Infomotions, Inc.Greek ecclesiastical historians of the first six centuries of the Christian era. /

Title: Greek ecclesiastical historians of the first six centuries of the Christian era.
Publisher: London, Bagster, 1843-47.
Tag(s): church history; christian literature, early; dioscorus; chosroes; ecclesiastical history; chap; chalcedon; antioch; nestorius; ecclesiastical; anastasius; justinian; zeno; emperor; bishop; cyril; alexandria; holy; bishops; christ; imperial
Contributor(s): Eric Lease Morgan (Infomotions, Inc.)
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Identifier: greekecclesiasti06lond
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tihravy of ^he ^heolocj[ical ^tminavy 


Part of the Addison Alexander Library 
which was presented by 
Messrs. R.L. and A. Stuart 

BR 160 .A2 G73 1643 v.o 

Greek ecclesiastical 

'--s'-o^ianF of the f 










^G R E E K 






IV. sozomen's narrative, 324 to about 440 a.d. 

V. XHEODORET'S ecclesiastical history, from 322 to 428 A.D. 
VI. EVAGRIUS'S ecclesiastical HISTORY, FROM 431 TO 594 A.D. 









FROM A. D. 4.31 TO A. D. r,94. 










P A T P: R N O S T E R R O W. 



The very few particulars which are known respecting the 
author of tlie following History, are gathered from the history 

Evagrius was a native of Epiphania on the Orontes, and 
his birth may be fixed about A.D. 536. He was by profession 
a Scholasticus, or advocate, and by this title he is commonly 
distinguished from other persons of the same name. The 
earliest circumstance which the historian mentions respecting 
himself, is his visit when a child, in company with his 
parents, to Apamea, to witness the solemn display of the 
wood of the cross, amidst the consternation caused by the 
sack of Antioch by Chosroes (Book IV. chap. xxvi). The 
history, in many places, shows a minute familiarity with the 
localities of Antioch: and the prominent interest which the 
writer variously manifests in that city and its fortunes, can 
only be accounted for by supposing that it was his ordinary 
residence, and the principal scene of his professional practice. 
In his description of the great pestilence which continued its 



ravages tlirougliout thcenipire for more than fifty years, h 
mentions that lie liiinself was attacked by the disease in his 
chiklhood, and that subsequently he lost by it his first wife, 
besides several relatives and members of his household, and 
among them in particular a daughter with her child (Book 
IV. chap. xxix). 

Evagrius accompanied Gregory, patriarch of Antioch, as 
his professional adviser, when he appeared before a synod at 
Constantinople to clear himself from a charge of incest 
(Book VI. chap. vii). On his return to Antioch after the 
acquittal of the patriarch, he married a young wife: and a 
proof of the important position which he occupied, is incidentally 
afforded by the circumstance that his nuptials were made an 
occasion for a public festival (Book VI. chap. viii). Some 
of his memorials, drawn up in the service of the patriarch, 
obtained for him from the emperor Tiberius the honorary 
rank of Exquoestor ; and a composition on occasion of the birth 
of an heir to the emperor Maurice was rewarded with the 
higher dignity of Exprsefect (Book VI. chap. xxiv). With 
the mention of these last circumstances the history closes. 

The only extant work of Evagrius is the " Ecclesiastical 
History," commencing with the rise of the Nestoi'i^n con- 
tyoyfersy j^ and ending with the twelfth year of the reign of 
Maurice. He professes, at the outset, an intention of 
including in his narrative matters other than ecclesias- 
tical; and this he has done so far as to give a secular 


appearance to some parts of it. As might be expected from 
an author of that period, his style is frequently affected and 
redundant. The modern reader will, however, be principally 
struck by the credulity manifested in his cordial detail of 
prodigies and miracles. But on this point it must be remem- 
bered, that the bent of the age was strongly in favour of 
the marvellous: and this frame of the public mind was a soil 
which would both spontaneously produce an abundant crop 
of wonders, in a fond distortion and exaggeration of ordinary 
occurrences, and also would not fail to be cultivated by the 
hand of imposture. This feature of the historian's character 
ought therefore in no way to affect his reputation for honesty, 
or his claim to general credence. It is only a proof that he 
was not one of the few whose intellectual course is indepen- 
dent of the habits of their age. There is no reason for con- 
founding him with those in whom a heated mind has at length 
admitted the idea, that the maintenance of what is believed 
to be a good cause may be rightfully aided by attestations 
knowingly bestowed upon falsehoods. Upon the whole, the 
preservation of his work must be a matter of satisfaction to 
the studious in history, whether ecclesiastical or civil. It 
was used by Nicephorus Callisti in the com.position of his 
own History, and has received a favourable notice in the 
]\Iyriobiblion of the patriarch Photius. 

Evagrlus also published a collection of his memorials and 
miscellaneous compositions, which may now be regarded as 


lost (Book VI. chap. xxiv). He also intimates an intention 
(Book V. chap. XX.) of composing a distinct work, embracing 
an account of the operations of Maurice against the Persians: 
but there is no reason for supposing that this design was ever 


Thk History.— book I. Pas^es 1—42. 


Prepack. — Design of the work -------- i 

Chapter I. Artifice by which the devil attempts to subvert the purity 

of the faith ----- . - . 2 

Chap. II. Heresy of Nestorius discovered and condemned - - 4 

Chap. III. Letter from Cyril to Nestorius. — Council of Ephesus - 6 

Chap. IV. Deposition of Nestorius -.-..- 7 

Chap. V. Deposition of Cyril and of John. — Their reconciliation - 9 

Chap. VI. Cyril's eulogy of a letter from John of Antioch - - 10 

Chap. VII. Death of Nestorius 11 

Chap. VIII. Succession of bishops at Constantinople - - - 18 

Chap. IX. Heresy of Eutyches - - 18 

Chap. X. Proceedings of the second council of Ephesus - - 19 

Chap. XI. An apology for difiFerences of opinion among Christians - 20 

Chap. XII. Condemnation of the Nestorian doctrine by Theodosius - 23 

Chap. XIII. Simeon the Stylite - 24 

Chap. XIV. Description of the appearance of a star near the column 

of Simeon --------28 

Chap. XV. Isidore of Pelusium and Synesius of Cyrene - - - 30 

Chap. XVI. Translation of the remains of Ignatius - - - - 31 

Chap. XVII. Attila king of the Huns.— Earthquakes - - - - 33 

Chap. XVIII. Antioch embellished by diflFerent governors - - - 34 

Chap. XIX. Wars during the reign of Theodosius - - - - 35 

Chap. XX. The empress Eudocia - - 36 

Chap. XXI. Visits of Eudocia to Jerusalem. — Ascetics - - - 37 

Chap. XXII. Buildings erected by Eudocia. — Accession of Marcian - 42 

The History.— BOOK 11. Pa^P5 43— 118. 

Chapter 1. Fortunes and character of Marcian - - - - 43 

Chap. II. Council of Chalcedon summoned by Marcian - - - 46 













Description of the Church of St. Euphetnia - - - 48 

Council of Chalcedon ------- 51 

Tumult at Alexandiia— and at Jerusalem - - - 63 
Drought, famine, and pestilence in Asia Minor - - 67 
Death of the emperor Valentinian. — Rome tf.ken, — Suc- 
cessors of Valentinian ------ C7 

Chap. VIII. Death of the emperor Marcian. — Murder of Proterius, 
Bishop of Alexandria. — Election of Timothy, surnamed 

/Elurus (the Cat) ------- 69 

Letter from the emperor Leo ----- 75 

Replies of the bishops. — And of Simeon - - - 77 

Punishment of Timothy ------ 79 

Earthquake at Antioch ------ 80 

Conflagration at Constantinople 81 

Other public calamities ------ 83 

Marriage of Zeno and Ariadne ----- 84 

Reign of Anthemius— of Olybrius— and other Western 
princes ---------84 

Death of the emperor Leo ------ 85 

Epitome of the acts of the council of Chalcedon - - 86 





















The History.— BOOK III. Prt^es 1 19— 188. 

Chapter I. Character of the emperor Zeno - - - - - 119 

Chap 11. Incursions of the barbarians - ----- 120 

Chap. III. Insurrection of Basiliscus — Flight of Zeno - - - 121 

Chap. IV. Circular of Basiliscus ------- 121 

CJiap. V. Reception of the circular ------ 126 

Chap. VI. Proceedings of Timothy ^lurus ----- 128 

Chap. VII. Counter circular of Basiliscus - . - - - 129 

Chap. VIII. Restoration of Zeno ------- 131 

Chap. IX. Epistle of the Asiatic bishops to Acacius - - - 132 

Chap. X. Succession of bishops at Antioch 133 

Chap. XL Succession of bishops at Alexandria - - . - 133 

Chap. XII. Ecclesiastical measures of Zeno ----- 134 

Chap. XIII. Publication of the Henoticon of Zeno - . - . 135 

Chap. XIV. The Henoticon (Instrument of Union) - - - - 136 

Chap. XV. Correspondence between Simplicius and Zeno - - 140 

Chap. XVI. Deposition of Calandion, and restoration of Peter the 

Fuller 140 

Chap. XVII. Letter from Peter to Acacius - - - - - 141 

Chap. XVIIL Felix issues a sentence of deposition against Acacius - 144 




Chapter XIX. Interference of Cyril the Monk - - - - - 145 

Chap. XX. Correspondence between Felix and Zeno - ■ - 145 

Chap. XXI. Accusation of the legates by Simeon the monk, and their 

consequent deprivation - 147 

Chap. XXII. Commotion at Alexandria on account of the council of 

Chalcedon 149 

Chap. XXIII. Succession of bishops at Constantinople, Alexandria, and 

Antioch - - - - 150 

Chap. XXIV. Death of Armatus - - - . - - - 151 

Chap, XXV. Insurrection and death of Theodoric - - . . 152 

Chap. XXVI. Insurrection of Mercian 153 

Chap. XXVII. Insurrection of Illus and Leontius - - . . . 154 

Chap.XXVIII. Account of Mammianus and his structures - - - 155 

Chap. XXIX. Death of Zeno.— Succession of Anastasius - - - 156 

Chap. XXX. Divisions in the church .---.. 157 

Chap. XXXI. Letter to Alcison from the monks of Palestine - - 159 

Chap. XXXII. Ejection of Macedonius and Flavian from their sees - 163 

Chap.XXXIlI. Severus, bishop of Antioch 165 

Chap.XXXIV. Act of deposition against Severus 168 

Chap. XXXV. Suppression of the Isaurian insurrection - - - 170 

Chap. XXXVI. Invasion of the Arabs 171 

Ch. XXXVII. Capture of Amida.— Founding of Daras - - - - 171 

Ch.XXXVIlI. The Long Wall 172 

Chap.XXXIX. Abolition of the Chrysargyrum 173 

Chap. XL. Falsehoods of the historian Zosimus . - . . 17(5 

Chap. XLI. Refutation of Zosimus 177 

Chap. XLII. The Gold- Rate . - - 184 

Chap. XLIII. Insurrection of Vitalian --.--. igs 

Chap. XLIV. Sedition at Constantinople 186 

The History.— book IV. Pages 189—244. 

Chapter 1. 
Chap. II. 

Chap. III. 
Chap. IV. 




Accession of Justin ------- 189 

Designs and death of Amantius and Theocritus - - 189 

Assassination of Vitalian - - - - - - 190 

Deposition of Severus, bishop of Atttioch. — Succession of 

Paul and Euphrasius- - - - - - 191 

Fires and earthquakes at Antioch. — Death of Euphrasius 192 
Elevation of Ephraemius, count of the East, to the patri- 
archate of Antioch - - - - - - - 193 

Miracles of Zosimus and John . . . - . 194 

General calamities - 197 



Chapter IX. 






























































Appointment of Justinian to a share in the empire - - 198 

The council of Ciialcedon upheld by Justinian - - 19'J 

Deposition of Anthimus and Theodosius from their sees - 200 

Cabades and Chosroes, kings of Persia - - - - 201 

Incursion of the Arabs. — Sedition at Constantinople - 202 

Persecution by Huneric ------ 203 

Cabaones the Moor ------- 204 

Expedition of Belisarius against the Vandals - - - 206 

Triumph of Belisarius ------- 208 

Origin of the Moors. — Munificence of Justinian in Africa 209 

Events following the death of Theodoric - - - 210 

Conversion of the Heruli ------ 212 

Loss and recovery of Rome - - - - - - 212 

Conversion of the Abasgi - - - - - - 213 

Conversion of the people on the Tanais. — Earthquakes - 213 

Achievements and piety of Narses - . - - 214 

Invasion of the Persians. — Capture of Antioch - - 21.5 

Display of the wood of the cross at Apamea - - - 217 

Siege of Edessa by Chosroes - ----- 218 

Miracle at Sergiopolis - 221 

Pestilence --------- 223 

Avarice of Justinian ------- 226 

Description of the church of St. Sophia at Constantinople 227 

Partiality of Justinian for the Blue faction - - - 229 

Barsanuphius the ascetic ------ 230 

Simeon the monk - - - - - - 231 

Thomas the monk ------- 233 

Account of a miracle in the patriarchate of Menas - - 235 

Succession of bishops - ..--.- 236 

The fifth general council ------ 237 

Departure of Justinian from orthodoxy - - - - 241 

Anastasius, patriarch of Antioch 242 

Death of Justinian ------. 244 

The History.— book V. Pagt'S 245—283. 

Chapter I. Accession of Justin the Second 

Chap. II. Murder of Justin, kinsman of the emperor 

Chap. III. Execution of .lEtherius and Addaens 

Chap. IV. Edict of Justin concerning the faith 

Chap. V. Deposition of Anastasius, patriarch of Antioch 

Chap. VI. Gregory, the successor ot Anastasius 




Chapter VII. 




































Submission of the inhabitants of Pcrsarmenia - - 2.i6 

Siege of Nisibis by Marcian ------ 258 

Invasion of the Persians -.-..- g.'iS 

Capture of Apamea and Daras - . - . . 262 

Insanity of Justin -...-.. 2^.3 

Embassy of Trajan to Cliosroes . - . . - 2^4 

Proclamation of Tiberius. — His character - - - 2r).'j 
Successes of the Roman commander Justinian against the 

Persians •---.-.-. 267 

Death of Chosroes.— Succession of Hormisdas - - 270 

Succession of bishops - - - - - - - 271 

Earthquake at Antioch - - - - - - - 271 

Commotion on account of Anatolius - . . - 272 

Character and achievements of Maurice - - - - 275 

Overthrow of the Persians ---... 277 
Prodigies foreshewing the elevation of Maurice to the 

empire ----.--.. 278 

Accession of Maurice 279 

Chronological statement ------ 280 

Succession of writers on sacred and profane history - 281 

The History.— BOOK VI. Pag-e* 284— 314. 

Chapter I. 



































Nuptials of Maurice and Augusta ----- 284 

Alamundarus the Arab, anl his son Naamanes - - 286 

Military operations of John and Pliilippicus - - - 287 

Mutiny of the troops against Priscus . - - - 288 

Compulsory elevation of Germanus - . - - 289 

Mission of Philippicus ------- 290 

Accusations against Gregory, patriarch of Antioch - - 290 

Recurrence of earthquakes at Antioch - - - - 292 

Inroad and destruction of the barbarians - - - 294 
Clemency of the emperor towards the rebels. — Invasion 

of the Avars 295 

Mission of the patriarch Gregory to the troops - - 2t5 

Oration of Gregory to the troops ----- 296 

Submission of the troops ------ 299 

Loss of Martyropolis 300 

Capture of Ocbas 302 

Murder of Hormisdas - 303 

Flight of Chosroes the younger ----- 304 

Mission of Gregory and Domitian to meet Chosroes - 305 



Chapter XIX. Restoration of Chosroes 305 

Chap. XX. Golanduch the martyr ------- 306 

Chap. XXI. Oflferings of Chosroes ------- BOG 

Chap. XXII. Naaraanes the Arab .------ 310 

Chap. XXIII. Simeon the Stylite the younger . - - - - 311 

Chap. XXIV. Death of the patriarch Gregory - - - - - 313 







EuSEBius Pamphili — an especially able writer, to the 
extent, in particular, of inducing his readers to em- 
brace our religion, though failing to perfect them in 
the faith — and Sozomen, Theodoret, and Socrates* have 
produced a most excellent record of the advent of 
our compassionate God, and His ascension into heaven, 
and of all that has been achieved in the endurance 
of the divine Apostles, as well as of the other mar- 
tyrs; and, further, of whatever events have occurred 
among us, whether more or less worthy of mention, 
down to a certain period of the reign of Theodosius. 

* The " Greek Ecclesiastical Historians of the First Six Centuries," 
newly translated : viz. I. Eusebius's History, to a.d. 324 ; H. Eu- 
sebius's Life of Constantine, Orations, etc. ; HI. Socrates's History, 
A.D. 305— 445; IV. Sozomen's Narrative, a.d. 324 — 440; V. Theo- 
doret's History, 322— 428; VI. Evagrius's History, a.d. 431— 594; 
in six uniform volumes, each 7s. in cloth. London: Samuel Bagster 
and Sons. 



But since events subsequent, and scarcely inferior to 
these, have not hitherto been made the subject of a 
continuous narrative, I have resolved, though but 
ill-qualified for such a task, to undertake the la- 
bour which the subject demands, and to embody 
them in a history; surely trusting in Him who en- 
lightened fishermen, and endued a brute tongue -with 
articulate utterance, for ability to raise up transactions 
already entombed in oblivion, to reanimate them by 
language, and immortalise them by memory : my ob- 
ject being, that my readers may learn the nature of 
each of these events, up to our time; the period, 
place, and manner of its occurrence, as well as those 
who were its objects and authors; and that no circum- 
stance worthy of recollection, may be lost under the 
veil of listless indifi^erence, or, its neighbour, forget- 
fulness. I shall then begin, led onwards by the 
di\dne impulse, from the point where the above-men- 
tioned 'WTiters closed the history. 



Scarce had the impiety of Julian been flooded over 
by the blood of the martyrs, and the frenzy of Arius 
been bound fast in the fetters forged at Nicaea, and, 
moreover, Eunomius and Macedonius, by the agency of 


the Holy Spii'it, had l)eeii swept as by a bkist to the 
Bosphorus, and wrecked agamst the sacred city of 
Constantine ; scarce had the holy church cast oif her 
recent delilemeiit, and was being restored to her an- 
cient beauty, robed in a vesture inwrought with gold, 
and in varied array, and becoming meet for the bride- 
groom, when the demon enemy of good, unable to 
endure it, commences against us a new mode of war- 
fare, disdainhig idolatry, now laiJ in the dust, nor 
deigning to employ the servile madness of Arius. He 
fears to assault the faith in open war, embattled by so 
man}' holy fathers, and he had been already shorn of 
nearly all his power in battling against it: but he 
pursues his purpose with a robber's stealth, by raising- 
certain questions and answers ; his new device being 
to turn the course of error towards Judaism, little 
foreseeing the overthrow that hence would befall the 
miserable designer. For the faith which formerly Avas 
alone arrayed against him, this he now aifects: and, 
no longer exulting in the thought of forcing us to 
abandon the whole, but of succeeding in corrupting a 
single term, while he wound himself with many a 
malignant wile, he devised the change of merely a 
letter, tending indeed to the same sense, luit still witli 
the intention of severing the thought and the tongue, 
that both might no longer with one accord offer the 
same confession and glorification to God. The manner 
and result of these transactions I will set forth, each 


at its proper juncture ; giving at the same time a place 
in my narrative to other matters that may occur to 
me, which, though not belonging to my immediate 
subject, are worthy of mention, laying up the record 
of them wherever it shall please our compassionate 



Since, then, Nestorius, that God-assaulting tongue, 
that second conclave of Caiaphas, that workshop of 
blasphemy, in whose case Christ is again made a sub- 
ject of bargain and sale, by having His natures divided 
and torn asunder — He of whom not a single bone was 
broken even on the cross, according to Scripture, and 
whose seamless vest suffered no rending at the hands 
of God-slaying men — since, then, he thrust aside and 
rejected the term. Mother of God, which had been 
already wrought by the Holy Spirit through the in- 
strumentality of many chosen fathers, and substituted 
a spurious one of his own coining — Mother of Christ; 
and further filled the Church with mnumerable wars, 
deluging it with kindred blood, I think that I shall not 
be at a loss for a well-judged arrangement of my history, 
nor miss its end, if, with the aid of Christ, who is God 
over all, I preface it with the impious blasphemy of 
Nestorius. The war of the churches took its rise from 
the following circumstances. A certain presbyter 


named Anastasius, a man of corrupt opinions, and a 
warm admirer of Nestorius and his Jewish sentiments, 
who also accompanied him when setting out from his 
country to take possession of his bishoprick ; at which 
time Nestorius, having met with Tlieodore at Mop- 
suestia, was perverted by his teaching from godly doc- 
trine, as Theodulus writes in an epistle upon this 
subject — this Anastasius, in discoursing to the Christ- 
loving people in the church of Constantinople, dared 
to say, mthout any reserve, " Let no one style Mary 
the Mother of God ; for Mary was human, and it is 
impossible for God to be born of a human being." 
AVhen the Christ-loving people were disgusted, and 
with reason regarded his discourse as blasphemous, 
Nestorius, the real teacher of the blasphemy, so far 
from restraining him and upholding the true doctrine, 
on the contrary, imparted to the teaching of Anasta- 
sius tile impulse it acquired, by urging on the question 
with more than ordinary pugnacity. A.nd further, by 
mingling with it notions of his o^vn, and thus vomiting 
forth the venom of his soul, he endeavoured to incul- 
cate opinions still more blasphemous, proceeding so far 
as thus to avouch, upon his own peril, " I could never be 
induced to call that God which admitted of being two 
months old or three months old." These circum- 
stances rest on the distinct authority of Socrates, and 
the former synod at Ephesus. 




When Cyril, the reH0^vlled bishop of the church of 
the Alexandrians, had communicated to Nestorius his 
reprobation of these transactions, and he, in rejoinder, 
paid no regard to what was addressed to him by Cyril, 
and by Celestine, bishop of the elder Rome, but was 
irreverently pouring forth his own vomit over the 
whole church, there was just occasion for the conven- 
ing of the first synod of Ephesus, at the injunction of 
the younger Theodosius, sovereign of the Eastern 
empire, by the issuing of imperial letters to Cyril and 
the presidents of the holy churches in every quarter, 
naming, at the same time, as the day of meetmg, the 
sacred Pentecost, on which the life-giving Spirit 
descended upon us. Nestorius, on account of the 
short distance of Ephesus from Constantinople, arrives 
early ; and Cyril too, with his compswiy, came before 
the appointed day; but John, the president of the 
church of Antioch, with his associate bishops, was 
behind the appointed tune; not intentionally, as his 
defence has been thought by many to have sufficiently 
proved, but because he could not muster his asso- 
ciates Avith sufiicient despatch, who were at a distance 
of what would be a twelve days' journey to an expe- 


ditious traveller froin the city formerly named from 
Antiochus, but now the City of God, and in some 
cases more ; and Ephesus was then just thirty days' 
journey from Antioch. He stoutly defended himself 
on the ground that the observance of what is called 
the New Lord's Day by his bishops in their respective 
sees, was an insuperable impediment to his arriving 
before the stated day. 



When fifteen days had elapsed from the 'prescribed 
period, the bishops who had assembled for this busi- 
ness, considering that the Orientals would not join 
them at all, or, at least, after a considerable delay, 
hold a conclave, under the presidency of the divine 
Cyril, occupying the post of Celestine, who, as has 
been before mentioned, was bishop of the elder Rome. 
They accordhigly summon Nestorius, with an exhort- 
ation that he would defend hunself against the 
allegations. When, however, notwithstanding a pro- 
mise given on the preceding day, that he would present 
himself if there were occasion, he did not appear, 
though thrice summoned, the assembly proceeded to 
the investigation of the matter. Memnon, the presi- 
dent of the Ephesian church, recounted the days 
which had elapsed, fifteen in number : then were read 


the letters addressed to Xestorius by the divine Cyril, 
and his rejoinders ; there being also inserted the sacred 
epistle of the illustrious Celestine to Nestorius himself. 
Thcodotus, bishop of Ancyra, and Acacius, of Melitene, 
also detailed the blasphemous language to which Nes- 
torius had unreservedly given utterance at Ephesus. 
With these were combined many statements in which 
holy fathers had purely set forth the true faith, having 
side by side with them various blasphemies which the 
frenzy of the impious Nestorius had vented. When 
all this had been done, the holy synod declared its 
judgment precisely in the following terms : " Since, in 
addition to the other matters, the most reverend 
Nestorius has refused to submit to our summons, or 
yet to admit the most holy and godly bishops who 
were sent by us, we have of necessity proceeded to the 
investigation of his impieties : and having convicted 
him of entertaining and avowing impious sentiments, 
on the evidence both of his letters and writings which 
have been read, and also of words uttered by him 
lately in this metropolitan city, and established by 
sufficient testimony, at length, compelled by the 
canons, and in accordance with the epistle of our most 
holy father and fellow-minister, Celestine, bishop of 
the church of Rome, we have, with many tears, pro- 
ceeded to this sad sentence. The Lord Jesus Christ, 
who has been blasphemed by him, has, through the 
agency of this holy synod, decreed, that the same 


Nestorius is alien from tlie episcopal dignity, and from 
every sacerdotal assembly." 



After the delivery of this most legitimate and just 
sentence, John, the bishop of Antioch, arrives with his 
associate priests, five days after the act of deposition ; 
and having convened all his company, he deposes 
Cyril and Memnoii. On account, however, of libels 
put forth by Cyril and Memnon to the synod which 
had been assembled in company with themselves (al- 
though Socrates, in ignorance, has given a diffei^ent 
account), John is summoned to justify the deposition 
which he had pronounced ; and, on his not appearing 
after a thrice repeated summons, Cyril and Memnon 
are released from their sentence, and John and his 
associate priests are cut off from the holy communion 
and all sacerdotal authority. When, however, Theo- 
dosius, notwithstanding his refusal at first to sanction 
the deposition of Nestorius, had subsequently, on being 
fully informed of his blasphemy, addressed j)ious let- 
ters both to Cyril and John, they are reconciled to 
each other, and ratify the act of deposition. 



Cyril's eulogy of a letter from john of antioch. 

On occasion of th^ arrival of Paul, bishop of Einesa, 
at Alexandria, and his delivery before the church of 
that discourse which is extant on this subject, Cyril 
also, after highly commending the epistle of John, 
wrote to him in these words : "Let the heavens rejoice 
and the earth be glad, for the middle waU of partition 
is broken down, exasperation is stiUed, and all occa- 
sion for dissension utterly removed through the 
bestowal of peace upon his churches by Christ, the 
Saviour of us all ; at the call, too, of our most religious 
and divinely favoured sovereigns, who, in excellent 
imitation of ancestral piety, preserve in their own 
souls a well-founded and unshaken maintenance of the 
true faith, and a singular care for the holy churches, 
that they may acquire an everlasting reno^vn, and 
render their reign most glorious. On them the Lord 
of Hosts himself bestows blessings with a bountiful hand, 
and grants them victory over their adversaries. Victory 
He does bestow : for never can he lie who says. As I 
live, saith the Lord, those that glorify me, I glorify. 
On the arrival, then, of my most pious brother and 
fellow minister, my lord Paul, at Alexandria, I was 
filled with delight, and with great reason, at the 
mediation of such a man, and his voluntary engage- 
ment in labours beyond his strength, in order that 

CIIAi'. Vir.] FATK or NESTOKIUS. 11 

he might suljdue the inalice ot" the devil, close our 
breaches, and, by the removal of the stumbling-blocks 
that lay between us, might cro^vn botli our churches 
and yours with unanimity and peace." And presently 
he proceeds thus : " That the dissension of the church 
has been altogether unnecessary and without sufficient 
ground, I am fully convinced, now that my lord the 
most pious bishop Paul has brought a paper presenting 
an unexceptionable confession of the faith, and has 
assured me that it was draAvn up by your holmess 
and the most pious bishops of your country." And 
such is the ^vriting thus drawn up, and inserted ver- 
batun in the epistle; which, with reference to the 
Mother of God, speaks as follows: "When we read 
these your sacred words, and were conscious that our 
OAvn sentiments were correspondent — for there is one 
Lord, one faith, one baptism — we glorified God, the 
Preserver of all things, mth a feeling of mutual joy, 
that both your churches and ours maintain a faith in 
agreement with the divinely inspired Scriptures and 
the tradition of our holy fathers." Of these matters 
any one may be assured, who is disposed to inves- 
tigate diligently the transactions of those times. 



Historians have not detailed either the banishment 
of Nestorius, his subsequent fortunes, or the manner 


ill which his life was closed, and the retribution with 
which he was visited for liis blasphemy ; matters which 
would have been allowed to slip into oblivion, and 
have been altogether swallowed up by time, so as not 
to be current even in hearsay, if I had not met with a 
book written by himself, which supplied an account of 
them. Nestorius, then, himself, the father of the 
blasphemy, who raised his structure not on the found- 
ation already laid, but built upon the sand one 
which, in accordance with the Lord's parable, quickly 
fell to ruin, here, in addition to other matters of his 
choice, puts forth a defence of his o^\ti blasphemy, in 
reply to those who had charged him with unnecessary 
innovation and an unseemly demand for the convening 
of the synod at Ephesus. He asserts that he was 
driven to assume this position by absolute necessity, 
on account of the division of the church into two par- 
ties, one maintaining that Mary ought to be styled 
Mother of Man; the other. Mother of God; and he 
devised the title. Mother of Christ, in order, as he 
says, that error might not be incurred by adopting 
either extreme, either a term which too closely united 
immortal essence with humanity, or one which, while 
admitting one of the two natures, involved no mention 
of the other. He also intimates that Theodosius, from 
feelings of friendship, withheld his ratification of the 
sentence of deposition ; and, afterwards, that, on occa- 
sion of the mission of several bishops of both parties 


from Ephesus to the emperor, und, moreover, at his 
own request, he was allowed to retire to his own 
monastery, situated without the gates of the city now 
called Theopolis. It is not, indeed, expressly named 
by Nestorius, but is said to be that which is now 
styled the monastery of Euprepius; which we know 
to be, in fact, not more than two stadia from that city. 
Nestorius, then, himself says, that during a residence 
there of four years, he received every mark of re- 
spect and distinction ; and that, by a second edict of 
Theodosius, he is banished to the place called Oasis. 
But the pith of the matter he has suppressed. For in 
his retirement he did not cease from his peculiar blas- 
phemy ; so that John, the president of the church of 
Antioch, was led to report the circumstance, and Nes- 
torius was, in consequence, condemned to perpetual 
banishment. He has addressed also a formal dis- 
course to a certain Eg}^ptian, on the subject of his 
banishment to Oasis, where he treats of these circum- 
stances more fully. But the retribution with which, 
unable to escape the all-seeing eye, he was visited for 
his blasphemous imaginations, may be gathered from 
other writings addressed by him to the governor of the 
Thebaid : in which one may see how that, since he had 
not yet reached the full measure of his deserts, the 
vengeance of God visited him, in pursuance, with the 
most terrible of all calamities, captivity. Being, then, 
still deserving of greater penalties, he was liliei-ated 


by the Blemmyes, into whose hands he had fallen; 
and, after Theodosius had decreed his return to his 
place of exile, wandering from place to place on the 
verge of the Thebaid, and severely injured by a fall, 
he closed his life in a manner worthy of his deeds : 
whose fate, like that of Arius, was a judicial declara- 
tion, what are the appointed wages of blasphemy against 
Christ : for both committed similar blasphemy against 
him ; the one by calling him a creature ; the other, 
regarding him as human. When Nestorius impugns the 
integrity of the acts of the council of Ephesus, and refers 
them to subtle designs and lawless innovation on the part 
of Cyril, I should be most ready thus to reply : — How 
came it to pass, that he was banished even by Theodo- 
sius, notwithstanding his friendly feelings towards 
him, and was condemned by repeated sentences of ex- 
termination, and closed this life under those unhappy 
circumstances ? If Cyril and his associate priests were 
not guided by heaven in their judgment, hoAV came it 
to pass that, when both parties were no longer num- 
bered with the living, in which case a heathen sage * has 
observed, " A frank and kindly meed is yielded to 
departed worth," the one is reproliated as a blasphemer 
and enemy of God, the other is lauded and proclaimed 
to the world as the sonorous herald and mighty cham- 
pion of true doctrine? In order that I may not incur 
a charge of slander, let me bring Nestorius himself into 
court as an evidence on these points. Read me then, 

* Thiicvdides. B. ii. c. 45. 


word for word, some passages of thy epistle, addressed 
to the governor of the Thebaid : — " On account of the 
matters which have been lately mooted at Ephesus 
concerning our holy religion. Oasis, further called 
Ibis, has been appointed as the place of my residence 
by an imperial decree." And presently he proceeds 
thus : " Inasmuch as the beforementioned place has 
fallen into the hands of the barbarians, and ]3een 
reduced to utter desolation by fire and sword, and I, 
by a most unexpected act of compassion, have been 
liberated by them, with a menacing injunction in- 
stantly to fly from the spot, since the Mazices were 
upon the point of succeeding them in their occupation 
of it ; I have, accordingly, reached the Thebaid, toge- 
ther with the captive survivors whom they had joined 
Avith me, by an act of pity for which I am unal^le to 
account. They, accordingly, have been allowed to 
disperse themselves to the places whither their in- 
dividual inclinations led them, and I, proceed- 
ing to Panopolis, have shewed myself in public, for 
fear lest any one, making the circumstance of my 
seizure an occasion of criminal proceeding, should 
raise a charge against me, either of escaping from 
my place of exile, or some other imagined delinquency : 
for malice never wants occasion for slander. There- 
fore I entreat your highness to take that just \dew of 
my seizure which the laws would enjoin, and not 
sacrifice a prisoner of war to the malice and evil 


designs of men: lest there should hence arise this 
melancholy story with all posterity, that it is better 
to be made captive by barbarians, than to fly for re- 
fuge to the protection of the Roman sovereignty." 
He then prefers, with solemn adjuration, the following 
request : " I request you to lay before the emperor the 
circumstance, that my arrival hither from Oasis arose 
from my liberation by the barbarians ; so that my final 
disposal, according to God's good pleasure, may now 
be determined." The second epistle, from the same to 
the same, contains as follows : " Whether you are dis- 
posed to regard this present letter as a friendly com- 
munication from me to your highness, or as an admo- 
nition from a father to a son, I beseech you bear with 
its detail, embracing, indeed, many matters, but as 
briefly as the case would allow. When Ibis had 
been devastated by a numerous body of Nomades," and 
so forth. " Under these circumstances, by what mo- 
tive or pretext on the part of your highness I know 
not, I was conducted by barbarous soldiers from Pano- 
polis to Elephantine, a place on the verge of the pro- 
vmce of the Thebaid, being dragged thither by the 
aforesaid military force ; and when, sorely shattered, I 
had accomplished the greater part of the journey, I am 
encountered by an un^vintten order from your valour 
to return to Panopolis. Thus, miserably worn "wdth 
the casualties of the road, with a body afflicted by 
disease and age, and a mangled hand and side, I ar- 


rived at Pauopolis in cxtrciuc exliaustioii, and further 
tormented with cruel pains : whence a second written 
injunction from your valour, speedily overtakmg me, 
transported me to its adjacent territory. While I was 
supposing that this treatment Avould now cease, and 
was awaiting the determination of our glorious sove- 
reigns respecting me, another merciless order was sud- 
denly issued for a fourth deportation." And presently 
he proceeds : " But I pray you to rest satisfied with 
what has been done, and with having inflicted so many 
banishments on one individual. And 1 call upon you 
kindly to leave to our glorious sovereigns the inqui- 
sition, for which reports laid before them by your 
highness, and by myself too, by whom it was proper 
that information should be given, would furnish ma- 
terials. If, however, this should excite your indig- 
nation, continue to deal with me as before, according 
to your pleasure; since, no words can prevail over 
your will." Thus does this man, who had not learned 
moderation even by his sufferings, in his writings 
strike and trample with fist and heel, even reviling 
both the supreme and provincial governments. I learn 
from one who wrote an account of his demise, that, 
when his tongue had been eaten through with worms, 
he departed to the greater and everlasting judgment 
which awaited hiin. 




Next in succession to that malignant spirit Nes- 
torius, Maximianus is invested with the bishopric of 
the city of the renowned Constantine, in whose time 
the church of God enjoyed perfect peace : and when 
he was departed from among men, Proclus holds the 
helm of the see, who had some time before been 
ordained bishop of Cyzicus. When he too had gone 
the way of all mankind, Flavian succeeds to the see. 



In his time arose the stir about the impious 
Eutyches, when a partial synod was assembled at 
Constantinople, and a written charge was preferred 
by Eusebius, bishop of Dorylaeum, who, while still 
practising as a rhetorician, was the first to expose the 
blasphemy of Nestorius. Since Eutyches, when 
summoned, did not appear, and afterwards, even on 
his appearance, was convicted on certain points ; for 
he had said, " I allow that our Lord was produced 
from two natures before their union, but I confess only 
one nature after their union ;" and he even maintained 


that our Lord's body was not of the same substance 
with ourselves — on tlicse grounds he is sentenced to 
deprivation : but on his presenting a petition to 
Theodosius, on the plea that the acts, as set forth, had 
been concocted in the hands of Flavian, the synod 
of the neighbouring region is assembled at Constanti- 
nople, and Flavian is tried by it and some of the 
magistrates; and when the truth of the acts had been 
contirmed, the second synod at Ephesus is summoned. 



Of this council, Dioscorus, the successor of Cyril in 
the see of Alexandria, was appointed president, by an 
intrigue, in enmity to Flavian, of Chrysaphius, who at 
that time swayed the imperial court. There hasten 
to Ephesus Juvenalis, bishop of Jerusalem, who was 
present at the former council, \vith a great number of 
associate priests, and with him also Domnus, the suc- 
cessor of John at Antioch : and besides them, Julius, 
a bishop, who was the representative of Leo, bishop 
of the elder Rome. Flavian also was present with 
his associate bishops, an edict having been addressed 
by Theodosius to Elpidius, in these precise terms. 
" Provided that those who had on the former occasion 
passed judgment on the most religious Archimandrite 


Eutyclies, be present, but take no part in the pro- 
ceedings, by abstaining from the functions of judges, 
and awaiting the resohition of all the most holy 
fathers ; inasmuch as their own previous decision is 
now a subject of inquisition." In this council, the 
deposition of Eutyches is revoked by Dioscorus and 
liis associates — as is contained in the acts — and that 
sentence is ])assed upon Flavian, and Eusebius, pre- 
sident of the church of Doryl^eum. At the same 
time, Ibas, bishop of Edessa, is excommunicated ; and 
Daniel, bishop of Carrhae, Irenaeus of Tyre, and 
Aquilinus of Byblus, are deposed. Some measures 
were also taken on account of Sophronius, bishop of 
Constantina: and they depose Theodoret, bishop of 
Cyrus, and even Domnus of Antioch. What after- 
wards befel the last mentioned, I am not able to dis- 
cover. After these proceedings the second council of 
Ephesus was dissolved. 



And here let not any one of the deluded wor- 
shippers of idols presume to sneer, as if it were the 
business of succeeding councils to depose their prede- 
cessors, and to be ever devising some addition to the 


faith. For while we are endeavouring to trace the 
unutterable and unsearchable scheme of God's mercy 
to man, and to revere and exalt it to the utmost, 
our opinions are SAvayed in this or that direction : and 
vnth. none of those who have been the authors of 
heresies among Christians, was blasphemy the first 
intention; nor did they fall from the truth in a 
desire to dishonour the Deity, but rather from an 
idea which each entertained, that he should improve 
upon his predecessors by upholding such and such 
doctrines. Besides, all parties agree in a confession 
which embraces the essential points ; for a Trinity is 
the single object of our worship, and unity the com- 
plex one of our glorification, and the Word, who is 
God begotten before the worlds, and became flesh by 
a second birth in mercy to the creature : and if new 
opinions have been broached on other points, these 
also have arisen from the freedom granted to our will 
by our Saviour God, even on these subjects, in order 
that the holy catholic and apostolic church might be 
the more exercised in bringing opposing opinions into 
captivity to truth and piety, and arrive, at length, 
at one smooth and straight path. Accordingly the 
apostle says most distinctly : " There is need of 
heresies among you, that the approved ones may be 
manifested." And here also, we have occasion to 
admire the unutterable wisdom of God, who said to 
the divine Paul, " My strength is made perfect in 


weakness." For by the very causes by which the 
members of the church have been broken off, the true 
and pure doctrine has been more accurately esta- 
blished, and the catholic and apostolic church of God 
has attained amplification and exaltation to heaven. 
But those who have been nurtured in Grecian error, 
having no desire to extol God or his tender care of 
men, were continually endeavouring to shake the 
opinions of their predecessors, and of each other, 
rather devising gods upon gods, and assigning to 
them by express titles the tutelage of their own 
passions, in order that they might find an excuse for 
their own debaucheries by associating such deities 
with them. Thus, their supreme Father of Gods and 
men, under the form of a bird, shamelessly carried off 
the Phrygian boy ; and as a reward of his vile service, 
bestowed the cup, with leave to pledge him in an 
amorous draught, that they might with the nectar 
drink in their common shame. Besides innumerable 
other villanies, reprobated by the meanest of man- 
kind, and transformations into every form of brutes, 
himself the most brutish of all, he becomes bi-sexual, 
pregnant, if not in his belly yet in his thigh, that 
even this violation of nature might be fulfilled in his 
person : Avhence springing, the bi-sexual dithyrambic 
birth outraged either sex; author of drunkenness, 
surfeit, and mad debauch, and all their fearful conse- 
quences. To this ^gis-wearer, this Thunderer, they 


attach, in spite of these majestic titles, the crime of 
parricide, universally refj;ardecl as the extremity of 
guilt; inasmuch as he dethroned Saturn who un- 
happily had begotten him. Why need I also mention 
their consecration of fornication, over which they 
made Venus to preside, the shell-born Cyprian, who 
abhorred chastity as an unhallowed and monstrous 
thing, but delighted in fornication and all filthiness, 
and willed to be propitiated by them: in whose 
company Mars also suifers unseemly exposure, being, 
by the contrivance of Vulcan, made a spectacle and 
laughing-stock to the Gods? Justly would one ridi- 
cule their phalli and ithyphalli, and phallagogia; 
their Priapus, and Pan, and the Eleusinian mysteries, 
which in one respect deserve praise, namely, that the 
sun was not allowed to see them, but they were 
condemned to dwell with darkness. Leaving, then, 
the worshippers and the worshipped in their shame, 
let us urge our steed to the goal, and set forth, in 
compendious survey, the remaining transactions of 
the reio^n of Theodosius. 



Theodosius, then, issued a most pious constitution, 
which is included in the first book of what is termed 


the Code of Justinian, and is the third under the first 
title; in which, moved by heaven, he condemned, by 
all the votes, as the saying is, him to whom he had 
been long attached, as Nestorius himself writes, and 
placed him under anathema. The precise terms are 
as follow : " Further we ordain, that those who favour 
the impious creed of Nestorius, or follow his unlawful 
doctrine, be ejected from the holy churches, if they 
be bishops or clerks ; and if laics, be anathematised." 
Other enactments were also promulgated by liim 
relating to our religion, which shew his burning zeal. 



In these times flourished and became illustrious 
Simeon, of holy and famous memory, who originated 
the contrivance of stationing himself on the top of a 
column, thereby occupying a spot of scarce two cubits 
in circumference. Domnus was then bishop of 
Antioch; and he, having visited Simeon, and being 
struck with the singularity of his position and mode 
of life, was desirous of more mystic intercourse. 
They met accordingly, and having consecrated the 
immaculate body, imparted to each other the life- 
giving communion. This man, endeavouring to 
realise in the flesh tlie existence of the heavenly hosts. 


lifts himself above the concerns of earth, and, over- 
powering the downward tendency of man's nature, 
is intent upon things above: placed between earth 
and heaven, he holds communion with God, and 
unites with the angels in praising him; from earth, 
offering his intercessions on behalf of men, and from 
heaven, drawing down upon them the divine favour. 
An account of his miracles has been written by one 
of those who were eye-witnesses, and an eloquent 
record by Theodoret, bishop of Cyrus : though they 
have omitted a circumstance in particular, the memory 
of which I found to be still retained by the inhabit- 
ants of the holy desert, and which I learnt from 
them as follows. AVhen Simeon, that angel upon 
earth, that citizen in the flesh of the heavenly 
Jerusalem, had devised this strange and hitherto un- 
known walk, the inhabitants of the holy desert send 
a person to him, charged with an injunction to render 
a reason of this singular habitude, namely, why, 
abandoning the beaten path which the saints had 
trodden, he is pursuing another altogether unknown 
to mankind ; and, further, that he should come down 
and travel the road of the elect fathers. They, at 
the same time, gave orders, that, if he should mani- 
fest a perfect readiness to come down, liberty should 
be given him to follow out the course he had chosen, 
inasmuch as his compliance would be sufficient proof 
that under God's guidance he persevered in this his 


endurance : but that he should be dragged down by 
force, in case he should manifest repugnance, or be 
swayed by self-will, and refuse to be guided implicitly 
by the injunction. When the person, thus deputed, 
came and announced the command of the fathers, and 
Simeon, in pursuance of the injunction, immediately 
put one foot forward, then he declared him free to 
fulfil his own course, saying, ' Be stout, and play the 
man : the post which thou hast chosen is from God.' 
This circumstance, which is omitted by those who 
have written about him, I have thus thought worthy 
of record. In so great a measure had the power of 
divine grace taken possession of him, that, when 
Theodosius had issued a mandate, that the synagogues 
of which they had been previously deprived by the 
Christians, should be restored to the Jews of Antioch, 
he wrote to the emperor with so much freedom and 
vehement rebuke, as standing in awe of none but his 
own immediate sovereign, that Theodosius re-called 
his commands, and in every respect favoured the 
Christians, even superseding the prefect who had sug- 
gested the measure. He further proceeded to prefer 
a request to this .effect, to the holy and aerial martyr, 
that he would entreat and pray for him, and impart 
a share of his own peculiar benediction. Simeon 
prolonged his endurance of this mode of life through 
fifty-six years, nine of which he spent in the first 
monastery, where he was instructed in divine know- 


ledge, and forty-seven in the Mandra, as it is termed ; 
namely, ten in a certain nook; on shorter columns, 
seven; and thirty upon one of forty cubits. After 
his departure, his holy body was conveyed to Antioch, 
during the episcopate of Martyrius, and the reign of 
the emperor Leo, when Ardabyrius was in command 
of the forces of the East, on which occasion the 
troops, with a concourse of their folloT\^ers and others, 
proceeded to the Mandra, and escorted the venerable 
body of the blessed Simeon, lest the inhabitants of 
the neighbouring cities should muster and carry it off. 
In this manner, it was conveyed to Antioch, and 
attended during its progress by extraordinary pro- 
digies. The emperor also demanded possession of the 
body ; and the people of Antioch addressed to him a 
petition in deprecation of his purpose, in these terms : 
" Forasmuch as our city is without walls, for we 
have been visited in wrath by their fall, we brought 
hither the sacred body to be our wall and bulwark." 
Moved by these considerations, the emperor yielded 
to their prayer, and left them in possession of the 
venerable body. It has been preserved nearly entire 
to my time: and, in company with many priests, 
I enjoyed the sight of his sacred head, in the episco- 
pate of the famous Gregory, when Philippicus had 
requested that precious relics of saints might be sent 
to him for the protection of the Eastern armies. 
And, strange as is the circumstance, the hair of his 


head had not perished, but is in the same state of 
preservation as when he was alive and sojourning 
with mankind. The skin of his forehead, too, was 
wrinkled and indurated, but is nevertheless pre- 
served, as well as the greater part of his teeth, except 
such as had been violently removed by the hands of 
faithful men, affording by their appearance an indi- 
cation of the personal appearance and years of the 
man of God. Beside the head lies the iron collar, 
to which, as the companion of its endurance, the 
famous body has imparted a share of its own divinely- 
bestowed honours ; for not even in death has Simeon 
been deserted by the loving iron. In this manner 
would I have detailed every particular, thereby bene- 
fiting both myself and my readers, had not Theo- 
doret, as I said before, already performed the task 
more fully. 



