays, 1597 . . 83 

Title-page of the edition of the Essays issued in 1612 . . -87 

i. ii 1625 . . . 91 



xiv FRANCIS BACON 

FAGB 

Title-page of the first edition of the Essays in Italian, 1618 . -95 
,, ,, The History of Henry VII, 1622 . 103 

,, ,, the Felicity of Queen Elizabeth, 

1651 . . . 107 

,, Certain Psalms in Verse, 1625 . 117 

Title-page of Thos. Farnaby's Epigrammatum Graecorum, 1629 . 123 

Title-page of the first edition of the Apophthegms, 1625 . .127 

,, ,, Wisdom of the Ancienis, 1609 . 133 

, , , , in English of the Wisdom of the Ancients, 

1619 . . 137 

,, ,, of The Charge touching Duetts, in the 

Star-Chamber, against Priest and 
Wright, 1614 . . 143 

First page of contemporary manuscript of The Charge against Robert 
Earle of Somerset t concerninge the poisoninge of Overbtiry, 
1616 . ... . ... 147 

Title-page of the first edition of the Post-Nati, etc., 1641 . . 151 
,, ,, of Rules and Majcimes of the Common 

Lawes of England, 1630 . . 153 
,, The Use of the Law, 1629 . . 157 

, , , , The Learned Reading of Sir Francis 

Bacon, 1642 . . .159 

,, ,, A Letter of Advice to the Duke of 

Buckingham, 1661 . . .163 

Title-page of Certaine Miscellany Works, 1629 . . . 169 

,, the Operutn Moralium ct Civilium, 1638 . . . 171 

,, The Remaines, 1648 . . . '75 

,, Gruter's Scripta in Naturali et Universali, 1653 

Facing page 176 
,, the Mirrour of Slate and Eloquence, 1656 . .179 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xv 

PAGE 

Portrait of Bacon, from The Mirrour of State and Eloquence, 1656 

Facing page 180 

Title-page of the Resuscitatio, 1657 . ... 183 

,, the Opuscula Varia Posthuma, 1658 . . . 187 

,, Tenison's Baconiana, 1679 . . . . 191 




BACON AT THE AGE OK EIGHTEEN YEARS 



FRANCIS BACON 



A SKETCH OF HIS LIFE 

FRANCIS BACON was born at York House on 
22 January, 1561. At the bottom of Buck- 
ingham Street, in the Strand, and facing the Embank- 
ment gardens, still stands the ancient "York Water 
Gate," which nearly marks the site of the old home- 
stead ; and this interesting gateway, designed for the 
Duke of Buckingham by Inigo Jones, was formerly 
used as the approach to York House from the Thames. 
Here was the residence of his father, Sir Nicholas 
Bacon, the first Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of 
England, a man who in his day was held in high 
esteem on account of his profound learning and wisdom. 
His mother, the daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, tutor 
to King Edward the Sixth, was one of the most 
scholarly and accomplished ladies of the day, and ac- 
cording to William Rawley, "eminent for piety, and 
virtue, and learning, being exquisitely skilled for a 
woman in the Greek and Latin Tongues." She is now 
remembered chiefly for her faithful translation of Bishop 
J ewell's Apology for the Church of England, and it is 
interesting to notice that this work of hers was so 



2 FRANCIS BACON 

esteemed for its accuracy that it "was published for 
common use in 1567, by the special order of Arch- 
bishop Parker." In this connexion, one may be 
permitted to add, that in a summary of what was 
proposed to be done in the Convocation of 1562, it 
was decided that Newel's Catechism, then completed, 
but not yet published, and Jewell's Apology, " lately 
set forth, should be joined with the articles of religion 
which were to be prepared in one book, and by 
common consent authorized as containing true 
doctrine." It may not be generally known that this 
identical translation of the Apology of the Church, 
by Lady Anne Bacon, is still printed and circulated 
by the " Society for Promoting Christian Know- 
ledge." Possessing parents, therefore, of such 
recognized ability and attainments, Bacon entered 
the arena of life under the most favoured and happy 
conditions. 

He very early showed evidences of an inquiring 
mind and, indeed, intelligence and precocity much 
beyond his years. This attracted the attention of all 
around him, and it is said that Queen Elizabeth 
delighted to call him her " Young Lord Keeper." As 
an indication of his youthful wit, it is recorded, that on 
one occasion the Queen, on asking him how old he 
was, received the reply, "Just two years younger than 
your Majesty's happy reign." Dr. Rawley says : " His 
first and childish years were not without some mark of 
eminency ; at which time he was endued with that 
pregnancy and towardness of wit ; as they were 
presages of that deep and universal apprehension 
which was manifest in him afterwards " ; and Arch- 



An Apologie 

or anfVwc in defence of the 

C&urc&e of englanoc, 



Declaration of tljemu 
Religion pjofe(Tfe5 




Domini 



LIFE OF BACON 5 

bishop Tenison speaks in like manner : " It is observed 
that in his tender years, his pregnancy was such, as to 
give great indication of his future high accomplish- 
ments." When quite a child we find him interested in 
the laws of sound ; and, among other curious investiga- 
tions, attempting to discover the cause of an echo. 
Many such instances foreshadowed unusual intelligence 
and genius ; and the intellectual atmosphere of his 
home would tend to foster and develop this. 

In the year 1 573, being then only thirteen years of age, 
he was sent, with his brother Anthony, to Trinity College, 
Cambridge. It was not long before we find him show- 
ing his dissatisfaction with the teaching system of the 
University ; for the promotion of knowledge on the old 
conservative lines was not congenial to his inquiring 
and progressive mind. Consequently he soon mani- 
fested an aversion to the philosophy of Aristotle 
according to his dictum " barren for the production of 
works for the benefit and use of man." We gather that 
his views attracted little friendly sympathy, and this 
need not surprise us when we consider the period, 
and mental attitude of young Bacon. 

From his tutor Dr. Whitgift, afterwards Archbishop 
of Canterbury, we learn next to nothing. It is quite 
evident, however, from other sources of information, 
that Bacon's intellectual horizon, even then, was not to 
be limited by the existing philosophic dogmas of the 
University. He altogether distrusted its academic 
methods, and though we know so little of him here, we 
may infer that at this stage of his career he planned 
some of those schemes which he lived to unfold in sub- 
sequent years. 



6 FRANCIS BACON 

During his residence in college the irresistible bent 
of his mind in the direction of Natural Philosophy be- 
came more pronounced, and when he left Cambridge he 
carried with him " a fixed conviction that the system of 
academic education in England was radically vicious." 

Of Dr. Whitgift, the Master of Trinity, we know 
little that is creditable. He seems to have been a mean 
time-serving prelate, whose aspirations and duplicity 
would scarcely escape the keen observation of Bacon ; 
indeed, such an experience would serve as a valuable 
object lesson in determining certain phases of character 
to be moulded and utilized by him later on in life. 

In the year 1576 he left Cambridge without taking a 
degree, having been in residence three years ; and both 
he and his brother were at once entered at Gray's Inn, 
de societate magistrorum. We next find him in Paris, 
whither his father had sent him under the care of Sir 
Amias Paulett, the English Ambassador at that Court. 
He at once exhibited marked diplomatic ability, and was 
soon entrusted with important missions even one to 
the Queen on which he was highly commended. In- 
deed, he gave every promise here of a distinguished 
career. 

It was at this time that he invented his cypher-writing 
system, the importance of which has of late so 
prominently been brought before the public, more 
especially in relation to the Bacon-Shakespeare con- 
troversy. One can readily understand that his inten- 
tion was to utilize this method in his diplomatic capacity. 
The reference to this may be found in his Augmentis 
Scientiarutn, Lib. VI : " Ut vero suspicio omnis absit, 
aliud invertum subjiciemus, quod certe cum adolescentali 



LIFE OF BACON 7 

essemus Parisiis excogitavimus, nee etiam adhuc visa 
nobis eis digna est quae pereat." 

After leaving Paris he travelled into the provinces of 
France, and we also have good evidence that he visited 
Italy, especially Rome, still further extending his 
observations on such subjects as " The force of imagina- 
tion," " Secret passages of sympathy between persons 
of near blood," and upon Echoes, a subject which 
seems to have had a peculiar fascination for him. 

On the death of his father in 1580 he was hurriedly 
called back to England. His contemplations were 
thus suddenly cut short, and he found himself face to 
face with the stern realities of life. On his return he 
was disappointed to find his eldest brother in possession 
of the estate, only a small portion having been allotted to 
himself. It is evident that at this time Bacon, on 
account of his slender income, was obliged to postpone 
those pursuits and studies most dear to him. He 
received no assistance from his uncle Lord Burghley, 
then Prime Minister, and it was plain that this noble- 
man was not desirous to promote the interests of his 
nephew when the welfare of his own son was his chief 
concern. 

That Bacon was in sore monetary straits at this time 
we have good evidence, as several letters exist written 
by him to Lord and Lady Burghley soliciting their 
influence and assistance. These communications were 
humble, and almost servile, and tell a sad story. He 
now diligently pursued his legal studies, soon being 
called to the Bar. He became Member of Parliament 
for Melcombe Regis in 1584, and also sat for Liverpool 
in 1589. It was during his membership for the former 



8 FRANCIS BACON 

constituency that he wrote his Letter of Advice to Queen 
Elizabeth, probably in the year 1584. The minds of the 
people were just then much exercised over various 
important religious questions, especially those which 
might in any way affect Protestantism. Bacon did not 
fail to see that such sectarian troubles as already existed 
were likely to assume serious proportions, and he there- 
fore took the opportunity of advising the Queen on the 
policy he desired her to follow and the attitude he was 
wishful she should adopt towards those the Recusants, 
as they were then styled who would not uphold her 
religious supremacy. With the House of Commons 
Puritanism had no little influence, and the Queen was 
not desirous that any change in the formalities of the 
Church should take place. In this treatise Bacon pro- 
nounced his views both as regards the Catholics and 
the Puritans. He declared that the former were Eliza- 
beth's enemies, and "that whosoever would not bear 
arms against all foreign princes, and namely the Pope, 
that should in any way invade Her Majesty's dominions, 
should be a traitor." At the same time he emphasizes 
his feelings towards the " preachers," remarking, " I am 
provoked to lay at your highness's feet my opinion 
touching the preciser sort " ; and he adds that he is 
" not addicted to their preciseness." No doubt Bacon 
was anxious to prevent hostile religious feeling among 
the people during the Queen's reign ; at the same time 
he desired to see an end to the Catholic influence. The 
interesting historical details of this movement cannot 
be continued here. It is only necessary to add that, as 
far as Bacon himself was concerned, he feared the in- 
fluence of the Papists on the State, and was anxious 



LIFE OF BACON 9 

that all disloyal religious sentiment should be sup- 
pressed. 

In 1588 he was sworn "Queen's Counsel Extra- 
ordinary," and five years later ( 1 593) he became Member 
of Parliament for Middlesex. Very soon after, when 
the House was summoned, increased supplies were 
demanded on account of the difficulties arising out of one 
of those serious Popish plots which had come to light. 
Naturally the House of Commons undertook to deal 
with such financial questions ; but the Lords insisted on 
interfering with their rights, both as to the main issue 
of increased subsidy itself, and also the conditions of 
all the proposals under consideration. Bacon took a 
prominent part in the discussions now raised, and did 
not hesitate to emphasize his objections to the action 
of the Lords, feeling that the propositions and sugges- 
tions of the Upper House were quite out of place and 
ill-advised. Though he acted in perfectly good faith, 
his views were not understood or well received, and it 
is said that not only the Court, but even the Queen 
showed her annoyance at the utterances he then 
made. 

He had previously procured the Registership of the 
Star Chamber, but the latter carried no emolument 
with it. Though it was said to be worth .1600 a year, 
it brought nothing to him immediately; in Bacon's 
words, " it was like another man's ground buttailing 
upon his house, which might mend his prospect, but it 
did not fill his barns." It now became evident to all 
that his parliamentary career was destined to become 
one of success and distinction. His eloquence im- 
pressed the House at once, as it did the judges in the 



io FRANCIS BACON 

court and all who listened to him, Ben Jonson and 
many of his time fully testifying to this. 

Let us now briefly refer to an event which, though 
domestic in character, is of further importance on 
account of the action and solicitude of the Earl of 
Essex on behalf of Bacon's private concerns. 

The wealthy widow of Sir William Hatton, and 
daughter of Sir Thomas Cecil, became the engrossing 
object of Bacon's attentions, and though he had pro- 
posed to her, he had received scant encouragement. 
Sir Edward Coke, who henceforward was to prove 
Bacon's chief antagonist and enemy, and indeed who 
had already, in 1594, been promoted over his head to 
the position of Attorney-General, now appeared as a 
rival for the hand of this alluring lady. Bacon was 
refused, and the rich and prosperous Coke preferred, in 
spite of his " seven objections his six children and 
himself." It must now be pointed out that, in his 
anxiety to gain this lucrative prize, Bacon employed 
Essex in the furtherance of his cause ; and the latter, 
then on the eve of his expedition to Cadiz, was thus 
addressed by Bacon : " My suit to your Lordship is for 
your several letters to be left with me dormant to the 
gentlewoman and either of her parents. Wherein I do 
not doubt but, as the beams of your favour have often 
dissolved the coldness of my fortune, so in this argu- 
ment your Lordship will do the like with your pen." We 
have no record of Essex's intervention with the heiress, 
but he wrote to Sir Thomas Cecil, enlarging on the 
" virtues and excellent parts " of Bacon, and his qualifi- 
cations professional and otherwise using indeed 
every persuasion. He addressed somewhat similar 



LIFE OF BACON 11 

letters to Lady Cecil and others who he thought might 
favour the suit. 

Bacon had the satisfaction later on of knowing that 
Coke's union with this gilded widow was a very unhappy 
one. .There can be little doubt but that Bacon hoped 
to replenish his pocket by such a marriage, but again 
he had been outwitted by his crafty opponent. This is 
one of the instances which demonstrate the unselfish 
kindness of Essex towards Bacon, and it is worthy of 
notice. 

Bacon now became closely attached to the Earl of 
Essex, and apparently possessed a deep regard and 
close feeling of friendship for him ; while Essex im- 
plicitly trusted Bacon, and was ever ready to render him 
any affectionate service within his power. Their ideals, 
however, were widely separate ; and one is driven to 
the conclusion that the attachment of the former 
existed, for the most part, as a means for the accom- 
plishment of selfish ends, though, at the same time, it is 
only fair to add, as subsequently stated by Bacon, that 
Essex may have been considered " the fittest instrument 
to do good to the State therefore I applied myself to 
him in a manner which I think happeneth rarely among 
men." 

On the other hand, the relations between Lord Burgh- 
ley and Bacon were less cordial. No doubt the Cecils 
were jealous that he should ally himself in any manner 
with Essex, and this feeling was very evident when the 
office of Solicitor- General became vacant. On this 
occasion Essex used every endeavour for his friend, 
but they had to face disappointment, and the influence 
of the Lord Keeper, or Burghley and Robert Cecil, or 



12 FRANCIS BACON 

possibly the combined voices of the three, were too 
strong with the Queen. 

Then came a fine act of liberality on the part of 
Essex. He presented Bacon with a magnificent estate 
at Twickenham, a consolation which must have been 
most acceptable. For here, from time to time, he was 
able to retire from the public gaze and indulge in those 
literary pursuits which appealed more to him than all 
his legal and parliamentary duties, and, indeed, were 
always uppermost in his mind. 

During the year 1597, when the Essays first appeared, 
his literary reputation became greatly enhanced, and so 
widespread was their popularity that translations into 
Latin, Italian, and French soon followed. This first 
edition contained only ten essays, and was reprinted 
the following year. Several subsequent editions came 
before the public until it reached its complete form 
(fifty-eight essays) in 1625, the year before the author's 
death. 

The unfortunate position in which the Earl of Essex 
found himself through his faulty administration of Irish 
affairs and his impetuous and unstatesmanlike conduct 
at home soon brought about his utter downfall. 

There can be no doubt that Bacon strongly advised 
him not to undertake the Irish leadership, but his ex- 
postulations were of no avail, and in March, 1599, 
Essex left London for Dublin as Lord-Lieutenant, 
and it is a matter of history how lamentably the entire 
expedition was conducted. As we know, it terminated 
in complete failure and in the disgrace of Essex. 
Naturally Bacon's position was a difficult one. He 
earnestly desired to befriend Essex, and he dare not 



LIFE OF BACON 13 

risk the Queen's displeasure. The advice which he 
gave Essex on his arrival from Ireland was such as one 
would expect in the circumstances, knowing Elizabeth's 
susceptibilities and eccentricities as he did. And in 
spite of all, as he tells us, Essex acted contrary to his 
wishes on every point. 

On the other hand, when Essex was committed and 
afterwards stood his trial, Bacon's attitude can never be 
altogether excused. He knew full well that however 
tactless as an administrator, however impetuous and 
wanting in caution as a soldier Essex may have been, 
no crime had been perpetrated that called for the 
scaffold. 

It is contended by some, however, that by disregard- 
ing the express commands of his Sovereign in Ireland, 
and the reckless management of his troops there, the 
Queen was obliged to treat Essex as a criminal 
offender. However we view this question, it is im- 
possible for us to reconcile the behaviour of Bacon, 
and the vehement and quite unnecessary attacks he 
made in the prosecution of one who had many times 
befriended him, and who had frequently incurred en- 
mity on his account. It is difficult to think that Bacon 
only acted thus in order that the public should profit 
by his own achievements and advancement; nor, indeed, 
is it necessary to infer that his professional position en- 
forced such a course on him. Here all the conditions 
of the case were quite exceptional. When he found he 
could produce no impression, in favour of Essex, on 
the Queen privately, he might have nobly stood aside 
altogether and left the prosecution to other hands. 

Essex was executed. Bacon was scorned by many 



14 FRANCIS BACON 

for his attitude in this case, and for a time the Queen 
even became unpopular. She now felt that some step 
should be taken to remove the prevailing doubts of her 
subjects as to the justification of the whole proceeding. 
She knew well that no one could help her more effectu- 
ally than Bacon ; so she ordered him to publish a 
pamphlet, and it appears he was ready to do this. This 
tract was styled : A Declaration of the Practices and 
Treasons attempted and committed by Robert late Earl 
of Essex and his Complices, against Her Majestie and 
her Kingdoms ; and thus, in the words of Macaulay, 
he "exerted his professional talents to shed the Earl's 
blood and his literary talents to blacken the Earl's 
memory." 

Soon after James the First came to the throne Bacon 
received his knighthood, in spite of the unfavourable 
public feeling existing against him at the time ; for the 
tragedy of Essex was not soon forgotten. Lord South- 
ampton, who had been imprisoned in the Tower with 
Essex, was now released, much to the delight of his 
friends, but it was difficult for Bacon personally to 
congratulate him, so he addressed a servile and apolo- 
getic letter to him, in which the following sentence 
occurs: " This great change has wrought in me no other 
change towards your Lordship than this, that I may 
safely be that to you now, which I was truly before." 
We have no record of a reply from Southampton ; but 
we may at least conjecture his feelings ! 

Bacon now, knowing that there still existed much 
animosity against him on account of the part he took 
in the trial of Essex, addressed to the Earl of Devon- 
shire his well-known Apology in certain Imputations 



DECLARATION 



of the Pra&ifes &Treafons 



attempted and committe by ^Robert 




late Earlc ofEfex and his Complices, 
againft her Maieftie and her Kingdoms, 
and of the proceedings as well at the 

Arraignments Si Comiiftiom of the 

did latcar!e,and his adlic- 

rcms,a$ after: 

Together with the very Confefiions 

and otlicr parts of the Euidenccs them- 

iclucs^word for word taken out of 

the Originals. 

(V) 




^Imprinted at London by T^obert 

,Printer to the Queencs 

mod excellent Maieftie. 

(V) 

ANNO i Co I. 




VJu 7^/l*V. / -* ^MfTj^-^^fi.^.- ,*-.. ^^X~IJ^^. 4.^.^1 

^fc,^G/jj /: .w^^aH v,,,^.^,^/^^^/:^^ ^-s^^ 
f^-/^^^^, ^^.^^ 



- -..^-KH-iu tfr^j-rf- (M v-c-> <S*-^ <CuA Z*\**f*H &****"*//' ~J 

^7? T''l ^ ? L \Q '*'' ^' -&;j'-~c-- S-^-s 4 




DOCUMENT CONTAINING THE SIGNATURES OF BACON, HIS WIFE AND OTHERS 



LIFE OF BACON 17 

concerning the late Earl of Essex. In this he really 
made out a bad case for himself; for the excuse that 
he acted as "mere Secretary," and that the affair in- 
volved him in no personal responsibility, he having 
acted only according to the Queen's bidding, in no wise 
absolves him from blame. Those who attempt to justify 
the "Apology" lay much stress on the relations that 
had previously existed between Bacon and Essex the 
neglected advice ; the headstrong actions ; the want of 
consideration towards the Queen, etc. on the part of 
Essex : that in view of all this and more, it was only 
right that Bacon should plainly announce such details 
as had not previously been laid before the public. The 
majority of readers, however, will probably concur in 
the opinion that it would have been better had such 
an Apology never appeared at all, as it in no way 
strengthens Bacon's case or palliates his conduct. 

It was not long before Bacon found favour with his 
new sovereign. He was appointed King's Counsel in 
1604, with a fee of 40 a year, and in addition 60 a 
year was settled on him for " Special Services." His 
marriage to Alice Barnham, the daughter of a wealthy 
alderman and Cheapside merchant, took place in May, 
1606. Their union does not seem to have been a very 
congenial one, though we actually know little as regards 
their domestic relations. He received the Solicitor- 
Generalship in 1607, and five years later was made 
Attorney-General. He was, indeed, reaching the summit 
of his ambition. He occupied a most prominent posi- 
tion in Parliament, conducting important cases here, as 
well as in the Exchequer Chamber such as the 
memorable and historical case of the " Post-Nati of 



1 8 FRANCIS BACON 

Scotland." The part he took in this, and his method 
of handling it, added very much to his reputation, and 
though the legality of the judicial decision may be 
called in question, as Macaulay points out, " the bene- 
ficial effect must be acknowledged, and was in a great 
measure attributed to his dexterous management." At 
the same time he had finished his Advancement of 
Learning, which was published in 1605, and a few years 
later (1609) the Wisdom of the Ancients appeared. In 
the year 1617 he received the appointment of Lord 
Keeper of the Great Seals. 

There had always been a strong feeling of hostility 
between Bacon and Sir Edward Coke, and though the 
latter was by no means a light comparable to Bacon in 
his intellectual acumen, he was, beyond doubt, the 
strongest legal advocate of the day. The fact that he 
had been promoted to the positions of Solicitor-General 
and Attorney-General many years before had, together 
with other provocations of jealousy, embittered Bacon 
to such a degree that he at once deprived Coke of his 
office of Chief Justice, and his name was erased from 
the list of Privy Councillors. 

Bacon conducted many painful cases in the Star 
Chamber. This was a Court of Civil and Criminal 
jurisdiction at Westminster, and was of very ancient 
origin. Its powers became much abused, however, and 
in the reign of Charles the First it was altogether 
abolished. Of the many cases that came before him 
here, some were so important that permanent records 
have been preserved. There is the charge against 
certain persons for the crime of duelling. Another, 
against a Mr. Oliver St. John, who wrote various letters 



SIR FRANCIS 

BACON HIS APOLO- 

GIE, IN CERTAINE 

imputations concerning the late 

Earlc ofEffix. 

Written to the right Hono- 
rable his very good Lord, theEarle 
tfDettenfhirc, LorttLicute- 

nant of Ireland. 




LONDON^ 

Printed for FELIX NORTON 

and arc to be fold in Pauls church- 
yard at thefigne of the Pa- 
rot. 1604. 



LIFE OF BACON 21 

against the King, and one in particular stating that he 
had violated his Coronation oath by unjustly levying 
Benevolences. But among all such cases brought before 
Bacon in this Chamber, one has always been singled 
out as reflecting much discredit on him. It was that of 
a Mr. Peacham, an old clergyman nearly seventy years 
of age, who was arraigned on a charge of treason for a 
sermon that he never preached or published. This poor 
old man, while in torture on the rack, was examined by 
Bacon, and no confession was forthcoming. He was 
convicted, however, and though the sentence was not 
executed, he was allowed to pass the remainder of his 
days in prison, and to die there. 

The case of Sir Thomas Overbury, who was poisoned 
in the Tower in 1613, was a very interesting one, more 
especially on account of the fact that the Earl and 
Countess of Somerset were concerned in the tragedy. 
All these Star Chamber cases are carefully chronicled, 
but as far as one can ascertain very few of them were 
published as separate tracts, either at this time or at a 
later date. 

In 1618 Bacon became Lord High Chancellor of 
England, with the title Baron Verulam ; and the year 
following, Viscount St. Albans. Whenever he could 
free himself from his professional and parliamentary 
duties, he would retire to his beautiful and luxurious 
country seat at Gorhambury, where he lived in great 
pomp. Everything was here conducted in a most 
liberal and lavish spirit; nothing was wanting that 
might conduce to his happiness and peace of mind. 
For his gratification "musique was provided in the 
next room where he meditated," and " every meal, 



22 FRANCIS BACON 

according to the season of the year, he had his table 
strewed with sweet herbs and flowers which he said did 
refresh his spirits and memorie." All the appointments 
of the establishment and estate were on the same scale. 
The servants dare not approach him without their 
Spanish boots, and always wore livery adorned with 
his crest. He was reckless in his extravagance, and little 
wonder that he was never free from debt. 

All this seems like further evidence of the contra- 
dictory character of the man, for at the same time he 
used this quiet retreat for meditation and literary work. 
At this period of his career he was continually adding 
to and translating his essays, and finishing his great 
work, the Novum Organum. 

The year 1620 was an important one in the history 
of Bacon, for it may be said that at this date he 
actually reached the pinnacle of his fame and pros- 
perity. He had risen to great power through occupying 
the highest administrative positions in the land. His 
speeches and work had been applauded by the public, 
and his literary reputation had spread far beyond the 
limits of his own country. His residences, both in 
London and Gorhambury, were kept in a state be- 
fitting royalty itself. It seemed that all his ambitions 
had surely been realized. 

In the same year his Novum Organum was published. 
This colossal work had been his special study for 
many years, and indeed we marvel that a man, con- 
stantly engrossed with legal problems, parliamentary 
anxieties, and grave State concerns, could have com- 
piled such a grand philosophic fabric, the first book 
of which is, according to Macaulay, his "greatest 



LIFE OF BACON 23 

performance." Bacon, no doubt, considered himself 
that this was his maximum opus, for he took unusual 
care in the writing and preparation of it, and we are 
told by Rawley, his chaplain and biographer, that he 
had seen "twelve autograph copies of it corrected and 
improved." It was at once welcomed and admired by 
all scholars in England, but probably more especially 
by men of letters abroad, for, according to Rawley, 
" his fame is greater and sounds louder in foreign parts 
than at home in his own nation." 

The celebration of his sixtieth birthday in January 
of this year was an interesting event. It took place 
at York House in company with many old friends, and 
we find Ben Jonson among them. He composed a 
poem in honour of the day, which has been preserved, 
and in which the following lines appear : 

.... This is the sixtieth year 
Since Bacon, and thy Lord was born and here, 
Son to the grave wise Keeper of the Seal, 
Fame and foundation of the English weal. 

But a sudden and tragic fall from the high pedestal 
on which he stood was soon to prostrate him, and it 
is now necessary to briefly record the saddest event 
in his memorable life. That the catastrophe which 
darkened his latter days came as a great surprise to 
him there can be no doubt, and indeed little or no 
warning of his overthrow seems to have reached him. 
At first there was a cloud of murmur and suspicion 
that some form of corruption was permitted in the 
public service. It was not long before Coke, who was 
now the head figure in Parliament, vigorously began 
an inquiry, and soon the House of Commons recom- 



24 FRANCIS BACON 

mended that the Lords should deal with such an 
important matter. 

Bacon had an intimation from the King as to what 
was going on, but he had every confidence in his own 
unassailable position, particularly as he reckoned on 
the unwavering support of James and Buckingham. 
At the same time he knew what to expect from 
Coke's animosity should an opportunity arise for 
this old enemy to press any charges likely to injure 
him. 

A Committee from the House of Commons was now 
appointed to inquire into " The Abuses of Courts of 
Justice" (March, 1620). It was not long before the 
unhappy Lord Chancellor found himself charged with 
corruption, and special cases were immediately brought 
forward against him. Many accusers were not slow to 
press the charge of bribery ; a certain person Aubrey, 
among others, who affirmed that he had presented his 
lordship with a gift of .100. Another suitor, Egerton, 
had made him a presentation of 400, as well as 
valuable plate. Bacon was obliged to answer to all 
the special charges against him. He acknowledged 
himself guilty of corruption, but justified many of his 
acts by alleging that he received the gifts after judg- 
ment, or as New Year's gifts, etc. 

It was an accepted practice in those days for judges 
to accept presents and fees, and it has been suggested 
by Mallet that Bacon had doubtless been courted in 
this manner by certain persons who "afterwards received 
a verdict unfavourable to their expectations." These 
would take the opportunity of appearing as accusers. 
During the investigations Bacon was confined to his 



LIFE OF BACON 25 

house through illness. By many it was thought that 
his indisposition was pretended, and that he dare not 
face his judges. 

A Committee from the Lords then waited on him 
at his residence, and to their question, whether the 
signature to the confession were his, he replied, " My 
Lords, it is my act, my hand, my heart ; I beseech your 
lordships to be merciful to a broken reed ! " 

He was at once relieved of the Great Seal, and when 
the Commission arrived to receive it, his answer was, 
" By the King's great favour I have received the Great 
Seal ; by my own great fault I have lost it." 

No proof of his innocence could be suggested or 
maintained by the King or Buckingham, or even by 
himself, so none was attempted. The Lords declared 
him guilty, as was expected, and he was sentenced to 
" a fine of 40,000, to be imprisoned in the Tower 
during the King's pleasure, to be incapable of holding 
any public office, and of sitting in Parliament, or of 
coming within the verge of the Court," but he was not 
deprived of his titles of nobility ; the bishops saved 
him from this indignity. He was sent to the Tower, 
but only detained in prison one day, and the fine was 
subsequently remitted. 

Not being allowed to live near London, he now 
retired to his country seat at Gorhambury. Bucking- 
ham was extremely anxious to acquire York House for 
his own residence, and through the agency of friends 
eventually became possessed of it, though the method and 
intrigue employed reflected small credit on him and the 
other parties concerned. He intimated to Bacon, through 
his friend Sir Edward Sackville, that his liberty depended 



26 FRANCIS BACON 

on this sacrifice. One cannot vouch for the truthfulness 
of this assertion. 

Bacon wrote to the Lords appealing for his complete 
liberty, adding that he was " weak, ruined, in want, 
a very subject of pity." Bishop Williams, his successor 
to the office of Lord Keeper, was not favourable to his 
cause, and the favour shown to Bacon by James in 
assisting him in his pecuniary difficulties met with the 
Bishop's disapprobation. It was not till the year before 
the King's death (1624) that the sentence was completely 
pardoned. 

We are not surprised that his health was affected by 
this judgment, but his spirits were not totally crushed, 
and we find his indomitable energy shown in a letter to 
the King which ran as follows : " This is my last suit 
which I shall make to your Majesty in this business, 
prostrating myself at your mercy seat, after fifteen years' 
service, wherein I have served your Majesty in my poor 
endeavours with an entire heart, and, as I presumed 
to say unto your Majesty, am still a virgin for matters 
that concern your person and crown ; and only craving 
that after eight steps of honour, I be not precipitated 
altogether. But because he hath taken bribes is apt to 
give bribes. For if your Majesty will give me peace 
and leisure, and God give me life, I will present your 
Majesty with a good history of England, and a better 
digest of your laws." 

In spite of the degradation and ignominy lately 
heaped upon him, his ever active mind was still alert, 
the unquenchable ambition again asserting itself, and 
the happy allusion to bribes in the above letter showed 
that his wit had not forsaken him. 



LIFE OF BACON 27 

The King's confidence in Bacon's opinion on ques- 
tions of law and 'general administration remained 
unshaken. A few months after his freedom, James 
consulted him respecting the reform of the Courts of 
Justice, and Bacon, taking courage, makes overtures to 
the King as to his reinstatement and employment. He 
never again, however, acted in a public capacity. 

In his retirement we find him still pursuing his studies, 
and writing various pamphlets and letters, some of 
which have been preserved. Two of these tracts, 
entitled Some Considerations touching a War with 
Spain y and An Advertisement touching a Holy War, 
were written for Buckingham, and are supposed to be 
a kindly acknowledgment for his offices in relieving 
him of the final portion of his sentence. 

But the important work which issued from his pen 
at this time was his History of Henry VII, first pub- 
lished in 1622. The subject of this philosophic history 
is said to have been suggested by James himself. 
With the preparation of it he took the greatest care ; 
even the manuscript -was corrected by the King and 
others. On its completion copies were presented to 
the King, Queen of Bohemia, Buckingham, and the 
Lord Keeper. The latter's acknowledgment of the book 
" to his very good Lord the Lord Viscount St. Alban," 
well illustrates the character of this dignitary, who had 
so recently opposed Bacon's complete liberation. " My 
very good Lord I heartily thank your Lordship for 
your -book, and all other symbols of your love and 
affection, which I will endeavour, upon all oppor- 
tunities, to deserve, and in the meantime do rest your 
lordship's assured faithful poor friend and servant." 



28 FRANCIS BACON 

Bacon was anxious that it should be translated into 
Latin, as he says " those modern languages will, at one 
time or another, play the bankrupts with books," so it 
soon appeared both in Latin and French, and many 
editions followed. 

In the translations of many of his best works, espe- 
cially this history, it has been said that he was much 
indebted to Ben Jonson, Herbert, and other friends. 

In the year 1623 the Provostship to Eton College 
became vacant, and it is remarkable as an evidence of 
his energy and zeal for work even now, that he applied 
for the position. In a letter written to Sir Henry 
Saville many years before, after a visit to Eton, one 
finds that Bacon, among all his other exercises, had 
not neglected the question of the education of the 
young. It may have been that he now wished to turn 
his attention, in his declining years, to a more serious 
study in this department, also, probably, to augment his 
income, his pecuniary needs becoming more pressing. 
However that may be, he was unsuccessful in his 
application, and Sir Henry Wooton received the 
appointment. 

This was the last occasion on which Bacon sought 
any definite occupation outside his book-world. 

He now proceeded with his literary labours, publish- 
ing his De Augmentis,Historia Vitce^ Historia Ventorum, 
and other books, among which must be mentioned the 
final and complete edition of his Essays in the year 1625. 

An allusion must also be made here to certain 
literary productions, of a somewhat different character, 
which proceeded from his pen, viz., his translations 
into English verse of a number of the Psalms, dedicated 



LIFE OF BACON 29 

to George Herbert, as well as a few separate poetical 
pieces which are well known. Many of his prayers 
are beautiful, and are to be found, not only as special 
supplications in his hours of trouble, but also embodied 
in his best prose works, as at the beginning of the 
Instanratio Magna and the conclusion of the preface. 

His writings were mostly published both in English 
and Latin. He always had a predilection for the latter, 
and felt that his works would best live in the minds 
of posterity in that tongue, and be more universally 
read. He frequently takes the opportunity of empha- 
sizing this. For instance, in presenting the King with 
his De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum, he says, 
" For since my end of putting it into Latin was to 
have it read everywhere, it had been an absurd con- 
tradiction to free it in the language, and to pen it 
up in the matter." Referring to the Great Instauration, 
Tenison says in the Baconiana : Bacon " knowing that 
this work was desired beyond the seas, and being also 
aware that books written in a modern language, which 
receiveth much change in a few years, were out of use, 
he caused that part of it, which he had written in 
English, to be translated into the Latin tongue by 
Mr. Herbert and some others, \ who were esteemed 
masters in the Roman eloquence." 

Bacon was delicate from his birth, and never enjoyed 
robust health. We have this on the authority of many 
observers, such as Rawley, Aubrey, etc. ; and, indeed, 
he himself points to the fact in the Novum Organum : 
"If anyone, therefore, should despair, let him consider 
a man as much employed in civil affairs as any other 
of his age, a man of no great share of health, who 



30 FRANCIS BACON 

must therefore have lost much time." ... He seems 
to have been especially prone to attacks of giddiness 
and fainting. He was, however, most careful in his 
regimen, taking much precaution against ordinary 
ailments, and we do not know that he ever suffered 
from any protracted or serious illness. 

During the year 1625 it was noticeable that his 
health was beginning to fail, and the latter part of 
that year he remained altogether at Gorhambury. In 
a letter to a friend he writes : " I thank God by means 
of the sweet air of the country I have obtained some 
degree of health " ; also to Buckingham he says, " I 
have gotten some step into health " ; all showing that 
he was somewhat concerned as to his condition. Early 
in the following year, however, as an evidence of his 
improvement, he returned to Gray's Inn, the retreat 
he loved so well. 

Devotion to the cause of research and scientific 
investigation now brought this illustrious life to a 
close. During one of his excursions into the country 
he conceived the idea that animal substances might 
be preserved by means of snow ; as he himself puts 
it : "I was desirous to try an experiment or two 
touching the conservation and induration of bodies ; 
as for the experiment it succeeded excellently well." 
He procured a fowl from an old woman at Highgate 
and conducted the experiment himself. A severe 
chill was the result, and he was put to bed at the 
house of the Earl of Arundel. An acute illness, 
which his enfeebled frame could not withstand, im- 
mediately followed, and he died on the Qth of April, 
1626, at the age of sixty-five years. 




BACON'S MONUMENT IN ST. MICHAEL'S CHURCH 



LIFE OF BACON 31 

His will contained the following wish : " For my 
burial, I desire it may be in St. Michael's Church, near 
St. Albans : there was my mother buried, and it is the 
parish church of my mansion-house at Gorhambury, 
and it is the only Christian church within the walls of 
Old Verulam " ; and he bequeathed his " name and 
memory to men's charitable speeches, to foreign nations, 
and the next ages." 

His wife survived him twenty-four years. They left 
no family. In concluding this sketch of his life, a few 
considerations respecting his character, surroundings, 
and influences must be briefly noticed. It has been 
seen that at an early age he evinced a striking interest 
in philosophy and scientific methods of thought. As a 
boy he cared little for sports or the games of youth. 
He would even remain in seclusion, quite apart from 
others, engrossed in some scheme or problem of nature. 
His more philosophic works were probably planned 
before he was fifteen years of age, and his youthful 
sagacity was evident to all, including the Queen. When 
quite a lad he possessed a rapid and correct judgment, 
and in matters legal and philosophical he had the 
" courage of his convictions." This was shown in his 
college days and during his travels on the Continent. 
Though he was a great reader, Rawley says "he was 
no plodder upon books." No doubt his rapid perception 
would enable him to gather and assimilate all that he 
desired to use for his purposes with the least expenditure 
of time. The small things in nature never escaped his 
notice, and the peculiarities and functions of living 
bodies were always open to his investigation. His 
strongly developed imaginative faculty suggested many 



32 FRANCIS BACON 

phenomena of interest, and, as indicating the use he 
made of his powers and experiences in his daily walks, 
we find him, in his Sylva, discussing such psychical 
problems as " whether a man constantly and strongly 
believing that such a thing shall be that such a one 
shall recover a sickness or the like it doth help any- 
thing to the effecting of the thing itself," etc. As he 
advanced in years his imagination grew stronger, and it 
has been said that in this characteristic Burke resembled 
him. 

It may be assumed that the history of a life should 
never be considered apart from its environment or with- 
out a complete knowledge of the history of the period ; 
and when in the case of any person, be he lowly or 
exalted, one's attention is directed to certain traits of 
character calling for deliberate and fair treatment, judg- 
ment must be based on reliable data. It is to be 
regretted that the defects which unfortunately existed 
in the character of Bacon are often not only exaggerated 
through an ignorance of such considerations, but cited 
as condemnatory of his entire reputation. The first 
step, therefore, in the study of his life should be a study 
of the reigns of Queen Elizabeth and James the First, 
more especially the intricacies of the former period. This 
will at least have the effect of making the inquirer 
more sympathetic, and enable him to approach the 
subject in a truer spirit. 

Bacon was born with an unquenchable ambition, and 
this was the mainspring of his life. In the attainment 
of some of his objects he did not hesitate to resort to 
many practices and mean devices that shock our sense 
of morality and outrage our feelings. In his desire to 



LIFE OF BACON 33 

be popular with all men he sometimes overtaxed even 
his capabilities ; and in those days greater tact and 
judgment were necessary in the public service even 
than at present. 

That he found himself stooping to acts and conduct- 
ing cases which his conscience did not sanction, in order 
to further his own interests and assist him in climbing 
the ladder of fame, is true ; and for much of his con- 
duct I can find no palliation, no excuse. Further, 
I cannot agree with some of those writers who suggest 
that he possessed a high moral standard and keen 
appreciation of right and wrong. That he recognized 
such a standard, and could well differentiate the right 
from the wrong, one can quite understand, but that he 
actually possessed such attributes or lived up to them 
in all his dealings it is impossible to believe. In his 
meditations he no doubt had many an hour of remorse 
and bitterness for he was a man of tender feeling and 
religious instincts, and his mental punishment would be 
proportionate. Though appreciating all this, those who 
have watched his career with an unbiased eye must 
admit that he was hard and unyielding in his legal 
transactions, even to the point of cruelty, rather than 
that his personal aims should be thwarted or allowed to 
suffer. We have so many evidences that he was at 
heart a religious man, in the ordinary acceptation of 
the term, that it is quite unnecessary to enumerate 
them. His deep convictions in this respect are inter- 
woven in all his best works, and his Confession of Faith 
remains with us demonstrating his mental attitude 
towards Christianity. Macaulay, in alluding to his 
feelings regarding the moral sense of public bodies, says : 
3 



34 FRANCIS BACON 

" Bacon well knew to how great an extent the happi- 
ness of every society must depend on the virtue of its 
branches ; and he also knew what legislators can and what 
they cannot do for the purpose of promoting virtue." 

The early chroniclers of his history do not think it 
worth while to tell us much that pertains to his homely 
habits, conversations, or virtues. All that we know of 
this side of his life is much to his credit. In concluding 
this reference t(5 his private character, let us add a few 
words of his own from the preface to the Historia 
Naturalis, which will enlighten us as much as anything 
to be found in his life : "If, therefore, there be any 
humility towards the Creator, any reverence for or dis- 
position to magnify his works, any charity for man, and 
anxiety to relieve his sorrows and necessities, any love 
of truth in nature, any hatred of darkness, any desire 
for the purification of the understanding, we must in- 
terest men again and again, to discard, or at least set 
apart for a while those volatile and preposterous philo- 
sophies which have preferred these for hypotheses, led 
experience captive, and triumphed over the works of 
God ; and to approach with humility and veneration to 
unroll the volume of Creation, to linger and meditate 
thereon, and with minds washed clean from opinions to 
study it in purity and integrity." Is it not too evident, 
as has been tersely stated by a modern writer, that 
Bacon, " like other human beings, was a mixture of good 
and evil ; being a great man, in him both good and 
evil are on a large scale " ? In the inner struggles of his 
heart he must have often uttered with Faust the despair- 
ing cry : 

" Zwei Seelen wohnen ach ! in meiner Brust." 



LIFE OF BACON 35 

Taken altogether, such a character cannot be judged 
too harshly, and to denounce him as a learned profligate 
and knave, as some have done, only demonstrates an 
incomplete and biased study of the man and the age in 
which he lived. It has been said that Bacon worked 
only for fame, and many lesser lights in literature and 
politics have accentuated their opinions in regard to 
this. I can only affirm that his ambition was not out of 
proportion to his actual achievements, and whatever 
his motive, he has left us, as the result of his labours, 
a heritage that his countrymen will for all time be 
proud to acknowledge. He expected to live in the 
minds of posterity by his writings, though he felt that 
during his lifetime his abilities would be chiefly measured 
by his State successes. Through all his chequered 
career and full life we should remember that he never 
wearied in his devotion as a student of nature and a 
seeker after truth. Here his ambition led him to strive 
for and achieve some great good for mankind. In the 
words of Dean Church, " To teach men to know, is only 
next to making them good," and we should agree " that 
all generations to come must shield him from the insult 
of Pope's famous and shallow epigram " " Wisest, 
brightest, meanest of mankind." It is impossible to 
concur with a modern writer who insists " that of all 
the better known writers of the sixteenth century, even 
prose writers, Bacon is the most prosaic, the most 
insipid, and the most pedantic " ; but one is glad to read 
in his book that " there is much that is clever in 
Bacon's Essays, here and there depth and originality, 
although scarcely anything which wafts towards us, as 
it were, a high revelation, like one of the hundreds of 



36 FRANCIS BACON 

never-to-be-forgotten utterances of Shakespeare." My 
own idea has always been that the Essays are incom- 
parable in their " depth and originality," and moreover, 
convey truths with a power and charm that no writer in 
any form of literature has ever surpassed, not excepting 
even Shakespeare. 

As a speaker in the House of Commons and elsewhere 
his ability was early recognized. In difficult and obscure 
legal cases, such as those brought before the Star 
Chamber, he was much employed, owing to the fact that 
his methods of dealing with such were successful, though 
we cannot always reconcile those methods with our 
ideas of fairness and rectitude. It would seem that 
the noble purposes of his life were at times completely 
laid aside, and he would then not hesitate to satisfy his 
ambition by gaining some temporary distinction, even 
though it were necessary to treat some poor prisoner in 
the most cruel and tyrannical fashion. 

As to his eloquence we have much testimony, but the 
words of Ben Jonson, though already so frequently 
referred to by various writers, are worth quoting: "There 
happened in my time one noble speaker who was full of 
gravity in his speaking. His language, where he could 
spare or pass by a jest, was nobly censorious. No man 
ever spoke more neatly, more pressly, more weightily, 
or suffered less emptiness, less idleness in what he 
uttered. No member of his speech but consisted of his 
own graces. His hearers could not look aside from him 
without loss. He commanded where he spoke, and had 
his judges angry and pleased at his devotion. No man 
had their affections more in his power. The fear of every 
man that heard him was lest he should make an end." 



LIFE OF BACON 37 

Bacon loved luxury and graceful surroundings. He 
was always hampered with debts. In his younger days, 
we are told, he was even obliged to borrow money from 
the Jews, and his mother would frequently supply him 
with poultry and ale from the country house at 
Gorhambury. Later in life, when he resided there him- 
self, his table, decorations, servants, etc. all exhibited 
princely lavishness, and even when his liabilities were 
heaviest there was no diminution in his personal and 
domestic extravagance. At his death his debts amounted 
to 20,000. The regulation of his finances had no 
place in the methods of his philosophy! 

When we consider the vast amount of work that he 
accomplished literary, parliamentary, and judicial we 
wonder that a somewhat frail constitution could have 
endured the strain put upon it, more especially when 
much of his life was deluged with public anxieties and 
personal troubles. Pecuniary difficulties and the enmity 
of jealous office seekers at all times pursued him, so 
that he was obliged to allow himself frequent periods 
of rest and recreation ; but he never indulged in in- 
temperance or excess in his private life, much of which 
was spent at Gorhambury. By judiciously varying his 
form of study, by walking, driving in his coach, bowls, 
etc. he would here recover from the fatigue of public 
duties. The leisure devoted to his philosophic works 
was " recreation " to him. My business, he says, " found 
rest in my contemplations." 

It is difficult to estimate the influence that this great 
man exercised on those even of his own day. It is, of 
course, evident from the observations of Jonson and 
others this must have been considerable. In the force 



38 FRANCIS BACON 

of his reasoning, logical deductions, and imaginative 
powers he had no equal. His elegance in style and 
metaphor, coupled with a characteristic suavity of 
manner, at once raised him above contemporary 
speakers. In his persuasiveness and adroitness in bring- 
ing an apparently hopeless case to a successful issue, 
even Coke, his great rival, was in no sense his equal. 

Method was Bacon's watchword. In his keen atten- 
tion to detail and careful arrangement of facts in every 
department of his work, both public and private, how 
evident this is. It enabled him to wield that influence 
in the Star Chamber, and in his literature, which estab- 
lished his eminence. At the same time his mental 
processes were usually broad and comprehensive. This 
has been well described by one writer when he says : 
" For Bacon we claim the decided superiority in com- 
prehensiveness of mind. He alone seemed to take in 
at one glance the whole circumference of human know- 
ledge ; he alone knew how to assign to each separate 
branch its proper position, to detect the prejudices by 
which it was impeded, to furnish the true method by 
which advancement in every case was to be made." 

He was gifted with a good memory, and so he was 
constantly able to utilize those details which his obser- 
vant mind was at all times gathering and storing. The 
art of recalling impressions was a special study with 
him. 

He was a master in fine distinctions, and he saw 
"differences in apparent resemblances, and resemblances 
in apparent differences"; this it was that made him 
excel all others in his philosophic and scientific observa- 
tions. At the same time he was always clear and 



LIFE OF BACON 39 

unambiguous in his statements, and his language, 
though often aphoristic, was appropriate and seldom 
redundant, in spite of the frequent repetition of apt 
phrases and quotations. 