Let me, however, add a record of another circum- 
stance which I mtnessed. I was desirous of visiting^ 
the precinct of this saint, distant nearly thirty stadia 
from Theopolis, and situated near the very summit of 
the mountain. The people of the country give it the 
title of Mandra, a name bequeathed to the spot, as I 


suppose, by the holy Suiieon, in respect of the disci- 
pline which he there had practised. The ascent of 
the mountain is as much as twenty stadia. The tem- 
ple is constructed in the form of a cross, adorned with 
colonnades on the four sides. Beside the colonnades are 
arranged handsome columns of polished stone, sus- 
taining a roof of considerable elevation; while the 
centre is occupied by an unroofed court of the most 
excellent workmanship, Avhere stands the pillar, of 
forty cubits, on which the incarnate angel upon earth 
spent his heavenly life. Adjoining the roof of the 
colonnades is a balustrade, termed by some persons win- 
dows, forming a fence towards both the before-men- 
tioned court and the colonnades. At the balustrade, on 
the left of the pillar, I saw, in company with all the 
people who were there assembled, while the rustics 
were performing dances round it, a very large and 
brilliant star, shootmg along the whole balustrade, not 
merely once, twice, or thrice, but repeatedly ; vanish- 
ing, moreover, frequently, and again suddenly appear- 
ing : and this occurs only at the commemorations of 
the saint. There are also persons who affirm — and 
there is no reason to doubt the prodigy, considering 
the credibility of the vouchers, and the other circum- 
stances which I actually ^vitnessed — that they have 
seen a resemblance of the saint's face flittmg about 
here and there, mth a long beard, and wearing a 
tiara, as was his habit. Free ingress is allowed to 


men, who repeatedly compass the pillar with their 
beasts of burden : but the most scrupulous precaution 
is taken, for what reason I am unable to say, that 
no woman should enter the sacred building : but they 
obtain a view of the prodigy from the threshold with- 
out, since one of the doors is opposite to the star's 



In the same reign Isidore was also conspicuous : 
" wide whose reno^vn," according to the language of 
poetry ; having become universally celebrated by deed 
and word. To such a degree did he waste his flesh by 
severe discipline, and feed his soul by elevating doc- 
trine, as to pursue upon earth the life of angels, and 
be ever a living monument of monastic life and con- 
templation of God. Besides his numerous other 
writings, well stored with various profit, there are 
some addressed to the renoAvned Cyril ; from which it 
appears that he flourished contemporary mth the 
divine bishop. And now, while endeavouring to give 
every attraction to my work, let me also bring upon 
the scene Syriesius of Cyrene, whose memory wiU add 
an embellishment to my narrative. This Sjmesius, 
while possessed of every other kind of learning, car- 
ried the study of philosophy, in particular, to its 


highest pitch; so as to gain the admiration even of 
those Christians whose decision upon things which 
fall under their observation is not guided by favouring 
or adverse prejudice. They, accordingly, persuade 
him to resolve on partakmg of the saving regenera- 
tion, and to take upon himself the yoke of the priest- 
hood, while as yet he did not admit the doctrine of the 
resurrection, nor was inclined to hold that tenet ; anti- 
cipating, with well-aimed conjecture, that this belief 
would be added to his other excellencies, since divine 
grace is never content to leave its work unfinished. 
Nor were they disappointed in their expectation : for 
his epistles, written after his accession to the priest- 
hood, and composed with elegance and learning, as 
well as his discourse addressed to Theodosius himself, 
and whatever is extant of his valuable ^vritings, suffi- 
ciently show how excellent and great a man he was. 



At the same period also took place the translation 
of the divine Ignatius, as is recorded, ^vith other mat- 
ters, by John the rhetorician : who, having found a 
tomb, as he himself desired, in the bowels of the wild 
beasts, in the amphitheatre of Rome, had, neverthe- 
less, through the preservation of the more solid bones, 


wliicli were conveyed to Antioch, long reposed in what 
is called the cemetery : the good God having moved 
Theodosius to dignify the bearer of the name Theopho- 
rus with increased honours, and to dedicate a temple, 
long ago devoted to the demons, and called by the 
inhabitants Tycha3um, to the victorious martyr. 
Thus, what was formerly the shrine of Fortune, be- 
came a sanctuary and holy precinct for Ignatius, by 
depositing there his sacred remains, which were con- 
veyed on a car through the city, attended by a solemn 
procession. From this event arose the celebration of 
a public festival, accompanied mth rejoicings of the 
whole population ; which has continued to our times, 
and received increased magnificence at the hands of 
the prelate Gregory. Such results were brought 
about by the conspiring agency of friends and foes, 
while God was decreeing honour to the holy memo- 
ries of the saints. For the impious Julian, that 
heaven-detested poAver, when the Daphnipan Apollo, 
Avliose prophetic voice proceeded from the Castalian 
fount, could give no response to the emperor's consult- 
ation, since the holy Babylas, from his neighbouring 
resting-place, restrained his utterance ; was goaded on 
to be an unwilling instrument in honouring that saint 
by a translation ; on Avliich occasion was also erected 
to him, outside the city, a spacious temple, Avhich has 
remained entire to the present day : the object of the 
removal being that the demons might no longer be 


overawed in the pursuit of their o"\vii practices, the 
performance of which, as is said, they had previously 
promised to Julian. Thus were events disposed by 
the providence of God, in his design that both the 
power of those who were dignified by martyrdom 
should be clearly manifested, and the sacred relics of 
the holy martyr should be transferred to sacred 
ground, and be honoured with a noble precinct. 



During those times arose the celebrated war of 
Attila, king of the Scythians : the history of which 
has been written with great care and distinguished 
ability by Prisons the rhetorician, who details, in a 
very elegant narrative, his attacks on the eastern and 
western parts of the empire, how many and important 
cities he reduced, and the series of his achievements 
until he was removed from the Avorld. 

It was also in the reign of Theodosius that an extra- 
ordinary earthquake occurred, which threw all former 
ones into the shade, and extended, so to speak, over the 
whole world. Such was its violence, that many of the 
towers in different parts of the imperial city were over- 
thro^vn, and the long Avail, as it is termed, of the Cher- 
sonese, Avas laid in ruins; the earth opened and SAvalloAved 


up many villages; and innumerable other calamities 
happened both by land and sea. Several foimtains be- 
came dry, and, on the other hand, large bodies of water 
were formed on the surface, where none existed before : 
entire trees were torn up by the roots and hurled aloft, 
and mountains were suddenly formed by the accumula- 
tion of masses throA\m up. The sea also cast up dead 
fish ; many islands were submerged ; and, again, ships 
were seen stranded by the retreat of the waters. At the 
same time Bithynia, the Hellespont, and either Phrygia, 
suffered severely. This calamity prevailed for a con- 
siderable time, thougli the violence with which it com- 
menced, did not continue, but abated by degrees until 
it entirely ceased. 



In the course of the same period, Memnonius, Zoi- 
lus, and Callistus, were sent out ])y Theodosius to the 
government of Antioch, men who made our religion an 
object of marked honour. Memnonius also rebuilt 
from the foundation, in a beautiful and elaborate style, 
the edifice which we name Psephium, leaving an un- 
roofed court in the centre. Zoilus built the basilica, 
which is situated on the south side of that of Rufinus, 
and which has continued to liear his name to our times. 


although the structure itself has undergone changes 
from various casualties. Callistus, too, erected a noble 
and striking edifice, called both in former and present 
times the Basilica of Callistus, in front of the seats of 
justice, and opposite the forum where stand the splen- 
did buildings which are the quarters of the military 
commanders. Subsequently, Anatolius, having been 
sent out as commander of the forces of the East, erects 
the basilica which bears his name, and embellishes it 
with every variety of material. The introduction of 
these matters, though beside my more immediate pur- 
pose, will not offend the taste of the curious reader. 



In the times of Theodosius, repeated revolts took 
place in Europe, during the reign of Yalentinian at 
Rome. These were crushed by Theodosius, who sent 
out for that purpose large land and naval forces. He 
also so far quelled the insolence of the Persians, whose 
sovereign at that time was Isdigerdes, the father of 
Yararanes, or, as Socrates thinks, Yararanes himself, 
as to reduce them to solicit peace ; which was granted, 
and lasted till the twelfth year of the reign of Anas- 
tasius. These transactions have been recorded by 
other ^\Titers, and have also been very elegantly epito- 


mised by Eustathius of Epipliania, the Syrian, who 
wrote, besides, an account of the capture of Amida. 
In that age, too, it is said that the poets Claudian and 
Cyrus flourished; and that Cyrus was elevated to the 
seat of highest dignity among the prefects, styled by 
our ancestors the prefect of the palace, and was also 
invested with the command of the forces of the West, 
when the Vandals under Genseric had made them- 
selves masters of Carthage. 



Theodosius also espoused Eudocia, who had pre- 
viously participated in the saving baptism ; an Athe- 
nian by birth, and distinguished by poetic skill and 
beauty of person ; through the offices of his sister, the 
princess Pulcheria. By her he had a daughter Eudoxia, 
whom, when she had reached a marriageable age, the 
emperor Valentinian afterwards espoused; for which 
purpose he made a voyage from the elder Rome to the 
city of Constantine. At a subsequent period, when Eu- 
docia was pursuing a journey to the holy city of Christ 
our God, she also visits this place ; and concluded an 
address to our people with the following verse, 

'Tis from your blood I proudly trace my line :* 

in allusion to the colonies which were sent hither from 

* Horn. II. vi. 211. 


Greece. Of these, if any one is curious to know the 
particulars, an elaborate account has been given by 
Strabo, the geographer, Phlegon, and Diodorus Siculus, 
as well as by Arrian and Pisander the poet, and, 
besides, by the distinguished sophists, Ulpian, Libanius, 
and Julian. On this occasion, the sons of the Anti- 
ochenes honoured her mth a skilfully executed statue 
in brass, which has been preserved even to our times. 
At her suggestion, Theodosius considerably enlarges 
the bounds of the city, by extending the circuit of the 
wall as far as the gate Avhich leads to the suburb of 
Daphne : of which those who are disposed, may assure 
themselves by visible proof; for the whole wall may 
still be traced, since the remains afford a sufficient 
guidance to the eye. Some, however, say that the 
elder Theodosius extended the wall. He gave, besides, 
two hundred pounds' weight of gold for the restora- 
tion of the baths of Valens, which had been partially 



From this city Eudocia proceeds on two occasions 
to Jerusalem ; but on account of what circumstances, 
or Avith Av^hat object in the first instance, must be ga- 
thered through those writers who have treated the 


subject, although they do not appear to nie to give 
true accounts. At all events, when visitmg the holy 
city of Christ, she did many things for the honour of 
our Saviour God, even so far as to erect holy monas- 
teries, and what are termed laura3. In these places the 
mode of life is diiFerent, but the discipline of each 
terminates in the same devout object. For those who 
live together in com23anies are still not under the 
influence of any of those things which weigh down to the 
earth, since they possess no gold : but why should I say 
gold ? when no article of even dress or food is the sole 
property of any one among them, but the g0A\ai or vest 
which one is now wearing, another presently puts on, 
so that the clothing of all appears to belong to one, and 
that of one to all. A common table also is set before 
them, not delicately furnished with meats or any other 
dainties, but supplied with fare of herbs and pulse, 
and that only in sufficient quantity to sustain life. 
They maintain common supplications to God through- 
out the day and night, to such a degree distressing 
themselves, so galling themselves by their severe ser- 
vice, as to seem, in a manner, tombless corpses. They 
also frequently practice superadditions, as they are 
called, namely, l^y maintaining their fastings for two 
or three days ; and some on the fifth day, or even later, 
scarcely allow themselves a portion of necessary food. 
On the other hand, there is a class who pursue a con- 
trary course, and indi\'idually seclude themselves in 


cliuinbers of so liiiiited a height and width, that they 
can neither stand upright nor lie down at ease, con- 
fining their existence to " dens and caves of the earth," 
as says the apostle. Some, too, take up their dwelling 
with the wild beasts, and in untracked recesses of the 
ground; and thus offer their supplications to God. 
Another mode has idso been devised, one which reaches 
to the utmost extent of resolution and endurance: 
for transporting themselves to a scorched wilderness, 
and covering only those parts which nature requires 
to be concealed, both men and women leave the rest of 
their persons exposed both to excessive frosts and 
scorching blasts, regardless alike of heat and cold. 
They, moreover, cast off the ordinary food of mankind, 
and feed upon the produce of the ground, whence they 
are termed Grazers ; allowing themselves no more than 
is barely sufficient to sustain life. In consequence, 
they at length became assimilated to wild beasts, with 
their outward form altogether disfigured, and their 
mind m a state no longer fitted for intercourse with 
their species, whom they even shun when they see 
them; and, on being pursued, contrive to escape, fa- 
voured either by their swiftness of foot, or by places 
difficult of access. I will mention still another class, 
Avhich had almost escaped recollection, though it bears 
away the preeminence from all others. Its numbers 
are very small ; but still there are persons, who, when 
by virtue they have attained to a condition cxenq)t 


from passion, return to the world. In the midst of 
the stir, by plainly intimating that they are indifferent 
to those who view them with amazement, they thus 
trample under foot vain-glory, the last garment, ac- 
cording to the wise Plato, which it is the nature of the 
soul to cast off. By similar means they study the art 
of apathy in eating, practising it even, if need be, with 
the petty retailers of victuals. They also constantly 
frequent the public baths, mostly mingling and bathing 
with women, since they have attained to such an as- 
cendancy over their passions, as to possess dominion 
over nature, and neither by sight, touch, or even 
embracing of the female, to relapse into their natural 
condition ; it being their desire to be men among men, 
and women among women, and to participate in both 
sexes. In short, by a life thus aU excellent and di- 
vine, virtue exercises a sovereignty in opposition to na- 
ture, establishing her o^vn laws, so as not to allow them 
to partake to satiety in any necessary. Indeed, their 
o^vn rule enjoins them to hunger and thirst, and to 
clothe the body only so far as necessity requires : and 
their mode of life is balanced by opposite scales, so 
accurately poised, that they are unconscious of any 
tendency to motion, though arising from strongly 
antagonist forces ; for opposing principles are, in their 
case, mingled to such a degree, by the j^ower of divine 
grace combining and again severing things that are 
incongruous, that life and death dwell together in 


them, things opposed to eucli other in nature and in 
circumstances : for where passion enters, they must be 
dead and entombed ; where prayer to God is required, 
they must display vigour of body and energy of 
spirit, though the flower of life be past. Thus with 
them are the two modes of life combined, so as to be 
constantly living with a total renunciation of the flesh, 
and at the same time mingling with the living ; both 
applying remedies to their bodies, and presenting to 
God the cries of suppliants, and in all other respects 
fully maintaining a practice in accordance with their 
former mode of life, except as regards restriction in 
intercourse and place : on the contrary, they listen to 
all, and associate with all. They also practise a long 
and continuous series of kneelings and risings, their 
earnestness alone serving to reinvigorate their years 
and self-inflicted weakness ; being, as it were, fleshless 
athletes, bloodless wrestlers, esteeming fasting as a 
varied and luxurious feast, and the utmost abstinence 
from food a completely furnished table. On the other 
hand, whenever a stranger visits them, even at early 
dawn, they welcome him with generous entertainment, 
devising another form of fasting in eating against their 
will. Hence the marvel, how far the pittance on which 
they subsist falls short of a sufficient allowance of 
food; foes of their own desires and of nature, but 
devoted to the wills of those around them, in order 
that fleshly enjoyment may be constantly expelled, and 


tlie soul, diligently selecting and maintaining whatever 
is most seemly and pleasing to God, may alone bear 
sway : happy in their mode of existence here, happier 
in their departure hence, on which they are ever intent, 
impatient to behold Him whom they desire. 



After, having conversed with many persons of this 
description, and founded, as I have already said, many 
such seats of contemplation, and, besides, restored the 
walls of Jerusalem, the consort of Theodosius also 
erected a very large sanctuary, conspicuous for eleva- 
tion and beauty, in honour of Stephen, the first of 
deacons and martyrs, distant less than a stadium 
from Jerusalem. Here her own remains were de- 
posited, wheii she had departed to the unfading life. 

AYlien Theodosius had subsequently, or, as some 
think, before Eudocia, departed the sovereignty which 
he had administered for eight and thirty years, the 
most excellent Marcian is invested with the empire of 
the Romans. The sequel of my history shall very 
clearly set forth the transactions of his reign over the 
East, while the heavenly impulse bestows its o"wii 
kindly aid. 




The transactions of the time of Theodosius have 
been embraced m the preceding book. Let me now 
introduce upon the scene Marcian, the renowned 
emperor of the Romans, and in so doing, first recount 
who and whence he was, and by what means he won 
the imperial poAver: and having done this, let me 
record the occurrences of his reign in the order of 
time. Marcian, as has been recorded by many 
other writers, and in particular by Priscus, the rhe- 
torician, was by birth a Thracian, and the son of a 
military man. In his desire to follow his father's 
mode of lite, he had set out for Philippopolis, where 
he could be enrolled in the legions, and on the road 
sees the body of a person recently slain, lying exposed 
upon the ground. On going up to it — for, besides 
the excellence of his other virtues, he was singularly 
compassionate — he commiserated the occurrence, and 
suspended his journey for some time, from a desire to 
discharge the due offices to the dead. vSonie persons, 


observing the circumstance, reported it to the authori- 
ties at Philippopolis, and they proceeded to apprehend 
Marcian, and interrogated him respecting the murder : 
and when, through the prevalence of conjecture and 
mere probabihty over truth and asseveration of inno- 
cence, he was upon the point of suffering the punish- 
ment of guilt, a providential interposition suddenly 
brings into their hands the real criminal, who, by 
forfeiting his own head as the penalty of the deed, 
procures an acquittance of the head of Marcian. After 
this unexi>ected escape, he presents himself to one of 
the military bodies stationed in the place, with the 
intention of enlistment. Struck with the singularity 
of his fortunes, and with reason concluding that he 
would arrive at power and preeminent distinction, 
they gladly admitted him, and that too without placing 
him, according to military rule, lowest on the roll; 
but they assigned to him the grade of a lately deceased 
soldier, named Augustus, by inscribing in the list, 
Marcian, called also Augustus. Thus did his name 
anticipate the style of our sovereigns, who assume the 
title of Augustus on attaining the purple. It was as 
if the name refused to abide on him Avithout its appro- 
priate rank, and, on the other hand, the rank was not 
ambitious of another name for the augmentation of its 
style : and thus arose an identity of his personal and 
titular appellations, since his dignity and his name 
found an expression in the same term. Another circum- 


stance also occurred, which might serve as a prognostic 
of the imperial power being destined to Marcian. 
When serving under Aspar against the Vandals, he 
was one of many who fell into their hands on the 
total defeat of that general; and, on the demand of 
Genseric to see the prisoners, was dragged Avith the 
rest along the plain. When the whole body was col- 
lected, Genseric sat in an upper chamber, surveying 
with delight the numbers that had been taken. As 
the time wore on, they pursued each his own inclin- 
ation, for the guard had, at the order of Genseric, 
released them from their bonds; and while they 
accordingly disposed of themselves each in his several 
way, Marcian laid himself do^vn upon the ground to 
sleep in the sun, which was shining with unusual heat 
for the season of the year. An eagle, however, poising 
his flight above him, and directly intercepting the sun 
as with a cloud, thus produced a sliade and its con- 
sequent refreshment, to the amazement of Genseric, 
who, rightly presaging the future, sent for Marcian, 
and liberated him, having previously l)ound him by 
solemn oaths, that on attaining the imperial power he 
would maintain faithfully the rights of treaty towards 
the Vandals, and not commence hostilities against 
them; and Procopius records, that Marcian observed 
these conditions. But let us leave this digression, and 
return to my subject. Marcian was pious towards 
God, and just towards those under his rule ; regarding 


as wealth neither treasured stores nor the revenue of 
imposts, but only the means of providing relief to the 
needy, and to the wealthy the security of their posses- 
sions. He was dreaded, not in the infliction of 
punishment, but only by its anticipation. On this 
accoimt he received the sovereignty not as an inherit- 
ance, but as the prize of virtue, conferred by the 
unanimous voice both of the senate and men of all 
ranks, at the suggestion of Pulcheria, whom he also 
espoused as his partner in the imperial dignity, though 
she still remained a virgin to old age. These trans- 
actions took place without a previous ratiflcation of 
the choice by Valentinian, the emperor of Rome, who, 
however, accorded his approval to the virtues of the 
person elected. It was further the desire of Marcian, 
that an undivided service should be offered up by all 
to God, by uniting in pious concord the tongues which 
the arts of impiety had confounded, and that the 
Deity should be honoured by one and the same 



AYiiiLE entertaining these intentions, the emperor is 
addressed both by the legates of Leo, bishop of the 
elder Rome, who alleged that Dioscorus had, during 
the second council of Ephesus, refused to receive the 


epistle of Leo, containing ji formula of the true doc- 
trine ; and also by those who had been contumeliously 
treated by Dioscorus, intreating that their case might 
be submitted to the decision of a synod. But Euse- 
bius, who had been president of the church of Dorj^- 
lauim, was especially urgent, and affirmed that both 
himself and Flavian had been deposed by the intrigues 
of Chrysaphius, the minister of Theodosius, because, 
in reply to his demand of an offering in gold, Flavian 
had, in acknowledgment of his o^vn appointment, sent 
the sacred vessels to shame him ; and also that Chry- 
saphius made a near approach to Eutyches in errone- 
ous doctrine. He also said, that Flavian had even 
been brought to a miserable end by being thrust and 
trampled on by Dioscorus himself. These circumstances 
caused the synod at Chalcedon to be assembled; for 
which purpose the bearers of missives were despatched, 
and the prelates in all quarters were summoned by 
pious letters. The place named was, in the first in- 
stance, Niccea ; and, accordingly, Leo, the president of 
Rome, on ^vriting an epistle respecting Paschasianus, 
Lucentius, and others, whom he had sent as his repre- 
sentatives, inscribed it to the council assembled at 
NicaBa. It was, however, subsequently convened at 
Chalcedon in Bithjmia. Zacharias, the rhetorician, 
influenced l)y partiality, says that Nestorius was also 
fetched from his place of exile : but this is disproved 
by the circumstance, that Nestorius was generally 


anathematised by the members of the synod. And 
Eiistathius, bishop of Berytus, clearly establishes the 
point, when writing in the following terms to John, a 
bishop, and another John, a presbyter, respecting the 
matters agitated in the assembly. " Those who were 
in quest of the remains of Nestorius, again presenting 
themselves, clamorously demanded of the synod, why 
the saints are anathematised: so that the emperor 
indignantly ordered the guards to drive them far from 
the place." How then Nestorius was summoned, 
when he had departed from the world, I am unable 
to say. 



The place of meeting was the sacred precinct of 
Euphemia, the martyr, situated in the district of Chal- 
cedon in Bithynia, and distant not more than two 
stadia from the Bosphorus. The site is a beautiful 
spot, of so gentle an ascent, that those who are on 
their way to the temple, are not aware of their imme- 
diate approach, but suddenly find themselves within 
the sanctuary on elevated ground ; so that, extending 
their gaze from a commanding position, they can sur- 
vey the level surface of the plain spread out beneath 
them, green with herbage, waving with corn, and 

CHAP. III.] CHURCH of st. eupiiemia. 49 

beautified with every kind of tree ; at the same time 
including within their range woody mountains, tower- 
ing gracefully or boldly swelling, as well as parts of 
the sea under various aspects : here, Avhere the mnds 
do not reach them, the still waters, with their dark 
blue tint, sweetly playing with gentle ripple on the 
beach; there wildly siirging, and sweeping l^ack the 
sea- weeds and the lighter shell-fish with the recoil of 
its waves. Directly opposite is Constantinople : and 
thus the beauty of the site is enhanced by the view of 
so vast a city. The holy place consists of three im- 
mense buildings. One is open to the sky, including a 
court of great extent, and embellished on all sides mth 
columns ; and next to it another, nearly resembling it 
in its length, breadth, and columns, and differing from 
it only in being roofed. (3n the north side of this, 
facing the East, is a round building, skilfully termi- 
nated in a dome, and surrounded in the interior with 
columns of uniform materials and size. These support 
a gallery under the same roof, so contrived, that 
those who are disposed, may thence both supplicate 
the martyr and be present at the mysteries. Within 
the domed building, towards the Eastern part, is a 
splendid enclosure, where are preserved the sacred 
remains of the martyr in a long coffin (it is dis- 
tinguished by some persons by the term "long") of 
silver, skilfully worked. The wonders which liave 
at certain times been m-ought by the holy martyr, are 


manifest to all Christians. For frequently she has 
appeared in a dream to the bishops of the city from 
time to time, and even to certain persons Avhose lives 
have been otherwise distinguished, and has bid them 
visit her and gather a vintage at her sanctuary. When 
such an occurrence has been ascertained by the sove- 
reigns, the patriarch, and the city, they visit the 
temple, both those who sway the sceptre, and those 
who are invested with sacred and civil offices, as well 
as the whole multitude, desirous to partake in the 
mysteries. Accordingly, the president of the church 
of Constantinople, with his attendant priests, enters, in 
sight of the public, the sanctuary where the already- 
mentioned sacred body is deposited. There is an 
aperture in the left side of the coffin, secured with 
small doors, through which they introduce a sponge 
attached to an iron rod, so as to reach the sacred relics, 
and after turning it round, they draw it out, covered 
-with stains and clots of blood. On witnessing this, all 
the people bend in worship, giving glory to God. So 
great has been the quantity of blood thus extracted, 
that both the pious sovereigns and the assembled 
priests, as well as the congregated people, all share in 
a liberal distribution, and portions are sent to those of 
the faithful who desire them, in every place under the 
sun. The clots also are permanent, neither does the 
appearance of the sacred l.ilood luidergo any change. 
These divine manifestations occur not at the recurrence 


of any definite period, but according as the lite of the 
prelate or gravity of manners calls for them. Ac- 
cordingly it is said, that when the governor of the 
church is a person reverend and remarkable for vir- 
tues, the marvel occurs with peculiar frequency ; but 
when such is not his character, such divine operations 
are rarely displayed. I will, however, mention a cir- 
cumstance which suffers no interruption depending on 
lapse of time or seasonable occasion, nor yet is vouch- 
safed Avith a distinction between the faithful and infi- 
dels, but to all indiscriminately. AMienever any per- 
son approaches the spot where is deposited the precious 
coffin in which are the holy relics, he is filled with an 
odour surpassing in sweetness every perfume with 
which mankind are acquainted, for it resembles neither 
the mingled fragrance of the meadows, nor that which 
is exhaled from the sweetest substances, nor is it such 
as any perfumer could prepare : but it is of a peculiar 
and surpassing kind, of itself sufficiently hidicating the 
virtue of its source. 



This was, then, the place of meeting of the before- 
mentioned synod; at which the bishops Paschasinus 
and Lucentius, and the presljyter Boniface, were the 


representatives of Leo, archpriest of the elder Koine; 
there bemg present Anatolius president of Constanti- 
nople, Dioscorus, bishop of Alexandria, Maxiinus of 
Antioch,and Juvenalis of Jerusalem : on whom attended 
both their associate priests, and those who held the places 
of highest rank in the most excellent senate. To the 
latter the representatives of Leo alleged, that Dioscorus 
ought not to be seated with themselves ; for such, they 
said, were their instructions from their bishop : as also 
that they would withdraw from the church, if they 
should be unable to inaintam tliis point. In reply to 
the question of the senators, what were the charges 
against Dioscorus, they stated, that he ought himself 
to render an account of his own decision, since he had 
unduly assumed the character of a judge. After this 
statement had been made, and Dioscorus, according to 
a resolution of the senate, had taken his seat in the 
centre, Eusebius demanded, in the follomng Avords, 
that the petition should be read which he had pre- 
sented to the sovereign power : "I have been wronged 
by Dioscorus; the faith has been wronged: the 
bishop Flavian Avas murdered, and, together Avith my- 
self, unjustly deposed by him. Give directions that my 
petition be read." AMien the matter had been dis- 
cussed, the petition Avas alloAved to be read : it Avas 
couched in the folloAA^ng terms. " To our Christ-loA^uig 
and most religious and pious sovereigns. Flavins 
A^alentinianus, and Flavins M;ircianus, the petition of 

CHAl'. IV,] v"'OUN(UL OF CIIALCKDON. A. 1). 451. 5o 

Eusebius, the very humble bishop of Dorykeuiii, who 
now pleads on behalf of hunself and the orthodox faith, 
and the sainted Flavian, formerly bishop of Constan- 
tinople. It is the aim of your majesty to exercise a 
providential care of all your su])jects, and stretch forth 
a protecthig hand to all who are suffering Avi'ong, and 
to those especially who are invested with the priesthood; 
for by this means service is rendered to God, from 
whom you have received the bestowal of supremacy 
and power over all regions under the sun. Inas- 
much, then, as the Christian faith and we have suffered 
many outrages at the hands of Dioscorus, the most 
reverent bisho}) of the great city of the Alexandrians, 
we address ourselves to your piety in pursuance of our 
rights. The circumstances of the axse are as follow : — 
At the synod lately held at the metropolitan city of 
the Ephesians — Vv^ould that it had never met, nor the 
Avorld been thereby filled with mischiefs and tumult — 
the excellent Dioscorus, regarding neither the prin- 
ciple of justice nor the fear of God, sharing also in 
the opinions and feelings of the visionary and here- 
tical Eutyches, though unsuspected by the multitude 
of being such as he afterv/ards shewed himself, took 
occasion of the charge advanced by me against his 
fellow in doctrine, Eutyches, and the decision given 
by the sainted bishop Flavian, and having gathered a 
disorderly rabble, and procured an overbearing in- 
fluence by bribes, made havoc, as far as la}' in his 


power, of the pious religion of the orthodox, and 
established the erroneous doctrine of Eutyches the 
monk, which had from the first been repudiated by 
the holy fathers. Since, then, his aggressions against 
the Christian fiiith and us are of no trifling magni- 
tude, we beseech and supplicate your majesty to issue 
your commands to the same most reverent bishop 
Dioscorus, to defend himself against our allegations ; 
namely, when the record of the acts which Dioscorus 
]:)rocured against us, shall be read before the holy 
synod ; on the ground of which we are able to shew, 
that he is estranged from the orthodox faith, that he 
strengthened a heresy utterly impious, that he wrong- 
fully deposed and has cruelly outraged us. And this 
we will do on the issuing of your divine and revered 
mandates to the holy and universal synod of the 
bishops, highly beloved of God, to the effect, that they 
should give a formal hearing to the matters whicli 
concern both us and the before-mentioned Dioscorus, 
and refer all the transactions to the decision of your 
piety, as shall seem fit to your immortal supremacy. 
If we obtain this our request, we shall ever pray for 
your everlasting rule, most divine sovereigns." 

In the next place, at the joint request of Dioscorus 
and Eusebius, the acts of the second council of Ephesus 
were publicly read, the particulars of which, as being- 
lengthy, and at the same time embraced by the detail 
of the proceedings at Chalcedon, I have subjoined to the 


present hook of tlie history, tliat I miglit not seem 
pi'olix to those who nrc eager t(^ l)e l)rouglit to the 
end of tlie transactions; therehy leaving to such as 
are desh'oiis of nihuite acquaintance with every par- 
ticuUir, the means of leisurely consultation and an 
accurate conception of the whole. By way of a 
cursory statement of the more important points, I 
mention, that Dioscorus was convicted of having 
suppressed the epistle of Leo, Ijishop of the elder 
Rome ; and further, of having enacted the deposition 
of Flavian, bishop of new Rome, in the space of a 
single day, and procured the subscriptions of the 
assembled prelates to a blank paper, represented as 
containing the form of the deposition. Upon these 
grounds, the senators decreed as follows : " Of points 
relating to the orthodox and catholic faith, we are 
agreed that a more exact inquiry should take place 
before a fuller assembly of the council, at its next 
meeting. But inasmuch as it has been shewn, from 
examination of the acts and decrees, and from the oral 
testimonyof the presidents of that synod, who admit that 
themselves were in error, and the deposition was void, 
that Flavian, of pious memory, and the most reverent 
bishop Eusebius, were convicted of no error concerning 
the faith, and were -wi'ongfuUy deposed, it seems to us, 
according to God's good pleasure, to be a just proceed- 
ing, if approved by our most divine and pious sove- 
reign, that Dioscorus, the most reverent l)ishop of 


Alexandria; Juvenalis, the most reverent bishop of 
Jerusalem; Thalassius, the most reverent bishop of 
C^sarea, in Cappadocia; Eusebius, the most reverent 
bishop of Ancyra; Eustathius, the most reverent 
bishop of Beiytus; and Basilios, the most reverent 
bishop of Seleucia, in Isauria ; who exercised sway and 
precedency in that synod; should he svibjected to the 
selfsame penalty, by suifering at the hands of the holy 
synod deprivation of their episcopal dignity, according 
to the canons ; whatever is consequent hereupon, being- 
submitted to the cognizance of the emperor's sacred 

On the presentation of libels against Dioscorus 
at the next meeting of the council, containing 
charges of slander and extortion, and his refusal, 
for certain alleged reasons, to appear, after a twice 
and thrice repeated summons, the representatives of 
Leo, bishop of the elder Rome, made the following 
declaration : — " The aggressions committed by Dios- 
corus, lately bishop of the great city Alexandria, in 
violation of canonical order and the constitution of 
the church, have been clearly proved by the investiga- 
tions at the former meeting, and the proceedings of 
to-day. For, not to mention the mass of his oiFences, 
he did, on his own authority, uncanonicaUy admit 
to communion his partisan Eutyches, after having 
been canonically deprived by his own bishop, namely, 
our sainted father and archbishop Flavian; and this 


before he sat in council with the other hishops at 
EphesLis. To them, indeed, the holy see granted par- 
don for the trajisactions of which they were not tlie 
dehberate authors, and they have hitherto continued 
obedient to the most holy archbishop Leo, and the 
body of the holy and universal synod ; on which ac- 
coinit he also admitted them into communion with 
him, as being his fellows in faith. "Wliereas Dioscorus 
has continued to maintain a haughty carriage, on ac- 
count of those very circumstances over which he ought 
to have bewailed and humbled himself to the earth. 
Moreover, he did not even allow the epistle to be read 
which the blessed pope Leo had addressed to Flavian, 
of holy memory; and that too, notmthstanding lie 
was repeatedly exhorted thereto by the bearers, and 
had promised with an oath to that effect. The result 
of the epistle not being read, has l^een to fill the most 
holy churches througliout the world with scandals and 
mischief. Xotmthstanding, however, such presump- 
tion, it vras our purpose to deal mercifully with him 
as regards his past impiety, as we had done to the 
Other bishops, although they had not held an equal 
judicial authority with him. But inasmuch as he has, 
by his subsequent conduct, overshot his former ini- 
quity, and has presumed to pronounce excommunica- 
tion against Leo, the most holy and religious archbishop 
of great Rome ; since, moreover, on the presentation 
of a })aper full of grievous charges against liim to the 


holy and great synod, lie refused to appear, thongh 
once, twice, and thrice canonically summoned by the 
bishops, pricked no doubt by his o^vn conscience ; and 
since he has unlawfully given reception to those who 
had been duly deposed by different synods; he has 
thus, by variously trampling upon the laws of the 
church, given his own verdict against himself. Wliere- 
fore Leo, the most blessed and holy archbishop of the 
great and elder Rome, has, by the agency of ourselves 
and the present synod, in conjunction with the thrice- 
blessed and all honoured Peter, who is the rock and 
l^asis of the Catholic church, and the foundation of the 
orthodox faith, deprived him of the episcopal dignity, 
and severed him from every priestly function. Ac- 
cordingly, this holy and great synod decrees the pro- 
visions of the canons on the aforesaid Dioscorus." 

After the ratification of these measures by the synod, 
and the transaction of some other matters, those who 
had been deposed together with Dioscorus, were 
reinstated, at the request of the synod and the assent 
of the imperial government ; and, after some further 
transactions, a definition of fiiith was enounced in 
these precise words : " Our Lord Jesus Christ, while 
confirming the knowledge of the fiiith in his disciples 
said, ' My peace I give to you ; my peace I leave to 
you ;' to the purpose, that no one should differ from 
his neighbour in the doctrines of piety, but should 
accord in pul)lisliing the declaration of the truth." 


Al'ter the reading of the holy Nieenc creed, and also 
that of the hundred and fifty holy fathers, they sub- 
joined as follows: " This wise and salutary synd)ol of 
divme grace is indeed sufficient for the perfect know- 
ledge and confirmation of godliness; for, concerning 
the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, its 
teaching is plain and complete, and it sufficiently 
suggests the incarnation of the Lord to those who 
receive it ftiithfully. But since the enemies of the 
truth are endeavouring to subvert its doctrine by 
heresies of their own, and have given Ijirth to certain 
empty speeches, some daring to pervert the mystery 
of the economy which the Lord bore for our sakes, 
and rejecting the term ' Mother of God,' in the case of 
the Virgin ; others introducing a confusion and com- 
mixture of substance, and inconsiderately moulding 
into one the natures of the flesh and of the Godhead, 
and by such confusion producing the monstrous notion 
of passibility in the divine nature of the Only-l)egotten ; 
for this reason the present great and universal holy 
synod, from a desire to preclude every device of theirs 
against the truth, and to maintain the hitherto un- 
shaken declaration of doctrine, has determined pri- 
marily that the creed of the three hundred and 
eighteen holy fathers shall be indefeasible; and, on 
account of those who impugn the Holy Spirit, it rati- 
fies the doctrine delivered subsequently concerning 
the substance of the S])irit by the hundred and fifty 


fathers, who assembled in the imperial city, and by 
them promulgated universally, not as though they 
were supplying some defect on the part of their pre- 
decessors, but were more clearly setting forth, by 
expressly recorded testimony, their notion respecting 
the Holy Spirit, in opposition to those who endea- 
voured to annul His prerogative. In respect to those 
who have dared to corrupt the mystery of the economy, 
and with shameless wantonness to represent Him who 
was born of the holy Virgin as a mere man, the 
council has adopted the synodic epistles of the blessed 
Cyril, pastor of the church of the Alexandrians, 
addressed to Nestorius and the prelates of the East, 
in refutation of the madness of Nestorius, and for the 
instruction of those who with pious zeal are desirous 
of being impressed with a due conception of the sav- 
ing symbol. To these the council has not without 
reason appended, in order to the confirmation of the 
true doctrines, the epistle of the president of the great 
and elder Rome, Avliich the most blessed and holy arch- 
bishop Leo addressed to the sainted archbishop Flavian, 
for the overthrow of the evil design of Eutyches; 
as being in agreement with the confession of the mighty 
Peter, and forming with it a monument of concurrent 
testimony against the maintainers of pernicious 
opinions ; for it boldly confronts those who endeavour 
to dissever the mystery of the economy into a duality 
of sons; it expels from the congregation of the holy 


iTtes those who presume to affirm that the Godliead of 
the Only-begotten is passible ; and opposes those who 
imagine a mixture or confusion in respect of the two 
natures of Christ. It also ejects such as fondly fancy 
that the form of a servant which He assumed from 
our own nature, was of a heavenly or any other sub- 
stance ; and it anathematises those who fable a resolu- 
tion into one, at their union, of tAVO previous natures 
of the Lord. Following, accordingly, the holy 
fathers, we confess one and the same Son, our Lord 
Jesus Christ, and we all with one voice declare him to 
be at the same time perfect in Godliead, and perfect in 
manhood, very God, and at the same tune very man, 
consisting of a reasonable soul and a body, being con- 
substantial with the Father as respects his Godhead, 
and at the same time consubstantial with ourselves as 
respects his manhood; resembling us ui all things, 
independently of sin ; begotten, before the ages, of the 
Father, according to his Godhead, but born, in the 
last of the days, of Mary, the virgin and mother of 
God, for our sakes and for our salvation ; being one 
and the same Jesus Christ, Son, Lord, Only-begotten, 
made knoA\Ti in two natures without confusion, without 
conversion, mthout severance, without separation, 
inasmuch as the difference of the natures is in no way 
annulled by their union, but the peculiar essence of 
each nature is rather preserved, and conspires in one 
person and one subsistence, not as though he were 


parted or severed into two persons, but is one and the 
same Son, Only-begotten, Divine Word, Lord Jesus 
Christ, as the prophets declared concerning Him, and 
Christ himself has fully instructed us, and the symbol 
of the fathers has conveyed to us. Since, then, these 
matters have been defined by us with all accuracy and 
diligence, the holy and universal synod has determined 
that no one shall be at liberty to put forth another 
fiiith, whether in writing, or by framing, or devising, 
or teaching it to others. And that those who shall 
presume to frame, or publish, or teach another faith, 
or to communicate another symbol to those who are 
disposed to turn to the knowledge of the truth from 
heathenism or Judaism, or any other sect — that they, 
if they be bishops or clerks, shall suffer deprivation, 
the bishops of their episcopal, the clerks of their 
clerical office ; and if monks or laics, shall be anathe- 
matised." After the reading of the formula, the em- 
peror Marcian visited Chalcedon, and attended the 
synod, and, having delivered an harangue, again took 
his departure. Juvenalis also and Maximus arranged 
on mutual terms the matters relating to their own 
provinces, and Theodoret and Ibas were reinstated. 
Other matters were also mooted ; an account of which, 
as I have already said, is subjoined to this history. 
It was also determined that the see of New Rome, 
while ranking second to that of C)ld Rome, should take 
precedence of all others. 




In addition to these transactions, Dioscorus is sen- 
tenced to reside at Gangra in Paphlagonia, and Prote- 
rius is appointed to the see of Alexandria by a general 
vote of the synod. On his taking possession of his 
see, a very great and intolerable tumult arose among 
the people, Avho were roused into a storm against con- 
Hicthig opinions ; for some, as is likely in such cases, 
desired the restoration of Dioscorus, while others reso- 
lutely upheld Proterius, so as to give rise to many 
irremediable mischiefs. Thus Priscus, the rhetorician, 
recounts, that he arrived at Alexandria from the 
Thebaid, and that he saw the populace advancing in a 
mass agamst the magistrates: that when the troops 
attempted to repress the tumult, they proceeded to 
assail them mth stones, and put them to flight, and 
on their taking refuge in the old temple of Serapis, 
carried the place by assault, and committed them 
alive to the flames : that the emperor, when informed 
of these events, despatched two thousand newly levied 
troops, who made so favourable a passage, as to reach 
Alexandria on the sixth day ; and that thence resulted 
still more alarming consequences, from the license of 


the soldiery towards the mves and daughters of the 
Alexandrians: that, subsequently, the people, being 
assembled in the hippodrome, entreated Florus, who 
was the mihtary connnandant, as well as the eivil 
governor, with such urgency as to procure terms for 
themselves, in the distribution of provisions, of which 
he had deprived them, as well as the privileges of the 
baths and s^^ectacles, and all others from which, on 
account of their turbulence, they had been debarred : 
that, at his suggestion, Florus presented hmiself to 
the j^eople, and pledged himself to that effect, and by 
this means stopped the sedition for a time. Nor did 
even the wilderness in the neio'hbourhood of Jeru- 


salem preserve its tranquillity, unvisited by this com- 
motion. For there arrived in Palestme some of the 
monks who had been present at the council, but were 
disposed to harbour designs in opposition to it; and 
by lamenting the betra}'al of the faith, exerted tliem- 
selves to fan into a flame the monastic body. And 
when Juvenalis, after obtaining restitution to his see, 
had been compelled to return to the imperial city, by 
the violence of the party who claimed the right to 
supersede and anathematise in their o^^ai province, 
those who, as we have already mentioned, were op- 
posed to the acts of the council of Chalcedon, assem- 
bled in the church of the Resurrection, and appointed 
Theodosius, Avho had especially caused confusion in 
the council, and been the first to bring a report of its 


proceedings, and respecting whom, at a subsequent 
period, the monks of Palestine alleged, in letters to 
Alcison, that having been convicted of malpractices in 
relation to his own bishop, he had been expelled from 
his monastery: and that at Alexandria he had 
impugned the conduct of Dioscorus, and, after having 
been severely scourged as a seditious person, had been 
conveyed round the city on a camel, as is usual with 
malefactors. To him many of the cities of Palestine 
made application, with a view to the ordination of 
bishops. Among these was Peter the Iberian ; to 
whom was committed the episcopal helm of the city 
called Majumas, in the neighbourhood of Gaza. On 
being informed of these proceedings, Marcian, in the 
first place, commands Theodosius to be conveyed near 
his own person, and sends Juvenalis to rectify the 
past, mth an injunction that all who had been ordained 
by Theodosius should be ejected. Many sad occur- 
rences followed the arrival of Juvenalis, while either 
party indulged in whatever proceedings their anger 
suo-o-ested. Such was the device of the envious and 
God-hating demon in the change of a single letter, 
that, while in reality the one expression was completely 
inductive of the notion of the other, still with the 
generality the discrepancy between them was held to 
be considerable, and the ideas conveyed by them to be 
clearly in diametric opposition, and exclusive of each 
other : whereas he who confesses Christ in two natures, 


clearly affirms Him to be from tAvo ; inasmuch as l^y 
confessing Christ at once in Godhead and manhood, he 
asserts His consistence from Godhead and manhood ; 
and, on the other hand,the position of one who affirms 
His origin from two natures, is completely mclusive 
of His existence in two, inasmuch as he who affirms 
Christ to be from Godhead and manhood, confesses 
His existence in Godhead and manhood, since there is 
no conversion of the flesh into Godhead, nor a transi- 
tion of the Godhead into flesh, from which substances 
arises the ineffable union. So that in this case by the 
expression, "from two natures," is aptly suggested the 
thought of the expression, " in two," and conversely ; 
nor can there be a severance of the terms, this being 
an instance where a representation of the whole is 
afforded, not merely by its origin from component 
parts, but, as a further and distinct means, by its 
existence in them. Yet, nevertheless, persons have 
so taken up the idea of the marked distinction of the 
terms, either from a habit of thought respecting the 
glory of God, or by the inclination forestalling the 
judgment, as to be reckless of death in any shape, 
rather than acknowledge the real state of the case ; 
and hence arose the occurrences which T have de- 
scribed. Such then was the state of these matters. 




About the same time there was also a drouglit in 
Phrygia, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Cilicia: and, from 
want of ordinary necessaries, the inhabitants had 
recourse to unwholesome food, which further gave rise 
to pestilence. The change of food caused disease; 
excessive inflammation produced a swelling of the 
body, followed by loss of sight, and attended with a 
cough, and death took place on the third day. For a 
time no relief could be devised for the pestilence ; but 
all-preserving Providence vouchsafed to the survivors 
a remedy for the famine, by raining do^vn food in the 
unproductive year, in the same way as what was 
termed manna upon the Israelites; and, during the 
succeeding year, by wiUing that the fruits of the earth 
should be matured spontaneously. The spread of these 
calamities included also Palestine and innumerable 
other districts, making, as it were, a circuit of the earth. 




During the progress of these events in the East, 
Aetius meets with a miserable end at Old Rome, and 


Yalentinian, the emperor of the West, is slaiii, together 
with Heraclius, by some of the guards of Aetius, at 
the instigation of Maximus, who afterwards assumed 
the sovereignty, and who conspired against them 
because Yalentinian had violated his wife. This 
Maximus forces Eudoxia, the wife of Yalentinian, into 
a marriage with himself; and she, justly regarding 
the transaction as an outrage and altogether monstrous, 
determined to set, as the saying is, all upon a cast, on 
account of the ^vrong she had suffered both in the 
person of her husband and the infringement of her 
liberty: for a woman, jealous of her chastity, is 
unscrupulous and implacable if she has suffered defile- 
ment, especially by one through whose means she has 
been deprived of her husband. Accordingly, she 
sends to Genseric, in Africa, and by considerable 
presents, as Avell as by holding out confident expecta- 
tions of the future, induces him to make a sudden 
descent upon the Roman empire, Avith a promise of 
betraying every thing into his hands. This was 
accordingly done, and Rome captured. But Genseric, 
barbarian -like and fickle, did not maintain his fidelity 
even to her ; but, after firing the city and making an 
indiscriminate pillage, he retired, taking with him 
Eudoxia and her two daughters, and returned to 
Africa. The elder daughter, Eudocia, he espouses to 
his OAvn son, Huneric; but the younger, Placidia, he 
subsequently sends, together mth her mother Eudoxia, 


Avitli a royal escort to Byzantiuin, with the vii'W of 
pacifying Marcian, who was exasperated both by the 
buriuiig of Rome and the outrage upon the royal 
ladies. Placidia, in obedience to Marcian, consents to 
marry Olybrius, a distinguished member of the senate, 
who had come to Constantinople on the capture of 
Rome. After Maximus, Avitus Avas emperor of the 
Romans for eight months; and on his decease by 
starvation, Majorian for more than a year: and after 
he had been treacherously murdered by Ricimer, 
master of the Roman armies, Severus for three years. 




During the reign of Severus at Rome, Marcian ex- 
changes his earthly sovereignty by a removal to a 
happier state, having reigned only seven years, but 
leaving behind him a truly royal monument in the 
memories of mankind. On learning this event, the 
people of Alexandria renewed their feud against 
Proterius with stiU greater exasperation and excessive 
heat : for the populace in general are an inflammable 
material, and allow very trivial pretexts to foment the 
flame of commotion, and not in the least degree that 
of Alexandria, which presumes on its numbers, chiefly 


an obscure and promiscuous rabble, and vaunts forth 
its impulses with excessive audacity. Accordingly, it 
is said that every one who is so disposed may, by em- 
ploying any casual circumstance as a means of excite- 
ment, inspire the city with a frenzy of sedition, and 
hurry the populace in whatever direction and against 
whomsoever he chooses. Their general humour, 
however, is even of a sportive kind, as Herodotus 
records to have been the case with Amasis. Such, 
then, is the character of this people ; who were, how- 
ever, in all other respects by no means contemptible. 
The people of Alexandria, accordingly, taking ad- 
vantage of the prolonged absence of Dionysius, com- 
mander of the legions, in Upper Egy^Dt, decree the 
elevation to the highest priestly grade, of Timotheus, 
surnamed ^Elurus, who had formerly followed the 
monastic life, but had subsequently been admitted 
among the presbyters of the church of Alexandria; 
and, conducting him to the great church, styled that 
of Caesar, elect him their bishop, though Proterius was 
still alive and discharged the functions of his office. 
There were present at the election, Eusebius, president 
of the church of Pelusium, and Peter the Iberian, 
bishop of the town of Majumas, according to the 
account given of the transaction by the ^vriter of the 
life of Peter, who also says that Proterius was not 
killed by the populace, but by one of the soldiers. 
AVlien Dionysius, on accoiuit of the urgency of these 

CHAP. Vlll.] MUKDEli OF I'llOTEUlUS. 71 

disorders, had occupied the city with the utmost 
dispatch, and Avas taking prompt measures to quench 
the towering conflagration of the sedition, some of the 
Alexandrians, at the instigation of Timotheus, accord- 
ing to the written report made to Leo, despatch 
Proterius when he appeared, by thrusting a sword 
through his bowels, after he had fled for reluge to the 
holy baptistery. Suspending the body by a cord, 
they displayed it to the public in the quarter called 
Tetrapylum, jeering and vociferating that the victim 
was Proterius; and, after dragging it through the 
whole city, connnitted it to the flames ; not even re- 
fraining themselves from tastmg his intestmes, like 
beasts of prey, according to the account of the entire 
transaction contained in the petition addressed by the 
Egyptian bishops and the whole clergy of Alexandria 
to Leo, who, as has been said, was invested with the 
imperial power on the death of j\Iarcian. It was 
couched in the following terms: — " To the pious, 
Christ-loving, and divinely-appointed, the victorious 
and triumphant Augustus Leo, the petition of all the 
bishops of your Egyptian diocese, and the clergy of 
your most dignified and holy church of Alexandria. 
Having been granted, by divine grace, a boon to man- 
kind, as such you cease not to exercise, next to God, a 
daily providence of the connnon weal, Augustus, most 
sacred of all emperors." After some other matters, 
the petition proceeds: "And while undisturbed 


peace was prevailing among the orthodox people of our 
country and Alexandria, Timotheus, immediately after 
the holy synod at Chalcedon, being at that time a 
presbyter, severed himself from the Catholic church 
and faith, together with only four or five bishops and 
a few monks, of those who, as well as himself, were 
infected with the heretical errors of ApoUinaris and 
his followers ; on account of which opinions they were 
then deposed by Proterius, of divine memory, and the 
general synod of Egypt, and duly experienced the 
motion of the imperial will, in the sentence of banish- 
ment." And afterwards it proceeds : " And having 
watched the opportunity aiForded by the departure 
from this world to God of the emperor Marcian, of 
sacred memory, assuming then in blasphemous terms 
a bold tone of independence, and shamelessly anathe- 
matising the holy and general synod at Chalcedon, 
while he drew after hhn a mercenary and disorderly 
multitude, and assailed the divine canons and ecclesi- 
astical order, the commonwealth and the laws, he in- 
truded himself upon the holy church of God, which at 
that time was possessed of a pastor and teacher in the 
person of our most holy father and archbishop, Pro- 
terius, duly performing the ordinary rites, and offer- 
ing up to Christ, the Saviour of us all, supplications 
in behalf of your pious sovereignty and your Christ- 
loving court." And presently it proceeds : " And 
after the interval of only one day, while Proterius, 


beloved of God, was occupying, as usual, the epis- 
copal residence, Timotheus, taking with hhn the two 
bishops who had been justly deposed, and the clergy 
who, as we have said, were condemned to banishment 
with them, as if he had received rightful ordination at 
the hands of the two, though not one of the orthodox 
bishops of the whole Egyptian diocese was present, as 
is customary on occasion of the ordinations of the 
bishop of the church of Alexandria — he possesses 
himself, as he presumed, of the archiepiscopal see, 
though manifestly giiilty of an adulterous outrage on 
the church, as already having her rightful spouse in 
one who was performing the divine offices in her, and 
canonically occupied his proper throne." And further 
on : " The blessed man could do nothing else than 
give place to wrath, according to what is written, and 
take refuge in the venerable baptistery from the 
assault of those who were pursuing him to death, a 
place which especially inspires awe even into bar- 
barians and savages, though ignorant of its dignity, 
and the grace which flows from it. Notwithstanding, 
however, those who were eager to carry into execu- 
tion the design which Timotheus had from the first 
conceived, and who could not endure that his life 
should be protected by those undefiled precincts, nei- 
ther reverenced the dignity of the place, nor yet the 
season (for it was the solemnity of the saving paschal 
feast), nor were awe-struck at the priesth office which 


mediates between God and man ; but put the blame- 
less man to death, cruelly butchermg him with six 
others. They then drew forth his body, covered with 
Avovmds, and having dragged it in horrid procession 
with unfeeling mockery through almost every part of 
the city, ruthlessly loaded the senseless corpse with 
indignity, so far as to tear it limb from limb, and not 
even abstain from tasting, like beasts of prey, the flesh of 
him whom but just before they were supposed to 
have as a mediator between God and man. They then 
committed what remained of the body to the flames, 
and scattered the ashes to the mnds, exceeding the 
utmost ferocity of wild beasts. Of all these transac- 
tions Timotheus was the guilty cause, and the skilful 
builder of the scheme of mischief." Zacharias, how- 
ever, while treating at length of these events, is of 
opinion that the greater part of the circumstances 
thus detailed actually occurred, but through the fault 
of Proterius, by his instigation of serious disturbances 
in the city, and that these outrages were committed, 
not by the populace, but by some of the soldiery ; 
grounding his opinion on a letter addressed by Timo- 
theus to Leo. In consequence, however, of these 
proceedings, Stilas is sent out by the emperor to chas- 
tise them. 




Leo also addresses circular letters of inquiry to the 
bishops throughout the empire and the most distin- 
guished monastics, relating to the synod at Chal- 
cedon and the ordination of Timotheus, surnamed 
iElurus, accompanying them with copies of the peti- 
tions which had been presented to him on the part 
both of Proterius and Timotheus. The circular let- 
ters were couched in the following terms : — 

A copy of the sacred epistle of the most pious em- 
peror Leo to Anatolius, bishop of Constantinople, to 
the metropolitans throughout the whole world, and 
the other bishops. 

" The emperor Caasar Leo, pious, victorious, tri- 
umphant, supreme, ever-worshipful Augustus, to the 
bishop Anatolius. It has ever been a subject of prayer 
to my piety, that all the orthodox and most holy 
churches, and, indeed, the cities throughout the Ro- 
man dominion, should enjoy perfect tranquillity, and 
that nothing should befall them to disturb their settled 
serenity. The events, however, which have lately 
happened at Alexandria, we are assured, are known 
to your holiness: but that you may be more fully 
informed respecting the entire transaction, and the 


cause of so much tumult and confusion, we have for- 
Avarded to your sanctity copies of the petitions which 
the most reverent bishops and clergy of the before- 
mentioned city, and of the Egyptian diocese, presented 
to our piety against Timotheus, at the imperial city of 
Constantine ; and, in addition, copies of the petitions 
presented to our serenity, at our sacred court, by per- 
sons from Alexandria on behalf of Tiuiotheus ; so that 
your holiness will be able distinctly to learn what 
have been the proceedings of the before-mentioned 
Timotheus, whom the people of Alexandria and their 
dignitaries, senators, and ship-masters request for their 
bishop, and what relates to the other transactions, as 
intimated by the tenor of the petitions, as well as re- 
garding the synod at Chalcedon, to which these par- 
ties by no means assent, according as the matters are 
set forth by the petitions appended. Your reverence 
will accordingly forthwith cause to assemble to you 
all the orthodox holy bishops who are now resident 
in the imperial city, as also the most reverent clergy ; 
and, after carefully investigating and testing every cir- 
cumstance, considering that Alexandria is at present 
disturbed, and that we are most solicitous for its 
settlement and tranquillity, declare your opinion 
respecting the before-mentioned Tmiotheus and the 
synod at Chalcedon, without any fear of man, and 
apart from all favour or disHke ; setting before your 
eyes only the fear of the Almighty, inasmuch as ye 


know tlint ye sliiill give account of this matter to His 
pure Godhead. This we enjoin, in order that, being 
perfectly informed by your letters, we may be able to 
frame the fitting issue on the entire matter." The 
emperor wrote also in similar terms to the other 
bishops, and, as I have said, to the most distinguished 
among those who at that period were practising the 
endurance of the bare and immaterial mode of life. 
Among these was Simeon, who first conceived the sta- 
tion on the pillar, and of whom I have made mention 
in the former part of the history ; as well as Baradatus 
and Jacob, the Syrians. 



Accordingly, in the first instance, Leo, bishop of 
the elder Rome, both wrote in defence of the synod 
at Chalcedon, and declared the ordination of Timo- 
theus to be null, as having been irregularly performed. 
This epistle the emperor Leo dispatches to Timotheus, 
president of the church of Alexandria ; Diomedes, the 
silentiary, executing the imperial commission : and 
Timotheus wrote in rejoinder, excepting to the synod 
at Chalcedon and the epistle of Leo. Of these docu- 
ments copies are preserved in the collection called the 
Circulars : but I have omitted them, to avoid encum- 


bering the matter on hand with too great a number. 
The bishops, too, of the other cities, expressed their 
adherence to the determinations framed at Chalcedon, 
and unanimously condemned the ordination of Timo- 
theus. Amphilochius alone, bishop of Side, wrote an 
epistle, loudly reprobating the ordination of Timo- 
theus, but also rejecting the synod at Chalcedon. 
Zacharias the rhetorician has also treated of these 
transactions, and has inserted the epistle itself of 
Amphilochius in his work. Simeon, too, of holy me- 
mory, wrote two epistles on the occasion ; namely, to 
the emperor Leo, and to Basilius, bishop of Antioch. 
The latter, as being brief, I insert in this my history, 
as follows : "To my lord, the most religious and holy 
servant of God, the archbishop Basilius, the sinful 
and humble Simeon wishes health in the Lord. Well 
may we now say, my lord : Blessed be God, who has 
not rejected our prayer, nor withdrawn his mercy 
from us sinners. For, on the receipt of the letters of 
your worthiness, I admired the zeal and piety of our 
sovereign, beloved of God, which he manifested and 
still manifests towards the holy fathers and their 
unshaken faith. And this gift is not from ourselves, 
as says the holy apostle, but from God, who, through 
your prayers, bestowed on him this readiness of 
mind." And presently he proceeds: "On this ac- 
count, I also, though mean and worthless, the refuse 
of the monks, have conveyed to his majesty my judg- 


incnt respecting the creed of the six hundred and 
thirty holy fiithers assembled at Chalcedon, firmly 
resolving to abide by the faith then revealed by the 
Holy Spirit : for if, in the midst of two or three "svlio 
are gathered in His name, the Saviour is present, how 
could it be otherwise, than that the Holy Spirit 
should be throughout in the midst of so many and so 
distinguished holy ftithers?" And afterwards he pro- 
ceeds: " Wherefore be stout and courageous in the 
cause of true piety, as was also Joshua the son of 
Nun, the servant of the Lord, in behalf of the chil- 
dren of Israel. I beg you to salute from me all the 
reverent clergy who are under your holiness, and the 
blessed and most faithful laity." 



On these grounds Timotheus is sentenced to ba- 
nishment, and Gangra is in his case also named as the 
place of exile. The Alexandrians then elect another 
Timotheus, variously surnamed Basilicus and Salo- 
facialus. Anatolius dies, and Gennadius succeeds him 
in the see of the imperial city. His successor is Aca- 
cius, who had been master of the Orphan Hospital in 
that city. 




During the second year of the reign of Leo, an 
extraordinary shock and concussion of the earth took 
place at Aiitioch, preceded by certain excesses of the 
populace, which reached the extreme of frenzy, and 
surpassed the ferocity of beasts, forming, as it were, a 
prelude to such a calamity. This grievous visitation 
occurred in the five hundred and sixth year of the 
free prerogatives of the city, about the fourth hour of 
the night, on the fourteenth day of the month Gor- 
piaeus, which the Romans call September, on the eve 
of the Lord's day, in the eleventh cycle of the indic- 
tion; and was the sixth on record after a lapse of 
three hundred and forty -seven years, since the earth- 
quake under Trajan; for that occurred when the city 
was in the hundred and fifty-ninth year of its inde- 
pendence; but this, which happened in the time of 
Leo, in the five hundred and sixth, according to the 
most diligent authorities. This earthquake threw 
do-^Ti nearly all the houses of the New City, which was 
very populous, and contained not a smgle vacant or 
altogether unoccupied spot, but had been highly em- 
bellished by the rival liberality of the emperors. Of 
the structures composing the palace, the first and 


second were thrown down : the rest, however, remained 
standing, together with the adjoining baths, which, 
having been previously useless, were now rendered 
serviceable to the necessities of the city, arising from 
the damage of the others. It also levelled the por- 
ticoes in front of the [)alace and the adjacent Tetra- 
pylum, as Avell as the towers of the Hippodrome, 
which flanked the entrances, and some of the porticoes 
adjoining them. In the Old City, the ]3orticoes and 
dwellings entirely escaped the overthrow; but it shat- 
tered a small portion of the baths of Trajan, Severn s, 
and Hadrian, and also laid in ruins some parts of the 
quarter of houses named Ostracine, together -svith the 
porticoes, and levelled what was called the Xymph^e- 
um. All these circumstances have been minutely 
detailed by John the rhetorician. He says, that a 
thousand talents of gold were remitted to the city 
from the tributes by the emperor; and, besides, to 
individual citizens, the imposts of the houses de- 
stroyed : and that he also took measures for the restor- 
ation both of them and of the public buildings. 



A SIMILAR, or even more terrible calamity, befell 
Constantinople, which took its rise from the quarter of 



the city bordering on the sea, and named Bospo- 
rium. The acconnt is, that about dusk-hour, a 
demon of destruction in the form of a woman, or in 
reality a poor woman incited by a demon, for the story 
is told in ])otli ways, carried a light into the market 
for the purpose of buying pickled victuals, and then, 
having set down the light, stole away. Catching 
some tow, it raised a great flame, and in a moment 
set the apartment on fire. The conflagration, thus 
begun, soon consumed every thing within its reach, and 
afterwards continuing to spread for four days, not 
only over the more combustible materials, but build- 
ings of stone, notAvithstanding every effort to check it, 
at last destroyed the whole heart of the city from 
north to south, a space of five stadia in width, and 
fourteen in length ; throughout which it left no build- 
ing standing, either public or private, nor pillars nor 
arches of stone; but the hardest substances were as 
completely consumed as if they had been combustible. 
The ruin, at its northern extremity, which is where the 
docks are situated, extended from the Bosporium to 
the old temple of Apollo ; at the southern, from the 
harbour of Julian as far as the houses near the ora- 
tory of tlie church of Unanimity; and in the centre 
of the city, from the forum of Constantine to the 
Forum Tauri, as it is called : a pitiable and loathsome 
spectacle ; for all the most conspicuous ornaments of 
the city, and whatever had been embellished with un- 


rivalled inagniiicence, or adapted to public or private 
utility, had been swept together into huge heaps and 
impassable mounds, formed of various substances, 
whose former features were now so blended in one 
confused mass, that not even those who lived on the 
spot could recognise the different portions, and the 
place to which each had belonged. 



About the same time, when the Scythian war was 
gathering against the Eastern Romans, an earthquake 
visited Thrace, the Hellespont, Ionia, and the islands 
called Cyclades; so severe as to cause a universal 
overthrow in Cnidus and Cos. Priscus also records 
the occurrence of excessive rains about Constantinople 
and Bithynia, which descended like torrents for three 
or four days; when hills were swept down to the 
plains, and villages carried away by the deluge: 
islands also were formed in the lake Boane, not far 
from Nicomedia, by the masses of rubbish brought 
do^vn by the waters. This evil, liowever, was snl>se- 
quent to the former. 




Leo bestows his daughter Ariadne on Zeno, who 
from his infancy had been called Aricmesius, but on 
his marriage assumed the former name, derived from 
an individual who had attained great distinction among 
the Isaurians. The origin of the advancement of this 
Zeno, and the reason why he was preferred by Leo 
before all others, have been set forth by Eustathius 
the Syrian. 



In compliance with an embassy from the Western 
Romans, Anthemius is sent out as emperor of Rome; 
to whom the late emperor Marcian had betrothed his 
own daughter. Basiliscus, brother to the emperor's 
wife Verina, is also sent out against Genseric, in 
command of a body of chosen troops : which transac- 
tions have been treated of with great exactness by 
Priscus the rhetorician ; and how Leo, in repayment, 
as it were, for his own advancement, treacherously 
procures the death of Aspar, who had been the means 

ClIAr. XVII.] DKATII (»F LEO. — A.D. 474. 85 

of investing him with the sovereignty, and also of his 
sons, Ardaburius and Patricius; on the latter of 
whom he had previonsly bestowed the title of Caesar, 
in order to conciliate Aspar. After the slaughter of 
Anthemius, in the fifth year of his reign, Olybrius is 
declared emperor by Ricimer ; and after him appoint- 
ment is made of Glycerins. Nej^os possesses himself 
of the supreme power for five years, by the expulsion 
of Glycerius, whom he appoints to the bishopric of 
Salona, a city of Dalmatia. He is himself driven 
from power by Orestes, as was subsequently Komulus, 
surnamed Augustulus, the son of the latter, Avho 
was the last emperor of Rome, at an interval of thir- 
teen hundred and three years from the reign of Ro- 
mulus. Odoacer next sways the affairs of the Ro- 
mans, declining the imperial title, but assuming that 
of king. 



About the same time the emperor Leo, at Byzan- 
tium, departs his sovereignty, after having swayed 
it for seventeen yearSj and appointed to the empire 
Leo, the infant son of his daughter Ariadne and 
Zeno. Zeno then assumes the purple, being aided by 
the favour of Verina, the wife of Leo, towards her 
son-in-law. On the death of the child, which shortly 


followed, Zeiio contiiiuecl . in sole possession of the 
sovereignty. The transactions which originated with 
him, or were directed against him, and whatever else 
befell him, the sequel shall detail, with the aid of the 
Superior Power. 

The proceedings of the synod at Chalcedon are 
here given in a compendious form. 



Paschasinus and Lucentius, bishops, and Boniface, 
a presbyter, filled the place of Leo, archpriest of the 
elder Rome ; there being present Anatolius president of 
the church of Constantinople, Dioscorus bishop of 
Alexandria, Maximus of Antioch, and Juvenalis of 
Jerusalem, and with them their associate bishops ; on 
whom attended also those who held the highest rank in 
the most excellent senate. To the latter the represen- 
tatives of Leo alleged, that Dioscorus ought not to be 
seated with themselves, for such were their instructions 
from Leo; and that if this should be jdlowed, they 
would retire from the church. In reply to the question 
of the senators, Avhat were the charges against Dios- 
corus, they stated, that he ought himself to render an 


account of his own decision, since he had unduly 
assumed the character of a judge, without being 
autliorised by the bishop of Rome. After this state- 
ment had been made, and Dioscorus stood in the midst, 
according to a decision of the senate, Eusebius, bishop 
of Doryla3um, demanded, in the following words, that 
the petition should be read which he had presented to 
the sovereign po^ver : "I have been wronged by 
Dioscorus; the faith has been wronged; Flavian the 
bishop was murdered, and together with myself un- 
justly deposed by him. Give directions that my pe- 
tition be read." On its being so ruled, the petition was 
read, couched in the following terms : " The petition 
of Eusebius, the very humble bishop of Dorylaeum, in 
behalf of himself and the sainted Flavian, formerly 
bishop of Constantinople. It is the aim of your 
majesty to exercise a providential care of all your 
subjects, and stretch forth a protecting hand to all 
who are suffering wrong, and to those especially who 
are invested with the priesthood; for by this means 
service is rendered to God, from whom you have re 
ceived the bestowal of supremacy and power over all 
regions under the sun. Inasmuch, then, as the 
Christian faith and we have suffered many outrages 
at the hands of Dioscorus, the most reverent bishop 
of the great city of the Alexandrians, we address our- 
selves to your piety in pursuance of our rights. The 
circumstances of the case are as follow : — At the synod 


lately held at the metropolitan city of the Ephesians — 
^vould that it had never met, nor the world been 
thereby filled with mischiefs and tumult — the ex- 
cellent Dioscorus, regarding neither the principle of 
justice nor the fear of God, sharing also in the 
opinions and feelings of the visionary and heretical 
Eutyches, though unsuspected by the multitude of 
being such as he afterwards shewed himself, took oc- 
casion of the charge advanced by me against his 
fellow in doctrine, Eutyches, and the decision given 
by the sainted bishop Flavian, and having gathered a 
disorderly rabble, and procured an overbearing in- 
tiuence by bribes, made havoc as far as lay in his 
power, of the pious religion of the orthodox, and 
established the erroneous doctrine of Eutyches the 
monk, which had from the first been repudiated by 
the holy fathers. Since, then, his aggressions against 
the Christian faith and us are of no trifling magni- 
tude, we beseech and supplicate your majesty to issue 
your commands to the same most reverent bishop 
Dioscorus, to defend himself against our allegations ; 
namely, when the record of the acts which Dioscorus 
procured against us, shall be read before the holy 
synod ; on the ground of which we are able to shew, 
that he is estranged from the orthodox faith, that he 
strengthened a heresy utterly impious, that he wrong- 
fully deposed and has cruelly outraged us. i^nd this 
we will do on the issuing of your divine and revered 


iriaudates to the holy and universal synod of the 
bishops, highly beloved of God, to the eifeet, that they 
should give a formal hearing to the matters which 
concern both us and the before-mentioned Dioscorus, 
and refer all the transactions to the decision of your 
piety, as shall seem fit to your immortal supremacy. 
If we obtam this our request, we shall ever pray for 
your everlasting rule, most divine sovereigns." 

At the joint request of Dioscorus and Eusebius, the 
transactions of the second synod of Ephesus were 
publicly read ; from which it appeared that the epistle 
of Leo had not obtained a reading, and that, too, when 
mention of the subject had been twice started. Dios- 
corus, being called upon to state the reason of this, 
said expressly that he had twice proposed that it 
should be done ; and he then required that Juvenalis, 
bishop of Jerusalem, and Thalassius, bishop of Ca3sa- 
rea, metropolis of Cappadocia Prima, should explain 
the circumstances, since they shared the presidency 
mth himself. Juvenalis accordingly said, that the 
reading of a sacred rescript, having precedency, had, at 
his decision, been interposed, and that no one had sub- 
sequently mentioned the epistle. Thalassius said that 
he had not opposed the reading, nor had he sufficient 
authority to enable him singly to signify that it should 
proceed. The reading of the transactions was then 
proceeded with ; and on some of the bishops excepting 
to certain passages as forgeries, Stephen, bishop of 


Ephesus, being asked which of his notaries were copy- 
ists in this phice, named Julian, afterwards bishop of 
Lebedus, and Crispinus ; but said that the notaries of 
Dioscorus would not allow them to act, but seized 
their lingers, so that they were in danger of most 
grievous treatment. He also affirmed, that on one 
and the same day he subscribed to the deposition of 
Flavian. To this statement, Acacius, bishop of Aria- 
rathia, added, that they had all subscribed a blank 
paper by force and compulsion, being beset with in- 
numerable evils, and surrounded by soldiers with 
deadly weapons. 

Again, on the reading of another expression, Theo- 
dore, bishop of Claudiopolis, said that no one had 
uttered the words. And as the reading was thus 
proceeding, on the occurrence of a passage to the 
effect that Eutyches expressed his disapproval of 
those who affirmed that the flesh of our God and Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Christ had descended from heaven, 
the acts testify that Eusebius, upon this, asserted that 
Eutyches had discarded indeed the term " from 
heaven," but had not proceeded to say from whence ; 
and that Diogenes, bishop of Cyzicus, then urged him 
with the demand, "Tell us from whence;" but that 
further than this they were not allowed to press the 
question. The acts then shew : — that Basil, bishop of 
Seleucia, in Isauria, said, " I worship our one Lord 
Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only Divine AVord, 


manifested after the incarnation and union in two 
natures ;" — that the Egyptians clamoured against this, 
" Let no one part the indivisible One ; it is not proper 
to call the one Son two ;" and that the Orientals ex- 
claimed, " Anathema to him that parts ! anathema to 
hmi that divides I" — that Eutyches was asked, whether 
he affirmed two natures in Christ ; to which he replied, 
that he held Christ to have been from two natures 
before the union, but that after the union there was 
only one ; — that Basil said, that unless he maintained 
two natures without severance and without confusion 
after the union, he maintained a confusion and 
commixture ; but, notwithstanding, if he would add 
the terms " incarnate," and " invested with humanity," 
and should understand the incarnation and the as- 
sumption of humanity in the same sense as Cyril, he 
affirmed the same thing as themselves ; for the God- 
head derived from the Father was one thing, and 
humanity from His mother Avas another. 

On the parties being asked why they had subscribed 
the deposition of Flavian, the acts shew that the 
Orientals exclaimed, "We have all erred; we all 
intreat pardon." Again, as the reading proceeded, 
they shew that the bishops were asked why, when 
Eusebius wished to enter the council, they did not 
allow him. To this Dioscorus replied, that Elpidius 
presented a commonitorium, and solemnly affirmed 
that the emperor Theodosius had given command that 


Eusebius sliould not be admitted. The acts shew 
that Juvenalis also gave the same answer. Thalassius, 
however, said that authority in the matter did not 
rest with himself. These replies were disallowed by 
the magistrates, on the ground that such excuses were 
insufficient when the faith was at issue : upon which 
Dioscorus recriminated ; " In what respect does the 
presence of Theodoret at this time accord with the 
observance of the canons?'' The senators rejoined, 
that Theodoret had been admitted in the character of 
accuser; but Dioscorus sig-nified, that he was 



sitting in the position of a bishop. The senators 
again said, that Eusebius and Theodoret occupied the 
position of accusers, as Dioscorus himself that of an 
accused person. 

The entire transactions of the second synod at 
Ephesus having been accordingly read, and, in like 
manner, the sentence against Flavian and Eusebius, 
as far as the place where Hilary had declared a pro- 
test, the Oriental bishops and their party exclaimed, 
" Anathema to Dioscorus : Christ has at this moment 
deposed Dioscorus. Flavian was deposed by Dios- 
corus. Holy Lord, do thou avenge him ! Orthodox 
sovereign, do thou avenge him ! INIany be the years 
of Leo ! Many be the years of the patriarch I" When 
the sequel of the document had been read, shewing 
that all the assembled bishops had assented to the 
deposition of Flavian, the most illustrious magistrates 


ruled as follows : " Concerning the orthodox and 
catholic faith, we are clearly of opinion that a more 
accurate investigation should be made in a more com- 
plete assemblage of the synod to-morrow. But since 
it appears that Flavian, of pious memory, and Euse- 
bius, the most reverent bishop of Dorylteum, were 
not in error concerning the faith, but were unjustly 
deposed, both from the examination of the acts and 
decrees, and from the present confession of those who 
presided in the synod, that themselves were in error, 
and the deposition was null ; it seems to us, according 
to the good pleasure of God, to be just, M'ith the 
approval of our most divine and pious lord, that 
Dioscorus, the most reverent bishop of Alexandria; 
Juvenalis, the most reverent bishop of Jerusalem; 
Thalassius, the most reverent bishop of Ctesarea; 
Eusebius, the most reverent bishop of Ancyra; Eusta- 
thius, the most reverent bishop of Ber}i;us ; and Basil, 
the most reverent bishop of Seleucia, in Isauria, 
should be subjected to the same penalty, by being 
deprived, through this holy synod, in accordance with 
the canons, of the episcopal dignity ; with a reference 
of whatever is consequent, to the imperial supremacy." 
On this the Orientals exclaimed, " This is a just 
decision;" and the Illyrian bishops, "We were all in 
error; let us all be deemed deserving of pardon." 
When the Orientals had again exclaimed, " This is a 
just verdict : Christ has deposed the murderer : Christ 


has avenged the martyrs !" the senators ruled to the 
effect, that each of the assembled bishops should 
severally put forth his own formulary of fliith, under 
the assurance that the belief of the most divine em- 
peror was in accordance with the exposition of the 
three hundred fathers at Niceea, and of the hundred 
and fifty at Constantinople ; and with the epistles of 
the holy fathers, Gregory, Basil, Hilary, Athanasius, 
and Ambrose, as well as the two of Cyril, which were 
made public in the first synod at Ephesus; inasmuch 
as upon these grounds Leo, the most reverent bishop 
of the Elder Rome, had deposed Eutyches. In this 
manner was closed the pi-esent meeting of the 

At the next, composed of the most holy bishops 
alone, Eusebius presented libels in behalf of himself 
and Flavian, in which he objected to Dioscorus, that 
he held the same opinions as Eutyches, and had 
deprived themselves of the priesthood. He further 
charged him with inserting in the transactions expres- 
sions which were not uttered in the synod, and having 
procured their subscription to a blank paper. He 
petitioned that the entire acts of the second synod at 
Ephesus should be annulled by vote of those who were 
now assembled; that themselves should retain their 
priesthood ; and that foul tenet be anathematised. 

After the reading of this document, he also required 
that his adversary should })e present. Wlien this 


had been ruled in the affirmative, Aetius, archdeacon 
and priniicerius of the notaries, stated that he had 
proceeded to Dioscorus, as also to the others ; hut that 
he said he was not permitted by the persons on guard 
to appear. It was then decided that Dioscorus should 
be sought in front of the place of meeting ; and, on 
his not being found, Anatolius, bishop of Constanti- 
nople, ruled that he ought to be summoned, and be 
present before the synod. This course having been 
adopted, the delegates, on their return, said that he 
had replied : "I am under restraint. Let these say 
whether they leave me free to proceed thither ;" and 
to their intimation that they were deputed to himself, 
and not to the civil powers, his answer was stated to 
be : "I am ready to proceed to the holy and universal 
synod, but I am prevented." To this statement 
Himerius added, that the Assistant of the Master of the 
Sacred Offices had met them on their return, in com- 
pany with whom the bishops had again visited Dios- 
corus, and that he had taken some notes of what then 
passed. These were then read, and set forth the 
precise words of Dioscorus, as follows : " Upon calm 
reflection, and due consideration of my interest, I thus 
reply. Whereas, at the former meeting of the s}niod, 
the most illustrious magistrates ruled upon many 
several points, and I am now summoned to a second, 
having for its object a modification of the preceding 
matters ; I pray that the most illustrious magistrates 


who attended on the former occasion, and the sacred 
senate, should do so on the present also, m order that 
the same pomts may be agam debated." The acts 
shew that Acacius then replied in the following- 
words : " The great and holy synod, in requiring the 
presence of your holiness, has not in view a modifica- 
tion of what was transacted in the presence of the 
most illustrious magistrates and the sacred senate; 
but it has deputed us merely that you should have a 
place in the meeting, and that your holiness should 
not be wanting to it." Dioscorus replied, according 
to the acts, " You have just told me that Eusebius 
had presented libels. I pray that the matters touch- 
ing myself may be again sifted in the presence of the 
magistrates and the senate." 

Then follow other similar matters. Afterwards, 
persons were again sent with a commission to urge 
Dioscorus to appear; who, on their return, said that 
they had taken notes of his words. From these it 
appears that he said : " I have already signified to 
your piety, both that I am suffering from sickness, 
and that I demand that the most illustrious magis- 
trates and the sacred senate should also on the present 
occasion attend the investigation of the matters at 
issue. Since, however, my sickness has increased, on 
this ground I am withholding my attendance." Cecro- 
pius, then, as appears from the acts, intimated to 
Dioscorus, that but a short time before he had made 


no mention of sickness, and, accordingly, he ought to 
satisfy the requisitions of the canons. To whom 
Dioscorus rejoined : " I have said once for all, that the 
magistrates ought to be present." Then Rufinus, 
bishop of Samosata, told him that the matters mooted 
were under canonical regulation, and that on his 
appearance he would be at liberty to make whatever 
statements he chose. To the enquiry of Dioscorus, 
whether Juvenalis, Thalassius, and Eustathius were 
present, he replied that this was nothing to the purpose. 
The acts shew that Dioscorus said in answer, that he 
prayed the Christ-loving emperor to the eifect that 
the magistrates should be present, and also those who 
had acted as judges in conjunction with himself. To 
this the deputies rejoined, that Eusebius accused him 
only, and there was accordingly no occasion that all 
should be present. Dioscorus replied, that the others 
who had acted with him ought to be present, for the 
suit of Eusebius did not affect himself individually, 
but rested in fact upon a judgment in which they 
had all united. When the deputies still hisisted upon 
this point, Dioscorus sunnnarily replied : " What I 
have said, I have said once for all; and I have now 
nothing further to say." 

Upon this report, Eusebius stated that his charge 

was against Dioscorus only, and against no other 

person ; and he required that he should be sunnnoned 

a third time. Aetius then, in continuance, informed 



them that certain persons from Alexandria, professing 
to be clerks, together with several laymen, had lately 
presented libels against Dioscorus, and, standing 
outside, were now invoking the synod. When, ac- 
cordingly, in the first place Theodoras, a deacon of 
the holy church at Alexandria, had presented libels, 
and afterwards Ischyrion, a deacon, Athanasius, a 
presbyter, and nephew of Cyril, and also Sophronius, 
in which they charged Dioscorus mth blasphemies, 
oifences agamst the person, and violent seizures of 
money; a third summons was issued urging him to 
attend. Those who were accordingly selected for this 
service, on their return, reported Dioscorus to have 
said : "I have already sufficiently informed your 
piety on this point, and cannot add any thing further." 
Since Dioscorus had persisted in the same reply, while 
the delegates continued to press him, the bishop 
Paschasinus said: " At length, after being summoned 
a third time, Dioscorus has not appeared :" and he 
then asked what treatment he deserved. To this, 
when the bishops had replied that he had rendered 
himself obnoxious to the canons, and Proterius, bishop 
of Smyrna, had observed, that when Flavian had been 
murdered, no suitable measures had been taken with 
respect to him ; the representatives of Leo, bishop of 
the elder Rome, made a declaration as follows: — 
— " The aggressions committed ])y Dioscorus, lately 
bishop of the great city Alexandria, in violation 


of canonical order and the constitution of the church, 
have been clearly proved by the investigations at 
the former meeting, and the proceedings of to-day. 
For, not to mention the mass of his offences, he 
did, on his own authority, uncanonically admit to 
communion his partisan Eutyches, after having 
been canonically deprived by his own bishop, namely, 
our sainted father and archbishop Flavian; and this 
before he sat in council with the other bishops at 
Ephesus. To them, indeed, the holy see granted par- 
don for the transactions of which they were not the 
deliberate authors, and they have hitherto continued 
obedient to the most holy archbishop Leo, and the 
body of the holy and universal synod; on which ac- 
count he also admitted them into communion with 
him, as being his fellows in faith. Whereas Dioscorus 
has continued to maintain a haughty carriage, on ac- 
count of those very circumstances over which he ought 
to have bewailed, and humbled himself to the earth. 
Moreover, he did not even allow the epistle to be read 
which the blessed pope Leo had addressed to Flavian, 
of holy memory; and that too, notmthstandiiig he 
was repeatedly exhorted thereto by tlie bearers, and 
had promised with an oath to that effect. The result 
of the epistle not being read, has been to fill the most 
holy churches throughout the world with scandals and 
mischief. Notwithstanding, however, such presump- 
tion, it was our purpose to deal mercifull}' with him 


as regards his past impiety, as we had done with the 
other bisliops, although they had not held an equal 
judicial authority with liim. Vmt inasmuch as he has, 
by his sulisequent conduct, overshot his fonner ini- 
quity, and has presumed to pronounce excommunica- 
tion against Leo, the most lioly and religious archbishop 
of great Rome ; since, moreover, on the presentation 
of a paper full of grievous charges against him to the 
holy and great synod, he refused to appear, though 
once, twice, and thrice canonically summoned by the 
bishops, pricked no doubt by his own conscience ; and 
since he has unla"\vfully given reception to those who 
had been duly deposed by different s^aiods; he has 
thus, by variously trampling upon the laws of the 
church, o'iven his own verdict ag-ainst himself. AA^iere- 
fore Leo, the most blessed and holy archbishop of the 
great and elder Rome, has, by the agency of ourselves 
and the present synod, in conjunction with the thrice- 
blessed and all honoured Peter, who is the rock and 
basis of the Catholic church, and the foundation of the 
orthodox faith, deprived him of the episcopal dignity, 
and severed him from every priestly function. Ac- 
cordingly, this holy and great synod decrees the pro- 
visions of the canons on the aforesaid Dioscorus." 

After the ratification of this proceeding by Anato- 
lius and Maximus, and by the other bishops, with the 
exception of those who had been deposed together 
with Dioscorus bv the senate, a relation of the matter 


was addressed to Marcian by the synod, and the 
instrument of deposition was transmitted to Dioscorus, 
to the following ellect : " On account of contempt of 
the sacred canons, and thy contumacy regarding this 
holy and universal synod, inasmuch as, in addition to 
the other offences of which thou hast been convicted, 
thou didst not appear, even when summoned the third 
time by this great and holy synod, according to the 
sacred canons, in order to reply to the charges made 
against thee ; know then that thou hast been deposed 
from thy bishoprick, on the thirteenth day of this 
present month, October, by the holy and universal 
synod, and deprived of aU ecclesiastical rank." After 
a letter had been written to the bishops of the most 
holy church at Alexandria on this subject, and an 
edict had been framed against Dioscorus, the pro- 
ceedings of this meeting were closed. 

After the business of the preceding meeting had 
terminated in this manner, the members of the synod, 
agam assembling, replied to the inquiry of the magis- 
trates, who desired to be informed respecting the 
orthodox doctrine, that there was no need that any 
further formulary should be framed, now that the 
matter relating to Eutyches had been brought to a 
close, and had received a conclusive determination at 
the hands of the Roman bishop, with the further 
accordance of all parties. After the bishops had with 
one voice exclaimed, that they all held the same 


language, and the magistrates had ruled that each 
patriarch, selecting one or two persons of his own 
diocese, should come forward into the midst of the 
council in order to a declaration of their several 
opinions ; Florentius, bishop of Sardis, prayed a 
respite, so that they might approach the truth with 
due deliberation : and Cecropius, bishop of Sebas- 
topolis, spoke as follows. " The faith has been well 
set forth by the three hundred and eighteen holy 
fathers, and has been confirmed by the holy fathers, 
Athanasius, Cyril, Celestine, Hilary, Basil, Gregory, 
and again, on the present occasion, by the most holy 
Leo. We accordingly require that the words both of 
the three hundred and eighteen holy fathers and of 
the most holy Leo be now read." At the conclusion 
of the reading the whole synod exclaimed, " This is 
the faith of the orthodox ; thus we all believe ; thus 
does the Pope Leo believe ; thus did Cyril believe ; 
thus has the Pope expounded." 

Another interlocution was then issued, that the 
form set forth by the hundred and fifty fathers should 
also be read : which was accordingly done ; and the 
members of the synod exclaimed, " This is the faith 
of all ; this is the faith of the orthodox ; thus do we 
all believe !" 

Then Aetius, the archdeacon, said that he held in 
his hand the epistle of the divine Cyril to Nestorius, 
which all who were assembled at Ephesus had ratified 


by tliL'ir individual subscriptions ; as also another 
epistle of the same Cyril addressed to John of Antioch, 
which had itself also been confirmed. These he 
earnestly prayed might be read. Agreeably with 
an interlocution on the point, both were then read ; 
a portion of the former being precisely as follows. 
" Cyril to our most reverent fellow minister Nestorius. 
Certain persons, as I am informed, treat my rebuke 
with levity in the presence of your holiness, and that, 
too, repeatedly, taking especial occasion for that pur- 
pose of the meetings of the authorities ; perhaps also 
with the idea of gratifying your own ears." After- 
wards it proceeds. " The declaration, then, of the 
holy and great synod was this : that the only begotten 
Son, begotten naturally of God the Father, very God 
of very God, light of light, by whose agency the Father 
made all things, descended, was incarnate, assumed 
humanity, suiFered, rose again on the third day, 
ascended into heaven. This declaration we, too, 
ought to follow, carefully considering what is signified 
by the expression, that the Divine Word was incarnate 
and assumed humanity. For we do not afiirm that 
the nature of the Word by undergoing a change 
became flesh, nor yet was even converted into a 
complete human being, consisting of soul and body ; 
but this we rather maintain, that the Word, by uniting 
personally mth himself flesh, animated by a rational 
soul, became man in an ineffable and incomprehensible 


manner, and bore the title of tlie Son of Man, not in 
respect of mere will or pleasure, nor even, as it 
were, in an assumption of person merely; and, fur- 
ther, that the natures which conspired to the true 
unity, were different, but from both is one Christ and 
Son ; not as though the difference of the natures had 
been done away for the sake of the union, but they 
had rather consummated for us the one Lord and 
Christ and Son, from both the Godhead and the man- 
hood, by their ineffable and mysterious coalition for 
unity." And presently the epistle proceeds. " But 
since, for our sakes and for our salvation, having 
personally united humanity with himself, he came 
forth from a woman ; in this respect he is said also to 
have been born carnally. For he was not born in the 
first instance an ordinary man of the holy Virgin, and 
then the Word descended upon him : but the Word, 
having been united from the very womb, is said to 
have undergone a carnal nativity, as it were, by an 
assumption of the nativity of his own flesh. In this 
manner we say that He suffered and rose agam ; not 
as though the Word of God had endured, as regards 
his own nature, stripes or piercings of nails, or the 
other wounds, for the Deity is impassible, as being 
incorporeal. Since, however, his o^vn body underwent 
these circumstances. Himself is said, on the other 
hand, to have suffered them on our behalf, inasmuch 
as the impassible being was in the suffering body." 


The greater part of tlie other epistk; has been 
inserted m the preceding portion of this history. It 
contains, however, a passage to the following eflt'ect, 
which John, bishop of Antioch wrote, and Cyril 
entirely approved. " We confess the holy Virgin to 
be the Mother of God, because from her the Divine 
Word was incarnate and assumed humanity, and from 
the very conception united with himself the temple 
which was derived from her. With respect, however, 
to the evangelical and apostolical language concerning 
our Lord, we know that the expressions of the divinely 
inspired men are sometimes comprehensive, as in 
respect of a single person ; sometimes distinctive, as in 
respect of two natures ; and that they deliver such as 
are of divine import, in reference to the Godhead of 
Christ, and those which are hunil)le, in reference to 
His manhood." Cyril then subjoins the following 
words : — " On reading these your sacred expressions, 
we find tliat we ourselves hold the same ophiion : for 
there is one Lord, one faith, one baptism. A¥e 
accordingly glorify God, the Saviour of all, rejoicing 
mutually, because both our churches and yours hold 
a faith which is in accordance with the inspired scrip- 
tures, and the tradition of our holy fathers." 

After the reading of these epistles, the members of 
the synod exclaimed in these words : " Thus do we 
all believe ; thus does the Pope Leo believe. Ana- 
thema to him that divides and to him that confounds ! 


This is the faith of Leo the archbishop. Thus does 
Leo believe. Thus do Leo and Anatolius believe. 
Thus do we all believe. As Cyril believed, so do we. 
Eternal be the memory of Cyril ! Agreeably with the 
epistles of Cyril do we also think. Thus did we 
believe ; thus do we now believe. Leo the archbishop 
thus thinks, thus believes, thus has ^vritten." 

An interlocution having been given to that effect, 
the epistle of Leo was also read, in a translation, and 
is inserted in the acts ; the bishops at its conclusion 
exclaiming, " This is the faith of the fathers : this is 
the faith of the Apostles. Thus do we aU believe : 
thus do the orthodox believe. Anathema to him who 
does not thus believe ! Peter has uttered these words 
through Leo. Thus have the Apostles taught. Leo 
has taught truly and piously : thus has Cyril taught. 
The teaching of Leo and Cyril is the same. Anathema 
to him who does not thus believe ! This is the true 
faith. Thus do the orthodox think. This is the faith 
of the fathers. Why was not this read at Ephesus ? 
This did Dioscorus withhold." 