He lived in the reign of a king who did not and could 
not do justice to his talents, though he quite understood 
his abilities and power. He could no more depend on 
the allegiance of the Court officials than on the sym- 
pathy of Queen Elizabeth or James ; and his opponents 
and enemies in Parliament were ready to depreciate his 
best endeavours. Here was a man of extravagant 
tastes, impecunious, the object of jealousy, cared for by 
none, excepting a very few learned friends, and withal 
possessing an ambitious zeal to further the knowledge 
of mankind. In the light of such considerations, though 
fully recognizing Bacon's infirmities, let us not indulge 
in a too ready denunciation, but rather turn to his 
own acknowledgment, which he makes to Sir Thomas 
Bodley : "I do confess since I was of any under- 
standing my mind hath in effect been absent from that 
I have done, and in absence are many errors which I 
willingly acknowledge, and amongst the rest, this great 
one, which led the rest, that knowing myself by inward 
calling to be fitter to hold a book than to play a part, 
I have led my life in civil causes, for which I was not 
very fit by nature, and more unfit by pre-occupation of 
mind." 

That he spoke the words of his heart when he made 
this declaration we can have no doubt ; and though 
there is much that we can never excuse, there is more 
that we must ever admire and applaud in the life of this 
great man. 






THE WORKS OF BACON 

EARLY LITERATURE 

EFORE directing our attention to those greater 
JD and better known works of Bacon, it will be well 
to briefly notice some of those early productions, which 
are especially interesting to us, as indicating Bacon's 
method and line of thought whilst formulating his more 
ambitious philosophic schemes. 

His small tract known as Notes on the State of Europe 
was probably written in the year 1580, and is thought 
by Mallet to be his first literary effort. The original of 
this was formerly in the possession of Lord Oxford, but 
is now among the Harleian Manuscripts in the British 
Museum. It was printed in the Supplement to Stephens' 
Letters, etc. (second collection, 1734), and was reprinted 
by Mallet in 1760. It should be stated that Spedding is 
not quite satisfied with the evidence of its authenticity. 

Also, about this period, Bacon composed the draft of 
another work, which received the high-sounding title 
of Temporis partum Maximum ; this, however, in its 
imperfect form, produced little or no impression, except- 
ing on a few of his most interested admirers. Arch- 
bishop Tenison, speaking of it, says : " This was a kind 
of embryo of the Instauratio, and if it had been preserved 
it might have delighted and profited philosophical 
readers, who could then have seen the generation of 
that great work, as it were, from the first egg of it, and 



42 FRANCIS BACON 

by reference to the tract it will be seen that it was sound 
judgment." Many years afterwards we find an allusion 
to this fragmentary treatise in a letter to Father 
Fulgentio : " Equidem memini me quadraginta ad hue 
annis juvenile opusculum circa has res conficisse, quod 
magna prorsus fiducia et magnifico titulo Temporis 
Parturn Maximum." Spedding says : " This is probably 
the work of which Henry Cuffe (the great Oxford 
scholar, who was executed in 1601 as one of the chief 
accomplices in the Earl of Essex's treason) was speak- 
ing when he said that ' a fool could not have written it, 
and a wise man would not ! ' ' 

The Cogitata et Visa de Interpretatione Naturae was 
one of the most important of these early tracts, as much 
of the matter which it contained was reproduced in the 
Novuin Organum,and also because it introduced Bacon's 
primary ideas with regard to the Instauration. For 
these reasons it will be better to postpone further refer- 
ence to it until considering the greater work later. 

Valerius Terminus was the name given to a literary 
fragment, which according to Spedding contained " the 
germ of all that part of the Instauratio which treated of 
the ' Interpretation of Nature.' It was to be a state- 
ment of Bacon's method without professing either to 
give the collection of facts, to which the collection was 
applied, or the results thereby obtained." It was, in- 
deed, the precursor of the Advancement of Learning, 
and was written before the year 1605 the date of the 
publication of the latter work and this, in its turn, was 
to be still later expanded into the De Augmentis Scien- 
tiarum part I of the Great Instauration. 

Griiter collected in his Scripta in Naturali et Uni- 



EARLY LITERATURE 43 

versali Philosophia (1653) a number of the early philo- 
sophical pieces of Bacon, and entitled them Impetus 
Philosophici. This contained the preface to the Novum 
Organum, the Partis Secundae Delineatis et Argu- 
mentum, as well as a fragment of the Redargutio Philo- 
sophiarum. Spedding suggests that this latter " may be 
considered as the first chapter of the second part of the 
InstauratiO) as it was then designed," and he publishes 
it with the Delineatio in the third volume of his works. 
It may be added that these early tracts and fragmentary 
pieces may be found here, printed in full. 

In the supplement to the second edition of Stephens' 
collection (1734) may be seen two interesting tracts 
entitled Mr. Bacon in Praise of Knowledge and Mr. 
Bacon in Praise of his Sovereign, and the manuscripts 
of these are still preserved in the British Museum. 

It appears to have been customary in Elizabethan 
days to entertain royalty with pageants, or " Devices," 
as they were called, on notable festive occasions ; and 
on the anniversary of the coronation of the Queen in 
1595 Bacon and Essex both took part. It is said "that 
certain speeches, unquestionably written by Bacon, 
were delivered in a Device presented by Essex," and 
Spedding further adds, " I strongly suspect that two of 
the most interesting among his smaller pieces were 
drawn up for some similar performance in the year 
1592." He referred to those just mentioned, and the 
same authority goes on to say : " My reason for suspect- 
ing that they were composed for some masque or show, 
or other fictitious occasion, is partly that the speech in 
praise of knowledge professes to have been spoken in a 
Conference of Pleasure^ and the speech in praise of 



44 FRANCIS BACON 

Elizabeth appears, by the opening sentence, to have 
been preceded by three others, one of which was in 
praise of knowledge partly that, earnest and full of 
matter as they both are (the one containing the germ of 
the first book of the Novum Organum, the other of the 
Observations on a Libel, which are nothing less than a 
substantial historical defence of the Queen's govern- 
ment), there is nevertheless in the style of both a certain 
affectation and rhetorical cadence, traceable in Bacon's 
other compositions of this kind, and agreeable to the 
taste of the time." . . . 

Another important tract, most interesting from an 
historical point of view, issued from the pen of Bacon 
at this period probably in the year 1593. This was 
entitled Certain Observations made upon a Libel, and was 
written by him in answer to a pamphlet called the 
Responsio ad edictum Reginae Angliae, the work of a 
certain Father Parsons, who in it made grave charges 
on behalf of the Roman Catholics against the English 
Government after the Armada defeat. 

Those who are desirous of studying these early 
publications should consult Spedding's Works, the 
seventh volume of which contains those of most 
interest. 

In connexion with this part of our subject it is 
necessary to refer to an old manuscript (now known as 
the " Northumberland Manuscript ") that came under 
the notice of Mr. John Bruce in 1869, when examining 
various ancient documents belonging to the Duke of 
Northumberland, at Northumberland House, Charing 
Cross. This small folio, consisting originally of about 
twenty-two sheets, was found among certain documents 



/Lr."" 



^ 

_*.. 7"- - ,, 

e. *#" *^ 



' c 

r*^-A-> 



. i /-^v^V?^- ^"^ ^ ^/~ J 

/ ^ -,rf< S' f *'"Lj>>.4s><" /L f " .A titr Ijmii le Stfe vr/fasr~4ertue , \ 

r f^^***i^ j K^r-/^v \ - 1 ' , > *f (. * ^ J -*-\ 

. ^fi /vV /? 2. /i^ TS* /"'/'' y * '*? **** C H 

f^O^^/yi -4 ? y^ *-j^f JS 

^.^7c^^^/^( Jfiyj* ***&r*fi ^ .-{ 
rJZ&^J 'W &k55? jLreA / 

./^^.^^-^vo^o^^^^^- J 



-3^^' ' /r^-' If z, 

'*W"r2/ r \/i ^-~k L &A 
^t^y^j A uf t 

w w -. ,+J. t *&a*&~ 

+~*&ffM.SMt* 

*c/^.r''/r/ 



> 5 '"'ry "^^r 7 ^ 4-.T-* 

h? -^sp TT ifeaKSc 

-~"V"~ ?'"7* *>** A^^^**r^^TC G~<. <" 

r ^ ^m^r t~^'*%^ 

h3& ~ A ^JG& <ffi 



1 



' ^ S^s 

'cJ% 



X, C^a^ fajlfHfrfC&%f C "} 

^/ ^"> ^7 ^i^yy^/ 

I f+tiL >**^i& . '"*.-f/ ' 

~ ^F^- /5-*~ r- 



First page of the Northumberland Manuscript 



EARLY LITERATURE 47 

and pamphlets written in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 
It was a miscellaneous collection, and Mr. Bruce says : 
" Among the papers taken out of these boxes I found 
the transcripts of the papers of Bacon." In the Cata- 
logue of the Historical Manuscripts Commission, the 
manuscript is thus described : " Folio, A ' Conference 
of Pleasure ' by Francis Bacon ; with the manuscript is 
bound a large-paper Copy of the printed work ( 1 870)." 
The "large-paper copy" was edited by Spedding, and 
he published at the same time a smaller edition for 
public use. On the outer page, and at the top of the 
original document, will be seen the titles of the four 
addresses by Bacon, written in 1592, which were 
probably delivered at the " Device " in honour of the 
Queen already alluded to. These " Praises " are to 
Fortitude, Love, Knowledge, and the Queen, and appear 
here, as follows : 

" The Praise of the worthiest virtue." 
" The Praise of the worthiest affection." 
" The Praise of the worthiest power." 
" The Praise of the worthiest person." 

Although this page is much damaged, many interest- 
ing entries may readily be recognized, and it would 
seem that this was intended to serve as a sort of title 
page to the volume ; for we find, beside the names 
of Bacon and Shakespeare in repeated variations of 
style, scribbled irregularly all over it, such phrases as : 
" Philipp against Monsieur," " Speeches for my Lord 
Essex at the tylt"; "Orations at Graie's Inne re veils, 
by Mr. ffrancis Bacon " ; " Essaies by the same author " ; 
" Rychard the second"; "Rychard the third"; "Asmund 



48 FRANCIS BACON 

and Cornelia"; " He of dogs frmnt" (supposed to be 
a fragment by Thomas Nashe), etc. On an examination 
of the contents it will be found that some subjects not 
stated on the cover are included, while, "by accident 
or design," certain most important pieces mentioned on 
the outside page are missing, such as the plays of 
Shakespeare and the one by Nashe. From the cover, 
it originally contained the Essays, and this point has 
been thought important as indicating the probable date 
of the manuscript itself; for in the dedication of the 
first edition, Bacon says : " Loving & beloved Brother, I 
doe now like some that have an Orcharde ill neighboured, 
that gather their fruit before it is ripe, to prevent stealing. 
These fragments of my conceits were going to print. . . . 
Therefore I holde it best discretion to publish them my- 
selfe as they passed long ago from my pen, without any 
further disgrace, than the weaknesse of the Author." In 
the work of Mr. Frank Burgoyne, published in 1904, 
which deals exhaustively with this manuscript, it is 
stated : " This letter points to the extensive circulation 
of the Essays in manuscript, which would cease on their 
issue as a book. They were printed in January, 1597, 
and again in 1 598, and so were easily to be procured in 
book form after February, 1597. This appears to fix 
the date of the manuscript as about that period, for 
it is not reasonable to suppose that the expensive and 
printed editions had appeared. The same argument 
applies to the plays of Rychard ii and Rychard Hi, 
which are included in the list of contents. These, also, 
were first printed in 1597, and issued at a published 
price of sixpence each. It seems, therefore, reasonable 
to conclude that the manuscript was written not later 



EARLY LITERATURE 49 

than January, 1597, and it seems more probable that 
no part of the manuscript was written after 1596." 
Mr. Burgoyne, at the end of his volume, gives us fac- 
simile reprints of the pages of the manuscript. Mr. T. 
Le Marchant Douse also made an examination of this 
manuscript at Alnwick Castle, and published the results 
in 1903. He issues an excellent reproduction of the 
facsimile of the outside leaf from the original copy, 
which will be found in his work. 

Among the Harleian Manuscripts in the British 
Museum there is one of much interest, which seems 
beyond doubt to be the work of Bacon's own hand ; 
the title of this is Promus of Formularies and Elegancies, 
on the first page of which appears the date of 1 594 : it 
is presumed, therefore, that it was begun at this time. 
While referring the reader to the seventh volume of 
Spedding's Works for a short description of this, as well 
as to the Extracts which are quoted by him from 
the manuscripts, I cannot do better than repeat a por- 
tion of his introductory remarks referring to its nature 
and composition. " It consists of single sentences, set 
down one after the other without any marks between, 
or any notes of reference or explanation. This collec- 
tion (which fills more than forty quarto pages) is of the 
most miscellaneous character, and seems by various 
marks in the manuscript to have been afterwards 
digested into other collections which are lost. The 
first few pages are filled chiefly, though not exclusively, 
with forms of expression applicable to such matters as 
a man might have occasion to touch in conversation 
neatly turned sentences describing personal characters 
and qualities forms of compliment, application, excuse, 
4 



50 FRANCIS BACON 

repartee, etc. These are apparently of his own inven- 
tion, and may have been suggested by his own experi- 
ence and occasions. But interspersed among these are 
apophthegms, proverbs, verses out of the Bible, and 
lines out of the Latin poets, all set down without any 
order or apparent connection of subject, as if he had 
been trying to remember as many notable phrases as 
he could out of his various reading and observation, 
and setting them down just as they happened to present 
themselves. As we advance, the collection becomes 
more miscellaneous, as if his memory had been ranging 
within a smaller circumference. In one place, for in- 
stance, we find a cluster of quotations from the Bible, 
following one another with a regularity which may be 
best explained by supposing that he had been reading 
the Psalms, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes, and then the 
Gospels and Epistles (or perhaps some commentary 
upon them) regularly through. The quotations are in 
Latin, and most of them agree exactly with the Vul- 
gate, but not all. . . . Passing the Scripture series, we 
come again into a collection of a miscellaneous char- 
acter. Proverbs, French, Spanish, Italian, and English 
sentences out of Erasmus's Adagia verses from the 
Epistles, Gospels, Psalms, Proverbs of Solomon, lines from 
Seneca, Horace, Virgil, Ovid, succeed each other. . . . 
There is not much that is original in it, but the 
selected phrases and quotations are so set down, with- 
out comment or application, as to suggest that Bacon 
had intended to make use of them when the occasion 
presented itself." 

In 1883 Mrs. Pott published, for the first time, a 
complete transcript of this manuscript, " with a view to 



EARLY LITERATURE 51 

proving from internal evidence Bacon's authorship of 
the plays known as Shakespeare's," and she attempted 
to show that all the illustrations and quotations found 
here had been introduced for a definite and set purpose. 
For instance, she cites the fact that over two hundred 
proverbs here mentioned are borrowed from John Hey- 
wood's collection of epigrams published in 1562, and 
that three-fourths of these "have been found directly 
quoted or alluded to in the plays attributed to Shake- 
speare." Also, she further points to the fact that these 
proverbs are not made use of by Bacon in his " acknow- 
ledged writings." 

Dr. Abbott, while making it quite clear in his preface 
to Mrs. Pott's work that he does not accept her view 
as to Bacon's authorship of the Plays and Sonnets, 
admits at once that she "has shown that there is a 
very considerable similarity of phrase and thought 
between these two great Authors." And he proceeds 
with the following observations, the importance of 
which will be very evident to those interested in the 
Bacon-Shakespeare controversy : " The Promus seems 
to render it highly probable, if not absolutely certain, 
that Francis Bacon in the year 1594 had either heard 
or read Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Let the 
reader turn to the passage in that play where Friar 
Laurence lectures Romeo on too early rising, and note 
the italicised words : 

' But where unbruised youth with unstuff'd brain 
Doth couch his limbs, there golden sleep doth reign : 
Therefore thy earliness doth me assure 
Thou art up-roused by some distemperature.' 

Romeo and Juliet, 1 1. 3. 40. 



52 FRANCIS BACON 

" Now let us turn to entries 1 207 and 1215 in the 
following pages [Dr. Abbott here, of course, refers to 
Mrs. Pott's work], and we will find that Bacon, among 
a number of phrases relating to early rising, has these 
words almost consecutively, ' golden sleep ' and ' up- 
rouse.' One of these entries would prove little or 
nothing ; but anyone accustomed to evidence will per- 
ceive that twooi these entries constitute a coincidence 
amounting almost to a demonstration that, either (i) 
Bacon and Shakespeare borrowed from some common 
and at present unknown source, or (2) one of the 
two borrowed from the other. The author's belief is 
(pp. 95-7) that the play is indebted for these expres- 
sions to the Promus; mine is that the Promus borrowed 
them from the play. But in any case, if the reader 
will refer to the author's comments on this passage 
(pp. 65-7), he will find other similarities between the 
play and the Promus which indicate borrowing of 
some sort." Mrs. Pott's book, in the compilation of 
which infinite care and painstaking research have been 
expended, should be consulted by all who are in- 
terested in the study of Bacon, whether they agree 
or disagree with the conclusions she so ably endeavours 
to demonstrate. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE WORKS 



A STUDY of the works of Bacon, from any point of 
2\. view, necessitates some form of classification 
which shall be comprehensive and convenient. The one 
usually adopted is a division of his writings under the 
three heads : Philosophical, Literary, and Professional. 
Although it must be understood that no arbitrary 
division of such a vast accumulation of writings, on 
such varied subjects, could be attempted, as an aid to 
those who are only beginning the study of Bacon, this 
definite arrangement will be adhered to as closely as 
may be possible. 

(i) PHILOSOPHICAL 



Instauralio 
Magna. 



I. De Augmentis Scientiarum. 
II. Novum Organum. 

III. Phenomena Universi. 

IV. Scala Intellectus. 
V. Prodromi. 

VI. Philosophia Secunda. 



(2) LITERARY 

The Essays, with the Colours of Good and Evil ; 
Historical, Religious, and Poetical Works ; Apophthegms, 
New and Old ; The Wisdom of the Ancients. 

53 



54 FRANCIS BACON 

(3) PROFESSIONAL 

Many speeches and legal papers come under this 
heading, but the consideration of these must be left 
until the more important literary works of Bacon have 
had our attention. 

THE PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS 

INSTAURATIO MAGNA 

Bacon's great philosophic conception is included 
under the head of the Great Instauration, and the 
component parts of this gigantic scheme are those six 
productions already referred to. The idea of this 
undertaking dawned on him during his student days 
at Gray's Inn, and through the busy and anxious years 
that followed he continued to accumulate facts which 
served to illustrate his ambitious design. A short time 
before his death he says : " In that purpose my mind 
never waxed old, in that long period of time it never 
cooled." Many literary fragments and notes from his 
pen prove the correctness of his words. One of his 
youthful productions bearing on the matter, and which 
he entitled the Greatest Birth of Time, has been 
destroyed, and all that now remains of it are some 
undated fragments of manuscript (already referred to), 
with the title, Partus Temporis Masculus, substituted. 
Indeed, the component works of the Instauratio were 
augmented and altered many times before the final 
design was brought before the public, and of course it 
was not then in a complete form. A much longer life 
than Bacon's could not hope to accomplish such an 



OPEKA 

FRAN CISC I 

BAR ONIS 

D E 

VERVLAMIO, 

VICE-CO M ITIS 

SANCTI ALBANI; 



T O M V S P R I M V S; 



Qui continct 
*De 'Dignhate & dugmentii Sci 

L i B R o s IX. 



AD REGEM SVVM. 




In Officina IOANNIS HAVILAND. 
MDCXXIIL 



INSTAURATIO MAGNA 57 

undertaking as he proposed. Ellis, in his work, says: 
" The Instauratio is divided into six portions : the first 
is to contain a general survey of the present- state of 
knowledge. In the second, men are to be taught how 
to use their understanding aright in the investigation 
of nature. In the third, all the phenomena of the 
universe are to be stored up as in a treasure house, as 
the materials on which the new method is to be em- 
ployed. In the fourth, examples are to be given of its 
operation and of the results to which it leads. The 
fifth is to contain what Bacon had accomplished in 
Natural Philosophy, without the aid of his own method ; 
'ex eodem intellects usu quern alii in inquirendo et 
inveniendo adhibere consueverunt.' It is therefore less 
important than the rest, and Bacon declares that he 
will not bind himself to the conclusions which it con- 
tains. Moreover, its value will altogether cease when 
the sixth part can be completed, wherein will be set 
forth the new philosophy the results of the application 
of the new method to all the phenomena of the universe. 
But to complete this, the last part of the Instauratio, 
Bacon does not hope ; he speaks of it as a thing, ' et 
supra vires et ultra spes nostras collocata.' " 

DE AUGMENTIS SCIENTIARUM 
Instauratio Magna, Part I 

The first edition of this work was published in 1623, 
under the full title of Tomus primus, qui continet de 
dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum, Libros IX, and was 
considered by Archbishop Tenison as the " fairest and 
most correct edition." It is one of the rarest of English 



58 FRANCIS BACON 

classics, and is seldom met with in the original. Of 
course there is a copy to be seen in the British Museum. 
It was written in Latin, as Bacon had small hopes that 
his books would live in the English tongue. Writing 
to his friend, Tobie Mathew, he says : " For these 
modern languages will at one time or another play the 
bank-rowte with books." 

The Advancement of Learning, published in i6o5> 
was the forerunner of the De Augmentis. The latter 
is, indeed, the expansion and remodelling of the former. 
The full title of this book was The Twoo Bookes of 
Francis Bacon. Of proficiencie and advancement of 
Learning, divine and humane. It appeared first as a 
small quarto of 118 leaves, and was not reprinted till 
1629. A third edition, known as the " Oxford Edition," 
came out in 1633. 

In the year 1640 Gilbert Watts published a retransla- 
tion into English of the enlarged Latin work of nine 
books. This was of folio size, and contained the 
portrait of Bacon. A second edition of this followed in 
1674. Some fragments and notes written by him early 
in life, such as the Cogitationes de Scientia Humana and 
A Discourse in Praise of Knowledge were expanded and 
grafted into this greater effort. 

The Advancement at once placed Bacon in the fore- 
most rank both as a writer and thinker ; for, at the 
time, this work was received with even more acclamation 
than the Essays. No doubt in it his literary genius 
shines out to the full, and of all contemporary books of 
secular interest it was the finest. It directed men " how 
to think of knowledge, to impress upon them all that 
knowledge might do in wise hands for the elevation and 



THE 

Tvvoo Bookes of 

FRANCIS BACON. 

Of the proficience and aduance^ 

ment of Learning, diuine and 

humane. 

To tbe in* 



AT LONDON, 

Printed for Henrie Tomes, and 

are to be fould at his (hop at Graics Innc 
in Hclbcrnc. i f o j. 



NOVUM ORGANUM 61 

benefit of man ; to warn them against the rocks and 
shallows of error and fallacy which beset the course and 
inquiry, and to elevate the quest of truth, and the 
acquisition of wisdom into the noblest aim and best 
assured hope of the human species." 

NOVUM ORGANUM 
Instauratio Magna, Part II 

When this work was first published in 1620, though 
well received by many, it did not meet with entire 
approval. 

The King just then was not in a very favourable 
frame of mind towards Bacon, and his opinion of the 
book was embraced in the remark that " it was like 
the peace of God, it passed all understanding." Neither 
was Coke's judgment of a flattering character ; for he 
takes the opportunity of snubbing the author, as he 
wittily plays on the frontispiece of his ex auctore copy, 
and Brant's allegorical ship, by writing between the 
pillars of Hercules these lines : 

" It deserveth not to be read in Schools 
But to be freighted in the Ship of Fools." 

It appeared in folio, with an engraved title by Pass, 
and contained a preface and dedication to James the 
First. 

Interesting portions of the work had been submitted 
to several of his friends, including Sir Thomas Bodley 
and Bishop Andrews, the best known and most 
esteemed treatise being the Cogitata et Visa. This was 
written in 1608, and may be considered as the origin and 



62 FRANCIS BACON 

foundation of the Novum Organum. From Bodley's 
words that the book " showed him a master-workman," 
it is evident that it was highly appreciated, and the 
further eulogium was added : " That it could not be gain- 
said but all the treatise over did abound with choice 
conceits of the present state of learning and with worthy 
contemplations of the means to procure it." The 
Cogitata was written in Latin, and was, in reality, the 
completed form of a tract which he had previously 
compiled in English but never finished, called the Clue 
of the Labyrinth (Filum Labyrtnthi}. The work in its 
finished state was aphoristic in style, and carried great 
weight on account of its directness of thought. 

It was not actually published until the year 1653, when 
Griiter included it in his little volume of that year, 
(whichwill be further noticed in the"posthumous works"), 
and an interesting allusion to this publication, and also 
to that of the De Augmentis, issued at Leyden in 1645 
by the same author, may be found in Mr. Edwin Reed's 
work on Francis Bacon our Shakespeare (1902). 

The Novum Organum was written in Latin, and 
although portions of it were translated into English at 
various times by Watts in 1640, also in the Resuscitatio 
(1671 edition), etc. a complete translation did not 
appear till the year 1733 ; this was made by Dr. Peter 
Shaw. 

It was divided into two books, and annexed to those 
was the Parasceue, which is considered the beginning 
of the third part of the Instauratio, the Natural History 
proper, and which the author calls "Parasceue ad 
historiam Naturalem et experimentalem" together with 
a Catalogus historiarum particularium secundem capita. 




TITLE-PAGE OK THE FIKST EDITION OF THE " NOVU.M ORGANUM," 1620 



NOVUM ORGANUM 63 

The Parasceue has a separate pagination. The first 
book of the Novum Organum is the most important 
and interesting. 

In character of expression this great work retained 
much of that aphoristic method found in the Essays 
and some of his later works. In substance it contained 
the meditations and thoughts of many anxious years. 
It fully explains his philosophic reasoning founded 
on the new Inductive method, and was prepared 
throughout with the utmost care. Rawley tells us 
that he had " seen at least twelve copies of the 
Instauration, revised year by year, and every year 
altered and amended." At Gray's Inn, during his 
legal studies in his public life, and while he was 
indulging in his recreations, his constant devotion to 
this scheme the most important subject and problem 
of his life never forsook him. It was, indeed, the 
study of his life, and one has little doubt but that 
the full accomplishment of the Instauratio was a greater 
ambition in his life than the dignity of Chancellorship 
and the Great Seal. Much has been written with 
regard to the method pursued and views expressed 
in this work, and in this study it is not proposed to 
discuss these, but the chief object of his philosophy 
is well described in a few lines by Macaulay, when 
he says : " In Bacon's opinion philosophy was made 
for man ; it was a means to an end, and that end 
was to increase the pleasures and mitigate the pains 
of millions, who are not and cannot be philosophers." 
Bacon, here, took a strong stand against the old 
process of reasoning and the previous philosophical 
methods which proceeded from insufficient data or 



64 FRANCIS BACON 

hypotheses without any foundation of fact. He 
attempted to make evident, and once for all banish, 
the pitfalls of syllogistic reasoning, the conclusions 
of which could only be founded on unreliable premises ; 
alone being content to go back to " first principles," 
and thence proceeding by a scientific and true method 
of deduction. This, indeed, was the chief aim of his 
work. Thus would his observations and experiments 
provide a sure basis for reasoning, and we must 
acknowledge that he did much to establish this great 
lesson, without which no true advance in any science 
can be made. 



PHENOMENA UN1VERSI 
Instauratio Magna, Part III 

Under this head we have those works which treat 
more especially of Natural Philosophy and Natural 
History. Bacon arranges his subjects in separate 
treatises as follows : 

1. Historia Naturalis et Experimentalis ad condendam 

philosophiam : Sive Phoenomena Universi: Quae 
est Instauratio Magna Pars Tertia, 
This was first issued in the year 1622 in an octavo 
volume of 285 pages. 

2. Sylva Sylvarum. 

The first, or Historia Naturalis, included the follow- 
ing subjects, with the distinct titles : 

(a) Historia Ventorum. 

(b) Historia Densi et Rari. 



FRANCISCI 

BARONIS 

VERVLAMIO 

VICE-COMITIS 

SANCTI ALB A NT, 

HISTORIA NATVRALIS 

ET EXPERIMENTALIS 

AD CONDENDAM 

PHILOSOPHIAM: 

SlVE, 

PHENOMENA VNIVERSI: 

Quae eltlnftaurationis Magnac 

PARS TERT1A. 




Ir O M D X N I, 

In OflScina IO.HAVILAKD, impcnfis 

Matthzi Lmitfstt Guiliclrni Barf it. 
I 6 L I. 



This particular copy belonged to Isaac Walton. See bis initials at the top of the page 

5 



HISTORIA NATURALIS 67 

(c) Historia Gravis et Lev is. 

(d) Historia Sympathiae et Antipathiae Rerum. 

(e) Historia Sulphuris, Mercurii et Salis. 
(/) Historia Vitae et Mortis. 

The Historia Ventorum appeared in full, and the 
Introductions only of the remaining five portions. 
Bacon's anticipations were not realized in this work ; 
for although the Historia Vitae et Mortis was separately 
published two months later (January, 1623) the Historia 
Densi et Rari did not appear until 1658, when Rawley 
inserted it in his Opuscula Varia Posthuma. The 
remaining three were not issued at all as separate 
tracts, but the subjects were subsequently discussed 
in the Sylva Sylvarum. 

As we approach this period of Bacon's work we 
become more fully alive to his design and scheme of 
philosophical inquiry. While the task he imposed upon 
himself was greater than he could possibly accomplish, 
he never wearied in the attempt, for his self-reliance 
and belief in his own abilities at no time forsook him. 
He now proceeds to emphasize the necessity for a clear 
comprehension of such phenomena as " Concretes 
Latent Processes and Latent Configurations," in support 
of his Inductions ; as he says in his dedication of the 
Historia Naturalis to the Prince of Wales : " For a 
small well-ordered Natural History is the key of all 
knowledge and operation." His study in this respect 
was most serious, and he now arrives at the conclusion, 
as Dr. Abbott states, that " even if the Organum were 
completed and men willing to use it, they could make 
little progress without the Natural History'' " Whereas 



68 FRANCIS BACON 

the Natural History without the Organum would ad- 
vance it not a little. . . . But all this devotion and 
pathetic confidence cannot conceal the fact that his trust 
in the new Natural History appears to increase in pro- 
portion to his distrust of the New Induction ; and it is 
startling indeed to find the term " key " now transferred 
from the latter to the former, which he now ventures to 
call " the key of all knowledge and operation." 

Historia Ventorum 

As we have already stated, this, the opening treatise 
in the Historia Naturalis, was published in 1622, and it 
was afterwards translated into English in the year 1653, 
in a small duodecimo volume, which contained a portrait 
of Bacon, by Cross. In this, Bacon conducts an elabor- 
ate inquiry into various subjects and experiments 
thirty-three in all which are mostly borrowed from 
the Natural Histories of Pliny, Aristotle, and Acosta. 
In accordance with his own views and observations, he 
describes the action of the air on the vanes of a wind- 
mill ; the rigging and method of sailing of a battleship, 
etc. ; but the work, as a whole, possesses no value from 
a scientific point of view, and is seldom referred to at 
the present day. 

Historia Vitae et Mortis 

Of the remaining five subjects which Bacon attempts 
to deal with in the Historia Naturalis by far the most 
important is the Historia Vitae et Mortis, and conse- 
quently we may next briefly consider it. The completed 
work was first published in 1623, as a small octavo 
edition, and was written in Latin, as were all the other 



NATURALL 

AND 

Experimentall 

HISTORY 

O F 

WINDS * c 



Written in Larinc by the Right 

Honorable frAnci* Lo.- Vt- 

rut am, Vi (count St Alb An . 



TranflatedintoEnglifli by 
/?. C.Gent. 



LONDON, 

Printed for Humphrey tJMcfcley, at 

the Princes Aimef in St Pauls 

Church- yard ^and The. Drig 

at the George in Fleet- 

ftrcct. i 5 j 



HISTORIA VITAE ET MORTIS 71 

works included in the Historia Naturalis. A very good 
and reliable English edition by William Rawley ap- 
peared in 1638. 

Bacon himself attached much importance to this 
effort, dealing, as it did, with "the prolongation and 
setting up of human life." It was prepared with much 
care and attention to detail, and was the last publication 
during his life. In it he describes how the processes of 
life influence longevity, and attempts to establish a 
theory of the presence of a vital spirit permeating all 
animals and plants, the properties of which cannot be 
determined. He then deals with the " quantity," 
"quality," and "regulation of spirit," and lastly with 
the " effects of spirit upon the body." He extended his 
inquiries and observations to many matters bearing on 
the preservation of health and longevity, as well as 
" the causes of the consumption of the body and the 
modes of reparation." This work is of considerable 
interest, and though not now much read, was formerly 
held in high esteem. 

Historia Densi et Rari 

This tract was written in the year 1623, and the 
Introduction of it was also included in the Historia 
Naturalis. It was not published, however, until 1658, 
when it appeared in the Opuscula Varia Posthuma Philo- 
sophica of Rawley. It was an unfinished manuscript, 
and that portion of it which has come down to us was 
printed by Spedding, who says that Rawley's copy is 
his " only authority for the text," and that the condi- 
tion of the manuscript when found is not stated. Sped- 
ding adds, " I apprehend, however, that it came into his 



72 FRANCIS BACON 

hands unfinished or mutilated." It deals with various 
experiments conducted by Bacon with reference to 
specific gravities, the density of bodies, conversion of 
fluids into air, and many problems of a like nature. 
Ellis says that his Table of Specific Gravities is the only 
collection of quantitative experimental results that we 
find in Bacon's works ; and I would refer any one inter- 
ested in this special department of investigation to 
Ellis's excellent Preface on the subject, which fully 
explains Bacon's views. 

The remaining three subjects grouped under the His- 
toria Naturalis, viz. those relating to The Heavy and the 
Light, The Sympathies and Antipathies of Things, and 
Sulphur, Mercury, and Salt, are only fragmentary, being 
represented in this connexion merely by their Introduc- 
tions. 

Several additional treatises, mostly unfinished, in the 
same line of thought, may here be mentioned, such as 
those on Light, Sound, and the Magnet. The last- 
mentioned, with the title Inquisitio de Magnete, was 
published by Rawley in his Opuscula. Mr. Spedding 
says that it may be regarded as a loose leaf belonging 
to the third part of the Instauratio. 

Sylva Sylvarum 

In my classification I have thought it wise to 
include this work under the Phoenomena Universi, 
though, from the nature of its contents, it is somewhat 
difficult to assign an appropriate place for it. It was 
written about the year 1624, but was not published by 
Dr. Rawley till 1627, the year after Bacon's death, 
under the title Sylva Sylvarum, or a Naturall Historie 



FRANCISCI 

BARONIS 

-VERVI/AMIO, 

VICE-COMITIS 

SANCTI AJLBANI, 
Hiftoria Vit* & **Morti&. 

Si VE, 

TITVLVS SECVNDVS 

in Hiftoria Natural! & Experimental! 
ad condendam Philofbphiam : 

Quaeeft 



PARS TERTIA 



L O N D I N I, 

In Officina IO.HAVILAND, impenfis 

MATTHAEI LOWNES. 



SYLVA SYLVARUM 75 

in Ten Centuries. It appeared in folio, and contained a 
portrait of Bacon and a beautiful engraved title by 
Thomas Cecill, bearing the Latin quotation "etvidit Deus 
lucem quod esset bona" Rawley in his preface dedicates 
the work to King Charles I, beginning thus: "The 
whole body of the Naturell Historic, either designed or 
written by the late Lo. Vicount S. Alban, was dedi- 
cated to your Majestic, in his Booke de Ventis, about 
foure yeeres past, when your Majestic was Prince : So 
as there needed no new Dedication of this Worke, but 
only, in all humblenesse, to let your Majestic know, it 
is yours." 

The New Atlantis, a Worke Unfinished, has a place 
at the end of the volume, and Rawley says in his 
preface (" to the Reader ") of the work : " This Worke 
of the New Atlantis (as much as concerneth the Eng- 
lish Edition) his Lordship designed for this place ; In 
regard it hath so neare affinity (in one part of it) with 
the Preceeding Naturall History" The Sylva was pub- 
lished in English, and was reprinted in 1635, 1639, and 
many subsequent editions. There have been differ- 
ences of opinion as to the origin of the title. Sped- 
ding's suggestion that Bacon here meant the idea of " a 
Collection of Collections " is probably the most reason- 
able one. The work is indeed a miscellaneous collec- 
tion of various experiments and observations, many of 
which appear to us at the present day not only unscien- 
tific, but unreasonable and ridiculous. As Fowler says, 
however, " it is probably the best and most complete 
single collection of the kind that up to that time had 
been published." 

Bacon not only gives minute details of many experi- 



76 FRANCIS BACON 

ments made by himself, but also refers to many facts 
recorded by Aristotle, Pliny, Sandys, etc. All these are 
contained in one thousand paragraphs; and, as showing 
the nature and diversity of the subjects discussed, a few 
may be mentioned, such as the following: The con- 
version of air into water, Nature of flame, Actions of 
various medicines on the body, Nutritive value of meats 
and drinks, Diets, Musical sounds, Germination of plants, 
Sleep, Preservation of bodies, Odours, Sympathy of 
men's spirits, etc. 

The New Atlantis 

It will be convenient to consider this work here, not 
only because it was published at the conclusion of the 
first edition of the Sylva Sylvarum, as "his Lordship 
designed," but also for the reason that it was con- 
sidered by the author himself to have a " neare affinity 
with the Naturall History" 

Though probably written about the year 1624, it was 
first issued though the title page bears no date in 
1627, and it was subsequently many times reprinted, 
appearing with every edition of the Sylva up to the 
year 1676. It was translated into French in 1631, and 
into Latin in 1633. A good translation into the latter 
tongue by Rawley in 1638 came out in folio form, along 
with other productions of Bacon ; and finally, among 
the reproductions may be mentioned an article entitled 
Essay VI I ^ the Summe of my Lord Bacon's New Atlantis, 
published in 1676 in a volume bearing the general title 
Essays on several important Subjects in Philosophy and 
Religion, by Joseph Glanvill, Chaplain in Ordinary to 
His Majesty. 



In ten Centuries 

\Vnttm ty the rtaht - 
^Vffctunt 




TITLE-PAGE OF THE FIRST EDITION OF THE " SYLVA SYLVARUM," 1627 



NEW 

ATLANTIS 

A Worke vnfinished. 



Written by the Right Honourable,FRANcis 
LordVerulam, Vifcount S. 




NEW ATLANTIS 79 

The introduction "To the Reader" by Rawley runs 
as follows : 

"This fable my lord devised, to the end that hee 
might exhibite therein, a modell or description of a 
college, instituted for the interpreting of nature, and the 
producing of great and marvellous works for the benefit 
of men ; under the name of Salomons House, or the 
College of the Six Dayes Works. And even so farre 
his lordship hath proceeded as to finish that part Cer- 
tainly, the modell is more vast and high than can possibly 
be imitated in all things ; notwithstanding most things 
therein are within men's power to effect. His lordship 
thought also in this present fable, to have composed a 
frame of lawes, or of the last state or mould of a 
commonwealth ; but foreseeing it would be a long 
worke, his desire of collecting the Naturall Historie 
diverted him, which he preferred many degrees before 
it. This worke of the New Atlantis (as much as con- 
cerneth the English edition) his lordship designed for 
this place ; in regard it hath so neere affinitie (in one 
part of it) with the preceeding Naturall Historie? 

This work has always been held in high esteem, and 
although left in an unfinished state, it certainly is one 
of Bacon's most interesting productions. Spedding 
says : " Among the few works of fiction which Bacon 
attempted, the New Atlantis is much the most con- 
siderable." It is interesting to note that it is supposed 
to have " suggested the foundation and programme of 
our own Royal Society." 

Bacon's principal object in the execution of this work 
seems to have been to establish the idea of " a model 



8o FRANCIS BACON 

political constitution and a model college of philo- 
sophy " ; as he here says, " The end of our foundation is 
the knowledge of causes and secret notions of things 
and the enlarging of the bounds of human empire, to 
the effecting of all things possible." His method and 
treatment of the whole subject exhibit his imaginative 
genius to an extent not to be found in any of his other 
literary productions. 

After a truly original description of a "voyage 
imaginaire," attended with great privation and hard- 
ship, a Utopian "fair city" on an unknown island is 
discovered in the Pacific Ocean. He presents the 
picture of an ideal institution under the designation 
of " Solomon's House," existing in a State the model 
of perfection where there was to reign a happy 
constitution of superior intellectual development. The 
riches, joys, and fascinations of this fair spot, as well 
as the necessary accessories to the well-being and 
scientific advancement of man, are recounted by the 
" Father of the House." And finally, various devotional 
exercises are described for the " illumination " of their 
labours, and for " the turning them into good and holy 
issues." 

The character of the work may possibly not appeal 
to all, but it is well written, and leads the reader to 
contemplate a condition of things that Bacon vainly 
anticipated might be the ultimate realization of his 
natural history work "carried on through successive 
generations." 



SCALA INTELLECTUS AND PRODROMI 81 

SCALA INTELLECTUS AND PRODROMI 
Instauratio Magna, Parts IV and V 

With reference to these two treatises one has little 
to say, beyond the fact that Bacon had here intended to 
instruct us how "to gradually ascend the logical ladder 
(per scalam veram)," after we had accumulated the 
necessary experiences and observations in our Natural 
History studies. He did not get very far in this, how- 
ever, for only a very small portion of either of them is 
left to us. Rawley makes no mention of them, and 
the date of their composition is not known. What 
remains of them was published by Griiter in 1653. It 
was Spedding's opinion "that they were intended as 
prefaces to the fourth and fifth part of the Instauratio 
respectively." 

Whatever Bacon may have written of the last part 
of the Instauratio the Philosophia Secunda it was 
never published, and we know nothing of it beyond the 
fact that it was probably intended " to contain the re- 
sults of the application of the New Philosophy to all 
Phenomena." 

THE LITERARY WORKS 

Of all Bacon's works the one that stands highest in 
popularity and importance is his earliest literary pro- 
duction The Essays. They were first published in a 
small duodecimo volume in the year 1597, with the 
title Essayes, Religious Meditations, Places of Perswa- 
sion & Disswasion Scene & allowed, and dedicated to 
his " deare Brother M. Anthony Bacon/' as follows : 
6 



82 FRANCIS BACON 

" Loving and beloved Brother, I doe nowe like some 
that have an Orcharde ill neighboured, that gather 
their fruit before it is ripe, to prevent stealing. These 
fragments of my conceites were going to print ; to 
labour the staie of them had been troublesome, and 
subject to interpretation ; to let them passe had beene 
to adventure the wrong they mought receive by untrue 
Coppies, or by some garnishment, which it mought 
please any that should set them forth to bestow upon 
them. Therefore I helde it best discreation to publish 
them my selfe as they passed long agoe from my pen, 
without any further disgrace, than the weaknesse of the 
Author. And as I did ever hold, there mought be as 
great a vanitie in retiring and withdrawing men's 
conceites (except they bee of some nature) from the 
world, as in obtruding them : So in these particulars 
I have played my selfe the Inquisitor, and find nothing 
to my understanding in them contrarie or infectious to 
the state of Religion, or manners, but rather (as I 
suppose) medicinable. Only I disliked now to put 
them out, because they will be like the late new halfe- 
pence, which though the Silver were good, yet the 
pieces were small. But since they would not stay with 
their Master, but would needes travaile abroade, I have 
preferred them to you that are next my selfe, Dedi- 
cating them, such as they are, to our love, in the depth 
whereof (I assure you) I sometimes wish your infirmities 
translated upon myselfe, that her Majestic mought 
have the service of so active and able a mind, and 
I mought be with excuse confined to these Con- 
templations and Studies for which I am fittest, so 
commend I you to the preservation of the divine 



Effayes. 

Religious Meditations. 
Places of perfwafion and 

diflwafion. 



Scene and allowed. 




AT LONDON, 

Printed for Hum frcy Hooper, and arc 

to be fold at the blackc Bcarc 

in Chaunccry Lane. 

I f 9 7- 



THE ESSAYS 85 

Majestic. From my Chamber at Graies Inne this 
30 of Januarie 1597." 

It contained only ten Essays, the subjects of which 
were as follows : 

(i) Of Studie. (2) Of Discourse. 

(3) Of Ceremonies and Respects. 

(4) Of Followers and Friends. (5) Of Sutors. 
(6) Of Expence. (7) Of Regiment of Health. 

(8) Of Honour and Reputation. 

(9) Of Faction. (10) Of Negociating. 

These were printed in English, as was also The 
Coulers of Good and Evill, at the end of the volume. 
The Meditationes Sacrae occupied a place between 
the two, and appeared in Latin. They had each a 
separate title page. The pagination of the Colours 
and Meditations was continuous, and independent of 
that of the Essays. 

A second edition was issued in 1598 (in this the 
Meditationes Sacrae were translated into English), and 
they were further reprinted in 1604 and 1606. In 1612 
an enlarged edition, printed by John Beale, was pub- 
lished, dedicated to his " loving Brother " Sir John 
Constable, containing, according to the " Table of 
Contents," forty Essays, but the last two on Of 
Publikes and Of Warre and Peace were not included. 
This edition contained the Essays only, and " The 
Table " enumerates the subjects as follows : 

(i) Of Religion. (2) Of Death. 

(3) Of Goodness and Goodness of Nature. 

(4) Of Cunning. (5) Of Marriage and Single Life. 



86 FRANCIS BACON 

(6) Of Parents and Children. (7) Of Nobilitie. 
(8) Of Great Place. (9) Of Empire. 
(10) Of Counsell. (11) Of Despatch. 
(12) Of Love. (13) Of Friendshippe. 
(14) Of Atheism. (15) Of Superstition. 

(16) Of Wisdom for a Man's selfe. 

(17) Of Regiment of Health. (18) Of Expenses. 
(19) Of Discourse. (20) Of Seeming Wise. 
(21) Of Riches. (22) Of Ambition. 

(23) Of Young Men and Age. (24) Of Beautie. 
(25) Of Deformitie. (26) Of Nature of Men. 
(27) Custome and Education. (28) Of Fortune. 
(29) Of Studies. (30) Of Ceremonies and Respects. 
(31) Of Sutors. (32) Of Followers, 
(33) Of Negociating. (34) Of Faction. 
(35) Of Praise. (36) Of Judicature. 

(37) Of Vaine Glory. 

(38) Of Greatness of Kingdomes. 

(39) Of tne Publikes. (40) Of Warre and Peace. 

Lowndes makes no mention of the 1604 edition, so 
he styles the one published in 1606 the third edition, 
and adds that the latter appears to be a " pirated 
reprint " of the second issue. Another edition ap- 
peared in the year 1612, printed by John Jaggard. 
This Lowndes also describes as " pirated." It is an 
interesting copy, being divided into two parts ; \hzfirst 
contained the ten Essays of the original ; and the 
second, placed after the Meditationes and Coulers of 
Good and Evill, has the additional twenty-nine, thus 
making a total of thirty-nine. 

The Essay of Honour and Reputation, which does 




THE 

ESSAIES 

OFS r FRANCIS! 

BACON Knight, the 
ngs Solliciter 



Generall. 




Imprinted at London by 
IOHN BEALE, 
1612. 



fSl 



THE ESSAYS 89 

not appear in the former edition, is added. Of the 
three last-named editions Aldis Wright, in his preface 
to the Essays, says : 

" A pirated edition was printed for John Jaggard in 
1606, and in 1612 he was preparing another reprint, 
when the second author's edition appeared. In conse- 
quence of this, Jaggard cancelled the last two leaves of 
quire G, and in their place substituted ' the second part 
of the Essaies/ which contains all the additional Essays 
not printed in the Edition of 1 597. On the authority 
of a manuscript list by Malone, Mr. Singer mentions 
an edition in 1604, but I have found no trace of it." 

In the next edition 1613 though the "Table" 
enumerates forty-one Essays, we find only thirty-nine 
actually printed. The one Of Honour and Reputa- 
tion is placed at the end, but those Of the 
Publique and Of Warre and Peace are mentioned 
in the " Table," but not published, nor do they seem 
ever to have found a place among any of his writings. 

A small octavo edition was issued by Andro Hart 
in Edinburgh in 1614, and other reprints again ap- 
peared in London in the years 1619, 1622, and 1624. 
Then came the Quarto, which was published in 1625, 
and which was the last that appeared during Bacon's 
life, as he died the year following. This was the com- 
plete edition of fifty-eight Essays. Twenty altogether 
new ones had been added, and many of the others 
had been altered and enlarged. The following subjects 
were then included : 

(i) Of Truth. (2) Of Death. 
(3) Of Unity in Religion. 



90 FRANCIS BACON 

(4) Of Revenge. (5) Of Adversitie. 

(6) Of Simulation and Dissimulation. 

(7) Of Parents and Children. 

(8) Of Marriage and Single Life. 

(9) Of Envy. (10) Of Love. 

(i i) Of Great Place. (12) Of Boldnesse. 

(13) Of Goodnesse and Goodnesse of Nature. 

(14) Of Nobility. (15) Of Seditions and Troubles. 
(16) Of Atheisme. (17) Of Superstition. 

(i 8) Of Travaile. (19) Of Empire. 
(20) Of Counsell. (21) Of Delayes. 

(22) Of Cunning. 

(23) Of Wisedome for a Man's Selfe. 

(24) Of Innovations. (25) Of Despatch. 
(26) Of Seeming Wise. (27) Of Friendship. 

(28) Of Expence. 

(29) Of the true Greatnesse of Kingdomes and 

Estates. 

(30) Of Regiment of Health. (31) Of Suspicion. 
(32) Of Discourse. (33) Of Plantations. 

(34) Of Riches. (35) Of Prophecies. 

(36) Of Ambition. (37) Of Masques and Triumphs. 

(38) Of Nature in Men. 

(39) Of Custome and Education. (40) Of Fortune. 
(41) Of Usurie. (42) Of Youth and Age. 

(43) Of Beauty. (44) Of Deformity. 
(45) Of Building. (46) Of Gardens. 

(47) Of Negociating. 

(48) Of Followers and Friends. (49) Of Sutours. 
(50) Of Studies. (51) Of Faction. 

(52) Of Ceremonies and Respects. 

(53) Of Praise. (54) Of Vaine-Glory. 





THE 






ESS AYES 






OR 






COVNSELS, 






CI VI LL AND 






M O R A L L, 






OF 






F1(jy^CIS LO. 'OE'RgLAM, 






VISCOVNT S. ALBAN. 




\>frr*M* 


^a 


LONDON, 

Printed by I o H N HA v i L A N o for 
HAMNA BAB.RBT. 



THE ESSAYS 93 

(55) Of Honour and Reputation. 

(56) Of Judicature. (57) Of Anger. 
(58) Of Vicissitude of Things. 

These were reprinted in 1629, 1632, 1639, an{ ^ m 
many subsequent editions. 

Translations into Italian and French soon appeared, 
and of these the Italian rendering by his old friend 
Tobie Mathew, dedicated to Cosmo de Medici, should 
be mentioned. The title ran as follows : Saggi Morali 
con un altro suo Trattato del la Sapienza degli Antichi, 
tradotti in Italiano Lond: 1618. 

His translation of The Wisdom of the Ancients 
followed immediately after the Essays, and occupied 
more than half of the little volume. This was also 
the first edition of the latter work in Italian. 

While alluding to this part of the subject one should 
refer to the excellent translation into French by 
Arthur Gorges in the year 1619. It is a rare book, 
but a copy of it may be seen at the British Museum. 
The earliest German translation of which I can find 
any record is the one printed at Nuremberg in 1654. 
Of this there is also a copy in the British Museum. 
Archbishop Tenison, in speaking of the Latin trans- 
lation of the Essays, and of the book itself, says : 

" The Essays, or Counsels Civil and Moral, though a 
by-work also, do yet make up a book of greater weight 
by far than the Apothegms ; and coming home to men's 
business and bosoms, his lordship entertained this 
persuasion concerning them, that the Latin volume 
might last as long as books should last. His lordship 
wrote them in the English tongue, and enlarged them 



94 FRANCIS BACON 

as occasion served, and at last added to them the 
Colors of Good and Evil, which are likewise found 
in his book De Augmentis. The Latin translation 
of them was a work performed by divers hands : by 
those of Dr. Hacket (late Bishop of Lichfield), Mr. 
Benjamin Jonson (the learned and judicious poet), 
and some others whose names I once heard from 
Dr. Rawley, but I cannot now recall them. To this 
Latin edition he gave the title of Sermones Fideles, 
after the manner of the Jews, who called the words 
Adagies or Observations of the Wise, Faithful Sayings ; 
that is, credible propositions worthy of firm assent and 
ready acceptance." 

Rawley published a folio volume in 1638, entitled 
Opera Moralia et Civilia, in which appeared a Latin 
translation of the Essays Sermones Fideles, sive 
Interiora Rerum. The other subjects included in the 
book were as follows : 

Historium Regni Henrici Septimi Regis Angliae. 
Tractatum de Sapientia Vetorum. 
Dialogum de Bello Sacro. 
Et Novum Atlantidem. 

It is uncertain how much of this translation was 
actually performed by Bacon, or indeed whether he did 
any of it himself. He, no doubt, would take very good 
care that the work was entrusted to reliable hands, and 
no one would do more justice either to him or his books 
than his old friend Rawley. 

Of the later editions, that issued by Bensley in 1798 
is interesting from a bibliographical point of view. 
Four copies of this were printed in folio on large paper 



SAGGI MORALI 

DEL SIGNORE 

FRANCESCO BACONO, 

CAVAGLIERO 1NGLESE, 

GRAN CANCELLIERO 

D'INGHILTERRA. 

Con vn'alcro fuo Trattato 
DELLA SAPIENZA 

DEGLI ANTICHL 

Tradotti in Italiano. 




IN LONDRA 

Apprcflb di GIOVANNI BILLIO. 
1 6 i $. 



THE ESSAYS 97 

for the Countess Spencer, and she presented one to 
each of the following, viz. the Duke of Devonshire, 
the Rev. C. M. Cracherode, Mr. James, and Lord 
Spencer. These presentation copies are specially 
mentioned both by Montague and Lowndes, and the 
latter authority states that one of these copies is now 
in the British Museum. Some years ago I was fortunate 
enough to obtain one of these beautiful issues. It had 
formerly been in the Earl of Gosford's library, but from 
which of the four original libraries it was derived 
I cannot be certain. This is the only copy I have seen. 
In it the Essay on Death and the Fragment of an 
Essay on Fame are included. 

One word regarding the so-called spurious essays. 
Rawley in his Resuscitatw, 1657, published what he calls 
" A perfect list of his Lordship's true works, both in 
English and Latin as for other pamphlets, whereof 
there are several put forth under his Lordship's name, 
they are not to be owned for his." 

An Essay of a King, though printed in 1648 in The 
Remaines of the Right Honourable Francis Bacon, Lord 
Verulam, is not included in the Resuscitatio, and the 
composition is not believed by many to be the work of 
Bacon. Mr. Spedding is convinced that An Essay on 
Death is also spurious, and alludes to the possibility of 
its being from the pen of Sir Thomas Browne. If this 
piece was genuine surely Rawley would have mentioned 
the fact and included it in his list, but he does not do so. 

Mr. Spedding, in his preface to this part of the subject, 

says : " Among the innumerable editions of Bacon's 

Essays that have been published, there are only four 

which, as authorities for the text, have any original or 

7 



98 FRANCIS BACON 

independent value ; namely, those published by Bacon 
himself in 1597, in 1612, and in 1625; and the Latin 
version published by Dr. Rawley in 1638. The rest are 
merely reprints of one or other of these." 

As for the more recent editions of the Essays, it 
would be almost impossible to enumerate them. Even 
those of our own day have been many, and some of 
them are rendered all the more valuable to the student 
by the addition of instructive notes by different writers. 
With these the ordinary reader will be more or less 
acquainted, and so, in this connexion, in addition to the 
names of Spedding and Ellis, it is hardly necessary to 
mention those of Basil Montague, Whately, Aldis 
Wright, etc. 

An interesting fact with reference to an early Ameri- 
can edition is mentioned by Montague in his Notes. 
He says : " The first book published in Philadelphia 
consists partly of the volume of Essays. It is entitled 
The Temple of Wisdom, printed by William Bradford, 
Philadelphia, 1688." 

When Bacon published his book of Essays he was 
thirty-eight years of age, and therefore in the very 
prime of his intellectual activity. It is true he had not 
yet encountered those bitter experiences that, a few 
years later, were thrust upon him, but he had already 
been placed in many difficult positions, both public and 
private, which enabled him to well appreciate the 
mental attitudes and ambitions of those who entered 
into his varied life. His sensitive brain and acute 
observation had already had great opportunities of 
gathering much material, which was now so well utilized 
in the formation of those brilliant and unique Essays. 



THE ESSAYS 99 

From the year when they were first issued, till his final 
edition of 1625, Bacon was constantly correcting and 
adding to them ; as he said, " I always alter when I 
add, so that nothing is finished till all is finished." 

In the Essays, Dean Church says, " he writes as a 
looker-on at the game of human affairs, who, according 
to his frequent illustration, sees more of it than the 
gamesters themselves, and is able to give wise and 
faithful counsel, not without a touch of kindly irony at 
the mistakes he observes." 

In character they were aphoristic and epigrammatic, 
especially the earlier ones, and in this respect have been 
likened to Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy. As we 
approach the later editions, especially the one published 
in 1625, we find his thoughts become less condensed 
and his language more fluent, but he never frees himself 
from that conciseness and happy brevity of expression 
on which to a very large extent the charm of his Essays 
depends. They are often suggestive of some sudden 
mental impression or recollection, and a characteristic 
abruptness of expression frequently ushers in the Essay, 
to be gradually expanded into a moral exhortation, 
adorned with apt quotation and metaphor. His Essay 
Of Revenge is a good illustration of this, which begins : 
" Revenge is a kind of wild justice, which the more 
man's nature runs to, the more ought law to weed it 
out." And again, his Meditations had led him to the 
sayings of Seneca, and he opens the Essay Of Adversity 
thus : " It was a high speech of Seneca that the good 
things that belong to prosperity are to be wished, but 
the good things which belong to adversity are to be 
admired," and he concludes the theme with the well- 



zoo FRANCIS BACON 

known dictum " for prosperity doth best discover vice, but 
adversity doth best discover virtue." This was one of 
his latest and most beautiful productions. 

It is unnecessary to multiply such instances as the 
above. They are well known to all readers, and have 
already been exhaustively discussed by many writers. 

I cannot better conclude this part of our subject than 
by adding Macaulay's eulogium : " It is in the Essays 
alone that the mind of Bacon is brought into imme- 
diate contact with the minds of ordinary readers. 
There he opens an exoteric school, and talks to plain 
men, in language which everybody understands, about 
things in which everybody is interested. He has thus 
enabled those who must otherwise have taken his 
merits on trust to judge for themselves ; and the great 
body of readers have, during several generations, ac- 
knowledged that the man who has treated with such 
consummate ability questions with which they are 
familiar may well be supposed to deserve all the praise 
bestowed on him by those who have sat in his inner 
school." 

The Meditationes Sacrae and Colours of Good and 
Evill were both published with the first edition of 
Essays. The former treatise was printed in Latin, and 
consisted of a series ol sermons under various heads : 
Bacon's subsequent literary and philosophical works 
contained many of the ideas that are here discussed. 
These Meditations were twelve in number, on the 
following subjects : Of the Works of God and Man ; 
Of the Miracles of our Saviour ; Of the Innocency of 
the Dove and the Wisdom of the Serpent ; Of the Exalt- 
ation of Charity ; Of the Moderation of Cares ; Of 



HISTORICAL WORKS 101 

Earthly Hope; Of Hypocrites ; Of Impostors ; Oj the 
Several Kinds of Imposture ; Of Atheism; Of Heresies; 
Of the Church and the Scripture. 

It will be noticed that the subject of Atheism is 
included, and it was not until 1612, in the edition of 
the Essays of that year, that he again treats of this in a 
separate Essay. It is to be found also in the 1625 
edition, considerably enlarged and altered. 

The Colours of Good and Evill y ten in number, were a 
collection of "colourable arguments on questions of 
good and evil, with answers to them." These fallacies 
and "popular signs" were contained in the Promus of 
Formularies and Elegancies, a manuscript by Bacon, in 
the British Museum, already referred to, and were 
collected by him many years previously to the publica- 
tion of the fully illustrated tract. It has been stated on 
good authority that, in the first instance, a copy of the 
manuscript was sent by the author to Lord Mountjoy, 
to whom it had probably been dedicated. The contents 
of this little work, with some additions, afterwards 
found a place in the Advancement of Learning. Those 
who are interested in these special literary items may 
be referred to the works of Montague and Spedding. 



THE HISTORICAL WORKS 

As we turn our attention to this division in our clas- 
sification, the one work that pre-eminently claims our 
special study is Bacon's Historie of the Raigne of King 
Henry VII, published in April, 1622. Issued in a small 
folio, it contained a portrait of the King by Payne, and 
opened with a dedication to Charles Prince of Wales. 



102 FRANCIS BACON 

It was reprinted in 1629, and many times subsequently. 
It should be mentioned in this connexion that there 
has just been sold at Sotheby's rooms (March, 1910) a 
most rare copy of this work, which bears the date 1628. 
The following note was appended to the description of 
it in the catalogue : " A hitherto unknown edition, of 
which there is no copy in the British Museum, and no 
record in the printed catalogues of any of the great 
libraries, public or private. It must have been sup- 
pressed for some reason, as the bibliographers are not 
aware of any issue between the original of 1622 and the 
so-called second edition of 1629." An edition in Latin 
was published by Dr. Rawley in 1638, and it had 
previously been translated into French by Holman in 
1627. 

The subject had been recommended to him by the 
King some years previously, but it was not begun till 
early in the summer of 1621, almost immediately after 
he had been released from the Tower, and it was 
finished in October of the same year. It is evident, 
therefore, that while at Gorhambury he did not spare 
himself in this literary task, and we know from his notes 
on this and kindred subjects, prepared many years 
before, that it was one in which he had always taken a 
very special and deep interest. Through his friend Sir 
Thomas Meautys we learn that Bacon sent the manu- 
script to the King for his correction ; and as showing 
his anxiety for the success of the work, we are informed 
that a number of his friends were pressed for their 
opinions and criticisms before it had passed into the 
publisher's hands. 

It was ably written and well received ; for it was 



HISTORJE 



OF THE RAIGNE 
OF KING 

H E NRY 

Tbt Scitenth. 



Written 

tt ight Honourable, 
FRANCIS, 
Lord VerUm t Vifcount 



LONDON, 

Printed by W. Staubj for Matthew 



Ltwnci , and Wittum 
Barret. 




HISTORY OF HENRY THE SEVENTH 105 

acknowledged to be a faithful representation of the 
character of Henry, and in general outline and detail 
the history of the period was considered sufficiently 
accurate to be followed by later historians. 

There has existed a good deal of controversy as to 
Bacon's object in writing this work when he did, and it 
may not be out of place just to refer to this. Sir James 
Mackintosh, for instance, says : " Lord Bacon was the 
man of highest intellect among the writers of history, 
but he was not the greatest historian " ; and he further 
adds : " It is due in the strictest justice to Lord Bacon 
not to omit that the history was written to gratify 
James I, to whom he was then suing for bitter bread. 
. . ." Mr. Spedding does not agree with this view, 
replying: "Is it not the very same subject which at least 
fifteen years before he had wished some one else to 
undertake for the simple purpose of supplying a main 
defect in our national literature? Did not the defect 
still remain? and was he not now at leisure to under- 
take the subject himself? Why then seek any further 
for his motive in choosing it ? " After a careful con- 
sideration of the point at issue, I believe the more 
general opinion will be that Bacon did not write this 
history with the object of flattering the King. It cer- 
tainly was not his sole object. Any one who wishes 
to inquire farther into this interesting question may 
be referred to Spedding's prelace to the History oj 
Henry F//(Vol. VI of the Works). 

Bacon at this stage of his literary career did not seem 
at all anxious to continue his historical researches, 
although Prince Charles had urged him to do so. 



io6 FRANCIS BACON 

Several items, however, not of any great importance, 
did follow from his pen. 

The History of Henry the Eighth, which seems to 
have been contemplated by him several years before, 
was now begun. Of this he accomplished a very small 
portion, and what there is left to us may be seen in 
manuscript in the British Museum. It was published 
by Dr. Rawley in 1629 in Certain Miscellany Works of 
the Right Hon. Francis Verulam, Viscount St. Alban. 

Another unfinished historical tract The Beginning 
of the History of Great Britain, composed probably 
about the year 1609 was first published in Rawley 's 
Resuscitatio, 1657. It deals with various interesting 
events in the early years of James the First's reign, 
and according to Spedding " is one of the best things 
of the kind that Bacon ever wrote." 

In Felicem Memoriam Elizabethae 

Written in the year 1608, this little work was not 
published until 1651, when it appeared in a small duo- 
decimo volume along with two other tracts; and it 
afterwards found a place in Dr. Rawley's Opuscula 
Varia Posthuma (1658). 

A reliable translation taken from the original manu- 
script copy in the British Museum has been rendered by 
Mr. Spedding, and is well worth consulting. That Bacon 
himself had a very high opinion of the production may 
be inferred from the fact that he specially mentions it 
in his will, with a wish that it should be published. It is 
a dissertation on the virtues of the Queen and the 
troubles and factions she experienced and overcame. 
He speaks of the " temper of her people, eager for war, 



THE 

FELICITY 

OF 
CLU E E N 

ELIZABETH: 

And Her Times, 

With other Things; 

By the 
RIGHT HONORABLE 

FKANCIS L d BACON 
Vifcount S< Altin. 



Printed by T. Nwcmb, for 

e Latham at the Bi/hops Head in 

St. fjwis Church-yaid. 1651. 



THE FELICITY OF QUEEN ELIZABETH 109 

and impatient of peace " ; and adds : " This peaceable 
disposition of hers, joined with success, I reckon one of 
her chiefest praises ; as being happy for her people, 
becoming her sex, and a satisfaction to her conscience." 
He refers to the Spanish Armada and her victory, and 
that she was " not less happy in disappointing conspira- 
cies than in subduing the forces of her open enemies." 
Reference is also made to the plots which the priests 
had designed, and the legal measures which she enacted 
to foil the attacks made upon herself and her domain. 
He ends this most interesting tract with the words : 
" To speak the truth, the only proper encomiast of this 
lady is time, which for so many ages it has run, never 
produced anything like her, of the same sex, for the 
government of a kingdom." 

In Henricum principem Wallie Elogium 
Francisci Baconi 

The manuscript of this historical Eulogium is to be 
found in the Harleian Collection in the British Museum, 
from which it was first printed by Birch in 1763, and it 
has since been translated into English by Spedding. In 
it the mental and physical excellencies of the Prince are 
described by Bacon, who seems to have been much 
impressed by the simplicity and attainments of the 
young man's character both in his public and private 
life ; for he speaks of his reverence and affection towards 
the various members of his family, his devotion to 
learning and love of the arts, and his "curiosity and 
capacity" attracting all those around him. So it was 
said of the lad: " Whoever diligently observed what fell 
from him, either by way of question or remark, saw it 



i io FRANCIS BACON 

to be full to the purpose and expressive of no common 
genius." Again, to quote from this study: " He had, by 
the excellence of his disposition, excited great expecta- 
tions among great numbers of all ranks ; nor had the 
shortness of his life disappointed them." Henry Prince 
of Wales died on the 6th of November, 1612, aged 
nineteen years, " to the extreme concern and regret of 
the whole kingdom." There was a rumour that he had 
been poisoned, but Bacon says " this soon vanished, as 
no signs of this appeared." 

Imagines Civiles Julii Caesaris, et Augusti Caesaris 

Under this title I have to refer to two short treatises. 
The one on Julius Caesar was probably finished by 
Bacon, but of the other only a small fragment remains, 
and it is quite possible that more of it never was 
written than appears in the works of different writers. 
These, as well as his other short histories, were written 
and published in Latin. The Imagines first appeared in 
Dr. Rawley's Opuscula in 1658, and they were sub- 
sequently (1661) translated into English, in the second 
edition of the Resuscitatio. The first of these, that on 
Julius Caesar, described the characteristics of the man, 
his passions, understanding, and actions. Bacon 
alleges that " he worked only for his own present and 
private ends " ; that " he endeavoured after fame and 
reputation, as he judged they might be of service to 
his designs " ; and that " he courted reputation and 
honours only as they were instruments of power and 
grandeur." And the last portion of this essay, after 
further dilating on Caesar's personal attainments 
his learning and pleasures finishes thus : " This being 



RELIGIOUS AND POETICAL WORKS in 

his character, the same thing at last was trie means 
of his fall which at first was a step to his rise, viz. 
his affectation of popularity ; for nothing is more 
popular than to forgive our enemies. Through which 
virtue, or cunning, he lost his life." 

The unfinished item on Augustus Caesar is in a 
somewhat different tone. In it Bacon draws a com- 
parison between the two characters. As illustrating 
this he says : " For Julius Caesar, being of a restless, 
discomposed spirit . . . cleared the way to his own 
ends with the utmost address and prudence. His 
error was the not rightly fixing his ends. . . . Whereas 
Augustus, sober and mindful of his mortality, seemed 
to have thoroughly weighed his ends, and laid them 
down in admirable order." And the conclusion of 
this fragment is worth adding : " Hence in his youth 
he affected power ; in his middle age, dignity ; in 
his decline of life, pleasure ; and in his old age, fame 
and the good of posterity." 

RELIGIOUS AND POETICAL WORKS 
I will refer to these in the following order : 

1. Meditationes Sacrae. 

2. A Confession of Faith. 

3. The Characters of a Believing Christian in Paradoxes 

and Seeming Contradictions. 

4. The Prayers. 

5. Translation of Certain Psalms. 

6. Poetry and Poetical Works, 

Allusion has already been made to the first the 
Meditationes Sacrae in connexion with the Essays, 



ii2 FRANCIS BACON 

including a brief mention of the Colours of Good and 
Evil at the same time, and I do not propose to discuss 
the subjects or contents of these further than has 
already been done, for no other better reason than 
that the treatises themselves are always at hand with 
the Essays for consultation and study. 

A Confession of Faith 

It has been stated that the religious feelings and 
sentiments of Bacon are almost everywhere to be 
found in his various works, but it is not from such 
" incidental allusions," as Spedding says, that " we 
are left to gather his Creed." In his own Confession 
we have it explicitly set forth. This formulary was 
first printed in quarto form in the year 1641, and is 
a little work of excessive rarity. Indeed, this special 
edition was unknown to Lowndes and Hazlitt, and 
of late years, so far as I know, only two copies have 
appeared for sale one in May, 1903, and the other 
in May, 1905, both at Messrs. Sotheby's rooms. It 
contains a large portrait of Bacon on the title. The 
next publication of this tract was in The Remaines 
(1648), and it was subsequently issued in the Mirrour 
of State and Eloquence in 1656, and also included in 
the Resuscitatio the year following. There are 
altogether four manuscripts of it in the British 
Museum, and they all fairly well agree ; two of them, 
however, are the work of a later hand than the others. 
It was probably written in the year 1603, and it is 
interesting to remember that at this very time his 
life was full of anxiety, not only with weighty problems 
of State, but also with pressing private concerns. In 



A CONFESSION OF FAITH 113 

his ambition he was then most eager to obtain high 
office under James the First, and the appointment of 
King's Counsel was then bestowed upon him. About 
this date also his Apology concerning the Earl of Essex 
appeared. Thus it is that at almost every turn of 
his eventful life we not only observe the "dual 
nature" of the man, but the versatility of his mental 
powers is strikingly apparent. 

As an evidence that contemporary opinion testified 
to Bacon's sincerity as a believing Christian, Dr. Rawley 
says : " For that treatise of his Lordship, inscribed A 
Confession of Faith, I have ranked in the close of this 
whole volume ; thereby to demonstrate to the world, 
that he was a Master in Divinity, as well as in Philo- 
sophy and Politics, and that he was versed no less in 
the saving knowledge, than in the universal and adorn- 
ing knowledges ; for though he composed the same 
many years before his death, yet I thought that to be 
the fittest place, as the most acceptable incense unto God 
of the faith wherein he resigned his breath, the crown- 
ing of all his other perfections and abilities, and the 
best perfume of his name to the world after his death. 
This confession of his faith doth abundantly testify that 
he was able to render a reason of the hope that was 
in him." Spedding closes his remarks on this subject 
thus : " If any one wishes to read a summa theologiae 
digested into seven pages of the finest English in 
the days when its tones were finest, he may read it 
here." 



ii4 FRANCIS BACON 

The Characters of a Believing Christian in 
Paradoxes and Seeming Contradictions 

This tract will be found published in The Remaines, 
1648. It is not mentioned either by Rawley or 
Tenison, but it is said to have been printed as a 
separate publication in the year 1643. I have never 
seen a copy. There are some fragmentary papers on 
the subject, both in the British Museum and Lambeth 
Library, which are supposed to be the work of Bacon, 
but this is quite hypothetical. Even Montague, than 
whom a more conscientious collaborator has never 
lived, stamps this item as spurious. Spedding is not 
so pronounced in his opinion, as I understand him ; 
but it must be borne in mind that there are many who 
recognize here the hand of Bacon, and would always 
include it among his works. As taken from The 
Remaines, we perceive the author's attitude towards 
his Creator, his conduct of life, the advantages of self- 
abnegation, the mercy and providence of God, etc. As 
a specimen of its style and character, the concluding 
paragraphs may be quoted : " He lives invisible to 
those that see him, and those that know him best 
do but guess at him ; yet those many times judge more 
truly of him than he doth himself." And again : " The 
world will sometimes account him a saint when God 
accounteth him a hypocrite ; and afterwards, even when 
the world branded him for a hypocrite, then God owned 
him for a saint." 

The Prayers of Bacon 

Four of these have been preserved for our study. 
The first is called the Student's Prayer, and was pub- 



THE PRAYERS 115 

lished by Tenison in the Baconiana (1679). This sup- 
plication is in the following words : 

" We humbly and earnestly beg that Human things 
may not prejudice such as are Divine ; neither 
that from the unlocking of the gates of sense, 
and the kindling of a greater natural light, any- 
thing of incredulity or intellectual night may 
arise in our minds towards Divine Misteries. 
But rather, that by our mind throughly cleansed 
and purged from fancy and vanities, and yet 
subject and perfectly given up to the Divine 
Oracles, there may be given unto Faith the 
things that are Faith's." 

The Author's Prayer is also to be found in the 
Baconiana, appearing at the same time as the above. The 
tenor of this may be judged by the concluding invoca- 
tion : " Wherefore if we labour in Thy works with the 
sweat of our brows, thou wilt make us partakers of thy 
Vision and Sabbath. We humbly beg that this mind 
may be steadfastly in us, and that thou, by our hands, 
and also by the hands of others, on whom thou shalt 
bestow the same spirit, wilt please to convey a large- 
ness of new alms to thy family of Mankind. . . ." 

The third, entitled A Prayer made and used by the 
late Lord Chancellour, is a much more lengthy supplica- 
tion, and was first printed in The Remaines in 1648. It 
was used by Bacon himself, and may be considered 
very beautiful both in structure and intention. It was 
couched in terms of submission, sincerity, and lofty 
aspiration, and at the close the Father is invoked to 



ii6 FRANCIS BACON 

grant his mercies to " all those that are in need, misery, 
and distress," and to vouchsafe them " patience and 
perseverance in the end and to the end." 

The fourth Prayer is also one " made by the Lord 
Chancellor of England," and may be found in Rawley's 
Resuscitatio. For our purpose it is scarcely necessary 
to add any further observations on these productions. 
For a more extended study of them the reader may be 
referred to the Prayers themselves, as printed in the 
original works of Tenison and Rawley, and more 
recently reprinted by Spedding in one of his volumes 
specially devoted to this portion of our subject. 

Translation of Certain Psalms 

Under the title Certaine Psalmes in Verse, a small 
quarto was published in London in 1624. Lowndes, in 
his Bibliographers Manual, gives the date as 1625, but 
as a matter of fact these verses were first printed in 
December of the former year. They were dedicated to 
his old friend George Herbert. This will be specially 
alluded to later, when discussing the literary friends 
of Bacon. 

It has been suggested that being very deeply in debt at 
the time, Bacon's object in publishing these translations 
was to relieve himself from the pressing pecuniary claims 
of his printer. As has been pointed out by Dr. Abbott, 
however, " it seems unlikely that a little pamphlet could 
have gone far in the direction of paying the printer's 
bill for the author of such abstruse works as the Novum 
Organum and subsequent Latin works," and this writer 
further suggests that "he may have published them as 
a kind of thankoffering for his recovery." To my own 



THE 

TRANSLATION 

CERTAINE'PSALMES 

INTO ENGLISH 
VERSE: 

Br 

THE RIGHT HO 

NOVRABLE, 

Francis 

L o. VERVIAM, 
Vifcount 




LONDON, 

Printed for Hum* Brfrr^/,and Richtrd whtttaker,2nd 
- arc to be fold at the fignc of the Kings Head 
in Pauls Church-yard. 



TRANSLATION OF CERTAIN PSALMS 119 

mind, the latter is the more reasonable view, especially 
when we consider that Bacon, being well aware that 
his health was still so uncertain, would naturally lean 
towards such devotional exercises. 

The Psalms which he thus translated were the ist, I2th, 
goth, iO4th, 1 26th, I37th, and I49th; and inasmuch as an 
examination of them involves a consideration of Bacon's 
versification, his claims as a poet are naturally suggested. 
There are few questions in the whole realm of literature 
that have caused keener discussion or provoked harsher 
criticism than this Was Bacon a poet ? The Shake- 
speare-Bacon controversy has done much to emphasize 
this inquiry, but unfortunately only too often it has 
resulted in drifting men's minds away from the initial 
question, and in consequence Bacon has had either too 
much or too little left to his credit! There are those 
who have taken the trouble to read his poetical writings 
with an unbiased mind who agree with Coleridge that 
" Bacon was not only a great poet, but a great philoso- 
pher." With this opinion I cannot agree, any more than 
I could here place the poet before the philosopher. Still 
more difficult would it be to admit that Bacon was the 
author of the Sonnets of Shakespeare. These are not 
the work of the "great philosopher" as we know him. 

The following is a portion of the first Psalm, which, 
however, can scarcely be considered one of his best : 

" He shall be like the fruitful tree, 
Planted along a running spring, 
Which, in due season, constantly 
A goodly yield of fruit doth bring ; 
Whose leaves continue always green, 



120 FRANCIS BACON 

And are no prey to winter's pow'r : 
So shall that man not once be seen 
Surprised with an evil hour." 

His translation of the QOth Psalm is better, and we 
may take a stanza of this as an example : 

" Thou carriest man away as with a tide : 
Then down swim all his thoughts that mounted high ; 
Much like a mocking dream that will not bide, 
But flies before the sight of waking eye ; 
Or as the grass, that cannot term obtain 
To see the summer come about again." 

Spedding in alluding to this portion of the Psalm 
says : " The thought in the second line could not well be 
fitted with imagery, words, and rhythm more apt and 
imaginative, and there is a tenderness of expression in 
the concluding couplet which comes manifestly out of 
a heart in sensitive sympathy with nature, and fully 
capable of the poet's faith 

that every flower 
Enjoys the air it breathes." 

It should be remembered that we have had many of the 
highest literary culture in this country who eulogized 
Bacon as a poet of great distinction, including Shelley, 
Lytton, and Macaulay. The first of these says "his 
language has a sweet and majestic rhythm, which 
satisfies the sense no less than the intellect." Macaulay, 
in one place, speaks of " the poetical faculty as power- 
ful in Bacon's mind." In his allusion to the iO4th Psalm 
Spedding says that " the heroic couplet could hardly do 



TRANSLATION OF CERTAIN PSALMS 121 

its work better in the hands of Dryden," and another 
reference by the same commentator may be added. He 
says : " For myself at least I may say that, deeply 
pathetic as the opening of the I37th Psalm always 
seemed to me, I have found it much more affecting 
since I read Bacon's paraphrase of it." As far as we 
know, up to this time his literary labours had almost 
altogether been confined to prose, and the poetry he has 
left us was composed hurriedly in failing health, and on 
a theological subject not the best suited to exhibit 
his poetic fancy and style. That he possessed great 
imaginative power and " poetical faculty " we must 
admit, though we may not allow him a foremost place 
in the rank of poets. This is very evident in much of 
his prose, as in some of the Essays and other works, 
and will be obvious to any one who will employ the 
interesting experiment suggested by a recent writer of 
" paraphrasing in verse the prose essays." But one 
must remember that Bacon was essentially a student 
of nature, ever striving after truth in all its depart- 
ments. Little wonder, therefore, that his imagination 
was scarcely ever allowed to take him into the paths of 
the poet. 

One has said that " he had all the natural faculties 
which a poet wants a fine ear for metre, a fine feeling 
for imaginative effect in words, and a vein of poetic 
passion." That he had a high opinion of his own 
abilities in this direction seems evident, for in a letter 
written to Sir John Davies, the poet, in the year 1603, 
he speaks of himself as a "concealed poet." 1 As 

1 The first publication of this letter may be found on page 62 of The 
Rcmaincs (1648). 



122 FRANCIS BACON 

a further proof that he had been the author of 
certain poetical pieces we have the authority of Stow 
and Homes in their Annales. He is here included 
" among our moderne and present excellent poets." In 
an article written by Mr. George Stronach in the 
Fortnightly Review (March, 1905) this testimony is 
referred to, as well as a very pertinent allusion to the 
dedication of Edmund Waller's Poems (1645). In this 
the following passage occurs : " Not but that I may 
defend the attempt I have made upon Poetrie, by the 
examples of many wise and worthie persons of our 
own time, as Sir Philip Sidney, Sir Fra. Bacon . . . 
these Nightingales sung onely in the Spring, it was 
the diversion of their youth." 

Waller evidently had in his mind some youthful 
poetical productions by Bacon, though we are practi- 
cally left in the dark as to what these were. The British 
Museum contains at least two short poetical efforts 
which are attributed to Bacon, but the evidence here is 
very uncertain. That he did occasionally write short 
poems and sonnets we have undoubted testimony in 
some of his writings, not frequently read. For instance, 
I find in a passage in The Apology concerning Essex, 
when speaking of a visit of the Queen to him at Twick- 
enham, he says : " At which time I had, though I profess 
not to be a poet, prepared a sonnet directly tending and 
alluding to draw on her Majesty's reconcilement to my 
lord: which I remember I shewed to a great person, 
and one of my lord's nearest friends who commended it." 

In the year 1629 Thomas Farnaby published a col- 
lection of Greek Epigrams, with the title Florilegium 
Epigrammatum Grecorum Eorumque Latino Versu a 



H TJMT 



FlorilegiunL-* 

EPIGRAMM ATVM 

GR;CORVM, EORVM- 

QVE LATINO VERSV 
a varijs reddicorum. 




LONDINI, 
Excudebat Felix Kyngn 



POETRY 125 

variis redditorum, and in this is found a poem by Bacon, 
which is generally accepted as quite genuine. It 
appears under the heading Hue elegantem U.C.L. 
Domini Verulamii TrapwSiav adjicere adlubuit. This 
English version by Bacon is a parody on the Latin 
version of the Seven Ages of Man, and Farnaby supplies 
a Greek translation on the opposite page. As portions 
of this poem have frequently been quoted by certain 
literary combatants, I may be allowed to add it in its 
entirety : 

" The world's a bubble, and the life of man 

Lesse than a span, 
In his conception wretched from the wombe, 

So to the tombe ; 
Curst from the cradle, and brought up to yeares 

With cares and feares. 
Who then to fraile mortality shall trust, 
But limmes the water, or but wrestes in dust. 

" Yet, since with Sorrow here we live opprest, 

What life is best ? 
Courts are but only superficial Schooles 

To dandle Fooles : 
The Rurall parts are turn'd into a Den 

Of savage men : 

And where's a City from all Vice so free, 
But may be term'd the worst of all the three ? 

" Domesticke Cares afflict the Husband's Bed, 

Or paines his Head : 

Those that live single, take it for a Curse, 
Or doe things worse : 



126 FRANCIS BACON 

Some would have Children, those that have them 
none ; 

Or with them gone : 

What is it then to have, or have no Wife, 
But single Thraldome, or a double Strife ? 

" Our owne Affections still at home to please, 

Is a Disease : 
To crosse the Sea to any forraigne Soile, 

Perils and Toile : 

Warres with their noyse affright us : when they 
cease, 

Ware worse in Peace : 

What then remaines ? but that we still should cry, 
Not to be borne, or being borne, to dye." 

In the appendix to Joshua Silvester's Panthea, or 
Divine Wishes and Meditations, published by him, and 
revised by James Martin in 1630, we discover an 
English version under the heading Human Life 
Characterized: By the Right Noble Peere, Francis 
Viscount St. Albans, late L. High Chance lor of Eng- 
land. Aubrey refers to the "excellent verses of his 
Lordship's, which Mr. Farnaby translated into Greek," 
and subsequent writers always mention the fact that it 
was first printed by Farnaby in 1629, but I do not think 
that Silvester's publication has been pointed out by any 
of them. Undoubtedly the Panthea is an excessively 
rare volume, and the copy I possess is especially in- 
teresting, as it was formerly in the Walmisley library, 
being a presentation copy to Lady Juliana Walmisley, 
her sister Mrs. Mary Walmisley, Lady Anne Osborne, 



Apophthegmes 

NEW AND 
OLD. 

COLLECTED BY 

THE RIGHT HO- 

NOVRABLE, 

Francis 

L O. V E RV L A M, 

VifcounL- 

S c . A L B A N. 



LONDON, 

Printed forHanva Barret, and 
r Rjckardwhittakf'r> and are to be 
fold at the Kings Head in 
Pauls Church- yard. 



APOPHTHEGMS 129 

and Mrs. Elizabeth Sherborne, with J. Martin's auto- 
graph inscription rilling the whole page before the title. 
Among the poems found among the papers of Sir 
Henry Wotton we also have an English version of the 
same poem, and this was published in the Reliquiae 
Wottonianae in the year 1651. 

Apophthegms, New and Old 

This little collection of maxims and pithy sayings 
two hundred and eighty altogether was first published 
in a small duodecimo edition in 1625, and reprinted the 
year following. The preface reads thus : 

" Julius Caesar did write a collection of apophthegms, 
as appears in an epistle of Cicero. I need say no more 
for the worth of a writing of that nature. It is a pity 
his book is lost ; for I imagine they were collected with 
judgment and choice, whereas that of Plutarch and 
Stobaeus, and much more the modern ones, draw much 
of the dregs. Certainly they are of excellent use : they 
are Macrones Verborum, pointed speeches. Cicero 
prettily calls them salinas, salt pits, that you may ex- 
tract salt out of, and sprinkle it where you will. They 
serve to be interlaced in continued speech : they serve 
to be recited upon occasion of themselves : they serve, 
if you take the kernel of them, and make them your 
own. I have for my recreation in my sickness fanned 
the old ; not omitting any because they are vulgar (for 
many vulgar ones are excellent good), nor for the mean- 
ness of the person, but because they are dull and flat, 
and added many new that otherwise would have died." 

One would expect to find that when Rawley first pub- 
lished the Resuscitatio in 1657 he would have included 
9 



130 FRANCIS BACON 

this work among the compositions of Bacon, but we 
notice he does not do so, and it has been supposed that 
he did not consider it of sufficient importance to have a 
place in the " perfect list of his Lordship's true works." 
The evidence of its authenticity, however, is now quite 
established. 

There appeared another small duodecimo edition in 
1658. This contained only 184 Apophthegms by 
Bacon, and was entitled Witty Apophthegms delivered at 
several times ; and upon several occasions \ by King James, 
King Charles, the Marquis of Worcester, Francis Lord 
Bacon, and Sir Thomas Moore. With reference to this, 
Tenison in the Baconiana states that " His Lordship 
hath received much injury by late editions of which some 
have much enlarged, but not at all enriched, the collec- 
tion ; stuffing it with tales and sayings too infacetious 
for a ploughman's chimney corner. And particularly, in 
the collection not long since published. . . . For besides 
the addition of insipid tales, there are some put in, which 
are beastly and immoral: such as were fitter to have 
been joined to Aretine or Aloysia, than to have polluted 
the chaste labours of the Baron Verulam." 

In the second edition of the Resuscitatio (i66i) > 
seventy-one of the original Apophthegms are omitted 
and thirty-nine new ones added. It has been assumed 
that Rawley made up this collection from loose and 
imperfect manuscripts, as the order and text are so 
entirely changed. Montague suggests, however, that 
as this edition was published during Rawley's lifetime, 
the additions were probably genuine. A good deal of 
meddling and alteration in these Apophthegms evidently 
took place in the later editions ; for instance, by referring 



APOPHTHEGMS 131 

to the 1671 edition of the Resuscitatio, it will be seen 
that the number of them had been increased to 308. 
Indeed, after Rawley's death in 1667, little reliance can 
be put in the accuracy of such publications. It is 
evident that during this period of ill-health the activity 
of Bacon's mind never seemed to abate. The year 
before his death he was still busy and full of purpose ; 
for it will be remembered that he then published, in an 
extended form, the final edition of the Essays, as well 
as the translation of the Psalms ; and we cannot help 
being impressed with the pathetic sadness of the 
moment, as he now tells us that these final efforts are 
to him a " recreation " in his sickness. 

In order to illustrate the character of the work and 
the variety of the subjects here discussed, a few of 
these Apophthegms, taken at random, may be added. 

" Queen Elizabeth was dilatory enough in suits, of her 
own nature; and the Lord Treasurer Burleigh being 
a wise man, and willing therein to feed her humour, 
would say to her, ' Madam, you do well to let suitors 
stay ; for I shall tell you, bis dat, qui cito dat ; if you 
grant them speedily, they will come again the sooner.' " 

" Sir Nicholas Bacon, who was Keeper of the Great 
Seal of England, when Queen Elizabeth, in her progress, 
came to his home at Gorhambury, and said to him, 
' My lord, what a little house you have gotten !' answered 
her, ' Madam, my house is well ; but it is you that have 
made me too great for my house.' " 

" There was a young man in Rome, that was very 
like Augustus Caesar. Augustus took knowledge of 
him, and sent for the man and asked him, ' Was your 



132 FRANCIS BACON 

mother never at Rome?' He answered, 'No, sir, but 
my father was.' " 

The Wisdom of the Ancients 

Bacon wrote this popular little work in the year 
1609, and it was then first published, in Latin, under the 
title De Sapientia Veterum Liber. It was issued in 
a small duodecimo volume containing 129 leaves, with 
an introduction and dedication ; further reprints in the 
same form appeared in 1617 and 1633. The first 
English translation was made by his great admirer 
Sir Arthur Georges in 1619. This was also a small 
I2mo edition, the title of which ran as follows: 
The Wisdome of the Ancients ; written in Latine By the 
Right Honourable Sir Francis Bacon Knight, Baron 
Verulam and Lord Chancelour of England. It had 
a dedication to Princess Elizabeth, daughter of James 
the First and wife of the Elector Palatine. This 
remained the only English translation until the year 
1836, when Pickering published Montague's work. Of 
foreign translations, that of Tobie Mathew into Italian 
has already been referred to with the translation of 
the Essays in 1618. 

A short time before his death Bacon desired that 
this work should be included, with the Latin transla- 
tions of Henry the Seventh, the Essays, New Atlantis^ 
etc., in a special volume, and this was done some years 
afterwards by Rawley in his Operum Moralium et 
Civiliuvi, published in 1638. Also it may be mentioned 
here that three of the Fables, in a somewhat altered 
form, were included in the De Augmentis Scientiarum 
in 11623. 




RANCISCI 

B A C O N I 

EQ_VITIS AVRATL 

PROCVRATORIS SE- 

CVNDI, IACOBI REGIS 

Magnz BRIT AN NIX, 

DE SAPIENTIA 

VBTBRVM LIBER, 
A<i Inclytanu Academiatru 




L O N D I N I, 

Excudebat ROBERTVS BAR- 
KS R v s, Screniflimae Regix 
Maieftatis Typographus. 
ANNO 1609. 



THE WISDOM OF THE ANCIENTS 135 

Soon after its completion, Bacon, when sending 
Tobie Mathew a copy of the book, writes as follows : 

" I do very heartily thank you for your letter of the 
24th of August from Salamanca; and in recompence 
therefore I send you a little work of mine that hath 
begun to pass the world. They tell me my Latin 
is turned into silver and become current : had you 
been here, you should have been my inquisitor before 
it came forth ; but, I think, the greatest inquisitor in 
Spain will allow it. But one thing you must pardon 
me if I make no haste to believe, that the world 
should be grown to such an ecstasy as to reject truth 
in philosophy, because the author dissenteth in religion ; 
no more than they do by Aristotle or Averroes. My 
great work goeth forward ; and after my manner, I 
alter ever when I add. So that nothing is finished 
till all be finished. This I have written in the midst 
of a term and parliament ; thinking no time so 
possessed, but that I should talk of these matters 
with so good and dear a friend. And so with my 
wonted wishes I leave you to God's goodness. From 
Gray's Inn. Feb. 27, 1610." 

Tenison, in his reference to the work, in the Baconiana, 
says it is "a book in which the sages of former times 
are rendered more wise than it may be they were by 
so dextrous an interpreter of their fables " ; and Mallet 
speaks of it as becoming " the same stamp of an 
original and inventive genius with his other per- 
formances." 

Bacon's motive in writing this treatise is somewhat 
uncertain, and has not been understood by many writers. 



136 FRANCIS BACON 

Probably one object he had in view was " to obtain a more 
favourable hearing for certain philosophical doctrines of 
his own." Also he meant to make clear, by an original 
method, the conclusions he had drawn from the various 
mental attitudes and actions suggested by these ancient 
Fables; and the deductions he presents to our minds are 
not only skilful in their argument and interpretation, but 
full of quaint surprises and moral significance. 

As to the accepted meaning of the Fables themselves, 
this is quite a secondary consideration, as it seems to 
me ; nor is it necessary, from a literary point of view, 
to criticize too closely the exact scientific signification 
of some of the views involved. That Bacon seemed 
to be ignorant of many problems already settled by 
acknowledged observers even of his own day is 
accepted, and not a little surprising to us ; but this 
fact can scarcely detract from the value and interest 
of this treatise, so full of ingenuity and cultured phrase; 
a work, according to Macaulay, " which, if it had pro- 
ceeded from any other writer, would have been 
considered as a masterpiece of wit and learning." 

These Fables are thirty-one in number, and that 
on Narcissus, or Self-Love^ may be taken as an 
example not only of Bacon's beautiful literary style in 
dealing with this class of subject, but also his power of 
interpretation and apt illustration. 

" Narcissus is said to have been extremely beautiful 
and comely, but intolerably proud and disdainful ; so 
that, pleased with himself, and scorning the world, he 
led a solitary life in the woods ; hunting only with a 
few followers, who were his professed admirers, amongst 
whom the nymph Echo was his constant attendant. In 



THE 

WISEDOME 

OF THE ANCIENTS, 

WRITTEN IN LATINE 

fy the Ttygkt Honour dl* Sir 

"FRANCIS BACON Knight, 



Lord Chancelottr of 
England* 

Done into Englifh by Sir 
Arthur Gorget Knight. 

Scutum initinci&ilefdci. 




LONDON 

Imprinted by I o H N BILL. 
1619. 



THE WISDOM OF THE ANCIENTS 139 

this method of life it was once his fate to approach a 
clear fountain, where he laid himself down to rest, in the 
noonday heat ; when, beholding his image in the water, 
he fell into such a rapture and admiration of himself, 
that he could by no means be got away, but remained 
continually fixed and gazing, till at length he was turned 
into a flower, of his own name, which appears early in 
the spring, and is consecrated to the infernal Deities, 
Pluto, Proserpine, and the Fairies. This fable seems to 
paint the behaviour and fortune of those, who, for their 
beauty, or other endowments, wherewith nature (with- 
out any industry of their own) has graced and adorned 
them, are extravagantly fond of themselves : for men of 
such a disposition generally affect retirement, and 
absence from public affairs ; as a life of business must 
necessarily subject them to many neglects and con- 
tempts which might disturb and ruffle their minds. 
Whence such persons commonly lead a solitary, private, 
and shadowy life; see little company, and those only such 
as highly admire and reverence them ; or like an Echo, 
assent to all they say. And they who are depraved, 
and rendered still fonder of themselves by this custom, 
grow strangely indolent, unactive, and perfectly stupid. 
The Narcissus, a spring flower, is an elegant emblem of 
this temper, which at first flourishes, and is talked of, 
but when ripe, frustrates the expectation conceived of 
it. And that this flower should be sacred to the infernal 
powers, carries out the allusion still further ; because 
men of this humour are perfectly useless in all respects; 
for whatever yields no fruit, but passes, and is no more, 
like the way of a ship in the sea, was by the ancients 
consecrated to the infernal shades and powers." 



FRANCIS BACON 



THE PROFESSIONAL WORKS 

To undertake a detailed description of the separate 
works which fall to this portion of our subject, how- 
ever brief, would not only be a task more fitting 
a legal mind, but for our present purposes quite 
unnecessary. 

The subjoined list of tracts, legal papers and docu- 
ments, with the information bearing thereon, has 
practically been taken from the works of Montague and 
Spedding, as well as from the collections in the British 
Museum and my own library. After a careful collation 
of the manuscripts, correcting them, and adding certain 
notes of his own, Mr. Spedding published many of them 
separately, with a preface to each. In Basil Montague's 
edition the Speeches and many letters bearing on 
judicial matters are well set forth, with interesting 
prefaces ; and to a few of them very useful notes are 
appended. So that for an intimate acquaintance with 
this portion of Bacon's literature it is necessary for the 
inquirer to turn to these two standard works, and he 
may then supplement his knowledge by a perusal of the 
various manuscripts readily available at the British 
Museum. 

A few of the principal speeches and papers have 
already been alluded to in connexion with Bacon's 
public affairs, but I will now enumerate all those 
attributable to him that have come to my notice, and 
it may be a convenience to refer to them under four 
heads, viz. (i) Speeches; (2) Law Tracts; (3) Legal 
Arguments ; (4) Star-Chamber Charges, etc. 



SPEECHES 141 

The SPEECHES include the following: 

The Speech of the Lord Chancellor of England, in the 
Exchequer Chamber touching the Post-nati. 

Delivered 1608, and first printed 1641. 

Naturalization of the Scotch in England. 

First printed 1641. 

Union of the Laws of the Kingdoms of England, and 
Scotland. First printed 1641. 