It is contained in the acts that, when the bishops 
of Illyria and Palestine had expressed some hesitation, 
after the following passage of the epistle had been 
read : "In order to the discharge of the debt of our 
natural state, the divine nature was united to the 
passible, that one and the same person, the man Christ 
Jesus, beino- the mediator between God and man, 


might be enabled from the one part to die, but 
incapable of decease from the other, such being the 
process adapted to our cure ;" — that upon this Aetius, 
archdeacon of the most holy church of Constantinople, 
produced a passage from Cyril to the follomng purport : 
" Since, however, His own body by the grace of God, 
as says the Apostle Paul, tasted death for every man, 
Himself is said to have suiFered the death on our behalf; 
not that he experienced death to the extent of his own 
nature, for it would be madness to say or think this, 
but because, as I said before, his flesh tasted death." 
Again, when the bishops of Illyria and Palestine 
had expressed their hesitation at the following passage 
of the epistle of Leo: — " For there operates in each 
form its peculiar property, in union with what belongs 
to the other ; the Word working that which pertains 
to the Word, and the body discharging that which 
pertains to the body ; and the one shines forth by the 
miracles, the other was subjected to the insults ;" upon 
this the said Aetius read a passage of Cyril as fol- 
lows : — " The rest of the expressions are especially 
appropriate to deity ; others, again, are equally suited 
to manhood ; and some hold, as it were, an interme- 
diate place, presenting the Son of God as being God and 
man at the same time." Afterwards, when the same 
bishops hesitated at another part of the epistle of Leo, 
which is as follows : — " Although in our Lord Jesus 
Christ there is altogether one person, of God and man, 


yet the one part from which was derived to the other 
a community of ignominy, is distinct from that from 
"vvhich proceeded a community of glory ; for from us 
was derived the manhood, which is inferior to the 
Father, and from the Father the Godhead, which 
partakes equality with the Father;" Theodoret said, 
to adjust the point, that the blessed Cyril had also 
expressed himself thus : — " That He both became man, 
and at the same time did not lay aside His proper 
nature; for the latter continued as before, though 
dwelling in what was different from it ; namely, the 
divine nature in conjunction with humanity." After- 
wards, when the illustrious magistrates asked whether 
any one still hesitated, all replied that they no longer 
entertained any doubt. 

Atticus, bishop of Nicopolis, then begged a respite 
of a few days, in order that a formulary might be 
framed of the matters which were approved by God 
and the holy fathers. He also prayed that they might 
have the epistle which was addressed by Cyril to 
Nestorius, in which he exhorts him to assent to his 
twelve chapters. All expressed their concurrence in 
these requests ; and when the magistrates had ruled 
that a respite of five days should be allowed, in order 
to their assembling with Anatoli us, president of Con- 
stantinople, all the bishops signified their approval, 
saying, " Thus do we believe, thus do we all believe. 
Not one of us hesitates. We have all subscribed." Upon 


this it was ruled as follows: — "Tliero is no necessity 
that you should all assemble; since, however, it is 
reasonable that the minds of those who have hesitated 
should be confirmed, let the most reverent bishop 
Anatolius select from among the subscribers whom- 
soever he may deem proper for the information of 
those who have doubted." Upon this the members of 
the synod proceeded to exclaim, " We intreat for the 
fathers. The fathers to the synod. Those who 
accord with Leo to the synod. Our words to the 
emperor. Our prayers to the orthodox sovereign. 
Our prayers to Augusta. We have all erred. Let 
indulgence be granted to all." Upon this, those wlio 
belonged to the church of Constantinople cried out, 
" But few are exclaiming. The synod is not speaking." 
Then the Orientals shouted, " The Egyptian to exile !" 
And the Illyrians, "We entreat compassion upon all;" 
and again the Orientals, " The Egyptian to exile I" 
Wliile the Illyi'ians persisted in their prayer, the Con- 
stantinopolitan clergy shouted, " Dioscorus to exile ! 
The Egyptian to exile ! The heretic to exile !" and again 
the Illyrians and their party, " We have all erred. 
Grant indulgence to all. Dioscorus to the synod ! Dios- 
corus to the churches !" After further proceedings of 
the same kind, the business of this meeting was 
brought to a close. 

At the next meeting, when the senators had ruled 
that the forms which had been already enacted should 


be read, Constantine, the secretary, read from a paper, 
as follows : " Concerning the orthodox and catholic 
faith, we are agreed that a more exact inquiry should 
take place before a fuller assembly of the council, at 
its next meeting. But inasmuch as it has been shewn, 
from examination of the acts and decrees, and from 
the oral testimony of the presidents of that synod, who 
admit that themselves were in error, and the deposition 
was void, that Flavian, of pious memory, and the most 
reverent bishop Eusebius, were convicted of no error 
concerning the faith, and were wrongfuUy deposed, it 
seems to us, according to God's good pleasure, to be a 
just proceeding, if approved by our most divine and 
pious sovereign, that Dioscorus, the most reverent 
bishop of Alexandria ; Juvenalis, the most reverent 
bishop of Jerusalem ; Thalassius, the most reverent 
bishop of Csesarea, in Cappadocia; Eusebius, the most 
reverent bishop of Ancyra ; Eustathius, the most 
reverent bishop of Berytus ; and Basilius, the most 
reverent bishop of Seleucia, in Isauria ; who exercised 
sway and precedency in that S3mod ; should be sub- 
jected to the selfsame penalty, by suffering at the 
hands of the holy synod deprivation of their episcopal 
dignity, according to the canons ; whatever is con- 
sequent hereupon, being submitted to the cognizance 
of the emperor's sacred supremacy." 

After several other readings, the assembled bishops, 
beinof asked whether the letters of Leo accorded with 


the fiiith of the three hundred and eighteen holy 
fathers who met at Nictea, and that of the hundred 
and fifty in the imperial city, Anatolius, president of 
Constantinople, and all who were present, replied, that 
the epistle of Leo accorded with the before-mentioned 
fathers ; and he further subscribed the epistle. At 
this stage of the proceedings the members of the 
synod exclaimed : " We all concur : we all approve : 
we all believe alike : we all hold the same sentiments : 
thus do we all believe. The fathers to the synod ! 
the subscribers to the synod ! Many be the years of 
the emperor ! Many be the years of Augusta ! The 
fathers to the synod : those who agree with us in faith, 
to the synod I Many be the years of the emperor ! 
Those who agree with us in opinion, to the synod ! 
Many be the years of the emperor ! We have all sub- 
scribed. As Leo thinks, so do we." An interlocution 
was then pronounced to the following effect. "We 
have referred these matters to our most sacred and 
pious lord, and are now waiting the answer of his 
piety. But your reverence will give account to God 
concerning Dioscorus, who has been deposed by you 
without the knowledge of our most sacred sovereign 
and ourselves, and concerning the five for whom you 
are now making entreaty, and concerning all the acts 
of the synod." They then expressed their approval, 
saying, " God has deposed Dioscorus ; Dioscorus has 
been justly deposed. Christ has deposed Dioscorus." 


Afterwards, oii the presentation of a response from 
Marcian, leaving the case of those who had been 
deposed to the decision of the bishops, as the inter- 
locution of the magistrates had set forth ; they made 
entreaty in the following words. " We pray that they 
may be admitted: — our fellows in doctrine, to the 
synod : our fellows in opinion, to the synod : the 
subscribers to the epistle of Leo, to the synod." They 
were accordingly, by an interlocution to that effect, 
numbered with the members of the synod. 

Then were read the petitions presented from the 
Egyptian diocese to the emperor JMarcian ; which, in 
addition to other matters, contain the following. 
" We agree in opinion with what the three hundred 
and eighteen fathers at Nicasa, and the blessed 
Athanasius, and the sainted Cyril have set forth ; 
anathematising every heresy, both those of Arius, of 
Eunomius, of Manes, of Nestorius, and that of those 
who say, that the flesh of our Lord was derived from 
heaven and not from the holy Mother of God and ever- 
virgin Mary, in like manner with ourselves, with the 
exception of sin." Upon this, the whole synod 
exclaimed : " Why have they not anathematised the 
doctrine of Eutyches ? Let them subscribe the epistle 
of Leo, anathematising Eutyches and his doctrines. 
Let tliem concur with the epistle of Leo. They intend 
to jeer us, and be gone." In reply, the bishops from 
Egypt stated, that the Egyptian bishops were numerous, 

CHAP. XVIII.] rpyrmoN of the monks. 113 

and that they themselves could not assume to represent 
those who were absent : and they prayed the synod to 
await their areh})ishop, that they might be guided by 
his judgment, as usage required : for if they should 
do any thing before the appointment of their head, tlie 
whole diocese would assail them. After many in- 
treaties on this subject, which were stoutly resisted 
by the synod, it was ruled, that a respite should be 
granted to the bishops from Kgypt, until their arch- 
bishop should be ordained. 

Then petitions were presented from certain monks ; 
the purport of which was, that they should not be 
compelled to subscril^e certain papers, before the synod 
which the emperor had summoned should have assem- 
bled, and its determinations be made known. After 
these had been read, Diogenes, bishop of Cyzicus, 
stated that Barsumas, one of the persons present, had 
been the murderer of Flavian, for he had exclaimed 
" Slay him!" and, though not a party to the petition, 
had improperly obtained admission. Upon this all 
the bishops exclaimed : " Barsumas has desolated all 
Syria ; he has let loose upon us a thousand monks." 
After an interlocution, to the eifect that the assembled 
monks should await the determination of the synod, 
they demanded that the libels which they had dra^vn 
up, should be read ; one requisition therein contained 
being, that Dioscorus and the bishops of his party 
should be present in the synod. In repl}^ to which all 


the bishops exclamied : " Anathema to Dioscorus. 
Christ has deposed Dioscorus ! Cast out such persons. 
Away with outrage ; away Avith violence from the 
synod ! Our words to the emperor ! Away with 
outrage ; away with infamy from the synod !" After 
a repetition of these exclamations, it was ruled that 
the remainder of the libels should be read : wherein it 
was affirmed, that the deposition of Dioscorus was 
improper ; that, when a matter of faith was before the 
council, he ought to share in its delil^erations, and 
that, if this were not granted, they would shake their 
garments from the communion of the assembled 
bishops. In reference to these expressions, Aetius, 
the archdeacon, read a canon against those wlio 
separate themselves. Again, when, at the questions 
of the most holy bishops, the monks manifested dis- 
agreement, and afterwards at an interrogation put by 
Aetius in the name of the synod, some anathematised 
Nestorius and Eutyches, while others declined; it was 
ruled by the magistrates, that the petitions of Faustus 
and the other monks should be read : which prayed 
the emperor no longer to sanction the monks who had 
lately opposed the orthodox doctrines. Whereupon 
Dorotheus, a monk, termed Eutyches orthodox : in 
reply to whom various doctrinal points were started 
by the magistrates. 

At the fifth meeting, the magistrates ruled that the 
determinations relating to the faith should l)e pub- 


lished; and Asclepiades, a deacon of Constantinople, 
read a fonnnlaiy, wliicli it was resolved should not be 
inserted in the acts. Some dissented from it, but the 
majority approved it : and on the utterance of counter 
exclamations, the magistrates said, that Dioscorus 
affirmed that he had deposed Flavian on his asserting 
two natures, whereas the formulary contained the 
expression "from two natures." To this Anatolius 
replied, that Dioscorus had not been deposed on a 
point of faith, but because he had excommunicated 
Leo, and, after having been thrice, summoned, did not 
appear. The magistrates then required that the 
substance of the epistle of Leo should be inserted in 
the formulary ; but since the bishops objected, and 
maintained that no other formulary could be framed, 
inasmuch as a complete one already existed, a relation 
was made to the emperor ; who commanded that six 
of the Oriental bishops, three from Pontus, three from 
Asia, three from Thrace, and three from lllyria, should, 
together with Anatolius and the vicars of Eome, 
assemble in the sanctuary of the martyr, and rightly 
frame the ride of faith, or put forth each his several 
declaration of faith ; or be assured that the synod 
must be held in the West. On this, being required to 
state whether they followed Dioscorus when affirming 
that Christ was from two natures ; or Leo, that there 
were two natures in Christ ; they exclaimed that tliey 
agreed with Leo, and that those who contradicted, 


were Eutychians. The magistrates then said, that, 
in accordance mth the language of Leo, a clause 
sliould be added, to the effect that there were two 
natures united in Christ, without change, or severance, 
or confusion ; and they entered the sanctuary of the 
holy martyr Euphemia, in company with Anatolius 
and the vicars of Leo, as well as Maximus of Antioch, 
Juvenalis of Jerusalem, Thalassius of Ca^sarea in 
Cnppadocia, and others ; and on their return, the 
formulary of faith was read, as follows. " Our Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Christ," and so forth, as it has been 
inserted in a previous part of the history. When all 
had exclaimed, " This is the faith of the fathers : let 
the metropolitans at once subscrilie ! This is the faith 
of the Apostles : by this are we all guided : thus do 
we all think !" the magistrates ruled, that the formu- 
lary, thus framed by the fathers and approved by all, 
should he referred to the imperial supremacy. 

At the sixth meeting Marcian was present, and 
harangued the bishops on the subject of unanimity. 
At the command of the emperor, the formidary was 
read b}^ Aetius, archdeacon of Constantinople, and all 
subscril^ed it. The emperor then asked, whether the 
fornndary had been composed with the approbation of 
all : upon which all declared their confirmation of it by 
expressions of approval. Again the emperor tvv^ice 
addressed them, and all applauded. At the emperor's 
suggestion certain canons were enacted, and metro- 


politcUi ruiik was conferred upon Clialceclon. The 
emperor further commanded the bishops to remain three 
or four days; that each one should move the synod on 
whatever matters he might choose, in the presence of 
the magistrates ; and such as were judged proper, 
should take effect. The meetino; was then closed. 

Another was held, at which canons were enacted ; 
and at the next, Juvenalis and Maximus came to an 
agreement that Antioch should have for its province 
the two Phoenicias and Arabia; and Jerusalem, the 
three Palestines ; which was ratified by an interlo- 
cution of the magistrates and bishops. 

At the ninth meeting, the case of Theodoret was 
mooted. He anathematised Nestorius, saying, " Ana- 
thema to Nestorius, and to him who does not affirm 
the holy Virgin Mary to be Mother of God, and to 
him who divides into two Sons the one Son, the only 
begotten ! I have also subscribed the formulary of 
faith and the epistle of Leo." Upon this he was 
restored to his see, by an interlocution of all parties. 

At another meeting, the case of Ibas was discussed ; 
and the judgment was read which had been passed 
upon him by Photius, bishop of Tyre, and Eustathius 
of Berytus ; but the vote was deferred to the next 

At the eleventh meeting, when the majority of the 
bishops had voted that Ibas should be restored to 
his episcopal rank, others, in rejoinder, said that his 


accusers were waiting outside, and required that they 
should be admitted. The proceedings in his case were 
then read ; but when the magistrates ruled, that the 
transactions at Ephesus respecting Ibas should also be 
read, the bishops replied, that all the proceedings in 
the second synod at Ephesus were null, with the 
exception of the ordination of Maximus of Antioch. 
On this point, they further requested the emperor to 
decree that nothing should be valid which had been 
transacted at Ephesus subsequently to the first synod, 
over which the sainted Cyril, president of Alexandria, 
had presided. It was judged right that Ibas should 
retain his bishopric. 

At the next meeting, the case of Bassianus was 
inquired into, and it was judged "fit that he should be 
removed and Stephen substituted : which measures 
were formally voted at the following meeting. At the 
thirteenth, the case was investigated of Eunomius of 
Nicomedia and Anastasius of Nicasa, who had a dispute 
about their respective cities. A fourteenth was also 
held, at which the case of Sabinianus was investigated. 
Finally, it was decided that the see of Constantinople 
should rank next after that of Rome. 





Zeno, on becoming, by the death of his son, sole 
emperor, as if entertaining an idea that his power was 
incomplete ^\'ithout an unrestrained pursuit of every 
pleasure that presented itself, so far abandoned himself 
from the first to the solicitations of desire, as to 
hesitate at nothing of all that is unseemly and illicit ; 
but so thorough was his habitude in such things, that 
he esteemed it grovellmg to practise them in conceal- 
ment and privacy ; but to do it openly, and as it were, 
in a conspicuous spot, truly royal and suited to none 
but an emperor : a notion base and servile ; for the 
emperor is known, not by the circumstances of ordinary 
sway over others, but by those wherem he rules and 
sways himself, in guarding against the admission in 
his own person of whatever is indecorous; and bemg 
thus unconquered by loose indulgence, so as to be a 
living image of virtue for imitation and the mstruction 
of his subjects. But he who lays himself open to the 
pleasures of sense, is unwittingly becoming a base 


slave, an uiiransoiiied captive, continually passing, 
like worthless slaves, from the hands of one master to 
another ; inasmuch as pleasures are an unnumbered 
train of mistresses, linked in endless succession ; while 
the present enjoyment, so far from being lasting, is 
only the kindler and prelude to another, until a man 
either banishes the rabble rule of pleasures, becoming 
thus a sovereign instead of a victim of tyranny ; or, 
continuing a slave to the last, receives the portion of 
the infernal world. 



In such a manner, then, had Zeno, from the com- 
mencement of his reign, depraved his course of life : 
while, however, his subjects, both in the East and the 
West, were greatly distressed ; in the one quarter, by 
the general devastations of the Scenite barbarians ; and 
in Thi-ace, by the inroads of the Huns, formerly knoAvn 
by the name of Massaget^e, who crossed the Ister 
mthout opposition : while Zeno himself, in barbarian 
fashion, was making violent seizure on whatever 
escaped them. 

CHAP. IV. 1 REVOLT or HA8IL1SCUS. A.D.475. 121 



But OH the iHsnrrectioii of Basiliscus, the brother 
of A^erma — for the disposition of his nearest con- 
nexions was hostile, from the universal disgust at his 
most disgraceful life — he was utterly wanting in 
courage : for vice is craven and desponding, suffi- 
ciently indicating its unmanly spirit by submission to 
pleasures. Zeno fled with precipitation, and sur- 
rendered so great a sovereignty to Basiliscus without 
a struo-(Tle. He was also blockaded in his native 
district, Isauria, having with him his wife Ariadne, 
who had subsequently fled from her mother, and those 
parties who still continued loyal to him. Basiliscus, 
having thus acquired the Roman diadem, and bestowed 
on his son Marcus the title of Caesar, adopted measures 
opposed to those of Zeno and his predecessors. 



At the instigation of an embassy of certain Alex- 
andrians, Basiliscus summons Timotheus ^lurus from 
his exile, in the eighteenth year of his banishment ; at 
Avhich time Acacius held the episcopate of Con- 


stantinople. On his arrival at the unperial city, 
Timotheus persuades Basiliscus to address circular 
letters to the bishops in every quarter, and to anathe- 
matise the transactions at Chalcedon and the tome of 
Leo. They were to this effect. 


" The emperor Ca3sar Basiliscus, pious, victorious, 
triumphant, supreme, ever-worshipful Augustus, and 
Marcus, the most illustrious Csesar, to Timotheus, 
archbishop of the great city of the Alexandrians, most 
reverent and beloved of God. It has ever been our 
pleasure, that whatever laws have been decreed in 
behalf of the true and apostolic faith, by those our 
pious predecessors who have maintained the true 
service of the blessed and undecaying and life-giving 
Trinity, should never be inoperative ; but we are 
rather disposed to enounce them as of our own 
enactment. We, preferring piety and zeal in the cause 
of our God and Saviour Jesus Christ who created and 
has made us glorious, before all diligence in human 
affairs, and being further convinced that unity among 
the flocks of Christ is the preservation of ourselves 
and our subjects, the stout foundation and unshaken 
bulwark of our empire ; being by these considerations 
moved with godly zeal, and offering to our God and 
Saviour Jesus Christ the unity of the Holy Church as 
the first fruits of our reign, ordain that the basis 


and settleiiieiit of human felicity, namely, the symbol 
of the three hundred and eighteen holy fathers who 
were assembled, in concert with the Holy Spirit, at 
Nicfea, into which both ourselves and all our believing 
predecessors were baptised ; that this alone should 
have reception and authority with the orthodox people 
in all the most holy churches of God, as the only 
formulary of the right faith, and sufficient for the 
utter destruction of every heresy, and for the complete 
unity of the holy churches of God ; without prejudice, 
notwithstanding, to the force of the acts of the 
hundred and fifty holy Others assembled in this 
imperial city, in confirmation of the sacred symbol 
itself, and in condemnation of those who blasphemed 
against the Holy Ghost ; as well as of all that were 
passed in the metropolitan city of the Ephesians 
against the impious Nestorius and those who sub- 
sequently favoured his opinions. But the proceedings 
which have disturbed the unity and order of the holy 
churches of God, and the peace of the whole world, 
that is to say, the so-called tome of Leo, and all things 
said and done at Chalcedon in innovation upon the 
before-mentioned holy symbol of the three hundred 
and eighteen holy fathers, whether by w^ay of definition 
of faith, or setting forth of symbols, or of inter- 
pretation, or instruction, or discourse ; we ordain that 
these shall be anathematised both here and every 
Avhere by the most holy bishops in every church, and 


shall be committed to the flames whenever they shall 
be found, inasmuch as it was so enjoined respecting 
all heretical doctrines by our predecessors, of pious 
and blessed memory, Constantine, and Theodosius the 
younger ; and that, having thus been rendered null, 
they shall be utterly expelled from the one and only 
catholic and apostolic orthodox church, as superseding 
the everlasting and saving definitions of the three 
hundred and eighteen fathers, and those of the blessed 
fathers who, by the Holy Spirit, made their decision 
at Ephesus ; that no one, in short, either of the 
priesthood or laity, shall be allowed to deviate from 
that most sacred constitution of the holy symbol ; and 
that, together with all the innovations upon the 
sacred symbol which were enacted at Chalcedon, there 
be also anathematised the heresy of those who do not 
confess, that the only begotten Son of God was truly 
incarnate, and made man of the Holy Spirit and of 
the holy and ever-virghi Mary, Mother of God, but, 
accordmg to their strange conceit, either from heaven, 
or in mere phantasy and seeming : and, in short, every 
heresy, and whatever other innovation, in respect 
either of thought or language, has been devised in 
violation of the sacred symbol in any manner or at 
any time or place. And, inasmuch as it is the special 
task of kingly providence to furnish to their subjects, 
with forecasting deliberation, abundant means of 
security, not only for the present but i'or future time, 


we oi'diiin tliat tlie most holy bislio])s in cveiy place 
shall subst-ribe to this our sacred circular epistle when 
exhibited to them, as a distinct declaration tiiat they 
are indeed ruled by the sacred symbol of the three 
hiuidrcd and eighteen holy fathers alone — which the 
hundred and fifty holy fathers confirmed ; as it was 
also defined by the most holy fathers, who, sub- 
sequently, assembled in the metropolitan city of the 
Ephcsians, that the sacred symbol of the three hundred 
and eighteen holy fathers ought to be the only rule — 
^^'hile they anatliematise ever}^ stumbling-l)lock enacted 
at Chalcedon to the faith of the orthodox people, and 
utterly eject them from the churches, as an impediment 
to the general happiness and our own. Those, more- 
over, who, after the issuing of these our sacred letters, 
which we trust to have been uttered in accordance 
with the will of God, in an endeavour to accomplish 
that unity which all desire for the holy churches of 
God, shall attempt to bring forward or so much as to 
name the innovation upon the faith which was 
enacted at Chalcedon, either in discourse or instruction 
or Avriting, in whatever manner, place, or time ; with 
respect to those persons, as being the cause of con- 
fusion and tumult in the churches of God and anions' 
the whole of our subjects, and enemies to God and our 
safety, we command (in accordance with the laws 
ordained by our predecessor, Theodosius, of blessed 
and sacred memory, against such sort of evil designs. 


which laws are subjoined to this our sacred circular) 
that, if bishops or clergy, they be deposed ; if monks 
or laics," that they be subjected to banishment and 
every mode of confiscation, and the severest penalties : 
for so the holy and homoousian Trinity, the Creator 
and Vivifier of the universe, which has ever been 
adored by our piety, receiving at the present time 
service at our hands in the destruction of the before- 
mentioned tares and the confirmation of the true and 
apostolic traditions of the holy symbol, and being 
thereby rendered favourable and gracious to our souls 
and to all our subjects, shall ever aid us in the exercise 
of our sway, and preserve the peace of the world." 



According to Zacharias, the rhetorician, Timotheus, 
who, as I said, was just returned from banishment, 
agrees to these circular letters ; as does also Peter, 
president of the church of Antioch, surnamed the 
Fuller, who also attended Timotheus at the imperial 
city. After these proceedings, they also determined 
that Paul should occupy the archiepiscopal throne of 
the church of Ephesus. This author also says, that 
Anastasius, the successor of Juvenalis as president of 
Jerusalem, subscribes the circular, and very many 


others ; so that those who repudiated the tome of Leo 
and the s3aiod of Chalcedoii, amounted to about five 
hundred : and also that a written petition was 
addressed to Basiliscus by the Asiatic bishops, assem- 
bled at Ephesus, a part of which is couched in the 
following terms : "To our entirely pious and Christ- 
loving lords, Basiliscus and Marcus, ever victorious 
emperors." Presently it proceeds : " Whenever the 
fiiith has been hated and assailed, you, all pious and 
Christ-lovino- sovereiojns, have made it manifest 
throughout that you were equally assailed." And 
further on : " A certain fearful retribution of judg- 
ment and fury of divine fire and the just wrath of 
your serenity shall suddenly involve the adversaries, 
those who endeavour with vauntful assault to battle 
down the mighty God and your sovereignty fortified 
by the faith ; Avho also in various ways have not 
spared our humble selves, but have continually 
slandered and belied us, as having subscribed to 
your sacred and apostolic circular letters by com- 
pulsion and violence, v/hich we, in fact, subscribed 
with all joy and readiness." And furtlier on : " Let 
it therefore be your pleasure, that nothing be put 
forward otherwise than as accords with your sacred 
circular, being assured that, as we have before said, the 
whole world will be turned upside down, and the evils 
which have proceeded from the synod at Chalcedon 
will be found trifling in comparison, notwithstanding 


the iiiimincrable slaughters which they have caused, 
and the blood of the orthodox which they have 
unjustly and lawlessly shed." And further on: "We 
conjure your piety, in the presence of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, to maintain the just and canonical and eccle- 
siastical condemnation and deposition which has been 
inflicted on them, and especially on him who has been 
on many points convicted of having unduly exercised 
the episcopate of the imperial city." The same Zacha- 
rias also writes as follows : "On the issuing of the 
imperial circulars, those in the capital who were 
infected with the phantasy of Eutyches, and followed 
the monastic rule, believing themselves to have chanced 
on a prize in the person of Timotheus, and hoping by 
the circulars to catch their own profit, flock to him 
with all speed, and again retire, as if convinced by 
Timotheus that the Word of God is consubstantial 
with ourselves as to flesh, and consubstantial with the 
Father as respects the Godhead." 



The same author says, that Timotheus, setting out 
from the imperial city, visited Ephesus, and there 
enthroned Paul as archpriest ; wdio had already been 
ordained, according to the more ancient custom, by 



the bishops of the province, but had been ejected from 
his see : and he also restored to Ephesus the dignity 
of the patriarchate, of which the synod at Chalcedon 
had deprived it, as I have already mentioned. Pro- 
ceeding thence, he arrives at Alexandria, and uniformly 
required all who approached him to anathematise the 
synod at Chalcedon. Accordingly, there abandon 
him, as has been recorded by the same Zacharias, 
many of his party, and among them Theodotus, one 
of the bishops ordained at Joppa by Theodosius, who 
had, by means of certain persons, become bishop of 
Jerusalem, at the time when Juvenalis betook himself 
to Byzantium. 



This author also says, that Acacius, president of the 
church of Constantinople, in consequence of these 
proceedings, stirred up the monastic body and the 
populace of the imperial city, on the plea that Basil- 
iscus was a heretic : and that the latter repudiated 
the circular, and issued a constitution to the effect, 
that transactions precipitated by overbearing influ- 
ence were utterly null; and also sent forth a counter 
circular in recommendation of the synod at Chalcedon. 
This counter circular, as he terms it, he has, however, 


omitted, having written the whole work under passion- 
ate feelings. It is as follows : — 


"We, the emperors, Cresars, Basiliscus and Marcus, 
thus ordain: that the apostolic and orthodox faith, 
which has held sway in the catholic churches from the 
very first, both until the beginning and during the 
continuance of our reign, and ought to sway 'in all 
coming time, into which also we were baptised, and in 
which we believe; that this alone continue to sway 
uninjured and unshaken, and ever prevail throughout 
the catholic and apostolic churches of the orthodox ; 
and that no question tending otherwise be a subject of 
debate. On this account we also enjoin, that all acts 
during our reign, whether circular letters or others, or 
any thing whatever relating to faith or ecclesiastical 
constitution, be null; while we at the same time 
anathematise Nestorius, Eutyches, and ■ every other 
heresy, with all who hold like sentiments; and that 
no synod or other debate be held on this subject, but 
that the present form remain unimpaired and unshaken. 
Also, that the provinces, the ordination to which was 
possessed by the see of this imperial and glorious city, 
be restored to the most reverent and holy patriarch 
and archbishop Acacius, the present bishops, highly 
beloved of God, retaining their respective sees ; provided 


that no prejudice thence arise after their demise to the 
right of ordination belonging to the illustrious see of 
this imperial and glorious city. That this our sacred 
ordinance has the force of a sacred constitution is a 
matter of doubt to none." 

Such was the course of these transactions. 



But Zeno, having seen in a vision the holy and much 
tried proto-martyr Thecla encouraging him and pro- 
mising him restoration to power, after winning over 
the besiegers by bribes, marches on Byzantium and 
expels Basiliscus, who had now held the supreme power 
for two years, and, on his taking refuge in a holy 
precinct, surrenders him to his enemies. Zeno, in 
consequence, dedicated to the proto-martyr Thecla a 
very extensive sanctuary, of singular statelmess and 
beauty, at Seleucia, which is situated near the borders 
of Isauria, and embellished it with very many and 
royal offerings, which have been preserved to our 
times. Basiliscus is, accordingly, conveyed to Cappa- 
docia, in order to his death, and is slain with his wife 
and children at' the station named Acusus. Zeno 
enacts a law in abrogation of what Basiliscus the tyrant 
had constituted by his circulars, and Peter, surnamed 
the Fuller, is ejected from the church of the Auti- 
ochenes, and Paul from that of the Ephesians. 




The bishops of Asia, to sooth Acacius, address to 
him a deprecatory plea, and implore his pardon in a 
repentant memorial, wherein they alleged, that they 
had subscribed the circular by compulsion and not 
voluntarily ; and they affirmed with an oath that the 
case was really thus, and that they had settled their 
faith, and still maintained it in accordance with the 
synod at Chalcedon. The purport of the document 
is as follows. 

An epistle or petition sent from the bishops of Asia, to 
Acacius, bishop of Constantinople. " To Acacius, the 
most holy and pious patriarch of the church in the im- 
perial city of Constantine, the New Rome." And it 
afterwards proceeds : "We have been duly visited by the 
person who will also act as our representative." And 
shortly after: " By these letters we acquaint you that 
we subscribed, not designedly but of necessity, having 
agreed to these matters with letters and words, not 
Avith the heart. For, by your acceptable prayers and 
the will of the higher Power, we hold the faith as Ave 
have received it from the three hundred and eighteen 
lights of the world, and the hundred and fifty holy 
fathers ; and, moreover, Ave assent to the terms Avhich 
Avere piousl}^ and rightly framed at Chalcedon by the 
holy fathers there assembled." 


Whether Zacharias has slandered these persons, or 
they themselves lied in asserting that they were un- 
willing to subscribe, I am not able to say. 



Next to Peter, Stephen succeeds to the see of An- 
tioch, whom the sons of the Antiochenes dispatched 
with reeds sharpened like lances, as is recorded by 
John the Ehetorician. After Stephen, Calandion is 
entrusted with the helm of that see, and he wrought 
upon those who approached him, to anathematise 
Timotheus, and, at the same time, the circular of 



It was the intention of Zeno to eject Timotheus 
from the church of Alexandria ; but, on being in- 
formed by certain persons that he was already aged, 
and had almost reached the common resting-place of all 
men, he abandoned his purpose. And, in fact, Timo- 
theus shortly after paid the debt of nature. Upon this 
the Alexandrian bishops elect, on their own authority, 


Peter, surnained Mongus ; the announcement of 
which proceeding exasperated Zeno, who judged him 
to have incurred the penalty of death, and he recalls 
Timotheus, the successor of Proterius, while residing, 
on account of a popular tumult, at Canopus. Thus 
Timotheus obtained, by the commands of the emperor, 
possession of his rightful see. 



By the advice of certain persons, John, a presbyter, 
^vlio lield the office of steward of the venerable temple 
of the holy forerunner and baptist John, visits the im- 
perial city, in order to negotiate permission for the 
inhabitants of Alexandria to elect as president of their 
church a person of their own choice, if it should happen 
that their bishop should depart out of the world. 
According to Zacharias, he was detected by the empe- 
ror in the endeavour to compass his own appointment 
to the bishopric, and was allowed to return home, under 
an oath that he would never aspire to the see of Alex- 
andria. The emperor too issues a precept, to the effect 
that, after the death of Timotheus, that person should 
be bishop whom the clergy and people might elect. On 
the death of Timotheus, which took place shortly after, 
John, l)y tlie employment of money, as the same Zacha- 


rias writes, and in disregard of his sworn pledge to 
the emperor, procures his own nomination as bishop 
of the Alexandrians. The emperor, on being informed 
of these circumstances, commands his expulsion, and, 
at the suggestion of certain persons, addresses an allo- 
cution to the Alexandrians, which he named Henoticon, 
directing, at the same time, that the see of Alexandria 
should be restored to Peter, with a stipulation, that he 
should subscribe this document and admit to commu- 
nion the party of Proterius. 



Of this measure of arrangement, framed according 
to the advice of Acacius, bishop of the imperial city, 
Pergamius is the bearer, who had been appointed pro- 
curator of Egypt. Finding, on his arrival at Alexandria, 
that John had fled, he addresses himself to Peter, and 
urges him to receive the allocution of Zeno, and also 
to admit the separatists. He, accordingly, receives and 
subscribes the before mentioned allocution, with a pro- 
mise also to admit to communion the members of the 
opposite party. Accordingly, on occasion of a general 
festival at Alexandria and the universal acceptance of 
the so-called Henoticon of Zeno, Peter admits the par- 
tizans of Proterius ; and, on delivering in the church 
an address to the people, he reads the allocution of Zeno, 
as follows. 




"The emperor Caesar Zeno, pious, victorious, trium- 
phant, supreme, ever worshipful Augustus, to the most 
reverent bishops and clergy, and to the monks and 
laity throughout Alexandria, Egypt, Libya, and Pen- 
tapolis. Being assured that the origin and constitu- 
tion, the might and invincible defence of our sovereignty 
is the only right and true faith, which, through divine 
inspiration, the three hundred holy fathers assembled at 
Nicasa set forth, and the hundred and fifty holy fathers, 
who in like manner met at Constantinople, confirmed; 
^ve night and day employ every means of prayer, of 
zealous pains and of laws, that the holy Catholic and 
apostolic church in every place may be multiplied, the 
uncorruptible and immortal mother of our sceptre ; and 
that the pious laity, continuing in peace and unani- 
mity with respect to God, may, together with the 
bishops, highly beloved of God, the most pious clergy, 
the archimandrites and monks, offer up acceptably 
their supplications in behalf of our sovereignty. So 
long as our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ, who 
was incarnate and born of Mary, the Holy Virgin, and 
Mother of God, approves and readily accepts our con- 
cordant glorification and service, the power of our 
enemies will be crushed and swept away, and peace 


Avith its blessings, kindly temperature, abundant 
produce, and whatever is beneficial to man, ^vill be 
liberally bestowed. Since, then, the irreprehensible 
faith is the preserver both of ourselves and the Roman 
weal, petitions have been offered to us from pious 
archimandrites and hermits, and other venerable per- 
sons, imploring us with tears that unity should be 
procured for the churches, and the limbs should be 
knit together, which the enemy of all good has of old 
time been eagerly bent upon severing, under a con- 
sciousness that defeat will befall him whenever he 
assails the body while in an entire condition. For 
since it happens, that of the unnumbered generations 
which during the lapse of so many years time has 
withdrawTi from life, some have departed, deprived of 
the laver of regeneration, and others have been borne 
away on the inevitable journey of man, without having 
partaken in the divine communion ; and innumerable 
murders have also been perpetrated; and not only the 
earth, but the very air has been defiled by a multitude 
of blood- she ddings ; that this state of things might be 
transformed into good, who woidd not pray? For 
this reason, we were anxious that you should be 
informed, that we and the churches in every quarter 
neither have held, nor do we or shall we hold, nor are 
we aware of persons who hold, any other symbol or 
lesson or definition of faith or creed than the before- 
mentioned holy symbol of the three hundred and 


eighteen holy fathers, which the aforesaid hundred and 
fifty holy fathers confirmed ; and if any person does 
hold such, we deem him an alien : for we are confident 
that tliis symbol alone is, as we said, the preserver of 
our sovereignty, and on their reception of this alone 
are all the people baptised when desirous of the saving 
illumination: which symbol all the holy fathers 
assembled at Ephesus also followed; who further 
passed sentence of deposition on the impious Nestorius 
and those who subsequently held his sentiments : which 
Nestorius we also anathematise, together with Euty- 
ches and all who entertain opinions contrary to those 
above-mentioned, receiving at the same time the twelve 
chapters of Cyril, of holy memory, formerly archbishop 
of the holy Catholic church of the Alexandrians. We 
moreover confess, that the only begotten Son of God, 
himself God, who truly assumed manhood, namely, our 
Lord Jesus Christ, who is con-substantial with the 
Father in respect of the Godhead, and con -substantial 
with ourselves as respects the manhood; that He, 
having descended, and become incarnate of the Holy 
Spirit and Mary, the Virgin and INIother of God, is one 
and not two ; for we affirm that both his miracles, and 
the sufferings which he voluntarily endured in the 
flesh, are those of a single person : for we do in no 
deoree admit those who either make a division or a 
confusion, or introduce a phantom ; inasmuch as his 
truly sinless incarnation from the Mother of God did not 


produce an addition of a son, because the Trinity con- 
tinued a Trinity even when one member of the Trinity, 
the God Word, became incarnate. Knowing, then, that 
neither the holy orthodox churches of God in all parts, 
nor the priests, highly beloved of God, who are at their 
head, nor our own sovereignty, have allowed or do allow 
any other symbol or definition of faith than the before- 
mentioned holy lesson, we have united ourselves thereto 
without hesitation. And these things we write- not as 
setting forth a new form of faith, but for your assu- 
rance : and every one who has held or holds any other 
opinion, either at the present or another time, whether 
at Chalcedon or in any synod whatever, we anathema- 
tise ; and specially the before-mentioned Nestorius and 
Eutyches, and those who maintain their doctrines. 
Link yourselves, therefore, to the spiritual mother, 
the church, and in her enjoy the same communion 
with us, according to the aforesaid one and only defi- 
nition of the faith, namely, that of the three hundred 
and eighteen holy fathers. For your all holy mother, 
the church, waits to embrace you as true children, and 
longs to hear your loved voice, so long withheld. Speed 
yourselves, therefore, for by so doing you will both 
draw towards yourselves the favor of our Master and 
Saviour and God, Jesus Christ, and be commended 
by our sovereignty." 

When this had been read, all the Alexandrians 
united themselves to the holy catholic and apostolic 




John, however, of whom we have made mention 
before, having fled from Alexandria, arrives at the 
ancient Rome, and there causes great stir, by saying 
that he had been banished from his riglitful see for 
upholding the doctrines of Leo and the council at 
Chalcedon, and had been superseded by another person, 
who was their opponent. Upon this Simplicius, bishop 
of the elder Rome, writes in alarm to Zeno; who in 
reply charges John Avith perjury, and alleges that for 
this reason and no other he had been ejected from his 



Calandion, president of Antioch, writing to the 
emperor Zeno, and to Acacius, president of Constanti- 
nople, terms Peter an adulterer, saying that, when he 
was at Alexandria, he had anathematised the council at 
Chalcedon. He is afterwards condemned to exile at 
Oasis, on a supposition of having supported lUus, 
Leontius, and Pamprepius, in their usurpation against 


Zeno ; and Peter the Fuller, the predecessor of Calan- 
dioii and Stephen, as I have mentioned, recovered his 
own see. The latter also subscribed the Henoticon of 
Zeno, and addressed s3^nodical letters to Peter, bishop 
of Alexandria. Acacius, president of Constantinople, 
also entered into communion with him. Martyrius, too, 
bishop of Jerusalem, addressed synodical letters to 
Peter. Subsequently, certain persons withdrew from 
communion with Peter, who, in consequence, thence- 
forward openly anathematised the synod at Chalcedon. 
The news of this circumstance greatly troubled Acacius, 
and induced him to send persons to gain information 
on the subject; when Peter, to convince them that he 
had not so acted, drew up memorials, in which certain 
persons said, from their own knowledge, that Peter had 
not done any thing of the kind. 



This Peter never abided by one opinion, being a 
double dealer, a waverer, and a time-server, now ana- 
thematising the synod at Chalcedon, at another time 
recanting, and admitting it with entire assent. 
Accordingly, the same Peter wrote an epistle to Acacius, 
president of Constantinople, in the following words : 
"The most high God will repay your holiness for the 


many labours and toils wherewith, during the lapse 
of time, you have guarded the form of faith of the 
holy fathers, which you have confirmed by unceasingly 
proclaiming it ; in which form when we found the 
symbol of the three hundred and eighteen holy fathers 
to be embraced, we were disposed to accord with it ; 
that symbol in which we believed at baptism, and still 
believe ; which also the hundred and fifty holy fathers, 
who assembled at Constantinople, confirmed. Accord- 
ingly, while increasing in your endeavours to guide 
all aright, you have united the holy church of God, by 
convincing us by the most powerful proofs that nothing 
at variance with this was enacted in the holy and gene- 
ral synod held at Chalcedon, but that it accorded with 
the acts of the holy fathers at Nicsea, and confirmed 
them. Thus, having discovered no novelty therein, Ave 
have of our own free motion accorded our assent and 
belief. But we are informed that certain monks, 
envying our brotherly union, have conveyed certain 
slanders to your holy ears, which have with some difii- 
culty succeeded in embittering the feelings of your 
holiness. And, in the first place, it is alleged that Ave 
have removed to another place the remains of our 
sainted father, the blessed archbishop Timotheus, a 
thing abhorrent to religion and laAV : and they have 
further shifted their ground to another charge, in itself 
incoherent and Avorse than the former; for how could 
Ave possibly have anathematised the synod at Chalcedon, 


Avhicli wti luid previously confii'ined by according to it 
our belief? But the nudignant teuiper and fickleness 
of our people are notorious, and cannot but be known 
to your piety, as well as of tliose monks who are dis- 
posed to innovation ; who, in conspiracy with certain 
ill-designing persons that have broken loose from the 
church, are endeavouring to draw away the people. 
Through your prayers we have also devised a discourse 
of a directly healing tendency, and in no way impugn- 
ing the synod at Chalcedon, well knowing that its 
transactions contain no novelty ; and, further, for tlie 
satisfaction of guileless persons, we have procured 
those who had united themselves to us, to affirm this 
point. This nnschief, then, by much exertion, I have 
readily checked : but I make known to your holiness, 
that even still the monks who are ever sowino- the 


tares, are not at rest, associating also with themselves, 
as mstruments, persons who were never the inmates of 
monasteries; but they travel about disseminating 
various rumours to our disadvantage, and, while they 
do not allow that we act canonically and in a manner 
suitable to the holy catholic church of God, but are 
habituating our people to govern rather than obey us, 
they are bent on doing whatever is unbecoming the 
service of God. We doubt not, however, that your 
holiness will inform the most sacred master of tlie 
world of all these circumstances, and provide that a 
formulary shall be put forth by his serenity, embracing 


the necessary matters relating to such a peace of the 
church as becomes both God and the emperor ; so as to 
lead all to repose on its provisions." 



John, who had fled to Rome, was urgent on Felix, 
the successor of Simplicius in that see, respecting the 
proceedings of Peter, and recommends, according to 
Zacharias, that an instrument of deposition should be 
sent to Acacius from Felix, on the ground of his 
communion with Peter : which, however, as being un- 
canonical, Acacius did not admit, as the same Zacha- 
rias writes, on its presentation by certain members 
of the monastery of the Acoemets, as they are called. 
Such is the account given by Zacharias ; but he appears 
to me to have been altogether ignorant of the real 
transactions, and to have reported merely an imper- 
fect hearsay. I now proceed to give a precise account 
of the proceedings. On the presentation of libels to 
Felix by John against Acacius, on the score of irregu- 
lar communion with Peter, and other uncanonical pro- 
ceedings, the bishops Vitalis and Misenus are sent by 
Felix to the emperor Zeno, with a requisition that the 
authority of the synod at Chalcedon should be main- 


tained, that Peter should be ejected as a heretic, and 
that Acacius should be sent to Felix to answer for 
himself to the charges brought against him by John, 
of whom we have made frequent mention. 



Before, however, they reached the imperial city, 
Cyril, the superior of the Acoemets, writes to Felix, 
blaming his tardiness, when so grievous offences were 
being committed against the right faith; and Felix 
writes to Misenus and his associates, that they should 
take no measures until they had conferred with Cyril, 
and learnt from him what was best to be done. 


correspondence BETWEEN FELIX AND ZENO. 

Further commonitories were also addressed to 
them by Felix; as also letters to Zeno, concerning 
both the synod at Chalcedon, and the persecution 
which Huneric was carrying on in Africa. He also 
wrote an epistle to Acacius. Zeno wrote in answer, 
that the concern with which John had iiUed him, was 
groundless ; because, having sworn that he would in 


no way endeavour to insinuate himself into tlie see of 
Alexandria, and having subsequently violated these 
terms and disregarded his oath, he had been guilty of 
the extreme of sacrilege : that Peter had not been 
appointed without being tested, but had with his own 
hand subscribed his reception of the faith of the three 
hundred and eighteen holy fathers who met at Nictea, 
which the holy synod at Chalcedon also followed. 
Part of the epistle is in these precise words: "You 
ought to be assured that our piety, and the l)efo re-men- 
tioned most holy Peter, and all the most holy churches, 
receive and revere the most holy synod at Chalcedon, 
which agreed with the faith of the Nicene synod." 

In the transactions are also contained epistles from 
the before-mentioned Cyril, and other archimandrites 
of the imperial city, and from bishops and clergy of 
the Egyptian province, addressed to Felix against 
Peter, as being a heretic, and against those who 
communicated with him. The members of the 
monastery of the Acoemets who came to Felix, further 
averred against Misenus and his party, that before their 
arrival at Byzantium, the name of Peter had been 
read secretly in the sacred diptychs, and since that 
time without any concealment, and that they had in 
this way communicated with him. The epistle also of 
the Eg\i^tians ailirmed the same things respecting 
Peter ; and that John, being orthodox, had been right- 
fully ordained : that Peter was ordained by two Inshops 


only, inaintainei's of similar errors with himself: that 
since the flight of John every species of severity had 
been inflicted on the orthodox : that all these circum- 
stances had been made known to Acacius by persons 
who had visited the imperial city ; and that they were 
convinced that he was in all things acting in union 
with Peter. 



This stir was further increased by Simeon, an 
Acoemet, who had been dispatched to Rome by Cyril. 
He expressly charged Misenus and Vitalis with holding 
communion with the heretics, by distinctly uttermg 
the name of Peter in the reading of the sacred di- 
ptychs ; and affirmed that many simple persons had, on 
this ground, been beguiled by the heretics, who said 
that Peter was admitted to the communion even of the 
Roman see : and, further, in reply to various interro- 
gatories, Simeon said that Misenus and his party had 
declined to have communication with any orthodox 
person, either in person or by letter, or to sift any of 
the presumptuous attempts upon the right faith. 
There was also brought forward Silvanus, a presbyter, 
who had been in company -^vith Misenus and Vitalis at 


Constantinople, and he coniirmed tlie statement of the 
monks. There was read, too, a letter from Acaciiis 
to Simplicins, to the effect that Peter had been long 
ago deposed and had become a child of night. On these 
grounds Misenus and Vitalis were removed from the 
priesthood and severed from the holy communion, when 
a unanimous vote was passed by the synod, in the follow- 
ing terms : " The church of the Eomans does not admit 
Peter, the heretic, who has also been long ago con- 
demned by the holy see, excommunicated, and anathe- 
matised. To whom, if there were no other objection, 
this is sufficient, namely, that having been ordained 
by heretics, he could not have authority over the 
orthodox." The decree also contains what follows: 
" The mere circumstance shews Acacius, bishop of 
Constantinople, to have incurred very great responsi- 
bility, because, writing to Simplicius and having 
termed Peter a heretic, he has nevertheless made no 
such declaration to the emperor : which was his duty, 
if he were loyal to him. He is, however, more par- 
tial to the emperor than to the faith." 

Let me now return to the order of events. There 
is extant an epistle from Acacius to the Egyptian 
bishops, the clergy, monks, and the people in general, 
by which he endeavours to heal the existing schism : 
on which subject he also T\Tote to Peter, bishop of 





While the schism at Alexandria was thus at its 
height, Peter, having again anathematised the tome of 
Leo, the transactions at Chalcedon, and those who 
refused to admit tlie writings of Dioscorus and Timo- 
theus, induced some of the bishops and archimandrites 
to communicate with him; and faihng to prevail upon 
the others, ejected most of them from their monasteries. 
On account of these proceedings, Xephalius visited the 
imperial city, and reported them to Zeno; Avho, in 
great vexation, despatches Cosmas, one of his officers, 
charged to load Peter with menaces, for the enforce- 
ment of unity, on the score of his having caused a 
serious dissension by his harshness. Cosmas returns 
to the imperial city without accomplishing the object 
of his mission, having merely restored those who had 
been ejected, to their monasteries. Subsequently, 
Arsenius is sent out by the emperor as governor of 
Egypt and commander of the forces. Arriving at 
Alexandria in company with Nephalius, he negociated 
Avith a view to unity; but foiling to induce persons to 
acquiesce in his measures, he sends some of them to 
the imperial city, where, accordingly, many discussions 
took place in the presence of Zeno: but with no 


practical result, because the emperor altogether de- 
clined agreement with the synod at Chalcedon. 



At this juncture Acacius departed on the common 
journey of all men, and is succeeded by Fravitas. On 
his addressing synodical letters to Peter of Alexandria, 
the latter replies with a repetition of the former 
matters respecting the synod at Chalcedon. On the 
demise of Fravitas, after an episcopate of only four 
months, Euphemius was ordained as his successor, and 
is the recipient of the letters of Peter addressed to 
Fravitas. On discovering the anathema against the 
transactions at Chalcedon, his feelings were greatly 
roused, and he broke off from communion with Peter. 
Both epistles are extant, namely, from Fravitas to 
Peter, and from Peter to Fravitas; but I pass them 
over on account of their length. When, in conse- 
quence, Euphemius and Peter were upon the point of 
coming to open hostility, and summoning synods 
against each other, these proceedings were prevented 
by the death of the latter. He is succeeded by Atha- 
nasius, who attempted to unite the dissidents; but 
without success, since the parties were ranged under 


diti^rences of opinion. Subsequently, when dispatch- 
ing syiiodical letters to Palladius, the successor of 
Peter in the bishopric of Antioch, he took a similar 
course respecthig the synod at Chalcedon ; as did also 
John, his successor in the see of Alexandria. On the 
death of Palladius, and the succession of Flavian to the 
see of Antioch, Solomon, a presbyter of that church, 
is sent to Alexandria, as the bearer of synodical letters, 
with the request of an answer from John to Flavian. 
John is succeeded in the see of Alexandria by another 
of the same name. Such was the progress of these 
events down to a certain period of the reign of Anas- 
tasius : who had himself ejected Euphemius. I have 
been compelled thus to detail them continuously, for the 
sake of perspicuity and a ready comprehension of the 



Zeno, at the instigation of Illus, puts to death 
Armatus, a kinsman of the empress Verina. When 
Armatus had been sent against him by Basiliscus, 
Zeno had succeeded, by bribes, in converting him from 
a foe into an ally, and had bestowed on his son Basiliscus 
the rank of Caasar at Xiciea : but on his return to Con- 
stantinople, he procures the assassination of Armatus, 


and makes his son a priest instead of Cffisar. The latter 
was afterwards raised to the episcopal dignity. 



Theodoric also, a Scythian, raised an insurrection, 
and having collected his forces in Thrace, marched 
against Zeno. After ravaging every place in his 
march as far as the mouth of the Pontus, he was near 
taking the imperial city, when some of his most 
intimate companions were secretly induced to enter 
into a plot against his life. When, however, he had 
learnt the disaffection of his followers, he commenced 
a retreat, and was very soon afterwards numbered with 
the departed, by a kind of death which I will mention, 
and which happened thus. A spear, with its thong pre- 
pared for immediate use, had been suspended before 
his tent in barbaric fashion. He had ordered a horse 
to be brought to him for the purpose of exercise, and 
being in the habit of not having any one to assist him 
in mounting, vaulted into his seat. The horse, a 
mettlesome and ungovernable animal, reared before 
Theodoric was fairly mounted, so that, in the contest, 
neither daring to rein back the horse, lest it should 
come do^vn upon him, nor yet having gained a firm 
seat, he was whirled round in all directions, and 


dashed against the point of the spear, Mliich thus 
struck him obliquely, and wounded his side. He was 
then conveyed to his couch, and after surviving a few 
days, died of the wound. ' 



Subsequently Marcian had a rupture with Zeno, 
and attempted to dispute the empire with him. He 
was the son of Anthemius who had formerly reigned at 
Rome, and was allied to Leo, the preceding emperor, 
having married his younger daughter Leontia. After 
a severe battle around the palace, in which many fell 
on both sides, Marcian repulsed his opponents, and 
would have become master of the palace, had he not 
let slip the critical moment, by putting off the opera- 
tion to the morrow. 

For the critical season is swift of flight : when it is 
close upon one, it may be secured ; but should it once 
have escaped the grasp, it soars aloft and laughs at its 
pursuers, not deigning to place itself again within their 
reach. And hence no doubt it is, that statuaries and 
painters, while they figure it ^vith a lock hangmg down 
in front, represent the head as closely shaven behind ; 
thus skilfully symbolising, that when it comes up from 
behind one, it may perhaps be held fast by the flowing 


forelock, but fairly escapes when it has once got the 
start, from the absence of any thing by which the 
pursuer might grasp it. 

And this was what befel Marcian, when he had lost 
the moment favourable to his success, and was unable 
to find it afterwards. For the next day he was 
betrayed by his own followers, and being completely 
deserted, lied to the sacred precinct of the divine 
Apostles ; whence he was dragged away by force, and 
transported to Ca3sarea in Cappadocia. Having there 
joined the society of certain monks, he was afterwards 
detected in meditating an escape ; and being removed 
by the emperor to Tarsus in Cilicia, he was shorn, and 
ordained a presbyter : of all which particulars an elegant 
narrative has been given by Eustathius the Syrian. 



The ' same writer states that Zeno also devised in- 
numerable machinations against his mother-in-law 
Verina, and afterwards sent her away to Cilicia; and 
that subsequently, on the assumption of sovereign 
power by lUus, she removed to what is called the 
castle of Papirius ; where she died. 

Eustathius also narrates with great ability the story 
of Illus : how he escaped Zeno's plots against liim, and 


how Zeiio gave up to capital punishinciit the man who 
had been commissioned to murder Illus, rewarding 
him with the loss of his head for his failure in the 
attempt. He also appointed Illus commander of the 
forces of the East, thinking thus to conceal his real 
designs : but he, having gained over as partizans 
Leontius, Marsus, a man of reputaion, and Pamprepius, 
proceeded to the east. 

The same Eustathius then mentions the proclamation 
of Leontius as emperor, which took place at Tarsus in 
Cilicia; and how these persons reaped the fruits of 
their assumption of power, when Theodoric, a man of 
Gothic extraction, but illustrious among the Romans, 
had been sent out against them, with a force composed 
both of native and foreign troops. 

The same author ably depicts the fate of those who 
Avere miserably put to death by Zeno in return for their 
loyalty to hhn ; and how Theodoric, becoming aware 
of the evil designs of Zeno, -withdrew to the elder 
Rome. Some, however, say that this was done at the 
suggestion of Zeno. Having there defeated Odoacer, 
he made himself master of Rome, and assumed the 
title of king. 



John the rhetorician writes, that in the time of 
Zeno, Mammianus from an artizan became a person of 


note and a member of the senate ; and that he built in 
the suburb of Daphne what is called the Antiphorus, 
on a site previously planted with vines and suitable for 
cultivation, directly opposite the public baths ; where 
there is also the brazen statue inscribed, " Mammianus 
the friend of the city." He also states that he built 
within the city, two basilicas, singularly beautiful in 
their design, and embellished with brilliant stone-work ; 
and that, as an intervening structure to the two, he 
raised a Tetrapylum, exquisitely finished both in its 
columns and its brazen work. The basilicas I have 
identified, retaining, together with their name, some 
trace of their former beauty, in the stones from Pro- 
comiesus, which form the pavement, but nothing 
remarkable in their architecture : for, in consequence 
of the calamities which had befallen them, they had 
lately been rebuilt, without receiving any thing in the 
way of ornament. Of the Tetrapylum I was not able 
to detect the slightest vestige. 



On the decease of Zeno, by epilepsy, without issue, 
after a reign of seventeen years, Longinus his brother, 
having raised himself to considerable power, hoped to 
secure the sovereignty, but was, notwithstanding, 


disappointed of his expectation. For Ariadne bestows 
the diadem on Anastasius, a person who had not yet 
attained senatorian rank, hut belonged to the corps of 
the Silentiaries. 

Eustathius writes, that two hundred and seven years 
elapsed from the beginning of the reign of Diocletian 
to the death of Zeno and the nomination of Anastasius : 
five hundred and fifty-two years and seven months 
from the time that Augustus obtained the supreme 
power; eight hundred and thirty- two years and seven 
months from the reign of Alexander the Macedonian ; 
one thousand and fifty-two years and seven months 
from the reign of Romulus ; one thousand six hundred 
and eighty-six years and seven months from the 
taking of Troy. 

This Anastasius, bemg a native of Epidamnus, now 
called Dyrrachium, both succeeds to the sovereignty 
of Zeno and espouses his Tvdfe Ariadne. In the first 
place, he dismisses to his native country Longinus, the 
brother of Zeno, who held the post of Master of the 
Offices, formerly termed commander of the household 
troops ; and afterwards, many other Isaurians at their 
o^^^l request. 



Tins Anastasius, being of a peaceful disposition, 
was alto2:ether averse to the introduction of changes. 


especially in the state of the church, but endeavoured by 
every means, that the most holy churches should con- 
tinue undisturbed, and the whole body of his subjects 
enjoy profound tranquillity, by the removal of all strife 
and contention from matters both ecclesiastical and 
civil. During these times, accordingly, the synod of 
Chalcedon was neither openly proclaimed in the most 
holy churches, nor yet was repudiated by all : but the 
bishops acted each according to his individual opinion. 
Thus, some very resolutely maintained vdiat had been 
put forth by that synod, and would not yield to the 
extent of one word of its determinations, nor admit 
even the change of a single letter, but firmly declined 
all contact and communion with those who refused to 
admit the matters there set forth. Others, again, 
not only did not submit to the synod of Chalcedon 
and its determinations, but even anathematised both 
it and the tome of Leo. Others, however, firmly 
adhered to the Henoticon of Zeno, and that too al- 
though mutually at variance on the point of the single 
and double nature ; some being caught by the artful 
composition of that document; and others influenced 
by an inclination for peace. Thus the churches in 
general were divided into distinct factions, and their 
presidents did not even admit each other to com- 

Numerous divisions, hence arising, existed in the 
East, in the West, and in Africa; while the eastern 


bishops had no friendly intercourse with those of the 
West and Africa, nor the latter with those of the East. 
The evil too became still more monstrous, for neither 
did the presidents of the eastern churches allow com- 
munion among themselves, nor yet those who held the 
sees of Europe and Africa, much less with those of 
remote parts. 

In consideration of these circumstances, the Empe- 
ror Anastasius removed those bishops who were pro- 
moters of change, wherever he detected any one either 
proclaiming or anathematising the synod of Chalcedon 
in opposition to the practice of the neighbourhood. 
Accordingly, he rejected from the see of the imperial 
city, first, Euphemius, as has been already mentioned, 
and afterwards Macedonius, Vvdio was succeeded by 
Timotheus; and Flavian from the see of Antioch. 



The monastic body in Palestine, writing to Alcison 
concerning Macedonius and Flavian, express them- 
selves thus : "On the death of Peter, they were again 
separated, but Alexandria, Egypt, and Africa remained 
at unity among themselves; as, on the other hand, did 
the rest of the East ; while the churches of the West 
refused to communicate with them on any other terms 


than the anathematising of Xestorius, Eutyches, and 
Dioscorus, including also Peter, surnamed IMongTis, 
and Acacius. Such, then, being the situation of the 
churches throughout the world, the genuine followers 
of Dioscorus and Eutyches were reduced to a very 
small number ; and when they were upon the point of 
disappearing altogether from the earth, Xenaias, who 
was truly a stranger to God, with what object we 
know not, or pursuing what enmity towards Flavian, 
but under colour of defending the ftiith, as is generally 
said, begins to raise a stir against him, and to calum- 
niate him as being a Nestorian. When, however, he 
had anathematised Nestorius and his notion, Xenaias 
transferred his attacks from him to Dioscorus and 
Theodore, Theodoret, Ibas, Cyrus, Eleutherius, and 
John ; and we know not whom besides and whence he 
mustered them : some of Avhom really maintained the 
opinions of Xestorius, but others, having been sus- 
pected, anathematised him, and departed in the com- 
munion of the church. 'Unless,' said he, 'thou shalt 
anathematise all these, as holding the opinions of 
Xestorius, thou art thyself a Xestorian, though thou 
shouldest ten thousand times anathematise him and 
his notion.' He also endeavoured by letters to induce 
the advocates of Dioscorus and Eutyches to take arms 
with him against Flavian, not however with a view of 
exacting from him an anathema upon the synod, but 
merely on the before-mentioned persons. Cut when 


the bishop Flavian liad maintained a prolonged 
resistance to them, and other persons had united with 
Xenaias against him, namely, Eleusinus, a bishop of 
Cappadocia Secunda, Nicias, of Laodicea in Syria, and 
others from other quarters, the motive of whose spite 
against Flavian it is the province of others, not of 
ourselves, to detail; at last, in hope of peace, he yielded 
to their contentious spirit, and having in writing ana- 
thematised the before-mentioned persons, he despatched 
the instrument to the emperor, for they had stirred up 
him also against Flavian as a maintainer of the opinions 
of Nestorius. Xenaias, not contented with this, again 
demands of Flavian that lie should anathematise the 
synod itself, and those who maintained two natures 
in the person of the Lord, namely, the flesh and the 
Godhead; and on his refusal, again accused him of 
being a Nestorian. After much stir upon this subject, 
and after the patriarch had put forth an exposition of 
faith, in which he confessed that he admitted the synod 
as far as regards the deposition of Nestorius and Euty- 
ches, not however as defining and teaching the faith ; 
they again impugn him as secretly holding the opinions 
of Nestorius, unless he would further anathematise the 
synod itself, and those who maintained two natures 
in the person of the Lord, the flesh and the Godhead. 
The}^ also win over to their side the Isaurians, by 
various deceitful expressions, and having drawn up a 
formulary of faith, in which they anathematise the 


synod together with those who maintamed the two 
natures or persons, they separate themselves from 
Flavian and Macedonius, but unite with others on 
their subscribing the formulary. At the same time 
they also demanded of the bishop of Jerusalem a 
written statement of faith; which he put forth, and 
sent to the emperor by the hands of the party of 
Dioscorus. This they present, containing an anathema 
upon those who maintained the two natures. But the 
bishop of Jerusalem himself, affirming that it had been 
forged by them, puts forth another without such 
anathema. And no wonder. For they have often 
forged discourses of the fathers, and to many ^vi'itings 
of ApoUinaris they have attached titles assigning them 
to Athanasius, Gregory Thaumaturgus, and Julius; 
their principal object in so doing being to draw over 
the multitude to their own impieties. They also de- 
manded of Macedonius a written statement of faith ; 
who put one forth, affirming that he recognised only 
the creed of the three hundred and eighteen, and of 
the one hundred and fifty fathers, anathematising at 
the same time Nestorius, Eutyches, and those who 
held the doctrine of two sons or two Christs, or divided 
the natures; making, however, no mention of the 
sjaiod of Ephesus, which deposed Nestorius, nor that 
of Chalcedon, which deposed Eutyches. Indignant 
at this, the monastic bodies about Constantinople sepa- 
rate from their bishop Macedonius. In the mean time 


Xenaias and Dioscorus, associating with them many 
of the bishops, became insufferable, from the stir which 
they raised against those who refused to anathematise ; 
and, by various devices, they endeavoured to procure 
the banishment of those who persisted in their refusal. 
In this way, accordingly, they banish both Macedonius, 
and John, bishop of Paltus, and Flavian." 
Such are the contents of the letter. 



There were other things which caused secret vex- 
ation to Anastasius. For when Ariadne was desirous 
of investing him with the purple, Euphemius, who held 
the archiepiscopal see, withheld his approval, until 
Anastasius had presented to him an agreement, written 
with his own hand, and secured with fearful oaths, 
that he would maintain the faith inviolate, and intro- 
duce no innovation into the holy church of God, in 
case he should obtain the sceptre : which document he 
also deposited with Macedonius, the keeper of the 
sacred treasures. This measure he adopted, because 
Anastasius had generally the reputation of holding the 
Manichaean doctrine. When, however, Macedonius 
ascended the episcopal throne, Anastasius was desirous 


that the agreement should be returned to him, affirm- 
ing it to be an insult to the imperial dignity, if the 
before-mentioned document, in his own hand-writing, 
should be preserved : and when ]\Iacedonius resolutely 
opposed the demand, and firmly protested that he 
would not betray the faith, the emperor pursued every 
insidious device for the purpose of ejecting hun from 
his see. Accordingly, even boys were brought forward 
as informers, who falsely accused both themselves and 
Macedonius of infamous practices. But when Mace- 
donius was found to be emasculate, they had recourse 
to other contrivances ; until, by the advice of Celer, 
commander of the household troops, he secretly retired 
from his see. 

With the ejection of Flavian, other circumstances 
are associated. For we have met with some very aged 
men who remembered all the events of this time. 
These say, that the monks of the district called Cyne- 
gica, and of the whole of Syria Prima, having been 
wrought upon by Xenaias, who was bishop of the 
neighbouring city of Hierapolis, and who was named 
in Greek Philoxenus, rushed into the city in a body with 
great noise and tumult, endeavouring to compel Fla- 
vian to anathematise the synod of Chalcedon and the 
tome of Leo. Roused at the indignation manifested 
by Flavian, and the violent urgency of the monks, the 
people of the city made a great slaughter of them, so 
that a very large number found a grave in the Orontes, 


where the waves performed their only funeral rites. 
There happened also another circumstance of scarcely 
less magnitude than the former. For the monks of 
Ciele S}Tia, now called Syria Secunda, from sympathy 
with Flavian, since he had led a monastic life in a 
monastery of the district called Tilmognon, advanced 
to Antioch, with the intention of defending him. 
From which , circumstance, also, no inconsiderable 
mischief arose. Accordingly, on the ground either of 
the former or latter occurrence, or both, Flavian is 
ejected, and condemned to reside at Petra, on the ex- 
treme verge of Palestine. 



Flavian having been thus ejected, Severus ascends 
the episcopal throne of Antioch, in the five hundred 
and sixty-first year of the era of that city, in the month 
Dius, the sixth year of the Indiction; the year in which 
I am now writing being the six hundred and forty- 
first of that era. He was a native of Sozopolis, a city 
of Pisidia, and had applied himself to the profession of 
a pleader at Berytus ; but immediately on his aban- 
doning the practice of the law, having participated in 
holy baptism in the sacred precinct of the divine martyr 
Leontius, who is revered at Tripolis, a city of Phcenicia 


Maritima, he assumed the monastic life in a certain 
monastery situated between the city of Gaza and the 
town called Majumas ; in which latter place Peter the 
Iberian, who had been bishop of the same Gaza, and 
had been banished with Timotheus ^lurus, passed 
through the same discipline, and left behind him a 
famous memory. Severus there engages in a discussion 
with Nephalius, who had formerly sided mth him on 
the question of the single nature, but had subsequently 
been one of the synod at Chalcedon and among those 
who held the opinion of two natures in the person of 
our Lord Jesus Christ; and he is, in consequence, 
expelled from his own monastery by Nephalius and 
his party, together with many others who held similar 
doctrines. Thence he proceeds to the imperial city, 
to plead the cause of himself and those who had been 
expelled with him, and thus obtains the notice of the 
emperor Anastasius, as is narrated by the author of 
the life of Severus. 

Accordingly, Severus, in issuing synodical letters, 
expressly anathematised the synod at Chalcedon; on 
which point the letters addressed to Alcison speak as 
follows. " The synodical letters of Timotheus of Con- 
stantinople were admitted here in Palestine, but the 
deposition of Macedonius and Flavian was not admitted, 
nor yet the synodical letters of Severus ; but the bear- 
ers were put to flight, Avith the ignominy and insult 
which they deserved, by the people and monks of the 


city, who rose upon them. Such was the situation of 
matters in Palestine. But of the bishops subject to 
Antioch, some were carried away mto compliance, 
among whom Avas Marinus, bishop of Berytus ; others 
by force and compulsion concurred in the synodical let- 
ters of Severus, which mcluded an anathema, both on 
the synod and all others who affirmed two natures or 
persons m the Lord, namely, the flesh and the Godhead ; 
and others, after having concurred by compulsion, re- 
called their assent, and among them the bishops subject 
to Apamea; others, again, altogether refused concur- 
rence, among whom were Julian, bishop of Bostra, 
Epiphanius of Tyre, and some others, as is said. But 
the Isaurian bishops, having returned to their sober 
senses, are now condemning themselves for the error 
into which they had been beguiled, and are anathema- 
tising Severus and his party. Others of the bishops 
and clergy subject to Severus have abandoned their 
churches, and among them Julian of Bostra, and Peter 
of Damascus, who are now living in these parts, as also 
Mamas. This latter is one of those two who seemed 
to be the chiefs of the followers of Dioscorus, by whose 
means also Severus obtained his dignity : but he now 
condemns the arrogance of that party." And presently 
the letter proceeds. " The monasteries m these parts 
and Jerusalem itself are, with the aid of God, unani- 
mous respecting the right faith, and very many cities 
besides, together with their bishops, for all of whom, 


and for ourselves, pray thou that we may not enter into 
temptation, our most holy lord and honoured 



Since, then, these letters state, that the priests sub- 
ject to Apamea had separated from Sever us, let me now 
add a circumstance transmitted to us from our fathers, 
although it has not hitherto found a place in history. 
Cosmas, bishop of my native place, Epiphanea, which 
stands on the Orontes, and Severian, bishop of the 
neighbouring city of Arethusa, being troubled at the 
synodical letters of Severus, and having withdrawn 
from his communion, despatched an instrument of de- 
position to him, while still bishop of Antioch. They 
entrust the document to Aurelian, chief of the deacons 
at Epiphanea, and he, through dread of Severus and 
the majesty of so great a bishopric, on his arrival at 
Antioch puts on a female dress, and apj)roaches Seve- 
rus with dehcate carriage and the entire assumption of 
a Avoman's appearance. Letting his vail fall down to his 
breast, with wailing and deep drawn lamentation he 
presents to Severus, as he advanced, the instruments 
of deposition in the guise of a petition : he then passes 
unobserved from among the attendant crowd and 


purchased safety by flight, before Severus had learned 
the purport of the document. Severus, having received 
the document and learned its contents, continued, never- 
theless, in his see, until the death of Anastasius. 

On bemg informed of these transactions, for I must 
record the benevolent measure of Anastasius, he 
directs Asiaticus, who was commander in Phoenicia 
Libanensis, to eject Cosmas and Severian from their 
sees, because they had sent the instrument of deposi- 
tion to Severus. Findmg, on his arrival in the East, 
that many adhered to the opinions of those bishops, 
and that their cities resolutely upheld them, he reported 
to Anastasius that he could not eject them without 
bloodshed. So great then was the humanity of Anas- 
tasius, that he wi'ote in express terms to Asiaticus, 
that he did not desire the accomplishment of any object, 
however important and illustrious, if one drop of blood 
was to be shed. 

Such, then, was the situation of the churches 
throughout the world down to the reign of Anastasius ; 
whom some, treating him as an enemy to the synod at 
Chalcedon, erased from the sacred diptychs ; and he 
was also anathematised at Jerusalem even during his 




It will not be inconsistent, if, in accordance with 
the promise which I originally made, I insert in my 
narrative the other circumstances worthy of mention 
which occurred in the time of Anastasius. 

Longinus, the kinsman of Zeno, on his arrival at his 
native country, as has been already detailed, openly 
commences war agamst the emperor: and after a 
numerous army had been raised from different quarters, 
in which Conon, formerly bishop of Apainea in Syria, 
was also present, who, as being an Isaurian, aided the 
Isaurians, an end was put to the war by the utter 
destruction of the Isaurian troops of Longinus. The 
heads of Longinus and Theodore were sent to the 
imperial city by John the Scythian ; which the emperor 
displayed on poles at the place caUed Sycee, opposite 
Constantmople, an agreeable spectacle to the Byzan- 
tines, who had been hardly treated by Zeno and the 
Isaurians. The other Longinus, surnamed of Selinus, 
the main stay of the insurgent faction, and Indes, are 
sent alive to Anastasius by John, surnamed Hunch- 
back ; a circumstance which especially gladdened the 
emperor and the Byzantines, by the display of the 
prisoners led in triumph along the streets and the 
hippodrome, with iron chains about their necks and 


hands. Thenceforward, also, the payment called Isau- 
rica accrued to the imperial treasury, being gold 
previously paid to the Barbarians annually, to the 
amount of five thousand pounds. 



The Scenite barbarians also insulted the Roman 
empire; not, however, to their own advantage; by 
plundering Mesopotamia, either Phoenicia, and Pales- 
tine. After having been every^vhere chastised by the 
commanders, they subsequently continued quiet, and 
universally made peace with the Romans. 



The Persians too, having, in violation of treaties, 
marched beyond their own territories under their king 
Cabades, first attacked Armenia, and having captured 
a town named Theodosioj^olis, reached Amida, a strong 
city of Mesopotamia, which they took by storm ; and 
which the Roman emperor subsequently restored by 
great exertions. 

If any one is inclined to learn the particulars of these 


transactions, and to trace the whole mmutely, a very 
able narrative, a work of great labour and elegance, 
has been composed by Eustathius ; who, after having 
brought down his history to this point, Avas numbered 
with the departed; closing with the twelfth year of 
the reign of Anastasius. 

After the close of this war, Anastasius founds a city 
on the spot called Daras, in Mesopotamia, situated 
near the limits of the Roman dominion, and, as it 
were, a border-point of the two empires. He surrounds 
it with strong fortifications, and embellishes it with 
various stately erections, both of churches and other 
sacred buildings, basilicas, public baths, and other 
ornaments of distinguished cities. The place is said 
by some to have obtained the name of Daras, because 
there Alexander the Macedonian, the son of Philip, 
utterly defeated Darius. 



By the same emperor was raised a vast and memo- 
rable work called the Long Wall, in a favourable 
situation in Thrace, distant from Constantinople two 
hundred and eighty stadia. It reaches from one sea 
to the other, like a strait, to the extent of four hundred 
and twenty stadia ; making the city an island, in a 


manner, instead of a peninsula, and affording a very 
safe transit, to such as choose, from the Pontus to the 
Euxine Sea. It is a check upon the inroads of the 
Barbarians from the Euxine, and of the Colchians from 
the Palus Masotis, and from beyond the Caucasus, as 
well as of those who have made irruptions from Europe. 



The same emperor completed an extraordinary and 
divine achievement, namely, the entire abolition of the 
tax called chrysargyrum : which transaction I must now 
detail, though the task needs the eloquence of Thucy- 
dides, or something still more lofty and graceful. I 
will, lio^vever, myself describe it, not in reliance upon 
powers of language, but encouraged by the nature of 
the action. 

There was imposed upon the Roman commonwealth, 
so singular in its magnitude and duration, a tax vile 
and hateful to God, and unworthy even of Barbarians, 
much more of the most Christian empire of the Romans : 
which, having been overlooked, from ^vhat cause I am 
unable to say, until the time of Anastasius, he most 
royally abolished. It was imposed, both on many other 
classes of persons who procured their livelihood by 
an accumulation of petty gains, and also upon women 


who made a sale of their charms, and surrendered 
themselves m brothels to promiscuous fornication in 
the obscure parts of the city ; and besides, upon those 
who were devoted to a prostitution which outraged 
not only nature but the common weal : so that this 
mode of revenue proclaimed, as distinctly as a direct 
enactment, that all who chose, might practise such 
wickedness in security. The impious and accursed 
revenue raised from this source, the collectors paid at 
the end of every five years into the hands of the first 
and most dignified of the prefects : so that it formed 
no unimportant part of the functions of that ofiice, and 
had its separate exchequer, and accountants, men who 
regarded the business as a military service, suited, like 
the rest, to persons of some distinction. 

Anastasius, being informed of the circumstance, laid 
the matter before the senate, and justly declaring it to 
be an abomination and unparallelled defilement, decreed 
that it should be utterly abolished ; and committed to 
the flames the papers which were vouchers for its 
collection. With the desire also of making this mea- 
sure a complete sacrifice to God, and of preventing any 
of his successors from reviving the ancient shame, he 
puts on the appearance of vexation, and accuses him- 
self of inconsiderateness and excessive folly, saying, that 
in the too eager pursuit of novelty he had neglected 
the interests of the commonwealth, and had rashly 
and thoughtlessly abolished so important a revenue. 


wliicli had been established m former thnes and con- 
firmed by so long a contmuance, without duly weighing 
the impending dangers, or the expenses necessary for 
the maintenance of the army, that living buhvark of 
the empire, nor yet for the service of God. Accordingly, 
without betraying his secret thoughts, he proclaims 
his desire to restore the before-mentioned revenue ; and 
having summoned those who had been in charge of the 
levy, he told them that he repented of the step, but 
knew not what course to take, or how to rectify his 
error, now that the papers had been burnt which could 
be vouchers for the particulars of its exaction. And 
while they, on their part, lamented the abolition of the 
levy, not in semblance but in reality, on account of 
the unrighteous gain which had thence accrued to them, 
and were professing the same perplexity as the em- 
peror, he urged and exhorted them to employ every 
mode of search, in the endeavour to procure from among 
documents preserved in various quarters, a statement 
of the entire lev}^ Supplymg each individual with 
money, he despatched hun to collect materials, enjoin- 
ing him to bring every paper which threw light upon 
this matter wherever it might be found ; that by means 
of the utmost circumspection and minute attention, a 
statement of the business might be again put together. 
Accordingly, on the return of those who were engaged 
in the execution of these orders, Anastasius put on a 
pleased and gladsome appearance, and was in reality 


rejoiced in having compassed the object on which he 
was bent. He also made particular enquiries, both 
how they were discovered and in whose possession, 
and whether any thing of the same kind was still 
remaining : and on their affirming that they had ex- 
pended great pains upon the collection, and swearing 
by the emperor himself, that no other paper which 
could be a voucher was preserved throughout the 
Avhole empire, Anastasius again lighted up a great 
pile with the papers thus produced, and drenched the 
ashes with water, with the intention of removing every 
trace of this levy ; so that there might appear neither 
dust, nor ashes, nor any remnant whatever of the 
business, through imperfect combustion. 

In order, however, that, while we are thus extolling 
the abolition of this impost, we may not seem to be 
ignorant how much has been T\Titten under passionate 
feelings on the subject by former authors, let me pro- 
duce these matters, and shew their falsehood, and that 
more especially from their own statements. 



ZosiMUS, a follower of the accursed and foul religion 
of the Greeks, in his anger against Constant ine, ])ecause 
he was the first emperor that had adopted Christianity, 


abandoning the abominable superstition of the Greeks, 
says, that he was the person who devised the tax 
called Chrysargyrum, and enacted that it should be 
levied every five years. He has on many other grounds 
also reviled -that pious and magnificent monarch; for 
he affirms that he contrived many other intolerable 
proceedings against every class of persons; that he 
miserably destroyed his son Crispus, and made away 
with his wife Fausta by inclosing her in an overheated 
bath ; and that, after having in vain endeavoured to 
to procure purification from murders so detestable at 
the hands of the priests of his own religion (for they 
plainly declared its impossibility), he met with an 
Egyptian who had come from Iberia ; and, having been 
assured by him that the faith of the Christians had the 
power of blotting out every sin, he embraced what the 
Eg}^ptian had imparted to him, and thenceforward 
abandoning the faith of his fathers, he made the com- 
mencement of his impiety. The falsehood of these 
assertions I will forthwith shew, and in the first place 
treat of the matter of the Chrysargyrum. 



Thou sayest, evil and malignant demon, that 
Constantine, Avishing to raise a city equal to Rome, 


first made a commencement of so vast a place by laying 
strong foundations and erecting a lofty wall between 
Troas and Ilium; l^ut when he had discovered in 
Byzantium a more suitable site, he in such fashion 
encircled the place with walls, so far extended the 
former city, and embellished it with Iniildings so 
splendid, as hardly to be surpassed by Rome itself, 
which had received gradual increase through so long a 
course of years. Thou sayest also that he made a 
distribution of provisions at the public cost to the 
people of Byzantium, and bestowed a very large sum 
of gold upon those who had accompanied him thither, 
for the erection of private houses. Again, thou 
Avi'itest to the following effect : that on the decease of 
Constantine, the imperial power came into the hands 
of Constantius, his only surviving son after the death 
of his two brothers ; and that when Magnentius and 
Vetranio had assumed the sovereignty, he wrought 
upon the latter by persuasives : and when both armies 
had been mustered, Constantius, addressing them first, 
reminded the soldiers of the generosity of his father, 
with whom they had served through many wars, and 
by whom they had been distinguished with the most 
liberal gifts ; and that the soldiers, on hearing this, 
stripped Vetranio of his imperial robe, and made him 
descend from the tribunal into a private station ; and 
that he suffered no unkindness at the hands of Con- 
stantius : wlio has shared with his father in so much 


of thy calumny.' How thou canst then maintain that 
the same person could be so liberal, so munificent, and 
at the same time so paltry and sordid as to impose so 
accursed a tax, I am utterly unable to comprehend. 

In proof that Constantine did not destroy Fausta or 
Crispus, nor was on that account initiated by an 
Egyptian into our mysteries, listen to the history of 
Eusebius Pamphili, who was contemporary with Con- 
stantine and Crispus, and had intercourse with them. 
For what thou writest, so far from being truth, was 
not even contemporary hearsay, since thou livedst long- 
after, in the time of Arcadius and Honorius — to which 
period thou hast brought down thy history — or even 
after their time. Eusebius, in the eighth book of his 
ecclesiastical history, has the following words : "After 
no very long interval, the emperor Constantine, having 
maintained a disposition remarkable for gentleness in 
respect to his whole life, kindliness towards his subjects, 
and favour towards the divine word, closes his life b}' 
the common laws of nature, leaving behind him, as 
emperor and Augustus in his own room, a legitimate 
son, Constantius." And farther on he says: "His son 
Constantius, having at the very commencement of his 
reign been proclaimed supreme emperor and Augus- 
tus by the armies, and long before by God himself, the 
universal Sovereign, shewed himself an imitator of his 
father's pietj^ as respects our faith." And at the end 
of the liistorv he ex]iresses liimself in the f()llo\viiig 


terms : "The mighty, victorious Constantine, distin- 
guished by every religious excellence, in conjunction 
with his son Crispus, a sovereign highly beloved of God, 
and resembling his father in all things, obtained his 
rightful possession of the East." Eusebius, who 
survived Constantine, would never have praised Cris- 
pus in these terms, if he had been destroyed by his 
father. Theodoret, in his history, says that Constan- 
tine partook in the saving baptism at Nicomedia, near 
the close of his life, and that he had deferred the rite 
till this period, from a desire that it should be per- 
formed in the river Jordan. 

Thou sayest, most detestable and polluted one, 
that the Roman empire from the time of the appearance 
of Christianity, fell away and was altogether ruined : 
either because thou hast not read any of the older 
writings, or because thou art a traitor to the truth. 
For, on the contrary, it clearly appears that the Roman 
power increased together with the spread of our faith. 
Consider, for instance, how, at the very time of the 
sojourn of Christ our God among mankind, the greater 
part of the Macedonians were crushed by the Romans, 
and Albania, Iberia, the Colchians, and Arabians were 
subjugated. Caius Caesar also, in the hundred and 
eighty-first Olympiad, subdued in great battles the 
Gauls, Germans, and Britons, and thereby added to 
the Roman empire the inhal)itants of five hundred 
cities ; as has l^een recorded by historians. He also 


was the first who attamed to sole sovereignty since 
the establishment of consuls, thereby preparing a way 
for the previous introduction of a reverence for mon- 
archy, after the prevalence of polytheism and popular 
rule, on account of the monarchy of Christ which Avas 
immediately to appear. A further acquisition was 
also forthwith made of the whole of Judaea and the 
neighbouring territories : so that it was at this time 
that the first registration took place ; in which Christ 
also was enrolled, in order that Bethlehem might 
fulfil the prophecy relating to it; for thus had the 
prophet Micah spoken respecting that place: "And 
thou, Bethlehem, territory of Judali, art by no means 
least among the princes of Judah, for from thee shall 
come forth a governor who shall feed my people Israel." 
Also after the nativity of Christ our God, Egypt was 
added to the Roman dominion; Augustus C^sar, in 
whose time Christ was born, having completely over- 
thrown Antony and Cleopatra; who also killed them- 
selves. Upon wdiich Cornelius Gallus is appointed by 
Augustus governor of Egypt, being the first who ruled 
that country after the Ptolemies : as has been recorded 
by historians. To what extent the territories of the 
Persians were curtailed by Ventidius, Corbulo the 
general of Nero, Severus, Trajan, Car us, Cassius, 
Odenatus of Palmyra, ApoUonius, and others; and 
how often Seleucia and Ctesiphon were taken, and 
Nisibis changed sides; and how Armenia and the 


neighbouring countries were added to the Roman 
empire ; these matters have been narrated by thyself, 
as well as by others. 

I had, however, nearly forgotten to notice what thou 
thyself writest respecting the achievements of Constan- 
tine, how nobly and courageously he swayed the Roman 
empire, while professing our religion, and what befell 
Julian, thy hero and the votary of thy orgies, who 
l)equeathed to the commonwealth injuries so serious. 
Whether, however, he has either already received a 
foretaste of the things which have been foretold con- 
cerning the end of the world, or will even receive their 
full measure, is a question relating to an economy 
too high for thy comprehension. 

Let us, at all events, consider under what circum- 
stances heathen and Christian emperors have respec- 
tively closed their reigns. Did not Caius Julius Ca3sar, 
the iirst sole sovereign, close his life by assassination ? 
In the next place, did not some of his own officers 
despatch with their swords Caius, the grandson of 
Tiberius ? Was not Nero slain by one of his domestics ? 
Did not Galba, Otho, and Vitellius, who reigned in all 
only sixteen months, suffer a similar fate? Was not 
Titus, on his attaining the empire, taken off by poison 
by his OA\ai brother Domitian? Was not Domitian 
himself miserably despatched by Stephanus? What 
too dost thou say about Commodus ? Was not he killed 
by Narcissus? Pertinax and Julian, did tlie\" not meet 

ciiAr. xll] refutation of zosimus. 183 

Avitli the sMine treatnieiit? Autoiiinus, the son of 
Sevei'us, did he not murder his l)rother Geta, and was 
himself murdered by Martial? Macrinus too, was he 
not dragged about Byzantium, like a captive, and then 
butchered by his o^vn soldiers ? And Aurelius Anto- 
ninus, the Emesene, was he not slaughtered together 
with his mother? And his successor Alexander, was 
he not, together with his mother, involved in a similar 
catastrophe? Wliat should I say, too, concerning 
Maximin, who was slain by his own troops? or Gor- 
dian, brought to a similar end by the designs of Philip ? 
Tell me whether Philip and his successor Decius did 
not perish b}^ the hands of their enemies? And 
Gallus and Volusian by their o^vn armies ? ^milian, 
was he not involved in the same fate ? And Valerian, 
was he not made prisoner and carried about as a show 
by the Persians ? After the assassination of Gallienus 
and the murder of Carinus, the sovereignty came into 
the hands of Diocletian and those whom he chose as his 
partners in the empire. Of these, Herculius, Maximian, 
and Maxentius his son, and Licinius utterly perished. 
But from the time that the renowned Constantine 
succeeded to the empire, and had dedicated to Christ 
the city which bears his name, mark me, whether any 
of those who have reigned there, except Julian thy 
hierophant and monarch, have perished by the hands 
of either domestic or foreign foes, and whether a rival 
has overthrown any of them; except that Basiliscus 


expelled Zeno, by whom, however, he was afterwards 
overthroAvn and killed. I also agree with thee in what 
thou sayest about Valens, who had inflicted so many 
evils upon the Christians : for of any other case not 
even thou thyself makest mention. 

Let no one think that these matters are foreign to 
an ecclesiastical history ; since they are, in fact, alto- 
gether useful, and essential, on account of wilful 
desertion of the cause of truth on the part of heathen 
writers. Let me now proceed to the rest of the acts 
of Anastasius. 



The before-mentioned measures Anastasius success- 
fully carried out in a truly royal spirit ; but he adopted 
others by no means worthy of them : both by devising 
what is called the gold-rate, and farming out the sup- 
plies for the army on terms most burdensome to the 
provincials. He also took the levying of imposts out of 
the hands of the councils of the respective cities, and 
appointed what "are called Vindices, at the suggestion, 
as is said, of Marinus the Syrian, who held the highest 
prefecture, termed in former times the Prefect of the 
Pra3torium. The result was that the revenue fell off 
to a great extent, and the local dignitaries sunk into 


tibeyaiice : for persons of liigh fuinilies formerly had 
their names inscribed in the album of each city ; which 
regarded those who were members of its council, as a 
kind of senate. 



ViTALiAN, a Thracian by birth, disputes the empire 
with Anastasius, and having devastated Thrace and 
Mysia as far as Odessus and Anchialus, was advancing 
rapidly upon the imperial city, at the head of an 
innumerable force of Huns. The emperor despatched 
Hypatius to encounter this force; and, after he had 
been captured through the treachery of his own troops, 
and liberated at a large ransom, the conduct of the 
war was entrusted to Cyril. 

The battle which followed, was at tirst indecisive, 
Avith several subsequent alternations of success ; but, 
notwithstanding the advantage was on the side of Cyril, 
the enemy rallied, and he was ultimately routed 
through the wilful desertion of his o^vn soldiers. In 
consequence, Vitalian captured Cyril in Odessus, and 
advanced as far as the place called Syc«, laying the 
whole country Avaste with tire and sword ; meditating 
nothing less than the capture of the city itself and the 
seizure of the sovereignty. AATien he had encamped 


at Sycee, Mariiius the Syrian, ^vllom we have mentioned 
before, is despatched by the emperor to attack him by 
sea. The two armaments, accordingly, encountered, 
the one having Sycte astern, the other Constantinople. 
For a time the fleets remained inactive : but, after the 
skirmishings and discharge of missiles had been fol- 
lowed by a fierce conflict in the place called Bytharia, 
V Italian withdraws from the line of battle and takes to 
flight, with the loss of the greater portion of his fleet. 
The remainder then fly with such precipitation, that 
the next day not a single enemy was found in the 
channel or in the neighbourhood of the city. It is said 
that Yitalian then continued inactive for some time at 
Anchialus. There was also another inroad of Huns, 
who had passed the defiles of Cappadocia. 

About the same time Rhodes sufl'ered by a violent 
earthquake at the dead of night : this being the third 
time it had been visited by that calamity. 



A VERY great sedition occurred at Byzantium, arising 
from a wish of the emperor to add to the Trisagion 
the clause, " Who was crucified for our sakes:" which 
Avas regarded as subversive of the Christian religion. 
Its prime mover and chief was Macedonius, aided by 


his subject clergy, as Severus says in a letter to Sote- 
ricus, which he wrote before his elevation to the epis- 
copal throne, while residing at the imperial city, at the 
time when, with several others, he had been expelled 
from his monastery, as I have already mentioned. It 
was on account of this imputation, in addition to the 
causes before mentioned, that, in my opinion, Mace- 
donius was ejected from his see. Amid the uncontrol- 
lable excitement of the populace which followed, persons 
of rank and station were brought into extreme danger, 
and many principal parts of the city Avere set on fire. 
The populace, having found in the house of Marin us 
the Syrian, a monk from the country, cut off his head, 
saying that the clause had been added at his instiga- 
tion; and having fixed it upon a pole, jeeringly 
exclaimed: " See the plotter against the Trinity!" 

Such was the violence of the tumult, filling every 
quarter with devastation, and surpassing every means 
of control, that the emperor was driven to appear at 
the Hippodrome in pitiable guise, without his crown, 
and despatched heralds to proclaim to the assembled 
people, that he was most ready to resign his sovereign- 
ty; at the same time reminding them, that it was 
impossible that all should be elevated to that dignity, 
which admitted not of a plurality of occupants, and 
that one individual only could be his successor. 

At this the temper of the people was suddenly 
changed, as by some divine impulse; and they begged 


Anastasius to resume his cro^vii ; with a promise of 
peaceable conduct in future. 

Anastasius survived this event a very short time, 
and departed to the other world after a reign of twenty- 
seven years, three months, and three days. 




After Anastasius had, as I have said, departed for 
the better lot, Justin, a Thracian by birth, assumes 
the purple, in the five hundred and sixty- sixth year of 
the Era of Antioch, on the ninth day of the month 
Panemus, which the Romans call July. He was pro- 
claimed emperor by the imperial body-guards, of which 
he was also the commander, having been appointed 
prefect of the household troops. His elevation was, 
however, contrary to all expectation, since there were 
many most distinguished and flourishing members of 
the family of Anastasius, possessed also of sufficient 
influence to have secured for themselves the supreme 



Amantius was the imperial chamberlain, and a man 


of very great influence; but as it was not laAvful for 
any emasculated person to attain the sovereignty of 
the Romans, he was desirous that the imperial crown 
should be given to Theocritus, one of his creatures. 
He, therefore, sends for Justin, and gives him a large 
sum of money, with orders to distribute it amongst tlie 
persons most fit for this purpose, and able to invest 
Theocritus with the purple. But with the money he 
either bought over the people, or purchased the good- 
will of what are termed the Excubitores — for both 
accounts are given — and so attained the empire. Soon 
afterwards he took off Amantius and Theocritus, with 
some others. 



Justin sends for Vitalian, who was living in Thrace 
and who had entertained designs of dethroning Anas- 
tasius, to Constantinople: for he dreaded his power, 
his military experience, his universal renown, and his 
great desire to possess the sovereignty : and rightly 
conjecturing that he should not be able to overcome 
him otherwise than by pretending to be a friend ; by 
way of concealing his guile under a plausible mask, he 
appoints him commander of one of the bodies called 
Prwsentcs, and, as a more effectual pei'suasive, with a 


view to a still grcnter cleceptioii, he raises him to the 
consulship. He, being consul elect, was assassinated 
on visiting the palace, at an inner door, and thus 
met with a punishment for his insolence towards the 
Roman sovereignty. But these events happened sid3- 



Severus, Avho had been ordained president of An- 
tioch, as stated above, ceased not daily to anathematise 
the synod at Chalcedon, and chiefly by means of those 
epistles called Enthronistic, and in the responses which 
he sent to all the patriarchs, though they were received 
only at Alexandria, by John, the successor of the for- 
mer John, and by Dioscorus and Timotheus : which 
epistles have come down to our time. 