A Report made by Sit Francis Bacon Knight, in the 
House of Commons of a Speech by the Earl of Salisbury, 
aud another by the Earl of Northampton upon Spanish 
Grievances. Delivered 1608. 

Notes of a Speech concerning a War with Spain. 

First printed 1624. 

A Petition touching Purveyors. Delivered 1603. 

About the Undertakers. Delivered 1615. 

On the Grievances of the Commons. 

Delivered 1610. 

On Wards and Tenures. 

Declaration for the Master of the Wards. 

Delivered 1610. 

On persuading the House of Commons to desist from 
further question, on receiving the King's messages by their 
Speaker, etc. Delivered 1610. 

Of Impositions on Merchandises imported and exported. 

Delivered 1610. 

On persuading some Supply to be given to his Majesty, 
etc. Delivered 1610. 

Touching the scarcity of Silver at the Mint. 

To the Speakers Excuse. 

Upon the motion of Subsidy. Delivered 1 597. 



142 FRANCIS BACON 

LAW TRACTS 

A Collection of some principall Rules and Maxims of 
the Common Laws of England. First printed 1630. 

The Use of the Law. First printed 1629. 

The Learned Reading. First printed 1642. 

The Elements of the Common Laws of England. 

First printed 1630. 

Discourse upon the Commission of Bridewell. 

An Account of the Office of Compositions for Aliena- 
tions. Written 1598. 

A Draught of an Act, against a usorious shift of gain, 
in delivering Commodities instead of Money. 

Advice to the King for reviving the Commission of 
Suits. 

LEGAL ARGUMENTS 

The Case of Impeachment of Waste, Before the Judges 
in the Exchequer Chamber. 

Lows Case of Tenures, In the King's Bench. 

The Case of Revocation of Uses, In the King's Bench. 

The Jurisdiction of the Marches. 

The Office of Constables, with Answers to Questions. 

Ordinances made for the better and more regular 
administration of Justice in Chancery to be daily 
observed. 

Case De non procedendo Rege inconsulto. 

A Proposition for the repressing of singular combats 
or duels. 

Reasons why the New Company is not to be trusted and 
continued with the trade of Clothes. 

Cases of Treason. 

Certaine Reasons and Arguments of Policy, why the 




CHARGE OF 
SIR FRANCIS 

BACON. KNIGHT, H IS 

Maietlics Attourney generall, 

couching Duells^ vpon an informa- 

t ion in the Star-chamber agtinft 

Prieft and Wright. 

WITH 

The ^Decree of the Star-chamber in 
the fame caufe. 



Printed for Robert wilfonjM& arc to be fold at Graies 

Inne Gate, and in Paulcs Churchyard at the figne 

of the Bibtf. 1614. 



LEGAL ARGUMENTS 145 

King of England should hereafter give over all further 
Treaty, and enter into war with the Spaniard. 

A Declaration of the Practices and Treasons by Robert 
Earl of Essex. First printed 1 60 1. 

Bacons Apology in certain imputations concerning the 
late Earl of Essex. First printed 1604. 

Considerations touching a war with Spain. 

First printed 1629. 

A wise and moderate Discourse concerning Church 
affairs. First printed 1641. 

Discourse of the happy Union of England and Scot- 
land. Written 1603. First published 1603. 

Certain Considerations touching the better Pacification 
and Edification of the Church of England. 

Written 1603. First published 1604. 

Essay of a King. . First published 1642. 

Sixteen Propositions concerning the Reign and Govern- 
ment of a King. First published 1647. 

Relation of the Poisoning of Sir Thomas Overbury. 

First published 1651. 

Offer of a Digest of the Laws. 

Proposition for compiling an Amendment of our laws. 

Certain Observances upon a Libel, published this present 
year 1 592. 

A True Report of the detestable Treason intended by 
Doctor Roderigo Lopez, a Physician attending upon the 
Queeris Majesty, whom he, for a sum of money promised 
to be paid him by the King of Spain, did undertake to 
have destroyed by poison; with certain circumstances 
both of the plotting and detecting the said Treason. 
Penned during the Queen's Life. 



146 FRANCIS BACON 

STAR-CHAMBER CHARGES, &c. 

The Charge of Sir Francis Bacon, Knight, His Majes- 
ties A ttorney Generall touching Duells, upon an informa- 
tion in the Star-Chamber against Priest and Wright, 
With the Decree of the Star-Chamber in the same cause. 
Delivered 1614. First published 1614. 

The Charge of Sir Francis Bacon, Knight, the King's 
Attorney General, against William Talbot, a counsellor 
at Law, of Ireland, upon an information in the Star- 
Chamber, Delivered 1614. 

The Charge given by Sir Francis Bacon, Knight, His 
Majesty's Attorney General, against Mr. Oliver St. John, 
for scandalising and traducing in the public sessions, letters 
sent from the Lords of the Council touching the Benevolence. 

Delivered 1615. 

The Charge of Sir Francis Bacon, Knight, His Ma- 
jesty's Attorney General, against Frances Countess of 
Somerset, intended to have been spoken by him at her 
arraignment on Friday, May 24. 1616, in case she pleaded 
not guilty. 

The Charge of Sir Francis Bacon, Knight, His Ma- 
jesty's Attorney General, by way of evidence, before the 
Lord High Steward, and the Peers, against Robert, Earl 
of Somerset, concerning the poisoning of Overbury. 

The Speech which was issued by the Lord Keeper of 
the Great Seal in the Star-Chamber, before the Summer 
Circuits, the King being then in Scotland, 1617. 

The Speech used by Sir Francis Bacon, Lord Keeper of 
the Great Seal of England, to Sir William Jones, upon 
his calling to be Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, 1617. 

The Speech of Sir Francis Bacon, Lord Keeper, in the 




r /~r f~~)? o /> &" /~7* 
J^ft ^^K^ry^if O. (Jrnn, 

^s x^^iiy x 

<ztn..-&j(7n4.** jlttontty 

\/2> 4L- O ^7. < < 7) 




i&^t^m 



First page of Contemporary Manuscript of Tfo Charge against Robert 
Earle of Somersett concerninge the Poysoninge of Overbuty, 1616 



STAR-CHAMBER CHARGES 149 

Exchequer to Sir John Denham upon his calling to be one 
of the Barons of ye Exchequer in 1617. 

The Speech of Sr. Fran: Bacon Lord Keeper of the 
Great Seale of England in the Courte of Common Pleas 
to Justice Hatton upon his calling to be one of the Judges 
of the Common Pleas. 

The Charge of Owen indited of high treason in the 
King's Bench by Sr. Francis Bacon, Knighte t His Ma- 
jesty's Attorney Generall. 

The Charge of the partie Parliament in Ireland which 
brake and receded from Parliamente there assembled and 
after came over to justifie and excuse the same, by Sr. 
Fran: Bacon his Majesties Solicitor, before his Maj stic 
sitting in Counsell where the delinquents were convented. 

The Charge against Mr. Lumsden, Sir John Went- 
worth, and Sir John Holies, for scandal and traducing of 
the King's Justice in the proceedings against Weston in 
the Star-Chamber Nov. 10. 1615. 

A Charge at the arraignment of the Lord Sauquhar, in 
the King's Bench at Westminster June 29. 1612. 

A Speech by the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of 
England, at the taking of his place in Chancery, in per- 
formance of the charge His Majesty had given him when 
he received the Seal. May 7 1617. 

The Charge against Whitelocke 1613. 

I have the contemporary manuscripts of nearly all of 
these Star-Chamber Speeches. Expert opinion pro- 
nounces them not in Bacon's own writing, but executed 
by some official, employed for the purpose of taking 
down verbatim such Charges. 

Although no attempt will here be made to discuss 



150 FRANCIS BACON 

seriatim these various Tracts and Speeches, there are 
a few which call for a brief mention. Among the 
Speeches, the first three mentioned are of special in- 
terest, more particularly the Post-Nati. This was 
delivered by Bacon in the Exchequer Chamber in the 
year 1608, when he was Solicitor-General. It dealt 
with the union of England and Scotland, a subject 
which was very dear to the King ; and the manner in 
which the case was conducted was greatly applauded, 
not only by James, but by all who had the privilege of 
listening to the able discussion of the points involved. 
It marked him as an orator of unusual ability, and 
enhanced his reputation in the management of diffi- 
cult cases probably more than any speech he ever 
delivered. 

It may be stated that the Commissioners who were 
appointed to consider the Union declared that by law 
the natives in both countries, born after the accession 
of James the First, were naturalized in both. The 
Commons not consenting to this, a committee from 
this House, after a deliberation with certain repre- 
sentatives of the Lords in 1607, assented to the intro- 
duction of the measure by Bacon. 

The Post-Nati was printed long after his death (1641), 
along with the other two tracts dealing with the same 
subject. There was one general title page to these, 
and the licence ran as follows : 

"15 May. 1641 At a Committee appointed by the 
Honourable House of Commons in Parliament for 
examination of books, and of the licencing and sup- 
pressing of them, It is ordered that these three Speeches 
or treatises be published in print. Edward Bering." 



THREE 

SPEECHES 

OF 

"y^ 

The Right Honorable , Sir Francis x; 

Bacon Knight, then his Majefties Sollicker 5^ 

Generally fter LORDVHRULAM, Xg 

Vifcount Saint Alban. Jj 

POST-NAT i ^ 

Naturalization of ihe Scotch in 

Concerning the 1 England X 

VnionoftheLweseftheK 
of England and Stotl&nd. 



PublHlicd by the Authors Copy, 

and 
Licenfedby Authority. 



Lo N DO M, 

Printed by Richard Badger, for Samuel Broun , and are 

to be fold at his (hop in St. Pauls church-jtrd 

at the fignc of the white Lyonand Ball. 

i 64 i. 



A 

COLLECTION 

OF SOME PRINCIPAL!, 

R v L. E s and M A x i M E s of the 

Common Lawes of 

ENGLAND, 

WITH THEIR LATI- 
TVDEand EXTENT, 

Explicated for the more facile Introdu- 

ction of fuch as are fhidioufly addicted 
to chat noble Profession. 

By Sir F R A N c i s B A c o N, then Sollicitor 
generall to tie late renowned Queene Eli- 
hytndjivct Lord Chancellor 

Of EN GLAND. 



fed non 



LONDON, 

Printed by the Afsigncs of John Moore Efq. 



CVM PIUYILfiGIO. 



LEGAL TRACTS AND SPEECHES 155 

From the above it would appear that this was the 
first authentic edition of each of the three Speeches. 
I have by me, however, a copy of A Speech delivered by 
Sir Francis Bacon in the lower House of Parliament 
quinto Jacobi, concerning the Article of Naturalization of 
the Scottish Nation, also dated 1641. This Speech was 
therefore printed separately, in the same year as the 
triple Tract, and is additionally interesting as containing 
an excellent portrait of Bacon opposite the title page. 

As has been seen, his Tracts on legal subjects were 
many, having for their object the elucidation of the 
laws and customs of the land. The Maxims were 
probably written in 1597, and first published in 1630 
with the second edition of The Use of the Law. 
There are at least two manuscripts of the tract, one 
in the Cambridge Library and the other in the British 
Museum. They are not identical, for the former, bear- 
ing the date 1 596, is a much shorter document, having 
twenty rules only instead of twenty-five, as in the 
Harleian manuscript at the British Museum. It is 
probable that Bacon himself made additions to the 
smaller copy. It is quite possible that the Use of the 
Law may be " spurious." Of the two manuscripts of 
this known to Heath, one was among the Harleian 
papers and the other with the Sloane collection. In 
neither case did the author's name appear, and their 
texts differ. It was probably written about the same 
period as the Maxims, and appeared in print for the 
first time in 1629. It was then published anonymously 
in the same quarto with Sir John Dodderidge's Lawyers 
Light, bearing a distinct title page and having a 
separate pagination. In the following year (1630) a 



156 FRANCIS BACON 

second edition appeared with the first issue of the 
Maxims of the Law, as we have seen, and in this 
quarto we find a general title page, and also a separate 
one to each treatise. Here we notice for the first time 
on the title of the Use of Law, " By the L: Verulam 
Viscount of S. Albon's," etc. 

In connexion with this portion of our subject, a word 
may be added with regard to The Learned Reading of 
Sir Francis Bacon. It is termed " his double Reading to 
the Honourable Society of Graye's Inne," and was 
given in the Lent vacation of 1600, on the subject of 
" The Statute of Uses." This tract was first printed in 
1642. To give an example of Bacon's style in intro- 
ducing his views on such questions, and of his fondness 
for metaphorical methods, the opening sentence may be 
quoted : 

" I have chosen to Read upon the Law of Uses made 
27 Hen. 8. a Law whereupon the Inheritances of this 
Realme are tossed at this day like a Ship upon the sea, 
in such sort that it is hard to say which Barke will sinke, 
and which will get to the Haven, that is to say, what 
assurances will stand good and what will not ; whether 
in this any lack or default in the Pilots their grave and 
learned Judges : but the Tydes and Currents of received 
errours, and unwarranted and abusive experience, have 
been so strong, as they were not able to keepe a right 
course. . . ." He then proceeds to discourse on " the 
nature and definition of a Use"; what may be considered 
" reasonable and convenient " in a Statute dealing with 
Uses, and the " Rules and Expositions " of the Laws to 
be applied. 

Many of these legal documents and papers Bacon 



THE VSE 

OF THE 

LA W. 

Provided for Prcfervation 

OF 

rTerfons. 
Our<(jooc/s, and 
[Good Barnes. 

According to the Praftife 

O F 

cLawet ^ 

The < and ? of this Land. 
(jCuftomes 




LONDON. 

Printed for B E N : F I s H E R, and arc to 
bcc fold at his Shop without e/f /</< 
SifpcoftheTVft*. 



The 

LEARNED 

READING 

Of 

Sir Francis Bacon, 

OneofherMajefties learned Coun- 
(cll at Law, upon the Statute of 
USE S: 

Being his double Reading to the Honou- 
rable Society of G * A Y E S Inne. 

Publifhed for tht Common good. 



LONDON : 

Printed for M*/(>e'tf r <i/W*e a and Unrtnce 
. 1642. 



LETTERS OF BACON 161 

no doubt had intended to publish, as several of the most 
important were found bearing his own corrections ; very 
few of them, however, could have appeared in a printed 
form during his lifetime. 



LETTERS OF BACON 

The earliest composition by Bacon discovered by 
Spedding is a letter written in his twentieth year from 
Gray's Inn. It was dated July I ith, 1580, and addressed 
to Mr. Doyly, then in Paris. Beyond the fact that this 
seems to be the first of his writings, there is no special 
interest attached to it. It is to be found among the 
Lambeth manuscripts. 

At least three other letters have come to our know- 
ledge, all written from Gray's Inn in the same year. 
One of these is addressed to Lady Burghley (September 
i6th, 1580), another of the same date to Lord Burghley 
(both among the Lansdowne manuscripts), and the 
third dated October i8th, 1580, likewise to Lord 
Burghley. 

Many of Bacon's letters were written during the 
reign of James the First, and were collected and published 
by Robert Stephens in 1702. We also have a pretty 
full publication by David Mallet, which will be found 
in the fourth volume of his Works (1740). Several 
letters, printed in extenso, will be found here addressed 
to Queen Elizabeth upon various subjects, such as on 
the presentation by Bacon of New Year's gifts to the 
Queen, the choice of Commissioners in the Star-Chamber, 
written during the year 1600, and another in the same 
year concerning the Earl of Essex. There are also 
ii 



1 62 FRANCIS BACON 

many to the Lord Treasurer Burghley, the Lord Keeper 
of the Great Seal, the Earl of Essex, etc., including 
" A Letter of Advice to my Lord Essex immediately 
before his going into Ireland 1 599." Following these are 
the letters written in James the First's reign. William 
Rawley in his Resuscitatio (1657) publishes the " several 
Letters by this Honourable Authour,to Queen Elizabeth, 
King James, divers Lords and others " ; and in the same 
volume, following a separate title page, " Other Letters, 
by the same Honourable Authour, written in the Dayes 
of Queen Elizabeth." All these collections have sub- 
sequently been included in the more comprehensive 
works of Montague and others. 

On referring to this department of the writings 
of Bacon, one is struck with his habit of frequently 
addressing letters of " Advice " or " Expostulation " to 
various persons who held office at the same period ; 
sometimes these were of a congratulatory character, 
at others most condemnatory, and according to our 
present interpretation, most vindictive. As an example 
of the former type, let us briefly notice his Advice to 
Sir George Villiers, afterwards Duke of Buckingham, 
on his becoming a favourite with the King in the 
station of Prime Minister. Bacon begins by com- 
mending his ambition and complimenting him on his 
fitness for such advancement. Then he proceeds to 
give his advice for his " carriage in so eminent a place," 
and the danger of an unwise discharge of duty. Later 
he says, and the passage is worth quoting, " Remember 
well the great trust you have undertaken, you are as a 
continual Centinel, always to stand upon your watch 
to give him true intelligence ; If you flatter him, you 



E ER 




ADVICE 

WRITTEN 

BT 

S r .Francis Bacon 

To the Vukstf 

Buckingham , 

When be became Favourite to 

King James , 

Never before Printed. 



London^ Printed for R, H. and H. F. and are to be (old 
at Wfjhu*fttrtnd the Royal Exchange, 1661. 



A LETTER OF ADVICE 165 

betray him, if you conceal the truth of those things 
from him which concern his justice or his honour 
(although not the safety of his person) you are as 
dangerous a traitor to his state, as he that riseth in 
arms against him. A false friend is more dangerous 
than an open enemy. . . ." He ends his long admoni- 
tion with a series of exhortations to the effect that 
this new " favourite " should be " rightly persuaded 
and settled in the true protestant religion, professed 
by the Church of England," that he should not be 
"an instrument to countenance the Romish catholics," 
that " Colleges and schools of learning are to be 
cherished and encouraged," adding that " this kingdom 
hath in latin ages been famous for good literature." 
His concluding remarks deal with the promotion of 
justice ; the services and duties of counsellors of state ; 
foreign negotiations ; trade, both at home and abroad ; 
and the plantation of colonies, " which are very 
necessary, as outlets, to a populous nation, and may 
be profitable also if they be managed in a discreet 
way." 

As we now turn to an expostulation to Lord Chief 
Justice Coke, we perceive Bacon in quite a different 
vein. A sentence or two from this communication 
will suffice to demonstrate Bacon's invective and 
method of attack : 

"All men can see their own profit, that part of the 
wallet hangs before. A true friend (whose worthy 
office I would perform, since, I fear, both yourself 
and all great men want such, being themselves true 
friends to few or none) is first to shew the other, and 
which is from your eyes. 



166 FRANCIS BACON 

" First therefore behold your errors. * In discourse 
you delight to speak too much, not to hear other 
men. . . . You cloy your auditory when you would 
be observed. Speech must be either sweet or short. 

"You converse with books, not men, and books 
especially human ; and have no excellent choice with 
men, who are the best books : for a man of action and 
employment you seldom converse with, and then but 
with your underlings ; not freely, but as a schoolmaster 
with his scholars, ever to teach, never to learn : . . . You 
will jest at any man in public, without respect of the 
person's dignity or your own ; this disgraceth your 
gravity, more than it can advance the opinion of your wit : 

" And now we beseech you, my lord, be sensible both 
of the stroke, and hand that striketh ; learn of David to 
leave Shimei, and call upon God; he had some great 
work to do, and he prepareth you for it ; he would 
neither have you faint, nor yet bear this cross with 
a stoical resolution. There is a Christian mediocrity 
worthy of your greatness ; I must be plain, perhaps rash." 

At the end he says : " For friends, although your 
lordship be scant, yet I hope you are not altogether 
destitute ; if you be, do but look upon good books : they 
are true friends, that will neither flatter nor dissemble ; 
be you but true to yourself, applying that which they 
teach to the party grieved, and you shall need no other 
comfort or counsel." 

It will at once be perceived that many of Bacon's 
finest and most delightful utterances are to be found in 
some of his letters, and it seems highly desirable that 
those who are interested in the literature of the period 



POSTHUMOUS WORKS 167 

should turn their attention rather more than they have 
done in the past to such sources of wit and wisdom. A 
little patient study in this direction will not only unfold 
unexpected gems of thought and homely philosophical 
truths, but will also assist in throwing much light on 
the true character of the author. Indeed, it is not a 
little surprising that the value and significance of 
Bacon's Letters have not hitherto been fully appre- 
ciated, especially those which appeared at various im- 
portant epochs in his life and history. For instance, 
it has been well pointed out by Dr. Abbott that those 
written at the time of the "fall of Essex" "are well 
worth studying as specimens of Bacon's literary and, 
we may almost say, dramatic power." It would be 
quite unnecessary, and beside my present purpose, to 
reproduce examples in order to show how his mental 
processes and characteristics are illustrated and reflected 
in such writings. 

POSTHUMOUS WORKS 

After Bacon's death many memoranda, including 
Speeches, Notes of Advice, Letters, etc., were found. 
The first collection of these was made by his old chap- 
lain William Rawley, D.D., and published in a small 
quarto in the year 1629 under the title Certaine Mis- 
cellany Works of the Right Honourable Francis Lo: 
Verulam^ Vicount S. Alban. It contained the four 
following tracts : 

(l) Considerations touching a Warre with Spaine, 
written about five years since, and inscribed to his 
Majestie, at that time Prince of Wales. 



1 68 FRANCIS BACON 

(2) An Advertisement touching an Holy Warre, 
written in the yeare 1622 Dedicated to Lancelot 
Andrews. 

(3) An offer to our late Soveraigne King James of 
A Digest to be made of the Lawes of England. 

(4) The History of the Reigne of King Henry the 
Eighth. 

In 1627, the year after Bacon's death, Rawley had 
already published the Sylva Sylvarum, with the New 
A tlantis. 

A folio was next issued in 1638 with the full title 
Francisci Baconi Baronis de Verulamio, Vice-comitis 
Sancti Albani, Operum Moralium et Civilium Tomus. 
Cura et Fide Guil: Rawley. This began with an intro- 
ductory dedication by Dr. Rawley to Prince Charles 
of Wales, and contained also a portrait of Bacon by 
Pass. 

The following works, all written in Latin, were pub- 
lished in this volume, viz. The History of Henry the 
Seventh; The Essays ; The Wisdom of the Ancients ; 
A Treatise concerning a Holy War ; The New Atlantis; 
The De Augmentis Scientiarum; History of Winds ; 
and The History of Life and Death. 

In the year 1648 a small quarto appeared, which was 
published anonymously. It was entitled The Remaines 
of the Right Honourable Francis Lord Verulam, Viscount 
of St. Albanes, sometimes Lord Chancellour of England, 
being Essay es and sever all Letters to sever all great Per- 
sonages, and other pieces of various and high concernment 
not heretofore published. This contained An Essay of a 
King; An Explanation what manner of persons they 



CERTA1NE 

Mifcellany Works 

THE RIGHT 

HONOVRABLE, 

FRANCIS Lo. Verulam, 



S. A L B A N. 



PVBLISHED 

By WILLIAM 

Doftor of Diuinity,one of his 

Maicftics Chaplaincs. 



LONDON, 

Printed by I. Haui land for Humphrey Itybinfon, 
dwelling at the fignc of the three Pigeons 
in Pttttls Church-yard. 16*9. \ ** 



FRANCISCI 

BACONI, 

BARONIS DE 

VERVLAMIO, VICE-COMITIS 

SANCTI ALBANI,OPERVM 

MORALIVM ET ClVlLIVM 

Tomus. 

fHiftoriam Regni Henrtci Seftimi>Rtgis Angtifr 
I Sermonei Fiaelet, Jive Interior A Rervm. 
Qui continet < Traffatum de Sapient ft Veterum. 
e Seuo Sacra. 
Atlantidem. 



Ab ipfo Honoratiflimo Audorc, prxtcrquam 
in paucb, Latbtrate donacas. 

Cura& Fide Guilielmi Rowley, Sacra: Thcologix Doftotis, olitn 
Dominationi fua?,nunc Screniffinue Majeftati Regis, a Sacris. 

In hoc vo'aminejccrum cxcufi, includaatur 

CTraffatiu de Augments Scietttianuu. 
<Hiftoria Venterum. 
(.Hiftori* Vit* & Mortis- 




Cum Prwilegio. 
LONDINI. 

Exculum typis Edvardi Griffini -, Proliant ad In%oia Rcgia in 
mctcrk) D. !Pd/f,apud Hicbtrdttm Wbitakenm. 1658. 



THE REMAINES 173 

should be } that are to execute the power of Ordinance of 
the King's Prerogative; Short Notes of civill conversa- 
tion; An Essay on Death; His Opinion concerning the 
disposition of Suttons Charity, delivered to King James; 
A Letter of Advice written to Sir Edward Cooke, Lord 
Chief Justice of the Kings Bench; A Letter to the Lord 
Treasurer in excuse of his speech in Parliament against 
the treble subsidy ; A Letter to my Lord Treasurer, 
recommending his first suite touching the Sollicitor's place; 
A Letter of Ceremony to Queen Elizabeth upon the send- 
ing of a New Year's gift ; Another to the Queen upon 
the like Ceremony ; A Letter of Advice to the Earle of 
Essex, to take upon him the Care of the Irish businesse, 
when Mr. Secretary Cecill was in France ; A Letter of 
Advice to the Earle of Essex upon the first Treaty with 
Tyron in 1598, before my Lord was nominated for 
the charge of Ireland; Another Letter of Advice to my 
Lord immediately before his going into Ireland; A Letter 
to the said Earle, of offer of his service when he was first 
enlarged to Essex-house; Two Letters to be framed, the 
one as from Mr. Anthony Bacon to the Earle of Essex, 
the other as the Earle' s answer thereunto delivered, with 
the advice of Mr. Anthony Bacon; My Lord of Essex 
his answer to Mr. Anthony Bacon's Letter ; A Letter to 
Mr. Secretary Cecill, after the defeating of the Spanish 
Forces in Ireland; A Letter of Recommendation of his 
Service to the Earl of Northampton, a few days before 
Queen Elizabeth's death; A Letter of Offer of his 
service to his Majesty upon his first coming in; A Letter 
to Mr. Pauls in Scotland, upon the entrance of his 
Majesties Raign; A Letter of commending his love to 
the Lord of Kinlosse upon his Majesties entrance; Letter 



174 FRANCIS BACON 

commending his love and occasions to Sir Thomas 
Challenor in Scotland, upon his Majesties entrance ; A 
Letter to Mr. Davies, then gone to the King at his first 
entrance; A Letter to Mr. Pauls 28 March 1603; A 
Letter to Dr. Morrison, a Scottish Physician, upon his 
Majesties coming in; A Letter to Mr. Robert Kenny 
upon the death of Queen Elizabeth; A Letter to my Lord 
of Northumberland mentioning a Proclamation for the 
King; A Letter to my Lord Southampton upon the 
King's coming in; A Letter to the Lord of Northumber- 
land after he had been with the King; A Letter to the 
Earl of Salisbury, touching the Advancement of Learn- 
ing; A Letter to the Lord Treasurer Buckhurst upon the 
like Argument; A Letter of Expostulation to the Attour- 
ney Generall Sir Edward Cook; A Letter to the Lord 
Chancellour of the like Argument; A Letter to the 
King concerning the Sollicitour place ; A Letter to the 
Earl of Salisbury of courtesie upon New Year's guift; 
A second Letter to the Lord Chancellour ; Another Letter 
to the Lord Chancellour touching the former argument; 
An Expostulatory Letter to Sir Vincent Skinner; A 
Letter to Mr. Davies his Majesties attourney in Ireland ; 
A Letter to Mr. Pierce, Secretary to the Lord Deputy of 
Ireland; A Letter to Mr. Murrey ; A Letter to my Lady 
Packington; A Letter to Mr. Matthews imprisoned for 
Religion; Sir Thomas Bodley's Letter to Sir Francis 
Bacon, about his Cogitata et visa, wherein he declareth his 
opinion freely touching the same ; The Characters oj a 
believing Christian in Paradoxes and seeming contradic- 
tions ; A Confession of the Faith, written by Sir Francis 
Bacon, Knight, Viscount of St. Alban, about the time he 
was Sollicitour Generall to our late Soveraign Lord 



THE 

REMAINES 

RIGHT HONORABLE 



FRANCIS Lord 

Vrfcount of St. Albanes, fometimes Lord 
Chanccllour of England. 

BEING 

EfTaycs and /overall Letters to fcvcrall great Per- 
fonages , and other pieces of various and- high con- 
cernment not heretofore publrihed. A Table whereof 
for the Readers more cafe is adjoyncd. 




* 

& 



ft 
ft 


ft 



ft 



LONDON: 

Primed by B. 4Ifp, for 4rMvCfiMftM% and are to be fold a 1 
his Shop nrer the Savoy in the Sit and, 1648. 



I 



RAKClSClBACCTNI 
De 

CRIPTA 



Naturali et- 
VniverCalt 
L0SOPHIA , 



AMSTE-RODAMT , 



Apud Liitlovicum Elzevtnuin 




TITI.K-I'AGE OF GKC'TER's "SCRII'TA IN NATURALI ET 
UNIVERSALI," 1653 



ISAAC GRUTER'S PUBLICATION 177 

King James ; A Prayer made and used by the Lord 
Bacon. 

I have thought it wise to give in detail the list of the 
subjects included in this little volume in the order in 
which they may be found, for many of the items are of 
considerable interest and are here published for the first 
time. 

It will be noticed that the first issue of Bacon's 
Confession of Faith and A Prayer used by the Lord 
Chancellor Bacon are to be found in these Remaines. 
The same may be said of the Characters of a believing 
Christian. This is certainly the first available publica- 
tion of this interesting tract ; and if there was a separate 
issue in 1643, -as already suggested, I have not met 
with it. 

Isaac Griiter published a small duodecimo volume at 
Amsterdam in 1653 under the title Francisci Baconi de 
Verulamio Scrip ta in Naturaliet Universali Philosophia. 
This was in Latin, and the subjects which it included 
were arranged under the six following heads : 

I. Cogitata et visa de Interpretatione Naturae. 
II. Descriptio Globi Intellectualis. 

III. Thema Coeli. 

IV. De Fluxu et Refluxu Maris. 

V. De Principiis atque originibus secundum Fabulas 
Cupidinis et Coeli. 

VI. Impetus Philosophici in quibus continentur. 

1. Indicta vera de Interpretatione Naturae. 

2. Phenomena Universi. 

3. Scala Intellectus, sive Filum Labyrinthi. 



1 78 FRANCIS BACON 

4. Prodromi, sive Anticipationes Philosophiae 

Secundae. 

5. Cogitationes de Natura rerum. 

6. Filum Labyrinthi, sive Inquisitio legitima De 

motu. 

7. Aphorismi, et Consilia de Auxiliis mentis. 

8. De Interpretatione naturae Sententiae. 

9. De Interpretatione naturae Proaemium. 
10. Topica Inquisitio De luce et lumine. 

A tract was published in the year 1656 with the title 
of The Mirrour of State and Eloquence. Represented in 
the Incomparable Letters of the Famous Sr. Francis 
Bacon, Lord Verulam, Sf. Albans, to Queene Elizabeth, 
King James, and other Personages of the highest trust 
and honour in the three Nations of England, Scotland 
and Ireland. 

It was a quarto, and, according to Lowndes' descrip- 
tion, " contains pages 103, with title and contents three 
leaves. The running title is ' Bacons Remaines.' " On 
comparison it is in all particulars a reprint of the latter 
work, with the exception of the title page, and it is a 
little difficult to understand why this had been changed 
after the lapse of eight years. It contains an unusual 
portrait of Bacon, which much resembles that in the 
edition of the Advancement of Learning published by 
Gilbert Wats in 1640. On careful examination, how- 
ever, certain differences will be detected. In the latter, 
as Bacon is seated at his desk writing, the book which 
lies before him has inscribed on it the title of the 
Instauratio; while in the former, the book in which Bacon 
is represented as making certain entries contains, in 



The Mirrour of State 






E L O V E N C E- 



REPRESENTED 

In the Incomparable Letters of the Famous 
S r . FRANCIS BACON Lord VeruUm> S 1 . Albans, to 

Queene EtizABETH.King JAMBS, and other Pcrfonages 
of the higheft trufl.and honour in the three Nations 

of England, Scotland, an 



Concerning the better and more fare EftablifamcnC 
of thofe Nations in the affaires of Peace and Warre. 

WITH 

An ample and admirable accompt of his 

Paltry written by the exprcfs Command 
of King I A M E S : 

Tooclher with the Charatter of a true Chriftitn* 

<j J 

and fame other adjunflt of 



LONDON. 

Printed for Lwrence Chapman, and are to be fold at his Shop 
next doore to ihe F owa/aw-Taverne in the Sir*nd y 
i 6 5 6. 




none, vertite, Learning, rvitt, 
^4re all ntitnin tnis Porter e jinUb: 
JlntC Ceft to time tKat it may tell, 
Wfiat norm, rvttnttt tnis Ft- ere diacweu 



BACON FROM " THE M1RROUR OK STATE AND ELOQUENCE, 
1656 



THE RESUSCITATIO 181 

addition to some writing which is difficult to decipher, 
the word " Faith." This is interesting, inasmuch as in 
the Mirrour of State and Eloquence we find Bacon's 
Confession of Faith, and it points to the fact that this 
portrait was specially designed for the work, indicating 
the accepted importance of the Confession, which is here 
reproduced. As far as we know, the Remaines was 
never issued with a portrait There is a good copy of 
the little work among the Thomason Tracts in the 
British Museum. 

Resuscitatio, or Bringing into Public Light several 
Pieces of the Works, Civil, Historical, Philosophical and 
Theological, hitherto Sleeping. 

Such was the title of the much-esteemed folio edition, 
which was published by William Rawley in the year 
1657. It was issued with a portrait of Bacon, and con- 
tained a narrative of his life, from which all subsequent 
biographers have been enabled to gather many import- 
ant details relating to his private character and personal 
relations. Probably no one had the same opportunity 
of collecting the facts of Bacon's life, and the materials 
for the publication of his various tracts, as his old 
chaplain, and so we find he introduces his theme " To 
the Reader " in the following words : 

" Having been employed, as an Amanuensis, or dayly 
instrument, to this Honourable Author; and acquainted 
with his Lordship's Conceits, in the composing, of his 
Works, for many years together ; especially in his writing 
time ; I conceived that no man could pretend a better 
interest or Claim, to the ordering of them, after his 



1 82 FRANCIS BACON 

Death, than myself. For which cause I have compiled 
in one, whatsoever bears the true stamp of his Lord- 
ship's excellent Genius, and hath hitherto slept, and 
been suppressed ; In this present volume, not leaving 
anything to a future Hand which I found to be of 
moment, and communicable to the Publick, Save only 
some few Latine works, which by God's favour and 
sufferance, shall soon after follow." 

This folio contains in fact the translations and 
English works of Bacon, and in the subsequent editions 
of 1 66 1 and 1671 a few other tractates were added. 

In the first issue of the Resuscitatio the following 
subjects were published : 

1. Speeches in Parliament, Star-Chamber, Kings 

Bench, Chancery and otherwhere. 

2. Observations upon a Libell, published in Anno 1592. 

3. A true Report of Doctor Lopes, his Treason. 

4. An Advertisement, touching the Controversies of the 

Church of England. 

5. A Collection of the Felicities of Queen Elizabeth. 

6. A brief Discourse of the Union of England and 

Scotland and Articles and Considerations, touch- 
ing the Union, aforesaid. 

7. A Beginning of the History of Great Britain. 

8. A Letter and Discourse, to Sir Henry Savill, touch- 

ing Helps for the Intellectual Powers. 

9. Certain Considerations, touching the better Pacifica- 

tion and Edification of the Church of England. 

10. Certain Considerations, touching the Plantation in 

Ireland. 

11. Advice to the King, touching, Mr. Suttoris Estate. 



Refufciratio, 

Or, Bringing into 

PUBLICK LIGHT 

SEVERALL 

PIECES, 



OF THE 



WORKS, 

Chil y Hi/IoricaI 9 PbilofopbicaI, & Theological, 

HITHERTO 

SLEEPING 

Of the Right Honourable 

FRANCIS BACON 

Baron of fWrf*, Vifcount Saint Albtn. 

According to the bcft Corrected C O P P I E S. 
Together, With his Lordlhips LIFE. 



By WILLIAM R AW LEY, Dodor in Divinity, His 

Lordfhips Firft, and Laft, CHAPLEINE. 
Afterwards, CHAPLEINE, to Hisjate M A i E s T Y. 



LONDON, 

Printed by Sarah Griffitt, for William Lee , and are to be fold at 

bit ShopinF/fftjfrfrt, at the fignof theTurki-hcad, nccr 

the Mitre Ttvcrn, 1657. 



OPUSCULA VARIA POSTHUMA 185 

1 2. A Proposition to the King, touching the Compiling 

and A mendment of the Lawes of England. 

1 3. A Fragment of an Essay of Fame. 

14. Letters to Queen Elizabeth, King James, divers 

Lords and others. 

15. Other Letters. 

16. A Confession of the Faith. 

The Opuscula Varia Posthuma Philosophica, Civilia 
et Theologica> was the name given to a small octavo 
volume, containing some of the Latin works of Bacon, 
and published by Rawley in 1658. The title page 
contained the announcement " Cura et Fide Guilielmi 
Rawley, Sacrae Theologiae Doctoris,primo Dominationi 
suae, postea Serenissimae Majestati Regiae, a Sacris." 
This little work opened with a preface, and a life of 
Bacon by Rawley, followed by laudatory verses by 
George Herbert and John Burroughs, all in Latin. Its 
contents were : 

1. Historia Densi et Rari. 

2. Historia, sive Inquisitio de Sono, et Audibilibus. 

3. Articuli Inquisitionis de Metallis et Mineralibus. 

4. Inquisitio de Magnete. 

5. Inquisitio de Versionibus, Transmutationibus, 

Multiplicationibus, et Effectionibus Corporum. 

6. Topica Inquisitionis de Luce et Lumine. 

7. Epistola ad Fulgentium. 

8. In felicem memoriam Elizabethae Angliae 

Reginae. 

9. Imago Civilis Julii Caesaris. 

10. Imago Civilis Augusti Caesaris. 

11. Confessio Fidei. 



1 86 FRANCIS BACON 

After Ravvley's death, Archbishop Tenison, who 
was at all times a great admirer of Bacon, obtained 
many of the papers pertaining to his work, and from 
these, in 1679, published an octavo volume, to which 
he gave the title Baconiana, or Certain Genuine Remains 
of Sir Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulam and Viscount 
of St. Albans. This treatise he divided into five parts, 
as follows : (i) Baconiana Politico-moralia, under which 
certain Charges and Letters appeared. (2) Baconiana 
Physiologica, which contained Bacon's views on the 
Compounding and Union of Metals, the Incorporation 
of Iron with Stone, the Amalgamation of Metals, 
and many such problems. (3) Baconiana Medica, in 
which were recorded various papers dealing with the 
" Prolongation of Life " and Medical Receipts. (4) 
Baconiana Theologica, where we find only three items, 
viz. Lord Bacon's Questions about the Lawfulness 
of a War for the Propagating of Religion, and Two 
Prayers composed by Sir Francis Bacon. The first 
is what is known as " The Student's Prayer," and 
the other " The Writer's Prayer." (5) Baconiana 
Bibliographica, under which head were arranged certain 
papers relating to the books and life of Bacon ; and 
among these appear three short literary extracts on 
his Character, which are well worth referring to as 
illustrating contemporary feeling and opinion, more 
especially as regards his philosophical attainments. 
The first is styled A Character of Lord Bacon, Given 
by Dr. Peter Heylin, in his Life of Arch-Bishop Laud. 
Part I. Pag. 64 Anno 1620." In this we read : " The 
Lord Chancellor Bacon, was a man of the most strong 
Brain, and a chymical Head ; designing his endeavours 



OPUSCULA 

Varia Pofthuma, 

PHILOSOPHICA, 

C I V I L I A, 

ET 

THEOL O GIGA, 

FRANC i sc I B A c ON i, 

Baronis de Vernlamio Vice- 
Comitjs Santfi 



Nunc primum Edit A. 

Cura & Fide GUILIELMI RAW LEY, 

Sacrae Theologiae Dotoris,primo Do- 

minationi fux,poftea Sereniflimac 

Majeftati Regiae , a Sacris. 

Vila, cufnHobilipimi jtuftms 



L O N D I N 7, 

Ex Officina R. D AN IE LI s, 1658. 



BACONIAN A 189 

to the perfecting of the Works of Nature; or rather 
improving Nature to the best Advantages of Life, and 
the common benefit of Mankind. Pity it was, he was 
not entertained with some liberal salary, abstracted 
from all Affairs both of Court and Judicature, and 
furnished with sufficiency both of Means and Helps 
for the going on of his Design. Which had it been, 
he might have given us such a body of Natural 
Philosophy, and made it so subservient to the public 
good, that neither Aristotle, nor Theophrastus, amongst 
the ancients ; nor Paracelsus, or the rest of our latter 
Chymists, would have been considerable." 

The second appears under the title A Character 
of the Lord Bacon given by Dr. Sprat, in his History 
of the Royal Society, Part I. Sect. 16. Pag. 35-36. 
Referring here to the " New Philosophers who have 
disagreed from the Ancients," the biographer proceeds 
thus : 

" I shall only mention one Great Man who had the 
true Imagination of the whole extent of this Enter- 
prize, as it is now set on foot ; and that is, the Lord 
Bacon. In whose Books there are everywhere scattered, 
the best Arguments, that can be produced for the 
defence of Experimental Philosophy ; and the best 
directions that are needful to promote it. ... Who 
had always lived in the crowd, and borne the greatest 
burden of Civil Business ; should yet find leisure 
enough for those retired Studies, to excel all those 
Men who separate themselves for this very purpose. 
He was a man of strong, clear, and powerful Imagina- 
tions. His Genius was searching, and inimitable. 
And of this I need give no other proof, than his 



FRANCIS BACON 

Style itself; which as, for the most part it describes 
men's minds, as well as pictures do their bodies : So 
it did His, above all men living. The Course of it 
was vigorous, and majestical : The Wit bold and familiar. 
The Comparisons fetched out of the way, and yet the 
most easie : In all expressing a Soul equally skilled in 
Men and Nature. . . ." 

The third is described as A Character of the Lord 
Bacon's Philosophy ', by Mr. Abraham Cowley, in his 
Poem to the Royal Society. The last few verses of this 
may be quoted : ^ 

" From these, and all long Errors of the way, 
In which our wandering Predecessors went 
And like the old Hebrews many years did stray 
In Deserts but of small extent, 
Bacon, like Moses, led us forth at last, 
The barren Wilderness he past, 
Did on the very Border stand 
Of the blest promis'd Land, 
And, from the Mountains top of his exalted Wit, 
Saw it himself, and shew'd us it. 
But Life did never to one Man allow 
Time to discover Worlds, and conquer too ; 
Nor can so short a Line sufficient be 
To fathom the vast depths of Nature's Sea. 
The work he did we ought t'admire, 
And were unjust if we should more require 
From his few years, divided 'twixt th'excess 
Of low Affliction, and high Happiness : 
For who on things remote can fix his sight 
That's always in a Triumph, or a Fight ? " 



Or Certain Genuine 



REMAINS 



O F 



S R Francis Bacon, 

Baron of V E R u L A M, 
AND 

Vifcount of St. ALB AN s 



fn Arguments Civil and 

^Medical ', Theological , and ''Bibliographi 
cal $ Now the Firft time faithfully Pub 
lifhed 



An ACCOUNT of thefe Remain /, and of all his 
Lordjhip^s other Worlyjs given by the Publiftier, 
in aDifcourfe by way of IN T RODUCTIO N. 



LONDON, 

'tinted by J. V. for Richard Chifoell, at the Rofe 
and Crown in St. Paul's Church- Yard, 1679. 



PUBLICATIONS OF STEPHENS, ETC. 193 

In the year 1702 Robert Stephens published the 
Letters of Sir Francis Bacon, written during the Reign 
of King James the First, and two subsequent editions 
of these Letters, both containing portraits of Bacon by 
Vertue, appeared in the years 1734 and 1736 respec- 
tively. The former of these was termed Letters and 
Remaines, and the latter, Letters, Memoirs, Parlia- 
mentary Affairs, State Papers, with some curious pieces 
in Law and Philosophy. It may be pointed out that at 
the end of this 1736 edition several of the early philo- 
sophical treatises or fragments composed by Bacon will 
be found, viz. In praise of Knowledge ; Valerius Ter- 
minus of the Interpretation of Nature, with the anno- 
tations of Hermes Stella ; Filum labyrinthi ; Sequela 
chartarum ; de calore et frigore ; and Redargutio philo- 
sophiarum. The last tract is published in Latin. In 
this volume also An Account of the Life of Bacon is 
given. 

With reference to this special portion of our subject, 
it should be mentioned that Thomas Birch, D.D., issued 
a collection of unpublished Letters and Speeches in 
1763. This volume also contained some additional 
Charges, Advices, etc., as well as a Supplement. 

John Blackbourne had the honour of being the first 
to publish a complete edition of the Works of Bacon. 
This appeared in 1730, in four folio volumes, having a 
portrait of Bacon by Vertue. Following this, in 1740, 
David Mallet issued his edition of the Works, which 
was also in four volumes. Lowndes says that a few 
copies of this were "printed on a superfine large 
paper," and that Mallet's Life of Bacon "was pub- 
lished separately in 1740." A reprint of these Works 
13 



I 9 4 FRANCIS BACON 

came out in three volumes in 1753, which is described 
as being " more methodical, more elegant, and in every 
way more complete than any preceding." 

Allusion has already been made to the translation of 
the Novum Organum by Dr. Peter Shaw in 1733. This 
was included in his publication of the Philosophical 
Works methodized and made English from the Origi- 
nals ; with occasional Notes > which was issued in this 
year. Since Mallet's, we have had several other 
editions of the Works of Bacon by different writers, and 
two of these must be specially mentioned, as being the 
most accurate and exhaustive, viz. those of Basil Mon- 
tague (1825), and Ellis, Spedding, and Heath (1857). 

Lastly, in this connexion, it may be permitted to 
refer to certain well-known publications with which we 
have been favoured since these greater and more com- 
prehensive works. The majority of readers are familiar 
with Macaulay's Essay on Bacon, and though we may 
not wholly agree with the views and criticisms it con- 
tains, it must always be acknowledged as a valuable 
source of information and a masterpiece in our litera- 
ture. The Essays and Advancement of Learning \ by 
Aldis Wright, and the Novum Organum^ by Fowler, 
both issued by the Clarendon Press, should be specially 
noticed as reliable editions of the individual works of 
Bacon ; while quite recently the labours of Dean Church, 
Dr. Abbott, Mr. Sidney Lee, and some others are 
deservedly appreciated by all. 



BACON'S LITERARY FRIENDS 

AND THEIR RELATION TO HIS WORK 

r I CHOUGH it would appear that the friends of 
J. Bacon visited him from time to time both at 
York House and Gorhambury, we are able to glean 
from contemporary records very little accurate informa- 
tion as to these gatherings, or who actually took part in 
them. We may, however, conjecture from repeated 
personal allusions in his letters that only a few privi- 
leged companions enjoyed such hospitality ; and as we 
notice the effect produced by Bacon's various publica- 
tions as they appeared, and the assistance rendered 
by those most attached to him, we have an additional 
opportunity of forming an opinion as to this. 

Of these faithful students and admirers, such names 
as Rawley, Tobie Mathew, and Jonson at once occur to 
us. These men had watched Bacon's career during a 
great portion of his life, often rendering him signal 
service ; and, therefore, it is through them that much 
valuable and interesting information has been handed 
down to us. In this connexion, too, there are others 
whose influence and character bore directly on his 
work. 

William Rawley was intimately associated with Bacon 
during the most active period of his life. Graduating at 
Cambridge in 1606, and afterwards receiving the fellow- 

'95 



196 FRANCIS BACON 

ship of Corpus Christi College, he later on was appointed 
to the rectorship of Bowthorpe, Norfolk (1612). It was 
about this time that he met Bacon, who exerted his 
influence in obtaining for him the living at Landbeach. 
He was made a Doctor of Divinity in 1621, having 
previously become private chaplain to Bacon. From 
this time he takes every opportunity of assisting his 
friend in the preparation and publication of some of his 
ablest works. Many of the prefaces and dedications 
were written by him ; for instance, the preface to the 
New Atlantis in 1627 ; and likewise we may notice on 
the title page of the De Augmentis when it first ap- 
peared the announcement "cura et fide Giul : Rawley." 
The works published by him were : 

Sylva Sylvarum and New Atlantis (1627) ; Certaine 
Miscellany Works ( 1 629) ; Operum Moralium et Civilium 
(1638); Resuscitatio (1657), which contained a Life of 
Bacon ; and Opuscula Varia Posthuma Philosophica 
Civilia et Theologica (1658). 

As these works were completed Rawley presented 
copies of them to Corpus Christi College, and we read 
that he bequeathed also to the same institution Cam- 
den's Britannia as well as the works of Cicero and 
Plato. 