Many contentions having thus arisen in the church, 
whereby the most faithful people w^ere split into 
factions, Justin, in the first year of his reign, ordered 
him to be arrested, and to be punished, as some say, 
by having his tongue cut out ; the execution of which 
sentence was committed to Irenseus, who, at Antioch, 
held the government of the Eastern provinces, 

Severus himself confirms the account of Ireneeus 
being appointed to arrest him, in a letter to some 


of the Antiochenes, describing the manner of his es- 
cape; wherein he casts the strongest invectives on 
IrenjBus, and states that he is under the strictest sur- 
veillance lest he should escape from Antioch. Some 
say that Vitalian, who still appeared to be in the high- 
est favour with Justin, demanded the tongue of Seve- 
rus, because he had reproached him in his discourses. 
Accordingly, he flies from his see, in the month 
GorpijBus, which in the Latin language is called Sep- 
tember, in the five hundred and sixty-seventh year of 
the Era of Antioch. Paul succeeds to the see, with 
orders to proclaim openly the synod at Chalcedon. 
Afterwards, retiring voluntarily from Antioch, he went 
the way of all flesh by a natural death. He is suc- 
ceeded in his see by Euphrasius from Jerusalem. 



About the same period of Justin's reign there hap- 
pened at Antioch numerous and dreadful fires, as if 
harbingers of the terrible shocks which afterwards took 
place, and serving as a prelude for the coming calami- 
ties. For, a short time after, in the tenth month 
of the seventh year of Justin's reign, being Artemisius 
or May, on the twenty-ninth day of the month, precisely 


at noon, on the sixth day of the week, the city 
was visited with the shock of an earthquake, which 
very nearly destroyed the whole of it. This was fol- 
lowed by a fire, to share, as it were, in the calamity : 
for what escaped the earthquake, the fire in its spread 
reduced to ashes. The damage that the city sustained, 
how many persons according to probable estimate 
became the victims of the fire and earthquake, what 
strange occurrences surpassing the power of words 
took place, have been feelingly related by John the 
Rhetorician, who concludes his history with the 

Euphrasius also perished in the ruins, to add 
another misfortune to the city, by leaving no one to 
provide for its exigencies. 



But the saving care of God for man, which prepares 
the remedy before the stroke, and the compassion 
which, while sharpening the sword of wrath, at the 
moment of the deepest despair displays its sympathy, 
raised up Ephraemius, at that time governor of the 
Eastern provinces, to take upon himself all the care of 
the city; so that it lacked not any thhig that its 


exigency required. On this account, the sons of the 
Antiochenes so admired him, that they elected him 
their priest : and he thus attains the apostolic see as a 
reward and prize of his singular care for the place. 
Thirty months after, the city suffered again from an 

At this time also, what had been hitherto called the 
city of Antiochus was entitled the City of God, and 
received additional care at the hands of the emperor. 



Now that I have recorded the above-mentioned 
calamities, let me also add to the present narrative 
some other circumstances worthy of record, and which 
have been transmitted to us from those who have made 
them a subject of notice. 

Zosimas was a native of Sinde, a village of Phoenicia 
Maritiina, distant from Tyre about twenty stadia, and 
pursued the monastic discipline. He, by means both 
of abstinence and use of food, having attained to such 
a union with God as not only to discern forthcoming 
events, but also to possess the grace of perfect freedom 
from passion, was in company with a distinguished 
person from Ca3sarea, the capital of one of the 
Palestines. This was Arcesilaus, a man of g-ood 


family, accomplished, and high in dignities and what- 
ever gives lustre to life. Zoshnas, at the very moment 
of the overthrow of Antioch, suddenly became troubled, 
uttered lamentations and deep sighs, and then shed- 
ding such a profusion of tears as to bedew the ground, 
called for a censer, and having fumed the whole 
place where they were standing, throws himself upon 
the ground, propitiating God with prayers and sup- 
plications. Upon Arcesilaus asking the reason of 
all this trouble, he distinctly replied, that the sound 
of the overthrow of Antioch was at that instant 
rino'inor in his ears. This led Arcesilaus and the 
rest of the astonished company to note down the 
hour ; and they afterwards found that it was as 
Zosimas had said. 

By his hand many other miracles were performed : 
but omitting the greater part of them, since they are 
too numerous to detail, I shall mention a few. 

Contemporary with Zosimas, and endued with equal 
virtues, was a man named John, who had practised 
the endurance of the solitary and immaterial life in 
the cloister called Chuzibas, situated at the extremity 
of the glen at the northern part of the highway lead- 
ing from Jerusalem to Jericho, and was now bishop of 
the before-named Ca^sarea. This John, the Chuzibite, 
having heard that the wife of Arcesilaus had lost one 
of her eyes by a stroke of a spindle, runs immediately 
to her to see the accident ; and when he finds that the 


pupil is gone and the eye altogether lacerated, he 
commands one of the physicians in attendance to bring 
a sponge, and, having replaced as well as he could the 
lacerated parts, to apply and secure the sponge with 
bandages. Arcesilaus was absent, for he happened to 
be Avith Zosimas in his monastery at Sinde, distant 
from Csesarea full five hundred stadia. Accordingly, 
messengers proceeded with all haste to Arcesilaus, 
whom they found sitting in conversation with Zosimas. 
When informed of the circumstance, he uttered a 
piercing cry, tore his hair and cast it towards heaven. 
Upon Zosimas asking him the reason, he told him 
what had happened, interrupting his account mth 
frequent wailings and tears. Whereupon Zosimas, 
leaving him alone, goes to his chamber, where he 
used to make his addresses to God according to the 
rule of such persons, and after some interval he ap- 
proaches Arcesilaus with a solemnly joyous coun- 
tenance, and gently pressing his hand, said : " Depart 
with joy, depart. Grace is given to the Chuzibite. 
Your wife is cured, and is in possession of both 
her eyes ; for the accident has had no power to 
deprive her of them, since such was the desire of the 
Chuzibite." This was brought about by the united 
wonder-working of both the just men. 

Again, as the same Zosimas was going to Csesarea, 
and leading an ass laden with certain necessaries, a 
lion encountered him and carried off the ass. Zosimas 


follows into the wood, reaches the place where the lion 
was, satiated with his meal upon the beast, and smiling 
says, "Come, my friend; my journey is interrupted, 
since I am heavy and far advanced in years, and not 
able to carry on my back the ass's load. You must 
therefore carry it, though contrary to your nature, if 
you wish Zosimas to get out of this place and yourself 
to be a wild beast again." All at once the lion, foro-ettinsr 
his ferocity, fa^aied on him, and by his gestures plainly 
manifested obedience. Zosunas then put the ass's load 
upon him, and led him to the gates of Cgesarea, showing 
the power of God, and how all things are subservient 
to man if we live to Him and do not pervert the grace 
given to us. But that I may not render my history 
prolix by more circumstances of the kind, I mil 
return to the point wlience 1 digressed. 



DuEiNG the reign of Justin, Dyrrachium, formerly 
called Epidamnus, suifered from an earthquake; as 
did also Corinth in Greece, and afterwards, for the 
fourth time, Anazarbus, the capital of Cilicia Minor. 
These cities Justin restored at great expence. About 
the same time Edessa, a large and flourishing city of 


Osroene, was inundated by the waters of the Skirtus, 
which runs close by it ; so that most of the buildings 
were swept away, and countless multitudes that were 
carried down by the stream, perished. Accordingly, 
the names of Edessa and Anazarbus were changed by 
Justin, and each of them was called, after himself, 



When Justin had reigned eight years, nine months, 
and three days, he associated in the government Jus- 
tinian, his nephew, who was proclaimed on the first of 
the month Xanthicus, or April, in the five hundred 
and seventy -fifth year of the era of Antioch. After 
these transactions, Justin departs his earthly sovereign- 
ty, closing his life on the first of the month Lous, or 
August, having had Justin for his associate in the 
empire four months, and reigned in all nine years and 
three days. Now that Justinian was sole sovereign of 
the Roman empire, and the synod at Chalcedon was 
being proclaimed in the most holy churches by the 
commands of Justin, as stated before ; the state of the 
church was disturbed in some of the provinces, but 


chiefly at Constantinople and Alexandria, Anthimus 
being bishop of the former, and Theodosius of the 
latter : for both held the doctrine of the single nature 
of Christ. 



Justinian very resolutely upheld the synod at 
Chalcedon and what was put forth by it ; and Theodora, 
his consort-, those who maintained the single nature : 
either because such were their real sentunents — for 
when the faith is a matter of dispute, fathers are 
divided against their children, children against the 
authors of their birth, a wife against her own husband, 
and again a husband against his own wife — or by 
mutual understanding, that he should uphold those 
who maintained the two natures in Christ our God 
after the union ; and she those who alleged the single 
nature. Neither conceded to the other : but he stren- 
uously supported the acts at Chalcedon, and she, 
ranging with the opposite party, exercised the greatest 
care towards those who maintained the single nature. 
Our people she treated with the warmest kindness, and 
others too with great munificence. She also persuades 
Justinian to send for Severus. 




There are letters extant from Severus to Justinian 
and Theodora, from which we may gather that at first 
he put oif his journey to the imperial city on leaving 
his see of Antioch. Nevertheless he afterwards 
arrived there ; and has written to the effect that when 
he came thither and had conversed with Anthimus, 
and found him holding the same sentiments with him- 
self, and the same opinions with respect to the God- 
head, he persuaded him to withdraw from his see. He 
wrote concerning these matters to Theodosius, bishop 
of Alexandria, and greatly gloried in having persuaded 
Anthimus, as stated before, to prefer such doctrines to 
earthly glory and the possession of his see. Letters 
are also extant on this subject from Anthimus to Theo- 
dosius, and from Theodosius to Severus and Anthimus ; 
which I pass over, leaving them to those who choose 
to consult them, that I may not include in the present 
work too great a mass of materials. Nevertheless, 
both were ejected from their sees, as opposing the 
imperial mandates and the decrees of Chalcedon. 
Zoilus succeeded to that of Alexandria, and Epiphanius 
to that of the imperial city : so that from that time 
forward the synod at Chalcedon was openly proclaimed 


in all the churches ; and no one dared to anathematise 
it ; while those who dissented, were urged by innume- 
rable methods to assent to it. Accordingly, a consti- 
tution was drawn up by Justinian in which he 
anathematised Severus, Anthimus, and others, and 
subjected those who held their doctrines, to the highest 
penalties : the effect of which was, that thenceforward 
no schism remained in any of the churches, but the 
patriarchs of the several dioceses agreed with each 
other, and the bishops of the cities followed their 
respective primates. Four synods were thus proclaimed 
throughout the churches; first, that held at Nicaea; 
secondly, that at Constantinople ; thirdly, the former 
one at Ephesus ; and fourthly, that at Chalcedon. A 
fifth also took place by order of Justinian, concerning 
which I shall say what is suitable in its proper place, 
while I weave into my present narrative the several 
events of the same period which are worthy of notice. 



The history of Belisarius has been written by 
Procopius the Rhetorician. He says that Cabades, 
king of the Persians, wishing to invest his youngest 
son Chosroes with the sovereignty, was desirous to 
have him adopted by the Roman emperor, so that by 


that means his succession might be secured. But when 
this was refused, at the suggestion of Proclus, who 
advised Justinian as his qua3stor, they conceived a still 
greater hatred against the Romans. This same Proco- 
pius has, with diligence, elegance, and ability, set 
forth the events of the war between the Romans and 
Persians while Belisarius was commander of the forces 
of the East. The first victory on the side of the 
Romans which he records, was m the neighbourhood 
of Daras and Nisibis, under the command of Belisarius 
and Hermogenes. He subjoins an account of the 
occurrences in Armenia, and the mischief inflicted on the 
Romans by Alamundarus, the chieftain of the Scenite 
barbarians, who captured Timostratus, the brother of 
Rufinus, together with his troops, and afterwards 
liberated him for a considerable ransom. 



He also feelingly details the incursion of the before- 
named Alamundarus and Azarethus into the Roman 
territory; and how Belisarius, compelled by his o^^i 
troops, engaged them in their retreat by the Euphrates, 
on the eve of Easter day ; and how the Roman army 
was destroyed through their repugnance to the mea- 


sures of Belisarius ; and how Rufinus and Hermogenes 
made with the Persians the peace called the perpetual 

He subjoins an account of the insurrection of the 
people at Byzantium, which derived its name from the 
watchword of the populace : for they entitled it "Nica", 
because on their assembling they chose this term as the 
watchword, to know each other. On this occasion 
Hypatius and Pompeius were compelled by the people 
to assume the sovereignty. But on the defeat of the 
populace, both were beheaded by the soldiers at the 
command of Justinian, and the insurrection was 
quelled. Procopius states that thirty thousand per- 
sons were killed in this disturbance. 



The same writer, when treating of the affairs of the 
Vandals, has recorded most important occurrences and 
worthy of perpetual memory, which I now proceed to 
mention. Huneric, the successor of Genseric, and a 
professor of the creed of Arius, entertained most cruel 
intentions against the African Christians, in the en- 
deavour to convert by force the maintainers of the 
orthodox doctrines to the opinions of the Arians. 
Those who refused compliance, he destroyed both by 


fire and various modes of death, and some he deprived 
of their tongues. The latter, Procopius says that he 
himseK saw, when they had taken refuge at the impe- 
rial city, and that he maintained a conversation with 
them in the same manner as with unmutilated persons : 
that their tongues were cut out from the root ; never- 
tlieless their speech was articulate, and they conversed 
distinctly ; a new and strange marvel, of which also a 
constitution of Justinian makes mention. Two of these 
persons lapsed, as Procopius himself writes. For on 
their desiring commerce with women, they were de- 
prived of their speech, since the grace of their martyr- 
dom had abandoned them. 



He also relates another wonderful occurrence 

wrought by our Saviour God in the case of men, aliens 
indeed to our religion, who, however, acted with 
religious reverence. He states that Cabaones was 
chieftain of the Moors in the neighbourhood of 
Tripolis. This Cabaones, he says — for it is worth while 
to use his own words during his able narration of this 
matter also — this Cabaones, as soon as he learned that 
the Yandals were marching against him, acted in the 
following manner. First, he commanded all his sub- 


jects to refrain from injustice and all luxurious food, 
but particularly from commerce with women; and 
having raised two fortified enclosures, he encamped 
himself with all the men in one, and enclosed the 
women in the other, threatening death to any man who 
should approach the women. Afterwards, he sent 
scouts to Carthage with these instructions : that when 
the Vandals on their march outraged any temple 
reverenced by the Christians, they should note what 
was being done, and when the Vandals left the place, 
should, immediately on their departure, treat the 
sanctuary in a manner directly the reverse. It is 
mentioned that he further said, that he was ignorant 
of the God worshipped by the Christians, but it was 
likely, if he were powerful, as was affirmed, that he 
would chastise those who outraged him, and defend 
such as rendered him service. The scouts, therefore, 
commg to Carthage, continued to watch the prepara- 
tions of the Vandals, and when the army set forward 
for Tripolis, they followed it, disguised in a sorry dress. 
The Vandals, encamping at the close of the first day, 
introduced their horses and other beasts into the tem- 
ples of the Christians, and abstained from no species of 
outrage, but gave way to their usual license; and 
beating and severely scourging the priests whom they 
happened to seize, bid them wait upon them. But as 
soon as the Vandals had left the place, the scouts of 
Cabaones did all that had been enjoined them, and 


immediately cleansed the sanctuaries, sedulously 
removing the dung and every other defilement : they 
lighted all the tapers, paid reverent obeisance to the 
priests, and saluted them with every kindness; and 
when they had bestowed money on the beggars Avho 
sat round the shrine, they followed the army of the 
Vandals, who, from this point along the whole line of 
march, committed the same outrages, while the scouts 
remedied them. When, however, they were at no 
great distance, the scouts, proceeding in advance, 
announced to Cabaones all that had been done by the 
Vandals and themselves to the temples of the Chris- 
tians, and that the enemy were now near. On hearing 
this, he prepared to engage. By far the greater part 
of the Vandals, as our author states, were destroyed : 
some were captured by the enemy, and very few 
returned home. Such was the misfortune that Thra- 
samund sustained at the hands of the Moors. He 
died some time after, having ruled the Vandals for 
seven and twenty years. 



The same author ^viites that Justinian, having, in 
pity to the Christians in that quarter, professed his 
intention of undertaking an expedition for their relief. 


was being diverted from his purpose by the suggestion 
of John, prefect of the palace, when a dream appeared 
to him, bidding him not to shrink from the execution 
of his design ; for, by assisting the Christians he would 
overthrow the power of the Vandals. Being determined 
by this circumstance, in the seventh year of his reign, 
he despatches Belisarius, about the summer solstice, 
to attack Carthage; on which occasion, when the 
general's ship touched at the shore of the palace, Epi- 
phanius, bishop of the city, offered up appropriate 
prayers, having previously baptized some of the 
soldiers and embarked them on board the vessel. He 
also narrates some circumstances, worthy of record, 
relating to the martyr Cyprian, in the following words : 
" All the Carthaginians especially reverence Cyprian, 
a holy man, and having erected on the shore, in front 
of their city, a noble shrine, besides other reverential 
observances, they celebrate an annual festival, and call 
it Cypriana ; and the sailors are accustomed to call the 
tempestuous weather which I have before mentioned by 
the same name as the festival, smce it is wont to hap- 
pen at the time of the year at which the Africans have 
fixed its perpetual celebration. This temple the 
Vandals, in the reign of Huneric, took by force from 
the Christians, and ignominiously expelling the priests, 
refitted it, as henceforward belonging to the Arians. 
They say that Cyprian, frequently appearing in a 
dream to the Africans who were indignant and dis- 


tressed on this account, told them that there was no 
occasion for the Christians to be solicitous about him, 
for in time he would avenge himself: which prediction 
attamed its accomplishment in the time of Belisarius, 
Avhen Carthage, ninety-five years after its loss, was 
reduced by him under the Roman power, by the utter 
overthrow of the Vandals : at which time the doctrine 
of the Arians was entirely extirpated from Africa, and 
the Christians recovered their own temples, according 
to the prediction of the martyr Cyprian." 



The same author writes as follows. " When Beli- 
sarius had subdued the Vandals, he returned to Byzan- 
tium, bringing the spoils and prisoners, and among 
them Gelimer, king of the Vandals. A triumph was 
granted him, and he carried in procession through the 
Hippodrome whatever would be an object of wonder. 
Among these were considerable treasures obtained by 
Genseric from the plunder of the palace at Rome,- as I 
have already narrated; when Eudoxia, the wife of 
Valentinian, emperor of the West, having been both 
deprived of her husband and subjected to an outrage 
on her chastity by Maximus, invited Genseric, with a 


promise of surrendering the city to him : on which 
occasion, after burning Rome, he conveyed Kudoxia 
and her daughters to the country of the Vandals. 
Together with the other treasures, he then carried oif 
all that Titus, the son of Vespasian, had brought to 
Rome on the capture of Jerusalem; oiferings which 
Solomon had dedicated to God. These Justinian, in 
honour of Christ our God, sent back to Jerusalem ; an 
act of becoming reverence to the Deity, to whom they 
had in the first instance been dedicated. On this oc- 
casion, Procopius says that Gelimer, prostrating him- 
self on the ground in the hippodrome, before the 
imperial throne on which Justinian was sitting to 
witness the proceedings, made application, in his own 
language, of the divine oracle: " Vanity of vanities; 
all is vanity." 



Procopius mentions another circumstance, unnoticed 
before his time, but one that can scarcely be regarded 
with sufficient wonder. He states that the Moors of 
Lybia settled in that country after being dislodged 
from Palestine, and that they are those whom the 
divine oracles mention as the Girgashites and Jebusites, 


and the other nations subdued by Josliua the son of 
Nun. He concludes the entire truth of the story from 
an inscription in Phoenician characters, which he says 
that he himself had read, and that it was near a foun- 
tain, where were two pillars of white stone on which 
were engraved these words : " We are those who fled 
from the face of Joshua the robber, the son of Nun." 

Such was the end of these transactions, in Africa 
becoming again subject to the Romans, and paying, as 
before, an annual tribute. 

Justinian is said to have restored one hundred and 
fifty cities in Africa, some of which had been altogether, 
and others extensively ruined ; and this he did with 
surpassing magnificence, in private and public works 
and embellishments, in fortifications, and other vast 
structures by which cities are adorned and the Deity 
propitiated : also in aqueducts for use and ornament, 
the supply of water having been in some cases con- 
veyed to the cities for the first time, in others restored 
to its former state. 



I NOW proceed to relate what occurred in Italy ; 
events which have also been treated very distinctly by 
Procopius, the Rhetorician, down to his own times. 

CHAP. XIX.] RECOVERY OF ROME. A.J), bfil . 21 1 

After Tlieodoric, as I have already detailed, had 
ca))tured Rome and utterly destroyed its king 
Odoacer, and had closed his lite in possession of the 
Roman sovereignty, his wife Amalasuntha held the 
reins of government, as guardian of their common 
son Athalaric ; a woman rather of a masculine temper- 
ament, and administering affairs accordingly. She was 
the first person who led Justinian to entertain a desire 
for the Gothic war, by sending an embassy to him on 
the formation of a conspiracy against herself. On the 
death, however, of Athalaric at a very early age, 
Theodatus, a kmsman of Theodoric, was invested with 
the sovereignty of the West, but abdicated when 
Justinian had despatched Belisarius to that quarter; 
being a person addicted rather to literature, and 
altogether wanting in military experience ; while 
Vitiges, an able soldier, was in command of his forces. 
From the materials which the same Procopius has 
collected, one may gather that Vitiges abandoned 
Rome on the arrival of Belisarius in Italy ; who at 
once marched upon the city. The Romans readily 
opened their gates to him; a result mainly l^rought 
about by Silverius, their bishop, who, with this view, 
had sent to him Fidelis, formerly assessor to Athalaric. 
They accordingly surrendered their city to him with- 
out resistance : and thus Rome, after an interval of 
sixty years, again fell into Roman hands on the ninth 
day of the month Apellaius, called by the Latins 


December. The same Procopius writes, that, when 
the Goths were besieging Rome, Belisarius, suspecting 
Silverius of a design to betray the city, transports 
him to Greece and appoints Vigilius in his room. 



About the same time, as Procopius also writes, 
when the Heruli, who had already crossed tlie river 
Danube in the reign of Anastasius, had experienced 
generous treatment at the hands of Justinian, in large 
presents of money, the whole nation embraced Chris- 
tianity and adopted a more civilised mode of life. 



In the next place he records the return of Beli- 
sarius to Byzantium, and how he brought thither 
Vitiges, together with the spoils of Rome ; also the 
seizure of the sovereignty of Rome by Totila, and how 
the city again feU under the dominion of a Goth ; 
how Belisarius, having twice entered Italy, again 
recovered the city, and how, on the breaking out of 
the Median war, he was recalled to Byzantium by the 




pROCorius also records, that the Abasgi, having 
become more civilised, embraced the Christian doc- 
trine about the same time, and that Justinian sent 
to them one of the eunuchs of the palace, their 
countryman, by name Euphratas, with an interdict, 
that henceforward no one in that nation should 
undergo emasculation in violation of nature ; for from 
among them the imperial chamberlains were principally 
appointed, whom usage styles eunuchs. At this 
time, Justinian, having erected among the Abasgi a 
temple in honour of the Mother of God, appointed 
priests for them; by which means they were ac- 
curately instructed in the Christian doctrine. 



The same author narrates, that the people on the 
Tanais (the natives give the name of Tanais to the 
channel extending from the Palus Maeotis to the 
Euxine Sea) urged Justinian to send a bishop to 
them; which request he granted, and gladly sent 


them a priest. The same writer describes, with great 
ability, the irruptions of the Goths of the M^otis 
into the Roman territory in the time of Justinian, 
and the violent earthquakes which took place in 
Greece ; how Boeotia, Achaia, and the neighbourhood 
of the Crisssean bay suffered shocks ; how innumerable 
towns and cities were levelled, and chasms were 
formed, many of which closed again, while others 
remained open. 



Procopius also describes the expedition of Narses, 
who was sent by Justinian into Italy; how he over- 
threw Totila and afterwards Tela; and how Rome 
was taken for the iifth time. Those about the person 
of Narses affirm that he used to propitiate the Deity 
Avith prayers and other acts of piety, paying due 
honour also to the Virgin and mother of God, so that 
she distinctly announced to him the proper season for 
action ; and that Narses never engaged until he had 
received the signal from her. He recounts also other 
distinguished exploits of Narses in the overthrow 
of Buselinus and Syndualdus, and the acquisition of 
nearlv the whole counti'V as tar as the ocean. These 

niAP. XXV.] PERSIAN INVASION. A.D. 540. 215 

transactions have been recounted by Agathias tlie 
Rhetorician, but his history has not reached our 



The same Procopius has also written the following 
account. AMien Chosroes had learned what had 
occurred in Africa and Italy favourable to the Roman 
dominion, he was moved to excessive- jealousy, and 
advanced certain charges against the Roman govern- 
ment, that terms had been violated and the existing 
peace broken. In the first place, Justinian sent 
ambassadors to Chosroes to induce him not to break 
the peace which was intended to be perpetual, nor to 
trespass on the existing conditions; proposing that 
the points in dispute should be discussed and settled 
in an amicable manner. But Chosroes, maddened by 
the ferment of jealousy, would not listen to any pro- 
posals, and invaded the Roman territory with a large 
army, in the thirteenth year of the reign of Justinian. 
The historian also writes, that Chosroes captured and 
destroyed Sura, a city on the banks of the Euphrates, 
after having professed to make terms, but dealing 
with it in deiiance of all justice, by paying no regard 
to the conditi(ms, and becoming master of it rather 


by stratagem than by open war. He also narrates 
the l)urning of Bersea, and then the advance upon 
Antioeh; at which time Ephraemius was bishop of 
the city, but had abandoned it on the failure of all 
his plans. This person is said to have rescued the 
Church and its precincts, by arraying it with the 
sacred offerings, in order that they might serve as a 
ransom for it. The historian also feelingly describes 
the capture of Antioeh by Chosroes, and its pro- 
miscuous devastation by lire and sword : his visit to 
the neighbouring city of Seleucia, and to the suburb 
Daphne, and his advance towards Apamea, during the 
episcopate of Thomas, a man most powerful in word 
and deed. He had the prudence to yield to Chosroes 
in becoming a spectator of the horse-races in the 
hippodrome, though an act of irregularity ; employ- 
ing every means to court and pacify the conqueror. 
Chosroes also asked him whether he was desirous to 
see him in his own city : and it is said that he frankly 
replied that it was no pleasure to see him in his 
neighbourhood : at which answer Chosroes was struck 
with wonder, justly admiring the truthfuhiess of the 

CHAP. XXVI.] DltSl'LAY OF THE CROSS. A.D. 540. 217 



Now that I have arrived at this point of my narra- 
tive, I will relate a prodigy, which occurred at Apamea, 
and is worthy of a place in the present history. 

When the sons of the Apameans were informed 
that Antioch had been burnt, they besought the 
before-mentioned Thomas to bring forth and display 
the saving and life-giving wood of the cross, in de- 
viation from established rule ; that they might be- 
hold and kiss for the last time the sole salvation of 
man, and obtain a provision for the passage to another 
life, in having the precious cross as their means of 
transport to the better lot. In performance of which 
request, Thomas brings forth the life-giving wood, 
announcing stated days for its display, that all the 
neighbouring people might have an opportunity to 
assemble and enjoy the salvation thence proceeding. 

Accordingly, my parents visited it together with the 
rest, accompanied by myself, at that time a school-boy. 
When, therefore, we requested permission to adore and 
kiss the precious cross, Thomas, lifting up both his 
hands, displayed the wood which blotted out the ancient 
curse, making an entire cii'cuit of the sanctuary, as 


was customary on the ordinary clays of adoration. As 
Thomas moved from place to place, there followed 
him a large body of fire, blazing but not consuming ; 
so that the whole spot where he stood to display the 
precious cross seemed to be hi flames : and this took 
place not once or twice but often, as the priest was 
making the circuit of the place, and the assembled 
people were entreating him that it might be done. 
This circumstance foreshewed the preservation which 
was granted to the Apameans. According^, a re- 
presentation of it was suspended on the roof of the 
sanctuary, explaining it by its delineation to those 
who were uninformed: which was preserved until 
the irruption of Adaarmanes and the Persians, when it 
was burnt together with the holy church in the con- 
flagration of the entire city. Such were these events. 
But Chosroes, in his retreat, acted in direct violation 
of conditions — for even on this occasion terms had 
been made — in a manner suited to his restless and 
inconstant disposition, but utterly unbecoming a 
rational man, much more a king professing a regard 
for treaties. 



The same Procopius narrates what the ancients 
had recorded concerning Edessa and Abgarus, and 


hoAv Christ wrote a letter to him. He then relates 
how Chosroes made a fresh movement to lay siege 
to the city, thinking to folsify the assertion prevalent 
among the faithful, that Eclessa would never fall into 
the power of an enemy : which assertion, however, is 
not contained in what was written to Ahgarus by 
Christ our God ; as the studious may gather from the 
history of Eusebius Pamphili, who cites the epistle 
verbatim. Such, however, is the averment and belief 
of the faithful ; which was then realised, faith bringing 
about the accomplishment of the prediction. For 
after Chosroes had made many assaults on the city, 
had raised a mound of sufficient size to overtop the 
walls of the town, and had devised innumerable ex- 
pedients beside, he raised the siege and retreated. 
I will, however, detail the particulars. Cliosroes 
ordered his troops to collect a great quantity of wood 
for the siege from whatever timber fell in their way ; 
and when this had been done before the order could 
well be issued, arranging it in a circular form, he 
threw a mound inside with its face advancing against 
the city. In this way elevating it gradually with the 
timber and earth, and pushing it forward towards the 
town, he raised it to a height sufficient to overtop the 
Avail, so that the besiegers could hurl their missiles 
from vantage ground against the defenders. Wlien 
the besiegers saw the mound approaching the walls 
like a moving mountain, and the enemy in expecta- 


tion of stepping into the town at day- break, they 
devised to run a mine under the mound — which the 
Latins term " aggestus " — and by that means apply 
lire, so that the combustion of the timber might cause 
the downfall of the mound. The mine was completed ; 
I) lit they failed in attempting to fire the wood, l^ecause 
the fire, ha^dng no exit whence it could obtain a 
supply of air, was unable to take hold of it. In this 
state of utter perplexity, they bring the divinely 
wrought image, which the hands of men did not form, 
but Christ our God sent to Abgarus on his desiring 
to see Him. Accordingly, having introduced this holy 
image into the mine, and washed it over with water, 
they sprinlded some upon the timber ; and the divine 
power forthwith being present to the faith of those 
who had so done, the I'esult was accomplished which 
had previously l3een impossible : for the timber im- 
mediately caught the flame, and being in an instant 
reduced to cinders, communicated with that above, 
and the fire spread in all directions. When the 
besieged saw the smoke rising, they adopted the fol- 
lowing contrivance. Having filled small jars with 
sulphur, tow, and other combustibles, they threw 
them upon the aggestus ; and these, sending fortli 
smoke as the fire was increased by the force of their 
flight, prevented that which was rising from the 
mound from being observed ; so that all who were 
not in the secret, supposed that the smoke proceeded 


solely from the jars. On the tliircl day the flames 
were seen issuing from the earth, and then the 
Persians on the mound became aware of their un- 
fortunate situation. But Chosroes, as if in opposition 
to the power of heaven, endeavoured to extinguish 
the pile, by turning all the Avater-coui'ses which were 
outside the city upon it. The fire, however, receiving 
the water as if it had been oil or sulphur, or some 
other combustible, continually increased, until it had 
completely levelled the entire mound and reduced the 
aggestus to ashes. Then Chosroes, in utter despair, 
impressed by the circumstances with a sense of his 
disgraceful folly in having entertained an idea of pre- 
vailing over the God whom we worship, retreated 
ingloriously into his own territories. 



What occurred at Sergiopolis through the proceed- 
ings of Chosroes shall also be described, as being a 
notable event and worthy of perpetual remembrance. 
Chosroes advanced against this city too, eager for its 
capture; and on his proceeding to assault the walls, 
negociations took place with a view to spare the city : 
and it was agreed that the sacred treasures should be 


a ransom for the place, among which was also a cross 
presented by Justinian and Theodora. When they 
had been duly conveyed, Chosroes asked the priest 
and the Persians who had been sent with him, whether 
there was not any thing besides. Upon this one of 
them, being persons unaccustomed to speak the truth, 
told Chosroes that there were some other treasures 
concealed by the townsmen, who were but few. In 
fact, there had been left behind not any treasure of 
gold or silver, but one of more valuable material, and 
irrevocably devoted to God, namely, the holy relics 
of the victorious martyr Sergius, lying in a coffin of 
the oblong sort, plated over with silver. Chosroes, 
influenced by these persons, advanced his whole army 
against the city ; when suddenly there appeared along 
the circuit of the walls, in defence of the place, in- 
numerable shields ; on seemg which the persons sent 
by Chosroes returned, describing, with wonder, the 
number and fashion of the arms. Aiid when, on fur- 
ther enquiry, he learned that very few persons 
remained in the city, and these consisted of aged 
people and children, from the absence of the flower of 
the population, he perceived that tlie prodigy pro- 
ceeded from the martyr, and, influenced by fear and 
wonder at the faith of the Christians, he withdrew into 
his o"svn country. They also say that in his latter 
days he partook in the holy regeneration. 

CHAP. XXIX.] PESTILENCE A.D. 542 594. 223 



I WILL also describe the circumstances of the pesti- 
lence which commenced at that period, and has now 
prevailed and extended over the whole world for fifty- 
two years; a circumstance such as has never before 
been recorded. Two years after the capture of Antioch 
by the Persians, a pestilence broke out, in some respects 
similar to that described by Thucydides, in others 
widely diiixirent. It took its rise from ^Ethiopia, as is 
now reported, and made a circuit of the whole ^\^orld 
in succession, leaving, as I suppose, no part of the 
human race unvisited by the disease. Some cities ^v^ere 
so severely afflicted as to be altogether depopulated, 
though in other places the visitation was less violent. 
It neither commenced according to any fixed period, 
nor was the time of its cessation uniform ; but it seized 
upon some places at the commencement of winter, 
others in the course of the spring, others during the 
summer, and in some cases, when the autumn was 
advanced. In some instances, having infected a part 
of a city, it left the remainder untouched; and fre- 
quently in an uninfected city one might remark a few 
households excessively wasted; and in several places, 
while one or two households utterly perished, the rest 
of the city remained unvisited : but, as we have learned 


from careful observation, the uninfected households 
alone suffered the succeeding year. But the most sin- 
gular circumstance of all was this ; that if it happened 
that any inhabitants of an infected city were living in a 
place which the calamity had not visited, these alone 
were seized with the disorder. This visitation also 
befell cities and other places in many instances accord- 
ing to the periods called Indictions; and the disease 
occurred, with the almost utter destruction of human 
beings, in the second year of each indiction. Thus it 
happened in my own case — for I deem it fitting, in 
due adaptation of circumstances, to insert also in this 
history matters relating to myself — that at the com- 
mencement of this calamity I was seized with what are 
termed buboes, while still a school-boy, and lost by its 
recurrence at different times several of ray children, 
my wife, and many of my kin, as well as of my domes- 
tic and country servants ; the several indictions making, 
as it were, a distribution of my misfortunes. Thus, 
not quite two years before my writing this, being now 
in the fifty-eighth year of my age, on its fourth visit to 
Antioch, at the expiration of the fourth indiction from 
its commencement, I lost a daughter and her son, 
besides those who had died previously. The plague 
was a complication of diseases: for, in some cases, 
commencing in the head, and rendering the eyes 
bloody and the face swollen, it descended into the 
throat, and then destroyed the patient. In others. 


there was a flux of the bowels : in otliers buboes were 
formed, followed by violent fever; and the sufferers 
died at the end of two or three days, equally in posses- 
sion, with the healthy, of their mental and bodily powers. 
Others died in a state of delirium, and some by the 
breaking out of carbuncles. Cases occnrred where 
persons, who had been attacked once and twice and 
liad recovered, died by a subsequent seizure. 

The ways in which the disease was communicated, 
were various and unaccountable : for some perished by 
merely living with the infected, others by only touching 
them, others by having entered tlieir chaml^er, others 
by frequenting public places. Some, having fled from 
the infected cities, escaped themselves, but imparted 
the disease to the healthy. Some were altogether free 
from contagion, though they had associated with many 
who were afflicted, and had touched many not only in 
their sickness but also when dead. Some, too, who 
were desirous of death, on account of the utter loss of 
their children and friends, and witli this view placed 
themselves as much as possible in contact with the 
diseased, were nevertheless not infected; as if the 
pestilence struggled against their purpose. This 
calamity has prevailed, as I have already said, to the 
present time, for two and fifty years, exceeding all 
that have preceded it. For Philostratus expresses 
wonder that the pestilence which happened in his time, 
lasted for fifteen ye^rs. The sequel is uncertain, since 


its course will be guided by the good pleasure of God, 
who knows both the causes of things, and their ten- 
dencies. I shall now return to the point from which I 
digressed, and relate the remainder of Justinian's 


'-■ ~^—'^-^^'-' AVARICE OF .JUSTINIAN. 

Justinian was insatiable in the acquisition of 
wealth, and so excessively covetous of the property of 
others, that he sold for money the whole body of his 
subjects to those who were entrusted with offices or 
who were collectors of tributes, and to whatever per- 
sons were disposed to entrap others by groundless 
charges. He stripped of their entire property innu- 
merable wealthy persons, under colour of the emptiest 
pretexts. If even a prostitute, marking out an indivi- 
dual as a victim, raised a charge of criminal intercourse 
against him, all law was at once rendered vain, and 
by making Justinian her associate in dishonest gain, 
she transferred to herself the whole wealth of the 
accused person. At the same time he was liberal in 
expenditure ; so far as to raise in every quarter many 
sacred and magnificent temples, and other religious 
edifices devoted to the care of infants and aged persons 
of either sex, and of sucli as Avere afflicted with various 


diseases. He also appropriated considerable revenues 
for carrying out these objects ; and performed many 
such actions as are pious and acceptable to God, pro- 
vided that those who perform them do so from their 
own means, and the offering of their deeds be pure. 



He also raised at Constantinople many sacred build- 
ings of elal)orate beauty, in honour of God and the 
saints, and erected a vast and incomparable v>^ork, 
such as has never been before recorded, namely the 
largest edifice of the Church, a noble and surpassing 
structure, beyond the power of words to describe. 
Nevertheless I will endeavour to the best of my abi- 
lity to detail the plan of the sacred precinct. The 
nave of the sanctuary is a dome, supported by four 
arches, and raised to so great a height that the sight 
of persons surveying it from beloAV can scarcely reach 
the vertex of the hemisphere, and no one from above, 
however daring, ventures to bend over and look down 
to the floor. The arches are raised clear from the 
pavement to the roof : Ijut within those on the right 
and left are ranged columns of Thessalian stone, 
which, together with other corresponding pillars, sup- 
port galleries, so as to allow those Vvdio wish, to look 


down upon the performance of the rites below. From 
these the empress also, when attending at the festivals, 
witnesses the ceremony of the sacred mysteries. But 
the eastern and western arches are left vacant, without 
any thing to interrupt the imposing aspect of so vast 
dimensions. There are also colonnades under the 
before-mentioned galleries, forming, with pillars and 
small arches, a termination to so vast a structure. 
But in order to convey a more distinct idea of this 
wonderful fabric, 1 have thought proper to set down 
in feet, its length, breadth, and height, as well as the 
span and height of the arches, as follows : — The length 
from the door facing the sacred apse where are per- 
formed the rites of the bloodless sacrifice, to the apse, 
is one hundred and ninety feet : the breadth from north 
to south is one hundred and fifteen feet : the depth 
from the centre of the hemisphere to the floor is one 
hundred and eighty feet: the span of each of the 
arches is * * * feet : the length, however, from 
east to west is two hundred and sixty feet; and the 
range of the lights seventy -five feet. There are also 
to the west two other noble colonnades, and on all 
sides unroofed courts of elaborate beauty. Justinian 
also erected the church of the holy Apostles, which 
may dispute the first place with any other. In this 
the emperors and the bishops are usually interred. I 
have thought fit thus to take some notice of these and 
similar matters. 


CHAriEii XXX 11. 


Justinian was possessed by anotliei- pvopeiisity, of 
unequalled ferocity ; whether attributable to an innate 
defect of his disposition, or to cowardice and appre- 
hensions, I am not able to say. It took its rise from 
the existence of the faction among the populace dis- 
tinguished by the name " Nica." He appeared to 
favour one party, namely the Blues, to such an excess, 
that they slaughtered their opponents at inid-day and in 
the middle of the city, and, so far from dreading pun- 
ishment, were even rewarded; so that many persons 
became murderers from this cause. They were allowed 
to assault houses, to plunder the valuables they con- 
tained, and to compel persons to purchase their own 
lives; and if any of the authorities endeavoured to 
check them, he was in danger of his very life : and it 
actually happened that a person holding the govern- 
ment of the East, having chastised some of the rioters 
with lashes, was himself scourged in the very centre 
of the city, and carried about in triumph. Callinicus 
also, the governor of Cilicia, having subjected to 
legal punishment two Cilician murderers, Paul and 
Faustinus, who had assaulted and endeavoured to 
despatch him, suffered impalement, as the penalty 
for rio'ht feelinir and maintenance of the laws. The 


members of the other faction having, in consequence, 
fled from their homes, and meeting with a welcome 
nowhere, but being universally scouted as a pollution, 
betook themselves to waylaying travellers, and com- 
mitted thefts and murders to such an extent, that every 
place was filled with untimely deaths, robberies, and 
every other crime. Sometimes also, siding with the other 
faction, Justinian put to death in turn their opponents, 
by surrendering to the vengeance of the laws those 
whom he had allowed to commit in the cities equal 
outrages with barbarians. Neither words nor time 
would suffice for a minute detail of these transactions. 
Thus much will, however, serve for a conception of 
the remainder. 



There lived at that season men divinely inspired 
and workers of distinguished miracles in various parts 
of the world, but Y>^hose glory has shone forth every 
where. First, Barsanuphius, an Egyptian. Tie main- 
tained in the flesh the exercise of the fleshless life, in 
a certain seat of contemplation near the to"\vn of Gaza, 
and succeeded in working wonders too numerous to be 
recorded. He is also believed to be stiU alive, enclosed 


in a chamber, altliougli for fifty years and more from 
this time he has not been seen by any one, nor has he 
partaken of any earthly thing. When Eustochius, the 
president of the church of Jerusalem, in disbelief of 
this account, had determined to dig into the chamber 
where the man of God was enclosed, fire burst forth 
and nearly consumed all those who were on the spot. 




Theke lived also at Emesa, Simeon, n man who had 
so completely unclothed himself of vain-glory as to 
appear insane to those who did not know him, although 
filled with all wisdom and divine grace. This Simeon 
lived principally in solitude, affording to none the 
means of knowing how and when he propitiated the 
Deity, nor his time of abstinence or eating.- Fre- 
quently, too, on the public roads, he seemed to be 
deprived of self-possession, and to become utterly void 
of sense and intelligence, and entering at times into a 
tavern, he would eat, when he happened to be hungry, 
whatever food was mthin his reach. But if any one 
saluted him with an inclination of the head, he would 
leave the place angrily and hastily, through reluctance 
that his peculiar virtues should be detected by many 
persons. Such was the conduct of Simeon in public. 


But there were some of his acqiiamtances, with whom 
he associated without any assumed appearances. One 
of his friends had a female domestic, who, having been 
debauched and become pregnant b}' some person, when 
she was urged by her owners to name the individual, 
said that vSimeon had secretly cohabited with her and 
that she was pregnant by him ; that she was 
ready to swear to the truth of this statement, and, if 
necessary, to convict him. On hearing this, Simeon 
assented, saying that he bore the flesh with its 
frailties ; and when the story was universally spread, 
and Simeon, as it seemed, was deeply disgraced, he 
withdrew into retirement, as if from feelings of shame. 
When the woman's time had arrived, and she had been 
placed in the usual position, her throes, causing great 
and intolerable sufferings, brought her into imminent 
peril, but the birth made no progress. When, accord- 
ing!}', they besought Simeon, who had come thither 
designedly, to pray for her, he openly declared that 
the woman would not be delivered before she had said 
who was the father of the child : and when she had 
done this, and named the real father, the delivery was 
instantaneous, as though by the midwifery of truth. 

He once was seen to enter the chamber of a cour- 
tezan, and having closed the door, he remained alone 
^vith her a considerable time; and when, again open- 
ing it, he went away looking round on all sides lest 
any one should see him, suspicion rose to so high a 
pitch, that those who witnessed it, brought out. the 


woman, and inquired what was the nature of Simeon's 
visit to her and continuance with her for so long a 
time. She swore that, from want of necessaries, she 
had tasted notliing but water for three days past, and 
that Simeon had brought her victuals and a vessel 
of wine; that, having closed the door, he set a 
table before her and bid her make a meal, and 
satisfy her hunger, after her sufferings from want (if 
food. She then produced the remains of what had 
been set before her. 

Also at the approach of the earthquake which 
visited Phcenicia Maritima, and by which Berytus, 
Bjd^lus, and Tripolis especially suffered, raising a 
whip in his hand, he struck the greater part of the 
columns in the forum, exclaiming, "Stand still, if there 
shall be occasion to dance." Inasmuch as none of his 
actions were unmeaning, those who were present care- 
fully marked which were the columns he passed by 
AA'ithout striking them. These were soon afterwards 
thrown down by the effects of the earthquake. Many 
other things he also did which require a separate 



At that time lived also Thomas, who pursued the 
same mode of life in Coele-Syria. On occasion of his 


visiting Antioch, for the purpose of receiving the 
yearly stipend for the support of his monastery, which 
had been assigned from the revenues of the church in 
that place, Anastasius, the steward of the church, 
struck him on the head with his hand, because he fre- 
quently troubled him. When the bystanders mani- 
fested indignation, he said that neither himself should 
again receive nor Anastasius pay the money. Both 
which things came to pass, by the death of Anastasius 
after an interval of one day, and by the departure of 
Thomas to the unfading life, on his way back, in the 
sick hospital at the suburb of Daphne. They depo- 
sited his body in the tomb appropriated to strangers : 
but, after the subsequent interment of two others, his 
body was found above them, an extraordinary wonder, 
proceeding from God, who bore testimony to him even 
after his death ; for the other bodies were thrown to a 
considerable distance. They report the circumstance 
to Ephraemius, in admiration of the saint. In con- 
sequence, his holy body is transported to Antioch, 
with a public festival and procession, and is honoured 
with a place in the cemetery, having, by its translation, 
stopped the plague which was then visiting the place. 
The yearly festival in honour of whom the sons of the 
Antiochenes continue to celebrate to our time with 
great magnificence. Let me now, however, return to 
my subject. 




When Anthimus, as lias been already mentioned, 
was removed from the see of the imperial city, 
Epiphanius succeeds to the bishopric; and after 
Epiphanius, Menas, in whose time also occurred a 
remarkable prodigy. It is an old custom in the 
imperial city, that, when there remains over a con- 
siderable quantity of' the holy fragments of the im- 
maculate body of Christ our God, boys of tender age 
should be fetched from among those who attend the 
schools, to eat them. On one occasion of this kind, 
there was included among them the son of a glass- 
worker, a Jew by faith; who, in reply to the inquiries 
of his parents respecting the cause of his delay, told 
them wdiat had taken place, and what he had eaten in 
company with the other boys. The father, in his indig- 
nation and fury, places the boy in the furnace where 
he used to mould the glass. The mother, unable to 
find her child, wandered over the city with lamenta- 
tions and wailings; and on the third day, standing by 
the door of her husband's workshop, was calling upon 
the boy by name, tearing herself in her sorrow. 
He, recognising his mother's voice, answered her 
from within the furnace, and she, bursting open the 


doors, saw, on her entrance, the boy standing in 
the midst of the coals, and untonched by the tire. 
On being asked how he had continued unhurt, lie 
said that a woman in a purple robe had frequently 
visited him that 5; she had offered him water, and with 
it had quenched that part of the coals which was near- 
est to hhn ; and that she had supplied him with food 
as often as he was hungry. 