It is interesting to notice Rawley's private opinion of 
Bacon's character, and a few extracts from his Life as 
it appears in the Resuscitatio best illustrate this. After 
referring to his early life, his marriage, and his works, 
he further adds : 

" There is a commemoration due as well to his abili- 
ties and virtues as to the course of his life. Those 



BACON'S LITERARY FRIENDS 197 

abilities which commonly go single in other men, 
though of prime and observable parts, were all con- 
joined and met in him. Those are, sharpness of wit, 
memory, judgment, and elocution. For the former three 
his books do abundantly speak them ; which with what 
sufficiency he wrote, let the world judge ; but with what 
celerity he wrote them, I can best testify. But for the 
fourth, his elocution, I will only set down what I heard 
Sir Walter Raleigh once speak of him by way of com- 
parison (whose judgment may well be trusted), That 
the Earl of Salisbury was an excellent speaker, but no 
good penman ; that the Earl of Northampton (the Lord 
Henry Howard} was an excellent penman, but no good 
speaker ; but that Sir Francis Bacon was eminent in both. 
" I have been induced to think, that if there were a 
beam of knowledge derived from God upon any man in 
these modern times, it was upon him. For though he 
was a great reader of books, yet he had not his know- 
ledge from books, but from some grounds and notions 
from within himself; which, notwithstanding, he vented 
with great caution and circumspection. His book of 
Instauratio Magna (which in his own account was the 
chiefest of his works) was no slight imagination or 
fancy of his brain, but a settled and concocted notion, 
the production of many years' labour and travel. I my- 
self have seen at the least twelve copies of the Instaura- 
tion, revised year by year one after another, and every 
year altered and amended in the frame thereof, till at 
last it came to that model in which it was committed 
to the press ; as many living creatures do lick their 
young ones, till they bring them to their strength of 
limbs. 



198 FRANCIS BACON 

" In the composing of his books he did rather drive at 
a masculine and clear expression than at any fineness 
or affectation of phrases, and would often ask if the 
meaning were expressed plainly enough, as being one 
that accounted words to be but subservient or minis- 
terial to matter, and not the principal. And if his style 
were polite, it was because he would do no otherwise. 
Neither was he given to any light conceits or descant- 
ing upon words, but did ever purposely and industriously 
avoid them ; for he held such things to be but digres- 
sions or diversions from the scope intended, and to 
derogate from the weight and dignity of the style. 

" He was no plodder upon books : though he read 
much, and that with great judgment, and rejection of 
impertinences incident to many authors ; for he would 
ever interlace a moderate relaxation of his mind with 
his studies, -as walking, or taking the air abroad in his 
coach, or some other befitting recreation ; and yet he 
would lose no time, inasmuch as upon his first and 
immediate return he would fall to reading again, and so 
suffer no moment of time to slip from him without 
some present improvement. 

" His meals were refections of the ear as well as of the 
stomach, like the Nodes Atticae or Convtvia Deipno- 
sophistarum, wherein a man might be refreshed in his 
mind and understanding no less than in his body. 
And I have known some, of no mean parts, that have 
professed to make use of their note- books, when they 
have risen from his table. In which conversations, and 
otherwise, he was no dashing man, as some men are, but 
ever a countenancer and fosterer of another man's parts. 
Neither was he one that would appropriate the speech 



BACON'S LITERARY FRIENDS 199 

wholly to himself, or delight to outvie others, but leave 
a liberty to the co-assessors to take their turns. Where- 
in he would draw a man on, and allure him to speak 
upon such a subject, as wherein he was particularly 
skilful, and would delight to speak. And for himself, 
he contemned no man's observations, but would light 
his torch at every man's candle. 

". . . This is most true ; he was free from malice ; 
which (as he said himself) he never bred nor fed. He 
was no revenger of injuries ; which if he had minded, 
he had both opportunity and place high enough to have 
done it. He was no heaver of men out of their places, 
as delighting in their ruin and undoing. He was no 
defamer of any man to his prince. One day, when a 
great statesman was newly dead, that had not been his 
friend, the King asked him, What he thought of that 
lord which was gone ? he answered, That he would 
never have made His Majesty's estate better, but he was 
sure he would have kept it from being worse ; which was 
the worst he would say of him : which I reckon not 
among his moral, but his Christian virtues." 

In the year 1626, immediately after the death of 
Bacon, Rawley published a small tract containing a 
number of Latin verses to the memory of his departed 
friend. These were by different authors, and among 
them we find one by George Herbert. The title page 
of this quarto ran as follows : Memoriae Honoratissimi 
Domini Francisci Baronis de Verulamio vicecomitis 
Sancti Albani Sacrum. 

Rawley died at Land beach at the age of seventy- 
eight years, and was buried there. 



200 FRANCIS BACON 

Tobie Mathew was of all Bacon's literary associates 
probably the most trusted and the one in whom he at 
all times placed the greatest confidence. He was the 
son of the Archbishop of York, and was born at Salis- 
bury in 1577. During his residence at Christ Church, 
Oxford, his career as a student gave much promise, 
and he was accepted as a " noted orator and disputant," 
as well as a universal favourite. It was about the year 
1601, when he became member of Parliament for 
Newport in Cornwall, that he first met Bacon, and he 
very soon became closely attached to him. In a letter 
to the King at this time Bacon describes him as "a 
very worthy and rare young gentleman." A little 
later, when Bacon represented Ipswich in Parliament, 
Mathew succeeded him as member for St. Albans. 
Whilst travelling in Italy during the year 1606, 
through the influence of a persevering Jesuit, he em- 
braced the Roman Catholic faith, and though on his 
return to England he attempted to keep his conversion 
a secret from all, Bacon soon became aware of it, and 
at once communicated the fact to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, who did all in his power to show Mathew 
the error of his ways. He was not moved, however, 
by such intervention, and not obeying the King's 
command to take the oath, was soon committed as a 
prisoner to the Fleet, there remaining for six weeks. 
While in custody Bacon frequently dispatched letters 
to him, and he was allowed frequent visits from his 
friends. During the Plague epidemic (1608) some 
measure of freedom was granted, and very soon after, 
owing chiefly to the intervention of Bacon, his release 
was obtained absolutely. Being permitted to proceed 



BACON'S LITERARY FRIENDS 201 

again on his travels abroad, he made his way to 
Madrid, and it was here that he received from Bacon 
a copy of the Advancement of Learning, and a little 
later his De Sapientia Veterum. He remained on the 
Continent till the year 1617, and on his return to 
England visited Bacon at Gorhambury. He again 
became the affectionate companion of his old friend, 
and the following year issued the Italian translation 
of his Essays and the Wisdom of the Ancients in one 
volume. It is interesting to note that in the second 
edition of this translation (1619) we find the Essay 
On Seditions and Troubles, and it was not until the 
complete edition of all the Essays was published in 
1625 that this appeared in English. After two years, 
Mathew was once again forced to leave the country, on 
account of his renewed refusal to take the Allegiance 
Oath. He seems to have then spent much of his time 
in Brussels, occupying himself with various transla- 
tions, and it was from here that he wrote to Bacon on 
Spanish Affairs. During the year 1621 he was again 
permitted to return to London through the good offices 
of Lord Bristol, and a, knighthood was conferred upon 
him by James the First in 1623. 

When the Earl of Strafford proceeded to Ireland 
on his appointment as Lord Lieutenant, Sir Tobie 
accompanied him, and it was very soon suspected that 
he was taking serious steps to procure the advancement 
of the Catholics ; indeed, it was thought that he acted 
as a spy from the Church of Rome, and he himself 
knowing that his movements were closely watched, 
hurriedly left for Ghent at the time of the Rebellion. 
There he died in the year 1655. 



202 FRANCIS BACON 

Such was Bacon's confidence in the opinion and 
criticism of Mathew that he often communicated with 
him on the subjects and matter of his works, and he 
would accompany the presentation copies to him with 
affectionate letters which well illustrate the terms on 
which they constantly lived. For instance, when 
sending him the Wisdom of the Ancients, he ends his 
note thus : " This I have written in the midst of a 
term and parliament ; thinking no time so possessed, 
but that I should talk of these matters with so good 
and dear a friend, and so with my wonted wishes, I 
leave you to God's goodness. From Gray's Inn. Feb : 
27. 1610." 

Reference should be made to an important manu- 
script which was dispatched to him by Bacon at the 
time he was visiting Florence. It was one of those 
early fragments intended to initiate his doctrines, 
afterwards to be included in his great work of the 
Instauration, and styled the Redargutio Philosophi- 
arum. This is termed by Dean Church as " perhaps 
the most brilliant, and also the most insolently unjust 
and unthinking piece of rhetoric ever composed by 
him." It was accompanied by the following letter 
to Sir Tobie Mathew : 

" I send you at this time the only part which hath 
any harshness ; and yet I framed to myself an opinion, 
that whosoever allowed well of that preface which you 
so much commend, will not dislike, or at least ought 
not to dislike, this other speech of preparation ; for 
it is written out of the same spirit, and out of the 
same necessity. Nay it doth more fully lay open 
that the question between me and the ancients is 



BACON'S LITERARY FRIENDS 203 

not of the virtue of the race, but of the Tightness 
of the way. And to speak truth, it is to the other 
but as palma to pugnus, part of the same thing more 
large. . . . Myself am like the miller of Huntingdon, 
that was wont to pray for peace amongst the willows ; 
for while the winds blew, the wind-mills wrought, and 
the water-mill was less customed. So I see that 
controversies against religion must hinder the advance- 
ment of sciences. Let me conclude with my perpetual 
wish towards yourself, that the approbation of yourself 
by your own discreet and temperate carriage, may 
restore you to your country, and your friends to your 
society. And so I commend you to God's goodness. 
"Gray's Inn, this loth of October 1609." 

In addition to other acts of regard, Bacon dedicated 
his Essay On Friendship to him. It has been said 
that he was " the most trusted of all Bacon's friends," 
and judging from the fact that many of the finest 
literary performances were subjected to his approval, 
this would appear to be quite the truth. That there 
was a cordial harmony of feeling on Mathew's part 
there can be no doubt, and among his eulogiums one 
may be quoted : " It is not his greatness I admire, but 
his virtue. It is not the favours I have received of him 
that have enthralled and enchained my heart, but his 
whole life and character ; which are such that, if he 
were of an inferior condition, I could not honour him 
the less, and if he were my enemy, I should not the 
less love and endeavour to serve him." 

Altogether the life of Tobie Mathew was a very full 
and long one, and, in addition to other occupations, 



204 FRANCIS BACON 

much of it was spent in Church controversy, and on 
general matters of Catholic interest. 

Benjamin Jonson claimed as his friends, not only 
many of the poets and dramatists of his day, including 
Shakespeare, Drayton, Fletcher, Chapman, etc., but 
also such lights in prose literature as Camden, Selden, 
and Bacon. It may therefore not be out of place to 
remind my readers of a few incidents in the life of this 
illustrious contemporary. He was born in Westminster 
not far from the sacred Abbey which contains the 
tablet bearing the words " O rare Ben Jonson ! " this 
"time-worn stone" marking the resting-place of the 
great thinker and poet. A few days after his birth 
(1574) his father died, and as Benjamin grew into a 
strong and able lad he was obliged to toil as a young 
bricklayer among the ordinary workmen. He had pre- 
viously attended Westminster School for a short time, 
and it is presumed that he was taken away from this 
when his mother married again. Serving for a time as 
a soldier, he afterwards entered St. John's College, 
Cambridge, where he remained for a short time how 
long is uncertain. He next appeared on the stage of a 
theatre at Clerkenwell, but he did not make a success of 
this, and soon altogether dropped this vocation. It was 
not long, however, before he became famous ; for the 
production of Every Man in his Humour, in which 
William Shakespeare appeared as one of the actors, at 
once established his reputation. Jonson wrote many 
comedies and tragedies ; among the former may be 
specially mentioned The Alchemist and Volpone, and of 
the latter, perhaps the finest are his Cataline and 



BACON'S LITERARY FRIENDS 205 

Sejanus. All of these, fifty-two in number, were 
afterwards published together in a small folio (1616), 
but his Poems were not issued till the year 1640. 

It has been said that he not infrequently assisted 
Bacon in the production of some of his works. One 
must admit that there is much uncertainty as regards 
this. It does seem probable, however, that he took 
some part in the translation of Henry the Seventh. 
That he was a great admirer of Bacon we have ample 
evidence, and indeed this is apparent from his own 
statements. We have already seen that his public 
speeches were much appreciated and lauded by him, 
and we may infer from Jonson's attitude towards him 
that they had frequent opportunities of meeting privately 
as well. 

Reference has also been made to the one convivial 
occasion which probably outstripped all others in 
interest and magnificence, namely, the celebration at 
York House of Bacon's sixtieth birthday, and an 
extract from the poem then composed by Jonson has 
already been cited; but it may, in this connexion, be 
quoted in full : 

" Hail, happy Genius of this ancient pile ! 
How comes it all things so about thee smile ? 
The fire, the wine, the men ! and in the midst 
Thou stand 'st as if some mystery thou didst! 
Pardon, I read it in thy face, the day 
For whose returns, and many, all these pray ; 
And so do I. This is the sixtieth year, 
Since Bacon, and thy lord, was born, and here ; 
Son to the grave wise Keeper of the Seal, 



206 FRANCIS BACON 

Fame and foundation of the English weal. 
What then his father was, that since is he, 
Now with a title more to the degree ; 
England's high Chancellor : the destined heir, 
In his soft cradle, to his father's chair : 
Whose even thread the fates spun round and full, 
Out of their choicest and their whitest wool. 
'Tis a brave cause of joy, let it be known, 
For 'twere a narrow gladness, kept thine own. 
Give me a deep-crowned bowl, that I may sing, 
In raising him, the wisdom of my king." 

George Herbert must have been a confidant for whom 
Bacon had the greatest regard and affection. Born at 
Montgomery Castle in \Vales in the year 1593, he had 
the benefit of a high moral training at the hands of a 
good mother, and he early in life showed a marked 
inclination towards the study of divinity. After leaving 
Westminster School he proceeded to Cambridge, gradu- 
ating there in 1612. He became an accomplished 
scholar and good musician, and his contributions to poetry 
very soon placed him in the foremost rank among the 
literary circles of his day. Soon after his appointment 
as Deputy Orator at Cambridge, he was advanced, 
chiefly through the influence of Sir Francis Nethersole, 
to the full Oratorship at the University, a post he had 
long coveted. In this capacity he was necessarily 
brought into contact with court officials, and others of 
distinction. It was then that he made the acquaint- 
ance of Bacon, and we find him expressing a tribute of 
gratitude to his new friend in one of his -orations, on 
the bestowal of the Instauratio to the University of 



BACON'S LITERARY FRIENDS 207 

Cambridge. Herbert, as a man and a poet, was as 
much appreciated in his own day as he is at the present 
time. He counted as his admirers and friends such 
writers as Crashaw, Vaughan, and Donne; and the 
revered Izaak Walton not only delighted to quote his 
poetry, but bequeathed to us a description of his Life 
for which we shall ever be grateful. Speaking of his 
Temple, Walton says : "It is a Book in which by de- 
claring his own spiritual conflicts, he hath comforted 
and raised many a dejected soul, and charmed them 
with sweet and quiet thoughts." 

Bacon, in referring to the translations into Latin of 
his Henry the Seventh and the Essays, says that the 
work was performed " by some good pens that do not 
forsake me," and by this he is supposed to refer to 
the assistance rendered by Herbert, Selden, and Ben 
Jonson. 

The Dedication of his Psalms into Verse runs as fol- 
lows : " To my very good Friend Mr. George Herbert 
The pains that it pleased you to take about some 
of my writings I cannot forget, which did put me 
in mind to dedicate to you this poor exercise of my 
sickness. Besides, it being my manner for dedications, 
to choose those that I hold most fit for the argument, I 
thought, that in respect of divinity and poesy met, 
whereof the one is the matter, and the other the 
style of this little writing, I could not make better 
choice : so, with signification of my love and acknow- 
ledgment, I ever rest your affectionate friend. 

Fr. St. Alban." 

Herbert died in the year 1633, at the early age of 
forty. 



208 FRANCIS BACON 

Dr. Lancelot Andrews was a very prominent divine 
and great favourite in the reign of Elizabeth. After 
completing his collegiate course at Cambridge, he 
was appointed chaplain in ordinary to the Queen, 
and acted in a like capacity to Archbishop Whitgift. 
He afterwards became Dean of Westminster and Privy 
Councillor for England and Scotland. Finally, he was 
further honoured by being made successively, Bishop of 
Ely, Chichester, and Winchester. 

Being a man of unusual intellectual gifts, he was 
selected to assist in the preparation of the Authorized 
Version of the Bible. His scholarly mind and able 
preaching were later on much appreciated by King 
James, who held him in high esteem also for "his 
social qualities and rare sense of humour." 

His best-known work, written in Latin, was entitled 
Tortura Torti. Besides this he published many sermons 
which were edited by Laud and Buckeridge. Most of 
the prayers composed by him are well known, and 
those for special use in the consecration of churches are 
still employed. 

He saw very much of Bacon, and we may infer that 
he was intimately associated with him during his whole 
life. They died in the same year 1626, the Bishop 
having reached the age of seventy-one years. 

Bacon was in the habit of seeking his advice on 
various philosophical subjects relating to his works, and 
in the Miscellany Works, published in 1629, appears a 
long letter from Bacon to him, pertaining more espe- 
cially to the Instauration, and he adds in this : " I have 
also entered into a work touching Laws." He alludes 
to the Reign of Henry the Seventh in the following 



BACON'S LITERARY FRIENDS 209 

words : " So now being (as I am) no more able to do 
my Country service, it remained unto me to do it 
honour, which I have endeavoured to do in my work of 
the Reign of King Henry the Seventh" " As for my 
Essays" he adds, " and some other particulars of that 
nature, I count them but as the recreations of my other 
studies, and in that sort of purpose to continue them, 
though I am not ignorant that those kind of writings 
would, with less pains and embracement (perhaps), 
yield more lustre and reputation to my name than those 
other which I have in hand. But I account the use that 
a man should seek of the publishing of his own writings 
before his death to be not an untimely anticipation of 
that which is proper to follow a man, and not to go 
along with him." 

The literary fragment which Bacon has left on an 
Advertisement touching an Holy War contains a dedica- 
tion to Bishop Andrews ; and in a letter accompanying 
the presentation of a copy of the Cogitata et Visa one 
finds the following remarks : " And because you were 
wont to make me believe you took liking to my 
writings, I send you some of this vacation's fruits, and 
thus much more of my mind and purpose. . . . If ypur 
lordship be so good now, as when you were the good 
Dean of Westminster, my request to you is not by 
pricks, but by notes, you should mark unto me whatso- 
ever shall seem unto you either not current in the style, 
or harsh to credit and opinion, or inconvenient for the 
person of the writer ; for no man can be judge and 
party : and when our minds judge by reflection of our- 
selves they are more subject to error. . . ." 

Sir Thomas Meautys. Special mention should be 
14 



2io FRANCIS BACON 

made of the name of Bacon's devoted secretary, Sir 
Thomas Meautys, who was at all times brought more 
into intimate association with him than any of the 
others that have been noticed. As will be readily under- 
stood, much correspondence passed between them on 
many important occasions, and it would be almost im- 
possible to make special comments on this, but as 
illustrating the affectionate regard which Meautys 
entertained for his master, the final portion of one of 
his letters may be quoted : 

" And now, my good lord, if anything make me 
diffident, or indeed almost indifferent how it succeeds, 
it is this ; that my sole ambition having ever been, and 
still is, to grow up only under your lordship, it is 
become preposterous, even to my nature and habit, to 
think of prospering or receiving any growth, either 
without or besides your lordship. And, therefore, let 
me claim of your lordship to do me this right, as to 
believe that which my heart says, or rather swears 
to me, namely, that what addition soever, by God's 
good providence comes at any time to my life or 
fortune, it is, in my account, but to enable me the more 
to serve your lordship in both ; at whose feet I shall 
ever humbly lay down all that I have, or am, never to 
rise thence other than 

" Your lordship's in all duty and reverent affections, 

" T. MEAUTYS. 
"September 11. 1622." 

He continued to manifest his love and loyalty in 
every way and after Bacon's death erected a fitting 



BACON'S LITERARY FRIENDS 211 

monument to him in St. Michael's Church, bearing 
an appropriate inscription composed by Sir Henry 
Wotton. 

The body of Sir Thomas Meautys was afterwards 
buried close to this monument, a suitable resting-place 
for one who "loved and admired Bacon in life and 
honoured him when dead." By a special clause in 
Bacon's will he was left 500, and we find that, though 
not previously appointed as one of the administrators, 
he afterwards acted with Sir Robert Rich in that 
capacity, as those legally deputed refused to accept 
the responsibility. 

Sir Thomas Bodley, whose name will always be 
gratefully remembered and honoured as the founder of 
the great library at Oxford, was born at Exeter in 
the year 1545. The early years of his life were spent 
principally in Geneva, owing to the fact that his father 
was obliged to leave England in the reign of Queen 
Mary on account of his Protestant views. Here in his 
youth he studied under Calvin, Beza, and Constantine, 
receiving careful tuition from these authorities in 
Divinity and Greek. When Elizabeth came to the 
throne he returned to England with his parents and 
entered Magdalen College, Oxford ; in 1564 he became 
a Fellow of Merton College, having taken his degree 
in arts the year previously. He subsequently spent 
several years on the Continent, becoming thoroughly 
proficient in the French, Spanish, and Italian languages. 
He was selected to transact some very important 
diplomatic business in Denmark in 1585, and this was 
carried out in such a manner as to give much satis- 



212 FRANCIS BACON 

faction to the Queen, who continued to grant him her 
confidence in various matters of state. Indeed, his 
ability in conducting missions of unusual difficulty, 
more especially in connexion with foreign embassies, 
was acknowledged by all in authority, and he was 
afterwards admitted as a member of the Council of 
State. He relinquished all public duty in 1596. Soon 
after this the idea occurred to him that the restoration 
of the public library at Oxford " which then in every 
part lay ruined and waste" was an urgent necessity. 
His efforts were assisted by the University itself, and 
outside help was promptly forthcoming ; so that although 
"the timber works of the house were rotten and had 
to be new made," the building was successfully con- 
ducted. Many volumes of rare books were gratuitously 
presented, and those newly published were supplied by 
the Stationers' Company. Bodley's exertions in collect- 
ing books of interest, both from the Continent and at 
home, together with the care and discrimination he 
used in their selection, resulted in the formation of a 
library which stands not only as a worthy monument 
to himself, but a treasure-house of literature for which 
we "cannot be too thankful. This, "the first public 
library in Europe," was opened by the King on the 
8th November, 1603. Bodley died in the year 1613, 
and was buried in the chapel of Merton College, 
Oxford. 

It should be added that he received his knighthood 
from James the First soon after his accession. 

Bacon was in the habit of submitting his treatises to 
Bodley for his criticism and opinion, and on these 
occasions each work was accompanied by a letter from 



BACON'S LITERARY FRIENDS 213 

him. Among the earlier items which were to form 
the framework of the great Instauration was the one 
already referred to the Cogitata et Visa and this 
was dispatched to Bodley for his usual examination. 
Sir Thomas afterwards wrote Bacon a letter " wherein 
he declareth his opinion freely touching the same," and 
some of his critical remarks were not favourable or 
altogether to the liking of the author. In the post- 
script to his letter we read : " One kind of boldness 
doth draw on another, insomuch, as me thinks I should 
offend not to signifie, that before the transcript of your 
Book be fitted for the Presse, it will be requisite for 
you to cast your eye upon the stile, which in the 
fraiming of some periods, and in divers words and 
pharases, will hardly go current. . . ." 

It would appear by the tone of one of Bacon's letters 
at this time that Bodley 's opinion was not of much 
value to him, and it has been suggested that Bacon 
looked to him more for books than ideas. One can 
only say that Bacon's other conduct towards his friend 
hardly substantiates this view; for instance, on the pre- 
sentation of the Advancement of Learning, he thought 
it right to state in his accompanying letter, after 
alluding to the dedication to the King : " The second 
copy I have sent unto you, not only in good affection, 
but a kind of congruity, in regard of your great 
and rare desert of learning; for books are the 
shrines where the saint is, or is believed to be, 
and you having built an ark, to save learning from 
Deluge, deserve, in propriety, any new instrument 
or engine, whereby learning should be improved or 
advanced." 



214 FRANCIS BACON 

Let us now refer to two foreign correspondents with 
whom Bacon remained in friendly intercourse, through 
his letters, almost up to the time of his death, viz. the 
Fathers Fulgentio and Baranzano. The former was a 
Venetian divine in whom he was much interested, and 
among the letters to this worthy there is one of special 
value, for in it Bacon sketches out pretty fully the plan 
of his great undertaking the Instauratio and ex- 
presses his disappointment in that he has "given up 
all hope" of ever seeing the full accomplishment of 
his philosophic scheme. After alluding to his own 
health in the opening passage, Bacon continues : " I 
wish to make known to your Reverence my intentions 
with regard to the writings which I meditate and have 
in hand ; not hoping to perfect them, but desiring to 
try, and because I work for posterity ; these things 
requiring ages for their accomplishment. I have 
thought it best, to have all of them translated into 
Latin, and divided into volumes. The first volume 
consists of the books concerning the Advancement of 
Learning, and this, as you know, is already finished 
and published, and includes the partitions of the sciences, 
which is the first part of my Instauration. The Novum 
Organunt should have followed : but I interposed my 
moral and political writings as being nearer already. 
These are : First, the History of the Reign of King Henry 
the Seventh of England, after which will follow the 
little book, which in your language, you have called 
Saggi Morali. But I give it a weightier name, en- 
titling it Faithful Discourses or the Inwards of Things. 
But these discourses will be both increased in number, 
and much enlarged in the treatment. The same 



BACON'S LITERARY FRIENDS 215 

volume will contain also my little book on the Wisdom 
of the Ancients. And this volume (as I said) interposed, 
not being a part of the Instauration. After this will 
follow the Novum Organum, to which there is still a 
second part to be added but I have already compassed 
and planned it out in my mind. And in this manner 
the second part of the Instauration will be completed. 
As for the third part, namely the Natural History, that 
is plainly a work for a King or Pope, or some college 
order : and cannot be done as it should be by a private 
man's industry. And those portions which I have pub- 
lished concerning Winds, and concerning Life and 
Death, are not history pure : because of the Axioms, and 
greater observations that are interposed : but a kind of 
writing mixed of natural history and a rude and imper- 
fect intellectual machinery ; which is the fourth part of 
the Instauration. Next, therefore, will come to the 
fourth part itself: Wherein will be shown many ex- 
amples of this machine, more exact and more applied 
to the rules of induction. In the fifth place will follow 
the book which I have entitled the Precursors of the 
Second Philosophy, which will contain my discoveries 
concerning new axioms, suggested by the experiments 
themselves : that they may be raised as it were and set 
up, like pillars that were on the ground. And this I 
have set down as the fifth part of my Instauration. 
Last comes the Second Philosophy itself the sixth part 
of the Instauration, of which I have given up all hope but 
it may be that the ages and posterity will make it flourish. 
Nevertheless in the Precursors those I mean which 
touch upon the universalities of nature no slight founda- 
tions of this will be laid. . . ." He signs himself " Your 
Reverence's most devoted friend, FR. S. ALBAN." 



216 FRANCIS BACON 

Soon after the publication of the Novum Organum, 
among the many literary and congratulatory com- 
munications which Bacon received from various sources, 
there was one of considerable importance from Father 
Redemptus Baranzano, who was a professor of philo- 
sophy and mathematics at Anneci. This letter has 
unfortunately not been preserved, but it is said to 
have been of a most interesting character, containing 
inquiries as to the method and principles of the Induc- 
tive process, already sketched out. We have Bacon's 
answer, however, and I will now add some portions of 
it: 

"London, 1622. ... I have read your letter with 
pleasure, and since between lovers of truth ardour 
begets candour, I will return to your ingenuous ques- 
tions an ingenuous reply. I do not propose to give up 
syllogism altogether. Syllogism is incompetent for the 
principal things rather than useless for the generality. 
... In the Mathematics there is no reason why it 
should not be employed. Be not troubled about the 
Metaphysics. When true Physics have been discovered 
there will be no Metaphysics. Beyond the true Physics 
is divinity only." 

Bacon then points out when and how Syllogism may 
be applied his desire for a Natural History "out of 
which philosophy may be built," and expresses a wish 
that he may have " fit assistants " ; suggesting that 
Baranzano should prepare a " History of the Heavens, 
in which only the phenomena themselves, and the 
different Astronomical instruments, with their uses, 
and then the principal and most celebrated hypotheses 



BACON'S LITERARY FRIENDS 217 

both ancient and modern, and at the same time the 
exact calculations of the periodic returns, and other 
things of that kind, shall be set forth plainly and 
simply, without any doctrine or theory whatever. And, 
if to this History of the Heavens, you will add a His- 
tory of Comets (concerning the composition of which 
I send herewith certain articles and as it were par- 
ticular topics), you will have erected a truly magnificent 
frontispiece for Natural History, and done the greatest 
service to the Instauration of the Sciences, and a very 
great favour to myself." He then speaks of the trans- 
lation of the Advancement of Learning, and alludes to 
the fact of having seen the published works of Baran- 
zano. This youthful and gifted Father died very soon 
after, at the age of thirty-three ; and a correspondence 
which would, no doubt, have proved most useful to 
Bacon and valuable to us all was suddenly cut short. 

Some correspondence passed between Bacon and his 
cousin Sir Henry Wotton on different occasions, but on 
the whole this was of no special interest. Sir Henry, 
as an accomplished man of letters, appreciated very 
highly the work of his learned relative, and no doubt 
would be eager to possess his publications as they 
appeared. When the Novum Organum was issued 
Bacon sent three copies to him, and on the receipt 
of them, Wotton writes : " I have by the care of my 
cousin Mr. Thomas Meautys, and by your own special 
favour, three copies of that work wherewith your lord- 
ship hath done a great, and ever-living benefit to all the 
children of nature, and to nature herself in her utter- 
most extent of latitude ; who never before, had so noble, 



218 FRANCIS BACON 

nor so true an interpreter, or (as I am readier to style 
your lordship) never so inward a secretary of her 
cabinet. . . ." Specimens of Bacon's poetry were also 
found among Wotton's papers after his death, and 
these were subsequently published in the Reliquiae 
Wottonianae in the year 1651. 

In addition to these contemporaries there were a few 
others who were more or less personally interested in 
the literary work of Bacon. 

John Selden and Thomas Hobbes are supposed to 
have occasionally assisted him ; the former, on one 
occasion at least, gave him the benefit of his opinion 
as to the judgments of the House of Lords, and he 
is reported to have expressed the sentiment that 
"never was any man more willing or ready to do 
your lordship's service than myself." 

That both he and Hobbes aided Bacon in the 
rendering of some of his translations, more especially 
with those of the Essays and Henry the Seventh, seems 
pretty certain, but it is difficult to produce definite 
evidence on this point. 

Finally, the name of Sir John Constable, Bacon's 
brother-in-law, should be mentioned in this con- 
nexion, for it will be remembered that the edition of 
the Essays "imprinted at London by John Beale 
1612 "was dedicated to him; and he was afterwards 
appointed one of Bacon's executors, receiving the valu- 
able legacy of all his books. 

From what has been said it will be obvious that the 
part played by the friends of Bacon, both in the pro- 
duction of his works and in his actual literary advance- 



BACON'S LITERARY FRIENDS 219 

ment, was very considerable. We have already observed 
how in his political life the good offices of those whom 
he selected for special purposes were utilized to the full 
in order to gratify an ambition in state affairs ; and as 
we now turn to his successes in literature we are im- 
pressed with the fact that, with the same keen dis- 
crimination, he chose those as coadjutors who were best 
able to advance his interests in this special department. 
Indeed, as we have seen in his writings, he makes no 
attempt to conceal this. At the same time it would be 
far from the truth to assert that he only associated him- 
self with those loyal friends on account of their ability 
and readiness to render him assistance in such work. 
Bacon at all times carefully determined the means at 
his disposal for the accomplishment of the ends he had 
in view, and he was fortunate to include among his 
companions those who considered it a privilege and 
honour to benefit him on every possible occasion. 
They were thus endeared to him on account of the 
appreciation they showed for his labours no less than 
by the trust and confidence he was able to enjoy. He 
understood well the value of friends, including the con- 
ditions and means whereby they could be most profit- 
ably employed for his designs, and, in addition, wisely 
anticipated the future in those practical words in his 
essay on Friendship : " Men have their time, and die 
many times in desire of some things which they princi- 
pally take to heart ; the bestowing of a child, the finish- 
ing of a work, or the like. If a man have a true friend, 
he may rest almost secure that the care of those things 
will continue after him." 

He had the happy satisfaction of possessing such 



220 FRANCIS BACON 

friendships as enabled him to say that " no receipt 
openeth the heart but a true friend, to whom you may 
impart griefs, joys, fears, hopes, suspicions, counsels, 
and whatsoever lieth upon the heart to oppress it, in a 
kind of civil shrift or confession " ; and the effect of 
such fellowship is beautifully rendered when he writes : 
" For there is no man that imparteth his joys to his 
friend, but he joyeth the more, and no man that im- 
parteth his griefs to his friends but he grieveth the 
less." With characteristic and dramatic abruptness 
he closes this learned discourse with the impressive 
aphorism, " If a man have not a friend he may quit 
the stage." 



INDEX 



Abbott, Dr 194 

his preface to Mrs. Pott's 

work . . . -SI 
observations on her views . 51 
reference to Novum Organum 

and the Natural History 67 

reference to Psalms in Verse 1 16 

Abuses of Courts of Justice . 24 

Acosta . . . . .68 

Advancement of Learning, first 

edition . . . . 58 
reception by the public . 58 
its scope and use . 58, 6 1 
Colours of Good and Evil, 

with additions found in . IOI 
Advertisement touching on an 
Holy War, dedication to 
Bishop Andrews . . 209 
Alchemist, The . . . 204 
Andrews, Bishop Lancelot, 
Novum Organum sub- 
mitted to . . .61 
as a friend of Bacon . . 208 
his works .... 208 
letter from Bacon in Certaine 

Miscellany Works . . 208 
dedication of Advertisement 

touching on an Holy War \,o 202 
letter on presentation of 

Cogitata et Visa . . 209 
Apology in certain imputations 
concerning the late Earl of 
Essex . . . .145 
Apophthegms, first publication 

of, etc. . . . ,129 
preface to . . . 129 

its authenticity . . 130 

edition of 1658 . . 130 

Tenison speaks of this edi 
tion in his Baconiana 130 



Apophthegms 

reprint of 1661 . . .130 
illustrations given . -131 
Aristotle . . . .68 
Bacon's aversion to the philo- 
sophy of . . . .6 
Atheism included in Medita- 

tiones Sacrce . . . IOI 
also in 1612 edition of The 

Essays . . . . 101 
also in 1625 edition of The 

Essays .... IOI 
Aubrey, his gift of 100 to 

Bacon . . . .24 

reference to Bacon's verses . 126 

Author 's Prayer, The . .US 

B 

Bacon, Anthony ... 5 

Bacon, Francis, birth . . I 

parents I 

as a child .... 5 

youthful investigations . 5 

early signs of genius . . 5 

at Cambridge 5 

entered at Gray's Inn . . 6 

in Paris .... 6 

his cypher-writing system . 6 

legal studies at the Bar . 7 

M.P. for Melcombe Regis . 7 

,, Liverpool . . 7 

travels in France and Italy . 7 

on The Force of Imagination 7 
on Secret Passages of Sym- 
pathy between persons of 

near blood ... 7 
views regarding Catholics 

and Puritans ... 8 
sworn Queen's Counsel Ex- 
traordinary ... 9 



221 



222 



FRANCIS BACON 



Bacon, Francis 

M.P. for Middlesex . . 9 
attitude in dealing with 

financial questions . . 9 
Registership of the Star 

Chamber ... 9 
attachment to Earl of Essex 1 1 
publication of tract on The 
Practices and Treasons of 
Robert, late Earl of Essex 14 
receives his knighthood . 14 
finds favour with James I . 17 
appointed King's Counsel . 17 
marriage to Alice Burnham 17 
Solicitor-Generalship . .17 
Lord Keeper of the Great 

Seals .... 18 
hostility between him and 

Sir Edward Coke . . 18 
deprives Coke of Chief 

Justiceship, etc. . . 18 
Lord High Chancellor of 

England . . . .21 
Viscount of St. Albans . 21 
height of his fame and pro- 
sperity . . . .22 
reception of his Novum Or- 

ganum . . . .23 
celebration of sixtieth birth- 
day 23 

his fall . . . .23 
charged with corruption . 24 
illness at the time of his fall . 25 
action of the Lords at time 

of his confession . . 25 
forfeits the Great Seal . 25 

his guilt and sentence . . 25 
retirement to Gorhambury . 25 
appeals to the Lords for his 

liberty . . . .26 
his pardon . . . .26 
appeals to the King . . 26 
retirement . . . .27 
literary work at the time . 27 
last literary efforts . 28-29 
wish that his works should 

be published in Latin . 29 
general health and the evi- 
dences of it . . 29-30 
last scientific investigation . 30 



Bacon, Francis 

death 30 

burial. . . . -31 
character, surroundings, and 

influences . . . 31 
ambition . . . .32 
as a speaker . . -36 
method of dealing with cases 36 
eloquence, and Ben Jon- 
son's testimony as to this 36 
pecuniary difficulties . . 37 
recreations . . . -37 
influence in his own day . 37 
method and comprehensive- 
ness . . . .38 
memory . . . -38 
age when he published The 

Essays . . . .98 
his creed . . . .112 
his ' dual nature ' . . 113 
as a believing Christian . 113 
as a poet . . . .119 
Certaine Psalmes in Verse 

composed in failing health 121 

speeches .... 141 

character . . . 186-189 

friends . . 195, 218-219 

Bacon, Sir Nicholas . . I 

Baconiana . . . .186 

divisions of . . .186 

Baranzano, Father, letter to .216 

Beale, John, edition of Essays 

printed by . .85 

Beginning of the History of 

Great Britain, The . .106 
date of composition . .106 
first publication . . . 106 
Bensley, issue of The Essays 

by him . . -94 

Beza 211 

Birch, Thomas, his collection 
of Bacon's letters and 
speeches . . . . 193 
Blackbourne, John, his com- 
plete edition of The Works 193 
Bodley, Sir Thos. ... 39 
Bacon's acknowledgment to 

him as to his errors . . 39 
Novum Orgamim submitted 
to 6l 



INDEX 



223 



Boclley, Sir Thos. 
opinion of Cogitata et Visa, 

etc. . . .62, 213 

as a friend of Bacon . .211 
foundation of library at Ox- 
ford . . . .211 

Bradford, William, early 
American edition of The 
Essays printed by . .98 

Browne, Sir Thomas, possi- 
bility of his being the 
author of An Essay on 
Death . . . .97 

Bruce, John, with reference to 
Northumberland Manu- 
script . . , -44 

Buckingham, Duke of I 

acquires York House . . 25 

Burghley, Lady, letter to . 161 

Burghley, Lord, his attitude 
towards Bacon when the 
Solicitor-Generalship be- 
came vacant . . .11 
letter to .... 161 

Burgoyne, Frank, work in con- 
nection with Northumber- 
land Manuscript . . 48 



Calvin . . . . .211 
Cataline .... 204 
Catholics, Bacon's views on . 8 
Cecill, Thomas, engraved title 

to Sylva Sylvarum?\sy . 75 
Certaine Miscellany Works . 167 
letter from Bacon to Lancelot 

Andrews in . 208 

Certain Observations made 

upon a Libel . . .44 
Certaine Psalmes in Verse first 

printed . . . .116 
dedication, etc. . . .116 
composed in failing health . 121 
Characters of a believing Chris- 
tian, in Paradoxes and 
seeming contradictions pub- 
lished in The Remaines 114-177 
published as a separate pub- 
lication . . . 1 14 
Montague's opinion . .114 



Charles, Prince, urges Bacon 
to continue his historical 
researches . . .105 
Church, Dean . . 35, 194 
the importance of education 35 
description of Bacon's atti- 
tude in The Essays . 99 
opinion of Redargutio Philo- 

sophiarum , . . 202 
Cogitata et Visa de Interpreta- 

tione Naturae . . .42 
Bodley's opinion of . 62, 213 
publication by Griiter . 62 

letter to Bishop Andrews 

on presentation of . . 209 
Cogitationes de Scientia Hu- 
mana . . . -58 
Coke, Sir Edward, Lord Chief 
Justice, as Bacon's rival 
for the hand of Sir Thomas 
Cecil's daughter . . 10 
letter of expostulation to . 165 
Coleridge . . . .47 
opinion of Bacon as a 

poet . . . .119 
Colours of Good and Evil 85, 100 
Concretes . . . .67 
Confession of Faith, A 

112, 177, 181 

manuscripts . . .112 
first printed . . .112 
copies of first edition sold in 

recent years . . .112 

subsequent issues . .112 

Rawley's allusion to . .113 

Constable, Sir John . .218 

Essays of 1612 dedicated to 21 

as executor. . . . 218 

legacy of Bacon's books . 218 

Constantine . . . .211 

Cooke, Sir Anthony . . i 

Cowley, Abraham 

his verses on The Character 

of Lord Bacorf s Philosophy 190 
Crashaw .... 207 
Cre.d, Bacon's, set forth in A 

Confession of Faith . .112 
Cuffe, Henry, speaks of Tern- 
ports partum maximum . 42 
Cypher-writing system . . 6 



224 



D 

Davies, Sir John 

letter from Bacon to . .121 

Death, Essay on . . -97 

De Augmentis Scientiarum . 6 

first edition . . -57 

Tenison's opinion . . 57 

communication to Tobie 

Mathew on . . 58 

The design of, and repro- 
ductions . . -.58 
Declaration of the Practices 
and Treasons by Robert, 
Earl of Essex . -145 
Delineatio, published by Sped- 

ding . . . .43 
Devices or Pageants . . 43 
Devonshire, Earl of -14 

Bacon addresses his Apology 
in Certain Imputations 
concerning the late Earl of 
Essex . . . .17 
Discourse in Praise of Know- 
ledge .... 58 

Donne 207 

Douse, T. Le Marchant 
examination of Northumber- 
land Manuscript . . 49 
Doyly 

letter to . . . 161 

Duelling . . . .18 



Echoes ..... 7 

Education of the Young 

Bacon's interest . . .28 

Egerton makes a presentation 

to Bacon . . .24 

Elizabeth, Queen ... 2 
Letters of Advice to .8 

anniversary of Coronation, 

1595 .... 43 
In Felicem Memoriam Ehza- 

bethae .... 106 
Ellis, his division of the/J/a- 

ratio Magna . . -57 
preface to Historia Densi et 

Rari . . . .72 
Ellis, Spedding, and Heath . 194 



PAGE 

Essay VII, the Sum me of 
my Lord Bacon s New 
Atlantis .... 76 
Essay of a King, An . -97 
Essays, The 

first appearance of . .12 
first published . . .81 
dedication to Anthony 

Bacon . 81 

subjects in first edition . 85 
editions of 1604 and 1606 . 85 
second edition 1612 re-issue. 85 
subjects in 1612 edition . 85 
Jaggard's edition of 1612 . 86 
edition of 1613 . . .89 
enumeration of the Table . 89 
reprints of 1619, 1622, 1624 89 
the quarto of 1625 . . 89 
full lists of subjects in edition 

of 1625 . . . 89-90 
subsequent editions . . 93 
translations into French and 

Italian . . . * 93 
translation into German . 93 
translation into Latin in 
Rawley's Opera Moralia et 
Civilia . . . .94 
issue of 1798 . . '-94 
recent editions . . .98 
an early American edition . 98 
the character of . . -99 
translation into Latin . .132 
as recreations . . . 209 
Essex, Earl of, his action on 
behalf of Bacon in the 
case of Sir Wm. Hatton's 
widow . . . .10 
presentation by him to 
Bacon of the Twickenham 
estate . . . .12 
Irish leadership and Bacon's 

attitude . . . 12-13 
presentation of Device to . 43 
his fall and execution . 13-14 
Declaration of the Practices 
and Treasons by Robert, 
Earl of Essex . . 145 
Apology in Certain Imputa- 
tions concerning the late 
Earl of Essex . . 145 



INDEX 



225 



Eton College, Bacon's applica- 
tion for Provostship . 28 
Everv Man in his Humour . 204 



Fables 136 

Fame, Essay on . -97 

Farnaby, Thomas 
publication of Greek Epi- 
grams, etc. . . . 122 
Father of the House in New 

Atlantis . . . .80 
Filum Labyrinthi . . 62, 193 
Fowler . . . . '94 
Friendship, Essay on . .219 
Fulgentio, Father, allusion to 
Temporis partum maxi- 
mum, in 

a letter to . . . .42 
letter to .... 214 



Georges, Sir Arthur 

translation of The Essays 

into French . . -93 
translation of The Wisdom 

of the Ancients . .132 
Glanvill, Joseph . . .76 
Gorhambury, Bacon's leisure 

and work there . .21 
Griiter, Isaac, Scripta in Natu- 
rali et Universali Philo- 
sophia . . . .42 
his publication . . -177 

H 

Hart, Andro 

issue of The Essays , . 89 
Heavy and the Light, The . 72 
Henry, Prince of Wales 

description of by Bacon . 109 
Herbert, George 

Certaine Psalmes in Verse 
dedicated to . . 1 16, 207 

as a friend and confidant of 

Bacon .... 206 
Heylin, Dr. Peter 

Bacon's character given by . 1 86 

IS 



Hey wood, John 

regarding proverbs in the 

Promus . . . .51 

borrowed from his Epigrams 51 

Historia Densi et Kari . 7 1 

when and where published . 71 

manuscript . . . -71 

Rawley's copy of . . 71 

matters dealt with . . 72 

Ellis's preface . . .72 

Historia Naturalis . . 64 

subjects included under this 

heading ... 64 67 
dedication to the Prince of 

Wales . . . .67 
Historia Ventorum , . 68 
publication of . .68 

subjects and experiments de- 
tailed .... 68 
Historia Vitae et Mortis . 68 
first edition of completed 

work . . . .68 
questions discussed . -71 
Historie of the Raigne of Kins; 

Henry VII . . . 208 
publication, dedication, and 

editions . . . 101,132 
translations . . 102,205 
the rare 1628 edition . . 102 
Bacon's object in writing the 

history .... 105 
History of Henry the Eighth, 

The . . . .106 
manuscript of . .106 

publication by Rawley . 106 
Hobbes, Thomas . . .218 
Hue elegantem U.C.L. Domini 
Verulamii irapuSiav adji- 
cere adlubuit . . .125 

I 

Imagines Civiles //' Casaris 
et August 'i Ciesaris, pub- 
lication, translation, etc. . no 

Impetus Philosophici . . 43 

In Felicem Memoriam Eliza- 

bethae .... 106 

In He nricum principem Wallice 

Elogium Francisci Baconi 109 



226 



FRANCIS BACON 



In Praise of Knowledge . .193 

Inqiiisitio de Magnet e . . 72 
Instauratio Magna 

53, 54, 206, 208, 213 
component parts . . 53, 54 
accumulated facts . . 54 
Introductions to various sub- 
jects . . . .72 

J 
Jaggard, John, 

edition of Essays printed by 86 
James I, confidence in Bacon's 

opinion . * . .27 
the subject of reign of Henry 

VII recommended by him 102 
Jewell, Bishop 

translation of his Apology for 
the Church of England by 
Lady Anne Bacon . . I 
Jones, Inigo I 

Jonson, Benjamin, his poem in 
honour of Bacon's sixtieth 
birthday . . .23, 205 
as a friend of Bacon . . 204 
publication of works and 
poems .... 205 

K 

Key of all Knowledge and 

Operation, The . . 68 



Law, Rules and Maxims of the 

Common Laws of England 155 

The Use of the Law . -155 

7' he Statute of Uses . .156 

Law Tracts . . . .142 

Learned Reading of Sir Francis 

Bacon, The . . .156 

Lee, Sidney . . . .194 

Legal arguments . . .142 

Letters of Bacon . . .161 

value and significance of 166-7 

publication by Robert 

Stephens 161 

publication by David Mallet 161 
of Advice . . . .162 
of Expostulation . .162 



Light 72 

Longevity discussed in His- 

toria Vitae et Mortis . 7 i 
Lowndes mentions the 1798 

edition of The Essays . 97 

Lytton, Lord . . . 120 



M 

Macaulay, opinion of the 

Novum Organum . . 22 
opinion of The .Essays . 100 
allusion to Bacon's ' poetical 

faculty ' . . . .120 
Essay on Bacon . . . 194 
Mackintosh, Sir James 
reference to Bacon's King 

Henry VII . . .105 
Magnet, The . . . .72 
Mallet, David, on the accept- 
ance of fees and presents 
by judges . . .24 
reference to the Notes on the 

State of Europe . .41 
publication of Bacon's letters 

by 161 

edition of The Works . 193 

Malone on manuscript list of 

Essays . . . .89 
Martin, James . . .126 
Mathew, Tobie 
translation of The Essays 

into Italian . . '93 
translation of The Wisdom 

of the Ancients . , 93 
letter from Bacon to . .135 
as a friend of Bacon . . 200 
dedication of the Essay on 

Friendship to him . . 203 
Meautys, Sir Thos. . .102 
as Bacon's friend and secre- 
tary .... 209 
Medici, Cosmo di 
dedicationof Tobie Mathew's 
edition of The Essays 

to 93 

Meditationes Sacrce . 85,111 
translation into English . 85 
subjects discussed . . 100 



INDEX 



227 



Memoria Honoratissimi Do- 
mini Franfisci Baconis de 
I'ernlamio vice comitis 
Sancti albani Sacrum, a 
small quarto published by 
Rawley . . . .199 

Mirrour of State and Elo- 
quence, The . . 112,178 

Mr. Bacon in Praise of his 

Sovereign . . -43 

Mr. Bacon in Praise of Know- 
ledge .... 43 

Montague, Basil . . .194 
edition of The Essays pub- 
lished in 1798, specially 
mentioned by . . -97 
opinion of Characters of a 
Believing Christian . 1 14 

N 

Narcissus . . . .136 
Naturalization of the Scottish 

Nation . . . .150 
New Atlantis . . 75,132 
Rawley's preface to -75 

date of composition and issue 76 
translations . . 76 

special reproduction . . 76 
interest of the work . . 79 
Bacon's object . . -79 
his imaginative genius shown 

in the work . . .80 
Newel's Catechism ... 2 
Northumberland Manuscript ', 

The . . . .44 
contents . .. -47 

date of . . .48 

Notes on the State of Europe . 41 
Novum Organum, first pub- 
lished . . . .61 
opinion of King James I . 61 
Coke's judgment . . .61 
divisions, etc. . . .62 
character of expression . 63 
objects of . . . '63 
Sir Henry Wotton's letter on 

receipt of copies . .217 
Nuremburg 

first German edition of The 
Essays at . . -93 



O 

Of Adversity . . . -99 
Of Honour and Reputation, 

first appearance . . 89 
Of Revenge ... -99 
Oliver, St. John . . .18 
Opera Moralia et Civilia . 94 
Operum Moralium el Civil ium 

Tomus . . . 132-68 
Opuscula Varia Posthutna 
Philosophica, Civilia et 
Theologica . . .71 
contents of. ... 185 
Oxford, Lord, formerly pos- 
sessed original of Notes on 
the State of Europe . . 41 



Pagination of Colours of Good 

and Evil . . .85 
of Meditationes Sacrce . 85 

Parasceue ad historian Nat- 

uralem et Experimentalem 62 

Parker, Archbishop . . 2 

Parsons, Father, charges on 
behalf of the Roman 
Catholics . . .44 

Partis secunda Delineatis et 

Argumentum . . .43 

I Paulett, Sir Amias . . 6 

I Phenomena Universi . . 64 

works included under this 

heading . . . .64 

Philosophia Secunda . 64, 8 1 

Pickering, publication of Mon- 
tague's work by . .132 

Pirated editions of Essays 86-89 

Pliny, subjects of Historia I'en- 
toi-um, borrowed from the 
Natural History of . . 68 

Poetry of Bacon, evidences of 

certain writings . .122 

Pope, famous Epigram, etc. . 35 

Post -Nat i of Scotland . 17, 150 
the part taken by Bacon in 
this . . . .18 

Pott, Mrs., her publication of 

the Promus . . . 50 



228 



FRANCIS BACON 



Prayer made by the Lord Chan- 
cellor of England . .116 
found in The Remaines . 177 
Prayer made and used by the 

late Lord Chancellor . 115 

Prayers of Bacon, The, 114, 115,116 

Prodromi . . . .81 

Professional Works . .140 

Spedding and Montague's 

publication of . . .140 
enumeration of . . . 140 
Promus of Formularies and 

Elegancies . . 49, 101 
date of, and Spedding's 

description . . -49 
Protestantism, Bacon's views on 8 
Psalms translated by Bacon 190-120 
Psychical problems . . 32 
Puritanism . 8 



R 

Rawley, William, his opinion 

of the talents of Lady 

Anne Bacon i 

opinion of Bacon as a youth 2 
refers to Novum Organmn . 63 
dedication otSylvaSylvarum 

to King Charles I . .75 
preface to New Atlantis . 75 
English edition of the His- 

toria Vitae et Mortis . 7 * 
publication of the Inquisitio 

de Magnet e . . . 72 
introduction to New Atlantis 79 
Opera Moralia et Civilia . 94 
History of Henry the Eighth 106 
remarks on a Confession of 

Faith . . . -113 
as a friend of Bacon . . 195 
the works of Bacon, published 

by him .... 196 
his private opinion of Bacon's 

character . . 196-197 

Recusants, The ... 8 

Redargutio Philosophiantm 43, 193 

Dean Church's opinion of . 202 

Reed, Edwin, allusion to his 

work 62 



Ramaines, The . . .168 
contains An Essay of a King 97 
Responsio ad edictum Regince 

Anglice . . . .44 
Resuscitatio . . 62, 106-112 
refers to a ' perfect list ' of 

Bacon's true works . . 97 
description of contents, etc. 182 
Rules and Maxims of the 

Common Law of England 155 



St. Michael's Church, Bacon's 

burial in . . . . 3 1 
Saville, Sir Henry, reference to 

a letter from Bacon. . 28 

Scala Intellectus and Prodromi 81 

publication of . 81 

intention of these treatises 81 

Sejanus .... 205 

Selden, John . . . 218 

Seneca .... 99 

Sermones Fideles, sive In 

teriora Rerum . 94 

Shakespeare . . . 204 

a comparison to Bacon 36 

reference to in Northumber 

land Manuscript . . 47 
Shaw, Dr. Peter 

his translation of Novum 

Organum . . .62 
his publication of the Philo- 
sophical Works . .194 
Shelley 

eulogy of Bacon as a poet . 120 
Silvester, Joshua 

a poem by Bacon in his Panthea 126 
Singer mentions an edition of 

Essays, 1604 . . .89 
Society for Promoting Christian 

Knowledge ... 2 
Solomon's House in 

New Atlantis . . .80 

Sound 72 

Southampton, Lord 

imprisonment in Tower and 

release . . . 14 

Bacon's letter to him at the 
time . . . .14 



INDEX 



229 



Spanish Armada . . . 109 
Spedding on the authenticity 

of 

Notes on the Slate of Europe 4 1 
alludes to Temporis partum 

Maximum . . .42 
references to certain Devices 43 
opinion o the New Atlantis 79 

,, us to the intention of 
Scala Intellect us and Pro- 
dromi . . . . 8l 
remarks on those editions of 
The Essays as authorities 
for the text which have 
original or independent 
value . . . .97 
considers An Essay on Death 

as spurious . . 97 

opinion of The Beginning 
of the History of Great 
Britain .... 106 
reference to Bacon's King 

Henry VII . . .105 
reference to Bacon's creed in 

A Confession of Faith . 112 
reference to Bacon's Trans- 
lation of the ofith Psalm . 120 
reference to Bacon's Trans- 
lation of the loqt/i Psalm 120 
Speeches by Bacon . . .141 
Sprat, Dr. 

Bacon's character given by . 189 
Spurious essays . . -97 
Star Chamber . . 9, 18 

cases conducted by Bacon 

here . 18 

charge against Peacham . 21 

Sir Thomas Overbury . . 21 

Star Chamber Charges . . 146 

contemporary manuscripts of 147 

Statute of Uses, The . .156 

Stephens, Robert 

publication of Bacon's letters 

by K'H 

" Supplement to Letters," 

1734 .... 41 
his Letters of Sir Francis 

Bacon .... 193 
Stow 
reference to Bacon's poetry . 122 



Stronach, George 

allusions to Bacon as a poet 122 

Student's Prayer . . .115 

Sulphur, Mercury, and Salt . 72 

Sylva Sylvarum . . .64 

date of its composition . 72 

its publication . . .72 

dedication . . . -75 

subsequent editions . . 75 

origin of the title . . 75 

contents of the work . . 76 

Sympathies and Antipathies of 

Things . . . .72 



Temporis partum Maximum . 41 
Temple of Wisdom, The . . 98 
Tenison, Archbishop 

opinion of Bacon as a youth 5 
description of Temporis par- 
tum Maximum . .41 
remarks on Latin translation 

of The Essays . 93 
speaks of Apophthegms in 

his Baconiana . . .130 
reference to The Wisdom of 

the Ancients . . . 135 
Translations of Bacon's works 27 
Translation of Certain Psalms 1 16 



U 
Use of the Law, The 



'55 



Vaughan .... 207 
Valerius Terminus . 42, 193 
Villiers, George 

letter to . . . .162 
Vital Spirit discussed in His- 

toria Vitae et Mortis . 7 1 
Volpone .... 204 

VV 

Waller, Edmund 

allusion to Bacon as a poet . 122 
Walton, Izaak . . . 207 



230 



FRANCIS BACON 



PAGE 

Watts, Gilbert, publication of 
Advancement of Learning, 
1640 . . . .58 
Whitgift, Ur. ... 5 

Williams, Bishop 

attitude towards Bacon . 26 
Wisdom of the Ancients, The, 

publication and description 1 32 
reprints . . . .132 
first English translation . 132 
dedication . . . .132 
Tobie Mathew's translation 

into Italian . . -93 
fore'gn translations . .132 
Bacon's motive in writing 

this treatise . . 135-6 
Works of Bacon 
early productions . .41 



Wotton, Sir Henry 

appointment to Provostship 
to Eton College . . 28 

poem by Bacon in the Rcli- 
ijuice IVottoniance . .129 

letter to . . .217 

letter to Bacon on receipt of 

Novum Organum , .217 
Wright, Aldis . . . 194 

references to various editions 
of The Essays in his Pre- 
face to The Essays of Bacon 89 



York House . 
York Water Gate 



PRINTED BY 

WILLIAM BRENDON AND SON, LTD. 
PLYMOUTH 



A SELECTION OF BOOKS 

PUBLISHED BY METHUEN 

AND CO. LTD., LONDON 

36 ESSEX STREET 

W.C. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

General Literature ... 3 

Ancient Cities. . . w 

Antiquary's Books. . . 13 

Arden Shakespeare . . 13 

Classics of Art ... 14 

Complete Series ... 14 

Connoisseur's Library . . 14 
Handbooks of English Church 

History ..... 15 

Handbooks of Theology . 15 
Illustrated Pocket Library of 

Plain and Coloured Books 15 

Leaders of Religion . . 16 

Library of Devotion . . 16 

Little Books on Art . . 17 

Little Galleries ... 17 

Little Guides .... 17 

Little Library ... 18 



Little Quarto Shakespeare . 19 

Miniature Library . . 19 

New Library of Medicine . 19 

New Library of Music . 30 

Oxford Biographies . . 20 

Romantic History . . so 

States of Italy ... so 

Westminster Commentaries 21 

Shilling Library ... ax 

Fiction '. ai 

Two-Shilling Novels . . 36 

Books for Boys and Girls . 36 

Shilling Novels ... 36 

Novels of Alexandre Dumas 37 

Sixpenny Books ... 37 

Books for Travellers . 30 

Some Books on Art ... 30 

Some Books on Italy . 31 



SEPTEMBER 1911 



A SELECTION OF 

MESSRS. METHUEN'S 

PUBLICATIONS 



In this Catalogue the order is according to authors. Aa asterisk denttti 
that the book is in the press. 

Colonial Editions are published of all Messrs. METHUEN'S Novels issued 
at a price above as. 6d., and similar editions are published of some warks of 
General Literature. Colonial editions are only for circulation in the British 
Colonies and India. 

All books marked net are not subject to discount, and cannot be bought 
at less than the published price. Books not marked net are subject to the 
discount which the bookseller allows. 

Messrs. MKTHUBN'S books are kept in stock by all good booksellers, 
there is any difficulty in seeing copies, Messrs. Methuen will be very glad to 
have early information, and specimen copies of any books will be sent on 
receipt of the published price plus postage for net books, and of the published 
price for ordinary books. 

This Catalogue contains only a selection of the more important book* 
published by Messrs. Methuen. A complete and illustrated catalogue of their 
publications may be obtained on application. 



Andrewes (Lancelot). PRECES PRI- 

VATAE. Translated and edited, with 
Notes, by F. E. BRIGHTMAN. Cr. &vo. (a. 

Aristotle. THE ETHICS. Edited, with 
an Introduction and Notes, by JOHN 
BUKNBT. Demy &vc. tot. fxL net. 

Atkinson (C. T.> A HISTORY OF GER- 
MANY, from 1715-1815. Illnstrated. Demy 

8 1/0. i2.r. 6J. net. 

Atkinson (T. D.). ENGLISH ARCHI- 
TECTURE. Illustrated. Fcaf.Ztv. y.6d. 

A "GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN 

ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. Illus- 
trated. Second Edition, Fcap. Zvo. 31. 6d. 
net. 

Bain (F. W.). A DIGIT OF THE 

MOON : A HINDOO LOVE STORY. Eighth 

Edition. Feat. Svo. y. 6d. net. 
THE DESCENT OF THE SUN : A CTCIJI 

or BIRTH. Fifth Edition, Fcaf. &vo. 

y. 6d. net. 
A HEIFER OF THE DAWN. Sixth Edi- 

tien. Feat. Star. at. ftd. net. 
IN THE GREAT GOD'S HAIR. Fourth 

Edition. Feat. 8<w. ts. 60. net. 
A DRAUGHT OF THE BLUE. Fourth 

Edition. Feat. &ve. vs. 64. net. 
AN ESSENCE OF THE DUSK, Second 

Edition. Fcaf. vo. w. 64. net. 



AN INCARNATION OF THE SNOW. 

Second Edition. Feat. 8vo. y. 6d. net. 
A MINE OF FAULTS. Second Edition, 

Feat. Zvo. y. 6d. net. 
THE ASHES OF A GOD. Feat. 81*. 

3*. 6d, net. 



Balfour (Graham). THE LIFE OF 
ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON. Illus- 
trated. Fifth Edition in one Volume. 
Cr. &vo. Buckram, 6t. 

Baring-Gould (S.)- THE LIFE OF 
NAPOLEON BONAPARTE. Illustrated. 
Second Edition. Royal Svo. tot. 6d. net. 

THE TRAGEDY OF THE CdSSARS : 
A STUDY OF THK CHARACTERS OF THE 
CBSARS OF THE JULIAN AND CLAUDIAN 
HOUSES. Illustrated. Seventh Edition, 
Royal 6vo. 101. 6d. net. 

A BOOK OF FAIRY TALES. Illustrated. 
Second Edition. Cr.Svo. 6t. Also Medium 
Site. 6d. 

OLD ENGLISH FAIRY TALES. Illus- 
trated. Third Edition. Cr. Svo. Buch- 

THE'VICAR OF MORWENSTOW. with 

a Portrait. Third Edition. Cr. 8vo. y. 6d. 
OLD COUNTRY LIFE. Illustrated. Fifth 

Edition. Large Cr. &vo. fix. , 

STRANGE SURVIVALS : SOME CHAPTERS 

IN THE HISTORY OF MAN. Illustrated. 

Third Edition. Cr. Svo. at. 6d. net. 



GENERAL LITERATURE 



YORKSHIRE ODDITIES : INCIDENTS 
AND STKANGK EVENTS. Fifth Edition. 
Cr. tvo. as. 6d. net. 

A BOOK OF CORNWALL. Illustrated. 
Second Edition. Cr. Zvo. 6t. 

A BOOK OF DARTMOOR. Illustrated. 
Second Edition. Cr. Zvo. 6s. 

A BOOK OF DEVON. Illustrated. Third 
Edition. Cr. Zvo. 6t. 

A BOOK OF NORTH WALES. Illus- 
trated. Cr. Zvo. 6s. 

A BOOK OF SOUTH WALES. Illus- 
trated. Cr. tvo. 6s. 

A BOOK OF BRITTANY. Illustrated. 
Second Edition. Cr. Zvo. 6s. 

A BOOK OF THE RHINE : From Cleve 
to Mainz. Illustrated. Second Edition. 
Cr. Zvo. 6s. 

A BOOK OF THE RIVIERA. Illus- 
trated. Second Edition. Cr. Zvo. 6s. 

A BOOK OF THE PYRENEES. Illus- 
trated. Cr. Zve. 6s. 

Baring-Gould (S. ) and Sheppard (H. 
Fleetwood). A GARLAND OF 
COUNTRY SONG. English Folk Songs 
with their Traditional Melodies. Demy 410. 
6s. 

SONGS OF THE WEST: Folk Songs of 
Devon and Cornwall. Collected from the 
Mouths of the People. New and Revised 
Edition, under the musical editorship of 
CECIL J. SHARP. Large Imperial Zvo. 
$s. net. 

Barker (E.). THE POLITICAL 
THOUGHT OF PLATO AND ARIS- 
TOTLE. Demy Zvo. tor. 6d. net. 

Bastable (C. P.> THE COMMERCE 
OF NATIONS. Fijth Edition. Cr. Zvo. 
us. 6d. 

Batson (Mrs. Stephen). A CONCISE 
HANDBOOK OF GARDEN FLOWERS. 
Fcap. Zvo. 3S. 6d. 

Beckett (Arthur). THE SPIRIT OF 
THE DOWNS: Impressvms and Remi- 
niscences of the Sussex Downs. Illustrated. 
Second Edition. Demy Zvo. los. 6d. net. 

Beckford (Peter). THOUGHTS ON 
HUNTING. Edited by J. OTHO PAGKT. 
Illustrated. Second Edition. Demy Zvo. 6s. 

BellOC (H.)- PARIS. Illustrated. Second 
Edition^ Revised. Cr. Zvo. 6s. 

HILLS AND THE SEA. Third Edition. 
Fcap. Zvo. v- 

ON NOTHING AND KINDRED SUB- 
JECTS. Third Edition. Fcap. Zvo. 5*. 

ON EVERYTHING. Second Edition. Fcap. 

ON"SOMETHING. Second Edition. Fcap. 

F^RST^AND LAST. Fcap. too. 5*. 
MARIE ANTOINETTE. Illustrated. 

Third Edition. Demy Zvo. 15.1. net. 
THE PYRENEES. Illustrated. Seeond 

Edition. Demy 8w. 7*. 6d. net. 



Bennett (W. H.). A PRIMER OF THE 
BIBLE. Fifth Edition. Cr. Svo. as. 6d. 

Bennett (W.H.) and Adeney(W.F.). A 
BIBLICAL INTRODUCTION. With a 
concise Bibliography. Sixth Edition. Cr. 
Zvo. ^s. 6d. 

Benson (Archbishop). GOD'S BOARD. 
Communion Addresses. Second Edition. 
Fcap. Zvo. y. 6d. net. 

Bensusan (Samuel L.). HOME LIFE 
IN SPAIN. Illustrated. Second Edition. 
Demy Svo. tos. 6d. net. 

Betham-Edwards (Miss). HOME LIFE 
IN FRANCE. Illustrated, fifth Edition. 
Cr. Zvo. 6s. 

Bindley (T. Herbert), THE OECU- 
MENICAL DOCUMENTS OF THE 
FAITH. With Introductions and Notes. 
Second Edition. Cr. Zvo. 6s. net. 

Blake (William). ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
THE BOOK OF JOB. With a General In- 
troduction by LAURBNCB BINYON. Illus- 
trated. Quarto, aix. net. 

Bloemfontein (Bishop of). ARA CO2LI : 
AN ESSAY IN MYSTICAL THEOLOGY. 
Fourth Edition. Cr. Zvo. y. 6d. net. 

FAITH AND EXPERIENCE. Cr. Zvo. 
y. 6d. net. 

Bowden (E. M.). THE IMITATION OK 
BUDDHA: Quotations from Buddhist 
Literature for each Day in the Year. Sixth 
Edition. Cr. i6nto. as. 6d. 

Brabant (F. G.). RAMBLES IN SUSSEX. 
Illustrated. Cr. Zvo. 6s. 

Bradley (A. G.). ROUND ABOUT WILT- 
SHIRE. Illustrated. Second Edition. Cr. 
Zvo. 6s. 

THE ROMANCE OF NORTHUMBER- 
LAND. Illustrated. Second Edition. Demy 
Zvo. js. 6d, net. 

Braid (James). ADVANCED GOLF. 
Illustrated. Sixth Edition. Demy Zvo, 
xor. 6d. net. 

Bratlsford (H. N.> MACEDONIA : ITS 
RACES AND THEIR FUTURE. Illustrated. 
Demy Zvo. ias. 6d. net. 

Brodriek (Mary) and Morton (A. Ander- 
son). A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF 
EGYPTIAN ARCHEOLOGY. A Hand- 
book for Students and Travellers. Illus- 
trated. Cr. Zvo. y. 6d. 

Browning (Robert). PARACELSUS. 
Edited with an Introduction, Notes, and 
Bibliography by MARGARET L. LEE and 
KATHARINE B. LOCOCK. Fcap. Zvo. y.64. 
net. 



METHUEN AND COMPANY LIMITED 



Buckton (A. MO- EAGER HEART: A 
Christmas Mystery-Play. Ninth Edition. 
Cr. Svo. is. net. 

Budge (E. A. Wallis). THE GODS OF 
THE EGYPTIANS. Illustrated. Two 
Volumes. Royal Svo. 3 3*. net. 

Bull (Paul). GOD AND OUR SOLDIERS. 
Second Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Burns (Robert). THE POEMS AND 
SONGS. Edited by ANDREW LANG and 
W. A. CRAIGIK. With Portrait. Third 
Edition. Wide Demy Svo. 6s. 

Busbey (Katherine G.). HOME LIFE 
IN AMERICA. Illustrated. Second Edi- 
tion. Demy Svo. xar. 6d. net. 

Butlln (F. M.). AMONG THE DANES. 
Illustrated. Demy Svo. -js. fid. net. 

Cain (Georges), WALKS IN PARIS. 
Translated by A. R. A LLINSO.V. Illustrated. 
Demy Svo. js. fid. net. 

Caiman (W. T.). THE LIFE OF 
CRUSTACEA. Illustrated. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Carlyle (Thomas). THE FRENCH 
REVOLUTION. Edited by C. R. L. 
FLETCHER. Three Volumes. Cr. Svo. i&r. 

THE LETTERS AND SPEECHES OF 
OLIVER CROMWELL. With an In- 
troduction by C. H. FIRTH, and Notes 
and Appendices by S. C. LOM vs. Three 
Volumes. Demy Svo. iSs. net. 

Celano (Brother Thomas of). THE 
LIVES OF S. FRANCIS OF ASSISI. 
Translated by A. G. FERRERS HOWELL. 
Illustrated. Cr. Svo. 5*. net. 

Chambers (Mrs. Lambert). LAWN 
TENNIS FOR LADIES. Illustrated. 
Cr. Svo. as. fid. net. 

Chesterfield (Lord). THE LETTERS OF 
THE EARL OF CHESTERFIELD TO 
HIS SON. Edited, with an Introduction by 
C. STRACHBY, and Notes by A. CALTHROP. 
Two Volumes. Cr. Svo. iat. 

Chesterton (O.K.). CHARLES DICKENS. 

With two Portraits in Photogravure. Seventh 

Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. Sixth 

Edition. Fcap. Svo. . 
TREMENDOUS TRIFLES. Fourth 

Edition. Fcaf>. Svo. 5*. 
ALARMS AND DISCURSIONS. Second 

Edition, Fcap. Svo. 5*. 
THE BALLAD OF THE WHITE 

HORSE. Fcap. Svo. $t. 
Clausen (George). SIX LECTURES ON 

PAINTING. Illustrated. Third Edition. 

Larre Post Svt. y. 64. net. 
AIMS AND IDEALS IN ART. Eight 

Lectures delivered to the Students of the 

Royal Academy of Arts. Illustrated. Second 

Edition. Large Post Svo. St. net. 



Glutton-Brock (A.) SHELLEY: THE 
MAN AND THE POET. Illustrated. 
Demy Svo. 7*. fid. net. 

Cobb (W.F.). THE BOOK OF PSALMS : 
with an Introduction and Notes. Demy Svo. 
TOT. fid. net. 

Collingwood (W. G.). THE LIFE OF 
JOH.V RUSK IN. With Portrait. Sixth 
Edition. Cr. Svo. as. 6d. net. 

Conrad (Joseph). THE MIRROR OF 
THE SEA : Memories and Impressions. 
Third Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Coolidge (W. A. B.). THE ALPS. Illus- 
trated. Demy Svo. 7*. fid. net. 

Coulton (G. G.). CHAUCER AND HIS 
ENGLAND. Illustrated. Second Edition. 
Demy Svo. ioj. f>d. net. 

Cowper .(William). THE POEMS. 
Edited with an Introduction and Notes by 
J. C- BAILEY. Illustrated. Demy Svo. 
i or. 6d. net. 

Crispe (T. E.). REMINISCENCES OF A 
K.C. With a Portraits. Second Edition. 
Demy Svo. los. 6d. net. 

Crowley (Ralph H.). THE HYGIENE 
OF SCHOOL LIFE. Illustrated. Cr. 
Svo. y. 6d. net. 

Dante Alighierl. LA COMMEDIA DI 
DANTE. The Italian Text edited by 
PAGETTOYNBEB. Cr. Sv*. 6s. 

Davey (Richard). THE PAGEANT OF 
LONDON. Illustrated. In Two Volumes. 
Demy Svo. ijr. net. 

Davis (H. W. C.). ENGLAND UNDER 
THE NORMANS AND ANGEVINS : 
1066-1273. Illustrated. Second Edition. 
Demy tvt. los. 6d. net. 

Dawbarn (Charles.) FRANCE AND 
THE FRENCH. Illustrated. Demy Svo. 
ioj. 6d. net. 

Dearmer (Mabel). A CHILD'S LIFE 
OF CHRIST. Illustrated. Largt Cr. 
Svo. 6s. 

Deffand (Madame Du). THE LETTERS 
OF MADAME DU DEFFAND TO 
HORACE WALPOLE. Edited, with 
Introduction, Notes, and Index, by Mrs. 
PAGET TOYNBEE. In Tkret Volumes. 
Demy Svo. 3 y. net. 

Dickinson (G. L.). THE GREEK VIEW 
OF LIFE. Seventh Edition. Crown Sow. 
as. f>d. net. 

Ditchfleld (P. H.). THE PARISH 
CLERK. Illustrated. Third Edition. 
Demy Svo. 7s. dd. net. 

THE OLD-TIME PARSON. Illustrated 
Second Edition. Demy Svo. js. 6d. net. 



GENERAL LITERATURE 



5 



Dltchfleld (P. H.) and Roe (Fred). 
VANISHING ENGLAND. The Boole by 
P. H. Ditchfield. Illustrated by Fulto ROK. 
Second Edition. Wide Demy Svo. iy.net. 

Douglas (Hu* h A.). VENICE ON FOOT. 

With the Itinerary of the Grand Canal. 
Illustrated. Second Edition, fcafi. &vo. 

VENICE AND HER TREASURES. 
Illustrated. Round corner*. Fcap. Zvo. 
5/. rut. 

Dowden (J.). FURTHER STUDIES IN 
THE PRAYER BOOK. Cr. v. 6s. 

Driver (S. R.J. SERMONS ON 
SUBJECTS CONNECTED WITH THE 
OLD TESTAMENT. Cr. Sw. 6s. 

Dumas {Alexandre). THE CRIMES OF 

THE BORGIAS AND OTHERS. With 

an Introduction by R. S. GARNKTT. 

Illustrated. Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 
THE CRIMES OF URBAIN GRAN- 

DIERAND OTHERS. Illustrated. Cr. 

Sva. 6s. 
THE CRIMES OF THE MARQUISE 

DE BRINVILLIERS AND OTHERS. 

Illustrated. Cr. Svo. 6t. 
THE CRIMES OF ALI PACHA AND 

OTHERS. Illustrated. Cr. 6vo. 6s. 
MY MEMOIRS. Translated by E. M. 

WALLKR. With an Introduction by ANDREW 

LANG. With Frontispieces in Photogravure. 

In six Volumes. Cr. Hvo. 6t. lack volume. 
VOL. I. 1802-1821. VOL. IV. 1830-1831. 

VOL. II. 1822-1835. VOL. V. 1831-1832. 

VOL. III. 1826-1830. VOL. VI. 1*32-1833. 
MY PETS. Newly translated by A. R. 

AI.LINSON. Illustrated. Cr. 8vt. 6t. 

Duncan (F. M. ). OUR INSECT 
FRIENDS AND FOES. Illustrated. 
Cr. Bvo. 6s. 

Dunn-Pattlsen (R. P.). NAPOLEON'S 
MARSHALS. Illustrated. Demy to*. 
Second Edition, 121. 6d. net. 

THE BLACK PRINCE. Illustrated. 
Second Edition. Demy Zvo. jt. 6d. net. 

Durham (The Karl of). THE REPORT 

ON CANADA. With an Introductory 
Note. Demy Sva. 41. 6d. net. 

DuttfW.A.). THE NORFOLK BROADS. 

Illustrated. Second Edition. Cr. Zvo. 6s. 
WILD LIFE IN EAST ANGLIA. Illus- 
trated. Second Edition. Demy tvo. jt. 6d. 
met. 

Edwardes (Tlckner). THE LORE OF 
THE HONEY-BEE. Illustrated. Third 
Edition. Cr. 8t. 6s. 

LIFT-LUCK ON SOUTHERN ROADS. 
Illustrated. Cr. tt>f. 6s. 

NEIGHBOURHOOD : A YEAX'S LIF lie 
AMD ABOUT AN ENGLISH VILLAGK. Illus- 
trated. Cr. tv. 6s. 



Ejrerton (H. E ). A SHORT HISTORY 
OK BRITISH COLONIAL POLICY. 
Third Edition. Demy Zvo. jt.6d.net. 

Exeter (Bishop of). R E G N U M D E I. 
(The Bampton Lectures of igoi.) A Cheaper 
Edition. Demy Zvo. js. 6d. net. 

Falrbrother (W. H.). THE PHILO- 
SOPHY OF T. H. GREEN. Second 
Edition. Cr. Zvo, y. 6d. 

Fea (Allan). THE FLIGHT OF THE 
KING. Illustrated. Second and Revised 
Edition. Demy &vo. 7*. 6d. net. 

SECRET CHAMBERS AND HIDING- 
PLACES. Illustrated. Third and Revised 
Edition. Demy 8vo. is. dd. net. 

JAMES II. AND HIS WIVES. Illustrated. 
Demy Zvo, tas. 6d. net. 

Firth (C. H.). CROMWELL'S ARMY: 
A History of the English Soldier during the 
Civil Wars, the Commonwealth, and the 
Protectorate. Cr. &vo. 6s. 

Fisher (H. A. L.). THE REPUBLICAN 
TRADITION IN EUROPE. Cr. Svo. 
6*. net. 

FltzGerald (Edward). THE RUBAI'YAT 
OF OMAR KHAYYAM. Printed from 
the Fifth and last Edition. With a Com- 
mentary by H. M. BATSON, and a Biograph- 
ical Introduction by E. D. Ross. Cr. tvo. 
6s. 

Fletcher (J. S.). A BOOK OF YORK- 
SHIRE. Illustrated. Demy tvo. js. 6d. 
net. 

FluT (A. W.). ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES 
Demy Kvo. js. 6d. net. 

Fraser (J. FJ. ROUND THE WORLD 
ON A WHEEL. Illustrated. Fifth 
Edition. Cr. ivo. 6s. 

Galton (Sir Francis). MEMORIES OF 
MY LIFE. Illustrated. Third Edition. 
Demy Zva. tor. 6d. net. 

Glbblns (H. do BO- INDUSTRY IN 
ENGLAND: HISTORICAL OUT- 
LINES. With 5 Maps. Sixth Edition. 
Demy Sv>. los. 6d. 

THE INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF 
ENGLAND. Illustrated. Seventeenth 
Edition. Cr. 8tw. 31. 

ENGLISH SOCIAL REFORMERS. 
Second edition. Cr. 800. is. 6d. 

Gibbon (BdwarC. THE MEMOIRS OF 
THE LIFE OF EDWARD GIBBON. 
Edited by G. BTIEKBICCX HILL. Cr. Sr. 6s. 

THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE 
ROMAN EMPIRE. Edited, with Notes, 
Appendices, aad Maps, by J. B. Burr, 
Illustrated. In Seven Velttmtt. Demy 
8r . Xfth 10*. 6eL tut. 



METHUEN AND COMPANY LIMITED 



Gloag (M. R.) A BOOK OF ENGLISH 
GARDENS. Illustrated. Demy Bvo. 
jos. Gel. net. 

Glover (J. M.). JIMMY GLOVER HIS 
BOOK. Demy lira. int. 6d. net. 

Glover (T. R.). THE CONFLICT OF 
RELIGIONS IN THE EARLY ROMAN 
EMPIRE. Fourth Edition. Demy Bvo. 
js. 6d. net. 

Godfrey (Elizabeth). A BOOK OF RE- 
MEMBRANCE. Being Lyrical Selections 
for every day in the Year. Arranged by 
E. Godfrey. Second Edition. Fcaf. Bvo. 
at. 6d. net, 

Godley (A. D.). OXFORD IN THE 
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. Illustrated, 
Second Edition. Demy &vo. jt. 64. net. 

LYRA FRIVOLA. Fourth Edition. Fcap. 
Svo. is. 6d. 

VERSES TO ORDER. Second Edition, 
feat. Bvo. at. 6d. 

SECOND STRINGS. Pcaf. Bvo. . 6J. 

Gordon (Llna Duff) (Mrs. Aubrey Water- 
field). HOME LIFE IN ITALY : LETTERS 
FROM THE APENNINES. Illustrated. Second 
Edition. Demy Bvo. lot. 6d. net. 

Gostllng (Frances M.). THE BRETONS 
AT HOME. Illustrated. Third Edition. 

AUVERGNE' AND ITS PEOPLE, illus- 
trated. Demy Zvo. 101. 6d. net. 

Grahame (Kenneth). THE WIND IN 
THE WILLOWS. Illustrated. Fifth 
Edition. Cr. Bvo. 6t. 

Grew (Edwin Sharpe). THE GROWTH 
OF A PLANET. Illustrated. Cr.Bvo. 6t. 

Grlffln (W. Hall) and Minehin (H. C.). 
THE LIFE OF ROBERT BROWNING. 
Illustrated. Second Edition. Demy Bvo. 
lit. 6d. net. 

Hale (J. R.). FAMOUS SEA FIGHTS : 
FROM SALAMIS TO TSU-SHIMA. Illustrated. 
Cr. Bvo. 6s. net. 

Hall (Cyril). THE YOUNG CARPEN- 
TER. Illustrated. Cr. Bvo. 51. 

Hall (Hammond). THE YOUNG EN- 
GINEER: or MODERN ENGINES AND THEJR 
MODELS. Illustrated. Second Edition. 

THE YOUNG ELECTRICIAN. Illus- 
trated. Second Edition. Cr. Bvo. 5*. 

Hannay (D.). A SHORT HISTORY OF 
THE ROYAL NAVY. Vol. I., 1217-1688. 
Vol. II. , 1689-1815. Demy Bvo. Each 
jt. 6d. net. 

Earner (Charles G.). THE AUTOCAR 
ROAD-BOOK. Four Volumes with Maps. 
Cr. Bvo. Each 7*. 6d. net. 
Vol. I. SOUTH OF THE THAMES. 
Vol. II. NORTH AND SOUTH WALKS 
AND WBST MIDLANDS. 



Hassall (Arthur). NAPOLEON. Illus- 
trated. Demy 8vo. 71. 6d. net. 

Headley (F. W.). DARWINISM AND 
MODERN SOCIALISM. Second Edition. 
Cr. Bvo. $s. net. 

Henderson (B. W.). THE LIFE AND 
PRINCIPATE OF THE EMPEROR 
NERO. Illustrated. New *nd cheaper 
issue. Demy Bvo. ^s. 6d, net. 

Henderson (M. Sturge). GEORGE 
MEREDITH : NOVELIST, POET, 
REFORMER. Illustrated. Second Edition. 
Cr. Bvo. 61. 

Henderson (T. F.) and Watt (Francis). 
SCOTLAND OF TO-DAY. Illustrated. 
Second Edition. Cr. Bvo. 6s. 

Henley (W. E.). ENGLISH LYRICS. 
CHAUCER TO POE. Second Edition. 
Cr. Bvo. as. 6d. net. 

Hill (George Francis). ONE HUNDRED 
MASTERPIECES OF SCULPTURE. 
Illustrated. Demy Bvo. rot. 6d. net. 

Hind (C. Lewis). DAYS IN CORNWALL. 
Illustrated. Third Edition. Cr. Bvo. 6s. 

Hobhouse (L. T.). THE THEORY OF 
KNOWLEDGE. Demy Bvo. ios. 6d. net. 

Hodgson (Mrs. W.). HOW TO IDENTIFY 
OLD CHINESE PORCELAIN. Illus- 
trated. Second Edition, fast Bvo. 6s. 

Holdleh (Sir T. H.). THE INDIAN 
BORDERLAND, 1880-1900. Illustrated. 
Second Edition. Demy Zvo. ior. 6d. net. 

Holdsworth (W. S.). A HISTORY OF 
ENGLISH LAW. In Four Volumes. 
Voh. /., //., ///. Demy Bvo. Each 10*. 6d. 
net. 

Holland (Clive). TYROL AND ITS 
PEOPLE. Illustrated. DemyZvo. iot.6d. 

THE BELGIANS AT HOME. Illustrated. 
Demy Bvo. ios. 6d. net. 

Horsburgh (E. L. S.). LORENZO THE 
MAGNIFICENT : AND FLORENCE IN HER 
GOLDEN AGE. Illustrated. Second Edition. 
Demy Bvo. 15*. net. 

WATERLOO : A NARRATIVE AND A CRIT- 
ICISM. With Plans. Second Edition. Cr. 
Bvo. ss. 

THE LIFE OF SAVONAROLA. Illus- 
trated. Fourth and Enlarged Edition. 
Cr. Bvo. 5*. net. 

Hosie (Alexander!. MANCHURIA. Illus- 
trated. Second Edition. Demy Bvo. js. 6d. 
net. 

Hudson (W. H.). A SHEPHERD'S 
LIFE: IMPRESSIONS OF THE SOUTH WILT- 
SHIRE DOWNS. Illustrated. Third Edi- 
tion. Demy Bvo, jt. 6d. net. 



GENERAL LITERATURE 



Hugon (Cecile). SOCIAL LIFE IN 
FRANCE IN THE XVII. CEN1URY. 
Illustrated. Demy Svo. lot. 64. net. 



Humphreys (John H.). 
IO 



PROPOR- 

TIONAL REPRESENTATION. Cr. too. 
St. net. 

Hutehlnson (Horace G.). THE NEW 
FOREST. Illustrated. Fourth Edition. 
Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Button (Edward). THE CITIES OF 

SPAIN. Illustrated. Fourth Edition. 

Cr. Svo. 6s. 
THE CITIES OF UMBRIA. Illustrated. 

Fourth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6t. 
FLORENCE AND THE CITIES OF 

NORTHERN TUSCANY WITH 

GENOA. Illustrated. Second Edition. 

Cr. Svo. 6s. 
SI*NA AND SOUTHERN TUSCANY. 

Illustrated. Second Edition. Cr. Svo. 6t. 
VENICE AND VENETIA. Illustrated. 

Cr. Svo. 6t. 
ROME. Illustrated. Second Edition. Cr. 

ENGLISH LOVE POEMS. Edited with 
an Introduction. Fcap. Svo. 31. bd. net. 

COUNTRY WALKS ABOUT FLORENCE. 
Illustrated. Second Edition. Fcap. Svo. 



TUSCANY With Notes. 
by WILLIAM HKYWOOD. Illustrated. Second 
Edition. Demy Svo. ^t. 6d. net. 
A BOOK OF THE WYE. Illustrated. 
Demy Svo. jt. 6d. net. 

Ibsen (Henrlk). BRAND. A Dramatic 
Poem, Translated by WILLIAM WILSON. 
Fourth Edition. Cr. Svo. y. 6d. 

Inge ;W. RO. CHRISTIAN MYSTICISM. 
(The Bampton Lectures of 1899.) Demy Svo. 
in. 6d. net. 

Inns (A. D.). A HISTORY OF THE 

BRITISH IN INDIA. With Maps and 

Plans. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
ENGLAND UNDER THE TUDORS. 

With Maps. Third Edition. Demy Svo. 

lot. 6d. net. 

Innes (Mary). SCHOOLS OF PAINT- 
ING. Illustrated. Second Edition. Cr. 
Svo. y. net. 

JenkS (E.). AN OUTLINE OF ENG- 
LISH LOCAL GOVERNMENT. Second 
Edition. Revised by R. C. K. ENSOK, 
Cr. Svo. at. 6d. net. 

Jernlngham (Charles Edward). THE 
MAXIMS OF MARMADUKE. Second 
Edition. Cr. Svo. 51. 

Jerrold (Walter). THE DANUBE. 

Illiutrated. Demy Svt. lot. 60. net. 



Johnston (Sir H. H. ). BRITISH CEN- 
TRAL AFRICA. Illustrated. Third 
Edition. Cr. 4(0. iSs. net. 

THE NEGRO IN THE NEW WORLD. 
Illustrated. Demy Svo. ait. net. 

Julian (Lady) of Norwich. REVELA- 
TIONS OF DIVINE LOVE. Edited by 
GRACE W ARRACK. Fourth Edition. Cr. 
Svo. y. 6d. 

Keats (John!. THE POEMS. Edited 
with Introduction and Notes by E. de 
SBLINCOURT. With a Frontispiece in Photo- 
gravure. Third Edition. Demy Svo. 
js. 6d. net. 

Keble (John). THE CHRISTIAN YEAR. 

With an Introduction and Notes by W. 

LOCK. Illustrated. Third Edition. Fcap. 
.Svo. y. 6d. 

Kempls (Thomas a). THE IMITATION 
OF CHRIST. With an Introduction by 
DEAN FARRAR. Illustrated. Third 
Edition. Fcap. Svo. y. 6d.; padded 
tnorocco, 5*. 

Kipling (Rudyard). BARRACK-ROOM 
BALLADS. loorA Thousand. Twenty- 
ninth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. Also Fcap. 
Svo, Leather. *,s. net. 

THE SEVEN SEAS. S+th Thousand. 
Seventeenth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. Also 
Fcap. Svo, Leather. $s. net. 

THE FIVE NATIONS, joth Thousand. 
Seventh Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. Also Fcap. 
Svo, Leather. $s. net. 

DEPARTMENTAL DITTIES. Nineteenth 
Edition. Cr. Svo. 6t. Also Fcap. Svo, 
Leather, s*. net. 

Knox (Winifred P.). THE COURT OF 
A SAINT. Illustrated. Demy Svo. 
lot. 6d. net. 

*Lamb (Charles and Mary). THE 

WORKS. Edited with an Introduction 
and Notes by E. V. LUCAS. A New and 
Revised Edition in Six Volumes. With 
Frontispiece. Fcap Svo. 5*. each. Th 
volumes are : 

i. MISCELLANEOUS PROSS. n. ELIA AND 
THE LAST ESSAYS OF ELIA. in. BOOKS 
FOR CHILDREN, iv. PLAYS AND POEMS. 
r. and vi. LETTERS. 

Lane-Poole (Stanley). A HISTORY OF 
EGYPT IN THE MIDDLE AGES. 
Illustrated. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Lankester (Sir Ray). SCIENCE FROM 
AN EASY CHAIR. Illustrated. Fifth 
Edition, Cr. Svo. 6t. 

Le Braz (Anatole). THE LAND OF 
PARDONS. Translated by FRANCES M. 

GOSTLI.SG. Illustrated. Third Edition. 
Cr. Svo. 6*. 



METHUEN AND COMPANY LIMITED 



Lindsay (Mabel M.}. ANNI DOMINI: 
A GOSPEL STUDY. With Maps. Tw 
Volume*. Super Royal 8iv. iar. tut. 

Lock (Walter). ST. PAUL, THE 
MASTER-BUILDER. Third Edition. 
Cr. Svo. y, (>d. 

THE BIBLE AND CHRISTIAN LIFE. 
Cr. Sve. 6t. 

Lodge (Sir Oliver). THE SUBSTANCE 
OF FAITH, ALLIED WITH SCIENCE: 
A Catechism for Parents and Teacher*. 
Rlevtnth Edition. Cr. 8vo. at. net. 

MAN AND THE UNIVERSE : A STUDY 
or THE INFLUENCE or THE ADVANCE IN 
SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE UPON OUR UNDER- 
STANDING or CHRISTIANITY. Ninth 
Edition. Demy Svo. $i. net. 

THE SURVIVAL OF MAN. A STUDY IN 
UNRECOGNISED HUMAN FACULTY. Fi/tit 
Edition. Wide Crown Zvo. . net. 

REASON AND BELIEF. Fifth Edition. 
Cr. Svo. y. 6d. net. 

Lorimer (George Horace). LETTERS 

FROM A SELF-MADE MERCHANT 
TO HIS SON. Illustrated. Eighteenth 
Edition. Cr. Svo. y. 6d. 
OLD GORGON GRAHAM. Illustrated. 
Second Edition. Cr. tvo. 61. 

'Loyal Serviteur.' THE STORY OF 
BAYARD. Adapted by AMY G. ANDREWKS. 
Illustrated. Cr. ttvt. is. 6d. 

Lucas (E. V.). THE LIFE OF CHARLES 

LAMB. Illustrated. Fifth Edition. Demy 

8t>. TX. 6d. net. 

A WANDERER IN HOLLAND. Illus- 
trated. Twelfth Edition. Cr. Sv*. 6t. 

*Alta Feat. &vo. si. 

A WANDERER IN LONDON. Illus- 
trated. Eleventh Edition. Cr. &vt. 6s. 

*Alto Feat. Svo. y. 
A WANDERER IN PARIS. Illustrated. 

Seventh Edition. Cr. &vo. 6t. 

*Alio Fcap. Svo. <t. 
THE OPEN ROAD: A Little Book for 

Wayfarers. Eighteenth Edition. Fcap. 

&vo. 5J. ; India. Puper, jt. (>d. 
THE FRIENDLY TOWN : a Little Book 

for the Urbane. Sixth Edition. Fcap. Svo. 

5*. ; India Paper> js. 6d. 
FIRESIDE AND SUNSHINE. Sixth 

Edition. Feat. Sve. 5*. 
CHARACTER AND COMEDY. Sixth 

Edition. Feat. Svt. 5*. 
THE GENTLEST ART. A Choice of 

Letten by Entertaining Hands. Sixth 

Edition. Feat Svo. 51. 
THE SECOND POST. Third Edition. 

Feat. tvt. 5*. 
A SWAN AND HER FRIENDS, IUu- 

trated. Dtmy 8t>*. lu. fid. net. 
HER INFINITE VARIETY: A Fawmis* 

PoT_.'i GAU.BXY. Fifth 



GOOD COMPANY: A RALLY OF M* 
Second Edition. Feat. Kvo. . 

ONE DAY AND ANOTHER. Fourth 
Edition. Feat. Bvo. 5*. 

OLD LAMPS FOR NEW. Feat. too. w. 

LISTENER'S LURE : AN OBLIQUH NAR- 
RATION. Eighth Edition. Fcap. Hvo 

OVER BEMERTON'S: AN EASY-GOING 
CHRONICLE. Ninth Edition. Fcap. ive. 

MR. INGLESIDE. Fcaf. &vt. 5*. 
See also Lamb (Charles). 

Lydekkep (R. and Others). REPTILES, 
AMPHIBIA, AND FISHES. Illustrated. 
Demy 8t/#. icxi. ftd. net, 

Lydekker (R.> THE OX. Illustrated. 

Cr. &vt>. fr. 

Macaulay (Lord). CRITICAL AND 
HISTORICAL ESSAYS. Edited by F. 
C. MONTAGUB. Three Vtlutnet. Cr. Svo. 
sfe. 

McCabe (Joseph). THE DECAY OF 
THE CHURCH OF ROME. Third 
Edition. Drmy Svo. jt. dd. net. 

THE EMPRESSES OF ROME. Illus- 
trated. Demy Svo. va. ftd. net. 

MaeCarthy (Desmond) and Russell 
(Agatha). LADY JOHN RUSSELL: 
A MEMOIR. Illustrated. Fourth Edition. 
Demy 8c#. IOT. 6d. net. 

McCullaeh (Francis). THE FALL OF 
ABD-UL-HAMID. Illustrated. Demy 
Zvo. lot. 6d. net. 

MaeDonagh (Michael). THE SPEAKER 
OF THE HOUSE. Demy too. xw. 6<* 
net. 

McDougall (William). AN INTRODUC- 
TION TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY. 
Fourth Edition. Cr. Svo. . net. 

BODY AND MIND : A HISTORY AND A 
DEFENCE OF ANIMISM. Demy 6vo. ior. 6d. 
net. 

'Mdlle. Mori '(Author of). ST. CATHER- 
INE OF SIENA AND HER TIMES. 
Illustrated. Second Edition. Demy Svo. 
js. 6d. net. 

Maeterlinck (Maurice). THE BLUE 
BIRD : A FAIRY PLAY IN Six ACTS. 
Translated by ALEXANDER TEIXEIRA DB 
MATTOS. Twentieth Edition. Fcap. Kvo. 
Deckle Edfet. y. 6d. net. Alto Fcap. Sve. 
Paper covert, it. net. 

THE BLUE BIRD : A FAIRY PLAY IN SIN 
ACTS. Translated by ALEXANDER TKIXEIRA 
DB MATTAS. Illustrated. Cr. t,t. 151. net. 

MARY MAGDALENE 5 A PLAY IN THREB 
ACTS. Translated by ALEXANDER TKIXKIXA 
D* MATTOS. Third Edition. FfAf. Svt>. 
DtchU Sdgtt. y. Ul. net. 



GENERAL LITERATURE 



Mahaffy (J. P.). A HISTORY OF EGYPT 
UNDER THE PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY. 
Illustrated. Cr. &vo. 6s. 