Justinian, on the report of this occurrence, placed 
the boy and his mother in the orders of the church, 
after they had been enlightened by the laver of re- 
generation. But the father, on«his refusal to be num- 
bered among the Christians, he ordered to be impaled 
in the suburb of Syca3, as being the murderer of his 

Such was the course of these occurrences. 



Apter Menas, Eutychius is elevated to the see. 

At Jerusalem, Sallustius succeeds Martyrius, who is 
himself succeeded by Helias. The next in succession 
was Peter; and after him came Macarius, without 
the emperor's confirmation. He was ejected from 
his see, on the charge of maintaining the opinions of 
Origen, and was succeeded by Eustochius. After 


the removal of Theodosius, as has been already 
ineiitioned, Zoilus is appointed bishop of Alexandria, 
and when he had been gathered to his predecessors, 
Apollinaris obtains the chair. After Ephraemius, 
Donininus is entrusted with the see of Antioch. 



During the time that Yigilius was bishop of the 
Elder Rome, and first Menas, then Eutychius of New 
Rome, Apollinaris of Alexandria, Domninus of An- 
tioch, and Eustocliius of Jerusalem, Justinian summons 
the fifth synod, for the following reason : — On account 
of the increasing influence of those who held the opin- 
ions of Origen, especially in what is called the New 
Laura, Eustocliius used every effort for their removal, 
and, visiting the place itself, he ejected the whole party, 
driving them to a distance, as general pests. These 
persons, in their dispersion, associated with themselves 
many others. They found a champion in Theodore, 
surnamed Ascidas, bishojD of Ctesarea, the metropolis 
of Cappadocia, who was constantly about the person of 
Justinian, as being trusty and highly serviceable to 
him. Whereas he was creating much confusion in the 
imperial court, and declared the proceeding of Eusto- 
chius to be utterly impious and lawless, the latter 


despatches to Constantinople Rufus, superior of the 
monastery of Theoclosius, and Conon, of that of Saba, 
persons of the first distinction among the solitaries, 
both on account of their personal worth and the reli- 
gious houses of which they were the heads ; and with 
them were associated others scarcely their inferiors in 
dignity. These, in the first instance, mooted the ques- 
tions relating to Origen, Evagrius, and Didymus. But 
Theodore of Cappadocia, with a view to divert them 
from this point, introduces the subject of Theodore of 
Mopsuestia, Theodoret, and Ibas ; the good God provi- 
dentially disposing the whole proceeding, in order that 
the profanities of both parties should be ejected. 

On the first question being started, namely, whether 
it were proper to anathematise the dead, Eutychius, 
a man of consummate skill in the divine Scrij^tures, 
being as yet an undistinguished person — for Menas was 
still living, and he was himself at that time apocrisia- 
rius to the bishop of Amasea — casting a look on the 
assembly, not merely of commanding intelligence but of 
contempt, plainly declared that the question needed no 
debate, since King Josiah in former time not only slew 
the living priests of the demons, but also broke up the 
sepulchres of those who had long been dead. This 
was considered by all to have been spoken to the pur- 
pose. Justinian also, having been made acquainted 
with the circumstance, elevated him to the see of the 
imperial city on the death of Menas, which happened 


immediately after. A^igilius gave his assent in writing 
to the assembling of the synod but declined attendance. 

Justinian addressed an inquiry to the synod on its 
assembling, as to what was their opinion concerning 
Theodore, and the expressions of Theodoret against 
Cyril and his twelve chapters, as well as the epistle of 
Ibas, as it is termed, addressed to Maris, the Persian. 
After the reading of many passages of Theodore and 
Theodoret, and proof given that Theodore had been 
long ago condemned and erased from the sacred dip- 
tychs, as also that it was fitting that heretics should be 
condemned after their death, they unanimously ana- 
thematise Theodore, and what had been advanced by 
Theodoret against the twelve chapters of Cyril and the 
right faith ; as also the epistle of Ibas to Maris, the Per- 
sian ; in the following words : — 

"Our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ, ac- 
cording to the parable in the gospels," and so forth. 
"In addition to all other heretics, who have been 
condemned and anathematised by the before-mentioned 
four holy synods and by the holy catholic and apos- 
tolic church, we condemn and anathematise Theodore, 
styled bishop of Mopsuestia, and his impious writings; 
also whatever has been impiously written by Theodoret 
against the right faith, against the twelve chapters of the 
sainted Cyril, and against the first holy synod at Ephe- 
sus, and all that he has written in defence of Theodore 
and Nestorius. We further anathematise the impious 


epistle said to have been written by Ibas to Maris the 

After some other matter, they proceed to set forth 
fourteen chapters concerning the right and unimpeach- 
able faith. In this manner had the transactions pro- 
ceeded : but on the presentation of libels against the 
doctrine of Origen, named also Adamantius, and the 
followers of his impious error, by the monks Eulogius, 
Conon, Cyriacus, and Pancratius, Justinian addresses 
a question to the synod concerning these points, append- 
ing to it a copy of the libel, as well as the epistle of 
Vigilius upon the subject : from the whole of which 
may be gathered the attempts of Origen to fill the sim- 
plicity of the apostolic doctrine with philosophic and 
Manicheean tares. Accordingly, a relation was ad- 
dressed to Justinian by the synod, after they had 
uttered exclamations ag^ainst Orio-en and the maintain- 
ers of similar errors. A portion of it is expressed in 
the following terms: "0 most Christian emperor, 
gifted with heavenly generosity of soul, " and so forth. 
"We have shunned, accordingly, we have shunned this 
error; for Ave knew not the voice of the alien; and 
having bound such a one, as a thief and a robber, in the 
cords of our anathema, we have ejected him from the 
sacred precincts. " And presently they proceed : "By 
perusal you will learn the vigour of our acts. " To 
this they appended a statement of the heads of the 
matters which the followers of Oriojen were tauo-ht to 


iiijiiutain, shewing their agreements, as well as their dis- 
agreements, and their manifold errors. The fifth head 
contains the blasphemous expressions uttered by private 
individuals belonging to what is called the New Laura, 
as follows. Theodore, surnamed Ascidas, the Cappa- 
docian, said "If the Apostles and Martyrs at the present 
time work miracles, and are already so highly honoured, 
unless they shall be equal with Christ in the restitu- 
tion of things, in what respect is there a restitution for 
them ? " They also reported many other blasphemies of 
Didymus, Evagrius, and Theodore ; having with great 
diligence extracted whatever bore upon these points. 
At an interval of some time after the meeting of the 
synod, Eutychius is ejected, and there is appointed in 
his place to the see of Constantinople John a native of 
Seremis, which is a village of the district of Cynegica, 
belonging to Antioch. 



At that time Justinian, abandoning the right road 
of doctrine, and following a path untrodden by the 
apostles and fathers, became entangled among thorns 
and briers ; with which wishing to fill the Church also, 
he failed in his purpose, and thereby fulfilled the pre- 
diction of prophecy ; the Lord having secured the 
roval road with an unfailing^ fence, that murderers 
16 ~~ 


might not leap, as it were, upon a tottering wall or a 
broken hedge. Thus, at the time when John, named 
also Catelinus, v,^as bishop of the elder Rome, after 
Vigilius ; John from Seremis, of New Rome ; Apol- 
linaris, of Alexandria; Anastasius, of Theopolis, after 
Domninus; and Macarius, of Jerusalem, had been 
restored to his see ; Justinian," after he had anathema- 
tized Origen, Didymus, and Evagrius, issued what the 
Latins call an Edict, after the deposition of Eustochius, 
in which he termed the body of the Lord incorruptible 
and incapable of the natural and blameless passions; 
affirming that the Lord ate before his passion in 
the same manner as after his resurrection, his holy 
body having undergone no conversion or change from 
the time of its actual formation, in the womb, not even 
in respect of the voluntary and natural passions, nor 
yet after the resurrection. To this, he proceeded to 
compel the bishops in all quarters to give their assent. 
However, they all professed to look to Anastasius, the 
bishop of Antioch, and thus avoided the first attack. 



Anastasius was a man most accomplished in divine 
learning, and so strict in his manners and mode of life, 
as to insist upon very minute matters, and on no occa- 
sion to deviate from a staid and settled frame, much 


less in things of moment and having relation to the 
Deity himself. So well tempered was his character, 
tliat neither, by being accessible and affable, was he 
exposed to the intrusion of things unsuitable ; nor by 
being austere and unindulgent, did he become difficult 
of approach for proper purposes. Accordingly, in 
serious concei'ns he was ready in ear and fluent in 
tongue, promptly resolving the questions proposed to 
him ; but in trifling matters, his ears were altogether 
closed, and a bridle restrained his tongue, so that 
speech was enthralled by thought, and silence resulted, 
more valuable than speech. Justinian assaults him, 
like some impregnable tower, with every kind of device, 
considering that if he could only succeed in shaking 
this bulwark, all difficidty would be removed in cap- 
turing the city, enslaving the right doctrine, and 
taking captive the sheep of Christ. In such a manner 
was Anastasius raised above the assailing force by 
heavenly greatness of mind, for he stood upon the 
immoveable rock of faith, that he unreservedly contra- 
dicted Justinian by a formal declaration, in which 
he showed very clearly and forcibly that the body of 
the Lord was corruptible in respect of the natural 
and blameless passions, and that the divine apostles 
and the inspired fathers both held and delivered this 
opinion. In the same terms he replied to a question 
of the monastic body of Syria Prima and Secunda, 
confirming the minds of all, preparing them fn- the 


struo'gle, and daily reading in the Churcli those 
words of the "chosen vessel:"* "If any one is 
preaching to you a gospel different from that which ye 
have received, even though it be an angel from heaven, 
let him be accursed. "f To this all, with few excep- 
tions, paid a steady regard and zealous adherence. He 
also addressed to the Antiochenes a valedictory dis- 
course, on hearing that Justinian intended to banish 
him ; a discourse deserving admiration for its elegance, 
its flow of thought, the abundance of saci'ed texts, and 
the appropriateness of its historical matters. 



But this discourse was not published, " God having 
provided some better thing for us:" J for Justinian, 
while dictating the banishment of Anastasius and his 
associate priests, departed this life by an invisible 
stroke, having reigned in all eight and thirty years 
and eight months. 

* Acts ix. 15. f GaL i. 9. 

I Heb. xi. 40. 




Ix this manner did Justinian depart to the lowest 
region of retribution, after having filled every place 
with confusion and tumults, and having received at 
the close of his life the reward of his actions. His 
nephew Justin succeeds to the purple; having pre- 
viously held the office of guardian of the palace, 
styled in the Latin knguage Curopalata. No one, 
except those who Avere immediately about his person, 
was aware of the demise of Justinian or the declara- 
tion of Justin, until the latter made his appearance 
in the hippodrome, by way of formally assuming the 
stated functions of royalty. Confining himself to 
this simple proceeding, he then returned to the palace. 

His first edict was one dismissing the bishops to 
their respective sees, wherever they might be assembled, 
with a provision that they should maintain what was 
already established in religion, and abstain from 
novelties in matters of faith. This proceeding was 
to his honour. In his mode of life, however, he was 


dissolute, utterly abandoned to luxury and inordinate 
pleasures : and to such a degree was he inflamed with 
desire for the property of others, as to convert every 
thing into a means of unlawful gain ; standing in no 
awe of the Deity even in the case of bishoprics, but 
■^making them a matter of public sale to any purchasers 
that ofl'ered. Possessed, as he was, alike by the 
vices of audacity and cowardice, he in the first 
place sends for his kinsman Justin, a man universally 
famous for military skill and his other distinctions, who 
was at that time stationed upon the Danube, and en- 
gaged in preventing the Avars from crossing that river. 
These were one of those Scythian tribes who live in 
wagons, and inhabit the plains beyond iivd Caucasus. 
Having been worsted by their neighbours, tlie Turks, 
they had migrated in a mass to the Bosphorus ; and, 
having subsequently left the shores of the Euxine — 
where were many barbarian tribes, and where also 
cities, castles, and some harbours had been located by 
the Romans, being either settlements of veterans, or 
colonies sent out by the emperors — they were pur- 
suing their march, in continual conflict \vith the bar- 
barians whom they encountered, luitil they reached the 
bank of the Danube ; and thence they sent an embassy 
to Justinian. 

From this quarter Justin was summoned, as having 
a claim to the fulfilment of the terms of the as-reement 


between himself and the emperor. For, since both 


Oi tliciii liad been possessed of equal dignity, and the 
succession to the empire was in suspense between both, 
they had agreed, after much dispute, that whichever 
of the two should become possessed of the sovereignty, 
should confer the second place on the other; so that 
wJiile ranking beneath the emperor, he should still 
take precedence of all others. 



The emperor accordingly received him, in the hrst 
instance, with an abundant display of kindness. After- 
Avards, he proceeded to fix certain charges upon him, 
and to withdraw the various guards of his person, 
forbidding him at the same time access to his presence ; 
for he himself lived in the retirement of liis palace : 
and ultimately he ordered his removal to Alexandria. 
There he is miserably murdered in the dead of night, 
when he had just retired to rest; such being the 
reward of his fidelity to the commonwealth and his 
achievements in Avar. Nor did the emperor and his 
consort Sophia abate their rage, nor had they suffi- 
ciently indulged their boiling spite, before they had 
gazed upon his head and spurned it Avitli their feet. 




Not long after, the emperor brought to trial 
for treason ^tlierius and Addseus, members of the 
senate, who had occupied the very highest position at 
the court of Justinian, ^therius confessed to a design 
of poisoning the emperor, saying that he had in Adda^us 
an accomplice in the plot and an abettor throughout. 
The latter, however, asseverated, with fearful impre- 
cations, that he was utterly ignorant of the transac- 
tion. Both were accordingly beheaded, Adda3us 
affirming, at the instant of execution, that he had been 
falsely accused on this point, but admitting that he re- 
ceived his due at the hands of all-seeing Justice, for 
that he had taken off Theodotus, prefect of the palace, 
by sorcery. How far these statements are true, I am 
not able to say; but both were men of bad character; 
Adda?us being addicted to unnatural lust, and jEtlierius 
pursuing to the utmost a system of false accusation, 
and plundering the property both of the living and 
the dead, in the name of the imperial household, of 
which he had been comptroller in the time of 
Justinian. Such was tlie termination of these matters. 

CI1A1\ IV.] EDICT OF JUSTIN. A.D. 566. 241) 



Justin issues an edict to the Christians in every 
quarter, in the following terms. 

" In the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, our God, the 
Emperor Ca3sar Flavian Justin, faithful in Christ, cle- 
ment, supreme, beneficent, Alemannicus, Gothicus, 
Germanicus, Anticus, Francicus, Herulicus, Gepidicus, 
pious, fortunate, glorious, victorious, triumphant, ever- 
worshipful Augustus. 

'"My peace I give to you,' says the Lord Christ, our 
very God. ' My peace I leave to you, ' he also pro- 
claims to all mankind. Nov/ this is nothing else than 
that those who believe on him should gather into one 
and the same church, being unanimous concerning the 
true belief of Christians, and withdrawing from such 
as affirm or entertain contrary opinions : for the prime 
means of salvation for all men is the confession of the 
right faith. Wherefore we also, foUomng the evange- 
lical precepts and the holy symbol or doctrine of the 
holy fathers, exhort all persons to unite in one and the 
same church and sentiment ; and this we do, believing 
in the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, holding the doc- 
trine of a consubstantial Trinity, one Godhead or 
nature and substance, both in terms and reality; one 
power, influence, and operation in three subsistences 


or persons ; into which doctrine we were baptized, in 
which we believe, and to which we have united our- 
selves. For we worship a Unity in trinity and a 
Trinity in unity, peculiar both in its division and in 
its union, being Unity in respect of substance or God- 
head, and Trinity with regard to its proprieties or sub- 
sistences or persons ; for it is divided indivisibly, so to 
speak, and is united divisibly : for there is one thing 
in three, namely, the Godhead ; and the three things 
are one, namely, those in which is the Godhead, or, to 
speak more accurately, which are the Godhead : and we 
acknowledge the Father to be God, the Son God, and 
the Holy Spirit God, whenever each person is regarded 
by itself — the thought in that case separating the things 
that are inseparable — and the three when viewed in 
conjunction to be God by sameness of motion and of 
nature ; inasmuch as it is proper both to confess the 
one God, and at the same time to proclaim the three 
subsistences or proprieties. We also confess the only 
begotten Son of God, the God-Word, v>']io, before the 
ages and without time, was begotten of the Father, not 
made, and Avho, in the last of the days, for our sakes and 
for our salvation, descended from heaven, and was incar- 
nate of the Holy Spirit and of our Lady, the holy glorious 
Mother of God and ever virgin Mary, and was born of 
her; who is our Lord Jesus Christ, one of the Holy 
Trinity, united in glorification with the Father and the 
Holy Spirit : for the Holy Trinity did not admit the 


addition of a fourth person, even when one of the 
Trinity, the God- Vv^ord, had become incarnate ; but our 
Lord Jesus Christ is one and the same, being consub- 
stantial with God the Father, as respects the Godhead, 
and at the same time consubstantial with ourselves as 
respects the manhood; passible in the flesh, and at the 
same time impassible in tlie Godhead : for we do not 
admit that the divine Word who wrouglit the miracles 
was one, and he who underwent the sufferings was an- 
other; but we confess our Lord Jesus Christ to be one 
and the same, namely, the Word of God become incar- 
nate and made perfectly man, and that both the mira- 
cles and the sufferings which he voluntarily underwent 
for our salvation belong to one and the same ; inas- 
much as it was not ahumanbeingthat gave himself on 
our behalf; but the God-Word himself, becoming man 
without undergoing change, submitted in the flesh to 
the voluntary passion and death on our behalf. Ac- 
cordingly, while confessing hhn to be God, we do not 
contravene the circumstance of his being man ; and while 
confessing him to be man, we do not deny the fact of his 
being God : whence, while confessing our Lord Jesus 
Christ to be one and the same, composed of both natures, 
namely, the Godhead and the manhood, we do not 
superinduce confusion upon the union; forhewiU not 
lose the circumstance of being God on becoming man 
like ourselves ; nor yet, in being by nature God, and in 
that respect incapable of likeness to us, will he also 


decline the circumstance of being man. But as he con- 
tinued God in manhood ; in like manner, though pos- 
sessed of divine supremacy, he is no less man ; being both 
in one, God and man at the same time, one Emmanuel. 
Further, while confessing him to be at the same time 
perfect in Godhead and perfect in manhood, of which 
two he was also composed, we do not attach to his one 
complex subsistence a division by parts or severance ; 
but we signify that the difference of the natures is not 
annulled by the union : for neither was the divine na- 
ture changed into the human, nor the human nature 
converted into the divine ; but, each being the more dis- 
tinctly understood and existent in the limit and rela- 
tion of its own nature, we say that the union took place 
according to subsistence. The union according to 
subsistence signifies, that the God- Word, that is to say 
one subsistence of the three subsistences of the God- 
head, was not united with a previously existing human 
being, but in the womb of our Lady, the holy 
glorious Mother of God and ever virgin Mary, formed 
for himself of her, in his own subsistence, flesh consub- 
stantial with ourselves, having the same passions in all 
respects except sin, and animated with a reasonable 
and intelligent soul ; for he retained his subsistence in 
himself, and became man, and is one and the same, our 
Lord Jesus Christ, united in glorification with the 
Father and the Holy Spirit. Further, while consi- 
dering his ineffable union, wc rightly confess one nature, 


that of the Divhie Word, to have become incarnate, by 
flesh animated with a reasonable and intelligent soul ; 
and, on the other hand, while contemplating the diffe- 
rence of the natures, we affirm that they are two, with- 
out, however, introducing any division, for either nature 
is in him ; whence we confess one and the same Christ, 
one Son, one person, one subsistence, both God and 
man together : and all who have held or do hold opin- 
ions at variance mth these, we anathematize, judging 
them to be alien from the Holy and Apostolic Church 
of God. Accordingly, while the right doctrines which 
have been delivered to us by the holy fathers are being 
thus proclaimed, we exhort you all to gather into one 
and the same Catholic and Apostolic Church, or rather 
w^e even entreat you ; for though possessed of imperial 
supremacy, we do not decline the use of such a term, 
in behalf of the unanimity and union of all Christians, 
in the universal offering of one doxology to our great 
God and Saviour Jesus Christ, and in abstinence for 
the future on the part of all from unnecessary disputes 
about persons and words — since the words lead to one 
true belief and understanding — while the usage and 
form which has hitherto prevailed in the holy Catholic 
and Apostolic Church of God, remains for ever un- 
shaken and unchanged. " 

To this edict all assented, saying that it was ex- 
pressed in orthodox language. None, however, of the 
severed portions of the Church were entirely reunited, 


because the edict distinctly declared that what had 
hitherto been unshaken and unchanged, should con- 
tinue so in all coming time. 



Justin also ejected Anastasius from the episcopate 
of Theopolis, on the charge of a profuse and improper 
expenditure of the funds of the see, and also for 
scandalous language against himself; inasmuch as 
Anastasius, on being asked why he was so lavishly 
squandering the property of the see, frankly replied, 
that it was done to prevent its being carried off by 
that universal pest, Justin. He is also said to have 
entertained a grudge against Anastasius, because he had 
refused to pay a sum of money, when demanded of him 
in consideration of his appointment to the bishopric. 
Other charges were also brought against him by 
persons, who, as I suppose, wished to second the 
emperor's bent. 



Next in succession, Gregory is elevated to the 
episcopal see: "wide whose renown," according to 


the language of poetry; a person who had devoted 
himself from the earliest period of life to the monastic 
discipline, and had wrestled therein so manfully and 
stoutly, that he arrived at the highest elevation when 
scarcely past his boyhood, and became superior of the 
monastery of the Byzantines, in which he had assumed 
the bare mode of life, and subsequently, by the orders 
of Justin, of the monastery of Mount Sinai. Here he 
encountered extreme danger, having sustained a siege 
by the Scenite Arabs. 

Having, nevertheless, secured the complete tranquil- 
lity of the spot, he was thence summoned to the 
archiepiscopal dignity. He was unrivalled in every 
excellence of intellect and virtue, and most energetic 
in accomplishing whatever he resolved upon, unin- 
fluenced by fear, and incapable of shrinking before 
secular power. So noble was his expenditure of 
money, in a general system of liberality and munificence, 
that whenever he appeared in public, crowds, besides 
his ordinary attendants, followed him ; and all gathered 
round him who saw or heard of his approach. The 
respect shewn to so high a dignity, was but second to 
the honour bestowed upon the individual, in the 
generous desire of persons to obtain a near view of 
him and to hear his words ; for he was possessed of 
singular power to inspire with attachment towards 
himself all who held converse with him, being a person 
of most imposing aspect and sweet address, especially 


quick of perception and prompt in execution, a most 
able counsellor and judge, both in his own matters and 
in those of others. On this account it was that he 
accomplished so much, never deferring any thing till 
to-morrow. By dealing with matters with unfailing 
promptitude, according as either necessity required 
or opportunity favoured, he filled with admiration not 
only the Roman but the Persian sovereigns, as I shall 
set forth the particulars in their proper place. His 
character was strongly marked by vehemence, and at 
times by indications of anger; while, on the other 
hand, his meekness and gentleness were not confined, 
but were exceedingly abundant ; so that to him was 
admirably fitted the excellent expression of Gregory 
Theologus, "austerity tempered with modesty," while 
neither quality was impaired, but each rendered more 
striking by the other. 



In the first year of the episcopate of Gregory, the 
inhabitants of what was formerly called the greater 
Armenia, but afterwards Persarmenia — this country 
was formerly subject to the Romans, but when PhiHp, 
the successor of Gordian, had betrayed it to Sapor, 
wlint is called the lesser Armenia alone was possessed 

ClIAr. VII.] RUPTURE WITH I'ERSIA. A.l). 072. 257 

b}^ the Ivomans, but the remairider by the Persians — 
this people, being Christians and cruelly treated by 
the Persians, especially on the score of their faith, 
sent a secret embassy to Justin, imi)loring to be 
allowed to place themselves under the dominion of 
the Romans, in order to a safe and unrestrained ob- 
servance of their religion. When the emperor had ad- 
mitted their overtures, and certain written conditions 
had been settled on his part and guaranteed by the 
most solemn oaths, the Armenians massacre their 
governors; and the whole nation, together with their 
allied neighbours, both of kindred and foreign race, 
unite themselves to the Roman empire, Vardanes 
having a precedence among his countrymen by birth, 
dignity, and military skill. In reply to the complaints 
of Chosroes on account of these transactions, Justin 
alleged that the peace had expired, and that it was 
impossible to reject the advances of Christians, when 
desirous of uniting themselves Avith fellow Chrrstians 
in time of war. 

Such was his reply. Notwithstanding, he made 
no preparation for war, but was involved in his 
habitual luxury, regarding every thing as secondary 
to his personal enjoyments. 





The emperor sends out his kinsman Marcian, as 
commander of the forces of the East, without, however, 
sufficiently supplying him Avith troops, or the other 
material of war. He occupies Mesopotamia, at the 
imminent risk of utter ruin,foUowedhy very few troops, 
and these imperfectly armed, and by a few rustic 
labourers and herdsmen, whom he had pressed into 
his service from among the provincials. After gaining 
the advantage in some skirmishes near Nisibis with 
the Persians, who were themselves not yet completely 
prepared, he sits down before that city, though the 
enemy did not think it necessary to close the gates, 
and insolently jeered the Roman troops. Besides 
many other prodigies presaging the approaching 
calamities, I also saw, at the beginning of the war, a 
newly born calf with two heads. 



Chosroes, when his preparations for war were com- 
pleted, having accompanied Adaarmanes for some dis- 


tance, sent him across the Euphrates from his own 
bank of the river into the Roman territory, by Circe- 
sium, a city most important to the Romans, situated at 
the limit of the empire, and rendered strong not only 
by its walls, which are carried to an immense height, 
but by the rivers Euphrates and Aboras, which, as it 
were, insulate the place. Chosroes himself, having 
crossed the Tigris with his own division of the army, 
advanced upon Nisibis. 

Of these operations the Romans were for a longtime 
ignorant, so far that Justin, relying on a rumour to 
the effect that Chosroes was either dead or approacliing 
his last breath, was indignant at the tardiness of the 
siege of Nisibis, and sent persons for the purpose of 
stimulating the efforts of Marcian, and bringing to him 
the keys of the gates as quickly as possible. Informa- 
tion, however, that the siege was making no progress, 
but that the commander was bringing great discredit 
upon himself by attempting impossibilities in the case 
of so important a city with so contemptible a force, is 
conveyed in the first instance to Gregory, bishop of 
Theopolis : for the bishop of Nisibis, being strongly 
attached to Gregory, as having received munificent 
presents from hun, and especially being indignant at 
the insolence which the Persians vrere continually dis- 
playing towards the Christians, and desirous that his 
city should be subject to the Roman power, supplied 
information to Gregorv of all things that were going 


on in the enemy's territory, at each several juncture. 
Thisthe latter mimediately forwarded to Justin, inform- 
ing liim as quickly as possible of the advance of Chos- 
roes : biit he, being immersed in his habitual pleasures, 
paid no regard to the letters of Gregory ; nor was he 
indeed inclined to believe them, indulging rather the 
thoughts suggested by his wishes : for the ordinary 
mark of dissolute persons is a meanness of spirit com- 
bined with confidence with regard to results ; as well 
as incredulity, if any thing occurs which runs counter 
to their desires. Accordingly he writes to Gregory, 
altogether repudiating the information as being utterly 
false, and, even supposing it were true, saying that the 
Persians would not come up before the siege was 
concluded, and that, if they did, they would be 
beaten oif with loss. He further sends Acacius, a 
wicked and insolent man, to Marcian with orders to 
supersede him in the command, even supposing he had 
already set one foot within the town. This command 
he strictly executed, carrying out the emperor's orders 
without any regard to the public good : for, on his ar- 
rival at the camp, he deprives Marcian of his command 
while on the enemy's territory, and without informing 
the army of the transaction; The various officers, on 
learning at the l^reak of the next day that their com- 
mander was superseded, no longer appeared at the head 
of their troops, but stole away in various directions, 
and thus raised that ridiculous sie^e. 


Adaaniiancs, on the other hand, in command of a 
considerable force of Persians and Scenite barbarians, 
having marched by Circesinm, inflicted every possible 
injury with iire and sword upon the Roman territory, 
setting no limits to his intentions or actions. He also 
captures many fortresses and towns, without encoun- 
tering any resistance ; in the first place, because there 
was no one in command, and secondly, because, since 
the Roman troops were shut up in Daras by Chosroes, 
liis foragings and incursions were made in perfect secu- 
rity. He also directed an advance upon Theopolis, 
without proceeding thither in person. These troops 
were compelled to draw ofl' most unexpectedly ; for 
scarcely any one, or indeed very few persons, remained 
in the city; and the bishop had fled, taking with him 
the sacred treasures, because both the greater part of 
the walls had fallen to ruins, and the populace had 
made insurrection with the hope of gaining ascendancy 
by change : a thing of frequent occurrence, and especially 
at junctures like this. The insurgents themselves also 
abandoned the city, without any attempt to meet the 
emergency or take active measures against the enemy. 




Failing thus in this attempt, Adaarmanes, having 
burnt the city formerly called Heraclea but subse- 
quently Gagalica, made himself master of Apamea; 
AYhich, having been founded by Seleucus Nicator, was 
once flourishing and populous, but had fallen to a great 
extent into ruin through lapse of time. On the capi- 
tulation of the city from the inability of the inhabitants 
to oiFer any resistance, since the wall had fallen down 
through age, he fired and pillaged the whole place, in 
violation of the terms, and drew off, carrying away 
captive the inhabitants of the town and the adjoinmg 
country, and among them the bishop and the governor. 
He also exercised every kind of atrocity during his 
march, ^vitliout meeting with any resistance or indeed 
attempt at opposition, except a very small force sent 
out by Justin under the command of Magnus, Avho had 
formerly been a banker at Constantinople, and subse- 
quently appointed steward of one of the imperial resi- 
dences. These troops hoAvever fled with precipitation, 
and narrowly escaped being made prisoners. 

After these operations, Adaarmanes joins Chosroes, 
who had not yet captured the city he was l^esieging. 
By the junction, he threw an important weight into the 


scale, ill raising the spirits of his coimtryiiieii, while he 
disheartened their opponents. He found the city cut 
off by lines, and a huge mound carried forward within 
a short distance of the walls, with engines mounted, 
and especially catapults, shooting from vantage ground. 
By these means, Chosroes took the city by storm. 
John, the son of Timostratus, was governor, who paid 
little regard to the defence of the place, or perhaps 
betrayed it ; for both accounts arc reported. Chosroes 
had besieged the city for five months or more without 
any effort being made for its relief. Having brought 
forth all the inhabitants in immense numbers, some 
of whom he miserably slaughtered but retained the 
greater part as captives, he garrisoned the city, on 
account of its important situation, and then retired 
into his own territories. 



On being informed of these events, Justin, in whose 
mind no sober and considerate thoughts found place 
after so much inflation and pride, and who did not 
bear what had befallen him with resignation suited to 
a human being, ffdls into a state of frenzy, and be- 
comes unconscious of all subsequent transactions. 

Tiberius assumes the direction of affairs, a Thracian by 


birth, but holding the first place in the court of Justin- 
He had previously been sent out against the Avars by 
the emperor, who had raised a very large army for the 
purpose; and he would inevitably have been made 
prisoner, since his troops would not even face the 
barbarians, had not divine Providence unexpectedly 
delivered him, and preserved him for succession to 
the Roman sovereignty; which, through the incon- 
siderate measures of Justin, was in danger of falling 
to ruin, together with the entire commonwealth, and 
of passing from such a height of power into the hands 
of barbarians. 



AccoKDiNGLY, Tibcrius adopts a measure opportune 
and well suited to the state of affairs, which altogether 
repaired the calamity. He despatches to Chosroes, 
Trajan, a senator and an accomplished man, universally 
esteemed for his years and intelligence ; not, however, 
as representative of the sovereign power, nor yet as 
ambassador for the commonwealth, but merely to treat 
on behalf of the empress Sophia; who herself also 
wrote to Chosroes, bewailing the calamities which had 
befiillen her husband, and the loss of its head which 
the commonAvealth sustained, and urging the unseem- 
liness of trampling upon a widowed female, a prostrate 


monarch, and a desolate empire : at the same time re- 
minding hiin that, when afflicted with sickness, he had 
himself not only been treated with similar forbearance, 
but that the very best physicians had been sent to 
him by the Roman government, and had cured him 
of his disease. Chosroes is, accordingly, moved by 
the appeal, and when upon the very point of attacking 
the empire, makes a truce for three years, embracing 
the eastern parts ; with a condition that Armenia should 
be excepted, so as to allow of hostilities being main- 
tained there, provided the East ^^re not molested. 

During these proceedings in the East, Sirmium 
is taken by the barbarians, wliicli had some time 
before fallen into the hands of the Gepida3, and been 
afterwards restored by them to Justin. 



About this time Justin, by the advice of Sophia, 
bestows on Tiberius the rank of Ca3sar, giving utter- 
ance, in the act of declaration, to such expressions as 
surpass all that has been recorded in ancient or recent 
history ; our compassionate God having vouchsafed to 
him an opportunity for an avowal of his own errors, 
and a suggestioii of what was for the benefit of the 
state. For when there were assembled in the open 


court, where ancient usage enjoins that such proceed- 
ings should take place, both the archbishop, John, 
whom we have already mentioned, and his clergy, as 
well as the state dignitaries, and the household troops, 
the emperor, on investing Tiberius with the imperial 
tunic and robe, gave utterance with a loud voice to 
the following words : " Let not the grandeur of thy 
investiture deceive thee, nor the pomp of the present 
spectacle ; beguiled by which, I have unwittingly ren- 
dered myself obnoxious to the most severe penalties. 
Do thou make reparation for my errors, by administer- 
ing the commonwealth with all gentleness." Then 
pointing to the magistrates, he recommended him by 
no means to put confidence in them, adding: " These 
are the very persons who have brought me into the 
condition which thou now witnessest : " together with 
other similar expressions, which filled all with utter 
amazement, and drew forth an abundance of tears. 

Tiberius was very tall, and by far the most noble 
in person not only of sovereigns but all mankind ; so 
that, in the first place, his beauty was deserving of 
sovereignty. In disposition, he was mjld and comi^as- 
sionate, and gave cordial reception to all persons at 
their very first approach. He deemed wealth to 
consist in aiding all with largesses, not merely so far 
as to meet their wants, but even to superfluity : for 
he did not consider what the needy ought to receive, 
but Avhat it became a Itoman em})eror to l^estow. He 


esteemed that gold to be adulterated which was exacted 
with tears: on which account he entirely remitted 
the taxation for one year, and released from their im- 
posts the properties which Adaarmanes had devastated, 
not merely to the extent of the damage but even far 
beyond it. The magistrates were also excused from 
the necessity of making the unlawful presents, by 
means of which the emperors formerly made a sale of 
their subjects. On these points he also issued constitu- 
tions, as a security for coming time. 



Tiberius, accordingly, applying to a rightful purpose 
the wealth which had been amassed by improper means, 
made the necessary preparations for war. So numerous 
was the army of brave men, raised among the Trans- 
alpine nations, the Massageta>, and other Scythian 
tribes, by a choice levy in the countries on the Rhine, 
and on this side of the Alps, as well as in Pseonia, Mysia, 
Illyria, and Isauria, that he completed squadrons of 
excellent cavalry, to the amount of nearly one hundred 
and fifty thousand men, and repulsed Chosroes, who, 
immediately after the capture of Daras, had advanced 
in the course of the summer against Armenia, and 


was thence directing his movements upon Cagsarea, 
Avhich was the seat of government of Cappadocia and 
the capital of the cities in that quarter. In such 
contempt did Chosroes hold the Roman power, that, 
when the Caesar had sent an embassy to him, he did 
not deign to admit the ambassadors to an audience, 
but bid them follow him to Cassarea ; at which place 
he said he would take the embassy into his consider- 
ation. When, however, he saw the Roman army in the 
front of him, under the command of Justinian, the 
brother of that Justin who had been miserably put to 
death by the Emperor Justin, in complete equipment, 
with the trumpets .sending forth martial sounds, the 
standards uplifted for conflict, and the soldiery eager 
for slaughter, breathing forth fury, and at the same 
time maintaining perfect order, and, besides, so 
numerous and noble a body of cavalry as no monarch 
had ever imagined, he drew a deep groan, with many 
adjurations, at the unforeseen and unexpected sight, 
and was reluctant to begin the engagement. But 
while he is lingering and whiling away the time, and 
making a mere feint of fighting, Kurs, the Scythian, 
who was in command of the right wing, advances 
upon him; and since the Persians were unable to 
stand his charge, and were in a very signal manner 
aljandoning their ground, he made an extensive 
slaughter of his opponents. He also attacks the rear, 
where Ijoth Chosroes and the whole army had placed 

CHAr. XIV.] DKFEAT OF CH08R0ES. — A. D. 576. 269 

their baggage, and captures all the royal stores and 
the entire baggage, under the very eyes of Chosroes ; 
who endured the sight, deeming self-imposed constraint 
more tolerable than the onset of Kurs. The latter, having 
together with his troops made himself master of a 
great amount of money and spoil, and carrying off 
the beasts of burden with their loads, among which 
was the sacred lire of Chosroes to which divine honours 
were paid, makes a circuit of the Persian camp, singing 
songs of victory, and rejoins, about nightfall, his own 
army, who had already broken up from their position, 
without a commencement of battle on the part of 
either Chosroes or themselves, beyond a few slight 
skirmishes or single combats, such as usually take 

Chosroes, having lighted many fires, made prepara- 
tions for a night assault ; and since the Romans had 
formed two camps, he attacks the division which lay 
northward, at the dead of night. On their giving 
way under this sudden and unexpected onset, he 
advances upon the neighbouring town of Melitene, 
which was undefended and deserted by its inhabitants, 
and having fired the whole place, pre})ared to cross 
the Euphrates. At the approach, however, of the 
united forces of the Romans, in alarm for his own safety, 
he mounted an elephant, and crossed alone; whik^ 
great numbers of his ami}' found n grave in the waters 
of the river : on learning whose fate he retreated. 


Having paid this extreme penalty for his insolence 
towards the Roman power, Chosroes retires with the 
snrvivors to the eastern parts, in which quarter the 
terms of the truce had provided that uo one should 
attack him. Nevertheless Justinian made an irruption 
into the Persian territory with his entire force, and 
passed the whole winter there, without any molestation. 
He withdrew about the summer solstice, without 
having sustained any loss whatever, and passed the 
summer near the border, surrounded by prosperity 
and glory. 



Chosroes, lost in frenzy and despair, and submerged 
in the surgings of sorrow, is brought to a miserable 
end by overwhelming anguish, after leaving behind 
him a lasting monument of his flight, in the law 
which he enacted, that no king of the Persians should 
henceforward lead an army against the Romans. 
He is succeeded by his son Hormisdas. These matters 
I must now pass over, since the events wliicli follow 
in direct succession are inviting my attention and 
awaiting the regular progress of my narrative. 




On the decease of John, named also Catelhius, 
Bonosus is intrusted with the helm of the Roman see, 
and he is succeeded by another John, and he, again, 
by Pelagius. In the imperial city John is succeeded 
by Eutychius, who had already held the see before 
him. Apollinaris is succeeded in the see of Alexan- 
dria by John, and he by Eulogius, After Macarius, 
John is elevated to the bishopric of Jerusalem, who 
had pursued the monastic discipline in what is called 
tlie monastery of the Acoemets. This period passed 
without any changes being attempted in the state of 
tlie Church. 



In the third year of the administration of the empire 
by Tiberius, a violent earthquake befell Theopolis and 
its suburb of Daphne, precisely at noon; on which 
occasion the whole of that suburl) was laid in utter 
ruui by the shocks, while the public and private build- 
ings in Theopolis, though rent to the ground, were still 


not entirely levelled. Several other events occurred 
both in Theopolis, and also in the imperial city, deserv- 
ing especial notice, which threw both places into 
confusion, and broke out into excessive disturbances: 
events which took their rise from zeal for God, and 
terminated in a manner worthy of divine agency. 
These I now proceed to notice. 



There was residing at Theopolis a certain Anato- 
lius, who was originally one of the vulgar and an arti- 
san, but had subsequently, by some means or other, 
obtained admission into public offices and other posts 
of importance. In this city he was pursuing his en- 
gagements, from which resulted an intimacy with 
Gregory, president of that Church, and frequent visits 
to liim, partly for the purpose of conversing on matters 
of business, and partly with a view to obtain greater 
influence on the ground of his intercourse with the pre- 
late. This person was detected in the practice of sacri- 
ficial rites, and being called to account was proved to 
be a miscreant and a sorcerer, and implicated in innu- 
merable enormities. He gains over, however, by bri- 
bery, the governor of the East, and would have obtained 
an acquittal, together witli his accomplices, for he was 


associated with others of a similar stamp who were in- 
volved in the detection, had not the people risen, and, 
by exciting a universal stir, frustrated the design. 

They also clamoured against the bishop, saying that 
he was a party to the scheme ; and some turbulent and 
malignant demon induced persons to believe that he 
had also taken part with Anatolius in the sacrificial 
rites. By this means Gregory was brought into 
extreme danger, from the vehement efforts of the 
populace against him ; and the suspicion was so far pre- 
valent, that even the emperor Tiberius was desirous of 
learning the truth from the mouth of Anatolius. 
Accordingly, he orders Anatolius and his associates to 
be conveyed forth^vith to the imperial city. On learn- 
ing this, Anatolius rushed to a certain image of the 
Mother of God, which was suspended by a cord in the 
prison, and folding his hands behind his back, an- 
nounced himself as a suppliant : but she, in detestation 
and conviction of the guilty and God-hated man, 
turned herself quite round, presenting a prodigy awful 
and worthy of perpetual remembrance ; ^vhich, having 
been witnessed by all the prisoners as well as by those 
who had the charge of Anatolius and his associates, 
was thus published to the world. She also appeared 
in a vision to some of the faithful, exhorting them 
against the wretch, and saying that Anatolius was 
guilty of insult against her Son. 

When he had been conveyed to the imperial city, 


and, on being subjected to the extreme of torture, was 
unable to allege anything against the bishop, he and 
his associates were the cause of still greater disturb- 
ances and a general rising of the populace : for, when 
some of the party had received sentence of banishment 
instead of death, the populace, inflamed with a sort of 
divine zeal, caused a general commotion, in their fury 
and indignation, and having seized the persons con- 
demned to banishment and put them into a skiif, they 
committed them alive to the flames; such being the 
people's verdict. They also clamoured against the 
emperor and their own bishop Eutychius as betrayers 
of the faith ; and they would have inevitably despatched 
Eutychius, and those who had been charged with the 
investigation, making search for them in every quarter, 
had not all-preserving Providence rescued them from 
their pursuers, and gradually lulled the anger of so 
liumerous a population ; so that no outrage was perpe- 
trated at their hands. Anatolius himself, after behig 
first exposed to the wild beasts in the amphitheatre 
and mangled by them, was then impaled, without ter- 
minating even then his punishment in this world ; for 
the wolvesj tearing dovm. liis polluted body, divided it 
as_ a feast among themselves; a circumstance never 
before noticed. There was also one of my fellow- 
citizens, who, before these events took place, affirmed 
that he had been informed by a dream, that the judg- 
ment upon Anatolius and his associates was in the 


hands of the populace. A person too of high distinc- 
tion, being the curator of the palace, who had resolutely 
protected Anatolius, said that he had seen the T^Iother 
of God, demanding of him how long he intended to 
defend Anatolius, who had so grievously outraged 
herself and her Son. Such was the termination of this 



Tiberius, being by this time in possession of the 
crown on the death of Justin, supersedes Justinian, 
since he had not been equally successful against the 
barbarians, and appoints Maurice to the command of 
the forces of the East; a person who derived his de- 
scent and name from the elder Rome, but, as regards 
his more immediate origin, y/as a native of Arabissus 
in Cappadocia; a man of sense and ability, and of un- 
varying accuracy and firmness. Being staid and pre- 
cise in his mode of living and manners, he was tempe- 
rate in his food, using only such as was necessary and 
simple, and was superior to all other indulgences of a 
luxurious life. He was not easily accessible to the 
solicitations of the vulgar, nor a too easy listener in 
general ; well knowing that the one tends to produce 
contempt, and the other leads to flattery. Accordingly, 


he granted audiences sparingly, and those only to 
persons on serious business, and closed his ears against 
idle talk, not with wax, as poets say, but rather with 
reason ; so that this latter was an excellent key to them, 
appropriately both opening and closing them during 
conversation. So completely had he banished both 
ignorance, the mother of audacity, and also cowardice, 
which is at the same time a foreigner and a neighbour 
to the former, that with him to face danger was an act 
of prudence, and to decline it was a measure of safety ; 
while both courage and discretion were the charioteers 
of opportunity, and guided the reins to whatever 
quarter necessity directed : so that his efforts were both 
restrained and put forth, as it were, by measure and 
rule. Concerning this person I shall speak more fully 
in the sequel; since the detail of his greatness and 
excellence I must reserve for the history of his reign ; 
which displayed the man in a clearer light, as unfolding, 
through freedom of action, even the more inward parts 
of his character. 

This Maurice, advancing beyond the limits of the 
empire, captures both cities and fortresses, of the 
greatest importance to the Persians, and carried off 
so much plunder, that the captives were suffi- 
ciently numerous to occupy at length whole islands, 
to^vns, and districts which had been deserted : and 
thus the land which had been previousl}- untilled, 
^vas every Avhere restored to culti^'ation. Numerous 


armies also were raised from among them, that fought 
resolutely and courageously against the otlier nations. 
At the same time every household was completely 
furnished with domestics, on account of the easy rate 
at which slaves were procured. 



He also engaged Tamchosroes and Adaarmanes, 
the principal Persian commanders, who had advanced 
against him with a considerable force : but the nature, 
manner, and place of these transactions I leave others 
to record, or shall perhaps myself make them the 
sul]>ject of a distinct work, since my present one pro- 
fesses to treat of matters of a very different kind. Tam- 
chosroes, however, falls in battle, not by the bravery 
of the Roman soldiery, but merely through the piety 
and faith of their commander: and Adaarmanes, 
being worsted in the fight and having lost many of his 
men, flies mth precipitation, and this too, although Ala- 
mundarus, the commander of the Scenite barbarians, 
played the traitor in declining to cross the Euphrates 
and support Maurice against the Scenites of the op- 
posite party. For this people are invincible by any 
otlier than themselves, on account of the fleetness of 
their horses : when hemmed in, they cannot be 


captured ; and they outstrip their enemies in retreat. 
Theodoric too, connnander of the Scythian troops, did 
not so much as venture within range of the missiles, 
but fled with all his people. 



Prodigies also occurred, which indicated that the 
imperial power was destined to Maurice. As he was 
offering incense, at the dead of night, within the sanc- 
tuary of Mary, the holy and immaculate virgin and 
Mother of God, which is called by the Antiochenes the 
church of Justinian, the veil which surrounds the 
holy table became ^vi'apt in flames ; so that Maurice 
was seized with amazement and awe, and was terrified 
at the sight. Gregory, the archbishop of the city, 
who was standing by, said that it was a divine mani- 
festation, betokening to him the highest fortune. 