Maltland (P. W.). ROMAN CANON 
LAW IN THE CHURCH OF ENG- 
LAND. Royal Svo. jt. 6d. 

Marett (R. R.). THE THRESHOLD OF 
RELIGION. Cr. Svo. 3*. dd. net. 

Marriott (Charles). A SPANISH HOLL 
DAY. Illustrated. Demy Svo. ^s. dd. net. 

THE ROMANCE OF THE RHINE. 
Illustrated. Demy Sve. tor. dd. net. 

Marriott (J. A. R.). THE LIFE AND 
TIMES OF LUCIUS GARY, VISCOUNT 
FALKLAND. Illustrated. Second Edition. 
Demy Sva. js. dd. net. 

MaseUeld (John). SEA LIFE IN NEL- 
SON S TIME. Illustrated. Cr. Svo. 

A BAILOR'S GARLAND. Selected and 
Edited. Second Edition. Cr. Svo. 31. dd. 
net. 

AN ENGLISH PROSE MISCELLANY. 
Selected with an Introduction. Cr. Zvo. 6s. 

Masterman (C. F. G.). TENNYSON 
AS A RELIGIOUS TEACHER. Second 
Edition. Cr. Sv o. 6s. 

THE CONDITION OF ENGLAND. 
Fourth Edition. Cr. Zvo. 6*. 

Medley (D. J.). ORIGINAL ILLUS- 
TRATIONS OF ENGLISH CONSTITU- 
TIONAL HISTORY. Cr.Svo. js.6d.net. 

Meldrum (D. S.). HOME LIFE IN 
HOLLAND. Illustrated. Demy Svo. 
IOT. 6d. net. 

Methuen (A. M. S.). ENGLAND'S RUIN : 
DISCUSSED IN FOURTEEN LETTERS TO A 
PROTECTIONIST. Ninth Edition. Cr. Svo. 
yi.net. 

Meynell (Everard). COROT AND HIS 
FRIENDS. Illustrated. Demy too. tos.dd. 
net. 

Miles (Eustace). LIFE AFTER LIFE: 

OR, THE THEORY OF REINCARNATION. 

Cr. Svo. if. dd. net. 
THE POWER OF CONCENTRATION : 

How TO ACQUIRE IT. Third Edition. 

Cr. Svo. y. dd. net. 

Millais (J. G.). THE LIFE AND LET- 
TERS OF SIR JOHN EVERETT 
MILLAIS. Illustrated. Neiv Edition. 
Demy Svo. js. dd. net. 

Milne (J. G.). A HISTORY OF EGYPT 
UNDER ROMAN RULE. Illustrated. 
Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Moffat (Mary M.). QUEEN LOUISA OF 
PRUSSIA. Illustrated. Fourth Edition. 

MARIA* THERESA. Illustrated, lot. 6d. 
ntt. 



Money (L, G. Chiozza). RICHES AND 
POVERTY, 1910. Tenth tnd Revised 
Edition. Demy Svo. $s. net. 

MONEY'S FISCAL DICTIONARY, ig lo . 
Second Edition. Demy Svo. jr. net. 

Montagrue(C.E.). DRAMATIC VALUES. 
Second Edition. Fcap. Svo. 5*. 

Moorhouse (E. Hallam). NELSON'S 
LADY HAMILTON. Illustrated. Third 
Edition, Demy Svo. 7*. dd. net. 

Morgan (J. H.), THE HOUSE OF LORDS 
AND THE CONSTITUTION. With an 
Introduction by the LORD CHANCELLOR. 
Cr. Svo. is. net. 

Nevlll (Lady Dorothy). UNDER FIVE 
REIGNS. Edited by her son. Illustrated. 
Fifth Edition. Denty Svo. 15*. net. 

Norway (A. H.). NAPLES. PAST AND 
PRESKNT. Illustrated. Third Edition. 
Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Oman (C. W. C.). A HISTORY OF THE 
ART OF WAR IN THE MIDDLE 
AGES. Illustrated. Demy %vo. tot. dd. 
net. 

ENGLAND BEFORE THE NORMAN 
CONQUEST. With Maps. Second 
Edition. Demy Svo. los. 6d. net. 

Oxford (M. N.J, A HANDBOOK OF 
NURSING. Fifth Edition. Cr. 8vo. 
y.dd. 

Fakes (W. C. C.). THE SCIENCE OF 
HYGIENE. Illustrated. DemyZvo. 151. 

Parker (Eric). THE BOOK OF THE 
ZOO ; BY DAT AND NIGHT. Illustrated. 
Second Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Pears (Sir Edwin). TURKEY AND ITS 
PEOPLE. Demy Svo. 12*. dd. net. 

Petrie (W. M. Flinders). A HISTORY 

OF EGYPT. Illustrated. In Six Volumes. 

Cr. Svo. 6s. each. 
VOL. I. FROM THE IST TO THE XVIrH 

DYNASTY. Sixth Edition. 
VOL. II. THE XVIlTH AND XVIIIiH 

DYNASTIES. Fourth Edition. 
VOL. III. XIXTH TO XXXTii DYNASTIES. 
VOL. IV. EGYPT UNDER THE PTOLEMAIC 

DYNASTY. J. P. MAHAFFY. 
VOL. V. EGYPT UNDER ROMAN RULE. J. G. 

MILNE. 
VOL. VI. EGYPT IN THK MIDDLE AGES. 

STANLEY LANE-POOLE. 
RELIGION AND CONSCIENCE IN 

ANCIENT EGYPT. Illustrated Cr. Svo. 

is.dd. 
SYRIA AND EGYPT, FROM THE TELL 

EL AMARNA LETTERS. Cr. 8*>o. 

tt.dd. 



10 



METHUEN AND COMPANY LIMITED 



EGYPTIAN TALES. Translated from the 
Papyri. First Series, ivth to xnth Dynasty. 
Illustrated. Second Edition. Cr. Svo. 
3*. 6d. 

EGYPTIAN TALES. Translated from the 
Papyri. Second Series, xvinth to xixth 
Dynasty. Illustrated. Cr. Kvo. y. dd. 

EGYPTIAN DECORATIVE ART. Illus- 
trated. Cr. Svo. y. dd. 

Phelps (Ruth S.). SKIES ITALIAN : A 
LITTLB BREVIARY FOR TRAVELLERS IN 
ITALY. Fcap. 8vc. 51. net. 

Podmore (Frank). MODERN SPIRIT- 
UALISM. Two Volumes. Demy Svo. 

MESMERISM AND CHRISTIAN 
SCIENCE: A Short History of Mental 
Healing. Second Edition. Demy Svo. 

ioj. dd. mi. 

Pollard (Alfred W.)- SHAKESPEARE 
FOLIOS AND QUARTOS. A Study in 
the Bibliography of Shakespeare's Plays, 
1594-1685. Illustrated. Folio. 21*. net. 

Porter (G. R.) THE PROGRESS OF 
THE NATION. A New Edition. Edited 
by F. W. HIRST. Demy Sve. 21*. net. 

Powell (Arthur E.). FOOD AND 
HEALTH. Cr. Svo. y. dd. net. 

Power (J. O'Connor). THE MAKING OF 
AN ORATOR. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

*Priee (Eleanor C.). CARDINAL DE 
RICHELIEU. Illustrated. Demy Svo. 
IOT. 6d. net. 

Price (L. L.). A SHORT HISTORY OF 
POLITICAL ECONOMY IN ENGLAND 
FROM ADAM SMITH TO ARNOLD 
TOYNBEE. Seventh Edition. Cr. Svo. 
as. dd. 

Pycraft (W. P.). A HISTORY OF BIRDS. 
Illustrated. Demy Svo. los. dd. net. 

Rappoport (Angelo S.). HOME LIFE IN 
RUSSIA. Illustrated. DemyZvo. lot. dd. 
net. 

Rawllngs (Gertrude B.). COINS AND 
HOW TO KNOW THEM. Illustrated. 
Third Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Read (C. Stanford), FADS AND FEED- 
ING. Cr. Svo. as. 6d. net. 

Regan (C. Tate). THE FRESHWATER 
FISHES OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 
Illustrated. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Reid (Arehdall), THE LAWS OF HERE- 
DITY. Second Edition. Demy Svo. 21*. 
net. 

Robertson (C Grant). SELECT STAT- 
UTES, CASES, AND DOCUMENTS, 
1660-1894. Demy Svo. los. dd. net. 

ENGLAND UNDER THE HANOVER- 
IANS. Illustrated. Demy Svo. iof. 6d. 
tut. 



Roe (Fred). OLD OAK FURNITURE. 
Illustrated. Second Edition. Demy tvt. 
tot. dd. net. 

Royde-Smith (N. G.). THE PILLOW 
BOOK : A GARNER OF MANY MOODS. 
Collected. Second Edition. Cr. Svo. 

P^ETS OF OUR DAY. Selected, with an 
Introduction. Fcap. Svf. 51. 

Russell (W. Clark). THE LIFE OF 
ADMIRAL LORD COLLINGWOOD. 
Illustrated, fourth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Ryan (P. F. W.). STUART LIFE AND 
MANNERS ; A SOCIAL HISTORY. Illus- 
trated. Demy Svo. ioj. dd. net. 

St. Francis of Asslsl. THE LITTLE 
FLOWERS OF THE GLORIOUS 
MESSER, AND OF HIS FRIARS. 
Done into English, with Notes by WILLIAM 
HEYWOOD. Illustrated. Demy Svo. y. net. 

1 Sakl ' (H. H. Munro). REGINALD. 

Second Edition. Fcap. Svo. as. dd. net. 
REGINALD IN RUSSIA. Fcap. too. 

as. dd. net. 

Sandeman (G. A. C.). METTERNICH. 

Illustrated. Demy Sve. IQS. dd. net. 

Selous (Edmund). TOMMY SMITH'S 
ANIMALS. Illustrated. Eleventh Edi- 
tion. Fcap. 6vo. it. dd. 

TOMMY SMITH'S OTHER ANIMALS. 
Illustrated. Fifth Edition. Fcap. 8v*. 
ax. dd. 

JACK'S INSECTS. Illustrated. Cr.Zvo. 6s. 

Shakespeare (William). 
THE FOUR FOLIOS, 1623; 1638; 1664; 
1685. Each 4 4*. net, or a complete set, 

THE 'POEMS OF WILLIAM SHAKE- 
SPEARE. With an Introduction and Notes 
by GEORGE WYNDHAM. Demy 8w. Buck- 
ram. IOT. 6d. 

Sharp (A.). VICTORIAN POETS. Cr. 
&vo. as. dd. 

Sldgwlek (Mrs. Alfred). HOME LIFE 
IN GERMANY. Illustrated. Second 
Edition. Demy Zvo. ioj. dd. net. 

Sladen (Douglas). SICILY: The New 
Winter Resort. Illustrated. Second Edition 
Cr. Bvo. ss. net. 

Smith (Adam). THE WEALTH OF 
NATIONS. Edited by EDWIN CANNAN 
Two Volumes. Demy Hvo. ais. net. 

Smith (G. Herbert). GEMS AND 
PRECIOUS STONES. Illustrated. Cr. 
Svo. 6s. 

Snell (F. J.). A BOOK OF EXMOOR. 
Illustrated. Cr. Svo. 6t. 



GENERAL LITERATURE 



ii 



' Staneliffe.' GOLF DO'S AND DONT'S. 
Third Edition. Fcap too. u. tut. 

Stevenson (R.L.). THE LETTERS OF 
ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON. Edited 
by Sir SIDNEY COLVIN. A New and En- 
larged Edition in 4 volume*. Second Edi- 
tion. Fcap. too. Leather, tack y. net. 

VAILIMA LETTERS. With an Etched 
Portrait by WILLIAM STRANC. Eighth 
Edition. Cr. too. Buckram. 6t. 

THE LIFE OF R. L. STEVENSON. Set 
BALFOUR (G.). 

Stevenson (M. I). FROM SARANAC 
TO THE MARQUESAS AND BEYOND. 
Being Letters written by Mrs. M. I. STEVEN- 
SON during 1887-88. Cr. too. 6f. net. 

LETTERS FROM SAMOA, 1891-95. Edited 
and arranged by M. C. BALFOUR. Illus- 
trated. Second Edition. Cr. toe. 6s. net. 

Storr (Vernon P.). DEVELOPMENT 
AND DIVINE PURPOSE. Cr. too. y. 
net. 

Streatfeild (R. A.). MODERN MUSIC 
AND MUSICIANS. Illustrated. Second 
Edition. Demy too. ^^. (id. net. 

S wanton (E. W.). FUNGI AND HOW 
TO KNOW THEM. Illustrated. Cr. too. 
6t. net. 

Sykes (Ella C.). PERSIA AND ITS 
PEOPLE. Illustrated. Demy too. IQJ. dd. 
net. 

Symes (J E.). THE FRENCH REVO- 
LUTION. Second Edition. Cr.too. *s.6d. 

Tabor (Margaret E.). THE SAINTS IN 
ART. Illustrated. Fcap. 8vo. y. 6d. net. 

Taylor (A. E-). THE ELEMENTS OF 
METAPHYSICS. Second Edition. Deny 
too. lot. 6d. net. 

Thlbaudeau (A. C.). BONAPARTE AND 
THE CONSULATE. Translated and 
Edited by G. K. FORTESCUB. Illustrated. 
Demy too. los. (id. net. 

Thomas (Edward). MAURICE MAE- 
TERLINCK. Illustrated. Cr. too. ss.net. 

Thompson (Francis). SELECTED 
POEMS OF FRANCIS THOMPSON. 
With a Biographical Note by WILFRID 
MKYNELL. With a Portrait in Photogravure. 
Seventh Edition. Fcap. too. y. net. 

Tlleston (Mary W.). DAILY STRENGTH 
FOR DAILY NEEDS. Eighteenth Edi- 
tion. Medium i6mo. 21. 6d. net. Lamb- 
skin y. 6d. net. Also an edition in superior 
binding, 6s. 

THE STRONGHOLD OF HOPE. 
Medium i6nio. as. 6d. net. 

Toynbee (Paget). DANTE ALIGHIERI : 

His LIFE AND WORKS. With 16 Illustra- 
tions. Fourth and Enlarged Edition. Cr. 
too. y. net. 



Trench (Herbert). DEIRDRE WEDDED, 

AND OTHER POEMS. Second and Revised 

Edition. Large Post too. 6s. 
NEW POEMS. Second Edition. Large 

Post too. 6s. 
APOLLO AND THE SEAMAN. Large 

Post too. Paper, is. 6d. net; cloth, as. dd. 

net. 

Trevelyan (G. M.). ENGLAND UNDER 
THE STUARTS. With, Maps and Plans. 
Fourth Edition. Demy too. los. 6d. net. 

Trlggs (Inlgo H.). TOWN PLANNING : 
PAST, PRESENT, AND POSSIBLE. Illustra- 
ted. Second Edition. Wide Royal too. 
iy. net. 

Underbill (Evelyn). MYSTICISM. A 
Study in the Nature and Development of 
Man s Spiritual Consciousness. Second Edi- 
tion, Demy too. 15*. net. 

Vaughan (Herbert M.). THE NAPLES 
RIVIERA. Illustrated. Second Edition. 
Cr. too. 6s. 

FLORENCE AND HER TREASURES. 
Illustrated. Fcap. too. $s. net. 

Vernon (Hon. W. Warren). READINGS 
ON THE INFERNO OF DANTE. With 
an Introduction by the REV. DR. MOORE. 
Two Volumes. Second Edition. Cr. too. 

READINGS ON THE PURGATORIO 
OF DANTE. With an Introduction by 
the late DEAN CHURCH. Two Volumes. 
Third Edition. Cr. too. i. net. 

READINGS ON THE PARADISO OF 
DAiNTE. With an Introduction by the 
BISHOP OK RIPON. Two Volumet. Second 
Edition. Cr. too. ly. net. 

Waddell (Col. L. A.), LHASA AND ITS 
MYSTERIES. With a Record of the Ex- 
pedition of 1003-11904. Illustrated. Third 
and Cheaper Edition. Medium too. js. 6d 
net. 

Wagner (Richard). RICHARD WAG- 
NKR'S MUSIC DRAMAS: Interpreta- 
tions, embodying Wagner's own explana- 
tions. By ALICE LEIGHTON CLBATHEK 
and BASIL CRUMP. Fcap. too. as. 6d. each. 
THE RING OF THE NIBELUNG. 

Fourth Edition. 
TRISTAN AND ISOLDE. 

Waterhouse (Elizabeth). WITH THE 
SIMPLE-HEARTED: Little Homilies to 
Women in Country Places. Third Edition. 
Small Pott too. 2s. net. 

THE HOUSE BY THE CHERRY TREE. 
A Second Series of Little Homilies to 
Women in Country Places. Small Pott too. 
u. net. 

COMPANIONS OF THE WAY. Being 
Selections for Morning and Evening Read- 
ing. Chosen and arranged by ELIZABETH 
WATERHOUSE. Large Cr. too. net. 

THOUGHTS OF A TERTIARY. Smalt 
Pott too. w. net. 



12 



METHUEN AND COMPANY LIMITED 



Waters (W. G.). ITALIAN SCULPTORS 
AND SMITHS. Illustrated. Cr. &ve. 
jt. (xL net. 

*Watt (FranelsV EDINBURGH AND 
THE LOTHIANS. Illustrated. Cr. &vo. 
is. bd. net. 

Welgall (Arthur E. P.). A GUIDE TO 
THE ANTIQUITIES OF UPPKR 
EGYPT: From Abydos to the Sudan 
Frontier. Illustrated. Cr. 8vo. ^s. 6d. net. 

Welch (Catharine). THE LITTLE 
DAUPHIN. Illustrated. Cr. Svo. 6t. 

Wells (J.). OXFORD AND OXFORD 
LI f E. Third Edition. Cr. &vo. 3*. 6d. 

A SHORT HISTORY OF ROME. Tenth 
Edition. With 3 Maps. Cr. &vo. y. 6d. 

Westell (W. Perelval). THE YOUNG 
NATURALIST. Illustrated. Cr. &vo. 6s. 

THE YOUNG ORNITHOLOGIST. Illus- 
trated. Cr. &vo. jx. 

Westell (W. Percival), and Cooper (C. SO. 
THE YOUNG BOTANIST. Illustrated. 
Cr. Svo. y. 6ii net. 

White (George P.). A CENTURY OF 
SPAIN AND PORTUGAL, 1788-1898. 
Demy 8v0. ixs. 6d. net. 

Wilde (Oscar). DE PROFUNDIS. 

Twelfth Edition. Cr. Svo. 5*. net. 
THE WORKS OF OSCAR WILDE. In 
Twelve Volumes. Flap. Svo. $x. net each 
volume. 

i. LORD ARTHUR SAVD.K'S CRIME AND 
THE PORTRAIT OF MR. W. H. n. THE 
DUCHESS OP PADUA. in. POEMS. iv. 
LADY WINDERMBRE'S FAN. v. A WOMAN 
OF No IMPORTANCE, vi. AN IDEAL HUS- 
BAND, vii. THB IMPORTANCE OF BEING 
EARNEST. vni. A HOUSE OF POME- 
GRANATES, ix. INTENTIONS, x. DE PRO- 
FUNDIS AND PRISON LETTERS, xi. ESSAYS. 
xu. SALOME, A FLORENTINE TRAGEDY, 
and LA SAINTE COUKTISANB. 



Williams (H. Noel). THE WOMEN 
BONAPARTES. The Mother aud three 
Sisters of Napoleon. Illustrated. In Two 
Volumes. Demy Svo. 24*. net. 

A ROSE OF SAVOY : MARIB ADELAIDE OF 
SAVOY, DUCHKSSE DB BOURGOCNE, MOTHER 
OF Louis xv. Illustrated. Second 
Edition. Demy &vo. 15*. net. 

THE FASCINATING DUC DE RICHE- 
LIEU : Louis FRANCOIS AR.MAND DU 
PLESSIS (1696-1788). Illustrated. DemySvo. 
15*. net. 

A PRINCESS OF ADVENTURE : MARIE 
CAROLINE, DUCHESSE L.K BURKY (1798- 
1870). Illustrated. Demy Svo. i$s. net. 



Wood (Sir Evelyn). FROM MIDSHIP- 
MAN TO FIELD-MARSHAL. Illustra- 
ted. Fifth and Cheaper Edition. Demy 
&vo. jt. dd. net. 

THE REVOLT IN HINDUSTAN. 1857- 
59. Illustrated. Second Edition. Cr. &vt. os. 



Wood (W. Blrkbeck), and Edmonds 
(Lieut.-Col. J. E.). A HISTORY OF 
THK CIVIL WAR IN THE UNITED 
STATES (1861-5). With an Introduction 
by H. SPENSER WILKINSON. With 24 Maps 
and Plans. Third Edition. Demy Svo. 
ixs. 6.-/. net. 



Wordsworth (W.). THE POEMS. With 
an Introduction and Notes by NOVVKLL 
C. SMITH. In Three Volumes. Demy Kvo. 
ly. net. 



Wyllle (M. A.). NORWAY AND ITS 
FJORDS. Illustrated. Second Edition. 
Cr. Svo. 6*. 



Yeats (W. B.). A BOOK OF IRISH 
VERSE. Third Edition. Cr. Svo. y. 6d. 



PART II. A SELECTION OF SERIES 



Ancient Cities. 

General Editor, B. C. A. WINDLE. 

Cr. Sv0. 4-r. 6d. net each volume. 
With Illustrations by' E. H. NEW, and other Artists. 



BRISTOL. Alfred Harvey. 
CANTKRBURY. J. C. Cox. 
CHESTER. B. C. A. Windle. 
DUBLIN. S. A. O. Fiupatrick. 



EDINBURGH. M. G. Williamson. 
LINCOLN. E. Mansel Sympson. 
SHREWSBURY. T. Auden. 
WELLS aud GLASTONBURY. T. S. Holme*. 



GENERAL LITERATURE 
The Antiquary's Books. 

General Editor, J. CHARLES COX. 
Demy 8vo. Js. 6d. net each volume. 
With Numerous Illustrations. 



ARCHEOLOGY AMD FALSE ANTIQUITIES. 

R. Alunro. 
BELLS or ENGLAND, THK. Canon J. J. Raven. 

Second Edition. 
BRASSES OP ENGLAND, THE. Herbert W. 

Mack lin . Second Edition. 
CELTIC ART IN PAGAN AND CHRISTIAN 

TIMES. J. Romilly Allen. 
CASTLKS AND WALLED TOWNS OF ENGLAND. 

A. Harvey. 

DOMESDAY INQUEST, THK. Adolphus Billiard. 
ENGLISH CHURCH FURNITURE. J. C. Cox 

and A. Harvey. Second Edition. 
ENGLISH COSTUME. From Prehistoric Times 

to the End of the Eighteenth Century. 

George Clinch. 
ENGLISH MONASTIC LIFE. The Right Rev. 

Abbot Gasquet. Fourth. Edition. 
ENGLISH SEALS. J. Harvey Bloom. 
FOLK-LORE AS AN HISTORICAL SCIENCE. 

Sir G. L. Gomme. 
GILDS AND COMPANIES or LONDON, THE. 

George Unwin. 



MANOR AND MANORIAL RECORDS, THE. 
Nathaniel I- Hone. 

MEDIEVAL HOSPITALS OF ENGLAND, THE. 

Rotha Mary Clay. 
OLD ENGLISH INSTRUMENTS OF Music. 

F. W. Galpin. Second Edition. 
OLD ENGLISH LIBRARIES. James Hutt. 
OLD SERVICE BOOKS OF THB ENGLISH 

CHURCH. Christopher Wordsworth, and 

Henry Littlehales. Second Edition. 
PARISH LIFE IN MEDIEVAL ENGLAND. 

The Right Rev. Abbot Gasquet. Tnird 

Edition. 
PARISH REGISTERS OF ENGLAND. THE. 

J. C. Cox. 
REMAINS OF THE PKEHISTORIC AGE IN 

ENGLAND. B. C. A. Windle. Second 

Edition. 

ROMAN ERA IN BRITAIN, THE. J. Ward. 
ROMAN-BRITISH BUILDINGS AND EARTH- 
WORKS. J. Ward. 
ROYAL FORESTS OF ENGLAND, THE. J. C. 

Cox. 
SHRINES OF BRITISH SAINTS. J. C. Wall. 



The Arden Shakespeare. 

Demy Svo. 2J. &/. net each volume. 

An edition of Shakespeare in single Plays ; each edited with a full Introduction, 
Textual Notes, and a Commentary at the foot of the page. 



ALL'S WELL THAT ENDS WELL. 

ANTONY AND CLEOPA r RA. 

CYMBBLINE. 

COMEDY OF ERRORS, THE. 

HAMLET. Second Edition. 

JULIUS CAESAR. 

KING HRNRY iv. PT. L 

KING HENRY v. 

KING HENRY vi. PT. i. 

KING HENRY vi. FT. it. 

KING HENRY vi. PT. IIL. 

KING LEAR. 

KING RICHARD in. 

LIFE AND DEATH OF KING JOHN, THE. 

LOVE'S LABOUR'S LOST. 

MACBETH. 



MEASURE FOR MEASURE. 

MERCHANT OF VENICE, THE. 

MEKRV WIVES OF WINDSOR, THE. 

MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DKEAM, A. 

OTHELLO. 

PERICLES. 

ROMEO AND JULIET. 

TAMING OF THE SHREW, THE. 

TEMPEST, THE. 

TIMON OF ATHENS. 

TITUS ANDRONICUS. 

TROILUS AND CKESSIDA. 

Two GENTLEMEN OF VERONA, TUB. 

TWELFTH NIGHT. 

VENUS AND ADONIS. 



METHUEN AND COMPANY LIMITED 



Classics of Art. 

Edited by DR. J. H. W. LAING. 
With numerous Illustrations. Wide Royal Svo. 
H. B. Walters. 



THE ART OF THE GREEKS. 
i2j. bd. net. 

THE ART OF THB ROMANS. H. B. Walters. 
15*. net. 

CHARDIN. H. E. A. Furst. us. dd. net. 

DONATELLO. Maud CruttwelL 15*. net. 

FLORENTINE SCULPTORS OF THE RENAIS- 
SANCE. Wilhelm Bode. Translated by 
Jessie Haynes. 12*. dd. net. 

GEORGE ROMNEY. Arthur B. Chamberlain. 
I2J. dd. net. 

GHIRLANDAIO. Gerald S. Davies. Second 
Edition. ios.6d. 



MICHELANGELO. Gerald S. Davies. its. 6J. 
net. 

RUBENS. Edward Dillon, 2$s. net. 
RAPHAEL. A. P. Opp. w. dd. net. 
REMBRANDT'S ETCHINGS. A. M. Hind. 
TITIAN. Charles Ricketts. iw. 6d. net. 

TINTORETTO. Evelyn March Phillipps. 15*. 
tiet. 

TURNER'S SKETCHES AND DRAWINGS. A. J. 
FINBERG. izs.fsd.net. Second Edition. 

VELAZQUEZ. A. de Beruete. lot. 6d. net. 



The Complete Series. 

Fully Illustrated. Demy %u 



THE COMPLETE BILLIARD PLAYER. Charles 

Roberts, iof. dd. net. 
THB COMPLETE COOK. Lilian Whitling. 

js. 6d. net. 
THE COMPLETE CRICKETER. Albert E. 

Knight. 7*. dd. net. Second Edition. 
THE COMPLETE FOXHUNTER. Charles Rich- 
ardson. 12*. 6d. net. Second Edition. 
THE COMPLETE GOLFER. Harry Vardon. 

tor. 6d. net. Eleventh Edition. 
THE COMPLETE HOCKEY-PLAYER. Eustace 

E. White. 5*. net. Second Edition. 
THE COMPLETE LAWN TENNIS PLAYER. 

A. Wallis Myers. IDJ. 6d. net. Second 

Edition. 



THE COMPLETE MOTORIST. Filson Young. 
I2s. dd. net. New Edition (Seventh), 

THE COMPLETE MOUNTAINEER. G. D. 
Abraham. 15*. net. Second Edition. 

THE COMPLETE OARSMAN. R. C. Lehmann. 
ior. dd. net. 

THE COMPLETE PHOTOGRAPHER. R. Child 
Bayley. los. dd. net. Fourth Edition. 

THE COMPLETE RUGBY FOOTBALLER, ON THE 
NEW ZEALAND SYSTEM. D. Gallaher and 
W. J. Stead, iw. 6d. net. Second Edition. 

THE COMPLETE SHOT. G. T. TeasdaU 
Buckell. i2j. 6d. net. Third Edition. 



The Connoisseur's Library. 



With numerous Illustrations. Wide Royal 8vo. z$s, net each volume. 

IVORIES. Alfred MaskelL 

H. Clifford Smith. Second 



ENGLISH FURNITURE. F. S. Robinson. 
ENGLISH COLOURED BOOKS. Martin Hardie. 
'ETCHINGS. F. Wedmore. 
EUROPEAN ENAMELS. Henry H. Cunyng- 

hame. 

GLASS. Edward Dillon. 
GOLDSMITHS' AND SILVERSMITHS' WORK. 

Nelson Dawson. Second Edition. 
ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS. J. A. Herbert. 



JEWELLERY. 
Edition. 

MEZZOTINTS. Cyril Davenport. 
MINIATURES. Dudley Heath. 
PORCELAIN. Edward Dillon. 
SEALS. Walter de Gray Birch. 
*Wooo SCULPTURE. Alfred Maskell. 



GENERAL LITERATURE 



Handbooks of English Church History. 

Edited by J. H. BURN. Crown 8w. 2s. 6d. net each volume. 



THE FOUNDATIONS or THE ENGLISH CHURCH. 
J. H. Maude. 

TKK SAXON CHURCH AND THB NORMAN CON- 
QUEST. C. T. Cruttwell. 

THE MEDIEVAL CHURCH AND THB PAPACY. 
A. C. Jennings. 



THE REFORMATION PERIOD. Henry Gee. 

THE STRUGGLE WITH PURITANISM. Bruce 
Blazland. 

THE CHURCH or ENGLAND IN THB EIGH- 
TEENTH CKNTURT. Alfred Plummer. 



Handbooks of Theology. 



THB DOCTRINE OF THB INCARNATION. R. L. 

Ottley. Fifth Edition, Reviled. Demy 

Zva. IM. 60. 
A HISTORY OF EARLY CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE. 

J. F. Bethune-Baker. Demy tv*. iw. 6d. 
AN INTRODUCTION TO THB HISTORY OF 

RELIGION. F. B. Jerons. Fifth Edition. 

Dtmy Zvt. lot. 6d. 



AN INTRODUCTION TO THB HISTORY OF THB 
CREEDS. A. E. Burn. Demy 8vo. los. dd. 

THB PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION IN ENGLAND 
AND AMERICA. Alfred Caldecott. DemyZvo. 
los. 6d. 

THE XXXIX. ARTICLES OF THE CHURCH OF 
ENGLAND. Edited by E. C. S. Gibson, 
Seventh Edition. Dtmy Svt. iw. bd. 



The Illustrated Pocket Library of Plain and Coloured Books. 

Fcap. &vo. 35. 6<f. net each volume. 
WITH COLOURED ILLUSTRATIONS. 



OLD COLOURED BOOKS. George Paston. as. 

net. 
THE LIFE AND DEATH OF JOHN MYTTON, 

ESQ. Nimrod. fifth Edition. 
THE LIFE OF A SPORTSMAN. Nimrod. 
HANDLEY CROSS. R. S. Surtees. Third 

Edition. 
MR. SPONGE'S SPORTING TOUR. R. S. 

Surtees. 
JORROCKS'S JAUNTS AND JOLLITIES. R. S. 

Surtees. Third Edition. 
ASK MAMMA. R. S. Surtees. 

THE ANALYSIS OF THE HUNTING FIELD. 

R. S. Surtees. 
THE TOUR OF D*. SYNTAX IN SEARCH OF 

THE PICTURESQUE. William Combe. 

THE Tou OF DB. SYNTAX IN SEARCH OF 
CONSOLATION. William Combe. 

THE THIRD TOUR OF DR. SYNTAX IN SEARCH 
OF A WIFE. William Combe. 

THE HISTORY OF JOHNNY QUAK GENUS. 
the Author of ' The Three Tours.' 

THE ENGLISH DANCE OF DEATH, from the 
Designs of T. Rowlandson, with Metrical 
Illustrations by the Author of ' Doctor 
Syntax.' Twf Volumet. 



THE DANCE OF LIFE: A Poem. The Author 
of ' Dr. Syntax.' 

LIFE IN LONDON. Pierce Egan. 

REAL LIFE IN LONDON. An Amateur (Pierce 
Egan). Two Volvmet. 

THE LIFE OF AN ACTOR. Pierce Egan. 

THB VICAX OF WAKEFIELD. Oliver Gold- 
smith. 

THB MILITARY ADVENTURES or JOHNNY 
NEWCOMBK. An Officer. 

THE NATIONAL SPORTS OF GREAT BRITAIN. 
With Descriptions and 50 Coloured Plates by 
Henry Alken. 

THE ADVENTURES or A POST CAPTAIN. 
A Naval Officer. 

GAMONIA. Lawrence Rawstorne. 

AN ACADEMY FOR GROWN HORSEMEN. 
Geoffrey Gambado. 

REAL LIFE IN IRELAND. A Real Paddy. 

THE ADVENTURES OF JOHNNY NKWCOMIB IN 
THE NAVY. Alfred Burton. 

THB OLD ENGLISH SQUIRE. John Careless. 
THE ENGLISH SPY. Bernard Bl.^v-..^*t 
Tw Yolumtt. jt. tut. 



METHUEN AND COMPANY LIMITED 



WITH PLAIN ILLUSTRATIONS. 



THB GRAVE : A Poem. Robert Blair. 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THB BOOK OF JOB. In- 
vented and engraved by William Blake. 

WINDSOR CASTLE. W. Harrison Ainsworth. 

THE TOWER or LONDON. W. Harrison 
Ainsworth. 



FRANK FAIRLEGH. F. E. Smedley. 

HANDY ANDY. Samuel Lover. 

THB COMPLSAT ANGLER. Izaak Walton anu 

Charles Cotton. 
THE PICKWICK PAPERS. Charles Dickens. 



Leaders of Religion 

Edited by H. C. BEECHING. With Portraits. 

Crown Sv0. 2s. net each volume. 
CARDINAL NEWMAN. R. H. Hutton. 
JOHN WESLEY. J. H. Overton. 
BISHOP WILBERFORCB. G. W. Daniell. 
CARDINAL MANNING. A. W. Hutton. 
CHARLES SIMEON. H. C. G. Moule. 
JOHN KNOX. F. MacCunn. Second Edition, 
JOHN HOWE. R. F. Horton. 
THOMAS KEN. F. A. Clarke. 



GEORGE Fox, THB QUAKER. T. Hodgkin. 

Third Edition. 
JOHN KEBLE. Walter Lock. 



THOMAS CHALMERS. Mrs. Oliphant. Second 
Edition, 

LANCELOT ANDREWES. R. L. Ottley. Second 
Edition. 



AUGUSTINE OF CANTERBURY. E. L. Cults. 
WILLIAM LAUD. W. H. Hutton. Third Ed. 
JOHN DONNB. Augustus Jessop. 
THOMAS CRANMER. A. J. Mason. 
BISHOP LATIMBR. R. M. Carlyle and A. J. 

Carlyle. 
BISHOP BUTLER. W. A. Spooner. 



The Library of Devotion. 

With Introductions and (where necessary) Notes. 
Small Pott Sve, cloth, 2s. ; leather, 2s. 6d. net each volume. 
or ST. AUGUST INK. 



THE CONFESSIONS 
Seventh Edition. 

THB IMITATION OF CHRIST. Sixth Edition. 
THE CHRISTIAN YEAR. Fourth Edition. 
LYRA I NNOCBNTIUM. Second Edition, 
THE TEMPLE. Second Edition. 
A BOOK OF DEVOTIONS. Second Edition. 

A SERIOUS CALL TO A DEVOUT AND HOLT 
LIFE. Fourth Edition. 

A GUIDB TO ETERNITY. 

THE INNER WAY. Second Edition, 

ON THB LOVE OF GOD. 

THE PSALMS OF DAVID. 

LYRA APOSTOLICA. 

THE SONG OF SONGS. 

THE THOUGHTS OF PASCAL. Stcend Edition. 

A MANUAL OF CONSOLATION FROM THE 
SAINTS AND FATHERS. 

DEVOTIONS FROM THE APOCRYPHA. 
THE SPIRITUAL COMBAT. 
THB DEVOTIONS OF ST. ANSBLM. 
BISHOP WILSON'S SACRA PRIVATA, 



GRACE ABOUNDING TO THE CHIEF OF SIN- 
NERS. 

LYRA SACRA : A Book of Sacred Verse. 
Second Edition. 



A DAY BOOK 
FATHERS. 



FROM THB SAINTS AND 



A LITTLB BOOK OF HEAVENLY WISDOM. A 
Selection from the English Mystics. 

LIGHT, LIFE, and LOVE. A Selection from 
the German Mystics. 

AN INTRODUCTION TO THB DEVOUT LIFE. 

TUB LITTLE FLOWERS OF THE GLORIOUS 
MBSSEE ST. FRANCIS AND OF HIS FRIARS. 

DEATH AND IMMORTALITY. 

THE SPIRITUAL GUIDE. Second Edition. 

DEVOTIONS FOR EVERY DAY IN THE WEEK 
AND THE GREAT FESTIVALS. 

PRECES PRIVATE. 

HORX MYSTIC* : A Day Book from the 
Writings of Mystics of Many Nations. 



GENERAL LITERATURE 



Little Books on Art. 

With many Illustrations. Demy i6mo. 2s. dd. net each volume. 

Each Tolume consists of about 200 pages, and contains from 30 to 40 Illustrations, 
including a Frontispiece in Photogravure. 



ALBUCHT DORM. J. Allen. 

ARTS or JAPAN, THE. E. Dillon. Second 

Edition. 

BOOKPLATES. E. Almack. 
BOTTICELLI. Mary L. Bormor. 
BURNE-JONES. F. de Lisle. 
CHRISTIAN SYMBOLISM. Mrs. H. Jenner. 
CHRIST IN ART. Mrs. H. Jenner. 
CLAUDE. E. Dillon. 
CONSTABLE. H. W. Tompkins. Second 

Edition. 

COROT. A. Pollard and E. Birnstingl. 
ENAMELS. Mrs. N. Dawson. 
FREDERIC LBIGHTON. A. Corkran. 
GEORGE ROMNEY. G. Paston. 
GREEK ART. H. B. Walters. Fourth Edition. 
GREUZE AND BOUCHER. E. F. Pollard. 



HOLBEIN. Mrs. G. Fortcjcue. 

ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS. J. W. Bradley. 

JEWELLERY. C. Davenport. 

JOHN HOPPNER. H. P. K. Skipton. 

SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. J. Sime. Second 

Edition. 

MILLET. N. Peacock. 
MINIATURES. C. Davenport. 
OUR LADY IN ART. Mrs. H. Jenner. 
RAPHAEL. A. R. Dryhurst. 
REMBRANDT. Mrs. E. A. Sharp. 
TURNER. F. Tyrrell-Gill. 
VANDYCK. M. G. Smallwood. 
VELASQUEZ. W. Wilberforce and A. R. 

Gilbert. 
WATTS. R. E. D. Sketchley. 



The Little Galleries. 

Demy i6mt>. 2s. 6d. net each volume. 

Each volume contains 20 plates in Photogravure, together with a short outline of 
the life and work of the master to whom the book is devoted. 



A LITTLE GALLERY OF REYNOLDS. 
A LITTLE GALLERY or ROMNEY. 
A LITTLE GALLERY or HOFPNER. 



A LITTLE GALLERY or MILLAIS. 

A LITTLE GALLERY or ENGLISH POETS. 



The Little Guides. 

With many Illustrations by E. H. NEW and other artists, and from photographs. 
Small Pott &vo, cloth, K. 6d. net; leather, y. 6d. net, each volume. 



an adequate but compact presentation of everything that is interesting in the 
natural features, history, archaeology, and architecture of the town or district treated. 



CAMBRIDGE AND ITS COLLEGES. A. H. 

Thompson. Third Edition, Revised. 
CHANNEL ISLANDS, THE. E. E. Bicknell. 
ENGLISH LAKES, THE. F. G. Brabant, 
ISLE or WIGHT, THE. G. Clinch. 
MALVKRN COUNTRY, THE. B. C. A. Windle. 
NORTH WALES. A. T. Story. 

OXFORD AND ITS COLLEGES. J. Well*. 

ffintk Edition. 



SHAKESPEARE'S COUNTRY. B. C. A. Windle. 

Third Edition. 

ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. G. Clinch. 
WESTMINSTER ABBEY. G. E. Troutbeck. 

Second Edition. 



BERKSHIRE. F. G. Brabant. 
BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. E. S. Roscoe. 
CHESHIRE. W. M. Gallic-ban. 



i8 



METHUEN AND COMPANY LIMITED 



Tn LITTLE GUIDES continued. 

CORNWALL. A. L. Salmon. 

DERBYSHIRE. J. C. Coz. 

DEVON. S. Baring-Gould. Second Edition. 

DORSET. F. R. Heath. Secona Edition. 

ESSEX. J. C Cox. 

HAMPSHIRE. J. C Cox. 

HERTFORDSHIRE. H. W. Tompkins. 

KENT. G. Clinch. 

KERRY. C. P. Crane. 

MIDDLESEX. J. B. Firth. 

MONMOUTHSHIRE. G. W. Wad amd J. H. 

Wade. 
NORFOLK. W. A. Dutt. Second Edition, 

Revised. 

NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. W. Dry. Second Ed. 
NORTHUMBERLAND. J. E. Morris. 
NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. L. Guilford. 
OXFORDSHIRE. F. G. Brabant. 



SOMERSET. G. W. and J. H. Wade. 

STAFFORDSHIRE. C. E. Masefield. 

SUFFOLK. W. A. Dutt. 

SURREY. J. C. Cox. 

SUSSEX. F. G. Brabant. Third Edition. 

WILTSHIRE, F. R. Heath. 

THE EAST RIDING. J. E. 



THE NOKTH RIDING. J. E. 



YORKSHIRE, 

Morris. 
YORKSHIRE, 

Morris. 
YORKSHIRE, THE WEST RIDING. J. E. 

Morris. Cloth, y. f>d. net; leather, 4*. (td. 

ntt. 



BRITTANY. S. Baring-Gould. 
NORMANDY. C. Scudamore. 
ROME. C. G. Ellaby. 
SICILY. F. H. Jackson. 



The Little Library. 

With Introductions, Notes, and Photogravure Frontispieces. 
Small Pott %vo. Each Volume, cloth, u. 6d. net. 



Anon. A LITTLE BOOK OF ENGLISH 
LYRICS. Second Edition. 

Austen (Jane). PRIDE AND PREJU- 
DICE. Two Volumes. 
NORTH ANGER ABBEY. 

Bacon (Francis). THE ESSAYS OF 
LORD BACON. 

Barbara (R. H.). THE INGOLDSBY 
LEGENDS. Two Volumes. 

Barnet (Annie). A LITTLE BOOK OF 
ENGLISH PROSE. 

Beekford (William). THE HISTORY 
OF THE CALIPH VATHEK. 

Blake (William). SELECTIONS FROM 
THE WORKS OF WILLIAM BLAKE. 

Borrow (George). LAVENGRO. Tw 

Volumes. 
THE ROMANY RYE. 

Browning (Robert). SELECTIONS 
FROM THE EARLY POEMS OF 
ROBERT BROWNING. 

Canning (George). SELECTIONS FROM 
THE ANTI- JACOBIN : with GEORGB 
CANNING'S additional Poems. 

Cowley (Abraham). THE ESSAYS OF 
ABRAHAM COWLEY. 

Crabbe (George). SELECTIONS FROM 
THE POEMS OF GEORGE CRABBE. 



Cralk (Mrs.). JOHN HALIFAX, 
GENTLEMAN. Two Volumes. 

Crashaw (Richard). THE ENGLISH 
POEMS OF RICHARD CRASHAW. 

Dante Allghleri. THE INFERNO OF 
DANTE. Translated by H. F. CARV. 

THE PURGATORIO OF DANTE. Trans- 
lated by H. F. CARY. 

THE PARADISO OF DANTE. Trans- 
lated by H. F. CARY. 

Darley (George). SELECTIONS FROM 
THE POEMS OF GEORGE DARLEY. 

Deane (A. C.). A LITTLE BOOK OF 
LIGHT VERSE. 

Diekens(Charles). CHRISTMAS BOOKS. 

Two Volumes. 

Ferrler (Susan). MARRIAGE. Two 

Volumes. 
THE INHERITANCE. Two Volumes. 

Gaskell (Mrs.). CRANFORD. SecondEd. 

Hawthorne (Nathaniel). THE SCARLET 
LETTER. 

Henderson (T. F.). A LITTLE BOOK 
OF SCOTTISH VERSE. 

Keats (John). POEMS. 

Klnglake (A. W.). EOTHEN. Second 
Edition. 



GENERAL LITERATURE 



THE LITTLE LIBRARY continued. 

Lamb (Chariest ELI A, AND THE LAST 
ESSAYS OF ELIA. 

Locker (F.). LONDON LYRICS. 

Longfellow (H. W.). SELECTIONS 
FROM THE POEMS OF H. W. LONG- 
FELLOW. 

Marvell (Andrew). THE POEMS OF 
ANDREW MARVELL. 

Milton (John). THE MINOR POEMS OF 
JOHN MILTON. 

Molr (D. M.). MANSIE WAUCH. 

Nichols (J. B. B.). A LITTLE BOOK 
OF ENGLISH SONNETS. 

Rochefoucauld (La). THE MAXIMS OF 
LA ROCHEFOUCAULD. 

Smith (Horace and James). REJECTED 
ADDRESSES. 



Sterne (Laurence). 
JOURNEY. 



A SENTIMENTAL 



Tennyson 'Alfred, Lord). THE EARLY 
POEMS OF ALFRED, LORD TENNY- 
SON. 

IN MEMORIAM. 

THE PRINCESS. 

MAUD. 

Thackeray (W. M.). VANITY FAIR. 

Three Volitmes. 

PENDENNIS. Three Volumet. 
ESMOND. 
CHRISTMAS BOOKS. 

Vaughan (Henry). THE POEMS OF 
HENRY VAUGHAN. 

Walton (Izaak). THE COMPLEAT 
ANGLER. 

Waterhouse (Elizabeth). A LITTLE 
BOOK OF LIFE AND DEATH. 
Thirteenth Edition. 

Wordsworth (W.). SELECTIONS FROM 
THE POEMS OF WILLIAM WORDS- 
WORTH. 

Wordsworth (W.) and Coleridge (S. T.). 
LYRICAL BALLADS. Second Edition. 



The Little Quarto Shakespeare. 

Edited by W. J. CRAIG. With Introductions and Notes. 

Pott i6mo. In 40 Volumes. Leather t price is. net each volume. 

Mahogany Revolving Book Case. los. net. 

Miniature Library. 



EUPHRANOR : A Dialogue on Youth. Edward 
FitzGerald. Demy sznto. Leather, 2*. net. 

THE LIKE OF EDWARD, LORD HERBERT OF 
CHERBURY. Written by himself. Demy 
32/. Leather, 2s. net. 



POLONIUS: or Wise Saws and Modern In- 
stances. Edward FitzGerald. Demy yano. 
Leather, at. net. 

THB RusAiYAT OF OMAR KHAYYAM. Edward 
FitzGerald. Fourth Edition. Leather, it. 
net. 



The New Library of Medicine. 

Edited by C. W. SALEEBY. Demy &vo. 

DRUGS AND THE DRUG HABIT. H. Sains bury. 

A. T. Scho- 

CHILDREN OF THB NATION, THB. The Right 
Hon. Sir John Gorst. Second Edition. 
7*. (td. net. 

CONTROL OF A SCOURGE, THB : or, How 
Cancer is Curable. Chas. P. Childe. 7*. 64. 



CARK OF THB BODY, THE. F. Cavanagh. 
Second Edition, js. 6d. net. 



DISEASES OF OCCUPATION. Sir Thomas Oliver. 
101. 6d. net. Second Edition. 

DRINK PROBLEM, THE, in its Medico-Socio- 
logical Aspects. Edited by T. N. Kelynack. 
It. 64. tut. 



FUNCTIONAL NERVE DISEASES. 
field, is. (td. net. 

HYGIENE OF MIND, THE. T. S. Clouston. 
Fifth Edition. ^s. 6d. net. 



INFANT MORTALITY. Sir George Newman. 
^s. 6d. net. 

PREVENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS (CONSUMP- 
TION), THE. Arthur Newsholme. los. 6d. 
net. Second Edition. 

AIR AMD HEALTH. Ronald C Macfie. 71. 6d. 
net. Second Edition. 



20 



METHUEN AND COMPANY LIMITED 



The New Library of Music. 

Edited by ERNEST NEWMAN. Illustrated. Demy %vo. ^s. 6d. net. 
Stcond 



BKAHMS. J. A. Fuller-Maitlaud. 
Edition. 



HANDEL. R. A. Streatfeild. Stcond Edition. 
HUGO WOLF. Ernest Newman. 



Oxford Biographies. 

Illustrated. Fcaf. Svt. Each volume, cloth, 2s. 6J. net ; leather, 3^. 6</. net. 