Christ our God also appeared to him, when in the 
East, calling upon him to avenge Him : which circum- 
stance distinctly intimated the possession of sovereign 
power ; for of what other person would He have made 
the demand than of an emperor, and one who mani- 
fested so much piety towards Him? 

His parents also detailed to me circumstances 


remarkable and worthy of being recorded, when I was 
making inquiries on this point : for his father said 
tliat, about the time of his conception, he had seen in 
a dream a very large vine growing from his bed, on 
which hung great numbers of beautiful clusters of 
grapes : and his mother told me that, at the time of 
her delivery, the earth sent forth a strange odour of 
peculiar sweetness ; and that Empusa, as she is called, 
had often carried off the child for the purpose of 
devouring him, but had been unable to injure him. 

Simeon, too, who practised the station upon the 
pillar in the neighbourhood of Theopolis, a most 
energetic man, and distinguished by every divine 
virtue, both said and did many things which betokened 
his succession to the empire. The sequel of the 
history will relate respecting him whatever circum- 
stances are suitable. 



]\Iaueice assumes the sovereignty, when Tiberius 
was at the point of death, and had l^estowed upon him 
his daughter Augusta, and the empire as her do^\Ty. 
Notwithstandino- the shortness of his reio-n, Tiberius 
left behind hhn an innnortal memorial in the remem- 
brance of his good deeds; for he bequeathed to the 


commonwealth, in the appointment of Maurice, an 
inheritance, not admitting of specification in terms, but 
most precious. He also distributed his own appella- 
tions, giving to Maurice the name of Tiberius, and to 
Augusta that of Constantina. The transactions of 
their reign the sequel of the history will set forth, with 
the aid of the divine impulse. 



In order also to an accurate account of the various 
periods of time, be it known that Justin the younger, 
reigned alone twelve years, ten months and a half, 
and in conjunction with Tiberius, three years and 
eleven months: so that the whole period is sixteen 
years, nine months and a half. Tiberius also reigned 
four years alone : so that the Avhole time from 
Komulus to the proclamation of Maurice Tiberius, 
amounts to * * * years; as appears from the 
previous and present dates. 




By the aid of God, an account of the affairs of the 
Church, presenting a fair survey of the whole, has been 
preserved for us in what has been recorded by Eusebius 
Pamphili doAvn to the time of Constantine, and thence 
forward as far as Theodosius the younger, by Theodo- 
ret, Sozomen, and Socrates, and in the matters which 
have been selected for my present work. 

Primitive and profane histoiy has been also pre- 
served in a continuous narrative by those who have 
been zealous at the task ; Moses being the first to com- 
pose history, as has been clearly shewn by those who 
have collected whatever bears upon the subject, in 
writing a true account of events from the beginning of 
the world, derived from what he learned in converse 
with God on Mount Sinai. Then follow the accounts 
Avhich those who after him prepared the way for our 
religion have stored up in sacred scriptures. Josephus 
also composed an extensive history, in every way 
valuable. All the stories, whether fabulous or true, 
relating to the contests of the Greeks and ancient 
barbarians, both among themselves and against each 
other, and whatever else had l^een achieved since the 
period at which they record tlie first existence of 


mankind, have been written by Charax, Theopompus, 
Ephorns, and others too numerous to mention. The 
transactions of the Romans, embracing the history of 
the whole world and whatever else took place either with 
respect to their intestine divisions or their proceed- 
ings towards other nations, have been treated of by 
Dionysius of Halicarnassi^s, who has brought down his 
account from the times of what are called the Abo- 
rigines, to those of Pyrrhus of Epirus. The history is 
then taken up by Polybius of Megalopohs, who brings 
it down to the capture of Carthage. All these materials 
Appian has portioned out by a clear arrangement, se- 
parately grouping each series of transactions, though 
occurring at intervals of time. What events occurred 
subsequent to the before-mentioned periods, have been 
treated by Diodorus Siculus, as far as the time of Ju- 
lius Caesar, and by Dion Cassius, who continued his 
account as far as Antoninus of Emesa. In a similar 
work of Herodian, tlie account extends as far as the 
death of Maxinms; and in that of Nicostratus, the 
sophist of Trapezus, from Philip, the successor of Gor- 
dian, to Odenatus of Palmyra, and the ignominious ex- 
pedition of Valerian against the Persians. Dexippus 
has also written at great length on the same subject, 
commencing with the Scytliian wars, and terminating 
with the reign of Claudius, the successor of Gallienus : 
and he also included the military transactions of the 
Carpi {Uid other barl)arian tribes, in Greece, Thrace, 


and Ionia. Ensebius too, coniniencing from Octaviiin, 
Trajan, and Marcus, brought his account down to the 
death oi' Cams. The history of the same times has 
been partially written both by Arrian and Asinius 
Quadratus : that of the succeeding period by Zosimus, 
as far as Honorius and Arcadius : and events subsequent 
to their reign by Priscus the Rhetorician, and others. 
The whole of this range of history has been excellently 
epitomised by Eustathius of Epiphania, in two volumes, 
one extending to the capture of Troy, the other to the 
twelfth year of the reign of Anastasius. The occurrences 
subsequent to that period have' been written by 
Procopius the rhetorician as far as the tune of Justi- 
nian ; and the account has been thenceforward 
continued by Agathias the rhetorician, and John, my 
fellow-citizen and kinsman, as far as the flight of Chos- 
roes the younger to the Romans, and his restoration 
to his kingdom : on v>hich occasion Maurice was by no 
means tardy in his operations, but royally entertained 
the fugitive, and with the utmost speed restored him 
to his kingdom, at great cost and with numerous forces. 
These writers, however, have not yet published their 
history. With respect to tliese events, I also will 
detail in the sequel such matters as are suitable, witli 
the favour of the higher power. 





Maurice, on succeeding to the empire, in the 
first place made the necessary arrangements for 
his nuptials, and, in accordance with the imperial 
ordinance, marries Augusta, named also Constan- 
tina, with magnificent ceremony, and with public 
banquetings and festivity in every part of the 
city. In attendance on the nuptials were Religion 
and Royalty, offering an escort most distinguished 
and gifts most precious. For the one supplied a 
father and mother, to hallow the rite with 
honoured locks of grey and venerable wrinkles — 
a circumstance strange in the story of sovereigns — 
as also brethren noble and blooming, to give 
dignity to the nuptial procession : the other, a gold em- 
broidered robe, adorned with purple and Indian 
gems, and crowns most costly, with abundance 
of gold and the varied emblazonment of jewels ; 
together witli the attendance of all who were 


distinguislied in courtly nmk or military service, light- 
ing the nuptial flambeaux in splendid costumes and 
investitures, and hynuiing the bridal cavalcade: so 
that no human display was ever more majestic and 
happy. Damophilus, Avhen writing on the subject of 
Rome, says that Plutarch the Ch^eronean * has well 
remarked, that in order to her greatness alone did 
Virtue and Fortune unite in friendly truce : but, for 
myself, I would say, that in respect of Maurice alone 
did Piety and Good Fortune so conspire; by Piety 
laying compulsion upon Fortune, and not permitting 
her to shift at all. It Avas henceforward the settled 
aim of the emperor to wear the purple and the diadem 
not merely on his person but also on his soul : for he 
alone of recent sovereigns was sovereign of himself; 
and, with authority most truly centred in himself, he 
banished from his own soul the mob-rule of the pas- 
sions, and having established an aristocracy in his 
OA\m reasonings, he shewed himself a living image of 
virtue, training his subjects to imitation. Nor have T 
said this by way of flattery : for how could such be my 
motive, since he is not acquainted with what is being 
written? That such was, however, the case with 
Maurice, will he evidenced by the gifts bestowed upon 
him by God, and the circumstances of various kinds 
that must unquestionably be referred to divine favour. 

* De Fortuna Romanorum, subinit. 





[- ' Besides his other noble purposes, this was an 

i^*^ especial object with the emperor, to avoid in every 
3^1 case the shedding of the blood of persons guilty of 
treason. Accordingly, he did not put to death Ala- 
mundarus, chieftain of the Scenite Arabs, who had be- 
trayed both the commonwealth and Maurice himself, 
as I have already detailed ; but sentenced him to deport- 
ation to an island with his wife and some of his children, 
and appointed Sicily as the place of his banishment. 
Naamanes his son, notwithstanding a unanimous sen- 
tence of death, he detained as a prisoner at large, with- 
out any further infliction ; although he had filled tlie 
empire with endless mischiefs, and, by the hands of 
his followers, had plundered either Phoenicia and Pales- 
tine, and enslaved the inhabitants, at the time when 
Alamundarus was captured. He pursued the same 
course in innumerable other cases, wliicli shall be 
severally noticed in tlieir places. 

CHAP. 111.] SUCCESS OF riiiLjpricus. — a. d. 589. 287 



Maurice sent out as commander of the forces of the 
East, first, John, a Scythian, who, after experiencing 
some reverses, with some alternations of success, 
achieved nothing worthy of mention; afterwards, 
Phihppicus, who was allied to him by having married 
one of his two sisters. Having crossed the border and 
Ifiid waste all before him, he amassed great booty, and 
killed many of the nobles of Xisibis and the other 
cities situated within the Tiofris. He also orave battle 
to the Persians, and, after a severe conflict, attended 
with the loss of many distinguished men on the side of 
the enemy, he made numerous prisoners, and dismissed 
unharmed a battalion, ^vhich had retreated to an 
eminence and was fairly in his power, under a pro- 
mise that they would urge their sovereign to send 
immediate proposals for peace. He also completed 
other measures during- the continuance of his com- 
mand, namely, in withdrawing his troops from super- 
fluities and things tending to luxury, and in reducing 
them to discipline and subordination : the representa- 
tion of which transactions must be fixed by writers, 
past or present, according as they may be or have been 


circumstanced with respect to hearsay or opinion — 
writers whose narrative, stumbling and limping through 
ignoranccj or rendered affected by partiality, or blinded 
by antipathy, misses the mark of truth. 



He is succeeded in the command by Priscus, a person 
difficult of access, and not readily approached without 
necessary occasion, who expected the successful 
accomplishment of all his measures if he should main- 
tain an almost entire seclusion ; from a notion, that, 
through the awe thence resulting, the soldiery also 
would be more obedient to orders. Accordingly, on his 
arrival at the camp with stern and haughty look and 
in imposing costume, he issued certain orders, relating 
to the hardihood of the soldiery in the field, to strictness 
in respect of their arras and to their allowances. Having 
received previous intimation of the proceeding, they 
then gave unrestrained vent to their rage ; and advanc- 
ing in a body to the general's quarters, tliey pillage, 
in barbarian fashion, all his magnificence and tlie 
most valuable of his treasures, and would inevitably 
have despatched Priscus himself, had he not mounted 
one of the led horses, and escaped to Edessa : to 
which place they laid siege, demanding his surrender. 

CIIAr. v.] ELEVATION OF GERMAXUS. — A.D. 587. 289 



On the refusal of their demands by the citizens, they 
leave Priscus there, and seizing Germanus, who at tliat 
time held the command in Phoenicia Libanensis, thoy 
elect him their own general and emperor, while he re- 
sisted and they were the more urgent; and a struggle 
thus arose, on the part of the one to escape compulsion, 
of the others to enforce their object. After they had 
menaced him with death unless he would embrace the 
offered charge, and he, on his part, eagerly embraced 
the alternative, disclaiming all fear and consternation, 
they proceeded to certain severities and methods of 
cruelty, which they thought he would not be able to 
bear ; for they did not suppose that he would manifest 
greater endurance than the strength of nature and his 
time of life would warrant. By putting him to the 
trial at first cautiously and sparingly, they succeed in 
forcing him to accede to their demands, and solemnly 
to swear that he would be true to them. Thus they 
compelled him to be their ruler under rule, their subject 
sovereign, their master in thraldom. Then chasing 
from them the officers of every grade, they elect others 
in their place, openly reviling the imperial government. 
They treated provincials on the whole less harshly 


than the barbarians did, but in a manner very unlike 
allies or servants of the commonwealth : for they levied 
their provisions not according to stated measures or 
weight, and were not contented with the quarters 
assigned to them : but the will of each individual was a 
rule, and his caprice an established measure. 



The emperor despatches Philippicus to settle this 
ferment: they, however, not only denied him recep- 
tion, but perilled the lives of all whom they supposed 
to be connected with him. 



While matters were in this situation, Gregory, 
bishop of Theopolis, returns from the imperial city, 
after having been victorious in the struggle which I 
now proceed to detail. 

At the time when Asterius held the government of 
the East, a quarrel had arisen between him and Gre- 
gory : the higher ranks of the city sided entirely with 
the former, and were supported by the populace, and 


by those who were engaged in trades ; for each class 
declared that they had been injured by Gregory; 
until at hist license was given to the rabble to vent 
their abuse against him. Thus both the other classes 
accorded with the populace, and they clamoured forth 
their insults against the prelate in the streets and the 
theatre ; and even the actors indulged in them. As- 
terius is removed from his government, and John is 
invested with it, with orders from the emperor to 
make inquiry into the stir; a man incompetent to the 
management of the most trifling matters, much less a 
business so important. Having, in consequence, filled 
the city with confusion and uproar, and given public 
license to any one that chose, to accuse the bishop, he 
receives a formal charge against him from a certain 
banker, to the effect that he had had criminal inter- 
course with his own sister, married to another man. 
He also receives accusations from other persons of the 
same stamp against Gregory, as having repeatedly 
disturbed the peace of the city. On the latter charge 
he declared his readiness to make his defence : with 
respect to the others, he appealed to the emperor and 
a synod. Accordingly, he repaired to the imperial 
city, to make answer to these charges, accompanied 
by myself as his adviser, and is victorious after a pro- 
longed struggle during an investigation of the matter 
before the patriarchs from every quarter, who ap- 
peared either in person or by deputy, as well as the 


sacrecl senate, and many most religious metropolitans : 
and the result was that the accuser, after having been 
scourged and paraded round the city, was sent into 
exile. Gregory thence returns to his see, at the time 
when the troops were in a state of mutiny, and Phi- 
lippicus was remaining in the neighbourhood of Bercea 
and Chalcis. 



At an interval of four months from the return of 
Gregory, in the six hundred and thirty-seventh year 
of the era of Theopolis, sixty-one years after the 
former earthquake, a crash and concussion shook the 
entire city, about the third hour of the night, on the 
last day of the month Hyperbereta3us, at the time 
when I ^vas celebrating my marriage with a young 
maiden, and the whole city was making rejoicings and 
holding a festival at the public cost, in honour of tlie 
nuptial ceremony. This convulsion levelled by far 
the greater part of the buildings, their very found- 
ations being cast up by it, and all the portions of 
the most holy church were thrown to the ground, 
with tlie exception of the hemisphere, which, after its 
injury by the earthquake in the time of Justin, had 
been secured by Ephraemius with timbers from 


Daphne. By tlie subsequent shocks, it received an 
inclination in a northerly direction ; so that the tim- 
bers were thrown by it into a leaning position, and 
fell, wlien the hemisphere had returned, by the force 
of the shock, exactly into its original situation, as if it 
liad been adjusted by a rule. Nearly the entire quarter 
named Ostracine was ruined, and Psephium, of which 
1 have made previous mention, as well as all the parts 
called Brysia, and the buildings of the venerable 
sanctuary of the Mother of God, with the sole excep- 
tion of the central colonnade, which was singularly 
preserved. All the towers of the plain were also 
damaged, though the other buildings in that quarter 
escaped, with the exception of the battlements, of 
which some stones were thrown backwards, though 
they did not fall. Other churches also suffered in- 
jury, and one of the public baths, namely, that which 
had separate divisions according to the seasons. An 
incalculable number of persons were involved in the 
destruction, and, according to an estimate which some 
persons drew from the supply of bread, about sixty 
thousand perished. The bishop experienced a most 
unexpected preservation in the midst of the fall of the 
entire habitation where he then was, and the destruc- 
tion of every individual except those w^ho were near 
his person. These took up the bishop in their arms, 
and lowered him by a cord, after a second shock had 
rent an opening, and thus they removed Iiim beyond 


the reach of danger. Another preservation was also 
granted to the city, our compassionate God having 
mitigated the keenness of His threatened vengeance, 
and corrected our sin with the branch of pity and 
mercy : for no conflagration followed, though so many 
fires were spread about the place, in hearths, public 
and private lamps, kitchens, furnaces, baths, and in- 
numerable other forms.* Very many persons of dis- 
tinction, and among them Asterius himself, became 
the victims of the calamity. The emperor endea- 
voured to alleviate this visitation by grants of 



In the army, matters continued in the same state; 
and, in consequence, the barbarians made an inroad, 
in the expectation that there would be no one to 
check them in the exercise of barbarian practices. 
Germanus, however, encounters them with his forces, 
and inflicted a defeat so destructive, that not a man 
was left to convey to the Persians tidings of the mis- 

CHAP. Xr.l INROAD OF THE AVARS. A.D. 590. 295 



Accordingly, the emperor remunerates the troops 
with largesses of money ; and, withdrawing Germanus 
and others, brings them to trial. They were all con- 
demned to death : but the emperor would not permit 
any infliction whatever; on the contrary, he bestowed 
rewards on them. 

During the course of these transactions, the Avars 
twice made an inroad as far as the Long Wall, and cap- 
tured Anchialus, Singidunum, and many towns and 
fortresses throughout the whole of Greece, enslaving 
the inhabitants, and laying every thing waste with fire 
and sword ; in consequence of the greater part of the 
forces being engaged in the East. Accordingly, the 
emperor sends Andrew, the first of the imperial 
guards, on an attempt to induce the troops to receive 
their former officers. 



Since, however, the troops would not endure the 
bare mention of the proposal, the business is trans- 


ferred to Gregory, not only as being a person com- 
petent to the execution of the most important mea- 
sures, but because he had earned the highest regard 
from the soldiery ; since some of them had received 
presents from him in money, others in clothing, pro- 
visions, and other things, when they were passing his 
neighbourhood at the time of their enlistment. Ac- 
cordingly, he assembles, by summons despatched to 
every quarter, the principal persons of the army at 
Litarba, a place distant from Theopolis about three 
hundred stadia; and, though confined to his couch, 
addressed them in person, in the following words. 



" I HAVE been expecting, Romans — Romans both 
in name and deeds — that your visit to me would have 
been made long ago, for the purpose of communicating 
to me your present circumstances, and of receiving 
that friendly counsel of which you have an assurance 
in my kindliness towards you, so unequivocally evinced 
by past occurrences, at the time when I relieved, by a 
su})ply of necessaries, your tempest-struck and wave- 
tost plight. Since, however, this course has not 
hitherto been taken — it may be that Providence has 
not permitted it, in order that the Persians, having 


been utterly defeated by men without a leader, might 
be thereby thorouglily taught the prowess of the 
Eomans, and that your pure loyalty might be com- 
pletely proved, in having been tested by the juncture 
and testified by your deeds ; for you shewed that, not- 
withstanding your quarrel with your officers, you do 
not regard any thing as more important than the good 
of the commonwealth — let us accordingly now deli- 
berate what ought to be your conduct. Your sove- 
reign invites you with a promise of an amnesty of 
all past transactions, receiving the display of your 
loyalty to the commonwealth and your prowess in 
the field as emblems of supplication. While bestow- 
ing upon you these most certain pledges of pardon 
the emperor thus speaks : ' Since God has given victory 
to their loyalty, and, on the abandonment of their 
errors, a signal display has been granted to their 
prowess as a clear intimation of forgiveness, how can 
I do otherwise than follow the judgment of heaven? 
A king's heart is in tlie hand of God, and He sways it 
Avhithersoever He wdll.' Yield, therefore, to me at 
once, Romans. Let us not wilfully forfeit the 
present opportunity, nor allow it to elude our grasp : 
for opportunity, when it has once slipped from us, is 
most unwilling to be seized, and, as if it were indig- 
nant at having been neglected, is ever after intolerant 
of capture. Shew yourselves the heirs of the obe- 
dience of your fathers, as ye are of their courage ; in 


order that ye may appear altogether Romans, and no 
taunt may touch you or point at you as degenerate. 
Your fathers, under the command of consuls and em- 
perors, by obedience and courage became masters of 
the whole world. Manlius Torquatus, though he 
cro^vned, yet also put to death his son, who had played 
a valiant part but in disobedience of orders. For by 
skill on the part of the leaders, combined with obe- 
dience in those whom they lead, great successes are 
ordinarily achieved ; but either, when bereaved of the 
other, is lame and unsteady, and is utterly overthrown 
by the separation of the excellent pair. Be not, there- 
fore, tardy, but at once obey ray call, while the 
priestly office mediates between the emperor and the 
army; and shew that your proceedings were not the 
establishment of a rival sovereign, but a transient dis- 
play of just indignation against commanders who had 
wronged you: for unless you immediately embrace 
the offer, I shall at once consider myself as quit of the 
service laid upon me in this matter by my duty to 
the commonwealth and my regard for you. Consider 
too yourselves, what has been the fate of pretenders 
to the sovereignty. What too will be the termination 
of your present position? To continue concentrated 
is impossible : for whence will you derive your pro- 
vision of ordinary fruits, or those supplies which the 
sea furnishes to the land, except by war between 
Christians, and the mutual infliction of the most dis- 


<rraceful treatment? What too will be the final result? 
You will live in dispersion, and haunted by Justice, 
who will henceforward disdain to bestow forgiveness. 
Let us therefore give pledges of amity, and consider 
what course will be for the benefit of ourselves and 
the state, at a time too when we shall have the days 
of the saving Passion and of the most holy Resurrec- 
tion conspiring with the deed." 



Having thus addressed them, accompanying his 
speech with many tears, he wrought an instantaneous 
change in the minds of all, as it had been by some 
divine impulse. They immediately requested permission 
to retire from the meeting, and to deliberate among 
themselves respecting the course to be pursued. After 
a short interval they returned, and placed themselves 
at the disposal of the bishop. However, on his naming 
Philippicus to them, in order that they might them- 
selves request him for a commander, they declared 
that the whole army had on this- point bound them- 
selves with fearful oaths : but the bishop, undeterred 
by this, without the least delay said, that he was a 
bishop by divine permission, and had authority to 
loose and bind both u[)on earth and in heaven, and at 


the same time he quoted the sacred oracle. On their 
}'ielding upon this point also, he propitiated the Deity 
with supplication and prayers, at the same time ad- 
ministering to them the communion of the immaculate 
body ; for it happened to be the second day of the holy 
passion week. After he had feasted them all, to the 
number of two thousand, upon couches hastily con- 
structed on the turf, he returned home the following 
day. It was also agreed that the soldiers should 
assemble wherever they might choose. Gregory in 
consequence sends for Philippicus, who at that time 
was at Tarsus in Gilicia, intending to proceed imme- 
diately to the imperial city ; and he also reports these 
proceedings to the government, communicating at the 
same time the prayer of the soldiery respecting Phi- 
lippicus. Accordingly, they meet Philippicus at The- 
opolis, and employing those who had been admitted 
to partake in the divine regeneration, to entreat for 
them, they bend in supplication before him, and, on 
receiving a solemn promise of amnesty, they return to 
their duty with him. Such was the progress of these 



A CERTAIN Sittas, one of the petty officers stationed 
at Martyropolis, considering himself aggrieved by the 


cominanders in that [)lace, betrays the city, by watch- 
ing the withdrawal of the troops which occupied it, 
and introducing a Persian battalion under colour of 
being Romans. He thus obtained possession of a place 
which was most important to the Romans; and, re- 
taining most of the younger females, expelled all the 
other inhabitants, except a few domestic slaves. 

Philippicus in consequence marched thither, and 
beleaguered the city, without being provided with 
tilings necessary for the siege. Nevertheless, he main- 
tained his operations with such means as he possessed, 
and, having run several mines, threw down one of the 
towers. He was unable, however, to make himself 
master of the place, because the Persians continued 
their exertions through the night, and secured the 
breach. When the Romans, repeatedly assaulting, 
were as often repulsed, for the missiles were hurled 
upon them from vantage ground mth unerring aim, 
and since they were suffering greater loss than they 
inflicted, they at last raised the siege, and encamped 
at a short distance, with the sole object of preventing 
the Persians from reinforcing the garrison. By the 
order of Maurice, Gregory visits the camp, and in- 
duces them to resume the siege. They were, how- 
ever, unable to accomplish any thing, from their utter 
want of engines for sieges. In consequence, the army 
breaks up for winter quarters, and numerous garrisons 
are left in the neighbouring forts, to prevent the 


Persians from secretly introducing succours into the 

In the succeeding summer, on the re-assembling of 
the army, and the advance of the Persians, a severely 
contested battle is fought before Martyropolis. Though 
the advantage was on the side of Philippicus, and 
many Persians had fallen, with the loss of one dis- 
tinguished chieftain, a considerable body of the enemy 
made their way into the city : which was in fact their 
main object. Thenceforward the Romans gave up 
the siege in despair, as being unable to encounter this 
force, and they erect a rival city at the distance of 
seven stadia, in a stronger situation on the mountains, 
in order to the carrying on of counter operations. 
Such were the proceedings of the army during the 
summer ; it broke up on the approach of winter. 



CoiMENTiOLUS, a Thraciau by birth, is sent out as a 
successor in the command to Philippicus. He en- 
gaged the Persians with great spirit, and would have 
lost his life by being throAvn to the ground together 
with his horse, had not one of the guards mounted 
him upon a led horse, and conveyed him out of the 
battle. Tn consequence, the enemy fly with precipi- 


tiition, Avitli the loss of all their commanders, and re- 
tire to Nisibis; and, fearing to return to their king, 
since he had threatened them with death unless they 
should bring off their commanders in safety, they 
there enter into the insurrection against Hormisdas, 
now that Yaramus, the Persian general, had already 
entertained that design with his party on his return 
from his encounter mth the Turks. In the meantime, 
Comentiolus, having commenced the siege of Martyro- 
polis, leaves there the greater part of his army, and 
himself makes an excursion with a chosen body of 
troops to Ocbas, a very strong fortress, situated on a 
precipice on the bank opposite to Martyropolis, and 
commanding a view of the whole of that city. Having 
employed every effort in the siege, and thrown down 
some portion of the wall by catapults, he takes the 
place by storming the breach. In consequence, the 
Persians thenceforward despaired of keeping pos- 
session of Martyropolis. 



While such was the course of these events, the Per- 
sians despatched Hormisdas, the most unjust of all 
monarchs, in as far as he inflicted upon his subjects 
not only pecuniary exactions, but also various modes 
of death. 




They establish as his successor his son Chosroes, 
against whom Yaramus advanced with his troops. 
Chosroes encounters him with an inconsiderable force, 
and takes to flight on seeing his own men deserting 
him. He arrives at Circesium, having, according to 
his own account, vowed to the God of the Christians, 
that he would allow his horse to take its course wher- 
ever it should be guided by Him. He was accom- 
panied by his wives and two newly-born children, and 
certain Persian nobles who voluntarily followed him. 
Thence he sends an embassy to the emperor Maurice; 
who, manifesting on this occasion too the soundest 
judgment, and deriving from the very circumstances 
an estimate of the instability and mutability of life, 
and the sudden fluctuations of human affairs, admits 
his suit, and treats him as a guest instead of an exile, 
and as a son instead of a fugitive, welcoming him 
with royal gifts, which were sent not only by the 
emperor himself, l^ut, in similar style, by the empress 
to the consorts of Chosroes, and also by their children 
to the children. 




The emperor also despatches the Avhole of his body 
guards and the entire Roman army with their com- 
mander, with orders to attend Chosroes wherever he 
might choose to proceed : and by way of still greater 
distinction, he also sends Domitian, bishop of Meli- 
tene, his own kinsman, a man of sense and ability, 
most capable both in word and deed, and most efficient 
for the despatch of the highest transactions. He sends 
Gregory too : who on all points filled Chosroes with 
amazement, by his conversation, by his munificence, 
and by his suggestion of seasonable measures. 



Chosroes, having proceeded as far as» Hierapolis, 
the capital of Euphratensis, immediately returned : 
and this was done with the consent of Maurice, who 
favoured the interest of his suppliant more than his 
own glory. He also presents Chosroes with a large 
sum of money, a circumstance never before recorded ; 
and having raised a body of Persians, and supplied 


the cost from his o^vn means, he sends him across the 
border with a combined force of Romans and Persians, 
after MartyropoHs had been previously surrendered, 
together mth the traitor Sittas ; whom the inhabitants 
stoned and impaled. Daras was also recovered on its 
evacuation by the Persian garrison, and Chosroes was 
restored to his kingdom in consequence of the utter 
overthrow of Varamus, in a single engagement with 
the Roman troops only, and his inglorious and solitary 



At that time there was living in our country Go- 
landuch, a female martyr, who maintained her testi- 
mony through a course of severe sufferings when tor- 
tured by the Persian Magi, and was a worker of 
extraordinary miracles. Her life was written by 
Stephen, the former bishop of Hierapolis. 



Chosroes, on his restoration to his kingdom, seiids 
to Gregory a cross, embellished with much gold and 
precious stones, in honour of the ■ victorious martyr 


Sergius ; which cross Theodora, the wife of Justinian, 
had dedicated, and Ohosroes had carried off, with the 
other treasures, as I have ah*eady related. He also 
sends another golden cross, on which was engraven 
the following inscription in Greek : — 

" This cross I, Chosroes, king of kings, son of Hor- 
niisdas, have sent. After I had been compelled to 
take refuge in the Roman territory by the slanderous 
practices and villany of the unhappy Varamus and 
his cavalry, and when, because the unhappy Zades- 
pram had come to Nisibis with an army, with a view 
to seduce the cavalry in that quarter to revolt and 
raise commotion, we also had sent a body of cavalry 
with a commander to Charchas ; at that time, by the 
fortune of the venerable and renowned saint, Sergius, 
having heard that he granted the petitions addressed 
to him, we vowed, in the first year of our reign, on 
the seventh day of January, that if our cavalry should 
slay or capture Zadespram, we would send to his 
sanctuary a golden cross, embellished with jewels for 
the sake of his venerable name : and on the seventh 
day of February they brought to us the head of Zades- 
pram. Having, accordingly, obtained our petition, in 
order that each circumstance should be placed beyond 
all doubt, we have sent, in honour of his venerable 
name, this cross, which we have caused to be made, 
and together with it that which was sent to his sanc- 
tuary by Justinian, emperor of the Romans, and which 


was conveyed hither by our father Chosroes, king of 
kings, son of Cabades, at the time of the rupture 
between the two states, and has been found among 
our treasures." 

Gregory, having received these crosses, with the 
approval of the emperor Maurice, dedicated them with 
much ceremony in the sanctuary of the martyr. 
Shortly after, Chosroes sent other offerings for the 
same temple, with a golden disc, bearing the following 
inscription : — 

" I, Chosroes, king of kings, son of Plormisdas, 
have placed the inscription upon this disc, not as an 
object for the gaze of mankind, nor that the greatness 
of thy venerable name might be made known by words 
of mine, but on account of the truth of the matters 
therein recorded, and the many benefits and favours 
which I have received at thy hands: for, that my 
name should be inscribed on thy sacred vessels, is a 
happiness to me. At the time wlien I was at Bera- 
mais, I begged of thee, holy one, that thou wouldest 
come to my aid, and that Sira might conceive : and 
inasmuch as Sira was a Christian and I a heathen, 
and our law forbids us to have a Christian wife, never- 
theless, on account of my favourable feelings towards 
thee, I disregarded the law as respects her, and among 
my wives 1 have constantly esteemed, and do still 
esteem her as peculiarly mine. Thus I resolved to 
request of thy goodness, Saint, that she might con- 


ceive: and J made the request with a vov,^, that, if 
Sira should conceive, I would send the cross she wears 
to thy venerable sanctuary. On this account both T 
and Sira purposed to retain this cross in memory of thy 
name, Saint, and in place of it to send five thousand 
staters, as its value, which does not really exceed four 
thousand four hundred staters. From the time that 
I conceived this request and these intentions, until I 
reached Rhosochosron, not more than ten days elapsed, 
when thou, Saint, not on account of my worthiness 
but thy kindness, appearedst to me in a vision of the 
night and didst thrice tell me that Sira should con- 
ceive, while, in the same vision, thrice I replied, It is 
well. From that day forward Sira has not expe- 
rienced the custom of women, because thou art the 
granter of requests ; though I, had I not believed thy 
words, and that thou art holy and the granter of re- 
quests, should have doubted that she would not thence- 
forward experience the custom of women. From this 
circumstance I was convinced of the power of the 
vision and the truth of thy words, and accordingly 
forthwith sent the same cross and its value to thy 
venerable sanctuary, with directions that out of that 
sum should be made a disc, and a cup for the purposes 
of the divine mysteries, as also a cross to be fixed 
upon the holy table, and a censer, all of gold : also a 
Hunnish veil adorned with gold. Let the surplus of 
tlie sum belong to thy sanctuary, in order that by 


virtue of thy fortune, saint, thou mayest come 
to the aid of me and Sira in all matters, and especially 
with respect to this petition ; and that what has been 
already procured for us by thy intercession, may be 
consummated according to the compassion of thy 
goodness, and the desire of me and Sira; so that both 
of us, and all persons in the world, may trust in thy 
power and continue to believe in thee." 

Such is the language of the offerings sent by Chos- 
roes : an instance altogether resembling the prophecy 
of Balaam; since our compassionate God has wisely 
disposed it, that the tongues of heathens should give 
utterance to savins^ words. 



At the same time Naamanes, chieftain of the 
Scenites, after having been a detestable and vile 
heathen, to such an extent as to sacrifice with his own 
hand human beings to his gods, approached the sacred 
baptism. At which time he melted down a Venus of 
solid gold, and divided it among the poor, and also 
brought over all his followers to the service of God. 

Gregory too, after the presentation of the crosses 
of Chosroes, while making, with the approbation of 
the government, a visitation of the solitudes on the 


borders, where the doctrines of Severus extensively 
prevailed, brought into union with the Church of God 
many garrisons, villages, monasteries, and entire 



At this time, when the sainted Simeon was afflicted 
Avith a mortal disease, Gregory, on being informed 
by me of the circumstance, hastens to salute him for 
the last time, but was nevertheless disappointed. 
This Simeon far surpassed all his contemporaries in 
virtue, and endured the discipline of a life on the top 
of a column from his earliest years, since he even cast 
his teeth in that situation. The occasion on which 
he was first elevated on the column, was the following. 
While still very young, he was roving about, sporting 
and bounding along the eminences of the mountain, 
and meeting -with a panther, he throws his girdle 
round its neck, and with this kind of halter led the 
beast, beguiled of its ferocity, to his monastery. His 
preceptor, who himself occupied a column, observing 
the circumstance, enquired what he got; to which 
he replied, that it was a cat. Conjecturing from this 
occurrence how distinguished the child would be for 
virtue, he took him up upon the column ; and on this 


column, and on another, towering above the summit 
of the mountain, he spent sixty-eight years; earning 
thereby the highest gifts of grace, in respect of the 
ejection of demons, the healing of every disease and 
malady, and the foresiglit of future things as if they 
were present. 

He also foretold to Gregory that the latter would 
not witness his death, but said that he was ignorant 
of the events which should follow it. 

On occasion also of my ponderings on the loss of 
my children, when I was perplexed Avith the sug- 
gestion, why such things did not befall heathens who 
had numerous offspring; although I had not dis- 
closed, my thoughts to any one, he wrote advising me 
to abandon such ideas as being displeasing to God. 

In the case of the wife of one of my amanuenses, 
when the milk would not flow after child-birth, and 
the child was in extreme danger, laying his hand 
upon the right hand of her husband, he bid him place 
it upon the breasts of his wife. When this Avas done, 
immediately the milk started, as if from a fountain, 
so as to saturate her dress. 

A child having been forgotten at dead of night by 
its fellow-travellers, a lion took it on its back, and 
conveyed it to the monastery; Avhen, by orders of 
Simeon, the servants went out and brought in the 
child under the protection of the lion. 

Many otlier actions he performed, surpassing every 


thing that has been recorded ; which demand of an 
liistorian elegance of language, leisure, and a separate 
treatise, being renowned by the tongues of mankind; 
for persons came to visit him from almost every part 
of the earth, not only Romans but barbarians, and 
obtained the object of their prayers. In his case, the 
place of food and drink was supplied by the branches 
of a shrub which grew upon the mountain. 



Shortly after, Gregory also dies, after taking a 
draught of medicine composed of what is called Her- 
modactylus, administered by one of the physicians 
during a lit of gout; a disease with which he was 
much afflicted. At the time of his death, Gregory, 
the successor of Pelagius, was bishop of Old Rome, 
and John of Xew Rome ; Eulogius, one of those whom 
I have already mentioned, of Alexandria; and Anas- 
tasius was restored, after three and twenty years, to 
the see of Theopolis. John was bishop of Jerusalem ; 
since whose decease, which occurred shortly after, no 
one has hitherto been entrusted A^dth that see. 

Here let me close my history, in the twelfth year 
of the reign of Maurice Tiberius, leaving the task of 
selectinsr and recordino; succeedino- events to those 


who choose to undertake it. If any matter has been 
overlooked by me or has been treated without suf- 
ficient accuracy, let no one blame me, considering that 
I have brought together scattered materials in order 
to the benefit of mankind; for whose sake I have 
submitted to so much toil. 

I have also compiled another volume, containing 
memorials, epistles, decrees, orations, and disputations, 
and some other matters. The memorials were prin- 
cipally composed in the name of Gregory, bishop of 
Theopolis ; and by means of them I obtained two dig- 
nities, Tiberius Constantine having conferred upon 
me qu£estorian rank, and Maurice Tiberius that of 
prefecture, in consideration of what I composed at the 
time when he rid the empire of reproach in becoming 
the father of Theodosius, an earnest of all prosperity 
both to himself and the commonwealth. 




Abasgi converted . . . 213 

Acacius, bishop of Meliteiie . 8 
, patriarch of Constanti- 
nople, 79 ; advises the Heno- 
ticon . . . . .135 

, bishop of Ariathia . 90 

Adaarmanes, a Persian <^eneral, 

258 ; destroys Apaniea . . 262 
Addseus and ^Etherius executed 248 
J^tius, death of . . .68 
Alamundarus, the Arab, invades 
the empire, 202 ; his treachery, 
277 ; and punishment . . 286 
Alexandria, commotions at, 63, 149 
Amalasuntha, queen of the 

Goths 211 

Amida taken by the Persians . 171 
Anastasius, a presbyter, and 

partizan of Nestorius . . 5 
, the emperor, acces- 
sion of, 157 ; deposes certain 
bishops, 159 ; deposes Mace- 
donius and Flavian, 164; his 
humanity, 169 ; his name 
erased from the sacred dip- 
tychs, 1 69 ; founds Daras, 1 72 ; 
builds tlie Long Wall, 172 ; 
abolishes the Chrysargyrum, 
173 ; establishes the "Gold- 
rate, 184; offers to resign his 
crown, 187; his death . . 188 

, patriarch of Anti- 

och, character of, 242 ; de- 
posed ..... 254 
AnatoHus, patriarch of Constan- 
tinople, dies . . . .79 

, a person of mean ex- 

tracton, convicted of sorcery, 
272; conveyed to Constanti- 
nople, 273 ; executed . . 274 
Anthemius, emperor of the West, 84 

Antioch, earthquakes at, 80, 27 1 , 

292 ; fire and earthquake, 192, 194 
Arabs invade the empire, 171, 202 
Armatus put to death by Zeno, 151 
Athalaric, son of Theodoric .211 
Avars advance to the Danube, 

246 ; invade the empire . 295 

Augustulus, emperor of the West 85 
Avitus, emperor of the West . 69 

Babylas, his relics removed . 32 
Barsanuphius, an ascetic . . 230 
Basiliscus assumes the purple, 
121 ; restores Timothy .^lurus 
to his see, 121 ; issues a cir- 
cular letter, 122 ; a counter 
circular, 129; his death . 131 
Belisarius defeats the Persians, 
202 ; takes Carthage, 208 ; 
returns in triumph, 209 ; re- 
covers Home, 211; a second 
time, 212; captures Yitiges . 212 

Cabaones, the Moor, defeats 
Thrasamund . 

Calandion, patriarch of Antioch 
133; banished 

Celestine, pope, writes to Nes 
torius .... 

Chalcedon, council of, 51, 86 
definition of faith there framed 

Chosroes I. invades the empire 
215 ; takes Antioch, 216 ; be 
sieges Edessa, 219; and Ser 
giopolis, 222 ; takes Daras 
263 ; makes a truce with the 
Romans, 265 ; defeated, 268 
his death 

II., flies to the Ro 

mans, 304 ; restored, 306 ; his 
offerings . . . . 





Chrysargyrum abolished . 

Constantinople, conflagration at, 
81; violent rains, 83; sedi- 
tion, 203 ; miracle, 235 ; 
second council of . 

Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria, 
writes to Nestorius, 6, . 

, prior of the Acoeraets 

Dioscorus, patriarch of Alex- 
andria, presides in the second 
council of Ephesus, 19 ; de- 
posed, 57, ... . 

Domnus, patriarch of Antioch, 
deposed, 20 ; visits Simeon 
the Stylite .... 

Drought, famine, and pestilence 
in Asia .... 

Earthquakes, 83, 186, 192, 197, 

Edessa besieged by Chosroes . 

Ephesus, first council of, 6 ; 
second .... 

Ephraemius, patriarch of An- 
tioch . . 

Epistle from the Asiatic bishops 
to Acacius .... 

Euphrasius, patriarch of Antioch 

Eusebius, bishop of Dorylseum, 
charges Eutyches with heresy, 
18 ; deposed, 20; petitions the 
emperor, 52, 

Eutyches, his deposition revoked 

Felix, pope, issues a sentence of 
deposition against Acacius, 
144 ; writes to Zeno 

Flavian, patriarch of Constanti- 
nople, 18; deposed 

Gelimer, king of the Vandals, 
taken prisoner 

Gennadeus, patriarch of Con- 
stantinople .... 

Genseric takes Rome 

Germanus elected emperor by 
the mutinous troops, 289 ; de- 
feats the barbarians, 294 ; par- 
doned by Maurice 

Glycerius, emperor of the West 

Golanduch, a female martvr 

page] page 

175 Gregory, patriarch of Antioch, 
his character, 254 ; in danger 
from the populace, 273; ac- 
cused of incest, and acquit- 
. 237 ted, 291 ; his mission to the 
mutinous troops, 295; his ora- 
103 tion, 296 ; sent to meet Chos- 
145 roes II., 305 ; his death 



Henoticon of Zeno . . .135 
Keruli converted . . . 212 
Hormisdas, son of Chosroes I., 

hisaccession, 270; assassinated 303 
Huneric persecutes the orthodox 203 

24 Ignatius, his relics removed . 32 
lllus and Leontius, their insur- 

67 rection crushed . . .155 
Isidore of Pelusium . . 30 

John, patriarch of Antioch, de- 
poses Cyril and Memnon . 9 

, patriarch of Constantinople 241 

.Justin I , his accession . . 189 

II., his accession, 245 ; 

edict, 249 ; insanity, 263; «on- 
fers on Tiberius the dignity of 


, kinsman of Justin II., 




Justinian, the emperor, his ac- 
cession, 198 ; upholds the coun - 
oil of Chalcedon, 199; deposes 
Anthimus and Theodosius, 
200 ; sends Belisarius against 
the Vandals, 207 ; restores to 
Jerusalem the spoils taken by 
Titus, 209 ; his avarice, 226"; 
favours the blue faction, 229 ; 
his heterodoxy, 241 ; death . 244 

■ , the general, defeats 

Chosroes, 268; invades Persia 270 

Kurs, a Scythian chieftain, routs 
the Persians . . . 268 

Leo, tlie emperor, issues a cir- 
cular letter, 75 ; his death . 85 
Longinus overthrown . .170 
295 l,ong- Wall built . . .172 

306'Majorian, emperor of the West . 69 



Maimnianus beautifies Antioch 

Marcian, the emperor, present 
at the council of Chalcedon, 
(54, 116; his death . 

, the general, besieges Ni- 

sibis, 258 ; superseded , 

IMartyropolis betrayed to the 
Persians .... 

Maurice, the emperor, his cha- 
racter, 275; defeats the Per- 
sians, 277 ; his succession to 
the empire fore-shown, 278 ; 
his accession, 279 ; marries 
Constantina, 284 ; his virtues, 
285 ; clemency to the muti- 
neers, 295 ; protects Chos- 
roes II. .... 

Maximianus, patriarch of Con- 
stantinople .... 

Maximus, emperor of the West 

Memnon, bishop of l.phesus, 7, 

Moors, their origin . 

Naamanes, the Arab, converted 
Narses, his piety, 214 ; defeats 

Totila and Tela 
Nepos, emperor of the West 
IN'cstorius deposed by the coun- 
cil of Ephesus, 8 ; retires to the 
monastery of Euprepius, 13; 
captured by the Llemmyes, 
14 ; his death 

Odoacer, king of Rome, 85 ; 

overthrown .... 
Olybrius, emperor of the West . 
Origen, his opinions condemned 

by the fifth general council . 

Paul, bishop of Emesa 

Pestilence of fifty years' duration 

Peter the Fuller, patriarch of 
Antioch, 141 ,• writes to Aca- 
cius ..... 

JNIongus, patriarch of Alex- 
andria ..... 

Philippicus defeats the Persians, 
287 ; sent to quell a mutiny, 
290; defeats the Persians 

Priscus, mutiny of his troops 

Prochis, patriarch of Constan- 
tinople ..... 






Proterius, patriarch of Alex- 
andria, murdered . 

Rhodes visited by an earthquake 
Uicimer murders Majorian 
Rome taken by Genseric . 

St. Euphemia, church of, 49; mi- 
racles ..... 

St. Sophia, church of 

Sergiopolis, miraculous deliver- 
ance of. 

Severus, emp.Tor of the West . 

, patriarch of Antioch, 

165 ; abandons his see . 

Silverius, pope 

Simeon the Stylite, 24 ; his re- 
mains conveyed to Antioch, 
27 ; miracles, 29 ; addresses 
letters to the emperor Leo, and 
Basil, patriarch of Antioch 

the younger 

-, a monk of Emesa , 



Simplicius, pope 

Stephen, patriarch of Antioch . 

Synesius of Cyrene . 

Theodoret, bishop of Cyrus, de- 
posed, 20 ; re-instated, 62, 

Thcodoric, the Scythian, his in- 
surrection and death 

the Goth, takes Rome 









and makes himself king . 

Theodosius, the younger, sum- 
mons the council of Ephesus, 
6; condemns Nestorius, 24 ; 
rebuked by Simeon 

Tbeodotus, bishop of Ancyra . 

Thomas, bishop of Apamea, 
courts Chosroes, 216; dis- 
plays the wood of the cross . 

Timothy ^lurus, patriarch of 
Alexandria, 70 ; banished, 79 ; 
restored, 121; enthrones Paul 
at Ephesus .... 

Totila seizes Rome, 212 ; over- 
thrown by Narses . 

Valentinian IIL, his death 
Varamus dethrones Hormisdas, 
303 ; defeats Chosroes IL, 
304; defeated . . .306 











Vardanes heads the^ Armenian 

revolt . . . . .257 
Verina favours Leo . . .85 
Vitalian revolts, 185 ; defeated 
by sea, 186; assassinated . 191 

Xenaias, his violence 

. 160 

Zeno, the emperor, marries Ari- 
adne, 84 ; murders Aspar, 84 ; 

assumes the purple, 85 ; his 
character, 119; flies from 
Basiliscus, 121 ; restored, 131 
issues the Henoticon, 135 
Avrites to pope Felix, 146 
puts to death Armatus, 151 
his death 


Zosimas, the monk, his miracles 194 
Zosimus, the historian, refuta- 
tion of 177 





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