DANTK ALIGHIERI. Paget Toynbee. Third 

Edition. 
GIROLAMO SAVONAROLA. E. L. S. Horsburgh. 

Fourtk Edition. 

JOHN HOWARD. E. C. S. Gibson. 
ALFRED TENNYSON. A. C. Benson. Second 

Edition. 

SIR WALTKK RALEIGH. I. A. Taylor. 
ERASMUS. E. F. H. Capey. 



THB YOUNG PRBTENDKR. C S. Terry. 

ROBERT BURNS. T. F. Henderson. 

CHATHAM. A. S. M'Dowall. 

FRANCIS OF Assist. Anna M. Stoddart. 

CANNING. \V. Alison Phillips. 

BEACON-SHIELD. Walter Sichel. 

JOHANN WOLFGANG GOKTHE. H. G. Atkins. 

FRANCOIS FKNELON. Viscount St. Cyres. 



Romantic History. 

Edited by MARTIN HUME. Illustrated. Dcmylvo. 

A series of attractive volumes in which the periods and personalities selected are 

such as afford romantic human interest, in addition to their historical 

importance. 



TKK FIRST GOVERNESS OF THE NETHER- 
LANDS, MARGARET OF AUSTRIA. Eleanor 
E. Tremayne. i&r. 6d. net. 

Two ENGLISH QUEENS AND PHILIF. Martin 



Hume. iff. net. 

THE NINB DAYS' QUEEN. Richard Davey. 
With a Preface by Martin Hume. Stcond 
Edition. IOT. 6d. net. 



The States of Italy. 

Edited by E. ARMSTRONG and R. LANGTON DOUGLAS. 
Illustrated. Demy &v*. 

A HISTORY OF MILAN UNDER THB SFORZA. I A HISTORY OF VJBRONA. A. M. Allen, iw. 64 
Cecilia M. Ady. iof. & net. \ net. 

A HISTORY or PERUGIA. W. Heywood. iat. 6d. net. 



FICTION 



21 



The Westminster Commentaries. 

General Editor, WALTER LOCK. 



THE ACTS or THB APOSTLES. Edited by R. 
B. Kackhain. Demy &vo. Fifth Edition. 



THE FIRST EPISTLR or PAUL THB APOSTLK 
TO THE CORINTHIANS. Edited by H. L. 
Goudge. Third Edition. Demy Si'o. 6s. 

THE BOOK or EXODUS. Edited by A. H. 
M'Ncile. With a Map and 3 Plans. Demy 
Sva. lot. 6d. 

THE BOOK or EZEKIEL. Edited by H. A. 

Redpath. Demy &vo. tot. ftd, 



THB BOOK or GENESIS. Edited with Intro- 
duction and Notes by S. R. Driver. 
Eighth Edition. Demy 8vo. lot. 6d. 

THB BOOK or THE PROFHKT ISAIAH. Edited 
by G. W. Wade. Demy 8vo. lot. U. 

ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS INTHE SEVENTH 
EDITION or THE BOOK or GENESIS. S. R. 
Driver. Dtmy &vo. it. 

THE BOOK or JOB. Edited by E. C. S. Gibson. 
Sectnd Edition. Demy tvt. 6s. 

THB ErisTLB OP ST. JAMES. Edited with In- 
troduction 'and Notes by R. J. Knowliug. 
Second Edition. Demy 8r. (a. 



Methuen's Shilling Library. 

Fcap. Sv0. 



DB PitoruNDis. Oscar Wilde. 

THB LOKK or THB HONKY-BEE. Ticlcner 

Edwardes. 
LETTERS FROM A SELF-MADE MERCHANT 

TO HIS SON. George Horace Lorimer. 
SELECTED POEMS. Oscar Wilde. 



THB LIFE or ROBERT Louis STEVENSON. 
Graham Balfour. 

THE LIFE or JOHN RUSKIN. W. G. Colling- 
wood. 

THE CONDITION or ENGLAND. G. F. G. 

Masterman. 



PART III. A SELECTION OF WORKS OF FICTION 



Albanesl (E. Maria). SUSANNAH AND 

ONE OTHER. Fourth Edition. Cr. 

8vo. 6s. 
LOVE AND LOUISA. Second Edition. 

Cr. lv. (a. 
THE BROWN EYES OF MARY. Third 

Edition. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 
I KNOW A MAIDEN. Third Edition. 

Cr. &vo. 6s. 
THE INVINCIBLE AMELIA: OR, THB 

POLITE ADVENTURESS. Third Edition. 

Cr. &vo. y. 6d. 
THE GLAD HEART. Fifth Edition. 

Cr. 8v. 6*. 

Bagot (Richard). A ROMAN MYSTERY. 

Third Editirm. Cr. 8v o. 6>. 
THE PASSPORT. Fourth Edition. Cr. 

&vo. 6t. 
ANTHONY CUTHBERT. Fourth Edition. 

Cr. 8*0. 6*. 

LOVE'S PROXY. Cr.&vo. 6t. 
DONNA DIANA. Second Edition. Cr. 

6vo. 6t. 
CASTING OF NETS. Twelfth Edition. 

Cr. 8f/0. 6t. 

THE HOUSE OF SERRAVALLE. Third 
Edition. Cr. 8vt. 6t. 



Bailey (B.C.). STORM AND TREASURE. 

Third Edition. Cr. 8tv. 6*. 
THE LONELY QUEEN. Second Edition. 

Cr. &vo. 6s. 



Baring-Gould (S.). IN THE ROAR 

OF THE SEA. Eighth Edition. Cr. Svo. 

6s. 
MARGERY OF QUETHER. Second 

Edition. Cr. &vo. 6s. 
THE QUEEN OF LOVE. Fifth Edition. 

Cr. Bvo. 6s. 

JACQUETTA. Third Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 
KITTY ALONE. Fifth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6>. 
NOEMI. Illustrated. Fourth Edition. Cr. 

&>o. 6t. 
THE BROOM - SQUIRE. Illustrated. 

Fifth Edition. Cr. &vo. 6s. 

DARTMOOR IDYLLS. Cr. too. 6s. 

GUAVAS THE TINNER. Illustrated. 

Second Edition. Cr. &vo 6s. 
BLADYS OF THE STEWPONEY. Illus- 

trated. Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. 6*. 
PABO THE PRIEST. Cr. Svo. 6t. 
WINE FRED. Illustrated. Second Edition. 

Cr. Bvo. 6s. 
ROYAL GEORGIE. Illusuated. Cr.tvo.6t. 



22 



METHUEN AND COMPANY LIMITED 



CHRIS OF ALL SORTS. Cr. Svo. 6t. 
IN DEWISLAND. Second Edition. Cr. 

Svo. 6s. 

THE FROBISHERS. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
MRS. CURGENVEN OF CURGENVEN. 

Fifth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Barr (Robert). IN THE MIDST OF 

ALARMS. Third Edition. Cr. Svo. 6t. 
THE COUNTESS TEKLA. Fifth 

Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
THE MUTABLE MANY. Third Edition, 

Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Begbie (Harold). THE CURIOUS AND 
DIVERTING ADVENTURES OF SIR 
JOHN SPARROW, BART. ; on, THK 
PROGRESS OF AN OPEN MIND. Second 
Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Belloc (H.). EMMANUEL BURDEN, 
MERCHANT. Illustrated. Second Edition. 
Cr. Svo. 6s. 

A CHANGE IN THE CABINET. Third 
Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Bennett (Arnold). CLAY HANGER. 

Seventh Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
THE CARD. Fifth Edition. Cr. Svt. 6s. 
HILDA LESSWAYS. Cr. Svt. 6s. 

Benson (E. P.). DODO : A DETAIL OF THB 
DAY. Sixteenth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Birmingham (Geopjre A.). THE BAD 

TIMES. Second Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
SPANISH GOLD. Sixth Edition. Cr. 

Svo. 6s. 
THE SEARCH PARTY. Fifth Edition. 

Cr. Svo. 6s. 

LALAGE'S LOVERS. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
THE ADVENTURES OF DR. WHITTY. 

Cr. Svt. 6s. 

Bowen (Marjorie). I WILL MAIN- 
TAIN. Sixth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

DEFENDER OF THE FAITH. Fourth 
Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Castle (Agnes and Egerton). FLOWER 
O' THE ORANGE, and Other Tales. 
Third Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Clifford (Mrs. W. K.). THE GETTING 
WELL OF DOROTHY. Illustrated. 
Second Edition. Cr. Svo. y. 6d. 

Conrad (Joseph). THE SECRET AGENT: 

A Simple Tale. Fourth Ed. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

A SET OF SIX. Fourth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

UNDER WESTERN EYES. Cr. Svo. (a. 

Corelll (Marie). A ROMANCE OF TWO 

WORLDS. Thirtieth Ed. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
VENDETTA. Twenty-eighth Edition. Cr. 

Svo. 6s. 
THELMA : A NORWEGIAN PRINCESS. 

Forty-first Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
A.RDATH : THE STORY OK A DEAD Sur. 

Twentieth Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 



THE SOUL OF LILITH. Seventeenth 

Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
WORMWOOD : A DRAMA OP PARIS. 

Eighteenth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
BARABUAS : A DKEAM OF THE WORLD'S 

TRAGEDY. Forty-Jifth Edition. Cr. Svo. 

6s. 
THE SORROWS OK SATAN. Fifty-sixth 

Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
THE MASTER CHRISTIAN. Thirteenth 

Edition. ii<)th Thousand. Cr. Svt. 6s. 
TEMPORAL POWER : A STUDY IN 

SUPREMACY. Second Edition. iy>ih 

Thousand. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
GOD'S GOOD MAN : A SIMPLE LOVE 

STOKY. Fifteenth Edition. 154** Thou- 
sand. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
HOLY ORDERS: THE TRAGEDY OF A 

QUIET LIFE. Second Edition. iao/A 

Thousand. Crown Svo. 6s. 
THE MIGHTY ATOM. Twenty-ninth 

Edition. Cr. tvo. 6s. 
BOY : a Sketch. Twelfth Edition. Cr. Svt. 

6s. 

CAMEOS. Fourteenth Edition. Cr.Sve. 6s. 
THE LIFE EVERLASTING. Second Ed. 

Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Crockett (S. R.). LOCHINVAR. Illus- 
trated. Third Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

THE STANDARD BEARER. Second 
Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Croker (B. M.). THE OLD CANTON- 
MENT. Second Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

JOHANNA. Second Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

THE HAPPY VALLEY. Fourth Edition. 
Cr. Svo. 6s. 

A NINE DAYS' WONDER. Fourth 
Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

PEGGY OF THE BARTONS. Seventh 
Edition. Cr. Svt. 6s. 

ANGEL. Fifth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

KATHERINE THE ARROGANT. Sixth 
Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

BABES IN THE WOOD. Fourth Edition. 
Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Doyle (A. Conan). ROUND THE RED 
LAMP. Twelfth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Duncan (Sara Jeannette) (Mrs. Everard 

Cotes). A VOYAGE OF CONSOLATION. 

Illustrated. Third Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
COUSIN CINDERELLA. Second Edition. 

Cr. Svo. 6s. 
THE BURNT OFFERING. Second 

Edition. Cr. Svt. 6s. 

Fenn (G. Manville). SYD BELTON: 
THE BOY WHO WOULD NOT GO TO SEA. 
Illustrated. Second Ed. Cr. Svo. y. 6d. 

Flndlater (J. H.). THE GREEN GRAVES 
OF BALGOWRIE. Fifth Edition. Cr. 
Svt. 6s. 

THE LADDER TO THE STARS. Second 
Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 



FICTION 



Flndlater (Mary). A NARROW WAY. 

Third Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
OVER THE HILLS. Second Edititn. Cr. 

TH^E ROSE OF JOY. Third Edition. 

Cr. to. 6t. 
A BLIND BIRD'S NEST. Illustrated. 

Second Edition. Cr. too. 6t. 

Fry (B. and C. BO- A MOTHER'S SON. 
Fifth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Gibbon (Perceval). MARGARET 
HARDING. Cr. Svo. 6t. 

Gissingr (Georre). THE CROWN OF 
LIFE. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Harraden (Beatrice). IN VARYING 
MOODS. Fourteenth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

THE SCHOLAR'S DAUGHTER. Fourth 
Edition. Cr. too. 61. 

HILDA STRAKFORD and THE REMIT- 
TANCE MAN. Twelfth Ed. Cr.too. 6s. 

INTERPLAY. Fifth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6*. 

Hichens (Robert). THE PROPHET OF 
BERKELEY SQUARE. Second Edition. 
Cr. too. 6s. 

TONGUES OF CONSCIENCE. Third 
Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 

FELIX. Seventh Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 

THE WOMAN WITH THE FAN. Eighth 
Edition. Cr. Svo. 6t. 

BYEWAYS. Cr. too. 6s. 

THE GARDEN OF ALLAH. Twentieth 
Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

THE BLACK SPANIEL. Cr. too. 6s. 

THE CALL OF THE BLOOD. Seventh 
Edition. Cr. Svf. 6s. 

BARBARY SHEEP. Second Edition. Cr. 
too. 61. 

THE DWELLER ON THE THRES- 
HOLD. Cr.too. 6t. 

Hope (Anthony). THE GOD IN THE 
CAR. Eleventh Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 

A CHANGE OF AIR. Sixth Edition. Cr. 
&vo. 6s. 

A MAN OF MARK. Seventh Ed. Cr. too. 6s. 

THE CHRONICLES OF COUNT AN- 
TONIO. Sixth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

PHROSO. Illustrated. Eighth Edition. 
Cr. too. 6s. 

SIMON DALE. Illustrated. Eighth Edition. 
Cr. Svo. 6s. 

THE KING'S MIRROR. Fifth Edition. 
Cr. Svo. 6s. 

QU1SANTE. Fourth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

THE DOLLY DIALOGUES. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

A SERVANT OF THE PUBLIC. Illus- 
trated. Fourth Edition. Cr. to*. 6s. 

TALES OF TWO PEOPLE. Third Edi- 
tion. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

THE GREAT MISS DRIVER. Fourth 
Edition. Cr. STO. 6s. 

MRS. MAXON PROTESTS. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Hutten (Baroness von). THE HALO. 

Fifth Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 



Hyne (C. J. CutellfTe). MR. HOR- 
ROCKS, PURSER. Fifth Edition. Cr. 
tvf. 6s. 

'Inner Shrine' (Author of the). THE 

WILD OLIVE. Third Edition. Cr. too. 
6s. 

Jacobs (W. W.). MANY CARGOES. 

Thirty-second Edition. Cr. Svo. aj. 6d. 
SEA URCHINS. Sixteenth Edition. Cr. 

Svo. 3*. 6d. 
A MASTER OF CRAFT. Illustrated. 

Ninth Edition. Cr. Svo. 3*. 6d. 
LIGHT FREIGHTS. Illustrated. Eighth 

Edition. Cr. Svo. ys. 6d. 
THE SKIPPER'S WOOING. Tenth Ed. 

Cr. Svo. w. 6d. 
AT SUNWICH PORT. Illustrated. Tenth 

Edition. Cr. Svo. 3*. 6d. 
DIALS/TONE LANE. Illustrated. Eighth 

Edition. Cr. Svo. y. 6d. 
ODD CRAFT. Illustrated. Fvurth Edition. 

Cr. Svo. y. 6d. 
THE LADY OF THE BARGE. Illustrated. 

Eighth Edition. Cr. Svo. y. 6d. 
SALTHAVEN. Illustrated. Third Edition. 

Cr. Svo. y. bd. 
SAILORS' KNOTS. Illustrated. Fifth 

Edition. Cr. Svo. y. 6d. 
SHORT CRUISES. Third Edition. Cr. 

Svo. y. 6d. 

James (Henry). THE GOLDEN BOWL. 

Third Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
THE FINER GRAIN. Third Edition. 

Cr. Sv. 6s. 

Le Queux (William). THE HUNCHBACK 

OF WESTMINSTER. Third Edition. 

Cr. Svo. 6t. 
THE CLOSED BOOK. Third Edition. 

Cr. Svo. 6s. 
THE VALLEY OF THE SHADOW. 

Illustrated. Third Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
BEHIND THE THRONE. Third Edition. 

THE CROOKED WAY. Second Edition. 
Cr. too. 6s. 

London (Jack). WHITE FANG. Eighth 
Edition. Cr. Sv. 6s. 

Lucas (E. V.). LISTENER'S LURE ; AN 

OBLIQUE NARRATION. Eighth Edition. 

Fcap. Svo. $s. 
OVER BEMERTON'S: AN EASY-GOING 

CHRONICLE. Ninth Edition. Fctf too. 5*. 
MR. INGLESIDE. Eighth Edition. Cr. 

too. 6s. 

Lyall (Edna). DERRICK VAUGHAN, 
NOVELIST. 44th Thousand. Cr. too. 

y. 6d. 

Macnaughtan (S-). THE FORTUNE OF 
CHRISTINA M'NAB. Fifth Edition. 
Cr. Svo. 6s. 

PETER AND JANE. Cr. too. 6*. 



METHUEN AND COMPANY LIMITED 



Malet (Lucas). COLONEL ENDERBY'S 
WIFE. Fifth Edition. Cr. Svo. (a. 

A COUNSEL OF PERFECTION. Second 
Edition. Cr. Sva. 6s. 

THE WAGES OF SIN. Sixteenth Edition. 
Cr. Svo. 6s. 

THECARISSIMA. Fifth Ed. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

THE GATELESS CARRIER. Fifth Edi- 
tion. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

THE HISTORY OF SIR RICHARD 
CALMADY. Seventh Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Mann (Mrs. M. E.). THE PARISH 

NURSE. Fourth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
A SHEAF OF CORN. Sectnd Edition. 

Cr. Svo. dr. 
THE HEART-SMITER. Second Edition. 

Cr. Svo. 6s. 
AVENGING CHILDREN. Second Edition. 

Cr. Svo. 6s. 
ASTRAY IN ARCADY. Second Edition. 

Cr. Svo. 6s. 
THERE WAS A WIDOW. Cr. Sv o. 6s. 

Marsh (Richard). THE COWARD BE- 
HIND THE CURTAIN. Cr. Svo. 6t. 

THE SURPRISING HUSBAND. Second 
Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

A ROYAL INDISCRETION. Second 
Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

LIVE MEN'S SHOES. Second Edition. 
Cr. Sva. 6s. 

Marshall (Archibald). MANY JUNES. 

Second Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
THE SQUIRE'S DAUGHTER. Third 

Edition. Cr. &vo. 6s. 
THE ELDEST SON. Third Edition. Cr. 

Svo. 6s. 

Mason (A. E. W.). CLEMENTINA. 
Illustrated. Seventh Edition. Cr. ivo. 
9S. net. 

Maxwell (W. B.). VIVIEN. Tenth Edi- 
tion. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

THE RAGGED MESSENGER. Third 
Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

FABULOUS FANCIES. Cr. Svo. fir. 

THE GUARDED FLAME. Seventh Edi- 
tion. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

ODD LENGTHS. Second Ed. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

HILL RISE. Fourth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

THE COUNTESS OF MAYBURY: BE- 
TWEKN You AND I. Fourth Edition. Cr. 
Sva. 6s. 

THE REST CURE. Fourth Edition. Cr. 
Svo. 6t. 

MeadO (L. T.). DRIFT. Second Edition. 

Cr. Svo. 6s. 

RESURGAM. Second Edition. Cr. Sva. 6s. 
VICTORY. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
A GIRL OF THE PEOPLE. Illustrated. 

Fourth Edition. Cr. Svo. y. 6d. 
HEPSY GIPSY. Illustrated. Cr. Svo. 

3S.6d. 

THE HONOURABLE MISS; A STORY 
OF AN OLD-FASHIONED TOWN. Illustrated. 
Second Edition. Cr. Svo, y. 6d. 



Mitford (Bertram). THE SIGN OF THE 
SPIDER. Illustrated. Seventh Edition. 
Cr. Svo. jj. 6d. 

Molesworth (Mrs.). THE RED GRANGE. 
Illustrated. Second Edition. Cr. Svo. 
y.6d. 

Montague (C. E.). A HIND LET 
LOObE. Third Edition. Cr.Svo. 6s. 

Morrison (Arthur). TALES OF MEAN 

STREETS. Seventh Edition. Cr. Sva. 6s. 

A CHILD OF THE JAGO. Sixth Edition. 

THE HOLE IN THE WALL. Fourth Edi- 
tion. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
DIVERS VANITIES. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Nesblt (E.), (Mrs. H. Bland). THE RED 
HOUSE. Illustrated. Fifth Edition. 
Cr. Svo. 6s. 

DORMANT. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Ollivant (Alfred). OWD BOB, THE 
GREY DOG OF KENMUIR. With a 
Frontispiece. Eleventh Ed. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

THE TAMING OF JOHN BLUNT. 
Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Onions (Oliver). GOOD BOY SELDOM ; 
A ROMANCE OF ADVERTISEMENT. Cr. Svo. 
6s. 

Oppenheim (E. Phillips). MASTER OF 

MEN. Fourth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
THE MISSING DELORA. Illustrated. 
Fourth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Orezy (Baroness). FIRE IN STUBBLE. 

Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Oxenham (John). A WEAVER OF 

WEBS. Illustrated. Fifth Ed. Cr.Svo. 6s. 
THE GATE OF THE DESERT. Seventh 

Edition. Cr. Svo. vs. net. 
PROFIT AND LOSS. Fourth Edition. 

Cr. Svo. 6s. 
THE LONG ROAD, fourth Edition. Cr. 

Svo. 6s. 
THE SONG OF HYACINTH, AND 

OTHER STORIES. Second Edition. Cr. 

MY LADY OF SHADOWS. Fourth Edi- 

tion. Cr. Sv. 6s. 
LAUR1STONS. Fourth Edition. Cr. Svt. 

6s. 
THE COIL OF CARNE. Fifth Edition. 

Cr. Svo. 6s. 

Pain (Barry). THE EXILES OF FALOO. 
Second Edition. Crown Svo. 6s. 

Parker (Gilbert). PIERRE AND HIS 
PEOPLE. Seventh Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 

MRS. FALCHION. Fifth Edition. Cr. 
Svo. 6s. 

THE TRANSLATION OF A SAVAGE. 
Fourth Edition. Cr. Svo 6s. 

THE TRAIL OF THE SWORD. Illus- 
trated. Tenth Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 



FICTION 



WHEN VALMONDCAMKTO PONTIAC : 

The Story of a Lost Napoleon. Sixth 
Edition. Cr. too. 61. 
AN ADVENTURER OF THE NORTH. 

The Last Adventures of ' Pretty Pierre.' 

Fifth Edition. Cr. toe. 6t. 
THE SEATS OF THE MIGHTY. Illus- 

tiated. Seventeenth Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 
THE BATTLE OK THE STRONG: a 

Romance of Two Kingdoms. Illustrated. 

Seventh Edition. Cr. too. 61. 
THE POMP OF THE LAVILETTES. 

Third Edition. Cr. to o. y. 6d. 
NORTHERN LIGHTS, Fourth Edition. 

Cr. too. 6s. 

Pasture (Mrs. Henry de 1m). THE 

TYRANT. Fourth Edition. Cr. too. (a. 

Pemberton (Max). THE FOOTSTEPS 
OF A THRONE. Illustrated, fourth 
Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 

I CROWN THEE KING. Illustrated. Cr. 

LOVE THE HARVESTER: A STORY or 
THE SHIRRS. Illustrated. Tkird Edition, 
Cr. too. w. 6J. 

THE MYSTERY OF THE GREEN 
HEART. Third Edition. Cr. too. (a. 

Perrin (Alice). THE CHARM. Fifth 
Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 

Phillpotts(Eden). LYING PROPHETS. 

Tkird Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 

CHILDREN OF THE MIST. Fifth Edi- 
tion. Cr. too. 6s. 

THE HUMAN BOY. With a Frontispiece. 
Seventh Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 

SONS OF THE MORNING. Second 
Edition. Cr. too. fa. 

THE RIVER. Fourth Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 

THE AMERICAN PRISONER. Fourth 
Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 

THE SECRET WOMAN. Fourth Edition. 

KNOCK AT A VENTURE. Third Edition. 

THE PORTREEVE. Fourth Edition. Cr. 

too. 6s. 
THE POACHER'S WIFE. Second Edition. 

Cr. too. 6t. 
THE STRIKING HOURS. Second Edition. 

Cr. too. 6s. 
DEMETER'S DAUGHTER. Tkird 

Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 

Picktball (Marmaduke). SAID THE 

FISHERMAN. Eighth Edition. Cr. too. 
6s. 

Q' (A. T. Qulller Couch). THE WHITE 

WOLF. Second Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 
THE MAYOR OF TROY. Fourth Edition. 

Cr. too. 6s. 
MERRY-GARDEN AND OTHKB STCJUES. 

Cr. too. 6s 
MAJOR VIGOURKUX. Third Jfdition. 

O.lw. (u. 



Ridge (W. Pett). ERB. Second Edition 

Cr. Bvo. 6s. 
A SON OF THE STATE. Third Edition. 

Cr. too. y. 6d. 

A H REARER OF LAWS. Cr. too. y. 6d. 
MRS. GALER'S BUSINESS. Illustrated. 

Second Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 
THE WICKHAMSES. Fourth Edition. 

Cr. too. 6s. 
NAME OF GARLAND. Third Edition. 

SPLENDID BROTHER. Fourth Edition. 

NINE To SIX-THIRTY. Third Edition. 

Cr too. 6s. 
THANKS TO SANDERSON. Cr.tof. 61. 

Robins (Elizabeth). THE CONVERT. 

Third Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 

Russell (W. Clark). MY DANISH 

SWEETHEART. Illustrated. Fifth 

Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 
HIS ISLAND PRINCESS. Illustrated. 

Second Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 
ABANDONED. Second Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 
MASTER ROCKAFELLAR'S VOYAGE. 

Illustrated. Fourth Edition. Cr. too. y. 6d. 

Sldgrwlck (Mrs. Alfred). THE KINS- 
MAN. Illustrated. Third Edition. Cr. 
too. 6s. 

THE SEVERINS. Sixth Edition. Cr. 

THE' LANTERN-BEARERS. Third Ed. 

Cr. too. 6s. 
ANTHEA'S GUEST. Cr. too. 6s. 

Somerville (E. (E.) and Ross (Martin). 
DAN RUSSEL THE FOX. Illustrated. 
Cr. too. 6s. 

Thurston (E. Temple). MIRAGE. Fourth 
Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 

Watson (H. B. Marriott). TWISTED 
EGLANTINE. Illustrated. Third Edi- 
tion. Cr. too. 6s. 

THE HIGH TOBY. Third Edition. Cr. 
too. 6s. 

A MIDSUMMER DAY'S DREAM. Third 
Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 

THE CASTLE BY THE SEA, Third 
Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 

THE PRIVATEERS. Illustrated. Second 
Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 

A POPPY SHOW: BEING DIVERS AND 
DIVERSE TALES. Cr. too. 6s. 

THE FLOWER OF THE HEART. Third 
Edition. Cr. too. 6s. 

ALISE OF ASTRA. Third Edition. Cr. 
too. 6s. 

Webllng (Peggy). THE STORY OF 
VIRGINIA PERFECT. Third Edition. 

THE S PI Rlf OF MIRTH, fifth Edition. 
Cr. tot. &s. 

Wells (H. G.). THE SEA LADY. Cr. 

too. 6s. 



26 



METHUEN AND COMPANY LIMITED 



Weyman (Stanley). UNDER THE RED 
ROBE. Illustrated. Twenty-third Edition. 
Cr. Svf. 6s. 

Whltby (Beatrice). THE RESULT OF 
AN ACCIDENT. Second Edition. Cr. 
Zvo. 6s. 

ROSAMUND. Second Edition. Cr.lv*. 6s. 

Williamson (C- N. and A. M.)- THE 
LIGHTNING CONDUCTOR: The 
Strange Adventures of a Motor Car. Illus- 
trated. Seventeenth Edition. Cr. &VP. 
6s. Also Cr. Sve. is. net. 

THE PRINCESS PASSES : A Romance of 
a Motor. Illustrated. Ninth Edition. 

mnnuxHD THE CHAUFFEUR, iiiu*- 

trated. Tenth Edition. Cr. Sva. 6s. 
LADY BETTY ACROSS THE WATER. 
Eleventh Edition. Cr. Bve. 6s. 



THE CAR OF DESTINY AND ITS 

ERRAND IN SPAIN. Illustrated. Fifth 

Edition. Cr. Svo. 6s. 
THE BOTOR CHAPERON. Illustrated. 

Sixth Edition. Cr. 6va. 6s. 
SCARLET RUNNER. Illustrated. Third 

Edition. Cr. %ve. 6s. 
SET IN SILVER. Illustrated. Third 

Edition. Cr. %vo. 6s. 
LORD LOVELAND DISCOVERS 

AMERICA. Second Edition. Cr. Rvo. 6s. 
THE GOLDEN SILENCE. Sixth Edition. 

Cr. 8vo. 6s. 
*A NEW NOVEL. Cr. 8w. 6*. 



Wyllarde (Dolf). THE PATHWAY OF 
THE PIONEER (Nous Autres). Fourth 
Edition. Cr. &va. 6s. 

THE UNOFFICIAL HONEYMOON. 
Cr. 8tv. 6f. 



Methuen's Two-Shilling Novels. 

Cr. &va. 2J. net. 



THE GATE OF THE DESERT. John Oxenham. 
TUB SEVBRINS. Mrs. Alfred Sidgwick. 
CLEMENTINA. A. E. W. Mason. 



THE PRINCESS VIRGINIA. C. N. and A. M. 

Williamson. 
COLONEL ENDERBV'S WIFE. Lucas Malet 



Books for Boys and Girls. 

Illustrated. Crown &vo. 3*. 6J. 



CROSS AND DAGGER. The Crusade of the 

Children, isia. W. Scott Durrant. 
THE GETTING WBLL OF DOROTHY. Mrs. 

W. K. Clifford. 
ONLY A GUARD-ROOM Doc. Edith E. 

CuthelL 
MASTER ROCKAFXLLAR'S VOYAGE. W. Clark 

Russell. 
SVD HELTON: The Boy who would not 

go to Sea. G. Manville Fenn. 



THE RED GRANGE. Mrs. Molesworth. 
A GIRL or TUX PEOPLE. L. T. Meade. 
HEPSY GIPSY. L. T. Meade. as. 6d. 
THE HONOURABLE Miss. L. T. Meade. 

THEKB WAS ONCE A PEINCX. Mrs. M. fi. 
Mann. 

WHEN ARNOLD COMBS HOMB. Mrs. M. . 
Mann. 



Methuen's Shilling Novels. 



JANE. Marie Corelfl. 

UNDER THE RED ROBE. Stanley J. Weyman. 

LADY BETTY ACROSS THB WATER. C N. 
4 A. M. Williamson. 



MIRAGE. E. Temple Thurston. 
VIRGINIA PERFECT. Peggy Webling. 
SPANISH GOLD. G. A. Birmingham. 
BARBAXY SHEEP. Robert Hichens. 



FICTION 



27 



ACT*. 

THE ADVENTURES OF CAPTAIN PAMPHILE. 

AMAURT. 

THE BIRD OF FATE. 

THE BLACK TULIP. 

THE CASTLE OF EPPSTEIW. 

CATHERINE BLUM. 

CECILS. 

THE CHATBLBT. 

THE CHEVALIER D'HARMENTAL. (Double 



volume.) 

CHICOT THE JESTER. 
CHICOT REDIVIVUS. 
THE COMTE OB MONTGOMMBRT. 
CONSCIENCE. 
THE CONVICT'S SON. 
THE CORSICAN BROTHERS 

ARCHER. 

CROP-EARED JACQUOT. 
DOM GORENFLOT. 
THE Doc D'Awjou. 
THB FATAL COMBAT. 
THE FENCING MASTER. 
FERNANDB. 
GABRIEL LAMBERT. 
GEORGES. 

THE GREAT MASSACRB. 
HENRI DB NAVARRE. 
HELENS DB CHAVERNT. 
THE HOROSCOPE. 



The Novels of Alexandre Dumas. 

Medium 8vo. Price 6d. Double Volumes, it. 

LEONE-LEONA. 

LOUISE DB LA VALLIBRB. (Double volume.) 

THE MAN IK THE IRON MASK. (Double 
volume.) 

MA!TRB ADAM. 

THE MOUTH OF HELL. 

NANON. (Double volume.) 

OLYMPIA. 

PAULINE ; PASCAL BRUNO ; and BONTEKOE. 

PBRB LA RUINE. 

THE PORTE SAINT-AJJTOINE. 

THE PRINCE OF THIEVES. 

THE REMINISCENCES OF ANTONY. 

ST. QUENTIN. 

ROBIN HOOD. 

SAMUEL GELB. 

THE SNOWBALL AND THE SULTANBTTA. 

SYLVANDIRB. 

THE TAKING OF CALAIS. 

TALES OF THE SUPERNATURAL. 

TALES OF STRANGE ADVENTURE. 

TALES OF TERROR. 

THE THREE MUSKETEERS. (Double volume.) 

TOURNEV OF THE RUB ST. ANTOINE. 

THE TRAGEDY OF NANTES. 

TWENTY YEARS AFTER. (Double volume.) 



and OTHO THE 



THE WILD-DUCK SHOOTER. 
THE WOLF-LEADER. 



Methuen's Sixpenny Books. 

Medium 8v0. 



Albanesl (E. Maria). LOVE AND 
LOUISA. 

I KNOW A MAIDEN. 

THE BLUNDER OF AN INNOCENT. 

PETER A PARASITE, 

Anstey (P.). A BAYARD OF BENGAL, 
Austen (J.). PRIDE AND PREJUDICE. 

Bafifot (Richard). A ROMAN MYSTERY. 
CASTING OF NETS. 
DONNA DIANA. 



Balfour (Andrew). 
SWORD. 



BY STROKE OF 



BarlngrGouId (S.). FURZE BLOOM 

CHEAP JACK ZITA. 

KITTY ALONE. 

URITH. 

THE BROOM SQUIRE. 

IN THE ROAR OF THE SEA. 

NOEMI. 

A BOOK OF FAIRY TALES. Illustrated 

LITTLE TITPENNY. 

WINEFRED. 

THE FROBISHERS. 

THE QUEEN OF LOVE. 

ARMINELL. 

BLADYS OF THE STEWPONEY. 

CHRIS OF ALL SORTS. 



28 



METHUEN AND COMPANY LIMITED 



Barr (Robert). JENNIE BAXTER. 
IN THE MIDST OF ALARMS. 
THE COUNTESS TEKLA. 
THE MUTABLE MANY. 

Benson (E. P.). DODO. 
THE VINTAGE. 

Bronte (Charlotte). SHIRLEY. 

Brownell (C. L.). THE HEART OF 
JAPAN. 

Burton (J. Bloundelle). ACROSS THE 
SALT SEAS. 

Caffyn (Mrs.). ANNE MAULEVERER. 

Capes (Bernard). THE LAKE OF 

WINE. 
THE GREAT SKENE MYSTERY. 

Clifford (Mrs. W. K.). A FLASH OF 

SUMMER. 
MRS. KEITH'S CRIME. 

Corbett (Julian). A BUSINESS IN 
GREAT WATERS. 

Croker (Mrs. B. M.). ANGEL. 
A STATE SECRET. 
PEGGY OF THE BARTONS. 
JOHANNA. 

Dante (Allehlerl). THE DIVINE 
COMEDY (Gary). 

Doyle (A. Conan). ROUND THE RED 
LAMP. 

Duncan (Sara Jeannette). THOSE 
DELIGHTFUL AMERICANS. 

Eliot (George). THE MILL ON THE 
FLOSS. 

Plndlater (Jane H.). THE GREEN 

GRAVES OF BALGOWRIE. 
Gallon (Tom). RICKERBY'S FOLLY. 

Gaskell (Mrs.). CRANFORD. 
MARY BARTON. 
NORTH AND SOUTH. 

Gerard (Dorothea). HOLY MATRI- 
MONY. 

THE CONQUEST OF LONDON. 
MADE OF MONEY. 

Gtising (G.). THE TOWN TRAVELLER. 
THE CROWN OF LIFE. 



Glanville (Ernest). THE INCA'S 
TREASURE. 

THE KI.OOF BRIDE. 

Gleijr (Charles). BUNTER'S CRUISE. 

Grimm {The Brothers). GRIMM'S 
FAIRY TALES. 

Hope (Anthony). A MAN OF MARK. 
A CHANGE OF AIR. 

THE CHRONICLES OF COUNT 

ANTONIO. 
PHROSO. 
THE DOLLY DIALOGUES. 

Hornungr (B. W.). DEAD MEN TELL 
NO TALES. 

Hyne (C. J. CJ- PRINCE RUPERT THE 
BUCCANEER. 

Ingrraham (3. H.). THE THRONE OF 
DAVID. 

Le Queux (W.). THE HUNCHBACK 

OF WESTMINSTER. 
THE CROOKED WAY. 
*THE VALLEY OF THE SHADOW. 

Levett- Yeats (S. K.). THE TRAITOR'S 
Iff AY. 

ORRAIN. 

Llnton (E. Lynn). THE TRUE HIS- 
TORY OF JOSHUA DAVIDSON. 

Lyall (Edna). -DERRICK VAUGHAN. 

Malet (Lucas). THE CARISSIMA. 
A COUNSEL OF PERFECTION. 

Mann (Mrs. M. E.). MRS. PETER 
HOWARD. 

A LOST ESTATE. 

THE CEDAR STAR. 

ONE ANOTHER'S BURDENS. 

THE PATTEN EXPERIMENT. 

A WINTER'S TALE. 

Marehmont (A. W.). MISER ROAD. 

LEY'S SECRET. 
A MOMENT'S ERROR. 

Marryat (Captain). PETER SIMPLE. 
JACOB FAITHFUL. 

March (Richard). A METAMORPHOSIS. 
THE TWICKENHAM PEERAGE. 
THE GODDESS. 
THE JOSS. 



FICTION 



Mason (A. E. W.). CLEMENTINA. 

Mathers (Helen). HONEY. 
GRIFF OF GRIFFITHSCOURT. 
SAM'S SWEETHEART. 
THE FERRYMAN. 

Meade (Mrs. L. T.X DRIFT. 
Miller (Esther). LIVING LIES. 

Mitford (Bertram). THE SIGN OF THE 
SPIDER. 

Montresor (F. F.). THE ALIEN. 

Morrison (Arthur). THE HOLE IN 
THE WALL. 

Nesbit (E.). THE RED HOUSE, 

Norris (W. E.). HIS GRACE. 

GILES INGILBY. 

THE CREDIT OF THE COUNTY. 

LORD LEONARD THE LUCKLESS. 

MATTHEW AUSTEN. 

CLARISSA FURIOSA. 

OHphant (Mrs.). THE LADY'S WALK. 

SIR ROBERT'S FORTUNE, 

THE PRODIGALS. 

THE TWO MARYS. 

Oppenhelm (E. P.). MASTER OF MEN. 

Parker (Gilbert). THE POMP OF THE 

LAVILETTES. 

WHEN VALMOND CAME TO PONTIAC. 
THE TRAIL OF THE SWORD. 

Pemberton (Max). THE FOOTSTEPS 
OF A THRONE. 

I CROWN THEE KING. 

Phlllpotts (Eden). THE HUMAN BOY. 
CHILDREN OF THE MIST. 
THE POACHER'S WIFE, 
THE RITER. 



Q' (A. T. Qulller Couch). 
WHITE WOLF. 



29 

THE 



Ridge (W. Pett). A SON OF THE STATE. 

LOST PROPERTY. 

GEORGE and THE GENERAL. 

A BREAKER OF LAWS. 

ERB. 

Russell (W. Clark). ABANDONED. 
A MARRIAGE AT SEA. 
MY DANISH SWEETHEART. 
HIS ISLAND PRINCESS. 

Sergeant (Adeline). THE MASTER or 
BEECHWOOD. 

BALBARA'S MONEY. 
THE YELLOW DIAMOND. 
THE LOVE THAT OVERCAME. 

Sldgwiek (Mrs. Alfred). THE KINS- 
MAN. 

Surtees (R. S.). HANDLEY CROSS. 

MR. SPONGE'S SPORTING TOUR. 
ASK MAMMA. 

Watford (Mrs. L. B.). MR. SMITH. 

COUSINS. 

THE BABY'S GRANDMOTHER. 

TROUBLESOME DAUGHTERS. 

Wallace (General Lew). BEN-HUR. 
THE FAIR GOD. 

Watson (H. B. Marriott). THE ADVEN- 
TURERS. 

CAPTAIN FORTUNE. 

Weekes (A. B.). PRISONERS OF WAR. 

Wells (H. G.). THE SEA LADY. 

Whitby (Beatrice). THE RESULT OF 
AN ACCIDENT. 

White (Percy). A PASSIONATE PIL- 
GRIM. 

Williamson (Mrs. C. N.). PAPA. 



METHUEN AND COMPANY LIMITED 
Books for Travellers. 

Crown 8w>. 6s. each. 
Each volume contains a number of Illustrations in Colour. 



A WANDERER IN PARIS. E. V. Lucas. 
A WANDERER IN HOLLAND. E. V. Lucas. 
A WANDERER IN LONDON. E. V. Lucas. 
THE NORFOLK BROADS. W. A. Dutt. 
THE NEW FOREST. Horace G. Hutchinson. 
NAPLES. Arthur H. Norway. 
THE CITIES OF UMBRIA. Edward Hutton. 
THE CITIES OF SPAIN. Edward Hutton. 

FLORENCE AND THE CITIES OF NORTHERN 
TUSCANY, WITH GENOA. Edward Hutton. 

ROME. Edward Hutton. 

VENICE AND VENETIA. Edward Hutton. 



TUB BRETONS AT HOME. F. M. Gostling. 

THE LAND OF PARDONS (Brittany). Anatole 
Le iiraz. 

A BOOK OF THE RHINE. S. Baring-Gould. 
THE NAPLES RIVIERA. H. M. Vaughan. 
DAYS IN CORNWALL. C. Lewis Hind. 

THROUGH EAST ANGLIA IN A MOTOR CAR. 
J. E. Vincent. 

THE SKIRTS OF THE GREAT CITY. Mrs. A. 
G. Bell. 

ROUND ABOUT WILTSHIRE. A. G. Bradley. 

SCOTLAND OF TO-DAY. T. F. Henderson and 
Francis Watt. 

NORWAY AHD ITS FJORDS. M. A. Wyllie. 



ART AND LIFE. T. Sturge Moore. Illustrated. 
Cr. 6vo. ss. net. 

AIMS AND IDEALS IN ART. George Clausen. 
Illustrated. Second Edition. Large Post 
ova. st. net. 

Six LECTURES ON PAINTING. George Clausen. 
Illustrated. Third Edition. Large Post 
Svo. y. 6d. net. 

FRANCESCO GUARDI, 1712-1793. 
Simonson. Illustrated. / 
2 2t. net. 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BOOK OF JOB. 
William Blake. Quarto. i it. net. 

JOHN LUCAS, PORTRAIT PAINTER, 1828-1874. 
Arthur Lucas. Illustrated. Imperial t,to. 
3 3*. net. 

ONE HUNDRED MASTERPIECES OF PAINTING. 
With an Introduction by R. C. Witt. Illus- 
trated. Second Edition. Demy Ivo. lot. 6d. 
tut. 



G. A. 
4to. 



ONE HUNDRED MASTERPIECES OF SCULPTURE. 
With an Introduction by G. F. Hill. Illus- 
trated. Demy &vo. ior. 6d. net. 

A ROMNEY FOLIO. With an Essay by A. B. 
Chamberlain. Imperial Folio. 15 15*. 
net. 

THE SAINTS IN ART. Margaret E. Tabor. 
Illustrated. Fcaf. Svo. 3*. 6d. net. 

SCHOOLS OF PAINTING. Mary Innes. Illus- 
trated. Cr. 8vo. 5*. net. 

THE POST IMPRESSIONISTS. C Lewis Hind. 
Illustrated. Royal &vo. ^t. 6d. net. 

CEI.TIC ART IN PAGAN AND CHRISTIAN TIMES. 
J. R. Allen. Illustrated. Demy &vo. ^l. 6d. 
net. 

"CLASSICS OF AKT." See page 14. 
" THE CONNOISSEUR'S LIBRARY." See page 14. 
" LITTLE BOOKS ON ART." See page 17. 
"THE LITTL* GALLERIES." See page 17. 



GENERAL LITERATURE 



Some Books on Italy. 



A HISTORY OP MILAN UNDER THB SFORZA. 

Cecilia M. Ady. Illustrated. Demy Zvo. 

zot. 6d. net. 
A HISTOKT or VERONA. A. M. Allen. 

Illustrated. Demy Zvo. w- 6d. net. 
A. HISTOKT OP PERUGIA. William Hey wood. 

Illustrated. Demy tvo. ias. 64. net. 
THE LAKES OP NORTHERN ITALY. Richard 

Bagot. Illustrated. Fcap. Zvo. 51. net. 
WOMAN IN ITALY. W. Boulting. Illustrated. 

Demy Zvo. ioi. dd. net. 
OLD ETRURIA AND MODERN TUSCANY. Mary 

L. Cameron. Illustrated. Second Edition. 

Cr. Zvo. 6s. net. 
FLORENCE AND THE CITIES OP NORTHERN 

TUSCANY, WITH GENOA. Edward Hutton. 

Illustrated. Second Edition. Cr. Zvo. 6t. 
SIENA AND SOUTHERN TUSCANY. Edward 

Hutton. Illustrated. Second Edition. 

Cr. too. 6s. 
IN UNKNOWN TUSCANY. Edward Hutton. 

Illustrated. Second Edition. Demi tvo. 

ft. 6d. net. 
VENICE AND VENBTIA. Edward Hutton. 

Illustrated. Cr. Zvo. 6*. 
VENICE ON FOOT. H. A. Douglas. Illustrated. 

Fcap. Zvo. st. net. 
VENICE AND HER TREASURES. H. A. 

Douglas. Illustrated. Fcaf. Zvf. $s. net. 

FLORENCE : Her History and Art to the Fall 
of the Republic. F. A. Hyett. Demy Zvo. 
jt. 6d. net. 

FLORENCE AND HER TREASURES. H. M. 
Vaughan. Illustrated. Fcap. &vo. 51. net. 

COUNTRY WALKS ABOUT FLORENCE. Edward 
Hutton. Illustrated. Fcap. &va. $s. net. 

NAPLES : Past and Present. A. H. Norway. 
Illustrated. Third Edition. Cr. Zvo. 6*. 

THE NAPLES RIVIERA. H. M. Vaughan. 
Illustrated. Stttnd Edition. Cr. Zvo. 6t. 



SICILY : The New Winter Resort Douglas 

S laden. Illustrated. Second Edition. Cr. 

Zvo. 5*. net. 
SICILY. F. H. Jackson. Illustrated. Small 

Pott Zvo. Cloth, at. 6d. net: leather, y. 6d. 

net. 
ROME. Edward Hutton. Illustrated. Second 

Edition. Cr. Zvo. 6*. 
A ROMAN PILGRIMAGE. R. E. Roberts. 

Illustrated. Demy 8vo. IOT. 6d. net. 
ROME. C. G. Ellaby. Illustrated. Small 

Pott Zvo. Cloth, a*. 6d. net; leather, y. 6d. 

net. 
THB CITIES OP UMBRIA. Edward Hutton. 

Illustrated, fourth Edition. Cr. &vo. dr. 
THE LIVES OP S. FRANCIS OP ASSISI. 

Brother Thomas of Celano. Cr. tvo. 5*. 

met. 

LORENZO THE MAGNIFICENT. E. L. S. 

Horsburgh. Illustrated. Second Edition. 

Demy &vo. 15*. net. 
GIROLAMO SAVONAROLA. E. L. S. Horsburgh. 

Illustrated. Cr. &vo. y. net. 
ST. CATHERINE OP SIENA AND HER TIMES. 

By the Author of" Mdlle Mori." Illustrated. 

Second Edition. Demy &va. jt. 6d. net. 
DANTE AND KIS ITALY. Lonsdale Ragg. 

Illustrated. Demy Bvo. ins. 6d. net. 
DANTE ALIGHIKKI : His Life and Works. 

Paget Toynbee. Illustrated. Cr. Zvo. y. 

net. 

THE MEDICI POPES. H. M. Vaughan. Illus- 
trated. Demy Zvo. iy. net. 
SHELLEY AND His FRIENDS IN ITALY. Helea. 

R. AngelL Illustrated. Demy Zvo. I<M. (td. 

net. 
HOME LIKE IN ITALY. Lina Duff Gordon. 

Illustrated. Second Edition. Demy Zvo. 

tot. 6d. net. 
SKIES ITALIAN : A Little Breviary for Traveller* 

in Italy. Ruth S. Phelps. Ftaf. Zvo. SA 

net. 



PRINTED BV 

WILUAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED; 
LONDON AND EECCLES. 



LAW LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 




Colophon

This file was acquired from London : Methuen & Co. ltd., [1910], and it is in the public domain. It is re-distributed here as a part of the Alex Catalogue of Electronic Texts (http://infomotions.com/alex/) by Eric Lease Morgan (Infomotions, Inc.) for the purpose of freely sharing, distributing, and making available works of great literature. Its Infomotions unique identifier is francisbaconsket00steeiala, and it should be available from the following URL:

http://infomotions.com/etexts/id/francisbaconsket00steeiala



Infomotions, Inc.

Infomotions Man says, "Give back to the 'Net."